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Sample records for truck roll stability

  1. Truck Roll Stability Data Collection and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, SS

    2001-07-02

    The principal objective of this project was to collect and analyze vehicle and highway data that are relevant to the problem of truck rollover crashes, and in particular to the subset of rollover crashes that are caused by the driver error of entering a curve at a speed too great to allow safe completion of the turn. The data are of two sorts--vehicle dynamic performance data, and highway geometry data as revealed by vehicle behavior in normal driving. Vehicle dynamic performance data are relevant because the roll stability of a tractor trailer depends both on inherent physical characteristics of the vehicle and on the weight and distribution of the particular cargo that is being carried. Highway geometric data are relevant because the set of crashes of primary interest to this study are caused by lateral acceleration demand in a curve that exceeds the instantaneous roll stability of the vehicle. An analysis of data quality requires an evaluation of the equipment used to collect the data because the reliability and accuracy of both the equipment and the data could profoundly affect the safety of the driver and other highway users. Therefore, a concomitant objective was an evaluation of the performance of the set of data-collection equipment on the truck and trailer. The objective concerning evaluation of the equipment was accomplished, but the results were not entirely positive. Significant engineering apparently remains to be done before a reliable system can be fielded. Problems were identified with the trailer to tractor fiber optic connector used for this test. In an over-the-road environment, the communication between the trailer instrumentation and the tractor must be dependable. In addition, the computer in the truck must be able to withstand the rigors of the road. The major objective--data collection and analysis--was also accomplished. Using data collected by instruments on the truck, a ''bad-curve'' database can be generated. Using

  2. Truck Roll Stability Data Collection and Analysis; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, SS

    2001-01-01

    The principal objective of this project was to collect and analyze vehicle and highway data that are relevant to the problem of truck rollover crashes, and in particular to the subset of rollover crashes that are caused by the driver error of entering a curve at a speed too great to allow safe completion of the turn. The data are of two sorts-vehicle dynamic performance data, and highway geometry data as revealed by vehicle behavior in normal driving. Vehicle dynamic performance data are relevant because the roll stability of a tractor trailer depends both on inherent physical characteristics of the vehicle and on the weight and distribution of the particular cargo that is being carried. Highway geometric data are relevant because the set of crashes of primary interest to this study are caused by lateral acceleration demand in a curve that exceeds the instantaneous roll stability of the vehicle. An analysis of data quality requires an evaluation of the equipment used to collect the da ta because the reliability and accuracy of both the equipment and the data could profoundly affect the safety of the driver and other highway users. Therefore, a concomitant objective was an evaluation of the performance of the set of data-collection equipment on the truck and trailer. The objective concerning evaluation of the equipment was accomplished, but the results were not entirely positive. Significant engineering apparently remains to be done before a reliable system can be fielded. Problems were identified with the trailer to tractor fiber optic connector used for this test. In an over-the-road environment, the communication between the trailer instrumentation and the tractor must be dependable. In addition, the computer in the truck must be able to withstand the rigors of the road. The major objective-data collection and analysis-was also accomplished. Using data collected by instruments on the truck, a ''bad-curve'' database can be generated. Using this database

  3. Dump Truck Stability During Unloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Baryshnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of stability of the truck while unloading. The main symptom is a loss of stability of a vehicle rollover. The most common vehicle rollover occurs when unloading on sloped sites. The unloading area can be both longitudinal and cross slope. In this regard, the main task of the calculation is to determine the stability of the car the maximum allowable angle of discharge site and loads acting on the bearing system of the car.The paper presents a developed mathematical model of the truck when unloading on the longitudinal slope. It also offers the procedure of the step change in the parameters for the calculation of the critical angle of the site. The formulas for calculating the force interaction platform and the support system in the truck unloading at the site with a longitudinal slope are given. On the basis of the developed technique, a program for calculating longitudinal stability and loads acting on the bearing system dump trucks is created.Modern methods to assess stability while unloading the truck on a cross slope are analyzed. It is noted that the solution of this problem is developing in two directions. The first approach involves the testing truck samples on the special stands. Examples of bench tests on the stability of trucks are given. Another approach uses computational methods for the study. However, this requires the creation of a complex mathematical model of the truck, which should take into account the structural features of the suspension, the nonlinear elastic suspension components and tires, as well as the possibility of plastic deformation of the support system in torsion. In this formulation, the problem can only be solved using numerical methods and may be the subject of further research.The proposed approach allows multiple calculations for truck strength and stability already at an early designing stage in order to find the optimal design solution.

  4. Co-simulation of heavy truck tire dynamics and electronic stability control systems (phase A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Electronic stability control (ESC) systems have been proven to be an effective means of preventing instability and loss of control on both passenger vehicles and heavy trucks. In addition, roll stability algorithms are an effective means of reducing ...

  5. Rudder roll stabilization for ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amerongen, J.; van der Klugt, P.G.M.; van Nauta lemke, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an autopilot for rudder roll stabilization for ships. This autopilot uses the rudder not only for course keeping but also for reduction of the roll. The system has a series of properties which make the controller design far from straightforward: the process has

  6. Crash problem definition and safety benefits methodology for stability control for single-unit medium and heavy trucks and large-platform buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This report presents the findings of a comprehensive engineering analysis of electronic stability control (ESC) and roll stability control (RSC) systems for single-unit medium and heavy trucks and large-platform buses. This report details the applica...

  7. Measurement of stress distributions in truck tyre contact patch in real rolling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelache, Gabriel; Moisescu, Raluca

    2012-12-01

    Stress distributions on three orthogonal directions have been measured across the contact patch of truck tyres using the complex measuring system that contains a transducer assembly with 30 sensing elements placed in the road surface. The measurements have been performed in straight line, in real rolling conditions. Software applications for calibration, data acquisition, and data processing were developed. The influence of changes in inflation pressure and rolling speed on the shapes and sizes of truck tyre contact patch has been shown. The shapes and magnitudes of normal, longitudinal, and lateral stress distributions, measured at low speed, have been presented and commented. The effect of wheel toe-in and camber on the stress distribution results was observed. The paper highlights the impact of the longitudinal tread ribs on the shear stress distributions. The ratios of stress distributions in the truck tyre contact patch have been computed and discussed.

  8. Stability of a rolling fluid filled cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Rohit; Panchagnula, Mahesh

    2014-11-01

    We present an analytical solution to the problem of a fluid filled hollow cylindrical shell rolling on an inclined plane and then investigate the temporal stability of the system using linear stability analysis. We study the motion in two dimensions by analyzing the interaction between the fluid and the hollow cylinder. We show that the terminal state is associated with a constant acceleration, similar to a rigid body motion. Surprisingly, it is independent of the liquid viscosity and only depends on the ratio of the mass of the shell to the mass of the fluid contained (say, πm) . We analyze this base flow for its stability behavior using the frozen-time approximation. In this approach, we treat time as a parameter, the evolution of which causes the flow to transition from a stable to an unstable state. The point of neutral stability is noted and the spatial modes that show the maximum growth rate are analyzed. It was observed that instability sets in due to long wavelength axial waves, which are transverse to the flow direction. We find a critical Reynolds number based on the time to instability, above which the flow becomes unstable. Again, this Reynolds number appears to be only a function of πm.

  9. In-use activity, fuel use, and emissions of heavy-duty diesel roll-off refuse trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Gurdas S; Frey, H Christopher; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Jones, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify real-world activity, fuel use, and emissions for heavy duty diesel roll-off refuse trucks; evaluate the contribution of duty cycles and emissions controls to variability in cycle average fuel use and emission rates; quantify the effect of vehicle weight on fuel use and emission rates; and compare empirical cycle average emission rates with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MOVES emission factor model predictions. Measurements were made at 1 Hz on six trucks of model years 2005 to 2012, using onboard systems. The trucks traveled 870 miles, had an average speed of 16 mph, and collected 165 tons of trash. The average fuel economy was 4.4 mpg, which is approximately twice previously reported values for residential trash collection trucks. On average, 50% of time is spent idling and about 58% of emissions occur in urban areas. Newer trucks with selective catalytic reduction and diesel particulate filter had NOx and PM cycle average emission rates that were 80% lower and 95% lower, respectively, compared to older trucks without. On average, the combined can and trash weight was about 55% of chassis weight. The marginal effect of vehicle weight on fuel use and emissions is highest at low loads and decreases as load increases. Among 36 cycle average rates (6 trucks×6 cycles), MOVES-predicted values and estimates based on real-world data have similar relative trends. MOVES-predicted CO2 emissions are similar to those of the real world, while NOx and PM emissions are, on average, 43% lower and 300% higher, respectively. The real-world data presented here can be used to estimate benefits of replacing old trucks with new trucks. Further, the data can be used to improve emission inventories and model predictions. In-use measurements of the real-world activity, fuel use, and emissions of heavy-duty diesel roll-off refuse trucks can be used to improve the accuracy of predictive models, such as MOVES, and emissions

  10. Assessing the roll stability of heavy vehicles in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benade, R

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available of these crashes involve heavy vehicle rollover. The regulations in the National Road Traffic Act of South Africa that govern heavy vehicle design do not directly address the roll stability of heavy vehicles. The internationally accepted method of regulating roll...

  11. Method for rudder roll stabilization control by maintaining ship speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Zhiquan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A ship navigating on the surface of the water may experience greater resistance, adversely affect-ing its speed and leading to energy loss. The added resistance of surface ships in both still water and waves are investigated, and the computation method of total speed loss is presented. An autopilot system is intro-duced to constrain the speed loss, and course keeping and rudder roll stabilization sliding mode control laws are proposed according to a compact control strategy. The two working conditions of "heading" and "heading plus anti-roll" are discussed, including roll stabilization, heading error, speed maintenance and rudder abrasion. The results show that the speed can be effectively maintained using this method, and from a commercial point of view, the fin-rudder roll stabilization control is not recommended for vessels equipped with both fins and rudders.

  12. Thermal stability of warm-rolled tungsten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfonso Lopez, Angel

    , and recrystallization fitted to JMAK recrystallization kinetics, which in turn allowed thecalculation of recrystallization activation energies. Much faster recovery and recrystallizationkinetics were found for the plate warm-rolled to 90% thickness reduction, as compared to the platewarm-rolled to 67% thickness...... for higher annealing temperatures and higher deformation. Considerably different activation energies were found for the plates W67 and W90, comparable tothe activation energies of bulk diffusion and grain boundary diffusion respectively. Theextrapolation of the recrystallization kinetics (based...... mayalter the microstructure of the material by recovery, recrystallization and grain growth, and maycause degradation in material properties as a loss in mechanical strength and embrittlement.For this reason, this project aims towards establishing the temperature and time regime under whichrecovery...

  13. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Trevor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  14. Stabilization of Parametric Roll Resonance with Active U-Tanks via Lyapunov Control Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holden, Christian; Galeazzi, Roberto; Fossen, Thor Inge

    2009-01-01

    Parametric ship roll resonance is a phenomenon where a ship can rapidly develop high roll motion while sailing in longitudinal waves. This effect can be described mathematically by periodic changes of the parameters of the equations of motion, which lead to a bifurcation. In this paper, the control...... design of an active u-tank stabilizer is carried out using Lyapunov theory. A nonlinear backstepping controller is developed to provide global exponential stability of roll. An extension of commonly used u-tank models is presented to account for large roll angles, and the control design is tested via...... simulation on a high-fidelity model of a vessel under parametric roll resonance....

  15. U31: vehicle stability and dynamics electronic stability control final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    A team led by NTRCI is working to improve the roll and yaw stability of heavy duty combination trucks through developing stability algorithms, assembling demonstration hardware, and investigating robust wireless communication. : Modern electronic sta...

  16. 46 CFR 170.295 - Special consideration for free surface of passive roll stabilization tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is calculated in accordance with § 170.285(a); and (2) The slack surface in the roll stabilization... in the roll tank on Graph 170.295. (3) Construct a line A on Graph 170.295 so that the area under line A between T = 0 and the angle at which the deck edge is immersed or 28 degrees, whichever is...

  17. Ince-Strutt stability charts for ship parametric roll resonance in irregular waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Yang, He-zhen; Xiao, Fei; Xu, Pei-ji

    2017-08-01

    Ince-Strutt stability chart of ship parametric roll resonance in irregular waves is conducted and utilized for the exploration of the parametric roll resonance in irregular waves. Ship parametric roll resonance will lead to large amplitude roll motion and even wreck. Firstly, the equation describing the parametric roll resonance in irregular waves is derived according to Grim's effective theory and the corresponding Ince-Strutt stability charts are obtained. Secondly, the differences of stability charts for the parametric roll resonance in irregular and regular waves are compared. Thirdly, wave phases and peak periods are taken into consideration to obtain a more realistic sea condition. The influence of random wave phases should be taken into consideration when the analyzed points are located near the instability boundary. Stability charts for different wave peak periods are various. Stability charts are helpful for the parameter determination in design stage to better adapt to sailing condition. Last, ship variables are analyzed according to stability charts by a statistical approach. The increase of the metacentric height will help improve ship stability.

  18. Dynamic stability of forklift trucks in cornering situations: parametrical analysis using a driving simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemerle, P.; Höppner, O.; Rebelle, J.

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the examination of the vehicle dynamics and stability of four-wheeled forklift trucks (FLTs) in cornering situations. Cornering at excessive speed is one major reason for fatal accidents with forklifts caused by lateral tipover. In order to increase the lateral stability of this kind of working machinery, the influence of certain important design properties has been studied using an appropriate vehicle simulation model and a driving simulator. The simulation model is based on a multi-body system approach and includes submodels for the propulsion system and the tyres. The driving behaviour of the operator has not been modelled. Instead, a driving simulator has been built up and a real human driver was employed for ensuring adequate and realistic model input. As there have not been any suitable standardised test manoeuvres available for FLTs, a new driving test has been developed to assess the lateral stability. This test resembles the well-known J turn/Fishhook turn, but includes a more dynamic counter-steering action. Furthermore, the dimensions of the test track are defined. Therefore, the test is better adapted to the driving dynamics of forklifts and reflects the real driver behaviour more closely. Finally, a parametrical study has been performed, examining the influence of certain important technical properties of the truck such as the maximum speed, the position of centre of gravity, rear axle design features and tyre properties. The results of this study may lead to a better understanding of the vehicle dynamics of forklifts and facilitate goal-oriented design improvements.

  19. Interlaboratory outdoor stability studies of flexible roll-to-roll coated organic photovoltaic modules: Stability over 10,000 h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Dam, Henrik Friis

    2013-01-01

    This work attempts to reveal the comparability issues related to outdoor testing procedures of organic photovoltaic (OPV) modules via studies of inter-laboratory long-term outdoor measurements of roll-to-roll coated flexible OPV modules (P3HT:PCBM, inverted architecture) in different geographic...... and measurement setups on the comparability of test results are analyzed. A strong link between the device temperature and performance is revealed, which is ascribed to the reaction of PEDOT:PSS layer with water. The estimation of the true performance of the modules by accommodation of variations in testing...

  20. Recrystallization of niobium stabilized ferritic stainless steel during hot rolling simulation by torsion tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Vieira Braga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of finishing hot rolling temperature in promoting interpass recrystallization on a Nb-stabilized AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel. Torsion tests were performed in order to simulate the Steckel mill rolling process by varying the temperature ranges of the finishing passes. Interrupted torsion test were also performed and interpass recrystallization was evaluated via optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD. As a result of this work, it has been established, within the restrictions of a Steckel mill rolling schedule, which thermomechanical conditions mostly favor SRX.

  1. Rudder-roll stabilization using fgs-pid controller for sigma-e warship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, M. Y.; Munadhif, I.; Wahidin, A.; Ruddianto; Fathulloh; Soelistijono, R. T.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of rudder-roll stabilization (RSS) is controlling ship heading and reducing roll motion simultaneously using one actuator, rudder. In this paper, RSS using FGS-PID for SIGMA-e warship was performed, both in normal and disturbed sea conditions. The fuzzy system for determining PID controller are constructed from SIGMA-e linear mathematical model. The wave disturbances are generated based on the WMO. The results show that FGS-PID has superior performance compared to conventional PID controller in heading control and roll damping. It means that the proposed control method can encounter the environmental changes.

  2. Roll-to-roll printed silver nanowires for increased stability of flexible ITO-free organic solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Roth, Bérenger; Corazza, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We report the use of roll-to-roll printed silver nanowire networks as front electrodes for fully roll-to-roll processed flexible indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free OPV modules. We prepared devices with two types of back electrodes, a simple PEDOT:PSS back electrode and a PEDOT:PSS back electrode with a ...

  3. Mechanical stability of roll-to-roll printed solar cells under cyclic bending and torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finn, Mickey; Martens, Christian James; Zaretski, Aliaksandr V.

    2018-01-01

    The ability of printed organic solar cells (OSCs) to survive repeated mechanical deformation is critical to large-scale implementation. This paper reports an investigation into the mechanical stability of OSCs through bending and torsion testing of whole printed modules. Two types of modules...

  4. An inter-laboratory stability study of roll-to-roll coated flexible polymer solar modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Medford, Andrew James; Bundgaard, Eva

    2011-01-01

    O (nanoparticulate, thin film) were employed as electron transport layers. The devices were all tested at Risø DTU and the functional devices were subjected to an inter-laboratory study involving the performance and the stability of modules over time in the dark, under light soaking and outdoor conditions. 24...

  5. Edge sealing for low cost stability enhancement of roll-to-roll processed flexible polymer solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanenbaum, David M.; Dam, Henrik Friis; Rösch, R.

    2012-01-01

    Fully roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules were prepared, characterized, and laminated. Cell modules were cut from the roll and matched pairs were selected, one module with exposed cut edges, the other laminated again with the same materials and adhesive sealing fully around the cut...

  6. Study on Roll Instability Mechanism and Stability Index of Articulated Steering Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the roll instability mechanism and stability index of articulated steering vehicles (ASVs by taking wheel loaders as the research object. A seven-degree-of-freedom nonlinear dynamics model of the ASVs is built on the basis of multibody dynamics. A physical prototype model of an ASV is designed and manufactured to validate the dynamic model. Test results reasonably agree with the simulation results, which indicates that the established dynamic model can reasonably describe ASV movements. Detailed analysis of the rollover stability of the wheel loader is performed with the use of the established dynamic model. Analysis results show that rollover will occur when the roll angular velocity exceeds a critical threshold, which is affected by lateral acceleration and slope angle. On this basis, a dynamic stability index applicable to the ASVs is presented.

  7. Dynamic stability of rolling particles between elastic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzev, Mikhail; Dmitriev, Aleksandr; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Mechanical behaviour of a large class of engineering materials from granular materials and interlocking structures to damaged rock and fragmented rock masses is controlled by rotations of the constituents leading to the necessity to introduce internal rotations and rotational degrees of freedom into the constitutive laws. An important (and underappreciated) factor in these cases is the shape of rotating elements as it imposes, in the presence of compressive stress, kinematic constraints that provide additional resistance to rotations. (Despite the universal acknowledgement that the particles in geomaterial and concrete are far from being spherical, the vast majority of models, from the Cosserat continuum to the very recent are still based on spherical or circular elements, e.g. [1]). In the presence of high compressive loading the combination of rotation and non-sphericity of the constituents produces qualitatively new effects: the effect of apparent negative stiffness and a possibility of instability [2]. In order to simplify the analysis we investigate the stability of interacting rotating particles is a sympathetic oscillator [3]. A modified model of the oscillating system, given their rods slide without friction relative to each other was proposed in [4]. An important property of the system is the possibility of bifurcations depending on the distance between the suspension points. Here we study the stability of two linearly - interacting oscillators in a uniform gravity field. The simplest models pertinent to the analysis of stability of such systems is a system of two linked oscillators (masses on rods) with a modification that allows the rods to intersect and slide without friction relative to each other thus providing a simplified modelling of 3D situations. We demonstrate that the analysis of the system trajectories is the most convenient in a 2D parametric space which is generated by the initial relative distance between the masses and the potential energy

  8. The Critical Choice of PEDOT: PSS Additives for Long Term Stability of Roll‐to‐Roll Processed OPVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Bérenger; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Corazza, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The impact of additives mixed with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on the stability of organic photovoltaic modules is investigated for fully ambient roll-to-roll (R2R) processed indium tin oxide free modules. Four different PEDOT:PSS inks from two different...

  9. HIV risk behaviors differ by workplace stability among Mexican female sex workers with truck driver clientele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nadine E; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Rangel, Gudelia; Patterson, Thomas L; Uribe-Salas, Felipe J; Rosen, Perth; Villalobos, Jorge; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2012-12-28

    In a study of female sex workers (FSW) servicing truck driver clients in Mexican border cities, we evaluated differences in HIV/STI risk behaviors by workplace. Cross-sectional study of FSW servicing truck drivers in Mexico: 100 from Nuevo Laredo (U.S. border); 100 from Ciudad Hidalgo (Guatemalan border). Main outcome was unstable workplace, defined as primary place of sex work in a public place (street, vehicle, gas station, etc.) vs. stable workplace (bar, brothel, and hotel). Logistic regression was used to identify correlates associated with trading sex at unstable workplaces in the last month. Of the FSW surveyed, 18% reported an unstable workplace. The majority of FSW surveyed were young (trend towards lower condom use self-efficacy scores (OR 0.8 per unit increase, 95%CI 0.7-1.0). On multivariate regression, unstable workplace was associated with having majority/all truck driver clientele, being surveyed in Nuevo Laredo, and decreased odds of ever having an HIV test. Among Mexican FSW with truck driver clients, providing safe indoor spaces for sex work may help facilitate public health interventions that improve HIV/STI and reproductive health outcomes.

  10. Stability measures for rolling schedules with applications to capacity expansion planning, master production scheduling, and lot sizing

    OpenAIRE

    Kimms, Alf

    1996-01-01

    This contribution discusses the measurement of (in-)stability of finite horizon production planning when done on a rolling horizon basis. As examples we review strategic capacity expansion planning, tactical master production schedulng, and operational capacitated lot sizing.

  11. A model for roll stall and the inherent stability modes of low aspect ratio wings at low Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Matt

    The development of Micro Aerial Vehicles has been hindered by the poor understanding of the aerodynamic loading and stability and control properties of the low Reynolds number regime in which the inherent low aspect ratio (LAR) wings operate. This thesis experimentally evaluates the static and damping aerodynamic stability derivatives to provide a complete aerodynamic model for canonical flat plate wings of aspect ratios near unity at Reynolds numbers under 1 x 105. This permits the complete functionality of the aerodynamic forces and moments to be expressed and the equations of motion to solved, thereby identifying the inherent stability properties of the wing. This provides a basis for characterizing the stability of full vehicles. The influence of the tip vortices during sideslip perturbations is found to induce a loading condition referred to as roll stall, a significant roll moment created by the spanwise induced velocity asymmetry related to the displacement of the vortex cores relative to the wing. Roll stall is manifested by a linearly increasing roll moment with low to moderate angles of attack and a subsequent stall event similar to a lift polar; this behavior is not experienced by conventional (high aspect ratio) wings. The resulting large magnitude of the roll stability derivative, Cl,beta and lack of roll damping, Cl ,rho, create significant modal responses of the lateral state variables; a linear model used to evaluate these modes is shown to accurately reflect the solution obtained by numerically integrating the nonlinear equations. An unstable Dutch roll mode dominates the behavior of the wing for small perturbations from equilibrium, and in the presence of angle of attack oscillations a previously unconsidered coupled mode, referred to as roll resonance, is seen develop and drive the bank angle? away from equilibrium. Roll resonance requires a linear time variant (LTV) model to capture the behavior of the bank angle, which is attributed to the

  12. HIV risk behaviours differ by workplace stability among Mexican female sex workers with truck driver clientele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine E. Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. In a study of female sex workers (FSWs servicing truck driver clients in Mexican border cities, we evaluated differences in HIV/STI risk behaviours determined by workplace. Design and Methods. Our study was cross-sectional and its population comprised 100 FSWs from Nuevo Laredo (US border and 100 FSWs from Ciudad Hidalgo (Guatemalan border. The main outcome was that the primary place of sex work was unstable in a public place (street, vehicle, gas station, etc. intead of stable (bar, brothel, and hotel. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates associated with trading sex at unstable workplaces in the last month. Results. Of the FSWs surveyed, 18% reported an unstable workplace. The majority of FSWs surveyed were young (<30 years, single, had <9th grade education, and had worked in the sex trade for a median of 4.9 years. After controlling for study site, FSWs with unstable vs stable workplaces were more likely to have a majority/all truck driver clientele, but were less likely to have visited a gynaecologist in the last year (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.03-0.4 or ever had an HIV test (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.06-0.3, and there was a trend towards lower condom use self-efficacy scores (OR 0.8 per unit increase, 95% CI 0.7-1.0. On multivariate regression, unstable workplace was associated with having majority/all truck driver clientele, being surveyed in Nuevo Laredo, and decreased odds of ever having an HIV test. Conclusions. Among Mexican FSWs with truck driver clients, providing safe indoor spaces for sex work may help facilitate public health interventions that improve HIV/STI prevention and reproductive health outcomes.

  13. HIV Risk Behaviours Differ by Workplace Stability Among Mexican Female Sex Workers With Truck Driver Clientele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nadine E; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Rangel, Gudelia; Patterson, Thomas L; Uribe-Salas, Felipe J; Rosen, Perth; Villalobos, Jorge; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2012-12-28

    In a study of female sex workers (FSWs) servicing truck driver clients in Mexican border cities, we evaluated differences in HIV/STI risk behaviours determined by workplace. Our study was cross-sectional and its population comprised 100 FSWs from Nuevo Laredo (US border) and 100 FSWs from Ciudad Hidalgo (Guatemalan border). The main outcome was primary place of sex work defined as unstable (street, vehicle, gas station, etc.) vs stable (bar, brothel, and hotel). Logistic regression was used to identify correlates associated with trading sex at unstable workplaces in the last month. Of the FSWs surveyed, 18% reported an unstable workplace. The majority of FSWs surveyed were young (trend towards lower condom use self-efficacy scores (OR 0.8 per unit increase, 95% CI 0.7-1.0). On multivariate regression, unstable workplace was associated with having majority/all truck driver clientele, being surveyed in Nuevo Laredo, and decreased odds of ever having an HIV test. Among Mexican FSWs with truck driver clients, providing safe indoor spaces for sex work may help facilitate public health interventions that improve HIV/STI prevention and reproductive health outcomes.

  14. Stretch reflex improves rolling stability during hopping of a decerebrate biped system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendo, Andre; Liu, Xiangxiao; Shimizu, Masahiro; Hosoda, Koh

    2015-01-19

    When humans hop, attitude recovery can be observed in both the sagittal and frontal planes. While it is agreed that the brain plays an important role in leg placement, the role of low-level feedback (the stretch reflex) on frontal plane stabilization remains unclear. Seeking to better understand the contribution of the soleus stretch reflex to rolling stability, we performed experiments on a biomimetic humanoid hopping robot. Various reflex responses to touching the floor, ranging from no response to long muscle activations, were examined, and the effect of a delay upon touching the floor was also examined. We found that the stretch reflex brought the system closer to stable, straight hopping. The presence of a delay did not affect the results; both the cases with and without a delay outperformed the case without a reflex response. The results of this study highlight the importance of low-level control in locomotion for which body stabilization does not require higher-level signals.

  15. Nonlinear stability research on the hydraulic system of double-side rolling shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Huang, Qingxue; An, Gaocheng; Qi, Qisong; Sun, Binyu

    2015-10-01

    This paper researches the stability of the nonlinear system taking the hydraulic system of double-side rolling shear as an example. The hydraulic system of double-side rolling shear uses unsymmetrical electro-hydraulic proportional servo valve to control the cylinder with single piston rod, which can make best use of the space and reduce reversing shock. It is a typical nonlinear structure. The nonlinear state-space equations of the unsymmetrical valve controlling cylinder system are built first, and the second Lyapunov method is used to evaluate its stability. Second, the software AMEsim is applied to simulate the nonlinear system, and the results indicate that the system is stable. At last, the experimental results show that the system unsymmetrical valve controlling the cylinder with single piston rod is stable and conforms to what is deduced by theoretical analysis and simulation. The construction and application of Lyapunov function not only provide the theoretical basis for using of unsymmetrical valve controlling cylinder with single piston rod but also develop a new thought for nonlinear stability evaluation.

  16. A roll-to-roll process to flexible polymer solar cells: model studies, manufacture and operational stability studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Gevorgyan, Suren; Alstrup, Jan

    2009-01-01

    -to-roll (R2R) processed polymer solar cells entirely by solution processing starting from a polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) substrate with a layer of indium-tin-oxide (ITO). All processing was performed in air without vacuum coating steps and modules comprising eight serially connected cells gave power...

  17. Stability Analysis and Design of a Nonlinear Controller for Hot Rolling Coiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the new style hot rolling coiler which adopt AC asynchronous motor as the driving force and with using the algorithm based on differential geometry design nonlinear controller, precise coiling tension control in the rolling process of strip steel is achieved. In this paper, under the rotating orthogonal coordinate system, the fifth-order nonlinear motor model is selected as the controlled plant. By multi-input multioutput (MIMO exact feedback linearization (EFL algorithm, the nonlinear model is transformed to a linear one. In terms of small-gain theorem, it is the first to prove that the nonlinear coiler engine that contains the controller has characteristics of input-to-state stability. Experimental results show that the algorithm can be used for high order tracking control system with time-varying parameters. Even without the traditional flux orientation calculation, the output signals are decoupled. With this controller, the tension deviation is restricted to less than 3% and average rotational speed bias was decreased from 0.5% to 0.1% that ensure high-quality plate cut and surface of strip products.

  18. Co-simulation of heavy truck tire dynamics and electronic stability control systems (phase B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In the past decade, electronic stability controls (ESC) have become increasingly common on vehicles operating in the United States. The acceptance of this technology has progressed to the point where all new passenger vehicles sold in the US are requ...

  19. Adaptive Fuzzy Output-Feedback Method Applied to Fin Control for Time-Delay Ship Roll Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Bai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ship roll stabilization by fin control system is considered in this paper. Assuming that angular velocity in roll cannot be measured, an adaptive fuzzy output-feedback control is investigated. The fuzzy logic system is used to approximate the uncertain term of the controlled system, and a fuzzy state observer is designed to estimate the unmeasured states. By utilizing the fuzzy state observer and combining the adaptive backstepping technique with adaptive fuzzy control design, an observer-based adaptive fuzzy output-feedback control approach is developed. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB, and the control strategy is effective to decrease the roll motion. Simulation results are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  20. Stability Analysis of the Parametric Roll Resonance under Non-constant Ship Speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Blanke, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of a nonconstant ship speed on the onset and development of the parametric roll resonance. A 2-DOF nonlinear surge-roll model is set up and analyzed. Perturbation methods are also applied to evaluate the influence of dynamic variations of surge...... velocity on the onset of parametric roll. The theoretical results are illustrated and validated using a 4-DOF hydrodynamic and control theory model....

  1. On the Feasibility of Stabilizing Parametric Roll with Active Bifurcation Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    When parametric resonance occurs on a ship, large roll motion develops rapidly and severe damage on cargo is likely. Some vessels have even capsized in moderate seas for reasons believed to be parametric resonance. This paper revisits the analysis of parametric resonance and assess the possibility...

  2. Polymer materials for roll coated solar cells: strategies tom improve performance and stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckler, Ilona Maria

    with stabilizing side chains, 2‐phenetyl and 2‐ethanol, respectively, to influence especially the device stability but also the performance. For most modifications a decrease of the solar cell efficiency was observed. The incorporation of 10% of these side chains show improvements of the stability of devices...

  3. Modeling recovery and recrystallization kinetics in cold-rolled Ti-Nb stabilized interstitial-free steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukunthan, K.; Hawbolt, E.B.

    1996-01-01

    The recovery and recrystallization kinetics in an 80 pct cold-rolled Ti-Nb stabilized interstitial-free (IF) steel have been characterized for isothermal (500 to 760 C) and continuous heating (0.025 C s -1 to 20.2 C s -1 ) annealing. Isothermal recovery kinetics, as monitored by {220} X-ray peak resolution measurements, were described using a semiempirical logarithmic equation. The IF steel recovered relatively easily, with approximately 45 to 60 pct of the total peak resolution occurring prior to the onset of recrystallization. An iterative procedure was adopted to separate the diffraction effects associated with the concurrent recovery and recrystallization processes. Microstructural observations indicated that the recrystallization event was heterogeneous, with preferential nucleation and early site saturation at grain boundaries in the cold-rolled material. Isothermal recrystallization kinetics, determined by quantitative metallography, were described using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) and Speich-Fisher (SF) relationships. Recovery and recrystallization kinetics during continuous heating have been modeled using the isothermal kinetic parameters, assuming the validity of the principle of additivity. The results were validated by experimental measurements obtained at heating rates simulating both batch and continuous annealing. Although the Scheil additivity equation overestimated the recrystallization start time for continuous heating conditions, the associated higher temperature and more rapid initial recrystallization resulted in similar overall kinetics

  4. Comparison of the microstructure and thermal stability of an AZ31 alloy processed by ECAP and large strain hot rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddahbi, M. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Valle, J.A. del [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Prado, M.T. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: tpprado@cenim.csic.es; Ruano, O.A. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-11-25

    The aim of this work is to compare the microstructure, the texture, as well as the thermal stability of an AZ31 Mg alloy processed via two different severe plastic deformation processing techniques, namely large strain hot rolling (LSHR) and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The microstructure was characterized by optical microscopy and the texture was measured both by X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The microstructure obtained via LSHR has average grain sizes around 3 {mu}m, but it is quite heterogeneous. Additionally, a well-defined basal texture develops. ECAP gives rise to a more homogeneous and slightly coarser microstructure, with an average grain size of 7 {mu}m and a shear type texture. The higher resistance of the extruded sample to secondary recrystallization after severe post-deformation annealing is attributed to a texture effect.

  5. Impact of tool wear on cross wedge rolling process stability and on product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Catalina; Langlois, Laurent; Baudouin, Cyrille; Bigot, Régis; Fremeaux, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Cross wedge rolling (CWR) is a metal forming process used in the automotive industry. One of its applications is in the manufacturing process of connecting rods. CWR transforms a cylindrical billet into a complex axisymmetrical shape with an accurate distribution of material. This preform is forged into shape in a forging die. In order to improve CWR tool lifecycle and product quality it is essential to understand tool wear evolution and the physical phenomena that change on the CWR process due to the resulting geometry of the tool when undergoing tool wear. In order to understand CWR tool wear behavior, numerical simulations are necessary. Nevertheless, if the simulations are performed with the CAD geometry of the tool, results are limited. To solve this difficulty, two numerical simulations with FORGE® were performed using the real geometry of the tools (both up and lower roll) at two different states: (1) before starting lifecycle and (2) end of lifecycle. The tools were 3D measured with ATOS triple scan by GOM® using optical 3D measuring techniques. The result was a high-resolution point cloud of the entire geometry of the tool. Each 3D point cloud was digitalized and converted into a STL format. The geometry of the tools in a STL format was input for the 3D simulations. Both simulations were compared. Defects of products obtained in simulation were compared to main defects of products found industrially. Two main defects are: (a) surface defects on the preform that are not fixed in the die forging operation; and (b) Preform bent (no longer straight), with two possible impacts: on the one hand that the robot cannot grab it to take it to the forging stage; on the other hand, an unfilled section in the forging operation.

  6. Round-Robin Studies on Roll-Processed ITO-free Organic Tandem Solar Cells Combined with Inter-Laboratory Stability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livi, Francesco; Søndergaard, Roar R.; Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    2015-01-01

    Roll-processed, indium tin oxide (ITO)-free, flexible, organic tandem solar cells and modules have been realized and used in round-robin studies as well as in parallel inter-laboratory stability studies. The tandem cells/modules show no significant difference in comparison to their single...

  7. Thermal stability of a highly-deformed warm-rolled tungsten plate in the temperature range 1100 °C to 1250 °C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfonso Lopez, Angel; Juul Jensen, Dorte; Luo, G.-N.

    2015-01-01

    Pure tungsten is considered as armor material for the most critical parts of fusion reactors (i.e. the divertor and the first wall), among other reasons due to its high melting point (3422 °C) and recrystallization temperature. The thermal stability of a pure tungsten plate warm-rolled to a high...

  8. Lift truck safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  9. Lift truck safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter's Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given

  10. 16 CFR 1203.15 - Positional stability test (roll-off resistance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.15 Positional stability... the retention system in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Adjust the straps to remove any slack. (3) Suspend the dynamic impact system from the helmet by positioning the flexible strap...

  11. Modeling and control of an off-road truck using electrorheological dampers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzmann, K; Kemmetmueller, W; Kugi, A; Stork, M; Rosenfeldt, H; Schneider, S

    2009-01-01

    This work deals with the mathematical modeling and control of the semi-active suspension of an MAN off-road truck with a payload of 5 tons which comprises electrorheological dampers. Thereby, a cascaded control structure with four controllers for the control of a quarter-car in the inner control loop and a superimposed control strategy for the overall vehicle is used. The main goal of the control strategy is to reduce the motion of the chassis (especially roll, pitch and vertical movement) while increasing driving stability. The capability of the overall control strategy is demonstrated by means of simulation studies and measurement results.

  12. An Evaluation of the Roll-Rate Stabilization System of the Sidewinder Missile at Mach Numbers from 0.9 to 2.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, Martin L.; Brown, Clarence A., Jr.; Rock, Rupert S.

    1955-01-01

    A linear stability analysis and flight-test investigation has been performed on a rolleron-type roll-rate stabilization system for a canard-type missile configuration through a Mach number range from 0.9 to 2.3. This type damper provides roll damping by the action of gyro-actuated uncoupled wing-tip ailerons. A dynamic roll instability predicted by the analysis was confirmed by flight testing and was subsequently eliminated by the introduction of control-surface damping about the rolleron hinge line. The control-surface damping was provided by an orifice-type damper contained within the control surface. Steady-state rolling velocities were at all times less than 1 radian per second between the Mach numbers of 0.9 to 2.3 on the configurations tested. No adverse longitudinal effects were experienced in flight because of the tendency of the free-floating rollerons to couple into the pitching motion at the low angles of attack and disturbance levels investigated herein after the introduction of control-surface damping.

  13. Report on the Second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) Roll, Pitch, and Heave (RPH) Stabilization Platform: Design and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, Richard L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Martin, Timothy J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    One of the primary objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s second Mobile Facility (AMF2) is to obtain reliable measurements of solar, surface, and atmospheric radiation, as well as cloud and atmospheric properties, from ocean-going vessels. To ensure that these climatic measurements are representative and accurate, many AMF2 instrument systems are designed to collect data in a zenith orientation. A pillar of the AMF2 strategy in this effort is the use of a stable platform. The purpose of the platform is to 1) mitigate vessel motion for instruments that require a truly vertical orientation and keep them pointed in the zenith direction, and 2) allow for accurate positioning for viewing or shading of the sensors from direct sunlight. Numerous ARM instruments fall into these categories, but perhaps the most important are the vertically pointing cloud radars, for which vertical motions are a critical parameter. During the design and construction phase of AMF2, an inexpensive stable platform was purchased to perform the stabilization tasks for some of these instruments. The first table compensated for roll, pitch, and yaw (RPY) and was reported upon in a previous technical report (Kafle and Coulter, 2012). Subsequently, a second table was purchased specifically for operation with the Marine W-band cloud radar (MWACR). Computer programs originally developed for RPY were modified to communicate with the new platform controller and with an inertial measurements platform that measures true ship motion components (roll, pitch, yaw, surge, sway, and heave). This platform could not be tested dynamically for RPY because of time constraints requiring its deployment aboard the container ship Horizon Spirit in September 2013. Hence the initial motion tests were conducted on the initial cruise. Subsequent cruises provided additional test results. The platform, as tested, meets all the design and

  14. 77 FR 41744 - Hand Trucks and Certain Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... purposes of lifting and/or moving the load. That the vertical frame can be converted from a vertical... \\5/8\\ inch in diameter; hand trucks that use motorized operations either to move the hand truck from... revised the surrogate values for hot rolled steel coil, cold-rolled steel, polypropylene resin, slide bar...

  15. Over 2 Years of Outdoor Operational and Storage Stability of ITO-free, Fully Roll-to-Roll Fabricated Polymer Solar Cell Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Krebs, Frederik C

    2015-01-01

    We report on the stability of large-area (100 cm2), low-cost, indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free modules over two years (>17 500 h) under outdoor operational conditions in Denmark and under indoor storage condition by following ISOS-O-3 and ISOS-D-2 protocols. Irrespective of the testing regimes (storage...

  16. New surface layers with low rolling resistance tested in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettinari, Matteo; Schmidt, Bjarne; Jensen, Bjarne Bo

    2014-01-01

    The project ‘CO2 emission reduction by exploitation of rolling resistance modeling of pavements’ (COOEE) was started in 2011 to establish a scientific background for development of novel pavement types and asset management solutions that minimize the rolling resistance for cars and trucks...

  17. Heavy truck modeling for fuel consumption. Simulations and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, T.

    2001-12-01

    Fuel consumption for heavy trucks depends on many factors like roads, weather, and driver behavior that are hard for a manufacturer to influence. However, one design possibility is the power train configuration. Here a new simulation program for heavy trucks is created to find the configuration of the power train that gives the lowest fuel consumption for each transport task. For efficient simulations the model uses production code for speed and gear control, and it uses exchangeable data sets to allow simulation of the whole production range of engine types, on recorded road profiles from all over the world. Combined with a graphical user interface this application is called STARS (Scania Truck And Road Simulation). The forces of rolling resistance and air resistance in the model are validated through an experiment where the propeller shaft torque of a heavy truck is measured. It is found that the coefficient of rolling resistance is strongly dependent on tire temperature, not only on vehicle speed as expected. This led to the development of a new model for rolling resistance. The model includes the dynamic behavior of the tires and relates rolling resistance to tire temperature and vehicle speed. In another experiment the fuel consumption of a test truck in highway driving is measured. The altitude of the road is recorded with a barometer and used in the corresponding simulations. Despite of the limited accuracy of this equipment the simulation program manage to predict a level of fuel consumption only 2% lower than the real measurements. It is concluded that STARS is a good tool for predicting fuel consumption for trucks in highway driving and for comparing different power train configurations.

  18. Vertical Vibration Model for Unsteady Lubrication in Rolls-Strip Interface of Cold Rolling Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the vertical vibration phenomena existing in cold rolling mills, the unsteady lubrication mechanism in roll gap and its influence to rolling stability was chosen as the case for analysis. On the basis of rolling theory, lubrication and friction theory, and mechanic vibration theory, the vertical vibration model for unsteady lubrication in rolls-strip interface was presented. The Geometry model of roll gap, the unsteady lubrication model of roller-strip working interface, the distribution model of normal rolling stress and friction stress, and the rolling vertical structure model were taken into account. Based on the rolling equipment and process parameters of aluminium mill, the rolling force curve and dynamic response of working roll displacement variation was simulated on Matlab/Simulink platform. A comparison with actual production data shows the validity of this vibration model.

  19. On the Application of a Response Surface Technique to Analyze Roll-over Stability of Capsules with Airbags Using LS-Dyna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Reaves, Mercedes C.

    2008-01-01

    As NASA moves towards developing technologies needed to implement its new Exploration program, studies conducted for Apollo in the 1960's to understand the rollover stability of capsules landing are being revisited. Although rigid body kinematics analyses of the roll-over behavior of capsules on impact provided critical insight to the Apollo problem, extensive ground test programs were also used. For the new Orion spacecraft being developed to implement today's Exploration program, new air-bag designs have improved sufficiently for NASA to consider their use to mitigate landing loads to ensure crew safety and to enable re-usability of the capsule. Simple kinematics models provide only limited understanding of the behavior of these air bag systems, and more sophisticated tools must be used. In particular, NASA and its contractors are using the LS-Dyna nonlinear simulation code for impact response predictions of the full Orion vehicle with air bags by leveraging the extensive air bag prediction work previously done by the automotive industry. However, even in today's computational environment, these analyses are still high-dimensional, time consuming, and computationally intensive. To alleviate the computational burden, this paper presents an approach that uses deterministic sampling techniques and an adaptive response surface method to not only use existing LS-Dyna solutions but also to interpolate from LS-Dyna solutions to predict the stability boundaries for a capsule on airbags. Results for the stability boundary in terms of impact velocities, capsule attitude, impact plane orientation, and impact surface friction are discussed.

  20. Work Truck Idling Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid utility trucks, with auxiliary power sources for on-board equipment, significantly reduce unnecessary idling resulting in fuel costs savings, less engine wear, and reduction in noise and emissions.

  1. Austenitic Reversion of Cryo-rolled Ti-Stabilized Austenitic Stainless Steel: High-Resolution EBSD Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiamiyu, A. A.; Odeshi, A. G.; Szpunar, J. A.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, AISI 321 austenitic stainless steel (ASS) was cryo-rolled and subsequently annealed at 650 and 800 °C to reverse BCC α'-martensite to FCC γ-austenite. The texture evolution associated with the reversion at the selected temperatures was investigated using high-resolution EBSD. After the reversion, TiC precipitates were observed to be more stable in 650 °C-annealed specimens than those reversed at 800 °C. {110} texture was mainly developed in specimens subjected to both annealing temperatures. However, specimens reversed at 650 °C have stronger texture than those annealed at 800 °C, even at the higher annealing time. The strong intensity of {110} texture component is attributed to the ability of AISI 321 ASS to memorize the crystallographic orientation of the deformed austenite, a phenomenon termed texture memory. The development of weaker texture in 800 °C-annealed specimens is attributed to the residual strain relief in grains, dissolution of grain boundary precipitates, and an increase in atomic migration along the grain boundaries. Based on the observed features of the reversed austenite grains and estimation from an existing model, it is suspected that the austenite reversion at 650 and 800 °C undergone diffusional and martensitic shear reversion, respectively.

  2. Stabilization of backing-up operations of truck trailers and road trains by a control element; Stabilisierung der Rueckwaertsfahrt von LKW-Aufliegern und Gliederzuegen durch einen Regler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, W. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Although modern trucks have many electronic systems, an integrated electronic steering system is still lacking. A demonstration model of an integrated, fully electronic powertrain - the X-by-wire system - was presented by DaimlerChrysler AG at the IAA Nutzfahrzeuge in September 2000. Among other functions, the system will facilitate backing-up of trucks with trailers or road trains. [German] Zahlreiche Systeme erleichtern LKW-Fahrern die Arbeit: z.B. Bremskraftverstaerker, Lenkkraftservos und elektronisch geschaltete Getriebe. Das grundsaetzliche Konzept der Fahrzeuglenkung bleibt jedoch erhalten: Der Fahrer greift auf einzelne Aggregate zu wie beispielsweise Motor, Bremse, Getriebe und Lenkung. Eine rein elektronische Steuerung ohne mechanische Verbindung, die eine gemeinsame Schnittstelle mehrerer oder aller Aggregate bereitstellen koennte, befindet sich gerade in der Entwicklung. Ein Demonstrationsmodell eines integrierten rein elektronisch ansteuerbaren Antriebsstrangs wurde von DaimlerChrysler AG auf der IAA Nutzfahrzeuge im September 2000 vorgestellt. Die X-by-wire Technologie eroeffnet voellig neue Moeglichkeiten fuer echte Fahrerassistenzsysteme, die nicht nur Kraftverstaerker sind, sondern auch Informationsverarbeitung betreiben. Ein Beispiel fuer ein solches System ist ein Rueckwaertsrangierassistent, der dem Fahrer bei der Rueckwaertsfahrt mit Auflieger oder Gliederzug die schwierige Aufgabe abnimmt, das ungewollte Einknicken des Zuges zu verhindern. Dazu ist es notwendig, dass der Lenkwinkel der Zugmaschine von einem Regler vorgegeben wird, der neben der vom Fahrer gewuenschten Kruemmung auch die Knickwinkel des Zuges mit einrechnet. Der Fahrer greift damit nicht mehr auf den Lenkwinkel zu, sondern gibt dem Regler einen Sollwert fuer die gewuenschte stabiliserte Bahnkruemmung des Zuges vor. Jeder, der schon einmal selber mit einem Anhaenger rueckwaerts rangiert hat oder zumindest ein solches Manoever beobachtet hat, weiss unmittelbar wieviel

  3. Improved Dutch Roll Approximation for Hypersonic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Liang Yin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An improved dutch roll approximation for hypersonic vehicle is presented. From the new approximations, the dutch roll frequency is shown to be a function of the stability axis yaw stability and the dutch roll damping is mainly effected by the roll damping ratio. In additional, an important parameter called roll-to-yaw ratio is obtained to describe the dutch roll mode. Solution shows that large-roll-to-yaw ratio is the generate character of hypersonic vehicle, which results the large error for the practical approximation. Predictions from the literal approximations derived in this paper are compared with actual numerical values for s example hypersonic vehicle, results show the approximations work well and the error is below 10 %.

  4. 49 CFR 393.61 - Truck and truck tractor window construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck and truck tractor window construction. 393... REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Glazing and Window Construction § 393.61 Truck and truck tractor window construction. Each truck and truck tractor (except trucks engaged in armored...

  5. Truck industry forum material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The following PowerPoint presentation is the draft version of the presentation that would be used for : the upcoming half-day Infrastructure-Friendlier Trucks Forum tentatively scheduled for Friday, : March 13, 2015. This forum presented a project st...

  6. Truckstop -- and Truck!-- Electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skip Yeakel

    2001-12-13

    The conclusions of this paper are: 0.5-1.5 G/H and/or BUSG/Y--how much time and money will it take to quantify and WHY BOTHER TO DO SO? No shortage of things to do re truckstop--+ truck!-- electrification; Better that government and industry should put many eggs in lots of baskets vs. all in one or few; Best concepts will surface as most viable; Economic appeal better than regulation or brute force; Launch Ground Freight Partnership and give it a chance to work; Demonstration is an effective means to educate, and learn from, customers--learning is a two way street; Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD 3) are all important but only deployment gets results; TSE can start small in numbers of spaces to accommodate economically inspired growth but upfront plans should be made for expansion if meaningful idle reduction is to follow via TE; 110VAC 15A service/ parking space is minimal--if infrastructure starts like this, upfront plans must be made to increase capacity; Increased electrification of truckstop and truck alike will result in much better life on the road; Improved sleep will improve driver alertness and safety; Reduced idling will significantly reduce fuel use and emissions; Universal appeal for DOD, DOE, DOT, EPA, OEMs, and users alike; Clean coal, gas, hydro, nuclear, or wind energy sources are all distinctly American means by which to generate electricity; Nothing can compete with diesel fuel to serve mobile truck needs; stationary trucks are like power plants--they don't move and should NOT be powered by petroleum products whenever possible; Use American fueled power plants--electricity--to serve truck idling needs wherever practical to do so; encourage economic aspect; Create and reward industry initiatives to reduce fuel use; Eliminate FET on new trucks, provide tax credits (non highway fuel use and investment), provide incentives based on results; Encourage newer/ cleaner truck use; solicit BAAs with mandatory OEM/ fleet

  7. Finite element analysis of ROPS for mechanical driving dump truck cab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Xie, Heping; Fang, Yuanbin; Feng, Handui; Dong, Lei

    2018-02-01

    For roll-over protective structures (ROPS) in a mechanical driving dump truck cab, it simulates the lateral, vertical and longitudinal loads of ROPS. It obtains stress and deformation of the cab that occurs to roll. For the relative weak position of ROPS in the cab, the structure of the cab is improved and verified according to the ISO 3164: 1995. The results show that the established finite element model can effectively predict the deformation and stress distribution of ROPS, and optimize the weak structure of the cab, which has important guiding significance for structural design of the cab and ROPS optimization of the mechanical driving dump truck cab.

  8. Microstructure evolution of Zr{sub 65}Al{sub 7.5}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Ag{sub 5} bulk metallic glass due to rolling and its influence on the thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Z.J., E-mail: yanzhijie74@sohu.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Yan, J.; Hu, Y.; Hao, W.X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2012-02-05

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) are employed to investigate the microstructure evolution of Zr{sub 65}Al{sub 7.5}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Ag{sub 5} bulk metallic glass subjected to rolling at room temperature. The strain rates are controlled to be 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} s{sup -1}. The results show that the plastic deformation during rolling behaves as an inhomogeneous mode with the characteristic of shear bands, which results in the two-state characteristic of atomic movement from competition between the ordering and disordering processes. The icosahedron-like clusters precipitate in the transition regions between the shear bands and the amorphous matrix, and they tend to aggregate into nano-sized orders. The results of DSC indicate that the onset precipitation temperature of I-phase during heating of the metallic glass obviously decreases due to rolling. However, the time window for the completion of amorphous-to-icosahedral phase transformation is evidently lengthened. The microstructure evolution during rolling and its influence on the thermal stability are discussed.

  9. Vehicle to vehicle communications for trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The trucking industry is a critical component of American commerce. The American : Trucking Association estimates that over 80 percent of U.S. communities depend : exclusively on trucking for delivery of their goods and commodities

  10. Fill That Truck | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feds Feed Families is a federal workforce initiative to fight hunger in our local communities. This year’s campaign began on June 13 and will continue until the end of August. After collecting approximately 550 pounds of food each of the last two years, NCI at Frederick is making a push to collect even more this summer. On June 29, during Take Your Child to Work Day, a 10-foot truck will be parked in the hub area along Chandler Street and Wood Street.

  11. Analysis of truck platoon dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, L.; Zuurbier, J.; Lupker, H.A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of truck platoon dynamics using a simulation environment. In this case the platoon consists of a number of trucks following each other using driver algorithms. MADYMO (a multibody and FE software package) and MATLAB/SIMULINK are coupled to allow for these driver

  12. Mitigating Wind Induced Truck Crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-25

    Dangerous weather and high wind in particular, is a common contributing factor in truck crashes. High wind speeds have been documented as a perennial cause of truck crashes in Kansas and other Great Plains states. The possibility of reducing such cra...

  13. Roll Control in Fruit Flies

    OpenAIRE

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John M.; Cohen, Itai

    2014-01-01

    Due to aerodynamic instabilities, stabilizing flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here we investigate how flies control body roll angle, their most susceptible degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly, apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air, and film the corrective maneuver. Flies correct perturbations of up to $100^{\\circ}$ within $30\\pm7\\mathrm{ms}$ by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear PI controller. The...

  14. Autonomous Supervision and Control of Parametric Roll Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto

    therefore two objectives. The first is to develop methods for detection of the inception of parametric roll resonance. The second is to develop control strategies to stabilize the motion after parametric roll has started. Stabilisation of parametric roll resonance points to two possible courses of action...... strategies are then combined to stabilise parametric roll resonance within few roll cycles. Limitations on the maximum stabilisable roll angle are analysed and linked to the ii slew rate saturation and hydrodynamic stall characteristics of the fin stabilisers. The study on maximum stabilisable roll angle...... leads to the requirements for early detection. Two novel detectors are proposed, which work within a shorttime prediction horizon, and issue early warnings of parametric roll inception within few roll cycles from its onset. The main idea behind these detection schemes is that of exploiting the link...

  15. Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battelle

    1999-01-01

    The Alternative Motor Fuel Act of 1988 requires the U.S. Department of Energy to demonstrate and evaluate alternative fuels usage in the United States. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is conducting the Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project to compare alternative fuel and diesel fuel trucks. Information for the comparison comes from data collected on the operational, maintenance, performance, and emissions characteristics of alternative fuel trucks being used in vehicle fleets and comparable diesel fuel trucks servings as controls within the same fleets. This report highlights the start-up experience and presents the lessons learned from a project that operated a fleet of liquefied natural gas (LNG) refuse haulers in Washington, Pennsylvania

  16. Experimental Measurement of the Flow Field of Heavy Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Browand; Charles Radovich

    2005-05-31

    are accumulated over the 5-day test period, May 17-21, 2004. The runway slopes rather uniformly upward from north-to-south. Over the distance of 2424 meters between our two ''start'' markers at either end of the runway, the net change in elevation is a little over ten meters. Test results clearly show the greater fuel consumption required to lift the truck against gravity in the southbound direction For this reason, it is important that the tests be averaged over a round trip circuit--that is, a run in both directions over the identical portion of the roadway. Northbound-southbound averages require an overlap segment of the runway (near the middle of the runway) where the truck--starting from either end--has achieved its target speed. For the target truck speed of 60 mph, this overlap region is approximately 700 meters in length. Typically a run and the return run are accomplished within a time interval of 6 minutes. Analysis of the data show fuel consumption savings at all flap angle settings tested, when compared to the ''no flaps'' condition. The most beneficial flap angle appears to be 13 degrees, for which the fuel consumption is 0.3778 {+-} 0.0025 liters/km compared to the ''no flaps'' control of 0.3941 {+-} 0.0034 liters/km. The error bounds expressed above mark the 99% confidence interval in the mean values given. That is, additional estimates of the mean fuel consumption would be expected to lie within the bounds given, approximately 99% of the time. The fuel consumption saving is--to reasonable accuracy--about 1.63 liters/100 kilometers. These savings represent the increment associated only with the change in drag due to the presence or absence of flaps. The result will hold for any truck of similar size and shape and engine performance regardless of the loading of the truck or the rolling resistance. The economy achieved by use of base flaps can be compared to the economy resulting from driving two

  17. New surface layers with low rolling resistance tested in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettinari, Matteo; Schmidt, Bjarne; Jensen, Bjarne Bo

    2014-01-01

    The project ‘CO2 emission reduction by exploitation of rolling resistance modeling of pavements’ (COOEE) was started in 2011 to establish a scientific background for development of novel pavement types and asset management solutions that minimize the rolling resistance for cars and trucks......, the purpose being to reduce CO2 emission from the transport sector. In summer 2012, three different test sections were constructed on a highway located near Vordingborg, Denmark, in order to verify the respective Rolling Resistances; the main purpose was to develop and design new surface layers with reduced...... Rolling Resistance coefficient that could improve energy efficiency of the roads. In particular, two new types of Split Mastic Asphalt (SMA) were developed and compared to a reference one; both mixtures have a relatively small maximum grain-size, 6 mm and 8 mm, respectively. Surface measurements...

  18. The effect of transport time, season and position on the truck on stress response in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Liste, M.G; María, G. A.; García-Belenguer, S.; Chacón, G.; Gazzola, P.; Villarroel, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study analyzed the effect of transport time, season and position on the truck on physiological stress response of commercial rabbits in Aragón (Spain). A total of 156 animals were sampled in a 2x2x3 factorial design testing two transport times: short, 1 hour (1hT) and long, 7 hours (7hT), in two different seasons: hot, during summer (HT) and cold during winter (CT), and three different positions on the truck: upper, middle or lower decks in multi-floor cages on rolling stands (MFR...

  19. Photochemical stability of random poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-3-cyanothiophene) and its use in roll coated ITO-free organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Bérenger; Rudenko, Andrey E.; Thompson, Barry C.

    2015-01-01

    -trimethylstannylthiophene enabled introduction of the cyanogroups along the polythiophene backbone. The percentage of the cyano groups was 10%. The photochemical stability of poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-3-cyanothiophene) (CN-P3HT) was shown to be significantly better than pristine P3HT and the addition of CN-P3HT to P3HT also...... increased the photochemical stability of the blend. The photochemical stability of bulk heterojunction mixtures of the polymers and their blends with the fullerene phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester ([60]PCBM) were then studied and it was found that [60]PCBM had a significantly more stabilizing effect...

  20. Commercial truck parking and other safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Commercial truck parking is a safety issue, since trucks are involved in approximately 10% of all fatal accidents on interstates and : parkways in Kentucky. Drivers experience schedule demands and long hours on the road, yet they cannot easily determ...

  1. Papers on vehicle size : cars and trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    The four papers in this volume describe analyses of car size : trends and truck occupant injuries and fatalities. All four were : written between June 1985 and December 1987. The topics : addressed include where heavy truck accidents occur, injury an...

  2. Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final evaluation results.

  3. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2010. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  4. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2012. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  5. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2013. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  6. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2009. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  7. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2011. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  8. Naturalistic Study of Truck Following Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Volpe conducted the Naturalistic study of truck following behavior to gain a better understanding of how trucks follow other vehicles in the real world, with the ultimate goal of supporting the Federal Highway Administration in the development of aut...

  9. Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

  10. On the Equivalence of Tank Trucks and General Purpose Trucks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... Trucking is a business that benefits from segmentation, which is the subdividing of the overall market into homogeneous subsets of customers where any subset(s) may be selected as a target market to be reached with a distinct marketing mix. But the fact that ...

  11. Perovskite solar cells for roll-to-roll fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddin Ashraf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite solar cell (PSCs is considered as the game changer in emerging photovoltaics technology. The highest certified efficiency is 22% with high temperature processed (∼500 °C TiO2 based electron transport layer (ETL. High temperature process is a rudimentary hindrance towards roll-to-roll processing of PSCs on flexible substrates. Low temperature solution process (<150 °C ZnO based ETL is one of the most promising candidate for large scale roll-to-roll fabrication of cells as it has nearly identical electron affinity (4.2 eV of TiO2. The mixed organic perovskite (MA0.6FA0.4PbI3 devices with Al doped ZnO (AZO ETL demonstrate average cell efficiency over 16%, which is the highest ever reported efficiency for this device configuration. The energy level alignment and related interfacial charge transport dynamics at the interface of ZnO and perovskite films and the adjacent charge transport layers are investigated. Significantly improved device stability, hysteresis free device photocurrent have been observed in MA0.6FA0.4PbI3 cells. A systematic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, frequency dependent capacitance spectra, surface morphology and topography characterization have been conducted to understand the role of interfacial electronic properties between perovskite and neighbouring layers in perovskite device. A standardized degradation study, interfacial electronic property and capacitive spectra analysis of aged device, have been measured to understand the enhanced device stability in mixed MA0.6FA0.4PbI3 cells. Slow perovskite material decomposition rate and augmented device lifetime with AZO based devices have been found to be correlated with the more hydrophobic and acidic nature of AZO surface compared to pristine ZnO film.

  12. Improvement of underrun protection of trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coo, P.J.A. de; Blaauw, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    Truck accidents represent a significant factor in the overall road accident scene, namely 25 to 30% of the fatal accidents in the EU. Collision partners of trucks are mainly passenger cars in car-to-truck frontal collisions. The severity of this kind of accidents is due to the incompatibility of

  13. A tough truck for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    One of the mobile support structures that will be used to manoeuvre and assemble components of the ATLAS detector in its cavern was put through its paces at the end of July and passed its load tests with flying colours. The tests, which involved the surveyors taking measurements to detect any load-induced mechanical deformations, were carried out in Building 191. "The "truck" has been subjected to static tests with loads of up to 1250 tonnes and can carry and transport on air cushions a nominal load of up to 1000 tonnes at a top speed of 30 cm per minute," explains project leader Tommi Nyman. "It took two weeks to assemble the truck's components, the last of which arrived at CERN on 24 June. It then took a further 20 days to load the truck up for the test." The 8.5 metre-high truck will be used for final assembly of some of the ATLAS components, including the calorimeters, in cavern UX15. This powerful device is the result of a collaboration between CERN and the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear ...

  14. Weather delay costs to trucking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Estimates of the nations freight sector of transportation range to upwards of $600 billion of total gross domestic product with 70 percent of total value and 60 percent of total weight moving by truck. Weather-related delays can add significantly ...

  15. Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keolian, Robert

    2011-03-31

    This Final Report describes the accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement project DE-FC26-04NT42113 - Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller - whose goal is to design, fabricate and test a thermoacoustic piezoelectric generator and chiller system for use on over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel trucks, driven alternatively by the waste heat of the main diesel engine exhaust or by a burner integrated into the thermoacoustic system. The thermoacoustic system would utilize engine exhaust waste heat to generate electricity and cab air conditioning, and would also function as an auxiliary power unit (APU) for idle reduction. The unit was to be tested in Volvo engine performance and endurance test cells and then integrated onto a Class 8 over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel truck for further testing on the road. The project has been a collaboration of The Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Clean Power Resources Inc., and Volvo Powertrain (Mack Trucks Inc.). Cost share funding was provided by Applied Research Laboratory, and by Clean Power Resources Inc via its grant from Innovation Works - funding that was derived from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Los Alamos received its funding separately through DOE Field Work Proposal 04EE09.

  16. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2015-06-07

    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  17. A Coupled Model for Work Roll Thermal Contour with Subsectional Cooling in Aluminum Strip Cold Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Jian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Little attention had been given to the evaluation of subsectional cooling control ability under complicated working conditions. In this paper, heat generation was calculated by using finite difference method. Strip hardening, work roll elastic deformation and elastic recovery of strip were taken into account. The mean coefficient of convective heat transfer on work roll surface was simulated by FLUENT. Calculation model had used the alternative finite difference scheme, which improved the model stability and computing speed. The simulation result shows that subsectional cooling control ability is different between different rolling passes. Positive and negative control abilities are roughly the same in the same pass. The increase of rolled length, working pressure of header and friction coefficient has positive effect on subsectional cooling control ability, and the rolling speed is on the contrary. On the beginning of the pass, when work roll surface has not reached the stable temperature, control ability of subsectional cooling is mainly affected by rolled length. The effect of mean coefficient of convective heat transfer and coefficient of friction is linear. When rolling speed is over 500 m/min, control ability of subsectional cooling becomes stable.

  18. Achieving Extreme Utilization of Excitons by an Efficient Sandwich-Type Emissive Layer Architecture for Reduced Efficiency Roll-Off and Improved Operational Stability in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongbin; Sun, Ning; Zhu, Liping; Sun, Hengda; Wang, Jiaxiu; Yang, Dezhi; Qiao, Xianfeng; Chen, Jiangshan; Alshehri, Saad M; Ahamad, Tansir; Ma, Dongge

    2016-02-10

    It has been demonstrated that the efficiency roll-off is generally caused by the accumulation of excitons or charge carriers, which is intimately related to the emissive layer (EML) architecture in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this article, an efficient sandwich-type EML structure with a mixed-host EML sandwiched between two single-host EMLs was designed to eliminate this accumulation, thus simultaneously achieving high efficiency, low efficiency roll-off and good operational stability in the resulting OLEDs. The devices show excellent electroluminescence performances, realizing a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 24.6% with a maximum power efficiency of 105.6 lm W(-1) and a maximum current efficiency of 93.5 cd A(-1). At the high brightness of 5,000 cd m(-2), they still remain as high as 23.3%, 71.1 lm W(-1), and 88.3 cd A(-1), respectively. And, the device lifetime is up to 2000 h at initial luminance of 1000 cd m(-2), which is significantly higher than that of compared devices with conventional EML structures. The improvement mechanism is systematically studied by the dependence of the exciton distribution in EML and the exciton quenching processes. It can be seen that the utilization of the efficient sandwich-type EML broadens the recombination zone width, thus greatly reducing the exciton quenching and increasing the probability of the exciton recombination. It is believed that the design concept provides a new avenue for us to achieve high-performance OLEDs.

  19. Cosmology with rolling tachyon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Email: sami@iucaa.ernet.in. Abstract. We examine the possibility of rolling tachyon to play the dual role of inflaton at early epochs and dark matter at late times. We argue that enough inflation can be generated with the rolling tachyon either by invoking the large number of branes or brane world assisted inflation. However ...

  20. Truck transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, M.M.; Wilmot, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical models in RADTRAN II are used to calculate risks to population subgroups such as people along transport routes, people at stops, and crewman. The stops model, which calculates the dose to persons adjacent to the transport vehicle while it is stopped, frequently provides the largest contribution to incident-free radiological impacts. Components such as distances from the vehicle containing radioactive material to nearby people at stops, stop duration, and number of crew members are required for the stops model as well as other incident-free models. To provide supporting data for RADTRAN II based on operational experience, selected truck shipments of radioactive material were observed from origin to destination. Other important aspects of this program were to correlate package size to effective shipment transport index (TI) using radiological surveys and to characterize population distributions and proximities of people to the shipment at a generic truck stop

  1. [Pedestrian dragged under a truck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaba, Czesław; Lewandowski, Andrzej; Kołowski, Janusz; Tezyk, Artur

    2011-01-01

    A traffic accident is described, involving a pedestrian who was at first hit and subsequently hooked up by his clothing by a suspension element of a low-floor truck trailer and dragged along a road for the distance of 3500 m. Autopsy demonstrated that the pedestrian died of cerebro-cranial injuries, inflicted while he had been hit by the truck. Additionally, the frontal surface of his body demonstrated external injuries typical for dragging of the body along the roadway. Before being dragged, the pedestrian was hit by the front of the vehicle, when he was in a sitting position, or was rising or else was in a recumbent position with an elevated head and trunk. Traffic accidents of the type were seldom described in the national and foreign literature.

  2. Study on the Influence of the Convoy Rolling over Aerodynamic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iozsa, D.; Stan, C.; Ilea, L.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate how the aerodynamic resistance is influenced by the convoy rolling and to see how much this is possible by varying the distance between trucks. Then to see how the gains correlate with the position occupied by the truck in the convoy. The study starts from current research on the premises of running in convoy. Aerodynamic analysis was performed using software finite element of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) type, where it was modeled the convoy rolling of a variable number of trucks. The number of trucks and the distance between them was varied in the model in order to acquire an understanding of the flow field around the trucks and how the distance between them can improve the aerodynamic parameters. The results are presented in the form of streamlines of the air, which indicates the air volume travel speed and direction and of the pressure distribution on the surface of the body. The most significant drop in pressure on the front surface was obtained for the second truck of the convoy, whereas for the following ones the reduction was less important. The participation in a convoy of more than two trucks is justified by the reduction of the whirls that appear and by the uniform air flow. The main advantage of running in convoy mode is to decrease aerodynamic resistance, with beneficial consequences on economic and ecological parameters. Continuing work from here on, it could be analyzed the impact of changing the distance between trucks on the aerodynamic coefficient. The results of CFD simulations need to be verified with experimental data, such as wind-tunnel test, to ensure reliability of the results.

  3. Solar hydrogen for urban trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.: Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R. [Clean Air Now, Northridge, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project, located at Xerox Corp., El Segundo, California, includes solar photovoltaic powered hydrogen generation, compression, storage and end use. Three modified Ford Ranger trucks use the hydrogen fuel. The stand-alone electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system are solely powered by a photovoltaic array. A variable frequency DC-AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 horsepower compressor motor. On site storage is available for up to 14,000 standard cubic feet (SCF) of solar hydrogen, and up to 80,000 SCF of commercial hydrogen. The project is 3 miles from Los Angeles International airport. The engine conversions are bored to 2.9 liter displacement and are supercharged. Performance is similar to that of the Ranger gasoline powered truck. Fuel is stored in carbon composite tanks (just behind the driver`s cab) at pressures up to 3600 psi. Truck range is 144 miles, given 3600 psi of hydrogen. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil CO and HC emissions. NO{sub x} emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two trucks have been converted for the Xerox fleet, and one for the City of West Hollywood. A public outreach program, done in conjunction with the local public schools and the Department of Energy, introduces the local public to the advantages of hydrogen fuel technologies. The Clean Air Now program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate, safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality, energy security and avoidance of global warming impact. Continued technology development and cost reduction promises to make such implementation market competitive.

  4. U24 : heavy truck rollover characterization (phase C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The effect of changes in the suspension of a cargo tank semitrailer on its roll stability was studied in experiments and modeling. Three configurations were considered: a typical design; a design with a wider track; and a design with wider track and ...

  5. Optimization of Front Axle Suspension System of Articulated Dump Truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Christensen, Brian B.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2010-01-01

    Manufacturers of construction machinery are challenged to accommodate legal requirements on the vibration exposure associated with their products. For such machines a crucial performance parameter is the whole body vibration level that the operator is subjected to. This paper presents results from...... that has been subjected to comfort improvement is a two axle articulated dump truck. The comfort has been in terms of whole body vibration exposure and the overall improvement has been made possible by adding front axle suspension. However, a hydraulic stabilizing system between the tractor and trailer...... to evaluate the whole body vibrations. By use of a multibody simulation model of the dump truck the whole body vibration exposure has been computed using the predefined work cycle as model input. The design parameters comprise the components of the hydraulic subsystem of the suspension, i.e., the size...

  6. The truck of the future. Saving of fuel and CO2-reduction in the year 2013; De truck van de toekomst. Brandstof- en CO2-besparing anno 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Mensch, P.; Vonk, W.; Verbeek, R. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Within the demonstration program 'Truck of the Future' ten fuel saving measures were tested and evaluated in transportation businesses. These measures are divided into the following categories: Rolling friction mitigation measures; Drag mitigation measures; ICT systems aimed at improving economical driving. All measures investigated for specific situations resulted in considerable saving. In the report also payback period and the experiences of participating transport businesses are included [Dutch] Binnen het demonstratieprogramma 'Truck van de Toekomst' zijn een tiental brandstofbesparende maatregelen toegepast bij transportbedrijven en geevalueerd. Deze maatregelen zijn opgesplitst in de volgende categorieen: Rolweerstand verlagende maatregelen; Luchtweerstand verlagende maatregelen; ICT-systemen gericht op het verbeteren van zuinig rijgedrag. Alle onderzochte maatregelen hebben in specifieke gebruikssituaties een duidelijk waarneembare besparing opgeleverd. In de rapportage worden ook de terugverdientijd en de gebruikservaringen van de deelnemende transportbedrijven meegenomen.

  7. Determinants of fuel consumption in mining trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dindarloo, Saeid R.; Siami-Irdemoosa, Elnaz

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of fuel consumption in a large surface mine, during more than 5000 cycles of material transportation, revealed considerable variability in the data. Truck fuel estimation based on the mining truck manufacturers' manuals/estimates is not capable of capturing this variability in the fuel consumption data. Partial least squares regression and autoregressive integrated moving average methods were employed to examine the effect of cyclic activities on fuel consumption, and to recommend relevant remedies for consumption reduction. Proper modifications of the operation can result in improved cycle times. Consequently, minimizing some cyclic activities would enhance energy efficiency. The truck “empty idle time” was a major contributor to unnecessary fuel consumption. Since the truck queues at shovels are a major component of the “empty idle time”, decisions should be reviewed to reduce the truck queues at loading points. Improved dispatching strategies, optimal muck pile shape and size distribution, and improved shovel/loader operator skills are effective preventive measures to minimize truck flow bottlenecks at loading points, and thus to improve energy efficiency at mines. - Highlights: • A large fleet of mining trucks consumes considerable amounts of energy. • Current energy models do not consider the effect of site-specific mining conditions. • A new methodology based on material handling cyclic activities is proposed. • Fuel consumption rates in different truck operating modes are determined. • The new model is compared with the truck manufacturer's energy consumption guideline.

  8. Rolling at small scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    the power input to the process. The contact traction is also affected, particularly for sheet thicknesses on the order of 10 μm and below. The influences of the length parameter and the friction coefficient are emphasized, and the results are presented for multiple sheet reductions and roll sizes....... dealing with the transient response period is employed. This allows for a comprehensive parameter study. Coulomb friction, including a stick-slip condition, is used as a first approximation. It is found that length scale effects increase both the forces applied to the roll, the roll torque, and thus...

  9. Developing a GPS-based truck freight performance measure platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Although trucks move the largest volume and value of goods in urban areas, relatively little is known about their travel : patterns and how the roadway network performs for trucks. Global positioning systems (GPS) used by trucking : companies to mana...

  10. Rolled-Up Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Schwaiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review metamaterials fabricated from self-rolling strained metal-semiconductor layer systems. These systems relax their strain upon release from the substrate by rolling up into microtubes with a cross-section similar to a rolled-up carpet. We show that the walls of these microtubes represent three-dimensional optical metamaterials which so far could be used, for example, for the realization of broadband hyperlenses, fishnet metamaterials, or optically active three-dimensional metamaterials utilizing the unique possibility to stack optically active semiconductor heterostructures and metallic nanostructures. Furthermore, we discuss THz metamaterials based on arrays of rolled-up metal semiconductor microtubes and helices.

  11. Roll Damping By Rudder Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.H.; Blanke, M.

    1994-01-01

    Roll damping and simultaneous course steering by rudder control is a challenging problem where a key factor is roll damping performance in waves.......Roll damping and simultaneous course steering by rudder control is a challenging problem where a key factor is roll damping performance in waves....

  12. Heavy truck rollover characterization (phase B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The Heavy Truck Rollover Characterization Study - Phase-B builds on the results of prior phases of research. Phases 1 and 2 (Funded by Federal Highway Administration) involved heavy truck rollover characterization for a tractor and box-trailer; and P...

  13. Trusted Truck(R) II (phase A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Trusted Truck Program was initiated in 2003 as a joint effort by NTRCI, Volvo and UT. The vision of the Trusted Truck program is to develop a secure and "trusted" transport solution from pickup to delivery. The program's objective is to incre...

  14. Speed docking: reducing truck turn times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploos van Amstel, W.

    2013-01-01

    Truck turn times in FMCG supply chain are unreliable. The Dutch ‘Speed Docking’ project in gave clear evidence to this. The result is too many trucks and drivers. FMCG producers, together with logistics service providers and customers, can realise improvements with the use of mobile communication,

  15. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  16. Multi-level approach for parametric roll analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeyoung; Kim, Yonghwan

    2011-03-01

    The present study considers multi-level approach for the analysis of parametric roll phenomena. Three kinds of computation method, GM variation, impulse response function (IRF), and Rankine panel method, are applied for the multi-level approach. IRF and Rankine panel method are based on the weakly nonlinear formulation which includes nonlinear Froude- Krylov and restoring forces. In the computation result of parametric roll occurrence test in regular waves, IRF and Rankine panel method show similar tendency. Although the GM variation approach predicts the occurrence of parametric roll at twice roll natural frequency, its frequency criteria shows a little difference. Nonlinear roll motion in bichromatic wave is also considered in this study. To prove the unstable roll motion in bichromatic waves, theoretical and numerical approaches are applied. The occurrence of parametric roll is theoretically examined by introducing the quasi-periodic Mathieu equation. Instability criteria are well predicted from stability analysis in theoretical approach. From the Fourier analysis, it has been verified that difference-frequency effects create the unstable roll motion. The occurrence of unstable roll motion in bichromatic wave is also observed in the experiment.

  17. Multi-level approach for parametric roll analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeyoung Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study considers multi-level approach for the analysis of parametric roll phenomena. Three kinds of computation method, GM variation, impulse response function (IRF, and Rankine panel method, are applied for the multi-level approach. IRF and Rankine panel method are based on the weakly nonlinear formulation which includes nonlinear Froude-Krylov and restoring forces. In the computation result of parametric roll occurrence test in regular waves, IRF and Rankine panel method show similar tendency. Although the GM variation approach predicts the occurrence of parametric roll at twice roll natural frequency, its frequency criteria shows a little difference. Nonlinear roll motion in bichromatic wave is also considered in this study. To prove the unstable roll motion in bichromatic waves, theoretical and numerical approaches are applied. The occurrence of parametric roll is theoretically examined by introducing the quasi-periodic Mathieu equation. Instability criteria are well predicted from stability analysis in theoretical approach. From the Fourier analysis, it has been verified that difference-frequency effects create the unstable roll motion. The occurrence of unstable roll motion in bichromatic wave is also observed in the experiment.

  18. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  19. Ship Roll Damping Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    The technical feasibility of roll motion control devices has been amply demonstrated for over 100 years. Performance, however, can still fall short of expectations because of difficulties associated with control system designs, which have proven to be far from trivial due to fundamental performance...... limitations and large variations of the spectral characteristics of wave-induced roll motion. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems together with the challenges associated with their design. It discusses the assessment of performance...... and the applicability of different mathematical models, and it surveys the control methods that have been implemented and validated with full scale experiments. The paper also presents an outlook on what are believed to be potential areas of research within this topic....

  20. Stochastic disks that roll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Cerfon, Miranda

    2016-11-01

    We study a model of rolling particles subject to stochastic fluctuations, which may be relevant in systems of nano- or microscale particles where rolling is an approximation for strong static friction. We consider the simplest possible nontrivial system: a linear polymer of three disks constrained to remain in contact and immersed in an equilibrium heat bath so the internal angle of the polymer changes due to stochastic fluctuations. We compare two cases: one where the disks can slide relative to each other and the other where they are constrained to roll, like gears. Starting from the Langevin equations with arbitrary linear velocity constraints, we use formal homogenization theory to derive the overdamped equations that describe the process in configuration space only. The resulting dynamics have the formal structure of a Brownian motion on a Riemannian or sub-Riemannian manifold, depending on if the velocity constraints are holonomic or nonholonomic. We use this to compute the trimer's equilibrium distribution with and without the rolling constraints. Surprisingly, the two distributions are different. We suggest two possible interpretations of this result: either (i) dry friction (or other dissipative, nonequilibrium forces) changes basic thermodynamic quantities like the free energy of a system, a statement that could be tested experimentally, or (ii) as a lesson in modeling rolling or friction more generally as a velocity constraint when stochastic fluctuations are present. In the latter case, we speculate there could be a "roughness" entropy whose inclusion as an effective force could compensate the constraint and preserve classical Boltzmann statistics. Regardless of the interpretation, our calculation shows the word "rolling" must be used with care when stochastic fluctuations are present.

  1. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  2. Offensive Rolling in Sambo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Koepfer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the Soviet born martial art of sambo has become increasingly well known in martial art circles. This is largely due to the success of sambo fighters in various mixed martial art venues. Offered here is a brief description of sambo’s development as well as a delineation of one of sambo’s hallmark strategies: offensive rolling. Examples of proper forward rolling and three related offensive techniques are presented. This paper provides a brief introduction to sambo’s history and one of its key tactical philosophies.

  3. METHOD OF ROLLING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.S.

    1959-08-01

    A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.

  4. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    The technical feasibility of roll motion control devices has been amply demonstrated for over 100 years. Performance, however, can still fall short of expectations because of deciencies in control system designs, which have proven to be far from trivial due to fundamental performance limitations....... This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  5. Texture comparison between cold rolled and cryogenically rolled pure copper

    OpenAIRE

    Lapeire, Linsey; Sidor, J; Lombardia, EM; Verbeken, Kim; De Graeve, Iris; Terryn, H; Kestens, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a considerable scientific interest in bulk ultrafine grained materials, due to their potential for superior mechanical properties. One of the possible formation methods of nano-grained materials is cryogenic rolling. The influence of rolling at cryogenic temperatures has been investigated. Significant differences in the textures and the microstructures can be observed between the cryogenically rolled copper and conventionally cold rolled copper, reduced to the same thickness.

  6. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section... OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments transiting Canada. (a) Manifest required. Trucks with merchandise...

  7. Cosmology with rolling tachyon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    765-770. Cosmology with rolling tachyon. M sAMIa, PRAVABATI CHINGANGBAMb and TABIsH QUREsHIb. aInter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind,. Pune 411 007, India. bDepartment of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110 025, India. *On leave from Jamia Millia Islamia, ...

  8. LEP Dismantling: Wagons Roll!

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The first trucks transporting material from LEP and its four experiments left CERN on 31 January. Since the LEP dismantling operation began, the material had been waiting to be removed from the sites of the four experiments and the special transit area on the Prévessin site. On the evening of 30 January, the French customs authorities gave the green light for the transport operation to begin. So first thing the next day, the two companies in charge of recycling the material, Jaeger & Bosshard (Switzerland) and Excoffier (France), set to work. Only 1500 truckloads to go before everything has been removed!

  9. Acceleration lane design for higher truck volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-09

    The research project examined attributes associated with tractor-trailer trucks accelerating on freeway entry ramps and : entering the main traffic lanes. Data for this project were collected at five commercial vehicle weigh stations in : Arkansas an...

  10. Light Duty Truck Weight Reduction Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    The objectives of this program were to identify the weight reduction potential of pickup trucks, vans, and utility vehicles less than or equal to 8500 lb. gross vehicle weight through design modification, redesign, and material substitution; and more...

  11. Higher speed freight truck design : performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This proposed requirements document combines a set of requirements for high-speed freight car truck design and performance : from the generally accepted standards in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), the Association of American Railroads : (...

  12. Higher speed freight truck : structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Sharma & Associates, Inc. (SA) had previously (20052009) developed a higher speed freight truck under sponsorship ofthe : Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). Under the current contract, SA wastasked with developing performance requirements : fo...

  13. Higher speed freight truck : vehicle dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Previously, Sharma & Associates, Inc. (SA) developed a higher speed freight truck design under sponsorship of the Federal : Railroad Administration. Under the current contract, SA was tasked with developing performance requirements for higher speed :...

  14. Acceptance test procedure for core sample trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure is to provide instruction and documentation for acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks, HO-68K-4600 and HO-68K-4647. The rotary mode core sample trucks were based upon the design of the second core sample truck (HO-68K-4345) which was constructed to implement rotary mode sampling of the waste tanks at Hanford. Acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks will verify that the design requirements have been met. All testing will be non-radioactive and stand-in materials shall be used to simulate waste tank conditions. Compressed air will be substituted for nitrogen during the majority of testing, with nitrogen being used only for flow characterization

  15. Delay and environmental costs of truck crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This report presents estimates of certain categories of costs of truck- and bus-involved crashes. Crash related costs estimated as part of this study include vehicle delay costs, emission costs, and fuel consumption costs. In addition, this report al...

  16. Fuel Cell Hydroge Manifold for Lift Trucks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham

    a virtual forklift system. This investigation examines important performance metrics such as hydrogen consumption and battery SOC as a function of fuel cell and battery size, control strategy, drive cycle, and load variation for a forklift truck system. This study can be used as a benchmark for choosing......Reducing CO2 emissions are getting more attention because of global warming. The transport sector which is responsible for a significant amount of emissions is going to reduce them due to new and upcoming regulations. Using fuel cells may be one way to help to reduce the emissions from this sector....... Battery driven lift trucks are being used more and more in different companies to reduce their emissions. However, battery driven lift trucks need long time to recharge and may be out of work for a long time. Fuel cell driven lift trucks diminish this problem and are therefore getting more attention...

  17. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-19

    Feb 19, 2015 ... Drops moving on a substrate under the action of gravity display both rolling and sliding motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively studied. We are interested in intermediate shapes. We quantify the contribution of rolling ...

  18. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Drops moving on a substrate under the action of gravity display both rolling and sliding motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively studied. We are interested in intermediate shapes. We quantify the contribution of rolling motion ...

  19. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  20. Walk and roll robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A mobile robotic unit features a main body, a plurality of legs for supporting the main body on and moving the main body in forward and reverse directions about a base surface, and a drive assembly. According to an exemplary embodiment each leg includes a respective pivotal hip joint, a pivotal knee joint, and a wheeled foot adapted to roll along the base surface. Also according to an exemplary embodiments the drive assembly includes a motor operatively associated with the hip and knee joints and the wheeled foot for independently driving pivotal movement of the hip joint and the knee joint and rolling motion of the wheeled foot. The hip joint may include a ball-and-socket-type joint interconnecting top portion of the leg to the main body, such that the hip joint is adapted to pivot said leg in a direction transverse to a forward-and-reverse direction.

  1. Sygeplejerskens rolle i neurorehabilitering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina Skov; Lorentzen, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver en undersøgelse foretaget i 2008 omhandlende sygeplejerskers rolle i tværfaglige team i neurorehabilitering på hospitalet. Fund fra denne undersøgelse relateres til nyere undersøgelser og til de udfordringer, der er forbundet med at organisere neurorehabilitering i både hospitals...... for neurorehabilitering. I denne undersøgelse blev fokus at belyse, hvordan teamsamarbejdet har indvirkning på sygeplejerskers rolle i de tværfaglige team på en dansk neurorehabiliteringsafdeling. Metode: Interview med tre forskellige personalegrupper i de tværfaglige team: Sygeplejersker, social- og sundhedsassistenter...... hjerneskade. Søgeord: Interviewundersøgelse, neurorehabilitering, roller, tværfagligt samarbejde....

  2. 49 CFR 238.419 - Truck-to-car-body and truck component attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck-to-car-body and truck component attachment. 238.419 Section 238.419 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment ...

  3. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    pneumatically operated paste dumper and belt conveyor system , the loss in weight feeder system , the hydraulically operated shear roll mill, the pellet...out feed belt conveyor , and the pack out system comprised of the metal detector, scale, and pack out empty and full drum roller conveyors . Page | 4...process equipment sprinkler protection systems , and the 5 psig steam supply serving the building heating and make-up air systems . It also included

  4. Rolling bearing analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tedric A

    2001-01-01

    One of the most well-known experts in the field brings cutting-edge research to practitioners in the new edition of this important reference. Covers the improved mathematical calculations for rolling bearing endurance developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Lubrication and Tribology Engineers. Updated with new material on Condition-Based Maintenance, new testing methods, and new bearing materials.

  5. Impact of left lane truck restriction strategies on multilane highways in Louisiana : a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Truck lane restriction strategies (TLRS) are a means of managing truck traffic on highways by prohibiting trucks from using certain lanes to minimize interaction between trucks and other vehicles. The purpose of this study is to review the literature...

  6. Determination of residual stresses and natural frequencies of roll-tensioned disc by a dynamic simulation of the rolling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skordaris, G.; Bouzakis, K.-D.; Tasoulas, D.

    2017-02-01

    Roll tensioning is a common method for increasing locally the superficial strength of thin circular saws and in this way their dynamic stability. Through roll tensioning, residual stresses are induced into the disc material leading to a significant enhancement of its dynamic stiffness. In this paper, a FEM-methodology is proposed for determining the developed residual stresses in the discs after rolling and for investigating their effects on the circular saw natural frequencies. More specifically, a 3D-FEM model was developed for the dynamic simulation of the rolling process on circular saws, using the LS-DYNA software. This model enables the explicit determination of the developed residual stresses in the roll-tensioned discs. Furthermore, the natural frequencies of the pre-stressed circular saws were calculated by the ANSYS software. In these calculations, the already determined residual stresses were taken into consideration. Different distances of the roll-tensioned zone from the disc centre were taken into account for estimating their effect on the disc’s natural frequencies. By the proposed methodology, optimum roll-tensioning conditions can be predicted for improving the dynamic behaviour of thin circular saws during cutting.

  7. Heavy Truck Clean Diesel Cooperative Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milam, David

    2006-12-31

    This report is the final report for the Department of Energy on the Heavy Truck Engine Program (Contract No. DE-FC05-00OR22806) also known as Heavy Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program. Originally, this was scoped to be a $38M project over 5 years, to be 50/50 co-funded by DOE and Caterpillar. The program started in June 2000. During the program the timeline was extended to a sixth year. The program completed in December 2006. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate the technologies required to enable compliance with the 2007 and 2010 (0.2g/bhph NOx, 0.01g/bhph PM) on-highway emission standards for Heavy Duty Trucks in the US with improvements in fuel efficiency compared to today's engines. Thermal efficiency improvement from a baseline of 43% to 50% was targeted.

  8. DEFECTS SIMULATION OF ROLLING STRIP

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf Mišičko; Tibor Kvačkaj; Martin Vlado; Lucia Gulová; Miloslav Lupták; Jana Bidulská

    2009-01-01

    The defects in the continuous casting slabs can be developed or kept down in principle by rolling technology, especially depend to sort, size and distribution of primary defects, as well as used of rolling parameters. Scope of the article is on observation behavior artificial surface and undersurface defects (scores) without filler (surface defects) and filling by oxides and casting powder (subsurface defects). First phase of hot rolling process have been done by software simulation DEFORM 3D...

  9. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2008. 

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2008. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  10. Fuel Cell Hydroge Manifold for Lift Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Reducing CO2 emissions are getting more attention because of global warming. The transport sector which is responsible for a significant amount of emissions is going to reduce them due to new and upcoming regulations. Using fuel cells may be one way to help to reduce the emissions from this sector. Battery driven lift trucks are being used more and more in different companies to reduce their emissions. However, battery driven lift trucks need long time to recharge and may be out of work for a...

  11. Roll back malaria update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    This article presents the activities under WHO's Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program in Asia, particularly in Nepal, Indonesia, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and the Philippines. In India, the RBM program will start in 5 districts with a major malaria problem. A national committee has been formed by researchers, which will be able to provide operational and strategic support and research expertise in relation to malaria. In Bangladesh, the RBM program was initiated in the sparsely populated hill tract areas of Banderban and Chittagong where access to health care is very poor. At the district level, effective partnerships with private practitioners, politicians, community leaders, school teachers, the press and district Ministry of Health officials are operating to plan for rolling back malaria. In Myanmar, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Yunnan province of China, Vietnam, and Thailand, the focus of the RBM program was to move health care closer to the malaria-infected communities. WHO¿s Global Health Leadership Fellowship Programme, supported by the UN Foundation and Rockefeller Foundation, enables potential leaders to experience the work of UN agencies and contribute to the work of the organization for 2 years. Three out of four persons appointed to the RBM program received prestigious awards: Dr. Paola Marchesini of Brazil; Dr. Tieman Diarra of Mali; and Dr. Bob Taylor of the UK.

  12. Texture comparison between cold rolled and cryogenically rolled pure copper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapeire, L.; Sidor, J.; Martinez Lombardia, E.; Verbeken, K.; De Graeve, I.; Terryn, H.A.; Kestens, L.A.I.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a considerable scientific interest in bulk ultrafine grained materials, due to their potential for superior mechanical properties. One of the possible formation methods of nano-grained materials is cryogenic rolling. The influence of rolling at cryogenic temperatures has been

  13. Analysis of risk factors in severity of rural truck crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Trucks are a vital part of the logistics system in North Dakota. Recent energy developments have : generated exponential growth in the demand for truck services. With increased density of trucks in the : traffic mix, it is reasonable to expect some i...

  14. Diesel and Truck Certification Needs Assessment: Two Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, William A.

    Recommendations for the improvement of the diesel engine and truck components of the Hawaii state certification examination for automobile and truck mechanics were solicited from 14 major private businesses repairing heavy tractor rigs and/or diesel engines on Oahu and a statewide sample of 21 trucking firms and other companies making extensive…

  15. Stabilisation of Parametric Roll Resonance by Combined Speed and Fin Stabiliser Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Holden, Christian; Blanke, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    Parametric roll resonance on a ship is a condition where large roll motion develops rapidly in moderate head or following seas. The phenomenon is caused by bifurcation in the nonlinear equations of motion when a restoring moment is subject to periodic variation. This paper analyzes the stability ...

  16. Reducing Truck Emissions at Container Terminals in a Low Carbon Economy: Proposal of a Queueing-based Bi-Objective Model for Optimizing Truck Arrival Pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; GOVINDAN, Kannan; Golias, Mihalis M.

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a methodology to optimize truck arrival patterns to reduce emissions from idling truck engines at marine container terminals. A bi-objective model is developed minimizing both truck waiting times and truck arrival pattern change. The truck waiting time is estimated via...... a queueing network. Based on the waiting time, truck idling emissions are estimated. The proposed methodology is evaluated with a case study, where truck arrival rates vary over time. We propose a Genetic Algorithm based heuristic to solve the resulting problem. Result shows that, a small shift of truck...... arrivals can significantly reduce truck emissions, especially at the gate....

  17. 49 CFR 230.109 - Tender trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... five leaves in the entire spring pack broken; (2) A broken coil spring or saddle; (3) A coil spring... maximum clearance shall be 3/8 inch on each side for rear trucks and 3/4 inch on each side for front...

  18. INTRALOG, intelligent autonomous truck applications in Logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MSc Berry Gerrits; Dr. Frans Tillema; MMC A.F. Spruijt; MSc Leo Buning

    2016-01-01

    INTRALOG is a project, to better use of materials, there by leading to improvements for People (better safety, lower physical work load), Planet (lower emissions and energy/ fuel con started September 2015, in which Automated Guided Truck Applications will be developed. Automated systems typically

  19. Case Study: Natural Gas Regional Transport Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M.; Burnham, A.

    2016-08-01

    Learn about Ryder System, Inc.'s experience in deploying nearly 200 CNG and LNG heavy-duty trucks and construction and operation of L/CNG stations using ARRA funds. Using natural gas in its fleet, Ryder mitigated the effects of volatile fuel pricing and reduced lifecycle GHGs by 20% and petroleum by 99%.

  20. Light Truck Characteristics, Historical Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    The report is a description of the data about the physical, operating performance, and market characteristics of light trucks for the model years 1955 through 1977, which is stored on tape in DOT/TSC DEC System 10 computer system. Vehicles are report...

  1. Light Duty Truck Characteristics, Historical Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    The report is a collection of data concerning physical, operating, performance, and market characteristics of light duty trucks for the model years 1972 and 1975 thru 1977. The data is stored on tape in DOT/TSC DEC System 10 computer system. Informat...

  2. Computational design of rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively presents the computational design of rolling bearings dealing with many interdisciplinary difficult working fields. They encompass elastohydrodynamics (EHD), Hertzian contact theory, oil-film thickness in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), bearing dynamics, tribology of surface textures, fatigue failure mechanisms, fatigue lifetimes of rolling bearings and lubricating greases, Weibull distribution, rotor balancing, and airborne noises (NVH) in the rolling bearings. Furthermore, the readers are provided with hands-on essential formulas based on the up-to-date DIN ISO norms and helpful examples for computational design of rolling bearings. The topics are intended for undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical and material engineering, research scientists, and practicing engineers who want to understand the interactions between these working fields and to know how to design the rolling bearings for automotive industry and many other industries.

  3. Roll plus maneuver load alleviation control system designs for the active flexible wing wind-tunnel model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Douglas B.; Miller, Gerald D.; Klepl, Martin J.

    1991-01-01

    Three designs for controlling loads while rolling for the Active Flexible Wing (AFW) are discussed. The goal is to provide good roll control while simultaneously limiting the torsion and bending loads experienced by the wing. The first design uses Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR) modern control methods to control roll rate and torsional loads at four different wing locations. The second design uses a nonlinear surface command function to produce surface position commands as a function of current roll rate and commanded roll rate. The final design is a flutter suppression control system. This system stabilizes both symmetric and axisymmetric flutter modes of the AFW.

  4. Design and Manufacture of Heavy Truck Braking Spray Device Based on PLCS7-200

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuojun SONG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The braking effect is decreased rapidly in heavy truck when the temperature of braking friction plate reaches a certain value. The device measures the temperature of friction plate adopting a thermistor temperature sensor, put the temperature value into the PLC controller, compared with the selected temperature value, and the temperature of friction plate is controlled through controlling the open and close of electromagnetic valve of water supply. It has high stability, strong anti- interference ability and easy maintenance etc.

  5. Application of Roll-Isolated Inertial Measurement Units to the Instrumentation of Spinning Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEADER,MARK E.

    2000-12-01

    Roll-isolated inertial measurement units are developed at Sandia for use in the instrumentation, guidance, and control of rapidly spinning vehicles. Roll-isolation is accomplished by supporting the inertial instrument cluster (gyros and accelerometers) on a single gimbal, the axis of which is parallel to the vehicle's spin axis. A rotary motor on the gimbal is driven by a servo loop to null the roll gyro output, thus inertially stabilizing the gimbal and instrument cluster while the vehicle spins around it. Roll-isolation prevents saturation of the roll gyro by the high vehicle spin rate, and vastly reduces measurement errors arising from gyro scale factor and alignment uncertainties. Nine versions of Sandia-developed roll-isolated inertial measurement units have been flown on a total of 27 flight tests since 1972.

  6. The effect of mold materials on the overlay accuracy of a roll-to-roll imprinting system using UV LED illumination within a transparent mold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sungwoo; Kook, YunHo; Kim, ChulHo; Yoo, SoonSung; Park, Kwon-Shik; Kim, Seok-min; Kang, Shinill

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies on the roll-to-roll (R2R) imprinting process have reported achieving flexible electronics, improving the alignment accuracy in the overlay process of R2R imprinting is recognized as the biggest problem for the commercialization of this technology. For an overlay technique with high alignment accuracy, it is essential to develop a roll mold with high positional accuracy. In this study, a method for fabricating a roll mold with high positional accuracy is proposed by wrapping a thin glass substrate flexible mold around the transparent roll base, because it can provide higher mechanical strength and thermal stability than a conventional polymer substrate. To confirm the usability of the proposed process, the prepared roll mold was used to fabricate a test pattern of thin-film transistor backplane for a rollable display. The positional and overlay accuracy of the roll mold with the proposed thin glass substrate flexible mold were compared with the roll mold with a conventional polymer substrate flexible mold. Large-area transparent flexible molds with a size of 470  ×  370 mm were fabricated by an ultraviolet (UV) imprinting process on thin glass and polyethylene terephthalate substrates, and these flexible molds were wrapped around a roll base of 125 mm radius through a precision alignment process. After an anti-adhesion treatment and the wrapping process, the roll mold with the polymer substrate showed a ∼180 μ m positional error, whereas the thin glass substrate showed a ∼30 μ m positional error. After the overlay process using the R2R imprinting system with the alignment system, an average overlay error of ∼3 μ m was obtained when the thin glass flexible wrapped roll mold was used, whereas a ∼22 μ m overlay error was obtained when the polymer substrate flexible wrapped roll mold was used. (paper)

  7. Truck Rollover Characterization for Class-8 Tractor-Trailers Utilizing Standard Dual Tires and New-Generation Single Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capps, Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Knee, Bill [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Franzese, Oscar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Pollock, Paul [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Coleman, Daniel [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Janajreh, Ibrahim [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Haas, Steven [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Frey, Norm [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Law, Harry [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Johnson, Eric [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Lawson, Robert [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Petrolino, Joe [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Rice, Dave [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2005-07-30

    of the tests that are a part of this study was to understand how different elements (e.g., dual tires and wide-base, new-generation single tires, different trailer suspension types, etc.) affect the overall vehicle roll stability. Tilt-table tests were also performed to characterize the static rollover propensity if the tractor trailer. For all of the tests, the vehicle was loaded with ballast for a gross vehicle weight rating of 79,000 lbs., and the speeds were gradually increased so that wheel lift-off was experienced both visually and via instrumentation. A significant amount of data was collected on all maneuvers performed (1.2 Gigabytes of data from 45 data channels sampled at 0.01 sec) and information was also captured via videotaping (one camera inside the cabin and three others outside; plus one off-board camera). Due to a number of issues related to the sensors, and idiosyncrasies in the data itself, a statistically meaningful data set was not possible. However sufficient data was collected to demonstrate the trends and patterns in the heavy truck rollover phenomenon.

  8. Roll-to-roll printed resistive WORM memory on a flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppäniemi, Jaakko; Mattila, Tomi; Suhonen, Mika; Alastalo, Ari; Kololuoma, Terho

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication process and the operation characteristics of a fully roll-to-roll printed resistive write-once-read-many memory on a flexible substrate are presented. The low-voltage (<10 V) write operation of the memories from a high resistivity ‘0’ state to a low resistivity ‘1’ state is based on the rapid electrical sintering of bits containing silver nanoparticles. The bit ink is formulated by mixing two commercially available silver nanoparticle inks in order to tune the initial square resistance of the bits and to create a self-organized network of percolating paths. The electrical performance of the memories, including read and write characteristics, is described and the long-term stability of the less stable ‘0’ state is studied in different environmental conditions. The memories can find use in low-cost mass printing applications. (paper)

  9. Roll-to-roll printed resistive WORM memory on a flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppäniemi, Jaakko; Mattila, Tomi; Kololuoma, Terho; Suhonen, Mika; Alastalo, Ari

    2012-08-01

    The fabrication process and the operation characteristics of a fully roll-to-roll printed resistive write-once-read-many memory on a flexible substrate are presented. The low-voltage (memories from a high resistivity ‘0’ state to a low resistivity ‘1’ state is based on the rapid electrical sintering of bits containing silver nanoparticles. The bit ink is formulated by mixing two commercially available silver nanoparticle inks in order to tune the initial square resistance of the bits and to create a self-organized network of percolating paths. The electrical performance of the memories, including read and write characteristics, is described and the long-term stability of the less stable ‘0’ state is studied in different environmental conditions. The memories can find use in low-cost mass printing applications.

  10. Development of polymers for large scale roll-to-roll processing of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert

    . The research field of polymer solar cells (PSCs) is rapidly progressing along three lines: Improvement of efficiency and stability together with the introduction of large scale production methods. All three lines are explored in this work. The thesis describes low band gap polymers and why these are needed......Development of polymers for large scale roll-to-roll processing of polymer solar cells Conjugated polymers potential to both absorb light and transport current as well as the perspective of low cost and large scale production has made these kinds of material attractive in solar cell research....... Polymer of this type display broader absorption resulting in better overlap with the solar spectrum and potentially higher current density. Synthesis, characterization and device performance of three series of polymers illustrating how the absorption spectrum of polymers can be manipulated synthetically...

  11. Brachistochrone for a rolling cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeza, V. P.

    2010-02-01

    The motion of a heavy homogeneous cylinder is considered as a no-slip rolling along the desired curve. We obtain a functional in the form of the total time of the cylinder rolling and solve the corresponding variational problem of minimizing this functional. We obtain an algebraic equation for the directional line of steepest descent, brachistochrone, in parametric form. We use the equation of motion of the cylinder with constraint reaction to determine the conditions of implementation of its pure rolling without separation and slip with respect to the brachistochrone.

  12. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  13. The Effects of Silica/Carbon Black Ratio on the Dynamic Properties of the Tread compounds in Truck Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Zafarmehrabian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available NR is the major constituent in the rubber compound used for the tread on the truck tires. A general compound formulation of the tire tread includes NR and BR as polymer base and carbon black as the reinforcing filler, and curative components. In this paper the effects of dual filler system (carbon black and precipitated silica on the dynamic properties of tire treat has been studied. The results show by increasing of precipitated silica, significant improvement was observed in fatigue resistance, rolling resistance and heat buildup of the tire. Tensile strength and modulus and wet grip of tire tread decrease with increasing of silica in rubber compound formulation.

  14. Continuous roll-to-roll amorphous-silicon photovoltaic manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izu, M.

    1994-11-01

    This report describes work done in Phase 2 of a 3-year project to advance Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. (ECD), roll-to-roll, triple-junction photovoltaic manufacturing technologies, to reduce the module production costs, to increase the stabilized module performance, and to expand the commercial capacity utilizing ECD technology. Major accomplishments in Phase 2 include: (1) designing, constructing and completing the initial optimization of a 200-kW multi-purpose continuous roll-to-roll amorphous silicon (a-Si) alloy solar cell deposition machine; (2) designing and constructing a serpentine deposition chamber that will be used to demonstrate a compact, low-cost deposition machine design with improved throughput and gas utilization factor; (3) demonstrating greater than or equal to 8.3% initial small-area efficiency a-Si-alloy devices with an intrinsic a-Si layer deposited using serpentine technology in the initial start-up experiment; (4) developing a new back-reflector evaluation technique using Photothermal Defection Spectroscopy (PDS) to analyze the optical losses of textured back-reflector; (5) developing an improved textured Ag/ZnO back-reflector system demonstrating a 26% gain in short-circuit current density over the previous textured Al back-reflector system; (6) demonstrating the long-term stability of ECD's 0.3 m x 1.2 m (1 ft x 4 ft) production module; (7) developing a new grid/bus-bar design utilizing thin wire grids to improve the efficiency by approximately 3% to 4% and reduce the grid/bus-bar cost by about 50%; and (8) achieving accumulative material cost reduction of 56%.

  15. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Roll-to-Roll Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datskos, Panos G [ORNL; Joshi, Pooran C [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Jacobs, Christopher B [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL; Moon, Ji Won [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    This Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)e roll-to-roll processing effort described in this report provided an excellent opportunity to investigate a number of advanced manufacturing approaches to achieve a path for low cost devices and sensors. Critical to this effort is the ability to deposit thin films at low temperatures using nanomaterials derived from nanofermentation. The overarching goal of this project was to develop roll-to-roll manufacturing processes of thin film deposition on low-cost flexible substrates for electronics and sensor applications. This project utilized ORNL s unique Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP) technologies coupled with non-vacuum low temperature deposition techniques, ORNL s clean room facility, slot dye coating, drop casting, spin coating, screen printing and several other equipment including a Dimatix ink jet printer and a large-scale Kyocera ink jet printer. The roll-to-roll processing project had three main tasks: 1) develop and demonstrate zinc-Zn based opto-electronic sensors using low cost nanoparticulate structures manufactured in a related MDF Project using nanofermentation techniques, 2) evaluate the use of silver based conductive inks developed by project partner NovaCentrix for electronic device fabrication, and 3) demonstrate a suite of low cost printed sensors developed using non-vacuum deposition techniques which involved the integration of metal and semiconductor layers to establish a diverse sensor platform technology.

  16. Roll-to-roll production of organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrich, C.; Weiß, A.; Pfeiffer, M.

    2017-08-01

    We report on high efficient multi-junction small-molecule organic p-i-n solar cells with an efficiency of up to 13.2% efficiency with an active area of 1.1 cm² from our labs. Furthermore, we discuss in detail the photon loss mechanisms of triple stacked solar cells of 12.5% efficiency by means of IPCE measurements in combination with an optical model. Additionally, we report about the latest findings from our fully integrated roll-to-roll vacuum production process of smallmolecule organic p-i-n tandem solar cells. Modules from Heliatek's roll-to-roll production show efficiencies of 7.7% on the active area of 4629cm2 with a fill factor of 66%. Modules from production were analyzed via IPCE-measurement showing a good agreement with the optical calculation mentioned above. This shows that organic layer sequences developed, tested, and analyzed on a lab tool were successfully transferred to a roll to roll vacuum machine.

  17. Rolling Process Modeling Report: Finite-Element Prediction of Roll Separating Force and Rolling Defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulami, Ayoub [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Paxton, Dean M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burkes, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-04-23

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been investigating manufacturing processes for the uranium-10% molybdenum (U-10Mo) alloy plate-type fuel for the U.S. high-performance research reactors. This work supports the Convert Program of the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative. This report documents modeling results of PNNL’s efforts to perform finite-element simulations to predict roll separating forces and rolling defects. Simulations were performed using a finite-element model developed using the commercial code LS-Dyna. Simulations of the hot rolling of U-10Mo coupons encapsulated in low-carbon steel have been conducted following two different schedules. Model predictions of the roll-separation force and roll-pack thicknesses at different stages of the rolling process were compared with experimental measurements. This report discusses various attributes of the rolled coupons revealed by the model (e.g., dog-boning and thickness non-uniformity).

  18. Holonic fleet scheduling with TeleTruck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürckert, Hans-Jürgen; Fischer, Klaus; Vierke, Gero

    1999-03-01

    In this paper we describe the TeleTruck approach for multi-agent fleet scheduling. In close collaboration with a forwarding company we developed a multiagent system with holonic agents that will support dispatch officers in transport scheduling. The system is capable of handling real-world requirements like dynamics and uncertainty. Holonic agents are agents which are composed of sub-agents acting in a corporate way. We give a brief overview of the current state of the TeleTruck application prototype. We discuss requirements of communication, coordination, and resource control that distinguish holonic from common multiagent systems and we show, how we integrated these concepts with the three-layered agent architecture INTERRAP, in order to result in a smooth implementation of a dispatch support system.

  19. DETERMINATION OF THE LOADS POSITION ON TRUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Chagoyén-Méndez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we presented the main problems that entail an inadequate distribution of loads on trucks and we described in detail a methodology for determining the proper position, which concludes with the completion of the installation diagrams. The methodology was obtained from the solution of the particular case of a tank of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG of 14'000 liter on a DAF CF 75.310 truck. Another result of this work is a software which allows to determine the exact position it should be the gravity center of the load relative to the front axle and the reactions on each axis, with the possibility of evaluating different variants.

  20. Dump truck-related deaths in construction, 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Michael; Cheng, Mei-Tai

    2012-05-01

    Dump trucks are universally used in construction and other industries to haul materials to the location and to remove waste materials. The source for dump truck-related fatality data was the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) Research File. From 1992 to 2007, 829 construction workers were killed in dump truck-related incidents nationwide. Of those, 336 were dump truck operators with 215 deaths occurring in street and highway incidents. Another 343 deaths involved workers on foot, three-quarters struck by dump trucks. Sixty-four of the construction workers killed were maintaining dump trucks, 22 when caught between the truck frame and a falling dump truck bed. Of the 86 other deaths, 55 involved streets and highways. Recommendations include: (i) improving the reporting of seat belt usage in fatality reports; (ii) requiring use of seat belts; (iii) requiring the use of backup alarms, spotters, or other methods to alert dump truck operators to workers in their blind spots; (iv) prohibiting direct dumping at river banks and embankments; (v) using cameras or radar to enforce stopping at railway crossings; and (xi) enforcing worker safety practices (e.g., lockout/tagout procedures on elevated dump truck beds). Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Systematics of constant roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguelova, Lilia; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2018-02-01

    We study constant roll inflation systematically. This is a regime, in which the slow roll approximation can be violated. It has long been thought that this approximation is necessary for agreement with observations. However, recently it was understood that there can be inflationary models with a constant, and not necessarily small, rate of roll that are both stable and compatible with the observational constraint ns ≈ 1. We investigate systematically the condition for such a constant-roll regime. In the process, we find a whole new class of inflationary models, in addition to the known solutions. We show that the new models are stable under scalar perturbations. Finally, we find a part of their parameter space, in which they produce a nearly scale-invariant scalar power spectrum, as needed for observational viability.

  2. Prospects of development of land driverless trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmutov, S.; Saykin, A.; Endachev, D.; Evgrafov, V.; Shagurin, A.; Kulikov, I.; Fedoseev, K.

    2018-02-01

    The paper is dedicated to the problem of creation and efficient use of driverless trucks. It also contains general analysis of foreign experience and development trends. The concept of FSUE “NAMI” for development of a platoon of driverless trucks for cargo transportation between specialized terminals on public roads is provided. A road train with virtual couplings where the lead vehicle has a driver and the rest are driverless is proposed as a base for the driverless platoon. The platoon is formed by such road trains, which ensures extended functional features, including the possibility to form platoons of road trains from different logistics centers and with different destinations, quick reforming of the platoon in the logistics centers, possibility to split the platoon when driving on public roads, higher precision of control over the platoon during driving, etc. It is also shown that in order to improve the efficiency of cargo transportation, driverless cargo platforms (trucks) shall be designed without a cabin. The paper also considers the ways to reduce the price of driverless trucks by creating a special road infrastructure, which will allow transfer of the most expensive subsystems of driverless vehicles to such infrastructure. Upon that, the following subsystems will remain within the driverless chassis: navigation, communication, chassis control and ADAS. It is noted that creation of such infrastructure will require high investments, therefore, gradual implementation of such systems is seen as rational. It is shown that the most appropriate area for these purposes is transregional cargo transportation. It is noted that the economic reasons for implementation of the proposed concept are as follows: significant reduction of the number of drivers; significant simplification of the driverless platform control system and reduction of the price of subsystems; no need for the driver’s cabin within the driverless platform; fuel economy when driving within a

  3. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Lugt, Piet M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  4. Rolling Resistance Measurement and Model Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Grinderslev; Larsen, Jesper; Fraser, Elsje Sophia

    2015-01-01

    There is an increased focus worldwide on understanding and modeling rolling resistance because reducing the rolling resistance by just a few percent will lead to substantial energy savings. This paper reviews the state of the art of rolling resistance research, focusing on measuring techniques......, surface and texture modeling, contact models, tire models, and macro-modeling of rolling resistance...

  5. Body roll in swimming: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psycharakis, Stelios G; Sanders, Ross H

    2010-02-01

    In this article, we present a critical review of the swimming literature on body roll, for the purposes of summarizing and highlighting existing knowledge, identifying the gaps and limitations, and stimulating further research. The main research findings can be summarized as follows: swimmers roll their shoulders significantly more than their hips; swimmers increase hip roll but maintain shoulder roll when fatigued; faster swimmers roll their shoulders less than slower swimmers during a 200-m swim; roll asymmetries, temporal differences in shoulder roll and hip roll, and shoulder roll side dominance exist in front crawl swimming, but there is no evidence to suggest that they affect swimming performance; and buoyancy contributes strongly to generating body roll in front crawl swimming. Based on and stimulated by current knowledge, future research should focus on the following areas: calculation of body roll for female swimmers and for backstroke swimming; differences in body roll between breathing and non-breathing cycles; causes of body roll asymmetries and their relation to motor laterality; body roll analysis across a wide range of velocities and swimming distances; exploration of the association between body roll and the magnitude and direction of propulsive/resistive forces developed during the stroke cycle; and the influence of kicking actions on the generation of body roll.

  6. Reducing truck emissions at container terminals in a low carbon economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, G.; Govindan, Kannan; Golias, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a methodology to optimize truck arrival patterns to reduce emissions from idling truck engines at marine container terminals. A bi-objective model is developed minimizing both truck waiting times and truck arrival pattern change. The truck waiting time is estimated via...... a queueing network. Based on the waiting time, truck idling emissions are estimated. The proposed methodology is evaluated with a case study, where truck arrival rates vary over time. We propose a Genetic Algorithm based heuristic to solve the resulting problem. Result shows that, a small shift of truck...... arrivals can significantly reduce truck emissions, especially at the gate....

  7. COMPETITIVE PRESSURE SYSTEMS MAPPING IN THE BRAZILIAN TRUCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Costa da Cruz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The automotive business in Brazil achieved 10% of the industry revenue and 6% of the formal employment by 2008. The commercial vehicle segment concentrated so far eight truck makers that experienced their best market figures in 2008, the economy crisis in 2009, and an extraordinary recovery in 2010. Government tax reduction programs as well as special financing incentives were undoubtedly decisive to re-stimulate the business during the crisis. Positive Brazilian perspectives with the boom in the agricultural, oil and gas, mining and infrastructure activities plus the coming sports events call the attention of new players that are quickly implementing different business strategies to become part of the game. New emission regulations starting from 2012 also bring uncertainties, challenges and opportunities. With the growing globalization and market concentration it's critical for any industry understand and minimize the forces of competitive pressures. The main goal of this paper, therefore, is to contribute to the academy with an alternative approach of strategic and behavioral analysis of rivalry and competition different than the five forces model of Porter. Ford, Iveco, MAN, Mercedes-Benz, Scania and Volvo were assessed from 2008 to 2010 within three main performance indicators – unit sales, gross revenues and operating profits – supporting the elaboration of the competitive pressure systems mapping model of D'aveni, including a hypothetical future scenario with a new entrant and the potential impacts in the system. Main findings and results portray the asymmetrical strategic behavior of competitors and the temporary dynamic stability in the Brazilian truck industry.

  8. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS IN TRUCK COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Kaselyova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Design of experiment (DOE represent very powerful tool for process improvement vastly supported by six sigma methodology. This approach is mostly used by large and manufacturing orientated companies. Presented research is focused on use of DOE in truck company, which is medium size and service orientated. Such study has several purposes. Firstly, detailed description of improvement effort based on DOE can be used as a methodological framework for companies similar to researched one. Secondly, it provides example of successfully implemented low cost design of experiment practise. Moreover, performed experiment identifies key factors, which influence the lifetime of truck tyres.Design/methodology: The research in this paper is based on experiment conducted in Slovakian Truck Company. It provides detailed case study of whole improvement effort, together with problem formulation, design creation and analysis, as well as the results interpretation. The company wants to improve lifetime of the truck tyres. Next to fuel consumption, consumption of tyres and their replacement represent according to them, one of most costly processes in company. Improvement effort was made through the use of PDCA cycle. It start with analysis of current state of tyres consumption. The variability of tyres consumption based on years and types was investigated. Then the causes of tyres replacement were identified and screening DOE was conducted. After a screening design, the full factorial design of experiment was used to identify main drivers of tyres deterioration and breakdowns. Based on result of DOE, the corrective action were propose and implement.Findings: Based on performed experiment our research describes process of tyres use and replacement. It defines main reasons for tyre breakdown and identify main drivers which influence truck tyres lifetime. Moreover it formulates corrective action to prolong tyres lifetime.Originality: The study represents full

  9. Adaptive Virtual Tow Bar and Transition of Control : A truck driving simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, E.S.; Willemsen, D.M.C.; Hogema, J.H.; Martens, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Background : Truck platooning, with trucks being virtually connected, is getting more and more attention. Truck platooning offers the potential for substantial fuel savings while allowing the truck driver in the platoon to take a rest. However, at the current state of technology, truck drivers are

  10. Noise exposure of truck drivers: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heever, D J; Roets, F J

    1996-06-01

    To investigate the extent of noise exposure to which truck drivers are subjected, a comparison was made of the noise levels in the cabs of two different brands of trucks. Both brands were manufactured with identical engines. The equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure levels, maximum sound pressure levels, and percentage noise dose were determined. This study sought to determine if truck drivers are exposed to excessive noise inside the cabs of these trucks. Furthermore, the most beneficial working environment in terms of the brand used was investigated. No significant differences regarding the individual noise exposure of the truck drivers were found (P > 0.05). Based on comparison of measured noise exposures to existing criteria, it was determined that the noise exposures of truck drivers are potentially hazardous to their hearing.

  11. A LQR-Based Controller with Estimation of Road Bank for Improving Vehicle Lateral and Rollover Stability via Active Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Riofrio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR lateral stability and rollover controller has been developed including as the main novelty taking into account the road bank angle and using exclusively active suspension for both lateral stability and rollover control. The main problem regarding the road bank is that it cannot be measured by means of on-board sensors. The solution proposed in this article is performing an estimation of this variable using a Kalman filter. In this way, it is possible to distinguish between the road disturbance component and the vehicle’s roll angle. The controller’s effectiveness has been tested by means of simulations carried out in TruckSim, using an experimentally-validated vehicle model. Lateral load transfer, roll angle, yaw rate and sideslip angle have been analyzed in order to quantify the improvements achieved on the behavior of the vehicle. For that purpose, these variables have been compared with the results obtained from both a vehicle that uses passive suspension and a vehicle using a fuzzy logic controller.

  12. A LQR-Based Controller with Estimation of Road Bank for Improving Vehicle Lateral and Rollover Stability via Active Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riofrio, Andres; Sanz, Susana; Boada, Maria Jesus L; Boada, Beatriz L

    2017-10-13

    In this article, a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) lateral stability and rollover controller has been developed including as the main novelty taking into account the road bank angle and using exclusively active suspension for both lateral stability and rollover control. The main problem regarding the road bank is that it cannot be measured by means of on-board sensors. The solution proposed in this article is performing an estimation of this variable using a Kalman filter. In this way, it is possible to distinguish between the road disturbance component and the vehicle's roll angle. The controller's effectiveness has been tested by means of simulations carried out in TruckSim, using an experimentally-validated vehicle model. Lateral load transfer, roll angle, yaw rate and sideslip angle have been analyzed in order to quantify the improvements achieved on the behavior of the vehicle. For that purpose, these variables have been compared with the results obtained from both a vehicle that uses passive suspension and a vehicle using a fuzzy logic controller.

  13. Thermal stress for all-ceramics rolls used in molten metal to produce stable high quality galvanized steel sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Nao-Aki; Yamada, Masahiro; Sano, Yoshikazu; Sugiyama, Shigetada; Kobayashi, Shoichi

    2008-01-01

    The zinc coated steel sheet has been mostly used for automobile and other industries because of its high corrosion resistance. This paper deals with the development of new ceramics support roll used for a continuous galvanizing pot to manufacture stable galvanizing steel sheet. Usually stainless steel rolls coated by tungsten carbide are used to support and stabilize the strip in a continuous galvanizing pot, which is filled with molten zinc. However, corrosion and abrasion arise on the roll ...

  14. Improving truck safety: Potential of weigh-in-motion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Jacob

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Trucks exceeding the legal mass limits increase the risk of traffic accidents and damage to the infrastructure. They also result in unfair competition between transport modes and companies. It is therefore important to ensure truck compliance to weight regulation. New technologies are being developed for more efficient overload screening and enforcement. Weigh-in-Motion (WIM technologies allow trucks to be weighed in the traffic flow, without any disruption to operations. Much progress has been made recently to improve and implement WIM systems, which can contribute to safer and more efficient operation of trucks.

  15. Truck Essential Power Systems Efficiency Improvements for Medium-Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Slone; Jeffrey Birkel

    2007-12-31

    With a variety of hybrid vehicles available in the passenger car market, electric technologies and components of that scale are becoming readily available. Commercial vehicle segments have lagged behind passenger car markets, leaving opportunities for component and system development. Escalating fuel prices impact all markets and provide motivation for OEMs, suppliers, customers, and end-users to seek new techniques and technologies to deliver reduced fuel consumption. The research presented here specifically targets the medium-duty (MD), Class 4-7, truck market with technologies aimed at reducing fuel consumption. These technologies could facilitate not only idle, but also parasitic load reductions. The development efforts here build upon the success of the More Electric Truck (MET) demonstration program at Caterpillar Inc. Employing a variety of electric accessories, the MET demonstrated the improvement seen with such technologies on a Class 8 truck. The Truck Essential Power Systems Efficiency Improvements for Medium-Duty Trucks (TEPS) team scaled the concepts and successes of MET to a MD chassis. The team designed an integrated starter/generator (ISG) package and energy storage system (ESS), explored ways to replace belt and gear-driven accessory systems, and developed supervisory control algorithms to direct the usage of the generated electricity and system behavior on the vehicle. All of these systems needed to fit within the footprint of a MD vehicle and be compatible with the existing conventional systems to the largest extent possible. The overall goal of this effort was to demonstrate a reduction in fuel consumption across the drive cycle, including during idle periods, through truck electrification. Furthermore, the team sought to evaluate the benefits of charging the energy storage system during vehicle braking. The vehicle features an array of electric accessories facilitating on-demand, variable actuation. Removal of these accessories from the belt or

  16. Video analysis of rolling cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phommarach, S.; Wattanakasiwich, P.; Johnston, I.

    2012-03-01

    In this work, we studied the rolling motion of solid and hollow cylinders down an inclined plane at different angles. The motions were captured on video at 300 frames s - 1, and the videos were analyzed frame by frame using video analysis software. Data from the real motion were compared with the theory of rolling down an inclined plane without slipping. From the experiment, the acceleration does not depend on the cylinder mass as indicated from the theory. For the wood-steel surface, we found that the coefficient of static friction was equal to 0.131 and the critical angle for the solid cylinder was 21.45°. The critical angle for the hollow cylinder depends on the inner and outer radius of the cylinder. Motion paths of a point on the hollow cylinder at small and large angles were shown to elucidate the pure rolling condition. Finally, we demonstrated that total mechanical energy was conserved during the pure rolling motion. This confirms that work done by the friction force is zero. We will use these results to design an interactive lecture demonstration on rolling without slipping.

  17. Potential air toxics hot spots in truck terminals and cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J; Davis, Mary E; Hart, Jaime E; Blicharz, Andrew; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric

    2012-12-01

    Hot spots are areas where concentrations of one or more air toxics--organic vapors or particulate matter (PM)--are expected to be elevated. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA*) screening values for air toxics were used in our definition of hot spots. According to the EPA, a screening value "is used to indicate a concentration of a chemical in the air to which a person could be continually exposed for a lifetime ... and which would be unlikely to result in a deleterious effect (either cancer or noncancer health effects)" (U.S. EPA 2006). Our characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs; namely 18 hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether [MTBE], acetone, and aldehydes) was added onto our ongoing National Cancer Institute-funded study of lung cancer and particulate pollutant concentrations (PM with an aerodynamic diameter highways. In Phase 1 of our study, 15 truck terminals across the United States were each visited for five consecutive days. During these site visits, sorbent tubes were used to collect 12-hour integrated samples of hydrocarbons and aldehydes from upwind and downwind fence-line locations as well as inside truck cabs. Meteorologic data and extensive site information were collected with each sample. In Phase 2, repeat visits to six terminals were conducted to test the stability of concentrations across time and judge the representativeness of our previous measurements. During the repeat site visits, the sampling procedure was expanded to include real-time sampling for total hydrocarbon (HC) and PM2.5 at the terminal upwind and downwind sites and inside the truck cabs, two additional monitors in the yard for four-quadrant sampling to better characterize the influence of wind, and indoor sampling in the loading dock and mechanic shop work areas. Mean and median concentrations of VOCs across the sampling locations in and around the truck terminals showed significant variability in the upwind concentrations as well as in the intensity of

  18. Investigation of the influence of vertical force on the contact between truck tyre and road using finite element analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisescu, Alexandra-Raluca; Anghelache, Gabriel

    2017-10-01

    In the modern context of automobile integration with the emerging technologies of the interconnected society, the interaction between tyre and road is an element of major importance for automobile safety systems such as the intelligent tyres, as well as for passenger comfort, fuel economy, environmental protection, infrastructure and vehicle durability. The tyre-road contact generates the distribution of forces exerted on each unit area in the contact patch, therefore the distribution of contact stresses on three orthogonal directions. The numerical investigation of stresses distribution in the contact patch requires the development of finite element models capable of accurately describing the interaction between tyre and rolling surface. The complex finite element model developed for the 11R22.5 truck tyre has been used for investigating the influence of vertical force on the distributions of contact stresses. In addition to these contributions, the paper presents aspects related to the simulation of truck tyre radial stiffness. The influence of tyre rolling has not been taken into consideration, as the purpose of the current research is the investigation of tyre-road contact in stationary conditions.

  19. The Control of Welding Deformation of the Three-Section Arm of Placing Boom of HB48B Pump Truck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-ling

    2018-02-01

    The concrete pump truck is the construction equipment of conveying concrete with self contained base plate and distributing boom. It integrates the pump transport mechanism of the concrete pump, and the hydraulic roll-folding type distributing boom used to distribute materials, and the supporting mechanism into the automobile chassis, and it is the concrete conveying equipment with high efficient and the functions of driving, pumping, and distributing materials. The placing boom of the concrete pump truck is the main force member in the pump parts with bearing great pressure, and its stress condition is complex. Taking the HB48B placing boom as an example, this paper analyzes and studies the deformation produced by placing boom of pump truck, and then obtains some main factors affecting the welding deformation. Through the riveter “joint” size, we controlled the process parameters, post-welding processing, and other aspects. These measures had some practical significance to prevent, control, and reduce the deformation of welding.

  20. Modernization of dump truck onboard system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, M. A.; Bolshunova, O. M.; Korzhev, A. A.; Kamyshyan, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The review of the only automated dispatch system for the career dump trucks, which is presented in the domestic market, was made. A method for upgrading the loading control system and technological weighing process of the career dump was proposed. The cargo weight during loading is determined by the gas pressure in the suspension cylinders at the time of the oscillation ending and at the start of the vibration smoothing process; the smoothing speed correction is performed. The error of the cargo weighting is 2.5-3%, and of the technological weighing process during driving - 1%, which corresponds to the error level of the steady-state weighting means.

  1. Robust Rudder Roll Damping Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, C.

    -infinity theory is used to deal with the problem. The necessary mathematical tools and the H-Infinity theory as the basis of controller design are presented in Chapter 2 and 3. The mu synthesis and the D-K iteration are introduced in Chapter 3. The ship dynamics and modeling technology are discussed in Chapter 4......The results of a systematic research to solve a specific ship motion control problem, simultaneous roll damping and course keeping using the rudder are presented in this thesis. The fundamental knowledge a priori is that rudder roll damping is highly sensitive to the model uncertainty, therefore H......, two kinds of ship model have been obtained: linear ship model used for designing the controller and nonlinear model used for simulation. The ship model uncertainty is discussed in this chapter and so is a wave model because the ship's roll motion is caused by waves. Using an unstructured model...

  2. Effect of cryo-rolling and annealing on microstructure and properties of commercially pure aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangaraju, Nikhil [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Raghuram, T. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Krishna, B. Vamsi [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)]. E-mail: vamsi23@yahoo.com; Rao, K. Prasad [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Venugopal, P. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2005-05-25

    Influence of cryo-rolling reduction and annealing of commercially pure (CP) Al is evaluated in four aspects: microstructure, mechanical properties, electrical conductivity and general corrosion. It is shown that by selecting optimal cryo-rolling reduction and subsequent annealing condition result in ultrafine grains in CP Al with good combination of high strength and ductility. Electrical conductivity of the cryo-rolled samples decreased due to increased number of the electron scattering centers (lattice defects and grain boundary area). However, optimization of cryo-rolling and annealing treatment could restore the conductivity coupled with high strength in CP Al. Corrosion behaviour of cryo-rolled CP Al improved after annealing treatment. High dissolution rate and low thermal stability of the ultrafine grain structure could override the anticipated advantage of uniform corrosion in ultrafine grain CP Al.

  3. Hot rolling of thick uranium molybdenum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMint, Amy L.; Gooch, Jack G.

    2015-11-17

    Disclosed herein are processes for hot rolling billets of uranium that have been alloyed with about ten weight percent molybdenum to produce cold-rollable sheets that are about one hundred mils thick. In certain embodiments, the billets have a thickness of about 7/8 inch or greater. Disclosed processes typically involve a rolling schedule that includes a light rolling pass and at least one medium rolling pass. Processes may also include reheating the rolling stock and using one or more heavy rolling passes, and may include an annealing step.

  4. DEFECTS SIMULATION OF ROLLING STRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Mišičko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The defects in the continuous casting slabs can be developed or kept down in principle by rolling technology, especially depend to sort, size and distribution of primary defects, as well as used of rolling parameters. Scope of the article is on observation behavior artificial surface and undersurface defects (scores without filler (surface defects and filling by oxides and casting powder (subsurface defects. First phase of hot rolling process have been done by software simulation DEFORM 3D setting to the limited condition for samples with surface defects. Samples of material with low-carbon steel of sizes h x b x l have been chosen and the surface defects shape „U” and „V” of scores have been injected artificially by software. The process of rolling have been simulated on the deformation temperatures 1200°C and 900°C, whereas on the both of this deformation temperatures have been applied amount of deformation 10 and 50 %. With respect to the process of computer simulation, it is not possible to truthful real oxidation condition (physical – chemical process during heat of metal, in the second phase of our investigation have been observed influence of oxides and casting powders inside the scores for a defect behavior in plastic deformation process (hot and cold rolling process in laboratory condition. The basic material was STN steel class 11 375, cladding material was steel on the bases C-Mn-Nb-V. Scores have been filled by scales to get from the heating temperatures (1100°C a 1250°C, varied types of casting powders, if you like mixture of scale and casting powders in the rate 1:4. The joint of the basic and cladding material have been done by peripheral welded joint. Experiment results from both phases are pointed on the evolution of original typology defects in rolling process.

  5. Design and fabrication of a multipurpose railroad hand truck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multipurpose railroad hand truck comprising mainly of a frame, swinger arm, connecting rod, crank shaft, gears, wheels and brake was designed and fabricated to reduce the cost of material handling in small scaled manufacturing industries. The frame and other major components of the hand truck were fabricated with ...

  6. Truck Route Choice Modeling using Large Streams of GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-31

    The primary goal of this research was to use large streams of truck-GPS data to analyze travel routes (or paths) chosen by freight trucks to travel between different origin and destination (OD) location pairs in metropolitan regions of Florida. Two s...

  7. 29 CFR 1910.178 - Powered industrial trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... section does not apply to compressed air or nonflammable compressed gas-operated industrial trucks, nor to farm vehicles, nor to vehicles intended primarily for earth moving or over-the-road hauling. (2) All..., except for vehicles intended primarily for earth moving or over-the-road hauling. (3) Approved trucks...

  8. Optimising Shovel-Truck Fuel Consumption using Stochastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimising the fuel consumption and truck waiting time can result in significant fuel savings. The paper demonstrates that stochastic simulation is an effective tool for optimising the utilisation of fossil-based fuels in mining and related industries. Keywords: Stochastic, Simulation Modelling, Mining, Optimisation, Shovel-Truck ...

  9. Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K. [Battelle (US); Norton, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Clark, N. [West Virginia University (US)

    2001-01-25

    Waste Management, Inc., began operating a fleet of heavy-duty LNG refuse trucks at its Washington, Pennsylvania, facility. The objective of the project was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

  10. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a...

  11. The effect of roll with passive segment on the planetary rolling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Ling Zeng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In three-roll planetary rolling process, there is secondary torsion phenomenon that may lead to rolling instability. This article proposed a new idea to alleviate the secondary torsion phenomenon by dividing the secondary torsion segment out of the roll as an independent and passive one. To study the performance of the roll with passive segment, the three-dimensional finite element models of planetary rolling process using actual roll or new roll with passive segment involving elastic–plastic and thermal–mechanical coupling were established by the software ABAQUS/Explicit, and a series of analysis had been done successfully. The rolling temperature and rolling force of planetary mill were in good agreement with the measured results, which indicated that the finite element method would supply important reference merit for three-dimensional thermo-mechanical simulation of the three-roll planetary rolling process. Comparing the simulation results of the two models, the results indicated that the change in the roll structure had just a little influence on the metal deformation, temperature, and rolling force, but it lessened the secondary torsion deformation effectively and improved the outside roundness of the rolled tube slightly. The research provided a new idea for the roll design of three-roll planetary mill (PSW.

  12. The effect of see-through truck on driver monitoring patterns and responses to critical events in truck platooning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, B.; Wilschut, E.S.; Willemsen, D.M.C.; Alkim, T.; Martens, M.H.

    2018-01-01

    Automated platooning of trucks has its beneficial effects on energy saving and traffic flow efficiency. The vehicles in a platoon, however, need to maintain an extremely short headway to achieve these goals, which will result in a heavily blocked front view for the driver in a following truck.

  13. Numerical analysis of viscous effect on ship rolling motions based on CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO Tian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During the ship design procedure, the analysis of ship rolling motions is of great significance because the rolling motions have extraordinary effects on the sea-keeping, maneuverability and stability of a ship. It is difficult to simulate rolling motions due to the effect of viscosity, which causes many nonlinear components in computation. As such, the potential theory used for other ship motions cannot be used for rolling motions. This paper simulates the rolling motions of the DTMB 5512 ship model and the ship transverse section of the S60 ship model with a naoe-FOAM-SJTU solver using the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes(RANSmethod based on the OpenFOAM. The results of rolling motions are compared with the experimental data, which confirms the reliability of the meshes and results. For the ship transverse section of the S60 ship model, the damping coefficient is divided into three parts with the Euler and RANS methods:friction, vorticity and wave parts. For the DTMB 5512 ship model, the damping coefficient is also respectively analyzed, including the friction, vorticity, wave and bilge keel parts. The results in this paper show that the vorticity part accounts for the greatest proportion, while the friction part accounts for the least, and the bilge keels reduces the damping moment to a certain extent which shows the effect of rolling parameters on rolling motions and moments.

  14. Maintenance Appointments in Railway Rolling Stock Rescheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Wagenaar (Joris); L.G. Kroon (Leo); M.E. Schmidt (Marie)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses the Rolling Stock Rescheduling Problem (RSRP), while taking maintenance appointments into account. After a disruption, the rolling stock of the disrupted passenger trains has to be rescheduled in order to restore a feasible rolling stock circulation. Usually, a

  15. Stability and Degradation of Polymer Solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Kion

    The current state-of-the-art allows for roll-to-roll manufacture of polymer solar cells in high volume with stability and efficiency sufficient to grant success in low-energy applications. However, further improvement is needed for the successful application of the devices in real life applications...

  16. Roads and Roadlessness: Driving Trucks in Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Argounova-Low

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article relates to the studies of roads and engages with the experience of driving in Sakha (Yakutiia, Siberia. The article intends to contribute to the broad corpus of literature on mobility and argues that an alternative perspective on roads and road-users from a geographical area beyond the West might better inform and add another dimension to our notions of roads and our movement along them. The article examines the fluid nature of roads in Siberia and the social significance the roads carry by focussing on truck-drivers and their perception and engagement with the so-called winter roads through their sensory experiences. The article analyses narratives of the truckers who frame their experiences of the road with close reference to time and money and where notions of agency of the road become prominent.

  17. Truck Drivers' Use of the Internet: A Mobile Health Lifeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Karen; Combs, Bryan; Griffin, Russell

    2017-06-01

    Because of their social isolation, irregular and unpredictable schedules, limited access to health care, and long periods of travel, long-haul truckers may benefit from the use of mobile health applications on Internet-capable devices. The purpose of this study was to determine Internet access and usage among a sample of long-haul truck drivers. In this cross-sectional study, truck drivers completed a pencil and paper survey with questions on demographics, work and health histories, and Internet access and usage for both personal and job reasons. A total of 106 truck drivers were recruited from trucking industry trade shows, by word of mouth, and directly from trucking companies. Overall, the truck drivers' use of the Internet was limited. Their usage for personal and job-related reasons differed. Social connectivity and access to health and wellness information were important during personal usage time. Job-related Internet use was highly practical, and applied to seeking information for directions and maps, fuel stops and pricing, and communicating with employers or transmitting documents. Age and experience were associated with Internet use. Younger, less-experienced drivers used the Internet more than older, experienced drivers. Targeted mobile health messaging may be a useful tool to inform truck drivers of health conditions and plans, and may provide links to primary care providers needing to monitor or notify drivers of diagnostic results or treatment plans.

  18. Collision avoidance for mine haul trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Glynn; Jim Slade; John Marston [CSIRO Exploration & Mining (Australia). Control Technologies International

    2007-03-15

    A suite of new collision avoidance systems (CAS) is presented for use in heavy vehicles whose structure and size necessarily impede driver visibility is introduced. The main goal of the project was to determine the appropriate use of each of the commercially available technologies and, where possible, produce a low cost variant suitable for use in proximity detection on large mining industry haul trucks. CAS variants produced were subjected to a field demonstration and, linked to the output from the earlier CAS 1 project. The CAS 2 system used low cost Doppler continuous wave radar antennae coupled to the CAS 1 monitor to indicate the presence of an object moving at any speed above 3 Km/h relative to the antennae. The novelty of the CAS 3 system lies in the design of 3 interconnected, modules. CAS 4 expanded on the research in CAS 3 the Doppler radar antennae functionality was increased to allow object detection discrimination. This reduced the high bandwidth required by and essentially only informed the driver when an object was detected. The radar antennae modules and the system as a whole are described together with the empirical tests conducted and results obtained. The tests, drawing on Monte-Carlo simulation techniques, demonstrate both the 'correctness' of the implementations and the effectiveness of the system. The results of the testing of the final prototype unit were highly successful both as a computer simulation level and in practical tests on light vehicles. Chapter 9 reports on CAS 4 with the new microcontroller based fast Fourier transforms of the returned Doppler signals to give multiple object detection, speed and distance. A prototype of this system was installed on a Caterpillar 737D haul truck at the BMA Goonyella mine and tested for object detection and general robustness of the CAS 4 system.

  19. On the constant-roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhu; Gong, Yungui

    2018-03-01

    The primordial power spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations during slow-roll inflation are usually calculated with the method of Bessel function approximation. For constant-roll or ultra slow-roll inflation, the method of Bessel function approximation may be invalid. We compare the numerical results with the analytical results derived from the Bessel function approximation, and we find that they differ significantly on super-horizon scales if the constant slow-roll parameter ηH is not small. More accurate method is needed for calculating the primordial power spectrum for constant-roll inflation.

  20. A framework for improving reliability of truck turn times in FMCG transport networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploos van Amstel, W.; Clermonts, W.

    2013-01-01

    Truck turn times in FMCG supply chain are unreliable. The Dutch ‘Speed Docking’ project in 2011 and 2012 gave clear evidence to this. This leads to additional trucks and drivers in transport networks. Improving reliability of truck turn time will lead to less trucks and drivers in the transport

  1. Projection of light-truck population to year 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The recent growth in the number of light trucks is a matter of considerable interest in that it may have far-reaching implications for gasoline consumption. This paper forecasts the number of light trucks in the years to 2025. The forecast is based on economic scenarios developed by SRI International. Except for the case of the most-dismal economic forecast, the number of light trucks is predicted to increase monotonically and to show the greatest rate of increase between 1973 and 1980.

  2. 75 FR 42782 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ...)] Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia AGENCY: United...-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on certain hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality steel products (``hot-rolled steel'') from Brazil, the antidumping duty orders on hot-rolled steel from...

  3. Multivariable control of a rolling spider drone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Haifeng

    The research and application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has been a hot topic recently. A UAV is dened as an aircraft which is designed not to carry a human pilot or operated with remote electronic input by the flight controller. In this thesis, the design of a control system for a quadcopter named Rolling Spider Drone is conducted. The thesis work presents the design of two kinds of controllers that can control the Drone to keep it balanced and track different kinds of input trajectories. The nonlinear mathematical model for the Drone is derived by the Newton-Euler method. The rotational subsystem and translational system are derived to describe the attitude and position motion of Drone. Techniques from linear control theory are employed to linearize the highly coupled and nonlinear quadcopter plant around equilibrium points and apply the linear feedback controller to stabilize the system. The controller is a digital tracking system that deploys LQR for system stability design. Fixed gain and adaptive gain scheduled controllers are developed and compared with different LQR weights. Step references and reference trajectories involving signicant variation for the yaw angle in the xy-plane and three-dimensional spaces are tracked in the simulation. The physical implementation and an output feedback controller are considered for future work.

  4. Rolling Mill Hill, Nashville, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolling Mill Hill was the home to Nashville General Hospital from 1890 to the 1990s and encompassed several buildings and structures. These existing buildings of historical significance were re-used in the form of apartments. The original Trolley Barns on the site are now artists’ lofts and are home to several companies and non-profit offices. Nance Place, which entails additional buildings built on-site, is a Tax Credit Workforce Housing Development and is Platinum LEED certified.

  5. Nanogrid rolling circle DNA sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, George M.; Porreca, Gregory J.; Shendure, Jay; Rosenbaum, Abraham Meir

    2017-04-18

    The present invention relates to methods for sequencing a polynucleotide immobilized on an array having a plurality of specific regions each having a defined diameter size, including synthesizing a concatemer of a polynucleotide by rolling circle amplification, wherein the concatemer has a cross-sectional diameter greater than the diameter of a specific region, immobilizing the concatemer to the specific region to make an immobilized concatemer, and sequencing the immobilized concatemer.

  6. Rolling Cylinder Phase 1bis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia

    Cylinder Phase 1: proof of concept and first optimization”, DCE report 115, ISSN 1901-726X, and it is recommended that the two are consulted together as they were firstly agreed to be in one document. The present report aims at estimate the efficiency of the Rolling Cylinder long model (previously...... optimized), by mean of physical tests in irregular waves. Several difficulties have been encountered during the testing, the biggest of witch being the extremely unfriendly torque measuring system....

  7. Mixed convective/dynamic roll vortices and their effects on initial wind and temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Tracy; Shirer, Hampton N.

    1991-01-01

    The onset and development of both dynamically and convectively forced boundary layer rolls are studied with linear and nonlinear analyses of a truncated spectral model of shallow Boussinesq flow. Emphasis is given here on the energetics of the dominant roll modes, on the magnitudes of the roll-induced modifications of the initial basic state wind and temperature profiles, and on the sensitivity of the linear stability results to the use of modified profiles as basic states. It is demonstrated that the roll circulations can produce substantial changes to the cross-roll component of the initial wind profile and that significant changes in orientation angle estimates can result from use of a roll-modified profile in the stability analysis. These results demonstrate that roll contributions must be removed from observed background wind profiles before using them to investigate the mechanisms underlying actual secondary flows in the boundary layer. The model is developed quite generally to accept arbitrary basic state wind profiles as dynamic forcing. An Ekman profile is chosen here merely to provide a means for easy comparison with other theoretical boundary layer studies; the ultimate application of the model is to study observed boundary layer profiles. Results of the analytic stability analysis are validated by comparing them with results from a larger linear model. For an appropriate Ekman depth, a complete set of transition curves is given in forcing parameter space for roll modes driven both thermally and dynamically. Preferred orientation angles, horizontal wavelengths and propagation frequencies, as well as energetics and wind profile modifications, are all shown to agree rather well with results from studies on Ekman layers as well as with studies on near-neutral and convective atmospheric boundary layers.

  8. Rolling Contact Fatigue of Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Wang, W. [Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; Wang, Y. [Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; Hadfield, M. [Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, United Kingdom; Kanematsu, W. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan; Kirkland, Timothy Philip [ORNL; Jadaan, Osama M. [University of Wisconsin, Platteville

    2006-09-01

    High hardness, low coefficient of thermal expansion and high temperature capability are properties also suited to rolling element materials. Silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) has been found to have a good combination of properties suitable for these applications. However, much is still not known about rolling contact fatigue (RCF) behavior, which is fundamental information to assess the lifetime of the material. Additionally, there are several test techniques that are employed internationally whose measured RCF performances are often irreconcilable. Due to the lack of such information, some concern for the reliability of ceramic bearings still remains. This report surveys a variety of topics pertaining to RCF. Surface defects (cracks) in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and their propagation during RCF are discussed. Five methods to measure RCF are then briefly overviewed. Spalling, delamination, and rolling contact wear are discussed. Lastly, methods to destructively (e.g., C-sphere flexure strength testing) and non-destructively identify potential RCF-limiting flaws in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls are described.

  9. Analysis of the truck inventory and use survey from the truck size and weight perspective for trucks with four-axles or less : activity 1 : Task B identify market segments - competitive and noncompetitive TIUS data component

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This report, as part of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight (TS&W) Study, provides factual information and analysis of the U.S. freight hauling truck fleet, and is based on the Truck Inventory and Use Surve...

  10. Parametric Analysis of Light Truck and Automobile Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    Utilizing the Automotive and Light Truck Service and Repair Data Base developed in the campanion report, parametric analyses were made of the relationships between maintenance costs, schduled and unschduled, and vehicle parameters; body class, manufa...

  11. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III : Trucks, Buses and Trains

    CERN Document Server

    Orellano, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International conference “The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III: Trucks, Buses and Trains” held in Potsdam, Germany, September 12-17, 2010 by Engineering Conferences International (ECI). Leading scientists and engineers from industry, universities and research laboratories, including truck and high-speed train manufacturers and operators were brought together to discuss computer simulation and experimental techniques to be applied for the design of more efficient trucks, buses and high-speed trains in the future.   This conference was the third in the series after Monterey-Pacific Groove in 2002 and Lake Tahoe in 2007.  The presentations address different aspects of train aerodynamics (cross wind effects, underbody flow, tunnel aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, experimental techniques), truck aerodynamics (drag reduction, flow control, experimental and computational techniques) as well as computational fluid dynamics and bluff body, wake and jet flows.

  12. Seismic hazard assessment of Oregon highway truck routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This research project developed a seismic risk assessment model along the major truck routes in Oregon. The study had adopted federally : developed software tools called Risk for Earthquake Damage to Roadway Systems (REDARS2) and HAZUS-MH. The model ...

  13. Commercial truck platooning demonstration in Texas – level 2 automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Through this project, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) funded the creation of a comprehensive truck platooning demonstration in Texas, serving as a proactive effort in assessing innovative operational strategies to position TxDOT as a l...

  14. Overload truck wheel load distribution on bridge decks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    There is a need to accurately analyze the load effects on bridge decks from permitted overload trucks on : Michigans roads. The AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, 17th edition, provides a : distribution width of live loads when re...

  15. 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey selected tabulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey (NTACS) provides detailed activity data for a sample of trucks covered in the 1987 Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS) for days selected at random over a 12-month period ending in 1990. The NTACS was conducted by the US Bureau of the Census for the US Department of Transportation (DOT). A Public Use File for the NTACS was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a reimbursable agreement with the DOT. The content of the Public Use File and the detailed design of the NTACS are described in the ORNL Report [open quotes]Technical Documentation for the 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey Public Use File[close quotes]. (1992). ORNL Technical Report No. TM-12188, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831. The main purpose of this summary report is to provide selected tables based on the public use file.

  16. Market capitalization of the trucking industry sector, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    This report focuses on the market valuation of the overall trucking industry sector and each segment within it. In the past, while the focus has been on stock price appreciation or depreciation, this report emphasizes market capitalization returns. S...

  17. TeleTruck : a holonic fleet management system

    OpenAIRE

    Bürckert, Hans-Jürgen; Fischer, Klaus; Vierke, Gero

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe TeleTruck, a multiagent dispatching system that was developed in close cooperation with a forwarding company and that is capable of handling real-world requirements like dynamics and uncertainty. The main idea underlying the TeleTruck approach is the usage of holonic agents, i.e. agents composed of subagents that act in a corporated way. We describe the implementation in detail and point out the advantages of the holonic paradigm.

  18. Application of Chaos Theory in Trucks' Overloading Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mahmoudabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trucks' overloading is considered as one of the most substantial concerns in road transport due to a possible road surface damage, as well as, are less reliable performance of trucks' braking system. Sufficient human resource and adequate time scheduling are to be planned for surveying trucks' overloading; hence, it seems required to prepare an all-around model to be able to predict the number of overloaded vehicles. In the present research work, the concept of chaos theory has been utilized to predict the ratio of trucks which might be guessed overloaded. The largest Lyapunov exponent is utilized to determine the presence of chaos using experimental data and concluded that the ratio of overloaded trucks reflects chaotic behavior. The prediction based on chaos theory is compared with the results of simple smoothing and moving average methods according to the well-known criterion of mean square errors. The results have also revealed that the chaotic prediction model would act more capably comparing the analogous methods including simple smoothing and moving average to predict the ratio of passing trucks to be possibly overloaded.

  19. The Aggregate Planning For Trucking Operation in Cikarang Dry Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Puspita Sari Utami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Cikarang Dry Port currently is the only dry port in Indonesia. This Dry Port has a role to connect or extend the Sea Port to the industrial areas located far from Sea Port. Thus, it creates a value added and also reduce costs. One of the operations done in Cikarang Dry Port is trucking operation. This research aims to examine the planning of 2014 trucking activity in Cikarang Dry Port to determine the right number of the truck that will be best occupied to manage all demands. The analysis begins with demand forecasting by using a moving average method of 12 months or one year period in 2013 which will be used as main information to develop the plans. There are three plans developed in this research. Based on the three plans, Plan A with minimum trucking plan with subcontracting is the most profitable which gives the highest profitability of Rp. 374,984,625. Recommendation for this research is using the current minimum number of 39 trucks rent with additional subcontracting when the demand is exceeding the capacity, thus, Cikarang Dry Port can occupy all demands and gain more profits. Keywords: Aggregate Planning; Scheduling; Trucking Operation; Moving Average; Cikarang Dry Port

  20. Effects of cellulose fiber with different fiber length on rheological properties of wheat dough and quality of baked rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauková, Michaela; Kohajdová, Zlatica; Karovičová, Jolana; Kuchtová, Veronika; Minarovičová, Lucia; Tomášiková, Lenka

    2017-09-01

    Powdered cellulose is often used in cereal processing industry. The effects of partial replacement (0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5%) of wheat flour by cellulose fiber with different fiber length (80, 120 and 220 µm) on rheological properties of wheat dough and qualitative parameters of baked rolls were studied. Sensory evaluation of baked products was also performed. Mixing and pasting properties of dough were determined by Mixolab. Generally, cellulose-enriched dough was characterized with higher water absorption, dough stability and parameters C2 and C3. Moreover, it was found that parameters C4 and C5 increased with increasing cellulose fiber length. From the results, it was also concluded that the physical parameters of baked rolls containing cellulose were reduced. It was also observed that the incorporation of cellulose fiber with shorter fiber length concluded in lower rolls volume compared to cellulose fiber with long fiber length. Texture analyses showed that the firmness of rolls containing cellulose at the substitution level 5% was significantly higher than those of the control, whereas the springiness of wheat rolls was not significantly affected. It was also recorded that the firmness and cohesiveness of baked rolls were higher after the addition of cellulose fiber with shorter fiber length. Sensory evaluation indicated that baked rolls with cellulose addition up to 1% were comparable with control rolls. Results also showed that higher levels of cellulose significantly decreased crust, taste, color and porosity of rolls.

  1. Rapid flash annealing of thermally reactive copolymers in a roll-to-roll process for polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgesen, Martin; Carlé, Jon Eggert; Andreasen, Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    Light induced thermocleaving of a thermally reactive copolymer based on dithienylthiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole (DTZ) and silolodithiophene (SDT) in contact with the heat sensitive substrate the heat sensitive substrate polyethyleneterphthalate (PET) was effectively demonstrated with the use of high...... intensity pulsed light, delivered by a commercial photonic sintering system. Thermally labile ester groups are positioned on the DTZ unit of the copolymer that can be eliminated thermally for enhanced photochemical stability and advantages in terms of processing (solubility/insolubility switching......). The photonic sintering system was successfully implemented in a full roll-to-roll process on flexible PET substrates and large-area polymer solar cell modules were prepared by solution processing of five layers under ambient conditions using the photonic sintering system for thermocleaving of the active layer...

  2. Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1992-07-01

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate 1-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the.tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1300 degrees F and 1800 degrees F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk

  3. How rolling forecasting facilitates dynamic, agile planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Debra; Allen, Michael; Schnittger, Stephanie; Hackman, Theresa

    2013-11-01

    Rolling forecasting may be used to replace or supplement the annual budget process. The rolling forecast typically builds on the organization's strategic financial plan, focusing on the first three years of plan projections and comparing the strategic financial plan assumptions with the organization's expected trajectory. Leaders can then identify and respond to gaps between the rolling forecast and the strategic financial plan on an ongoing basis.

  4. Corpuscular slow-roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Giusti, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    We show that a corpuscular description of gravity can lead to an inflationary scenario similar to Starobinsky's model without requiring the introduction of the inflaton field. All relevant properties are determined by the number of gravitons in the cosmological condensate or, equivalently, by their Compton length. In particular, the relation between the Hubble parameter H and its time derivative H ˙ required by cosmic microwave background observations at the end of inflation, as well as the (minimum) initial value of the slow-roll parameter, are naturally obtained from the Compton size of the condensate.

  5. 26 CFR 145.4051-1 - Imposition of tax on heavy trucks and trailers sold at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Automobile truck chassis and bodies; (ii) Truck trailer and semitrailer chassis and bodies; and (iii.... No tax is imposed by section 4051(a)(1) on the sale of automobile truck chassis and bodies, suitable.... A sale of an automobile truck, truck trailer or semitrailer, shall be considered to be a sale of a...

  6. A method to achieve comparable thermal states of car brakes during braking on the road and on a high-speed roll-stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The temperature of a brake friction surface influences significantly the braking effectiveness. The paper describes a heat transfer process in car brakes. Using a developed program of finite element method, the temperature distributions in brake rotors (disc and drum brake) of a light truck have been calculated. As a preliminary consistency criterion of the brake thermal state in road and roll-stand braking conditions, a balance of the energy cumulated in the brake rotor has been taken into account. As the most reliable consistency criterion an equality of average temperatures of the friction surface has been assumed. The presented method allows to achieve on a roll-stand the analogical thermal states of automotive brakes, which are observed during braking in road conditions. Basing on this method, it is possible to calculate the braking time and force for a high-speed roll-stand. In contrast to the previous papers of the author, new calculation results have been presented.

  7. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  8. Radiometric study of creep in ingot rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, P.; Zamyslovsky, Z.; Uherek, J.

    The radiometric study of creep during ingot rolling performed in the rolling mill of the Vitkovice Iron and Steel Works and the first results are described. Selected sites in 3 to 8 ton ingots were labelled with 2 to 3.7x10 5 Bq of 60 Co and after rolling into blocks, the transposition of the labelled sites of the ingots was investigated. The results indicate creep during rolling, local extension in certain sites under study and help to determine the inevitable bottom crop incurred in the forming. Finally, the requirements put on the radiometric apparatus for the next stages of technological research are presented. (author)

  9. METHOD OF HOT ROLLING URANIUM METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, A.R.

    1959-03-10

    A method is given for quickly and efficiently hot rolling uranium metal in the upper part of the alpha phase temperature region to obtain sound bars and sheets possessing a good surface finish. The uranium metal billet is heated to a temperature in the range of 1000 deg F to 1220 deg F by immersion iii a molten lead bath. The heated billet is then passed through the rolls. The temperature is restored to the desired range between successive passes through the rolls, and the rolls are turned down approximately 0.050 inch between successive passes.

  10. Management of Truck Loading Weight: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended Remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbari Mozhgan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents involving heavy trucks have social and economic effects on society. However, little research has focused on the influence of heavy truck specifications such as weight. Apportioning the maximum permissible gross weight of trucks allows trucking companies/owners to consolidate loads, and therefore reduce the vehicle-kilometres required to collect and distribute a given amount of goods/material. While drivers/managers are responsible for ensuring that trucks are loaded appropriately and in compliance with regulations, some may take chances and overload vehicles. This increases the need for formal and documented inspections, in order to reduce traffic hazards on public roads due to overweight loading. According to a New South Wales Centre for Road Safety report in 2014, crashes involving heavy trucks often result in serious road trauma outcomes. When a heavy truck is involved in a crash, the vehicle mass raises the crash forces involved and hence increases the severity of the crash. Therefore, interventions should be established to mitigate or prevent these crashes from occurring. Currently, weight checks are required for trucks and truck drivers must drive to a weighbridge for a weight check. Since this is a random process, truck drivers may take the risk of driving an over-loaded truck on some occasions. This paper reviews existing studies concerning safe system interventions in relation to truck gross weight management and a framework is presented to effectively manage truck loading weight. The result may be a reduction of injuries and fatalities involving heavy trucks.

  11. 21 CFR 136.110 - Bread, rolls, and buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bread, rolls, and buns. 136.110 Section 136.110... Bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Bread, white bread, and rolls, white rolls, or buns, and white buns are the... be additional optional ingredients in the bread, rolls, or buns. All ingredients in any flour...

  12. Demonstration of fleet trucks fueled with PV hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, J.; Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project has been installed at the Xerox Corporation, El Segundo, California site. Three Ford Ranger trucks have been converted to use hydrogen fuel. The ''stand- alone'' electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system is powered by a photovoltaic array with no connection to the power grid. A variable frequency DC/AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 hp motor for the hydrogen compressor. Up to 400 standard cubic meters (SCM) of solar hydrogen is stored, and storage of up to 2300 SCM of commercial hydrogen is collocated. As the hydrogen storage is within 5km of Los Angeles International Airport, pilot operation of a hydrogen fuel cell bus for airport shuttle service has been demonstrated with fueling at the CAN facility. The truck engine conversions are bored to 2.91 displacement, use a Roots type supercharger and CVI (constant volume injection) fuel induction to allow performance similar to that of the gasoline powered truck. Truck fuel storage is done with carbon composite tanks at pressures up to 24.8 MPa (3600 psi). Two tanks are located just behind the driver's cab, and take up nearly half of the truck bed space. The truck highway range is approximately 140 miles. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil emissions of CO and HC. NO x emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two Xerox fleet trucks have been converted, and one for the City of West Hollywood. The Clean Air Now Program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality. It further demonstrates that continued technological development and cost reduction will make such implementation competitive. (Author)

  13. Rolling into spatial disorientation: Simulator demonstration of the post-roll (Gillingham) illusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooij, S.A.E.; Groen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Spatial disorientation (SD) is still a contributing factor in many aviation accidents, stressing the need for adequate SD training scenarios. In this article we focused on the post-roll effect (the sensation of rolling back after a roll maneuver, such as an entry of a coordinated turn)

  14. To log-roll or not to log-roll - That is the question! A review of the use of the log-roll for patients with pelvic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Inês Filipa da Cunha

    2017-11-01

    Pelvic fractures are one of the most serious injuries in polytrauma - massive haemorrhage is a major complication and the leading cause of death. The assessment and early management of these injuries in the Emergency Department (ED) focuses on the recognition of haemodynamic instability and should follow Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) guidelines. The log-roll technique, although an accepted practice in trauma care, has been reported to be inadvisable when a pelvic fracture is suspected. This paper, which includes a case study, briefly explains the pathophysiology and initial management of pelvic fractures. It aims to emphasise how the use of the log-roll can affect the haemodynamic stability of a patient with a pelvic fracture, highlighting gaps in research, along with the ethical and legal implications associated with polytrauma care. It also encourages practitioners to consider reasonable alternatives to the log-roll technique when beneficial and applicable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 75 FR 62566 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-384 and 731-TA-806-808 (Second Review)] Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia AGENCY: United... countervailing duty order on hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality steel products (``hot-rolled steel'') from...

  16. 75 FR 16504 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...)] Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia AGENCY: United... countervailing duty order on certain hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality steel products (``hot-rolled steel... are Brazil, Japan, and Russia. (3) The Domestic Like Product is the domestically produced product or...

  17. Eliminating log rolling as a spine trauma order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Bryan P.; Rossi, Gianluca Del; Horodyski, Mary Beth; Prasarn, Mark L.; Alemi, Yara; Rechtine, Glenn R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Currently, up to 25% of patients with spinal cord injuries may experience neurologic deterioration during the initial management of their injuries. Therefore, more effective procedures need to be established for the transportation and care of these to reduce the risk of secondary neurologic damage. Here, we present more acceptable methods to minimize motion in the unstable spine during the management of patients with traumatic spine injuries. Methods: This review summarizes more than a decade of research aimed at evaluating different methods of caring for patients with spine trauma. Results: The most commonly utilized technique to transport spinal cord injured patients, the log rolling maneuver, produced more motion than placing a patient on a spine board, removing a spine board, performing continuous lateral therapy, and positioning a patient prone for surgery. Alternative maneuvers that produced less motion included the straddle lift and slide, 6 + lift and slide, scoop stretcher, mechanical kinetic therapy, mechanical transfers, and the use of the operating table to rotate the patient to the prone position for surgical stabilization. Conclusions: The log roll maneuver should be removed from the trauma response guidelines for patients with suspected spine injuries, as it creates significantly more motion in the unstable spine than the readily available alternatives. The only exception is the patient who is found prone, in which case the patient should then be log rolled directly on to the spine board utilizing a push technique. PMID:22905325

  18. Fault Features Extraction and Identification based Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, B; Sun, G D; Zhang L Y; Wang J G; HU, J

    2017-01-01

    For the fault classification model based on extreme learning machine (ELM), the diagnosis accuracy and stability of rolling bearing is greatly influenced by a critical parameter, which is the number of nodes in hidden layer of ELM. An adaptive adjustment strategy is proposed based on vibrational mode decomposition, permutation entropy, and nuclear kernel extreme learning machine to determine the tunable parameter. First, the vibration signals are measured and then decomposed into different fault feature models based on variation mode decomposition. Then, fault feature of each model is formed to a high dimensional feature vector set based on permutation entropy. Second, the ELM output function is expressed by the inner product of Gauss kernel function to adaptively determine the number of hidden layer nodes. Finally, the high dimension feature vector set is used as the input to establish the kernel ELM rolling bearing fault classification model, and the classification and identification of different fault states of rolling bearings are carried out. In comparison with the fault classification methods based on support vector machine and ELM, the experimental results show that the proposed method has higher classification accuracy and better generalization ability. (paper)

  19. Acceptance test report for core sample trucks 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Report is to provide documentation for the acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4, designated as HO-68K-4600 and HO-68K-4647, respectively. This report conforms to the guidelines established in WHC-IP-1026, ''Engineering Practice Guidelines,'' Appendix M, ''Acceptance Test Procedures and Reports.'' Rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4 were based upon the design of the second core sample truck (HO-68K-4345) which was constructed to implement rotary mode sampling of the waste tanks at Hanford. Successful completion of acceptance testing on June 30, 1995 verified that all design requirements were met. This report is divided into four sections, beginning with general information. Acceptance testing was performed on trucks 3 and 4 during the months of March through June, 1995. All testing was performed at the ''Rock Slinger'' test site in the 200 West area. The sequence of testing was determined by equipment availability, and the initial revision of the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) was used for both trucks. Testing was directed by ICF-KH, with the support of WHC Characterization Equipment Engineering and Characterization Project Operations. Testing was completed per the ATP without discrepancies or deviations, except as noted

  20. Urban Freight Truck Routing under Stochastic Congestion and Emission Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taesung Hwang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Freight trucks are known to be a major source of air pollutants as well as greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. metropolitan areas, and they have significant effects on air quality and global climate change. Emissions from freight trucks during their deliveries should be considered by the trucking service sector when they make routing decisions. This study proposes a model that incorporates total delivery time, various emissions including CO2, VOC, NOX, and PM from freight truck activities, and a penalty for late or early arrival into the total cost objective of a stochastic shortest path problem. We focus on urban transportation networks in which random congestion states on each link follows an independent probability distribution. Our model finds the best truck routing on a given network so as to minimize the expected total cost. This problem is formulated into a mathematical model, and two solution algorithms including a dynamic programming approach and a deterministic shortest path heuristic are proposed. Numerical examples show that the proposed approach performs very well even for the large-size U.S. urban networks.

  1. Pipe Rolling from Continuous Cast Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhordania, I.; Chkhartishvili, I.; Lordkipanidze, J.; Melashvili, Z.; Papava, K.; Khundadze, K.

    2007-01-01

    The approach to manufacturing of high quality pipes as a result of solid and hollow billet rolling from continuous cast metal is shown. Optimal parameters of piercing, temperature of piercing and piercing rolling mill rollers speed have been experimentally established. (author)

  2. Contact fatigue in rolling-element bearings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fernandes, PJL

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface contact fatigue is a common cause of failure in rolling-element bearings. The extent of damage observed depends on the contact loads, the curvature of the rolling elements, and the relative motion between the contacting surfaces...

  3. Computer-aided design of rolling mills

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the design of rolling mills equipment, computer-aided design has been widely used. The available software, which covers both steady state and dynamic analysis of items such as mill stands, drive systems, manipulators, cooling beds, roll cooling, and automatic gauge control systems, is reviewed with special reference to ...

  4. CRITICAL WAVE EPISODES FOR ASSESSMENT OF ROLL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2006-01-01

    The statistical distribution of parametric induced roll angles is estimated using the first order reliability method (FORM), well-known from structural reliability problems. To illustrate the proposed procedure the roll motion is modeled by a simplified non-linear procedure taking into account...

  5. Modulation of internal estimates of gravity during and after prolonged roll-tilts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A Tarnutzer

    Full Text Available Perceived direction of gravity, as assessed by the subjective visual vertical (SVV, shows roll-angle dependent errors that drift over time and a bias upon return to upright. According to Bayesian observer theory, the estimated direction of gravity is derived from the posterior probability distribution by combining sensory input and prior knowledge about earth-vertical in a statistically optimal fashion. Here we aimed to further characterize the stability of SVV during and after prolonged roll-tilts. Specifically we asked whether the post-tilt bias is related to the drift pattern while roll-tilted. Twenty-nine healthy human subjects (23-56 yo repetitively adjusted a luminous arrow to the SVV over periods of 5 min while upright, roll-tilted (± 45°, ± 90°, and immediately after returning to upright. Significant (p<0.05 drifts (median absolute drift-amplitude: 10°/5 min were found in 71% (± 45° and 78% (± 90° of runs. At ± 90° roll-tilt significant increases in absolute adjustment errors were more likely (76%, whereas significant increases (56% and decreases (44% were about equally frequent at ± 45°. When returning to upright, an initial bias towards the previous roll-position followed by significant exponential decay (median time-constant: 71 sec was noted in 47% of all runs (all subjects pooled. No significant correlations were found between the drift pattern during and immediately after prolonged roll-tilt. We conclude that the SVV is not stable during and after prolonged roll-tilt and that the direction and magnitude of drift are individually distinct and roll-angle-dependent. Likely sensory and central adaptation and random-walk processes contribute to drift while roll-tilted. Lack of correlation between the drift and the post-tilt bias suggests that it is not the inaccuracy of the SVV estimate while tilted that determines post-tilt bias, but rather the previous head-roll orientation relative to gravity. We therefore favor central

  6. Modulation of Internal Estimates of Gravity during and after Prolonged Roll-Tilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnutzer, Alexander A.; Bertolini, Giovanni; Bockisch, Christopher J.; Straumann, Dominik; Marti, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Perceived direction of gravity, as assessed by the subjective visual vertical (SVV), shows roll-angle dependent errors that drift over time and a bias upon return to upright. According to Bayesian observer theory, the estimated direction of gravity is derived from the posterior probability distribution by combining sensory input and prior knowledge about earth-vertical in a statistically optimal fashion. Here we aimed to further characterize the stability of SVV during and after prolonged roll-tilts. Specifically we asked whether the post-tilt bias is related to the drift pattern while roll-tilted. Twenty-nine healthy human subjects (23-56yo) repetitively adjusted a luminous arrow to the SVV over periods of 5min while upright, roll-tilted (±45°, ±90°), and immediately after returning to upright. Significant (p<0.05) drifts (median absolute drift-amplitude: 10°/5min) were found in 71% (±45°) and 78% (±90°) of runs. At ±90° roll-tilt significant increases in absolute adjustment errors were more likely (76%), whereas significant increases (56%) and decreases (44%) were about equally frequent at ±45°. When returning to upright, an initial bias towards the previous roll-position followed by significant exponential decay (median time-constant: 71sec) was noted in 47% of all runs (all subjects pooled). No significant correlations were found between the drift pattern during and immediately after prolonged roll-tilt. We conclude that the SVV is not stable during and after prolonged roll-tilt and that the direction and magnitude of drift are individually distinct and roll-angle-dependent. Likely sensory and central adaptation and random-walk processes contribute to drift while roll-tilted. Lack of correlation between the drift and the post-tilt bias suggests that it is not the inaccuracy of the SVV estimate while tilted that determines post-tilt bias, but rather the previous head-roll orientation relative to gravity. We therefore favor central adaptation, most

  7. CERN fire fighters roll out in style

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    On Thursday, 20 October, CERN fire fighters celebrated the arrival of a new equipment transport truck.   Measuring 13m3 and weighing 2.5 tonnes, the truck can carry several types of response materials in the event of chemical or radiological accidents, pollution incidents or floods. It can also pull trailers carrying fire extinguishers and oxygen masks. "Despite its size, this vehicle is extremely practical and flexible, and it can be put to work quickly and easily,” says Patrick Berlinghi, logistics officer for the Fire Brigade. “It is equipped with a rear-view camera and lighting on the rear and the side. It can also be loaded and unloaded very quickly, as it takes only 15 seconds to lower the truck box and open the doors! "  

  8. Analytical method for establishing indentation rolling resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gładysiewicz, Lech; Konieczna, Martyna

    2018-01-01

    Belt conveyors are highly reliable machines able to work in special operating conditions. Harsh environment, long distance of transporting and great mass of transported martials are cause of high energy usage. That is why research in the field of belt conveyor transportation nowadays focuses on reducing the power consumption without lowering their efficiency. In this paper, previous methods for testing rolling resistance are described, and new method designed by authors was presented. New method of testing rolling resistance is quite simple and inexpensive. Moreover it allows to conduct the experimental tests of the impact of different parameters on the value of indentation rolling resistance such as core design, cover thickness, ambient temperature, idler travel frequency, or load value as well. Finally results of tests of relationship between rolling resistance and idler travel frequency and between rolling resistance and idler travel speed was presented.

  9. Finite Element Modeling of Strain Distribution through Sheet Thickness during Cold Rolling with Grooved Rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesin A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic strain control of aluminum alloys are of importance for improvement of sheet microstructure and properties. The paper presents a numerical analysis of the strain distribution through pure Al sheet thickness during cold rolling with flat and grooved rolls. FEM simulations were carried out with using software DEFORM 3D. For verification of the numeric modeling results, the experimental analysis was carried out. The influence of the roll shape on strain distribution through Al sheet thickness was studied. It was shown that the strain effective increases from 0.9 to 1.5 during cold rolling with grooved rolls, when depth of indentation of grooved rolls in sheet increases from 0.25 to 0.50 mm. FE model can be used to optimize the cold rolling process to improve microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum sheets.

  10. The effect of roll gap geometry on microstructure in cold-rolled aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Bay, B.; Winther, G.

    2004-01-01

    Microstructure and texture are analyzed through the thickness of two aluminum plates cold-rolled 40% with different roll gap geometries. It is found that both texture and microstructure are strongly affected by the rolling geometry. After rolling with intermediate-size draughts a rolling...... layers. In these layers, extended planar dislocation boundaries are frequently found to be inclined closely to the rolling direction. The subsurface and central layers of this plate exhibit microstructures similar to those in the plate rolled with intermediate draughts. It is suggested...... that the development of different textures and microstructures at different depths is related to the activation of different slip systems due to through-thickness strain gradients....

  11. Roll-to-roll-compatible, flexible, transparent electrodes based on self-nanoembedded Cu nanowires using intense pulsed light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhaoyang; Woo, Kyoohee; Kim, Inhyuk; Hwang, Hyewon; Kwon, Sin; Choi, Young-Man; Lee, Youngu; Lee, Taik-Min; Kim, Kwangyoung; Moon, Jooho

    2016-04-01

    Copper nanowire (Cu NW)-based flexible transparent conductive electrodes (FTCEs) have been investigated in detail for use in various applications such as flexible touch screens, organic photovoltaics and organic light-emitting diodes. In this study, hexadecylamine (HDA) adsorbed onto the surface of NWs is changed into polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) via a ligand exchange process; the high-molecular-weight PVP enables high dispersion stability. Intense pulsed light (IPL) irradiation is used to remove organic species present on the surface of the NWs and to form direct connections between the NWs rapidly without any atmospheric control. NWs are self-nanoembedded into a plastic substrate after IPL irradiation, which results in a smooth surface, strong NW/substrate adhesion, excellent mechanical flexibility and enhanced oxidation stability. Moreover, Cu NW FTCEs with high uniformities are successfully fabricated on a large area (150 mm × 200 mm) via successive IPL irradiation that is synchronized with the motion of the sample stage. This study demonstrates the possibility of roll-to-roll-based, large-scale production of low-cost, high-performance Cu NW-based FTCEs.Copper nanowire (Cu NW)-based flexible transparent conductive electrodes (FTCEs) have been investigated in detail for use in various applications such as flexible touch screens, organic photovoltaics and organic light-emitting diodes. In this study, hexadecylamine (HDA) adsorbed onto the surface of NWs is changed into polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) via a ligand exchange process; the high-molecular-weight PVP enables high dispersion stability. Intense pulsed light (IPL) irradiation is used to remove organic species present on the surface of the NWs and to form direct connections between the NWs rapidly without any atmospheric control. NWs are self-nanoembedded into a plastic substrate after IPL irradiation, which results in a smooth surface, strong NW/substrate adhesion, excellent mechanical flexibility and enhanced

  12. Supplying of Assembly Lines Using Train of Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čujan, Zdeněk; Fedorko, Gabriel

    2016-11-01

    The typical supply system conceptions, i.e. the concepts "Just-in-time" (JIT) and "Just-in-sequence" (JIS) are very important factors with regard to a fluent operation of the assembly lines. Therefore the contemporary intra plant transport systems are being replaced by a new kind of the transportation technology, namely by means of the trains of trucks. The trains of trucks are used in two possible operational modes: either with a driver or without driver (fully automated). The trucks of the logistic trains are also cheaper and they are able to carry a larger volume and mass of the material at once. There are reduced in this way not only the investment costs, but also the operational expenses.

  13. Could Expanded Freight Rail Reduce Air Pollution from Trucks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, E. E.; Holloway, T.; Johnston, M.

    2010-12-01

    Cars, trucks and trains are a significant source of emissions that impact both climate and air quality on regional to global scales. Diesel vehicles, most used for freight transport, account for 42% of on-road nitrogen oxide emissions, 58% of on-road fine particulate emissions, and 21% of on-road carbon dioxide emissions. With freight tonnage projected to increase 28% by 2018, and freight trucks the fastest growing source of transportation emissions, we evaluate the potential for increased rail capacity to reduce the environmental impacts of trucks. Most widely available mobile source emissions inventories contain insufficient spatial detail to quantify realistic emission scenario options, and none to date have been linked with commodity flow information in a manner appropriate to consider the true potential of rail substitution. To support a truck-to-rail analysis, and other policy assessments requiring roadway-by-roadway analysis, we have developed a freight emissions inventory for the Upper Midwest based on the Federal Highway Administration’s Freight Analysis Framework version 2.2 and the Environmental Protection Agency’s on-road emissions model, Mobile6.2. Using a Geographical Information System (GIS), we developed emissions scenarios for truck-to-rail modal shifts where 95% of freight tonnage on trips longer than 400 miles is shifted off of trucks and onto railways. Scenarios will be analyzed with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) regional model to assess air quality impacts of associated changes. By using well-respected transportation data and realistic assumptions, results from this study have the potential to inform decisions on transportation sustainability, carbon management, public health, and air quality.

  14. Weight Reduction Potential of Automobiles and Light Trucks: 1980 Summary Source Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    This report provides an assessment of the potential of weight reduction for passenger cars and light trucks (including pickup trucks, vans, and utility vehicles of GVWR up to 8500 pounds) in the post-1985 period. Vehicle characteristics and weight re...

  15. Estimation and analysis of multifactor productivity in truck transportation : 1987 - 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The analysis has three objectives: 1) to estimate multifactor productivity (MFP) in truck transportation during 1987-2003; 2) to examine changes in multifactor productivity in U.S. truck transportation, over time, and to compare these changes to MFP ...

  16. Roadmap and technical white papers for the 21st century truck partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-12-01

    21st Century Truck Partnership will support the development and implementation of technologies that will cut fuel use and emissions and enhance safety, affordability, and performance of trucks and buses.

  17. The impact of truck repositioning on congestion and pollution in the LA basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Pollution and congestion caused by port related truck traffic is usually estimated based on careful transportation modeling and simulation. In these efforts, however, attention is normally focused on trucks on their way from a terminal at the Los Ang...

  18. Long-Haul Truck Idling Burns Up Profits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-12

    Long-haul truck drivers perform a vitally important service. In the course of their work, they must take rest periods as required by federal law. Most drivers remain in their trucks, which they keep running to provide power for heating, cooling, and other necessities. Such idling, however, comes at a cost; it is an expensive and polluting way to keep drivers safe and comfortable. Increasingly affordable alternatives to idling not only save money and reduce pollution, but also help drivers get a better night's rest.

  19. Impact of Platon ETC system on intercity trucking cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogotovkina Natalya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 Platon ETC System, a system of charging trucks with gross vehicle weight exceeding 12 tons, was implemented in Russia. The payment is collected as a compensation fo0 the damage caused to the federal public roads. Platon system is an additional source of financing for the road sector. However, its implementation made the carriers face the increasing costs. This paper presents the first results of the system functioning and the problems, associated with it. We consider the foreign systems of truck charging. The results of calculations, which show the effect of the toll collection on the prime cost of road freight transportation, are also presented.

  20. Truck acceleration behavior study and acceleration lane length recommendations for metered on-ramps

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Guangchuan; Xu, Hao; Wang, Zhongren; Tian, Zong

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated the actual truck acceleration capability at metered on-ramps. Truck acceleration performance data were collected through a video-based data collection method. A piecewise constant acceleration model was employed to capture truck acceleration characteristics. It was found that the existing acceleration length will affect truck drivers’ acceleration behavior. At the taper type ramp that has limited acceleration distance, acceleration profile indicated a decreasing trend ...

  1. Design and analysis of roll cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angadi, Gurusangappa; Chetan, S.

    2018-04-01

    Wildlife fire fighting vehicles are used to extinguish fires in forests, in this process vehicles face falling objects like rocks, tree branches and other objects. Also due to uneven conditions of the terrain like cliff edges, uneven surfaces etc. makes the vehicle to roll over and these can cause injuries to both the driver and the operator. Roll over of a vehicle is a common incident which makes fatal injuries to the operator and also stands next to the crash accidents. In order to reduce the injury level and continuous roll over of the vehicle it is necessary to equip suitable roll cage according to standards of vehicle. In this present work roll cage for pump operator in wildfire fighting vehicle is designed and analysis is carried out in computer simulated environment when seating position of operator seated outside of the cabin. According to NFPA 1906 standards wildlife fire apparatus, Design and Test procedures that are carried out in Hyperworks maintaining SAE J1194.1983 standards. G load case, roof crush analysis and pendulum impact analysis tests are carried out on roll cage to ensure the saftey of design. These load cases are considerd to satisfy the situation faced in forest terrain. In these test procedures roll cage is analysed for stresses and deformation in various load cases. After recording results these are compared with standards mentioned in SAE J1194.1983.

  2. Ground roll attenuation by synchrosqueezed curvelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Chen, Yangkang; Ma, Jianwei

    2018-04-01

    Ground roll is a type of coherent noise in land seismic data that has low frequency, low velocity and high amplitude. It damages reflection events that contain important information about subsurface structures, hence the removal of ground roll is a crucial step in seismic data processing. A suitable transform is needed for removal of ground roll. Curvelet transform is an effective sparse transform that optimally represents seismic events. In addition, the curvelets can provide a multiscale and multidirectional decomposition of the input data in time-frequency and angular domain, which can help distinguish between ground roll and useful signals. In this paper, we apply synchrosqueezed curvelet transform (SSCT) for ground roll attenuation. The synchrosqueezing technique in SSCT is used to precisely reallocate the energy of local wave vectors in order to separate ground roll from the original data with higher resolution and higher fidelity. Examples of synthetic and field seismic data reveal that SSCT performs well in the suppression of aliased and non-aliased ground roll while preserving reflection waves, in comparison with high-pass filtering, wavelet and curvelet methods.

  3. New Low-Bandgap Materials with Good Stabilities and Efficiencies Comparable to P3HT in R2R-Coated Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar; Manceau, Matthieu; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    Roll-to-roll coated organic solar cells of two new polymers processed in ambient conditions show good photochemical stabilities, and their efficiencies are comparable to similar roll-to-roll coated P3HT cells. Optimal blend compositions are achieved by the use of differentially pumped slot die...... coatings. The final devices show good stabilities in an outdoor experiment carried out over 4 months....

  4. 77 FR 75257 - Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ...-0170] Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey AGENCY: National... collection of information will be in the form of a one-time survey of medium- and heavy-duty truck fleet... collection. OMB Control Number: To be issued at time of approval. Title: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet...

  5. The energy consumption and cost savings of truck electrification for heavy duty vocational applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the application of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and genset plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) to Class-7 local delivery trucks and genset PHEV for Class-8 utility bucket trucks over widely real-world driving data performed by conventional heavy-duty trucks. A simulation tool based on vehicle tractive energy methodology and component efficiency for addressing component and system performance was developed to evaluate the energy consumption and performance of the trucks. As part of this analysis, various battery sizes combined with different charging powers on the E-Trucks for local delivery and utility bucket applications were investigated. The results show that the E-Truck applications not only reduce energy consumption but also achieve significant energy cost savings. For delivery E-Trucks, the results show that periodic stops at delivery sites provide sufficient time for battery charging, and for this reason, a high-power charger is not necessary. For utility bucket PHEV trucks, energy consumption per mile of bucket truck operation is typically higher because of longer idling times and extra high idling load associated with heavy utility work. The availability of on-route charging is typically lacking at the work sites of bucket trucks; hence, the battery size of these trucks is somewhat larger than that of the delivery trucks studied.

  6. Scheduling Trucks in a Cross-Dock with Mixed Service Mode Dock Doors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodnar, Peter; Azadeh, Kaveh; Koster, René de

    2017-01-01

    The problem considered in this paper is how to schedule inbound and outbound trucks subject to time windows at a multidoor cross-dock. Dock doors can either be dedicated to inbound or outbound trucks or be capable of handling both truck types. In addition, loads are allowed to be temporarily buff...

  7. Planning of Truck Platoons: a Literature Review and Directions for Future Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kishore Bhoopalam (Anirudh); N.A.H. Agatz (Niels); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractA truck platoon is a set of virtually linked trucks that drive closely behind one another using automated driving technology. Benefits of truck platooning include cost savings, reduced emissions, and more efficient utilization of road capacity. To fully reap these benefits in the initial

  8. 75 FR 56651 - ITS Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ITS Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology... Transportation. ACTION: Notice. The Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition (TIMTC) Annual [[Page 56652...: Beating Gridlock with a Smart Grid; U.S. DOT Truck Technology Initiatives; and State and Federal...

  9. 76 FR 22154 - Powered Industrial Trucks Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... instruction, practical training, and evaluation of the trainee's performance in the workplace. Paragraph (l)(3... truck(s) and workplace conditions. Paragraph (l)(6)--Certify that each operator meets the training and..., construction, and modification, as well as certification of training and evaluation for truck operators. DATES...

  10. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum, stainless...

  11. Effects of Variation in Truck Factor on Pavement Performance in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Chaudry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation coupled with heavy axle loading is the key factor in rapid road deterioration in Pakistan. The serviceability loss is further accelerated by the fact that truck drivers and owners consider overloading as a profitable practice unaware of the adverse effects of this practice. Weigh-in-motion data from two stations located between two major cities of Pakistan (Peshawar and Rawalpindi on Grand Trunk Road (N-5 were collected and analyzed. Analysis of variance and comparison of actual and designed truck factor were performed to identify the most damaging axle truck type. It was found that axle truck type 3 (single/tandem axle is most damaging among all truck types. The actual truck factor for axle truck type 3 is 6.4 times greater than design truck factor. Regression expressions of different forms were also investigated to determine the relationship between truck factor and gross vehicular weight for the specified truck types. An optimum generalization strategy was used to prevent over-generalization and ensure accuracy. For data analysis, 75% of data was used to develop regression models and remaining 25% was to validate those models. The results show that the polynomial expressions performed best and provide a robust relationship that can be employed by the highway authorities to estimate truck factor from gross vehicular weight with a high degree of confidence. It was also observed that damaging effect of various types of trucks was very severe and quite high.

  12. 49 CFR 230.100 - Defects in tender truck axles and journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defects in tender truck axles and journals. 230... Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.100 Defects in tender truck axles and journals. (a... wheel seats that is more than 1/8 of an inch in depth. (b) Tender truck journal condemning defects...

  13. 76 FR 61138 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Long-Haul Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... (NAFTA) cross-border long-haul trucking provisions. This pilot program would allow Mexico-domiciled motor...-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Long-Haul Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... implementation of its United States-Mexico cross- border long-haul trucking pilot program. FMCSA received five...

  14. Characterization of Cu Distribution in an Al-0.3%Cu Alloy Cold Rolled to 98%

    OpenAIRE

    Shuai, L. F.; Huang, T. L.; Wu, G. L.; Hansen, N.; Huang, X.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the distribution of Cu element in a Al (99.9996% purity)-0.3% Cu alloy cold rolled to 98% has been characterized in detail by using three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP) and ChemiSTEM techniques. The cold rolled structure is a typical high strain lamellar structure with an average boundary spacing of 200 nm, indicating a strong role of the small amount of Cu element in stabilizing the microstructure to form the fine scale structure. A heavy segregation of Cu element in the lamell...

  15. Plasmonic color metasurfaces fabricated by a high speed roll-to-roll method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murthy, Swathi; Pranov, Henrik; Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft

    2017-01-01

    Lab-scale plasmonic color printing using nano-structured and subsequently metallized surfaces have been demonstrated to provide vivid colors. However, upscaling these structures for large area manufacturing is extremely challenging due to the requirement of nanometer precision of metal thickness....... In this study, we have investigated a plasmonic color meta-surface design that can be easily upscaled. We have demonstrated the feasibility of fabrication of these plasmonic color surfaces by a high-speed roll-to-roll method, comprising roll-to-roll extrusion coating at 10 m min-1 creating a polymer foil having...... 100 nm deep pits of varying sub-wavelength diameter and pitch length. Subsequently this polymer foil was metallized and coated also by high-speed roll-to-roll methods. The perceived colors have high tolerance towards the thickness of the metal layer, when this thickness exceeds the depths of the pits...

  16. Design and Validation Testing of TruckScan to Assay Large Sacks of Fukushima Radioactive Debris on a Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuo [Canberra-Japan (Japan); Bronson, Frazier [Canberra Industries Inc. (United States)

    2015-07-01

    As a result of the March 2011 earthquake and resulting tsunami in Japan, there was a serious accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. This accident has contaminated soil and vegetation in a wide area around the plant. Decontamination projects over the last 4 years have resulted in large numbers of 1 cubic meter canvas bags of debris, commonly called Super Sacks [SS]. These are currently stored nearby where they were generated, but starting in 2015, they will be moved to various Interim Storage Facilities [ISF]. Trucks will typically carry 8-20 of these SSs. When the trucks arrive at the ISF they need to be rapidly sorted into groups according to radioactivity level, for efficient subsequent processing. Canberra Industries, Inc. [CI] has designed a new truck monitoring system 'TruckScan' for use at these ISFs. The TruckScan system must measure the entire truck loaded with multiple closely packed SSs, and generate a nuclide specific assay report showing the radioactivity in each individual SS. The Canberra-Japan office, along with Obayashi Corporation have performed validation testing to demonstrate to the regulatory authorities that the proposed technique was sufficiently accurate. These validation tests were conducted at a temporary storage area in Fukushima prefecture. Decontaminated waste of various representative types and of various levels of radioactivity was gathered and mixed to create homogeneous volumes. These volumes were sampled multiple times and assayed with laboratory HPGe detectors to determine the reference concentration of each pile. Multiple SSs were loaded from each pile. Some of the SSs were filled 50% full, others 75% full, and others 100% full, to represent the typical loading configuration of the existing SSs in the field. The content of the SSs are either sand, soil, or vegetation with densities ranging from 0.3 g/cc - 1.6 g/cc. These SSs with known concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 were then loaded onto trucks in

  17. Analysis of Truck Downtimes Using Log Dispersion Plot | Temeng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper uses log dispersion plot to analyse downtimes of a fleet of 22 dump trucks from the. Nchanga Open Pit, Zambia over a period of two months. Downtimes were categorised into breakdown codes to determine which ones were acute, chronic or a combination of both. The breakdown codes which were critical to the ...

  18. TITAN Legal Weight Truck cask preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Preliminary Design of the TITAN Legal Weight Truck (LWT) Cask System and Ancillary Equipment is presented in this document. The scope of the document includes the LWT cask with fuel baskets; impact limiters, and lifting and tiedown features; the cask support system for transportation; intermodal transfer skid; personnel barrier; and cask lifting yoke assembly. 75 figs., 48 tabs

  19. Application of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell for Lift Trucks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    in order to account for water back diffusion. Further Membrane water content is assumed to be a linear function of thickness. PEM fuel cell is working at rather low operating conditions which makes it suitable for the automotive systems. In this paper motive power part of a lift truck has been investigated...

  20. Work zone fatal crashes involving large trucks, 2012 : [analysis brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    In 2012, 30,800 fatal crashes took place on our Nations roadways, with 11.2 percent (3,464) involving at least 1 large truck. While the majority of all fatal crashes (98.2 percent) took place outside of a work zone in 2012, 547 fatal crashes (1.8 ...

  1. 78 FR 24293 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... CFR 390.5, and means an accident involving a commercial motor vehicle operating on a public road in... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No FMCSA-2011-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  2. 78 FR 20373 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... accident involving a commercial motor vehicle operating on a public road in interstate or intrastate... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2011-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  3. 78 FR 38431 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... Safety Regulations-- General). N. Passed Phase 1, Factor 2: A ``yes'' in this column indicates the... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No. FMCSA-2011-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  4. 78 FR 25525 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... (Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations-- General). N. Passed Phase 1, Factor 2: A ``yes'' in this column... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No FMCSA-2011-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  5. 78 FR 67445 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Safety Regulations-- General). N. Passed Phase 1, Factor 2: A ``yes'' in this column indicates the... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No FMCSA-2011-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  6. 77 FR 27837 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Motor Carrier Safety Regulations-- General). N. Passed Phase 1, Factor 2: A ``yes'' in this column... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No FMCSA-2011-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  7. 78 FR 60010 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Motor Carrier Safety Regulations-- General). N. Passed Phase 1, Factor 2: A ``yes'' in this column... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No FMCSA-2011-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  8. 77 FR 40938 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... Safety Regulations-- General). N. Passed Phase 1, Factor 2: A ``yes'' in this column indicates the... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No FMCSA-2011-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  9. A Cognitive Analysis of Truck Drivers’ Right-hand Turns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieker, Tobias Grønborg; G. Skulason, Thorgeir; Sletting, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    driving instructor is interviewed, and four truck drivers are observed and interviewed. This results in a cognitive work analysis with the phases work domain analysis, control task analysis and strategies analysis. Through this study it is indicated that many different types of information are sought...

  10. SVOC emissions from diesel trucks operating on biodiesel fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in particle matter (PM) emitted from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern after-treatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted as described by the George et al. VOC study also presented as part of this se...

  11. Analysis of frame structure of medium and small truck crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fuyi; Li, Jinlong; Cui, Mengkai

    2018-03-01

    Truck crane is an important part of hoisting machinery. Frame, as the support component of the quality of truck crane, determines the safety of crane jib load and the rationality of structural design. In this paper, the truck crane frame is a box structure, the three-dimensional model is established in CATIA software, and imported into Hyperworks software for finite element analysis. On the base of doing constraints and loads for the finite element model of the frame, the finite element static analysis is carried out. And the static stress test verifies whether the finite element model and the frame structure design are reasonable; then the free modal analysis of the frame and the analysis of the first 8 - order modal vibration deformation are carried out. The analysis results show that the maximum stress value of the frame is greater than the yield limit value of the material, and the low-order modal value is close to the excitation frequency value, which needs to be improved to provide theoretical reference for the structural design of the truck crane frame.

  12. U10 : Trusted Truck(R) II (phase B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Phase B of the Trusted Truck II project built on the system developed in Phase A (or Year 1). For the implementation portion of the project, systems were added to the trailer to provide additional diagnostic trailer data that can be sent to the TTM...

  13. Presenting a conceptual pattern of HSE performance of oil trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleh, Sahar; Omidvari, Manouchehr; Nassiri, Parvin; Momeni, Mansour; Lavasani, Seyed Mohammadreza Miri

    2018-01-25

    Accidents are among the main problems in the oil product supply chain. The most important effective factors in these events are the kind of trucks used and their health, safety, and environment (HSE) condition. The aim of this study was to present a conceptual pattern of the HSE performance of oil trucks in oil industries. In this study, 20 truck models (with fixed tanks), in use over different periods of time, were investigated. In this regard, the criteria and sub-criteria were first determined in two parts-carrier and tank-and weighted by fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The results showed that the most important sub-criteria regarding the HSE factors of the carrier were resistance and strength of the front and rear shields, the brake system, and the ventilation system. The most important sub-criteria regarding the HSE factors of the tank were tank shell thickness and a good tank design shape with respect to portable material. It should be noted that the weight of the criteria with each other and sub-criteria with each other are not equal. This issue is important for decision-making. The main reason for the use of trucks with the lowest score in developing countries is the lack of attention by managers to safety issues and international standards and agreements such as the ADR.

  14. Individual Differences in Boredom Proneness amongst Truck Drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    esteem and locus of control individually and jointly predicted boredom proneness amongst truck drivers. The same variables jointly accounted for 67% of the proportion of the variance in boredom proneness. Results of the 2 x 2 x 2 ANOVA also ...

  15. 78 FR 26106 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration [Docket No FMCSA-2011-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The FMCSA published a document in the Federal Register of...

  16. 76 FR 56272 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ...-0097] Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... ability of Mexico- domiciled motor carriers to operate safely in the United States beyond the municipalities in the United States on the United States-Mexico international border or the commercial zones of...

  17. 76 FR 56868 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ...-0097] Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... ability of Mexico- domiciled motor carriers to operate safely in the United States beyond the municipalities in the United States on the United States-Mexico international border or the commercial zones of...

  18. 77 FR 12356 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ...-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... of Mexico-domiciled motor carriers to operate safely in the United States beyond the municipalities in the United States on the United States-Mexico international border or the commercial zones of such...

  19. 78 FR 11728 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ...-0097] Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... or expending appropriated funds to grant authority to Mexico-domiciled motor carriers to operate beyond the municipalities in the United States on the United States-Mexico international border or the...

  20. 76 FR 73765 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ...-0097] Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... ability of Mexico- domiciled motor carriers to operate safely in the United States beyond the municipalities in the United States on the United States-Mexico international border or the commercial zones of...

  1. Parts Counterperson. Auto, Agriculture & Truck. Task List Competency Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Instructional Materials Center, White Bear Lake.

    Developed by industry representatives and educators for use by vocational instructors, this guide focuses on the tasks and competencies necessary for a student to develop in order to secure employment as a counterperson in automobile, agriculture, and truck parts. The task list is an outline of various skills and proficiencies and covers sales,…

  2. Designs rolle i brugerdreven innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Baggrunden for afhandlingen er rapporten 'Brugerdreven Innovation - resultater og anbefalinger' som er udarbejdet af FORA på vegne af Erhvervs- og Byggestyrelsen i 2005.  I denne rapport opsummeres resultaterne fra en række branchespecifikke studier af den rolle brugerdreven innovation spiller i...... anvendelsen af brugerdreven innovation i Danmark.".   Nærværende afhandling taget sit udgangspunkt i en analyse af forskellige former for brugerdreven innovation og de grænser for brugerinddragelse, som forskere som Leonard-Barton og Verganti ser. Formålet er at anskueliggøre de forskellige roller designeren...... spiller i forskellige former for brugerdreven innovation.   Horst Rittel definerer et wicked problem som en rodet problemstilling, hvor man ikke umiddelbart kan systematisere sig ud af kompleksitet, men må træffe valg, der er afgørende for såvel løsning som den måde, et problem forstås på. Med...

  3. Dynamics of a rolling robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilin, K I; Moffatt, H K; Vladimirov, V A

    2017-12-05

    Equations describing the rolling of a spherical ball on a horizontal surface are obtained, the motion being activated by an internal rotor driven by a battery mechanism. The rotor is modeled as a point mass mounted inside a spherical shell and caused to move in a prescribed circular orbit relative to the shell. The system is described in terms of four independent dimensionless parameters. The equations governing the angular momentum of the ball relative to the point of contact with the plane constitute a six-dimensional, nonholonomic, nonautonomous dynamical system with cubic nonlinearity. This system is decoupled from a subsidiary system that describes the trajectories of the center of the ball. Numerical integration of these equations for prescribed values of the parameters and initial conditions reveals a tendency toward chaotic behavior as the radius of the circular orbit of the point mass increases (other parameters being held constant). It is further shown that there is a range of values of the initial angular velocity of the shell for which chaotic trajectories are realized while contact between the shell and the plane is maintained. The predicted behavior has been observed in our experiments.

  4. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF SPLITTING WITHOUT WASTE BASED ON CROSS-WEDGE ROLLING IN DOUBLE ROLLING MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Tofil

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of numerical analysis of splitting without waste on the basis of cross wedge rolling in double rolling mechanism. The analysed process concerns rolling the charge of V-shaped groove, and rotary bending causing the split of the material. In the calculations a method of finite elements (FEM was used. The obtained results allowed detailed analysis of the splitting process in terms of the level of deformation, strains, material breaking, flow kinematics and strength parameters.

  5. Decision Support for the Rolling Stock Dispatcher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen

    Real-time recovery is receiving a fast growing interest in an increasingly competitive railway operation market. This thesis considers the area of rolling stock dispatching which is one of the typical real-time railway dispatching problems. All work of the thesis is based on the network...... and planning processes of the railway operator DSB S-tog a/s. In the thesis the problems existing in the railway planning process from the strategic to real-time level are briefly sketched. Network planning, line planning, timetabling, crew and rolling stock planning is outlined and relevant references...... are given. Specifically the thesis references the operation research studies based on the railway operation of DSB S-tog a/s. Subsequently the process of dispatching is outlined with a specific emphasis on rolling stock. The rolling stock recovery problem is the problem of assigning train units to train...

  6. Mathematical modeling of deformation during hot rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, D.; Stachowiak, R.G.; Samarasekera, I.V.; Brimacombe, J.K. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Centre for Metallurgical Processing Engineering

    1994-12-31

    The deformation that occurs in the roll bite during the hot rolling of steel, particularly the strain-rate and strain distribution, has been mathematically modeled using finite-element analysis. In this paper three different finite-element models are compared with one another and with industrial measurements. The first model is an Eulerian analysis based on the flow formulation method, while the second utilizes an Updated Lagrangian approach. The third model is based on a commercially available program DEFORM which also utilizes a Lagrangian reference frame. Model predictions of strain and strain-rate distribution, particularly near the surface of the slab, are strongly influenced by the treatment of friction at the boundary and the magnitude of the friction coefficient or shear factor. Roll forces predicted by the model have been compared with industrial rolling loads from a seven-stand hot-strip mill.

  7. Evaluating sustainability of truck weight regulations: A system dynamics view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Targeting the problem of overload trucking in Highway Transportation of iron ore from Caofeidian to Tangshan (HTCT, this paper aims to assess long-term effects of alternative Truck Weight Regulation (TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT. Design/methodology/approach: A system dynamics model was established for policy evaluation. The model, composed of six interrelating modules, is able to simulate policies effects on trucking issues such as freight flow, truck traffic flow, pavement performance, highway transport capacity and trucking time, and further on the Cumulative Economic Cost (CEC including transport cost and time cost of freight owners and the Cumulative Social Cost (CSC including pavement maintenance cost, green house gas emission cost, air pollutants emission cost and traffic accidents cost, so the effects of TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT could be evaluated. Findings: According to different values of overload ratio which a TWR policy allows, alternative TWR policies are classified into three types, which are The Rigid Policy (TRP, The Moderate Policy (TMP and The Tolerant Policy (TTP. Results show that the best policy for sustainability of HTCT depends on the importance of CSC which is expected by the local government. To be specific, (1 if CSC is considered much less important than CEC, the local government should continue implementing the current TTP with the maximum overload ratio; (2 if CSC is considered much more important than CEC, then TRP is recommended; and (3 if CSC is considered slightly more important than CES, TMP with overload ratio of 80% is the best. Practical implications: Conclusions of this paper may help the local government design appropriate TWR policies to achieve sustainability of HTCT. Originality/value: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort to evaluate TWR policies on sustainability of regional freight transportation based on system dynamics modeling.

  8. Roll-to-roll fabricated lab-on-a-chip devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vig, Asger Laurberg; Mäkelä, Tapio; Majander, Päivi

    2011-01-01

    We present a high-volume fabrication technique for making polymer lab-on-a-chip devices. Microfluidic separation devices, relying on pinched flow fraction, are roll-to-roll fabricated in a cellulose acetate (CA) film at a volume of 360 devices h−1 for a cost of approximately 0.5 euro/device. The ......We present a high-volume fabrication technique for making polymer lab-on-a-chip devices. Microfluidic separation devices, relying on pinched flow fraction, are roll-to-roll fabricated in a cellulose acetate (CA) film at a volume of 360 devices h−1 for a cost of approximately 0.5 euro...

  9. Six Reasons why hours of service regulations for truck drivers are violated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Sisse

    2008-01-01

      ABSTRACT Two decades of research has established a correlation between tiredness and fatigue, and traffic accident involving truck drivers.  Regulations limiting the driving hours of truck drivers thus are necessary precautions. But compliance is a problem. The answer from authorities tend......, because a truck driver's work is unpredictable and independent, but the regulation is action-defining and inflexible. Thus the regulations provoke violations because they counteract with the reality of truck drivers´ work conditions. The fifth reason is that the regulation counteracts with a general...... independency ideal among truck drivers. The last reason is that the drivers and their employers share an interest in long work hours....

  10. Cycloidal pendulum with a rolling cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeza, V. P.

    2012-07-01

    Free vibrations of a heavy homogeneous cylinder rolling in a cylindrical cavity whose directing curve is a brachistochrone are considered. The equation of motion of the cylinder is derived and the circular frequency of free vibrations of the cylinder center of mass is determined. An analogy between the cycloidal pendulum with a rolling cylinder and the classical cycloidal pendulum in the form of a material point is obtained.

  11. 21 CFR 136.130 - Milk bread, rolls, and buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk bread, rolls, and buns. 136.130 Section 136....130 Milk bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods milk bread, milk rolls, and milk buns conforms... ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110 except that: (1) The only moistening ingredient...

  12. 21 CFR 136.160 - Raisin bread, rolls, and buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Raisin bread, rolls, and buns. 136.160 Section 136....160 Raisin bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods raisin bread, raisin rolls, and raisin buns... of ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110, except that: (1) Not less than 50...

  13. Why Low Bounce Balls Exhibit High Rolling Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2015-01-01

    A simple experiment is described to measure the coefficient of rolling friction for a low bounce ball rolling on a horizontal surface. As observed previously by others, the coefficient increased with rolling speed. The energy loss due to rolling friction can be explained in terms of the measured coefficient of restitution for the ball, meaning…

  14. Maintenance in Railway Rolling Stock Rescheduling for Passenger Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Wagenaar (Joris); L.G. Kroon (Leo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses the Rolling Stock Rescheduling Problem (RSRP), while taking maintenance appointments into account. After a disruption, the rolling stock of passenger trains has to be rescheduled in order to maintain a feasible rolling stock circulation. A limited number of rolling

  15. Navier-Stokes Predictions of Dynamic Stability Derivatives: Evaluation of Steady-State Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeSpirito, James; Silton, Sidra I; Weinacht, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The prediction of the dynamic stability derivatives-roll-damping, Magnus, and pitch-damping moments-were evaluated for three spin-stabilized projectiles using steady-state computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calculations...

  16. Heavy Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Hybrid Powertrain Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Technologies .................................................................................... 87 4.2.2 Azure Dynamics...55 Table 7: Freightliner M2 106 Business Class Hybrid Configurations ................................ 63 Table 8: Azure Dynamics Balance Hybrid...Rolling Chassis ..................................................................... 88 Figure 42: Azure Dynamics Balance Hybrid Architecture

  17. Idle emissions from medium heavy-duty diesel and gasoline trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A B M S; Clark, Nigel N; Gautam, Mridul; Wayne, W Scott; Thompson, Gregory J; Lyons, Donald W

    2009-03-01

    Idle emissions data from 19 medium heavy-duty diesel and gasoline trucks are presented in this paper. Emissions from these trucks were characterized using full-flow exhaust dilution as part of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Project E-55/59. Idle emissions data were not available from dedicated measurements, but were extracted from the continuous emissions data on the low-speed transient mode of the medium heavy-duty truck (MHDTLO) cycle. The four gasoline trucks produced very low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and negligible particulate matter (PM) during idle. However, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HCs) from these four trucks were approximately 285 and 153 g/hr on average, respectively. The gasoline trucks consumed substantially more fuel at an hourly rate (0.84 gal/hr) than their diesel counterparts (0.44 gal/hr) during idling. The diesel trucks, on the other hand, emitted higher NOx (79 g/hr) and comparatively higher PM (4.1 g/hr), on average, than the gasoline trucks (3.8 g/hr of NOx and 0.9 g/hr of PM, on average). Idle NOx emissions from diesel trucks were high for post-1992 model year engines, but no trends were observed for fuel consumption. Idle emissions and fuel consumption from the medium heavy-duty diesel trucks (MHDDTs) were marginally lower than those from the heavy heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDTs), previously reported in the literature.

  18. Managing truck arrivals with time windows to alleviate gate congestion at container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, G.; Govindan, Kannan; Yang, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries into gro......Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries...... in the system. A conventional Genetic Algorithm (GA), a multi-society GA, and a hybrid algorithm using GA and Simulated Annealing are used to solve the optimization problem. A case study based on a real container terminal in China is performed, which shows the VDTWs method can flatten the truck arrivals...

  19. An investigation of the effects of pitch-roll (de)-coupling on helicopter handling qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockier, C. J.; Pausder, H. J.; Blanken, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of the effects of pitch-roll coupling on helicopter handling qualities was performed by the US Army and DLR, using a NASA ground-based and a DLR inflight simulator. Over 90 different coupling configurations were evaluated using a roll-axis tracking task. The results show that although the current ADS-33C coupling criterion discriminates against those types of coupling typical of conventionally controlled helicopters, it not always suited for the prediction of handling qualities of helicopters with modern control systems. Based on the observation that high frequency inputs during tracking are used to alleviate coupling, a frequency domain pitch-roll coupling criterion that uses the average coupling ratio between the bandwidth and neutral stability frequency is formulated. This criterion provides a more comprehensive coverage with respect to the different types of coupling and shows excellent consistency.

  20. 76 FR 34101 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...] Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, Japan, and Russia Determinations On...-quality steel products from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... products from Brazil and revocation of the antidumping duty orders on hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality...

  1. Plug-In Hybrid Urban Delivery Truck Technology Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasato, Matt [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Impllitti, Joseph [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Pascal, Amar [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The I-710 and CA-60 highways are key transportation corridors in the Southern California region that are heavily used on a daily basis by heavy duty drayage trucks that transport the cargo from the ports to the inland transportation terminals. These terminals, which include store/warehouses, inland-railways, are anywhere from 5 to 50 miles in distance from the ports. The concentrated operation of these drayage vehicles in these corridors has had and will continue to have a significant impact on the air quality in this region whereby significantly impacting the quality of life in the communities surrounding these corridors. To reduce these negative impacts it is critical that zero and near-zero emission technologies be developed and deployed in the region. A potential local market size of up to 46,000 trucks exists in the South Coast Air Basin, based on near- dock drayage trucks and trucks operating on the I-710 freeway. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), California Air Resources Board (CARB) and Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) — the agencies responsible for preparing the State Implementation Plan required under the federal Clean Air Act — have stated that to attain federal air quality standards the region will need to transition to broad use of zero and near zero emission energy sources in cars, trucks and other equipment (Southern California Association of Governments et al, 2011). SCAQMD partnered with Volvo Trucks to develop, build and demonstrate a prototype Class 8 heavy-duty plug-in hybrid drayage truck with significantly reduced emissions and fuel use. Volvo’s approach leveraged the group’s global knowledge and experience in designing and deploying electromobility products. The proprietary hybrid driveline selected for this proof of concept was integrated with multiple enhancements to the complete vehicle in order to maximize the emission and energy impact of electrification. A detailed review of all

  2. Safety benefits of stability control systems for tractor-semitrailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This study was conducted by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute : (UMTRI) under a Cooperative Agreement between NHTSA and Meritor WABCO to examine : the performance of electronic stability control (ESC) systems, and roll stab...

  3. Epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7 films on rolled-textured metals for high temperature superconducting applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, D.P.; Park, C.; Prouteau, C.

    1998-04-01

    The epitaxial growth of high temperature superconducting (HTS) films on rolled-textured metal represents a viable approach for long-length superconducting tapes. Epitaxial, 0.5 microm thick YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) films with critical current densities, J c , greater than 1 MA/cm 2 have been realized on rolled-textured (001) Ni tapes with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/CeO 2 oxide buffer layers. This paper describes the synthesis using pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) of epitaxial oxide buffer layers on biaxially-textured metal that comprise the so-called rolling-assisted biaxially-textured substrates (RABiTs trademark). The properties of the buffer and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 films on rolled-textured Ni are discussed, with emphasis given to the crystallographic and microstructural properties that determine the superconducting properties of these multilayer structures

  4. Roll-to-roll processed polymer tandem solar cells partially processed from water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Andreasen, Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    Large area polymer tandem solar cells completely processed using roll-to-roll (R2R) coating and printing techniques are demonstrated. A stable tandem structure was achieved by the use of orthogonal ink solvents for the coating of all layers, including both active layers. Processing solvents...

  5. Quality control of roll-to-roll processed polymer solar modules by complementary imaging methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösch, R.; Krebs, Frederik C; Tanenbaum, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    We applied complementary imaging methods to investigate processing failures of roll-to-roll solution processed polymer solar modules based on polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions. For investigation of processing deficiencies in solar modules we employed dark lock-in thermography (DLIT...

  6. Discomfort caused by low-frequency lateral oscillation, roll oscillation and roll-compensated lateral oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, George F; Griffin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Roll compensation during cornering (aligning the feet-to-head axis of the body with the resultant force) reduces lateral acceleration, but how any improvement in comfort depends on the frequency of the acceleration has not previously been investigated. Seated subjects judged the discomfort caused by lateral oscillation, roll oscillation and fully roll-compensated lateral oscillation at each of seven frequencies (0.25-1.0 Hz). Irrespective of whether it was caused by pure lateral acceleration or gravitational acceleration due to pure roll, acceleration in the plane of the seat caused similar discomfort at frequencies less than 0.4 Hz. From 0.4 to 1.0 Hz, with the same lateral acceleration in the plane of the seat, there was greater discomfort from roll oscillation than from lateral acceleration. With fully roll-compensated lateral oscillation, discomfort was less than with either the lateral component or the roll component of the motion from 0.2 to 0.5 Hz, but discomfort increased with increasing frequency and caused similar discomfort to pure roll oscillation at 1.0 Hz. Tilting can reduce passenger exposure to vehicle lateral acceleration when cornering, but how comfort depends on the frequency of motion was unknown. This study shows 'tilt-compensation' only improves comfort at frequencies less than 0.5 Hz. The findings affect tilting vehicles and the prediction of discomfort caused by low-frequency motions.

  7. Roll compaction/dry granulation: comparison between roll mill and oscillating granulator in dry granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakwanichol, Jarunee; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Ingenerf, Gernot; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Different experimental factorial designs were employed to evaluate granule properties obtained from oscillating granulator and roll mill. Four oscillating-granulator parameters were varied, i.e. rotor speed, oscillating angle, aperture of mesh screen and rotor type. Six roll-mill parameters that were throughput, speed ratio in both first and second stages, gap between roll pair in both stages and roll-surface texture were also investigated. Afterwards, the granule properties obtained from two milling types with similar median particle size were compared. All milling parameters in both milling types affected significantly the median particle size, size distribution and amount of fine particles (P rotor types of oscillating granulator on fines. Only three milling parameters influenced significantly the flowability (P < 0.05). These were the throughput and the gap size in the first stage of roll mill and the sieve size of oscillating granulator. In comparison between milling types, the differences of granule properties were not practically relevant. However, the roll mill had much higher capacity than the oscillating granulator about seven times, resulting in improving energy savings per unit of product. Consequently, the roll mill can be applied instead of oscillating granulator for roll compaction/dry granulation technique.

  8. Roll-to-roll paper sensors (ROPAS); Wireless communicating sensors on paper in the logistic chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rentrop, C.; Rubingh, J.E.J.M.; Lelieveld, R.; Sandberg, H.

    2014-01-01

    The ROPAS project (Roll-to-roll paper sensors) combines high end electronics and wireless sensors with low cost paper substrates and processing techniques that can be applied on a large scale. Paper is the next step in the printed electronics roadmap of utilising cheaper substrate materials as a

  9. Material-Process-Performance Relationships for Roll-to-Roll Coated PEM Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauger, Scott; Neyerlin, K.C.; Stickel, Jonathan; Ulsh, Michael; More, Karren; Wood, David

    2017-04-26

    Roll-to-roll (R2R) coating is the most economical and highest throughput method for producing fuel cell electrodes. R2R coating encompasses many different methodologies to create uniform films on a moving web substrate. Here we explore two coating methods, gravure and slot die, to understand the impacts of each on film uniformity and performance.

  10. Superhydrophobic Properties of Nanotextured Polypropylene Foils Fabricated by Roll-to-Roll Extrusion Coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telecka, Agnieszka; Murthy, Swathi; Sun, Ling

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of roll-to-roll extrusion coating (R2R-EC) for fabrication of nanopatterned polypropylene (PP) foils with strong antiwetting properties. The antiwetting nanopattern is originated from textured surfaces fabricated on silicon wafers by a single-step method of reactive ion etc...

  11. Preorganization of Nanostructured Inks for Roll-to-Roll-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Senkovskyy, Volodymyr; Kiriy, Anton

    2010-01-01

    , a preorganized ink was obtained that was used to make polymer solar cell modules in a full roll-to-roll coating and printing process operating in ambient air. The polymer solar cells were thus prepared by a mixture of slot die and flat-bed screen printing. Various polymer solar cell modules were prepared ranging...

  12. Influence of Temperature and Rolling Speed on Twin Roll Cast Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, G.; Bohlen, J.; Stutz, L.; Letzig, D.; Kainer, K. U.

    Reducing vehicle weight and emissions by lightweight design is a major goal of the automotive industry. Magnesium as the lightest structural metal offers a significant weight saving potential compared to steel and aluminum. Cast magnesium components are widely used, e.g. as engine blocks or gear box housings. The application of magnesium sheets is currently hampered by the low formability of magnesium which means that a large number of rolling passes is required to roll a DC cast slab to final gauge sheet. This large number of rolling steps is the main reason for the high cost of magnesium sheets. An alternative, cost-efficient production route for magnesium sheets with improved properties is feedstock production by twin roll casting (TRC). In this paper we report the results of twin roll casting experiments on the magnesium alloy AZ31 (Mg-3Al-lZn-Mn) and discuss the influence of the process on the micro structure and texture of the strips.

  13. Dimensional ranges and rolling efficiency in a tandem cold rolling mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkiola, J.

    1997-12-31

    In this work, physical models and a neural network theory have been combined in order to predict the properties of a steel strip and to optimise the process parameters in cold rolling. The prediction of the deformation resistance of the material and the friction parameter is based on the physical model presented by Bland, Ford and Ellis and artificial neural network computing (ANN). The accuracy of these models has been tested and proved by using a large amount of the measured data. With the aid of these models it has been shown that (a) the small change to the relative reduction distribution can have a clear effect upon the rolling efficiency, (b) the dimensional ranges of the tandem cold roll mill can be determined and optimised and (c) the possibility to cold roll a new product of new width, strength or thickness can be determined and the parameters of the tandem cold rolling process can be optimised. (orig.) 43 refs.

  14. Magnon Inflation: Slow Roll with Steep Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Adshead, Peter; Burgess, C P; Hayman, Peter; Patil, Subodh P

    2016-01-01

    We find multi-scalar effective field theories (EFTs) that can achieve a slow inflationary roll despite having a scalar potential that does not satisfy the usual slow-roll condition (d V)^2 << V^2/Mp^2. They evade the usual slow-roll conditions on $V$ because their kinetic energies are dominated by single-derivative terms rather than the usual two-derivative terms. Single derivatives dominate during slow roll and so do not require a breakdown of the usual derivative expansion that underpins calculational control in much of cosmology. The presence of such terms requires some sort of UV Lorentz-symmetry breaking during inflation (besides the usual cosmological breaking). Chromo-natural inflation provides an example of a UV theory that can generate the multi-field single-derivative terms we consider, and we argue that the EFT we find indeed captures the slow-roll conditions for the background evolution for Chromo-natural inflation. We also show that our EFT can be understood as a multi-field generalization ...

  15. Cummins L10G in Kenworth truck 'viable today'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    As the culmination of five years of developmental work by Cummins Engines, BC Research Inc., and BC Gas Utility Ltd., a T800 Kenworth truck was outfitted with a new Cummins L10G natural gas engine, and two lightweight fully -wrapped Dynetek cylinders; it was pronounced to be 'a viable clean truck today'. The L10G spark-ignited engine operates at a relatively high peak efficiency of 37 per cent and is commercially available to meet the current California Air Resources Board heavy duty vehicle emission standards without the use of a catalytic converter. The L10G engine produces no particulate emissions, a very significant advantage, in view of the fact that particulate emissions have been identified as major contributors to respiratory ailments

  16. Antecedents of Truck Drivers’ Job Satisfaction and Retention Proneness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prockl, Günter; Teller, Christoph; Kotzab, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) explore the antecedents of truck drivers’ job satisfaction, (2) identify the impact of financial and nonfinancial job properties on satisfaction with the job and with one's employer, and (3) the drivers’ proneness to retaining their jobs. Based on the extant...... literature, we develop a conceptual model that is tested using survey data for 164 truck drivers. Multiple linear and ordinal logistic regressions were used to estimate the proposed effects. The results reveal that nonfinancial job properties and satisfaction with one's employer affect job satisfaction...... is statistically significant. Financial and nonfinancial job properties affect satisfaction with one's employer whereas the former shows a lower impact compared to the latter. Satisfaction with the job and one's employer impacts retention proneness. The contribution of this study was to (1) add...

  17. Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Fleet Deployment Projects Final Technical Report May 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingler, James J [GENCO Infrastructure Solutions, Inc.

    2014-05-06

    The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance, operability and safety of fork lift trucks powered by fuel cells in large distribution centers. This was accomplished by replacing the batteries in over 350 lift trucks with fuel cells at five distribution centers operated by GENCO. The annual cost savings of lift trucks powered by fuel cell power units was between $2,400 and $5,300 per truck compared to battery powered lift trucks, excluding DOE contributions. The greatest savings were in fueling labor costs where a fuel cell powered lift truck could be fueled in a few minutes per day compared to over an hour for battery powered lift trucks which required removal and replacement of batteries. Lift truck operators where generally very satisfied with the performance of the fuel cell power units, primarily because there was no reduction in power over the duration of a shift as experienced with battery powered lift trucks. The operators also appreciated the fast and easy fueling compared to the effort and potential risk of injury associated with switching heavy batteries in and out of lift trucks. There were no safety issues with the fueling or operation of the fuel cells. Although maintenance costs for the fuel cells were higher than for batteries, these costs are expected to decrease significantly in the next generation of fuel cells, making them even more cost effective.

  18. Up-scaling perovskite solar cell manufacturing from sheet-to-sheet to roll-to-roll: challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Francesco; Galagan, Yulia; Shanmugam, Santhosh; Gorter, Harrie; van den Bruele, Fieke; Kirchner, Gerwin; de Vries, Ike; Fledderus, Henri; Lifka, Herbert; Veenstra, Sjoerd; Aernouts, Tom; Groen, Pim; Andrissen, Ronn

    2017-08-01

    Organometallic halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are extremely promising novel materials for thin-film photovoltaics, exhibiting efficiencies over 22% on glass and over 17% on foil 1, 2 . First, a sheet-to-sheet (S2S) production of PSCs and modules on 152x152 mm2 substrates was established, using a combination of sputtering, e-beam evaporation, slot die coating and thermal evaporation (average PCE of 14.6 +/- 1.3 % over 64 devices, more than 10% initial PCE on modules). Later the steps towards a roll-to-roll production will be investigated, starting from the optimization of the stack to make it compatible with a faster production at low temperature. A water based SnOx nanoparticles dispersion was used as solution processable ETL, and the deposition process was scaled-up from spin coating to R2R slot die coating on a 300 mm wide roll of PET/ITO. R2R production is often carried out in ambient atmosphere and involve the use of large volumes of materials, thus a first point is the development of a green solvent and precursor system for the perovskite layer to prevent the emission of toxic compound in the environment. The first results on device fabrication are encouraging, which allow partial R2R manufacturing of flexible PSC (R2R coating of SnOx and perovskite, S2S for Spiro-OMeTAD and gold) with stabilized PCE of 12.6%, a remarkable value for these novel devices. This result can be considered an important milestone towards the production of efficient, low cost, lightweight, flexible PSC on large area.

  19. A new transducer for roll gap measurements of the roll pressure distribution and the friction condition in cold flat rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagergren, Jonas; Wanheim, Tarras; Presz, W.

    2005-01-01

    and stainless steel strips in a pilot mill. The recordings were selected from a steady state with no disturbance from the material flow. The transducer was able to simultaneously measure both the normal pressure and the friction stress. An estimation of the coefficient of friction was accordingly performed....... Conclusions The new transducer works very well, it was seen to be robust and able to avoid signal disturbance. The pressure and friction stress distribution results was as expected by the authors and a good reproducibility, together with a proven agreement between recorded signals and signals simulated....... Keywords Friction stress, normal pressure distribution, roll bite measurements, cold flat rolling of metals...

  20. Roll and roll-to-roll process scaling through development of a compact flexo unit for printing of back electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Henrik Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Madsen, Morten Vesterager

    2015-01-01

    We report manufacture of fully printed and coated polymer solar cells on a small scale roll-to-roll coater representing the intermediate scale between laboratory and pilot scale. We highlight the enormous span in scale between the laboratory scale and the intended industrial scale by a factor...... electrode printing that is parsimonious in terms of ink usage and more gentle than laboratory scale flexo units where the foil transport is either driven by the flexo unit or the flexo unit is driven by the foil transport. We demonstrate fully operational flexible polymer solar cell manufacture using...

  1. On Relations Between Dump Truck Efficiency and Service Facilities Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Savchenko, A.A.; Zubariev, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The analysis of dump truck fleet of the open-pit mine, which possesses industrial real estates for technical maintenance and other operations, is provided. Several exploitation indexes are defined and analyzed subject to the corresponding mine. Basing on the provided analysis, factors and conditions, which define the production facility structure, are described. A list of production facility structures is provided. The influence of production facility structure on dump...

  2. FATIGUE WELDING JOINT RESISTANCE OF MINING DUMP TRUCK BEARING CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rakitsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates a possibility to apply European norms on designing of welded constructions for frames of heavy-load mining dump trucks. Comparison of results concerning tests of welding joint specimen made of local steel with recommended standards of fatigue curves is executed in the paper. The paper reveals that while forecasting resource of automotive constructions with the accepted practical accuracy it is possible to use generalized fatigue resistance characteristics of standard welding joints. 

  3. 21st Century Truck Partnership 2013 Fall Meeting Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-14

    Weighting & Vehicle System Design) − Industry Lead: Mr. Skip Yeakel, Volvo Trucks North America The Down-select Consolidation Session consisted...Efficiency, Light- Weighting & Vehicle System Design  Mr. Sam McLaughlin, Manager, Volvo External Research North America Region with Mr. Skip Yeakel...Principal Engineer, Volvo Advanced Engineering − Vehicle Fuel Efficiency  Dr. Vivek Sujan, Technical Advisor – Advanced Systems Integration

  4. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste [Calstart Incorporated, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-03-07

    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the

  5. The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

  6. Definition and Evaluation of Bus and Truck Automation Operations Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, H.-S. Jacob; Botha, Jan L.

    2002-01-01

    Traffic congestion will continue to worsen and likely worsen at a faster rate than ever. People throughput and freight throughput have become critical issues for California and the rest of the nation. PATH has been funding a one-year research project entitled "Definition and Evaluation of Bus and Truck Automation Operations Concepts," proposed by the authors. This report summarizes the results of the research project achieved during the first six months. During those six months, we reviewed l...

  7. TITAN Legal Weight Truck cask preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Preliminary Design of the TITAN Legal Weight Truck (LWT) Cask System and Ancillary Equipment is presented in this document. The scope of this document includes the LWT cask with fuel baskets, impact limiters, and lifting and tiedown features; the cask support system for transportation; intermodal transfer skid; personnel barrier; and cask lifting yoke assembly. The results of the tradeoff studies and evaluations that were performed during the preliminary design are presented in Appendix A to this report. 51 figs., 17 tabs

  8. Factors influencing injury severity of crashes involving HAZMAT trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majbah Uddin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates factors affecting injury severity of crashes involving HAZMAT large trucks. It uses the crash data in the state of California from the Highway Safety Information System, from 2005 to 2011. The explanatory factors include the occupant, crash, vehicle, roadway, environmental, and temporal characteristics. Both fixed- and random-parameters ordered probit models of injury severity (where possible outcomes are major, minor, and no injury were estimated; the random-parameters model captures possible unobserved effects related to factors not present in the data. The model results indicate that the occupants being male, truck drivers, crashes occurring in rural locations, under dark-unlighted, under dark-lighted conditions, and on weekdays were associated with increased probability of major injuries. Conversely, the older occupants (age 60 and over, truck making a turn, rear-end collision, collision with an object, crashes occurring on non-interstate highway, higher speed limit highway (≥65 mph, and flat terrain were associated with decreased probability of major injuries. This study has identified factors that explain injury severities of crashes involving HAZMAT, and as such, it could be used by policy makers and transportation agencies to improve HAZMAT transport, and thus, the overall highway safety.

  9. Upgrades for truck transportation of SNM in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, B.H.; Kornilovich, E.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this project is the rapid reduction of risk to truck transportation of SNM in Russia. Enhanced protection is being accomplished by cooperation between the US Department of Energy, MINATOM of Russia, the Russian Ministry of Defense, and various Russian Institutes. This program provides an integrated program of specialized trucks that are equipped with hardened overpack (SNM vault) containers, alarm and communications systems, and armored cabs. Armored escort vehicles are also provided to increase the survivability of the guards escorting convoys. Only indigenous Russian equipment, modified and/or manufactured by Designing Bureau for Motor Vehicle Transport Equipment (KBATO), is provided under this program. The US will not provide assistance in the truck transportation arena without a commitment from the Russian facility to provide heavily armed escorts for SNM movement. Each site conducts a detailed transportation needs assessment study that is used as the basis for prioritizing assistance. The Siberian Chemical Combine (Tomsk-7) was the initial site of cooperation. The designs used at Tomsk-7 are serving as the baseline for all future vehicles modified under this program. In FY98, many vehicles systems have been ordered for various institutes. Many additional systems will be ordered in FY99

  10. Controlling roll perturbations in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John M; Cohen, Itai

    2015-04-06

    Owing to aerodynamic instabilities, stable flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here, we investigate how flies control perturbations along their body roll angle, which is unstable and their most sensitive degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly and apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air. Fast video shows flies correct perturbations up to 100° within 30 ± 7 ms by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear proportional-integral controller. For more aggressive perturbations, we show evidence for nonlinear and hierarchical control mechanisms. Flies respond to roll perturbations within 5 ms, making this correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. f(R) constant-roll inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motohashi, Hayato [Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Valencia (Spain); Starobinsky, Alexei A. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-08-15

    The previously introduced class of two-parametric phenomenological inflationary models in general relativity in which the slow-roll assumption is replaced by the more general, constant-roll condition is generalized to the case of f(R) gravity. A simple constant-roll condition is defined in the original Jordan frame, and exact expressions for a scalaron potential in the Einstein frame, for a function f(R) (in the parametric form) and for inflationary dynamics are obtained. The region of the model parameters permitted by the latest observational constraints on the scalar spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio of primordial metric perturbations generated during inflation is determined. (orig.)

  12. Rolling Element Bearing Stiffness Matrix Determination (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Parker, R.

    2014-01-01

    Current theoretical bearing models differ in their stiffness estimates because of different model assumptions. In this study, a finite element/contact mechanics model is developed for rolling element bearings with the focus of obtaining accurate bearing stiffness for a wide range of bearing types and parameters. A combined surface integral and finite element method is used to solve for the contact mechanics between the rolling elements and races. This model captures the time-dependent characteristics of the bearing contact due to the orbital motion of the rolling elements. A numerical method is developed to determine the full bearing stiffness matrix corresponding to two radial, one axial, and two angular coordinates; the rotation about the shaft axis is free by design. This proposed stiffness determination method is validated against experiments in the literature and compared to existing analytical models and widely used advanced computational methods. The fully-populated stiffness matrix demonstrates the coupling between bearing radial, axial, and tilting bearing deflections.

  13. Developing high-resolution urban scale heavy-duty truck emission inventory using the data-driven truck activity model output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugu, Harikishan; Wei, Heng; Yao, Zhuo

    2017-04-01

    Air quality modelers often rely on regional travel demand models to estimate the vehicle activity data for emission models, however, most of the current travel demand models can only output reliable person travel activity rather than goods/service specific travel activity. This paper presents the successful application of data-driven, Spatial Regression and output optimization Truck model (SPARE-Truck) to develop truck-related activity inputs for the mobile emission model, and eventually to produce truck specific gridded emissions. To validate the proposed methodology, the Cincinnati metropolitan area in United States was selected as a case study site. From the results, it is found that the truck miles traveled predicted using traditional methods tend to underestimate - overall 32% less than proposed model- truck miles traveled. The coefficient of determination values for different truck types range between 0.82 and 0.97, except the motor homes which showed least model fit with 0.51. Consequently, the emission inventories calculated from the traditional methods were also underestimated i.e. -37% for NOx, -35% for SO2, -43% for VOC, -43% for BC, -47% for OC and - 49% for PM2.5. Further, the proposed method also predicted within ∼7% of the national emission inventory for all pollutants. The bottom-up gridding methodology used in this paper could allocate the emissions to grid cell where more truck activity is expected, and it is verified against regional land-use data. Most importantly, using proposed method it is easy to segregate gridded emission inventory by truck type, which is of particular interest for decision makers, since currently there is no reliable method to test different truck-category specific travel-demand management strategies for air pollution control.

  14. Measurement of Normal and Friction Forces in a Rolling Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Arentoft, Mogens; Wanheim, Tarras

    2004-01-01

    by the fric-tion conditions. To achieve this important informa-tion, measurements of the normal pressure and friction stresses in the deformation zone are re-quested. The direction of the friction stresses is changing during the rolling gap. At the entrance of the de-formation zone, the peripherical velocity...... of the roll is higher than for the incoming material, which causes frictional stresses at the material acting in the rolling direction. At the outlet of the rolling gap, the velocity of the deformed material exceeds the velocity of the roll, generating frictional stresses contrary to the direction of rolling...

  15. Scheduling trucks in cross docking systems with temporary storage and dock repeat truck holding pattern using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ghobadian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross docking is one of the most important issues in management of supply chains. In cross docking, different items delivered to a warehouse by inbound trucks are directly arranged and reorganized based on customer demands, routed and loaded into outbound trucks for delivery purposes to customers without virtually keeping them at the warehouse. If any item is kept in storage, it is normally for a short amount of time, say less than 24 hours. In this paper, we consider a special case of cross docking where there is temporary storage and implements genetic algorithm to solve the resulted problem for some realistic test problems. In our method, we first use some heuristics as initial solutions and then improve the final solution using genetic algorithm. The performance of the proposed model is compared with alternative solution strategy, the GRASP method.

  16. FE Simulation of the Stress-Strain State during Shear-Compression Testing and Asymmetric Three-Roll Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesin Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-roll rolling process is a significant technique in the production of wire rod, round bars and hexagonal profiles for structural applications. Better mechanical properties of wire rod, round bars and hexagonal profiles can be achieved due to large plastic deformation by the three-roll rolling process. Asymmetric rolling is a novel technique characterized by a kinematic asymmetry linked to the difference in peripheral speed of the rolls, able to introduce additional shear strains through the bar thickness. Physical simulation of shear strain, which is similar to that occurring in asymmetric three-roll rolling process, is very important for design of technology of producing ultrafine grain materials. Shear testing is complicated by the fact that a state of large shear is not easily achievable in most specimen geometries. Application of the shear-compression testing and specimen geometry to physical simulation of asymmetric three-roll rolling process is discussed in the paper. FEM simulation and comparison of the stress-strain state during shear-compression testing and asymmetric three-roll rolling process is presented. The results of investigation can be used to optimize the physical simulation of asymmetric three-roll rolling processes and for design of technology of producing ultrafine grain materials by severe plastic deformation.

  17. Implementation of an unmanned aerial vehicle for new generation Peterbilt trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan K, Venkatesh

    As science and technology continue to advance, innovative developments in transportation can enhance product safety and security for the benefit and welfare of society. The federal government requires every commercial truck to be inspected before each trip. This pre-trip inspection ensures the safe mechanical condition of each vehicle before it is used. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) could be used to provide an automated inspection, thus reducing driver workload, inspection costs and time while increasing inspection accuracy. This thesis develops a primary component of the algorithm that is required to implement UAV pre-trip inspections for commercial trucks using an android-based application. Specifically, this thesis provides foundational work of providing stable height control in an outdoor environment using a laser sensor and an android flight control application that includes take-off, landing, throttle control, and real-time video transmission. The height algorithm developed is the core of this thesis project. Phantom 2 Vision+ uses a pressure sensor to calculate the altitude of the drone for height stabilization. However, these altitude readings do not provide the precision required for this project. Rather, the goal of autonomously controlling height with great precision necessitated the use of a laser rangefinder sensor in the development of the height control algorithm. Another major contribution from this thesis research is to extend the limited capabilities of the DJI software development kit in order to provide more sophisticated control goals without modifying the drone dynamics. The results of this project are also directly applicable to a number of additional uses of drones in the transportation industry.

  18. Transplanckian energy production and slow roll inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, Ulf H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how the energy density due to a nonstandard choice of initial vacuum affects the expansion of the universe during inflation. To do this we introduce source terms in the Friedmann equations making sure that we respect the relation between gravity and thermodynamics. We find that the energy production automatically implies a slow rolling cosmological constant. Hence we also conclude that there is no well defined value for the cosmological constant in the presence of sources. We speculate that a nonstandard vacuum can provide slow roll inflation on its own

  19. Rolling friction on a granular medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blasio, Fabio Vittorio; Saeter, May-Britt

    2009-02-01

    We present experimental results for the rolling of spheres on a granular bed. We use two sets of glass and steel spheres with varying diameters and a high-speed camera to follow the motion of the spheres. Despite the complex phenomena occurring during the rolling, the results show a friction coefficient nearly independent of the velocity (0.45-0.5 for glass and 0.6-0.65 for steel). It is found that for a given sphere density, the large spheres reach a longer distance, a result that may also help explain the rock sorting along natural stone accumulations at the foot of mountain slopes.

  20. Transport of Venusian rolling 'stones' by wind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Marshall, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    Simulations of Venusian wind processes are described which show that particles are moved by 'rolling' at wind speeds as much as 30 percent lower than those required for saltation threshold. This mode of wind transport is only observed for sustained periods in water on earth; thus, there are similarities between aqueous fluid transport on earth and atmospheric transport on Venus. The formation of small sand ridges and grooves oriented parallel to the wind direction is associated with the rolling of grains in Venusian simulations and these structures may be unique aeolian features on Venus.

  1. Influence of Surge on Extreme Roll Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Rognebakke, Olav; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    on the position of the wave crest relatively to the ship, the ship will be slowed down when she meets the wave. In this paper attempts are made to accurately account for added resistance and additional thrust, applied in order to maintain the ship speed. The surge equilibrium equation has been longitudinally......Interference of the wave-induced ship surge motion with roll dynamics has been studied. The surge motion has been included in a previously derived hydrodynamic roll prediction model in order to account for the ship speed variation due to the longitudinal incident wave pressure force. Depending...

  2. Controlling roll perturbations in fruit flies

    OpenAIRE

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John M.; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Owing to aerodynamic instabilities, stable flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here, we investigate how flies control perturbations along their body roll angle, which is unstable and their most sensitive degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly and apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air. Fast video shows flies correct perturbations up to 100° within 30 ± 7 ms by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear proportion...

  3. IMPROVING THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SHOVEL-TRUCK SYSTEMS IN OPEN-PIT COAL MINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark KORYAGIN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to reduce idle times of mining trucks and shovels in an open-pit coal mine. A heuristic algorithm for making dispatching decisions in conditions of dynamic allocation of trucks is developed. Priority parameters for choosing the shovel after the end-of-truck unloading are introduced. Also, an algorithm for searching for the optimal priority parameters to satisfy the required efficiency criterion is developed. This algorithm is based on a simulation model of a shovel-truck system. The proposed approach is applicable in terms of the group of shovels with a common dump point in various open-pit coal mines. The importance of this work lies in the fact that the proposed model takes into account the random factors related with the duration of loading and dumping, truck movement, repair of shovels and haul trucks, as well as the duration of periods between repairs.

  4. Voltage and Thermally Driven Roll-to-Roll Organic Printed Transistor Made in Ambient Air Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorelli, Francesco

    Resume: Organic thin film transistors offer great potential for use in flexible electronics. Much of this potential lies in the solution processability of the organic polymers enabling both roll coating and printing on flexible substrates and thus greatly reducing the material and fabrication costs....... We present flexible organic power transistors prepared by fast (20 m min−1) roll-to-roll flexographic printing of the drain and source electrode structures, with an interspace below 50 um, directly on polyester foil[1]. The devices have top gate architecture and were completed by slotdie coating...

  5. Planning of Truck Platoons: a Literature Review and Directions for Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kishore Bhoopalam, Anirudh; Agatz, Niels; Zuidwijk, Rob

    2017-01-01

    textabstractA truck platoon is a set of virtually linked trucks that drive closely behind one another using automated driving technology. Benefits of truck platooning include cost savings, reduced emissions, and more efficient utilization of road capacity. To fully reap these benefits in the initial phases requires careful planning of platoons based on trucks’ itineraries and time schedules. This paper provides a framework to classify various new transportation planning problems that arise in...

  6. Assessing crash risk considering vehicle interactions with trucks using point detector data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Kyung Kate; Jeong, Kyungsoo; Tok, Andre; Ritchie, Stephen G

    2018-03-12

    Trucks have distinct driving characteristics in general traffic streams such as lower speeds and limitations in acceleration and deceleration. As a consequence, vehicles keep longer headways or frequently change lane when they follow a truck, which is expected to increase crash risk. This study introduces several traffic measures at the individual vehicle level to capture vehicle interactions between trucks and non-trucks and analyzed how the measures affect crash risk under different traffic conditions. The traffic measures were developed using headways obtained from Inductive Loop Detectors (ILDs). In addition, a truck detection algorithm using a Gaussian Mixture (GM) model was developed to identify trucks and to estimate truck exposure from ILD data. Using the identified vehicle types from the GM model, vehicle interaction metrics were categorized into three groups based on the combination of leading and following vehicle types. The effects of the proposed traffic measures on crash risk were modeled in two different cases of prior- and non-crash using a case-control approach utilizing a conditional logistic regression. Results showed that the vehicle interactions between the leading and following vehicle types were highly associated with crash risk, and further showed different impacts on crash risk by traffic conditions. Specifically, crashes were more likely to occur when a truck following a non-truck had shorter average headway but greater headway variance in heavy traffic while a non-truck following a truck had greater headway variance in light traffic. This study obtained meaningful conclusions that vehicle interactions involved with trucks were significantly related to the crash likelihood rather than the measures that estimate average traffic condition such as total volume or average headway of the traffic stream. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Truck frame welding reparation by steel covered electrodes with varied amount of Ni and Mo

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz WĘGRZYN; Michał MIROS; Damian HADRYŚ; Abilio Manuel Pereira da SILVA

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to study safety and exploitation conditions of weld steel structure reparation of car body truck frames. Car (auto) body is the name given to the portion of an automobile which gives it shape. The work is a theoretical investigation and concentrates on structural integrity and vehicle safety after the reparation welding of truck frames. To study the effects of the frame flexibility and resistance, the truck frame has been welded by steel electrodes with varied amount of Ni...

  8. Electric urban delivery trucks: energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeon; Thomas, Valerie M; Brown, Marilyn A

    2013-07-16

    We compare electric and diesel urban delivery trucks in terms of life-cycle energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and total cost of ownership (TCO). The relative benefits of electric trucks depend heavily on vehicle efficiency associated with drive cycle, diesel fuel price, travel demand, electric drive battery replacement and price, electricity generation and transmission efficiency, electric truck recharging infrastructure, and purchase price. For a drive cycle with frequent stops and low average speed such as the New York City Cycle (NYCC), electric trucks emit 42-61% less GHGs and consume 32-54% less energy than diesel trucks, depending upon vehicle efficiency cases. Over an array of possible conditions, the median TCO of electric trucks is 22% less than that of diesel trucks on the NYCC. For a drive cycle with less frequent stops and high average speed such as the City-Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), electric trucks emit 19-43% less GHGs and consume 5-34% less energy, but cost 1% more than diesel counterparts. Considering current and projected U.S. regional electricity generation mixes, for the baseline case, the energy use and GHG emissions ratios of electric to diesel trucks range from 48 to 82% and 25 to 89%, respectively.

  9. Logistics of in-wood chipping and trucking of chips; Palstahaketuksen logistinen ketju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuuja, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Asikainen, A. [Metsaeosaamiskeskus, Joensuu (Finland). Joensuu Science Park

    1996-12-31

    In this study a in wood chipper and truck transport of chips were modelled and studied by discrete-event simulation. The input data, which included stand characteristics and information about transport distances was compiled by GRASS-program. This data based on the inventory done by Forestry Center TAPIO. With the model various transport alternatives were compared and the effect of work condition factors were studied. It was find out, that a long distance transport with interchangeable container truck gives better productivity than a truck with a trailer. This results from shorter loading time for the interchangeable container truck

  10. Was It Really Worth Pain? Refurbishment of Mercedes-Benz Trucks by Botswana Defence Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rangobana, Samuel A; Alkebaisi, Hussain K

    2005-01-01

    .... Logistics statistics, for refurbished trucks returned to user units, are also gathered from the asset management software database, Mincom Ellipse, in use by the Botswana Defence Force Mechanical...

  11. Effect of friction on rolling tire-pavement interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    In this research, a three-dimensional (3-D) tire-pavement interaction model is developed using FEM to analyze the tire-pavement contact stress distributions at various rolling conditions (free rolling, braking/accelerating, and cornering). In additio...

  12. Tool For Robotic Resistive Roll Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilber, Jeffrey L.

    1991-01-01

    Roll-welding attachment for robot simple, inexpensive device incorporating modified commercial resistance-welding gun. Modified welding gun easily attaches to end effector of robot. Robot applies welding force and moves electrode wheel along prescribed path. Resistance-welding current starts and stops automatically according to force exerted against workpiece. Used to apply brazing foil to workpiece.

  13. Running-in of rolling contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamari, Jamari

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with running-in of the pure rolling contact situation operating in the boundary lubrication regime, so that normal plastic deformation due to the contact between asperities is the main aspect. The change of the surface topography during the running-in process and the run-in

  14. Improved measurement methods for railway rolling noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Janssens, M.H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Some of the issues related to railway noise type testing are discussed and potential improvements to existing procedures are put forward. New and improved methods that also go beyond the scope of type testing are presented that help to characterize and analyze rolling noise more accurately. These

  15. Statistical prediction of parametric roll using FORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Choi, Ju-hyuck; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) can be an efficient method for estimation of outcrossing rates and extreme value statistics for stationary stochastic processes. This is so also for bifurcation type of processes like parametric roll of ships. The present...

  16. The riddles of rock and roll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.M. d' Anjou (Leo)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractRock and roll has often been equated with rebellion. The genre, though, is just a form of popular music and many of the important players in the game of promoting it were, like the saying goes, only in it for the money. As a rule, music like that will be supportive of the social order

  17. Large Scale Evaluation fo Nickel Aluminide Rolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    This completed project was a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem Steel (now Mittal Steel) to demonstrate the effectiveness of using nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated, energy-efficient, commercial annealing furnace system.

  18. Detection of Parametric Roll on Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have shown several incidents with dramatic damage on container vessels caused by parametric resonance. When the resonance starts, the roll oscillation at a sub-harmonic frequency of the wave excitation may be completely unexpected. Timely warning about the onset of the resonance...... on experimental data from towing tank tests and data from a container ship passing an Atlantic storm....

  19. Film Thickness in Grease Lubricated Rolling Bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugt, Piet M.; Van Zoelen, M. T.; Venner, C. H.; Lugt, Piet M.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter the theory from Chapter 9 will be applied to rolling bearings. The thin layer flow equations are used to describe the tangential and normal flow due to centrifugal forces. The interaction between the various contacts on inner ring and outer ring will be described followed by the

  20. Kommunernes rolle i klimaomstilling af byggeriet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper; Stauning, Inger; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    -tekniske systemer. Baseret på studier af fire danske kommuner (Sønderborg, Albertslund, Egedal og Næstved) undersøges potentialer og virkemidler, som kommunerne kan benytte i deres rolle som strategiske aktører i udviklingen af sådanne situerede transitionssteder. Kapitlet viser en mangfoldighed i måder, hvorpå...

  1. Process optimization of graphene growth in a roll-to-roll plasma CVD system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrefae, Majed A.; Kumar, Anurag; Pandita, Piyush; Candadai, Aaditya; Bilionis, Ilias; Fisher, Timothy S.

    2017-11-01

    A systematic approach to mass-production of graphene and other 2D materials is essential for current and future technological applications. By combining a sequential statistical design of experiments with in-situ process monitoring, we demonstrate a method to optimize graphene growth on copper foil in a roll-to-roll rf plasma chemical vapor deposition system. Data-driven predictive models show that gas pressure, nitrogen, oxygen, and plasma power are the main process parameters affecting the quality of graphene. Furthermore, results from in-situ optical emission spectroscopy reveal a positive correlation of CH radical to high quality of graphene, whereas O and H atoms, Ar+ ion, and C2 and CN radicals negatively correlate to quality. This work demonstrates the deposition of graphene on copper foil at 1 m/min, a scale suitable for large-scale production. The techniques described here can be extended to other 2D materials and roll-to-roll manufacturing processes.

  2. A new transducer for local load measurements of friction and roll pressure in cold flat rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagergren, J.; Wanheim, Tarras; Precz, W.

    2006-01-01

    The only way to establish the true rolling pressure and the true friction condition in cold rolling is to conduct measurements in the roll bite. A new transducer design is therefore proposed, in order to overcome problems in previous measurements in the past 70 years. The new idea is to increase...... the contact surface of the transducer, to be larger than the arc of contact. This is in contrast to the smaller and smaller contact pin design that has been prevailing. The measurements were conducted during cold dry rolling of both copper strips and stainless steel strips in a pilot mill. The recordings were...... selected from a steady state with no disturbance from the material flow. The transducer was able to simultaneously measure both the normal pressure and the friction stress. An estimation of the coefficient of friction was accordingly performed. The new transducer works very well, it was seen to be robust...

  3. Rapid Prototyping of Slot Die Devices for Roll to Roll Production of EL Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingham, Alyssa; Bromhead, Nicholas; Fontecchio, Adam

    2017-05-29

    There is a growing interest in fibers supporting optoelectrical properties for textile and wearable display applications. Solution-processed electroluminescent (EL) material systems can be continuously deposited onto fiber or yarn substrates in a roll-to-roll process, making it easy to scale manufacturing. It is important to have precise control over layer deposition to achieve uniform and reliable light emission from these EL fibers. Slot-die coating offers this control and increases the rate of EL fiber production. Here, we report a highly adaptable, cost-effective 3D printing model for developing slot dies used in automatic coating systems. The resulting slot-die coating system enables rapid, reliable production of alternating current powder-based EL (ACPEL) fibers and can be adapted for many material systems. The benefits of this system over dip-coating for roll-to-roll production of EL fibers are demonstrated in this work.

  4. Effect of Rolling Resistance in Dem Models With Spherical Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubina Radek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rolling resistance is an artificial moment arising on the contact of two discrete elements which mimics resistance of two grains of complex shape in contact rolling relatively to each other. The paper investigates the influence of rolling resistance on behaviour of an assembly of spherical discrete elements. Besides the resistance to rolling, the contacts between spherical particles obey the Hertzian law in normal straining and Coulomb model of friction in shear.

  5. 40 CFR 467.10 - Applicability; description of the rolling with neat oils subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rolling with neat oils subcategory. 467.10 Section 467.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rolling With Neat Oils Subcategory § 467.10 Applicability; description of the rolling with neat oils... the rolling with neat oils subcategory. ...

  6. Roll compaction and granulation system for nuclear fuel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H. Jr.; Holley, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    A roll compaction and roll granulation system has been designed and fabricated to replace conventional preslugging and crushing operations typically used in the fabrication of mixed oxide nuclear fuel pellets. This equipment will be of maintenance advantage with only the compaction and granulation rolls inside containment. The prototype is being tested and the results will be reported within a year

  7. Determination of residual stresses in roll compacted titanium strips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mothosi, KL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available induced during roll compaction of titanium strips were measured for strips of different densities. The different densities were achieved by rolling two different particle size (100 and 325 mesh) titanium powders varying the roll gap (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mm...

  8. Metallurgical analysis of spalled work roll of hot strip mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.M.; Khan, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    In this study failure analysis of four work roll of the Hot Strip Mill is carried out. The microstructure is correlated with the chemical composition of shell and roll-life. It was concluded that for the longer service of the roll, cementite, graphite and martensite should be balanced (as per working requirement of the mill). (author)

  9. Assessment of friction between a rolling cylindrical element and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cost-effective friction coefficient measuring technique was developed and tested. The technique involved the mounting of two sensing elements on the surface of rolls, in a manner that sought to measure simultaneously the normal and the tangential stresses during rolling. The instrumented roll termed “SGRoll” was ...

  10. Lubrication in cold rolling : Numerical simulation using multigrid techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugt, Pieter Martin

    1992-01-01

    In the cold rolling process a lubricant is applied on the rolls and/or the strip mate­rial. Due to the velocities of the rolls and the strip, part of the lubricant is sheared into the contact causing, amongst others, a reduction of the friction. In this thesis a physical-mathematical model is

  11. Chaotic travelling rolls in Rayleigh–Bénard convection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The lateral shift of the rolls may lead to a global flow reversal of the convective motion. The chaotic travelling rolls are observed in simulations with free-slip as well as no-slip boundary conditions on the velocity field. We show that the travelling rolls and the flow reversal are due to an interplay between the real and imaginary ...

  12. design and fabrication of a multipurpose railroad hand truck

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    mild steel angle bar (5mm thickness), 3mm mild steel plate, mild steel ... Rolling resistance is a measure of the retarding effect of a ... A similar pipe of. 120mm was welded to it, forming a T- shape at the free end to enable paddling with both hands. A connecting rod connected to the swinger arm transmits the force from the ...

  13. Integration and consolidation of border freight transportation data for planning applications and characterization of NAFTA truck loads for aiding in transportation infrastructure management : second year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Average Daily Truck Traffic (ADTT) increased dramatically in Texas in the 1990s partly because of the : implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Accurate information on truck : volumes and truck characteristics is critical t...

  14. Rolling Force Prediction in Heavy Plate Rolling Based on Uniform Differential Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of the rolling force is critical to assuring the quality of the final product in steel manufacturing. Exit thickness of plate for each pass is calculated from roll gap, mill spring, and predicted roll force. Ideal pass scheduling is dependent on a precise prediction of the roll force in each pass. This paper will introduce a concept that allows obtaining the material model parameters directly from the rolling process on an industrial scale by the uniform differential neural network. On the basis of the characteristics that the uniform distribution can fully characterize the solution space and enhance the diversity of the population, uniformity research on differential evolution operator is made to get improved crossover with uniform distribution. When its original function is transferred with a transfer function, the uniform differential evolution algorithms can quickly solve complex optimization problems. Neural network structure and weights threshold are optimized by uniform differential evolution algorithm, and a uniform differential neural network is formed to improve rolling force prediction accuracy in process control system.

  15. High resolution patterning for flexible electronics via roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabik, Sami; de Riet, Joris; Yakimets, Iryna; Smits, Edsger

    2014-03-01

    Flexible electronics is a growing field and is currently maturing in applications such as displays, smart packaging, organic light-emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. In order to process on flexible substrates at high throughput and large areas, novel patterning techniques will be essential. Conventional optical lithography is limited in throughput as well as resolution, and requires several alignment steps to generate multi-layered patterns, required for applications such as thin-film transistors. It therefore remains a complex and expensive process. Nanoimprint lithography is an emerging alternative to optical lithography, demonstrating patterning capabilities over a wide range of resolutions, from several microns down to a few nanometres. For display applications, nanoimprint lithography can be used to pattern various layers. Micron sized thin-film transistors for backplane can be fabricated where a self-aligned geometry is used to decrease the number of alignment steps, and increase the overlay accuracy. In addition, nano-structures can be used for optical applications such as anti-reflective surfaces and nano patterned transparent electrodes. Imprint lithography is a fully roll-to-roll compatible process and enables large area and high throughput fabrication for flexible electronics. In this paper we discuss the possibilities and the challenges of large area patterning by roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography, reviewing micron and nano sized structures realized on our roll-to-roll equipment. Nano patterned transparent electrodes, moth-eye antireflective coatings, and multilevel structures will be covered.

  16. Psychoactive substance use by truck drivers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Birolim, Marcela Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarise the scientific evidence on the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and on the factors associated with their intake among truck drivers. A systematic review was performed in the databases PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, and Cochrane and 36 cross-sectional studies were identified with quantitative results about the use of psychoactive substances by truck drivers. Out of these, 28 were carried out in countries with large land areas and 23 obtained their information through self-reporting. The most frequently studied substances were alcohol (n=25), amphetamines (n=17), marijuana (n=16) and cocaine (n=13). The prevalence of the use of these substances greatly varied: alcohol (0.1-91.0%); amphetamines (0.2-82.5%), marijuana (0.2-29.9%), cocaine (0.1-8.3%). The frequency of substance use was lower in studies that investigated the presence of these substances in biological samples than in those based on self-reported use. In 12 studies that evaluated factors associated with the intake of psychoactive substances, the following stood out: younger age, higher income, longer trips, alcohol consumption, driving in the night shift, travelling interstate routes, long or short sleep, fewer hours of rest, little experience of the driver, connection with small and medium sized companies, income below levels determined by labour agreements, productivity-based earnings and prior involvement in accidents. The frequency of psychoactive substance use by truck drivers seems to be high, although that greatly varies according to the type of substance and the method of collecting the information. The use of these substances was mainly associated with indicators of poor working conditions.

  17. Aberrant Behaviors and Road Accidents among Iranian Truck Drivers, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available structural dimensions of which as well as technologic failures such as road quality, and tech-nical faults of automobiles, need to be assessed in detail. Iran has the first order in the world for deadly road accidents. This study was designed to assess the association between aberrant behaviors of truck drivers and the incidence of road accidents in Yazd, center of Iran, in 2010.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 truck drivers in Yazd. We used 3 questionnaires, including one for demographic data, Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ, and one for drivers' self-evaluation of the of their driving.Results: Five types of the behavior had the highest frequency: Misjudge speed of oncoming vehicle when overtaking.; Deliberately disregard the speed limits late at night or very early in the morning.; Ignore 'give way' signs, and narrowly avoid colliding with traffic having right of way.; Stuck behind a slow-moving vehicle on a two-lane highway, you are driven by frustration to try to overtake in risky circumstances.; Drive with only 'half-an-eye' on the road while looking at a map, changing a cassette or radio channel, etc. The more the driver's driv-ing was influenced by emotional and mental states the more deliberate violations and slips.Conclusion: Among truck drivers, safety has not developed sufficiently, and because of the dangers of road accidents both for the drivers and other people and its economic losses, the importance of the presenting some solutions is completely obvious.

  18. Recovery Act--Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trucks, Daimler [Daimler Trucks North America Llc, Portland, OR (United States)

    2015-07-26

    Daimler Trucks North America completed a five year, $79.6M project to develop and demonstrate a concept vehicle with at least 50% freight efficiency improvement over a weighted average of several drive cycles relative to a 2009 best-in-class baseline vehicle. DTNA chose a very fuel efficient baseline vehicle, the 2009 Freightliner Cascadia with a DD15 engine, yet successfully demonstrated a 115% freight efficiency improvement. DTNA learned a great deal about the various technologies that were incorporated into Super Truck and those that, through down-selection, were discarded. Some of the technologies competed with each other for efficiency, and notably some of the technologies complemented each other. For example, we found that Super Truck’s improved aerodynamic drag resulted in improved fuel savings from eCoast, relative to a similar vehicle with worse aerodynamic drag. However, some technologies were in direct competition with each other, namely the predictive technologies which use GPS and 3D digital maps to efficiently manage the vehicles kinetic energy through controls and software, versus hybrid which is a much costlier technology that essentially targets the same inefficiency. Furthermore, the benefits of a comprehensive, integrated powertrain/vehicle approach was proven, in which vast improvements in vehicle efficiency (e.g. lower aero drag and driveline losses) enabled engine strategies such as downrating and downspeeding. The joint engine and vehicle developments proved to be a multiplier-effect which resulted in large freight efficiency improvements. Although a large number of technologies made the selection process and were used on the Super Truck demonstrator vehicle, some of the technologies proved not feasible for series production.

  19. Outputs and cost of HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandona Rakhi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers form part of the HIV control efforts, but systematic data on the outputs and cost of providing such services in India are not readily available for further planning and use of resources. Methods Detailed cost and output data were collected from written records and interviews for 2005–2006 fiscal year using standardized methods at six sampled HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The total economic cost for these programmes was computed and the relation of unit cost of services per truck driver with programme scale was assessed using regression analysis. Results A total of 120,436 truck drivers were provided services by the six programmes of which 55.9% were long distance truck drivers. The annual economic cost of providing services to a truck driver varied between programmes from US$ 1.52 to 4.56 (mean US$ 2.49. There was an inverse relation between unit economic cost of serving a truck driver and scale of the programme (R2 = 0.63; p = 0.061. The variation between programmes in the average number of contacts made by the programme staff with truck drivers was 1.3 times versus 5.8 times for contacts by peer educators. Only 1.7% of the truck drivers were referred by the programmes for counseling and HIV testing. Conclusion These data provide information for further planning of HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers and estimating the resources needed for such programmes. The findings suggest the need to strengthen the role of peer educators and increase referral of truck drivers for HIV testing.

  20. Its Not a Big Truck: Examining Cyber Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    mortality in June of 2006 when he said the Internet is “not a big truck. It’s a series of tubes.” Along with inadvertently creating a new Internet meme [a...and people who publically misunderstand the Internet run the very real risk of inad- vertently creating their very own meme . That’s not nearly as fun...catch- phrase or idea that spreads online], the senator’s unfortunate attempt to explain the Internet highlights both the central role of metaphor in

  1. Assessing tether anchor labeling and usability in pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Malik, Laura A; Flannagan, Carol A; Jermakian, Jessica S

    2018-04-03

    The objective of this study was to investigate vehicle factors associated with child restraint tether use and misuse in pickup trucks and evaluate 4 labeling interventions designed to educate consumers on proper tether use. Volunteer testing was performed with 24 subjects and 4 different pickup trucks. Each subject performed 8 child restraint installations among the 4 pickups using 2 forward-facing restraints: a Britax Marathon G4.1 and an Evenflo Triumph. Vehicles were selected to represent 4 different implementations of tether anchors among pickups: plastic loop routers (Chevrolet Silverado), webbing routers (Ram), back wall anchors (Nissan Frontier), and webbing routers plus metal anchors (Toyota Tundra). Interventions included a diagram label, Quick Response (QR) Code linked to video instruction, coordinating text label, and contrasting text tag. Subjects used the child restraint tether in 93% of trials. However, tether use was completely correct in only 9% of trials. An installation was considered functional if the subject attached the tether to a tether anchor and had a tight installation (ignoring routing and head restraint position); 28% of subjects achieved a functional installation. The most common installation error was attaching the tether hook to the anchor/router directly behind the child restraint (near the top of the seatback) rather than placing the tether through the router and attaching it to the anchor in the adjacent seating position. The Nissan Frontier, with the anchor located on the back wall of the cab, had the highest rate of correct installations but also had the highest rate of attaching the tether to components other than the tether anchor (seat adjustor, child restraint storage hook, around head restraint). None of the labeling interventions had a significant effect on correct installation; not a single subject scanned the QR Code to access the video instruction. Subjects with the most successful installations spent extensive time

  2. Hybrid Intelligent Control for Submarine Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While sailing near the sea surface, submarines will often undergo rolling motion caused by wave disturbance. Fierce rolling motion seriously affects their normal operation and even threatens their security. We propose a new control method for roll stabilization. This paper studies hybrid intelligent control combining a fuzzy control, a neural network and extension control technology. Every control strategy can achieve the ideal control effect within the scope of its effective control. The neuro-fuzzy control strategy is used to improve the robustness of the controller. The speed control strategy and the course control strategy are conducted to extend the control range. The paper also proposes the design of the controller and carries out the simulation experiment in different sea conditions. The simulation results show that the control method proposed can indeed effectively improve the control performance of submarine stabilization.

  3. 78 FR 69316 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (Formerly Rolls-Royce Deutschland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (Formerly Rolls-Royce Deutschland GmbH, Formerly... (AD) 2012-26-14 that applies to all Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) BR700-715A1-30, BR700... Deutschland Ltd & Co KG, Eschenweg 11, Dahlewitz, 15827 Blankenfelde- Mahlow, Germany; phone: 49 0 33-7086...

  4. 75 FR 65453 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Flat Products From Brazil: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... the final determination of the investigation of hot- rolled steel from Brazil, the Department... Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value; Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality..., with excellent surface quality and chemistry restrictions as follows: 0.012 percent maximum phosphorus...

  5. 76 FR 22868 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ...-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review, 75.... See Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Extension of Time Limit...

  6. Numerical simulation of machining distortions on a forged component obtained by ring rolling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Rodolfo; Del Prete, Antonio; Calabrese, Maurizio; Donatiello, Iolanda

    2017-10-01

    Residual stresses induced in the component by previous thermal/mechanical processes are compressive or tensile stresses having a zero resultant. In particular, they arise as consequence of thermo-mechanical processes (e.g. ring-rolling process), casting and heat treatments. When machining stressed components, volume removal leads to a re-arrangement of residual stresses, which inevitably causes distortions in the workpiece. If distortions are excessive, they can lead to a large number of scrap parts. This paper describes the development of a numerical procedure for the analysis of the distortions on a waspaloy turbine case, obtained by ring rolling process. A 3D model of ring rolling process has been set in the commercial software DEFORM 3D. Three different ring rolling strategies have been analyzed, in order to find the combination of process parameters which allows to obtain the best component in terms of geometrical precision. Then, the heat treatments (air cooling, solubilization, stabilization and aging) have been simulated to predict the bulk residual stresses distributions. Finally, the numerical distortions induced by machining have been simulated considering the material removal in some machining operations.

  7. Abnormal devitrification behavior and mechanical response of cold-rolled Mg-rich Mg-Cu-Gd metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.I.; Kim, J.W.; Oh, H.S.; Park, J.S.; Park, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal devitrification behavior and mechanical response of Mg 75 Cu 15 Gd 10 (relatively strong glass former with higher structural stability) and Mg 85 Cu 5 Gd 10 (relatively fragile glass former with lower structural stability) metallic glasses, fabricated by repeated forced cold rolling, have been investigated. When metallic glasses were cold-rolled up to a thickness reduction ratio of ∼33%, the heat of relaxation (ΔH relax. ) below T g of the cold-rolled specimens was reduced, which indicates the formation of local structural ordering via cold rolling due to stress-induced relaxation. The local structural ordering results in abnormal devitrification behavior, such as higher resistance of glass-to-supercooled liquid transition and delayed growth, in the following heat treatment due to increased nuclei density and pinning site. In particular, the fragility index, m, could assist in understanding structural stability and local structural variation by mechanical processing as well as compositional tuning. Indeed, we examine the shear avalanche size to rationalize the variation of the deformation unit size depending on the structural instability before and after cold rolling. The deformation mode in Mg 85 Cu 5 Gd 10 metallic glass might change from self-organized critical state to chaotic state by cold rolling, which results in unique hardening behavior under the condition for coexisting well distributed local structural ordering and numerous thinner shear deformed areas. These results would give us a guideline for atomic scale structural manipulation of metallic glasses, and help develop novel metallic glass matrix composites with optimal properties through effective mechanical processing as well as heat treatment.

  8. Toward large-area roll-to-roll printed nanophotonic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Hiltunen, Jussi; Aikio, Sanna M.; Alajoki, Teemu; Tuominen, Jarkko; Hiltunen, Marianne; Siitonen, Samuli; Kontturi, Ville; Böhlen, Karl; Hauser, Rene; Charlton, Martin; Boersma, Arjen; Lieberzeit, Peter; Felder, Thorsten; Eustace, David; Haskal, Eliav

    2014-05-01

    Polymers have become an important material group in fabricating discrete photonic components and integrated optical devices. This is due to their good properties: high optical transmittance, versatile processability at relative low temperatures and potential for low-cost production. Recently, nanoimprinting or nanoimprint lithography (NIL) has obtained a plenty of research interest. In NIL, a mould is pressed against a substrate coated with a moldable material. After deformation of the material, the mold is separated and a replica of the mold is formed. Compared with conventional lithographic methods, imprinting is simple to carry out, requires less-complicated equipment and can provide high-resolution with high throughput. Nanoimprint lithography has shown potential to become a method for low-cost and high-throughput fabrication of nanostructures. We show the development process of nano-structured, large-area multi-parameter sensors using Photonic Crystal (PC) and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) methodologies for environmental and pharmaceutical applications. We address these challenges by developing roll-to-roll (R2R) UV-nanoimprint fabrication methods. Our development steps are the following: Firstly, the proof of concept structures are fabricated by the use of wafer-level processes in Si-based materials. Secondly, the master molds of successful designs are fabricated, and they are used to transfer the nanophotonic structures into polymer materials using sheet-level UV-nanoimprinting. Thirdly, the sheet-level nanoimprinting processes are transferred to roll-to-roll fabrication. In order to enhance roll-to-roll manufacturing capabilities, silicone-based polymer material development was carried out. In the different development phases, Photonic Crystal and SERS sensor structures with increasing complexities were fabricated using polymer materials in order to enhance sheet-level and roll-to-roll manufacturing processes. In addition, chemical and molecular

  9. Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight (TS&W) Study. Phase 1-synthesis, working paper 12 : energy conservation and truck size and weight regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The research on various truck size and weight considerations and energy conservation is limited. Following the energy crisis in the mid 1970s, there was significant interest and research on energy conservation. Most of the references cited in this wo...

  10. Evaluating the effects of heavy sugar cane truck operations on repair cost of low volume highways : technical summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Current Louisiana state laws allow truck operators hauling certain agricultural commodities to purchase : overweight permits and haul at gross vehicle weights (GVW) in excess of the legislated GVW limit of : 80,000 lb. For instance, sugar cane trucke...

  11. The application of smart phone, weight-mile truck data to support freight-modeling, performance measures and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Oregon is one of the few states that currently charge a commercial truck weight-mile tax (WMT). The Oregon Department of : Transportation (ODOT) has developed a data-collection system Truck Road Use Electronics (TRUE) to simplify WMT : collec...

  12. Research on tractive power of KZC-5 rear dump truck in underground mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Zeyong

    2003-01-01

    The tractive power of KZC-5 rear dump truck in underground mine is studied in this paper. The principles and ways of defining the power are discussed. It is proved that the power of KZC-5 rear dump truck in underground mine is reasonable in the industrial scale test

  13. Impact of trucking network flow on preferred biorefinery locations in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy M. Young; Lee D. Han; James H. Perdue; Stephanie R. Hargrove; Frank M. Guess; Xia Huang; Chung-Hao Chen

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the trucking transportation network flow was modeled for the southern United States. The study addresses a gap in existing research by applying a Bayesian logistic regression and Geographic Information System (GIS) geospatial analysis to predict biorefinery site locations. A one-way trucking cost assuming a 128.8 km (80-mile) haul distance was estimated...

  14. 75 FR 33663 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks.... ACTION: Notice of renewal of exemption; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA renews Volvo Trucks North America's (Volvo) exemption from the Agency's requirement for certain drivers of commercial motor vehicles...

  15. 75 FR 47880 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks.... ACTION: Notice of final disposition. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to continue in effect Volvo Trucks North America's (Volvo) exemption for five of its drivers to enable them to test-drive commercial...

  16. 75 FR 2921 - Commercial Driver's License Standards: Application for Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo) AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA... Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo) has applied for an exemption from the Federal requirement for a driver of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) to hold a commercial driver's license (CDL). Volvo requests...

  17. 75 FR 8181 - Commercial Driver's License Standards: Application for Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo) AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA... Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo) has applied for an exemption from the Federal requirement for a driver of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) to hold a commercial driver's license (CDL). Volvo requests...

  18. 75 FR 45198 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks... requirement to hold a commercial driver's license (CDL) submitted by Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo) on behalf of an employee. Volvo requested renewal of the CDL exemption for a Swedish engineer employed by...

  19. 76 FR 4412 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks.... ACTION: Notice of final disposition. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its final decision regarding Volvo Trucks North America's (Volvo) application for an exemption for Andreas Hamsten to enable him to continue to...

  20. 75 FR 33662 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Inc.'s Exemption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks... announces its decision to grant Volvo Trucks North America, Inc.'s (Volvo) application for an exemption for two Volvo drivers to drive commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in the United States without possessing...

  1. 75 FR 35515 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Granting of Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT... decision to grant Volvo Trucks North America, Inc.'s (Volvo) application for exemption to enable one of its... license (CDL) issued by one of the States. Volvo asserts that the exemption is necessary to support a...

  2. EVALUATION OF FUEL CELL AUXILIARY POWER UNITS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul truck engines idle about 30-50% of the time the engine is running. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e...

  3. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    -249) and for other truck drivers (SHR: 130, 95% CI: 108-156) compared to bus drivers (SHR: 110, 95% CI: 79-149). All drivers had high SHR for lesions of the ulnar nerve (SHR: 159, 95% CI: 119-207), especially bus drivers (SHR: 197, 95% CI: 116-311). Long-haul truck drivers had high SHRs for synovitis and bursitis...

  4. Six Reasons why hours of service regulations for truck drivers are violated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Sisse

    2008-01-01

      ABSTRACT Two decades of research has established a correlation between tiredness and fatigue, and traffic accident involving truck drivers.  Regulations limiting the driving hours of truck drivers thus are necessary precautions. But compliance is a problem. The answer from authorities tend to b...

  5. When does stress end? : Evidence of a prolonged stress reaction in shiftworking truck drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulhôa, Melissa Ara Jo; Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; Kantermann, Thomas; Skene, Debra; Moreno, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze individual cortisol levels in relation to work conditions, sleep, and health parameters among truck drivers working day shifts (n = 21) compared to those working irregular shifts (n = 21). A total of 42 male truck drivers (39.8 (+/-) 6.2 yrs) completed questionnaires

  6. A Comparative Study of Back Pain among Taxi and Truck Drivers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data was analyzed using SSPSS version 20. Descriptive and analytical statistics to analyze and present data. The prevalence of back pain in Port Harcourt for taxi drivers was 70.4% and 71.4% for truck drivers. The prevalence among truck drivers was due to age ,sitting position and shock absorbers. However variables like ...

  7. Structural evaluation for the core sampling trucks, RMCS operations, 200 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates the structural adequacy and the integrity of the existing core sampling trucks to withstand impact should the trucks drop off the ramp, either onto the soft ground or onto a non-yielding surface due to operational error, wind, or earthquake. The report also addresses if the allowable tank dome load will be exceeded by the addition of the impact load

  8. Risk of commercial truck fires in the United States : an exploratory data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    Large trucks are involved in only 8 percent of fatal crashes per year, but 17 percent of fatal fires. The scope of the current body of research is limited. Studies have treated truck fires generally as a subset of vehicle fires or in their own right ...

  9. Analysis of vehicle headway distribution on multi-lane freeway considering car–truck interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewen Kong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of vehicle headway on multi-lane freeway under lane management in China considering car–truck interaction. More specifically, the study focused on answering the following two questions: (1 whether the car–truck interaction has impact on headway, that is, headway varies by different leading and following vehicle types and (2 what is the best-fitted distribution model for particular headway type under lane management. The team collected traffic data, including traffic flow rates, percentage of trucks, speeds, headways, and so on from four segments of Shanghai-Nanjing freeway, Jiangsu Province in China. Then, some statistical methods were used to analyze the vehicle headway. It was found that car–car, car/truck, and truck–truck headways are significantly different from each other. Also, the traffic flow rate, percentage of trucks, and lane position were found to have an influence on the vehicle headway through the tests. Using the maximum-likelihood estimation, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, and chi-square test techniques, the distribution models and parameter functions for each headway type were built and validated. The results showed that lognormal model is suitable for car–car and truck–truck headway types, and inverse Gaussian model fits the car/truck headway type well.

  10. Analysis of driver critical reason and years of driving experience in large truck crashes, analysis brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The 2005 Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS)i was the first-ever national study to attempt to determine the critical reasons and associated factors that contribute to serious large truck crashes. The LTCCS defines critical reason as the r...

  11. 49 CFR 238.219 - Truck-to-car-body attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck-to-car-body attachment. 238.219 Section 238.219 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.219 Truck-to-ca...

  12. 76 FR 40980 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Long-Haul Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ...-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Long-Haul Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... resulting from the implementation of its United States-Mexico cross- border long-haul trucking pilot program. This pilot program is part of FMCSA's implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA...

  13. 75 FR 64246 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Correction to Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ...-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Correction to Notice of Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY... certain hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality steel products from Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil, 67 FR 11093 (March 12, 2002...

  14. Finite-element model to predict roll-separation force and defects during rolling of U-10Mo alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulami, Ayoub; Burkes, Douglas E.; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean

    2017-10-01

    A major goal of the Convert Program of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) is to enable high-performance research reactors to operate with low-enriched uranium rather than the high-enriched uranium currently used. To this end, uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) represents an ideal candidate because of its stable gamma phase, low neutron caption cross section, acceptable swelling response, and predictable irradiation behavior. However, because of the complexities of the fuel design and the need for rolled monolithic U-10Mo foils, new developments in processing and fabrication are necessary. This study used a finite-element code, LS-DYNA, as a predictive tool to optimize the rolling process. Simulations of the hot rolling of U-10Mo coupons encapsulated in low-carbon steel were conducted following two different schedules. Model predictions of the roll-separation force and roll pack thicknesses at different stages of the rolling process were compared with experimental measurements. The study reported here discussed various attributes of the rolled coupons revealed by the model (e.g., waviness and thickness non-uniformity like dog-boning). To investigate the influence of the cladding material on these rolling defects, other cases were simulated: hot rolling with alternative can materials, namely, 304 stainless steel and Zircaloy-2, and bare-rolling. Simulation results demonstrated that reducing the mismatch in strength between the coupon and can material improves the quality of the rolled sheet. Bare-rolling simulation results showed a defect-free rolled coupon. The finite-element model developed and presented in this study can be used to conduct parametric studies of several process parameters (e.g., rolling speed, roll diameter, can material, and reduction).

  15. Cold rolling precision forming of shaft parts theory and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Jianli; Li, Yongtang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the theory, processes and equipment involved in cold rolling precision forming technologies, focusing on spline and thread shaft parts. The main topics discussed include the status quo of research on cold rolling precision forming technologies; the design and calculation of process parameters; the numerical simulation of cold rolling forming processes; and the equipment used in cold rolling forming. The mechanism of cold rolling forming is extremely complex, and research on the processes, theory and mechanical analysis of spline cold rolling forming has remained very limited to date. In practice, the forming processes and production methods used are mainly chosen on the basis of individual experience. As such, there is a marked lack of both systematic, theory-based guidelines, and of specialized books covering theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, experiments and equipment used in spline cold rolling forming processes – all key points that are included in this book and ill...

  16. Rolled fingerprint construction using MRF-based nonrigid image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dongjin; Yun, Il Dong; Lee, Sang Uk

    2010-12-01

    This paper proposes a new rolled fingerprint construction approach incorporating a state-of-the-art nonrigid image registration method based upon a Markov random field (MRF) energy model. The proposed method finds dense correspondences between images from a rolled fingerprint sequence and warps the entire fingerprint area to synthesize a rolled fingerprint. This method can generate conceptually more accurate rolled fingerprints by preserving the geometric properties of the finger surface as opposed to ink-based rolled impressions and other existing rolled fingerprint construction methods. To verify the accuracy of the proposed method, various comparative experiments were designed to reveal differences among the rolled construction methods. The results show that the proposed method is significantly superior in various aspects compared to previous approaches.

  17. ROLLING PROCESS WITH OHSAS AND TEXTURE FORMATION– A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. CHANDRAMOHAN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rolling is a mechanical treatment, which plays an important part in the processing of ferrous and nonferrous alloys. Texturing is an important phenomenon that occurs after rolling process. Preferred orientation increases the strength of the material enormously. Hence the research is focused on the rolling studies and the texture formation, which occurs after rolling process. This review mainly focuses on rolling process carried out in different alloys. It also highlights the analysis made on various rolling parameters for improving the mechanical properties. Texture studies carried on various ferrous and non-ferrous alloys; particularly in nitrogen alloyed duplex stainless steel is discussed. Finally the need for implementation of occupational health and safety during a thermomechanical treatment is also discussed. The state of art in this field is encouraging and showing positive signs of commercializing rolled nitrogen alloyed duplex stainless steel after proper texture control.

  18. Work-related musculoskeletal discomfort among heavy truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazerian, Ramtin; Korhan, Orhan; Shakeri, Ehsan

    2018-03-13

    Heavy truck drivers are exposed to various psychological, psychosocial and physiological factors, some of which can cause musculoskeletal discomfort in different body regions. This study aims to investigate the correlation between different factors of musculoskeletal discomfort in heavy truck drivers. A cross-sectional study design was applied. A total of 384 participants were interviewed using an updated version of the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. While hypothesis testing was used to assess the association of different factors in musculoskeletal discomfort, logistic regression was applied to explore different correlations among questions of the survey. The results demonstrate that hours of exposure to vibration were associated with discomfort in the neck and shoulders (p  0.05. Fifty-seven percent of the drivers were suffering from discomfort in their lower back region. Moreover, seat comfort was found to be highly correlated with discomfort in the neck, shoulder and upper back areas. Additionally, with aging the likelihood of experiencing discomfort in the neck, upper back and knees is increased.

  19. Urban risks of truck transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    Truck transport of radioactive material (RAM), e.g., spent nuclear fuel (SNF), normally maximizes use of Interstate highways, which are safer and more efficient for truck transport in general. In the estimation of transportation risks, population bordering a route is a direct factor in determining consequences and an indirect factor in determining exposure times, accident probabilities and severities, and other parameters. Proposals to transport RAM may draw intense resistance from stakeholders based on concern for population concentrations along urban segments but the length of a route segment is also a determinative factor in estimating the transport risks. To quantify the relative importance of these two factors, a potential route for transport of SNF (strict use of Interstate highways) was selected and compared with a modified version that bypassed urban areas. The RADTRAN 4 code for transportation risk assessment, which was developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was used in the present study to assess the relative risks of SNF transportation for alternative routes. The results suggest that emphasis on Interstate highways minimizes total route and urban segment risks

  20. Study of trends in the trucking market in modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Popovych

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the features of the transport services market in accordance with its segmentation from the position of statistics on the field of automotive freight. The tendencies of development dynamics and road trucking transport market structure, and particularly the impact of transportation logistics market, including foreign trade cargo traffic of road transport, on the basic trends and the impact of logistics infrastructure development for aggregate indicators of development of transport communications, the size and dynamics of development, market compatibility on investment attractiveness. Balance of consumer, wholesale and logistics market in Ukraine, having similar development trends are established. Market logistics of trucking transport services have a steady trend of development in an objective decline in growth. The necessity of modernization policies in the transport sector at the state level as a software-oriented transport sector investment resources of the economy, taking into account that the share of road transport in the transport system of the country demonstrates the dynamic development with a positive trend in demand for transportation of goods.

  1. Truck Drivers And Risk Of STDs Including HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal R.K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Whether long distance truck drivers are at a higher risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV? Objectives: i To study the degree of knowledge of HIV and AIDS among long- distance truck drivers. ii Assess their sexual behaviour including condom use. iii Explore their prevailing social influences and substance abuse patterns. iv Explore their treatment seeking bahaviour as regards STDs. v Deduce their risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV. Study Design: Cross- sectional interview. Setting: Transport Nagar, Indore (M.P Participants: 210 senior drivers (First drivers and 210 junior drivers (Second drivers. Study Variables: Extra-Marital sexual intercourse, condom usage, past and present history of STDs, treatment and counseling, substance abuse, social â€" cultural milieu. Outcome Variables: Risk of contraction of STDs. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: 94% of the drivers were totally ignorant about AIDS. 82.9% and 43.8 % of the senior and junior drivers had a history of extra- marital sex and of these only 2 regularly used condoms. 13.8% and 3.3 % of the senior and junior drivers had a past or present history suggestive of STD infection. Alcohol and Opium were regularly used by them. Conclusion: The studied drivers are at a high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV.

  2. Scrotal neoplasia: would truck drivers be at greater risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Seabra

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze how scrotal neoplasias have been managed during the past decade and to question possible factors or professions associated to its presence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated every case reported from 1995 to 2005 at our hospital. We described the clinical scenario, complementary exams, treatments and outcomes. We also tried to verify if there was any risk, predisposing factors or professions that would explain the cancer origin. RESULTS: Six cases were reviewed. Out of these, three patients were truck drivers. Five of them showed restricted lesions without inguinal lymph nodes enlargement. Histologically, six patients presented squamous carcinoma, with two of them having the verrucous type. The median age of patients was 52 years old (31 to 89. The five patients who are still alive had their lesions completely removed with safety margin and primary closure. CONCLUSIONS: We have noticed that the scrotal carcinoma behavior is similar to that of the penis, where removal of the lesion and study of the regional lymph nodes help to increase the patient survival rate. The outstanding fact was that three out of six patients were truck drivers, raising the hypothesis that such profession, maybe due to the contact or attrition with the diesel exhaust expelled by the engine or to sexual promiscuity, would imply in a larger risk of developing this rare neoplasia.

  3. Investigation of RADTRAN Stop Model input parameters for truck stops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griego, N.R.; Smith, J.D.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    RADTRAN is a computer code for estimating the risks and consequences as transport of radioactive materials (RAM). RADTRAN was developed and is maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy (DOE). For incident-free transportation, the dose to persons exposed while the shipment is stopped is frequently a major percentage of the overall dose. This dose is referred to as Stop Dose and is calculated by the Stop Model. Because stop dose is a significant portion of the overall dose associated with RAM transport, the values used as input for the Stop Model are important. Therefore, an investigation of typical values for RADTRAN Stop Parameters for truck stops was performed. The resulting data from these investigations were analyzed to provide mean values, standard deviations, and histograms. Hence, the mean values can be used when an analyst does not have a basis for selecting other input values for the Stop Model. In addition, the histograms and their characteristics can be used to guide statistical sampling techniques to measure sensitivity of the RADTRAN calculated Stop Dose to the uncertainties in the stop model input parameters. This paper discusses the details and presents the results of the investigation of stop model input parameters at truck stops

  4. Contact conditions in skin-pass rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kijima, Hideo; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The special contact conditions in skin-pass rolling of steel strip is analysed by studying plane strain upsetting of thin sheet with low reduction applying long narrow tools and dry friction conditions. An extended sticking region is estimated by an elasto-plastic FEM analysis of the plane strain...... upsetting. This sticking region causes a highly inhomogeneous elasto-plastic deformation with large influence of work-hardening and friction. A numerical analysis of skin-pass rolling shows the same contact conditions, i.e. an extended sticking region around the center of the contact zone. The calculated...... size of the sticking region with varying contact length and pressure/reduction is experimentally verified by plane strain upsetting tests measuring the local surface deformation of the work pieces after unloading....

  5. A NOVEL ROLLING BASED DNA CRYPTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejwana Haque

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available DNA Cryptography can be defined as a hiding data in terms of DNA Sequence. In this paper we propose a new DNA Encryption Technique where three different types of ordering is use to make binary data into cipher text. The main stages of this encryption technique are: Key Analysis, Data and Key Arrangement, Roll in encoding, Secondary Arrangement and Shifting. Decryption process has six main steps to obtain the original binary data from the encrypted data and key. Decryption steps are: Key Analysis, Shifting, Secondary Arrangement, Key Arrangement, Roll-out decoding, Data Arrangement. Here key size is half of binary data and the key is varies from data to data so key are used as one time pad. In this paper we also discuss about the implementation from sample data and security analysis for this given method.

  6. Rolling-circle transposons in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitonov, V V; Jurka, J

    2001-07-17

    All eukaryotic DNA transposons reported so far belong to a single category of elements transposed by the so-called "cut-and-paste" mechanism. Here, we report a previously unknown category of eukaryotic DNA transposons, Helitron, which transpose by rolling-circle replication. Autonomous Helitrons encode a 5'-to-3' DNA helicase and nuclease/ligase similar to those encoded by known rolling-circle replicons. Helitron-like transposons have conservative 5'-TC and CTRR-3' termini and do not have terminal inverted repeats. They contain 16- to 20-bp hairpins separated by 10--12 nucleotides from the 3'-end and transpose precisely between the 5'-A and T-3', with no modifications of the AT target sites. Together with their multiple diverged nonautonomous descendants, Helitrons constitute approximately 2% of both the Arabidopsis thaliana and Caenorhabditis elegans genomes and also colonize the Oriza sativa genome. Sequence conservation suggests that Helitrons continue to be transposed.

  7. Time-optimal control of rolling bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perantoni, Giacomo; Limebeer, David J. N.

    2013-11-01

    The brachistochrone problem is usually solved in classical mechanics courses using the calculus of variations, although it is quintessentially an optimal control problem. In this paper, we address the classical brachistochrone problem and two vehicle-relevant generalisations from an optimal control perspective. We use optimal control arguments to derive closed-form solutions for both the optimal trajectory and the minimum achievable transit time for these generalisations. We then study optimal control problems involving a steerable disc rolling between prescribed points on the interior surface of a hemisphere. The effects of boundary and control constraints are examined. For three-dimensional problems of this type, which involve rolling bodies and nonholonomic constraints, numerical solutions are used.

  8. Wavelength selection of rolling grain ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesfreid, José Eduardo; Rousseaux, Germain; Baradel, Christian; Stegner, Alexandre

    2002-11-01

    A flat particle bed under an oscillatory viscous flow is generally unstable and leads to the formation of ripples. Using a cylindrical oscillating tank, we have studied in laboratory, at very high resolution, the wavelength selection, the morphology and the temporal evolution of theses ripples. Initially, the rolling of individual grains on the flat sand bed induces small rolling grain ripples. At this stage the wavelength selection depends on the grain diameter, the viscous boundary layer and the viscous length. In a second stage, the ripples follow a coarsening process which increase both the height and the wavelength of the patterns. For few cases, especially close to the onset of ripple formation, a logarithmic growth of the wavelength is observed. Then, if we wait long enough the system always evolves to a final vortex ripple state which is mainly controlled by the amplitude of the fluid excursion.

  9. Penentuan Umur Ekonomis Dump Truck Dengan Menggunakan Metode Biaya Tahunan Rata-Rata Pada PTPN 3 PKS Kebun Rambutan

    OpenAIRE

    Mazmur Harapanta Tarigan

    2009-01-01

    PTPN 3 PKS Kebun Rambutan merupakan perusahaan yang bergerak di bidang pengolahan minyak sawit Crude Palm Oil dan inti sawit Palm Kernel. Kerusakan Dump Truck merupakan salah satu faktor penyebab terganggunya kelancaran produksi. Kerusakan pada Dump Truck tidak dapat ditentukan dengan pasti, hanya dapat diperkirakan dengan menentukan umur ekonomis Dump Truck tersebut. Alat pengangkut yang dibahas dalam penelitian ini adalah Dump Truck. Pokok permasalahan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk m...

  10. Rolling circle amplification of metazoan mitochondrialgenomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simison, W. Brian; Lindberg, D.R.; Boore, J.L.

    2005-07-31

    Here we report the successful use of rolling circle amplification (RCA) for the amplification of complete metazoan mt genomes to make a product that is amenable to high-throughput genome sequencing techniques. The benefits of RCA over PCR are many and with further development and refinement of RCA, the sequencing of organellar genomics will require far less time and effort than current long PCR approaches.

  11. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2015-08-21

    Exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes corrosive chemical burns and potentially fatal systemic toxicity. Car and truck wash cleaning products, rust removers, and aluminum brighteners often contain HF because it is efficient in breaking down roadway matter. The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report. Among seven hospitalized workers, two required surgery, and all but one worker returned to the job. Among 48 injured workers, job titles were primarily auto detailer, car wash worker, truck wash worker, and truck driver. Because HF exposure can result in potentially severe health outcomes, efforts to identify less hazardous alternatives to HF-based industrial wash products are warranted.

  12. National Survey of US Long-Haul Truck Driver Health and Injury: health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsey, Jan; Sieber, W Karl; Chen, Guang X; Hitchcock, Edward M; Lincoln, Jennifer E; Nakata, Akinori; Robinson, Cynthia F; Sweeney, Marie H

    2015-02-01

    To compare selected health behaviors and body mass index (modifiable risk factors) of US long-haul truck drivers to the US working population by sex. The National Survey of US Long-Haul Truck Driver Health and Injury interviewed a nationally representative sample of long-haul truck drivers (n = 1265) at truck stops. Age-adjusted results were compared with national health surveys. Compared with US workers, drivers had significantly higher body mass index, current cigarette use, and pack-years of smoking; lower prevalence of annual influenza vaccination; and generally lower alcohol consumption. Physical activity level was low for most drivers, and 25% had never had their cholesterol levels tested. Working conditions common to long-haul trucking may create significant barriers to certain healthy behaviors; thus, transportation and health professionals should address the unique work environment when developing interventions for long-haul drivers.

  13. Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

  14. The advantages of a rolling foot in human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Peter G; Collins, Steven H; Kuo, Arthur D

    2006-10-01

    The plantigrade human foot rolls over the ground during each walking step, roughly analogous to a wheel. The center of pressure progresses on the ground like a wheel of radius 0.3 L (leg length). We examined the effect of varying foot curvature on the mechanics and energetics of walking. We controlled curvature by attaching rigid arc shapes of various radii to the bottoms of rigid boots restricting ankle motion. We measured mechanical work performed on the center of mass (COM), and net metabolic rate, in human subjects (N=10) walking with seven arc radii from 0.02-0.40 m. Simple models of dynamic walking predict that redirection of COM velocity requires step-to-step transition work, decreasing quadratically with arc radius. Metabolic cost would be expected to change in proportion to mechanical work. We measured the average rate of negative work performed on the COM, and found that it followed the trend well (r2=0.95), with 2.37 times as much work for small radii as for large. Net metabolic rate (subtracting quiet standing) also decreased with increasing arc radius to a minimum at 0.3 L, with a slight increase thereafter. Maximum net metabolic rate was 6.25 W kg(-1) (for small-radius arc feet), about 59% greater than the minimum rate of 3.93 W kg(-1), which in turn was about 45% greater than the rate in normal walking. Metabolic rate was fit reasonably well (r2=0.86) by a quadratic curve, but exceeded that expected from COM work for extreme arc sizes. Other factors appear to increase metabolic cost for walking on very small and very large arc feet. These factors may include effort expended to stabilize the joints (especially the knee) or to maintain balance. Rolling feet with curvature 0.3 L appear energetically advantageous for plantigrade walking, partially due to decreased work for step-to-step transitions.

  15. Swiss roll operation for giant fibroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Saleem A; Memon, Sohail A; Mohammad, Noor; Maher, Mumtaz

    2009-01-01

    Fibroadenoma 5 cm or more is called giant fibroadenoma. Giant fibroadenoma can distort the shape of breast and causes asymmetry, so it should be excised. There are several techniques for excision of giant fibroadenoma. In our technique we remove them through cosmetically acceptable circumareolar incision to maintain the shape and symmetry of breast. The objectives were to assess the cosmetic results of Swiss roll operation for giant fibroadenoma. The study was conducted for six years from January, 2002 to December, 2007. Seventy patients of giant fibroadenoma were included in this study. They were diagnosed on history and clinical examination supported by ultrasound and postoperative histopathological examination. Data were collected from outpatient department and operation theatre. Swiss roll operation was performed under general anaesthesia. Mean tumor size was 6.38 cm. Three cm and 4 cm incisions were used for tumour 6 cm in size respectively. Skin closed with Vicryl 3/0 subcuticular stitches. Sixteen out of 70 patients had no scar while others hadminimal scar. All patients had normal shape and symmetry of breast. On histopathology fibroadenoma was confirmed. Giant fibroadenoma should be removed through cosmetically acceptable cicumareolar incision especially in unmarried young females who have small breast. Swiss-roll operation is superior in maintaining the shape and symmetry of breast. No major complication was found in our series except seroma formation in 10 patients.

  16. Analysis of major trends in U.S. commercial trucking, 1977-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K. M.; Santini, D .J.; Vyas, A. D.

    2009-06-10

    This report focuses on various major long-range (1977-2002) and intermediate-range (1982-2002) U.S. commercial trucking trends. The primary sources of data for this period were the U.S. Bureau of the Census Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey and Truck Inventory and Use Survey. In addition, selected 1977-2002 data from the U.S. Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration and from the U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway Administration's Highway Statistics were used. The report analyzes (1) overall gasoline and diesel fuel consumption patterns by passenger vehicles and trucks and (2) the population changes and fuels used by all commercial truck classes by selected truck type (single unit or combination), during specified time periods, with cargo-hauling commercial trucks given special emphasis. It also assesses trends in selected vehicle miles traveled, gallons per vehicle miles traveled, and gallons per cargo ton-mile traveled, as well as the effect of cargo tons per truck on fuel consumption. In addition, the report examines long-range trends for related factors (e.g., long-haul mileages driven by heavy trucks) and their impacts on reducing fuel consumption per cargo-ton-mile and the relative shares of total commercial fuel use among truck classes. It identifies the effects of these trends on U.S. petroleum consumption. The report also discusses basic engineering design and performance, national legislation on interstate highway construction, national demographic trends (e.g., suburbanization), and changes in U.S. corporate operations requirements, and it highlights their impacts on both the long-distance hauling and shorter-distance urban and suburban delivery markets of the commercial trucking industry.

  17. Vehicle to Grid regulation services of electric delivery trucks: Economic and environmental benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yang; Noori, Mehdi; Tatari, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential net present revenues of electric truck based V2G regulation services are investigated. • GHG emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks are quantified. • The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed. • V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable revenues and GHG emission savings. - Abstract: Concerns regarding the fuel costs and climate change impacts associated with petroleum combustion are among the main driving factors for the adoption of electric vehicles. Future commercial delivery truck fleets may include Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs); in addition to savings on fuel and maintenance costs, the introduction of these grid accessible electric vehicles will also provide fleet owners with possible Vehicle to Grid (V2G) opportunities. This study investigates the potential net present revenues and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks in a typical fleet. The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed and compared to those of traditional diesel trucks. To account for uncertainties, possible ranges for key parameters are considered instead of only considering fixed single data values for each parameter. The results of this research indicate that providing V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable additional revenues ($20,000–50,000) and significant GHG emission savings (approximately 300 ton CO 2 ) compared to conventional diesel trucks.

  18. Roll-to-roll light directed electrophoretic deposition system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascall, Andrew J.; Kuntz, Joshua

    2017-06-06

    A roll-to-roll light directed electrophoretic deposition system and method advances a roll of a flexible electrode web substrate along a roll-to-roll process path, where a material source is positioned to provide on the flexible electrode web substrate a thin film colloidal dispersion of electrically charged colloidal material dispersed in a fluid. A counter electrode is also positioned to come in contact with the thin film colloidal dispersion opposite the flexible electrode web substrate, where one of the counter electrode and the flexible electrode web substrate is a photoconductive electrode. A voltage source is connected to produce an electric potential between the counter electrode and the flexible electrode web substrate to induce electrophoretic deposition on the flexible electrode web substrate when the photoconductive electrode is rendered conductive, and a patterned light source is arranged to illuminate the photoconductive electrode with a light pattern and render conductive illuminated areas of the photoconductive electrode so that a patterned deposit of the electrically charged colloidal material is formed on the flexible electrode web substrate.

  19. Scalable, ambient atmosphere roll-to-roll manufacture of encapsulated large area, flexible organic tandem solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Dam, Henrik Friis; Hösel, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Inline printing and coating methods have been demonstrated to enable a high technical yield of fully roll-to-roll processed polymer tandem solar cell modules. We demonstrate generality by employing different material sets and also describe how the ink systems must be carefully co-developed in order...... to reach the ambitious objective of a fully printed and coated 14-layer flexible tandem solar cell stack. The roll-to-roll methodologies involved are flexographic printing, rotary screen printing, slot-die coating, X-ray scattering, electrical testing and UV-lamination. Their combination enables...... the manufacture of completely functional devices in exceptionally high yields. Critical to the ink and process development is a carefully chosen technology transfer to industry method where first a roll coater is employed enabling contactless stack build up, followed by a small roll-to-roll coater fitted to an X...

  20. Rolls-Royce digital Rod Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouillot, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Rolls-Royce has developed a new generation of Rod Control System, based on 40 years of experience. The fifth-generation Rod Control System (RCS) from Rolls-Royce offers a reliable, modular design with adaptability to your preferred platform, for modernization projects or new reactors. Flexible implementation provides the option for you to keep existing cabinets, which permits you to optimize installation approach. Main features for the power part: - Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) type: 3-coil. - Independent control of each sub-bank. - Each sub-bank is controlled by a cycler unit and 3 identical power racks, each including 4 identical power modules and a common power-supply module. - Coil-per-coil digital control: each power module embeds power-conversion, current-control, and current-monitoring functions for one coil. Control and monitoring are carried out by separate electronics in the module. Current is digitized and fully monitored by means of min-max templates. - A double-hold function is included: a power module assigned to a gripper will activate its coil if a fault risking to cause a reactor trip occurs. - Power modules are standardized, hot-pluggable and self-configured: a power module includes a set of parameters for each type of coil SG, MG, LC. The module recognizes the rack it is plugged in, and chooses automatically parameters to be used. Main benefits: - Reduced operational, maintenance, training, and inventory costs: standardization of power modules and integration of control and monitoring on the same PC-card lead to a drastic reduction of spare part types, and simplification of the system. - Easy maintenance: - Replacement of a power module solves nearly all failures due to current control or monitoring for a coil. It is done instantly thanks to hot-plug capability. - On the front plate of power-modules, LEDs provide useful information for diagnostic: current setpoint from cycler, output current bar

  1. A new transducer for local load measurements of friction and roll pressure in cold flat rolling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagergren, J.; Wanheim, Tarras; Precz, W.

    2006-01-01

    selected from a steady state with no disturbance from the material flow. The transducer was able to simultaneously measure both the normal pressure and the friction stress. An estimation of the coefficient of friction was accordingly performed. The new transducer works very well, it was seen to be robust......The only way to establish the true rolling pressure and the true friction condition in cold rolling is to conduct measurements in the roll bite. A new transducer design is therefore proposed, in order to overcome problems in previous measurements in the past 70 years. The new idea is to increase...... and able to avoid signal disturbance. The pressure and friction stress distribution results was as expected by the authors and showed good reproducibility, together with a proven agreement between recorded and simulated signals....

  2. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  3. Handling Qualities of Model Reference Adaptive Controllers with Varying Complexity for Pitch-Roll Coupled Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jacob; Hanson, Curt; Johnson, Marcus A.; Nguyen, Nhan

    2011-01-01

    Three model reference adaptive controllers (MRAC) with varying levels of complexity were evaluated on a high performance jet aircraft and compared along with a baseline nonlinear dynamic inversion controller. The handling qualities and performance of the controllers were examined during failure conditions that induce coupling between the pitch and roll axes. Results from flight tests showed with a roll to pitch input coupling failure, the handling qualities went from Level 2 with the baseline controller to Level 1 with the most complex MRAC tested. A failure scenario with the left stabilator frozen also showed improvement with the MRAC. Improvement in performance and handling qualities was generally seen as complexity was incrementally added; however, added complexity usually corresponds to increased verification and validation effort required for certification. The tradeoff between complexity and performance is thus important to a controls system designer when implementing an adaptive controller on an aircraft. This paper investigates this relation through flight testing of several controllers of vary complexity.

  4. Interlayer adhesion in roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Stephanie R.; Oliver, Mark; Krebs, Frederik C

    2012-01-01

    The interlayer adhesion of roll-to-roll processed flexible inverted P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells is reported. Poor adhesion between adjacent layers may result in loss of device performance from delamination driven by the thermomechanical stresses in the device. We...... demonstrate how a thin-film adhesion technique can be applied to flexible organic solar cells to obtain quantitative adhesion values. For the P3HT:PCBM-based BHJ polymer solar cells, the interface of the BHJ with the conductive polymer layer PEDOT:PSS was found to be the weakest. The adhesion fracture energy...

  5. Large-scale roll-to-roll photonic sintering of flexo printed silver nanoparticle electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Krebs, Frederik C

    2012-01-01

    In this report we employ static and roll-to-roll (R2R) photonic sintering processes on flexo printed silver nanoparticle-based electrode structures with a heat-sensitive 60 mm thin barrier foil as a substrate. We use large area electrode structures to visualize the increased optical footprint...... energies above the threshold level have only minor impact on the conductivity but lead to cracks and substrate deformation. A second silver nanoparticle ink was printed, which was already optimized for lowtemperature drying. Here we show that photonic sintering has only a minor impact on the conductivity...

  6. High throughput in situ scattering of roll-to-roll coated functional polymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Wenzel

    2017-01-01

    The development of conjugated polymers for organic electronics and photovoltaics has relied heavily on advanced X-ray scattering techniques almost since the earliest studies in the field. Almost from the beginning, structural studies focused on how the polymers self-organize in thin films......, and the relation between chemical configuration of the polymer, structure and performance. This chapter presents the latest developments where structural analysis is applied as in situ characterization of structure formation during roll-to-roll coating of photoactive layers for solar cells....

  7. Unstable roll motions by parametric resonance in following seas. Keisu reiki shindo ni motozuku oinamichu fuantei yokoyure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, T.; Ito, A.; Mizoguchi, S. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-05-01

    The unstable rolling region and angle in the regular waves were studied by both tank test modeling a large container ship and theoretical calculation based on Mathieu{prime}s equation. Further research was made on the influence of metacentric height (GM) under the calm sea condition, ship speed and bilge keel dimension on the unstable rolling region. To avoid the unstable roll motion in the waves caused by the parametric resonance, the fluctuation in GM is designed to be diminished on the waves by U-shaping the hull fore and aft like a fat large ship hull, or the fluctuation in dynamic stability is done to be diminished by increasing the GM on the calm sea. However, the ship with a U-shaped hull fore and aft is large in rolling angle due to the smallness in righting arm at the large heeling angle. Generally regardless of oceanic condition and ship speed, it is impossible to establish the GM absolutely without the primary and secondary synchronizing points. To avoid the unstable roll motion with a low ship speed, it is desirable to do it by the ship speed to be as high as possible. 11 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Combined Aero and Underhood Thermal Analysis for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vegendla, Prasad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sofu, Tanju [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Saha, Rohit [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Madurai Kumar, Mahesh [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Hwang, L. K [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Aerodynamic analysis of the medium-duty delivery truck was performed to achieve vehicle design optimization. Three dimensional CFD simulations were carried out for several improved designs, with a detailed external component analysis of wheel covers, side skirts, roof fairings, and rounded trailer corners. The overall averaged aerodynamics drag reduction through the design modifications were shown up to 22.3% through aerodynamic considerations alone, which is equivalent to 11.16% fuel savings. The main identified fuel efficiencies were based on second generation devices, including wheel covers, side skirts, roof fairings, and rounded trailer corners. The important findings of this work were; (i) the optimum curvature radius of the rounded trailer edges found to be 125 mm, with an arc length of 196.3 mm, (ii) aerodynamic drag reduction increases with dropping clearance of side skirts between wheels and ground, and (iii) aerodynamic drag reduction increases with an extension of front bumper towards the ground.

  9. Legal weight truck cask model impact limiter response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinert, N.M.; Shappert, L.B.

    1989-01-01

    Dynamic and quasi-static quarter-scale model testing was performed to supplement the analytical case presented in the Nuclear Assurance Corporation Legal Weight Truck (NAC LWT) cask transport licensing application. Four successive drop tests from 9.0 meters (30 feet) onto an unyielding surface and one 1.0-meter (40-inch) drop onto a scale mild steel pin 3.8 centimeters (1.5 inches) in diameter, corroborated the impact limiter design and structural analyses presented in the licensing application. Quantitative measurements, made during drop testing, support the impact limiter analyses. High-speed photography of the tests confirm that only a small amount of energy is elastically stored in the aluminum honeycomb and that oblique drop slapdown is not significant. The qualitative conclusion is that the limiter protected LWT cask will not sustain permanent structural damage and containment will be maintained, subsequent to a hypothetical accident, as shown by structural analyses

  10. Disruption management for truck appointment system at a container terminal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Na; Chen, Gang; Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    Disruption often occurs in both land-side and sea-side operations at a container terminal, causing substantial interference of scheduled operations and poor green performance. The land-side disruption is rarely researched, and this paper addresses the ordinary level of such disruption where......-appointed arrivals at a container terminal that is running an appointment system. Second, we propose some response strategies to cope with different levels of disruptions, and evaluate their resilience ability with two Key Performance Indicators (KPIs): total waiting time of on-time trucks and total idling emissions...... scenarios is a combined one based on priority and yard-crane moving distance; its performance depends primarily on the concentration level of container locations and secondly on the system utilization. In the other scenarios that have low arrival punctuality, the best strategy could focus purely on yard...

  11. Burnup credit applications in a high-capacity truck cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshoven, J.K.

    1992-09-01

    General Atomics (GA) has designed two legal weight truck (LWT) casks, the GA-4 and GA-9, to carry four pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) and nine boiling-water-reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies, respectively. GA plans to submit applications for certification to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the two casks in mid-1993. GA will include burnup credit analysis in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for the GA-4 Cask. By including burnup credit in the criticality safety analysis for PWR fuels with initial enrichments above 3% U-235, public and occupation risks are reduced and cost savings are realized. The GA approach to burnup credit analysis incorporates the information produced in the US Department of Energy Burnup Credit Program. This paper describes the application of burnup credit to the criticality control design of the GA-4 Cask

  12. Comparing Gravimetric and Real-Time Sampling of PM2.5 Concentrations Inside Truck Cabins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Smith, Thomas J.; Davis, Mary E.; Levy, Jonathan I.; Herrick, Robert; Jiang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    As part of a study on truck drivers’ exposure and health risk, pickup and delivery (P&D) truck drivers’ on-road exposure patterns to PM2.5 were assessed in five weeklong sampling trips in metropolitan areas of five U.S. cities from April to August of 2006. Drivers were sampled with real-time (DustTrak) and gravimetric samplers to measure average in-cabin PM2.5 concentrations and to compare their correspondence in moving trucks. In addition, GPS measurements of truck locations, meteorological data, and driver behavioral data were collected throughout the day to determine which factors influence the relationship between real-time and gravimetric samplers. Results indicate that the association between average real-time and gravimetric PM2.5 measurements on moving trucks was fairly consistent (Spearman rank correlation of 0.63), with DustTrak measurements exceeding gravimetric measurements by approximately a factor of 2. This ratio differed significantly only between the industrial Midwest cities and the other three sampled cities scattered in the South and West. There was also limited evidence of an effect of truck age. Filter samples collected concurrently with DustTrak measurements can be used to calibrate average mass concentration responses for the DustTrak, allowing for real-time measurements to be integrated into longer-term studies of inter-city and intra-urban exposure patterns for truck drivers. PMID:21991940

  13. Comparing gravimetric and real-time sampling of PM(2.5) concentrations inside truck cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Smith, Thomas J; Davis, Mary E; Levy, Jonathan I; Herrick, Robert; Jiang, Hongyu

    2011-11-01

    As part of a study on truck drivers' exposure and health risk, pickup and delivery (P&D) truck drivers' on-road exposure patterns to PM(2.5) were assessed in five, weeklong sampling trips in metropolitan areas of five U.S. cities from April to August of 2006. Drivers were sampled with real-time (DustTrak) and gravimetric samplers to measure average in-cabin PM(2.5) concentrations and to compare their correspondence in moving trucks. In addition, GPS measurements of truck locations, meteorological data, and driver behavioral data were collected throughout the day to determine which factors influence the relationship between real-time and gravimetric samplers. Results indicate that the association between average real-time and gravimetric PM(2.5) measurements on moving trucks was fairly consistent (Spearman rank correlation of 0.63), with DustTrak measurements exceeding gravimetric measurements by approximately a factor of 2. This ratio differed significantly only between the industrial Midwest cities and the other three sampled cities scattered in the South and West. There was also limited evidence of an effect of truck age. Filter samples collected concurrently with DustTrak measurements can be used to calibrate average mass concentration responses for the DustTrak, allowing for real-time measurements to be integrated into longer-term studies of inter-city and intra-urban exposure patterns for truck drivers.

  14. Design and analysis of truck body for increasing the payload capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamshi Krishna, K.; Yugandhar Reddy, K.; Venugopal, K.; Ravi, K.

    2017-11-01

    Truck industry is a major source of transportation in India. With an average truck travelling about 300 kilometers per day [1], every kilogram of truck weight is of concern to the industry in order to get the best out of the truck. The main objective of this project is to increase the payload capacity of automotive truck body. Every kilogram of increased vehicle weight will decrease the vehicle payload capacity in turn increasing the manufacturing cost and reducing the fuel economy by increase the fuel consumption. With the intension of weight reduction, standard truck body has been designed and analyzed in ANSYS software. C-cross section beams were used instead of conventional rectangular box sections to reduce the weight of the body. Light-weight Aluminum alloy Al 6061 T6 is used to increase the payload capacity. The strength of the Truck platform is monitored in terms of deformation and stress concentration. These parameters will be obtained in structural analysis test condition environment. For reducing the stress concentration the concept of beams of uniform strength is used. Accordingly necessary modifications are done so that the optimized model has a better stress distribution and much lesser weight compared to the conventional model. The results obtained by analyzing the modified model are compared with the standard model.

  15. Development of Diesel Engine Operated Forklift Truck for Explosive Gas Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Rajendra Kumar; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Ahirwal, Bhagirath; Sinha, Amalendu

    2018-02-01

    For the present study, a prototype diesel engine operated Forklift truck of 2 t capacity is developed for explosive gas atmosphere. The parts of the Forklift truck are assessed against risk of ignition of the explosive gases, vapors or mist grouped in Gr. IIA and having ignition temperature more than 200°C. Identification of possible sources of ignition and their control or prevention is the main objective of this work. The design transformation of a standard Forklift truck into a special Forklift truck is made on prototype basis. The safety parameters of the improved Forklift truck are discussed in this paper. The specially designed Forklift truck is useful in industries where explosive atmospheres may present during normal working conditions and risk of explosion is a concern during handling or transportation of materials. This indigenous diesel engine based Forklift truck for explosive gas atmosphere classified as Zone 1 and Zone 2 area and gas group IIA is developed first time in India in association with the Industry.

  16. Two death cases originating from supplementary heater in the cabins of parked trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Serafettin; Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Erkol, Zerrin; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2009-02-01

    A supplementary heater can be mounted in trucks or other transportation vehicles and used to heat the air in the cabin independent of the engine of the vehicle. This apparatus works with diesel fuel or gasoline. Combustion products burning in the pre-combustion chamber heat the fins of the engine. The air passing through the fins is heated and is transferred into the cabin. The malfunction of such an apparatus may be the cause of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning or fire. In this study, we report two cases in which drivers died while asleep in the cabins of parked trucks. In the first case, a 43-year-old man died because of CO poisoning originating from a broken supplementary heater. In the second case, a 48-year-old man died owing to a fire that resulted from the burning of upholstery cloths in the truck cabin, and which was caused by a supplementary heater set at very high temperatures. In both cases, it was determined by a technical expert that the CO poisoning in the first case and the fire in the second case were caused by the supplementary heater in the trucks. It is emphasized in this article that the supplementary heater in the truck might be the cause of mortal CO poisoning as well as be responsible for fires in the cabins of the trucks. It aims to highlight that a detailed investigation of supplementary heaters at the death scene is required for such death cases in the trucks.

  17. Truck acceleration behavior study and acceleration lane length recommendations for metered on-ramps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangchuan Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the actual truck acceleration capability at metered on-ramps. Truck acceleration performance data were collected through a video-based data collection method. A piecewise constant acceleration model was employed to capture truck acceleration characteristics. It was found that the existing acceleration length will affect truck drivers’ acceleration behavior. At the taper type ramp that has limited acceleration distance, acceleration profile indicated a decreasing trend with distance. While for the ramp with an auxiliary lane that has sufficient acceleration distance, it was found that the acceleration behavior is to have a high acceleration rate in the beginning, then acceleration rate decrease with speed increase, and high acceleration rate again as drivers approach the merging area. Field data show that the truck acceleration performance data documented in the ITE’s (Institute of Transportation Engineers “Traffic Engineering Handbook” are much lower than the field collected data. Also, based on the regression analysis of speed versus distance profiles, it was found that the AASHTO’s (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Green Book acceleration length design guidance is insufficient to accommodate trucks at metered on-ramps. The required acceleration lengths for medium and heavy trucks are approximately 1.3 and 1.6 times of the Green Book design guideline, respectively.

  18. A Clinical Trial on Weight Loss among Truck Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Thiese

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence of obesity among commercial truck drivers may be related to sedentary nature of the job, lack of healthy eating choices, and lack of exercise. There may be a link between obesity and crash risk, therefore an intervention to reduce obesity in this population is needed. Objective: To assess feasibility of a 12-week weight loss intervention for truck drivers with a weight loss goal of 10% of initial body weight. Methods: Drivers were selected based on age (≥21 years and body mass index (≥30 kg/m2. The drivers participated in a before-after clinical trial. The intervention included a 12-week program that provided information on healthy diet and increasing exercise, and telephone-based coaching using SMART goals. Outcomes included change from baseline in reported energy intake, measured weight, waist, hip, and neck circumference, blood pressure, and point of care capillary blood lipids and hemoglobin A1c. Exit interviews were conducted to gain insight into driver opinions on the program features and usefulness. This study was registered with the NIH Clinical Trials Registry, number NCT02348983. Results: 12 of 13 drivers completed the study. Weight loss was statistically significant (p=0.03. Reported energy (p=0.005, total fat consumption (p=0.04, and saturated fat consumption (p=0.02 intake were also lower after the 12-week intervention. Drivers attributed their weight loss to health coaching and suggested a longer intervention so that they could reach their goal and become accustomed to the changes. Conclusion: This weight loss intervention is feasible for this difficult population. Additional research is needed to compare this intervention with a control group.

  19. Slow-roll approximation in loop quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luc, Joanna; Mielczarek, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    The slow-roll approximation is an analytical approach to study dynamical properties of the inflationary universe. In this article, systematic construction of the slow-roll expansion for effective loop quantum cosmology is presented. The analysis is performed up to the fourth order in both slow-roll parameters and the parameter controlling the strength of deviation from the classical case. The expansion is performed for three types of the slow-roll parameters: Hubble slow-roll parameters, Hubble flow parameters and potential slow-roll parameters. An accuracy of the approximation is verified by comparison with the numerical phase space trajectories for the case with a massive potential term. The results obtained in this article may be helpful in the search for the subtle quantum gravitational effects with use of the cosmological data.

  20. Rolling and sliding between non-spherical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuang; Li, Chengbo; Hu, Lin

    2018-02-01

    Besides normal and tangential forces, rolling and sliding are also important interactions of particles, and should be considered in the discrete element method. However, there are various definitions of rolling and sliding, some of which are quite different and even contradictory. On the premise of trying not to use definitions, the rolling and sliding velocities between non-spherical particles are derived, and satisfy the objectivity. The sliding and rolling velocities between spherical particles are included in the results as a special case. A rolling resistance model calculated by the rolling velocity is applied to simulate direct shear tests of non-spherical particles. In addition to coinciding with experiments, the shear curves also satisfy the rate independent theory. As a demonstration of the model's universality, the wave propagation in uniaxial compression tests is also simulated.