WorldWideScience

Sample records for tropical southeast asian

  1. In situ measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes within a south-east Asian tropical rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Jones

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs emitted from tropical rainforests comprise a substantial fraction of global atmospheric VOC emissions, however there are only relatively limited measurements of these species in tropical rainforest regions. We present observations of isoprene, α-pinene, camphene, Δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and limonene, as well as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs of biogenic origin such as methacrolein, in ambient air above a tropical rainforest in Malaysian Borneo during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (OP3 project in 2008. Daytime composition was dominated by isoprene, with an average mixing ratio of the order of ~1 ppb. γ-terpinene, limonene and camphene were the most abundant monoterpenes, with average daytime mixing ratios of 102, 71 and 66 ppt respectively, and with an average monoterpene toisoprene ratio of 0.3 during sunlit hours, compared to 2.0 at night. Limonene and camphene abundances were seen to be related to both temperature and light conditions. In contrast, γ-terpinene emission continued into the late afternoon/evening, under relatively low temperature and light conditions. The contributions of isoprene, monoterpenes and other classes of VOC to the volatile carbon budget and OH reactivity have been summarised for this rainforest location. We observe good agreement between surface and aircraft measurements of boundary layer isoprene and methacrolein above the natural rainforest, suggesting that the ground-level observations are broadly representative of isoprene emissions from this region.

  2. Carbon sequestration in Southeast Asian tropical peatlands over the Holocene period: large-scale hydrological controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommain, R.; Couwenberg, J.; Cobb, A.; Gandois, L.; Kai, F.; Su'ut, N.; Abu Salim, K.; Harvey, C. F.; Glaser, P. H.; Joosten, H.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical peatlands are recognized as a significant sink of carbon dioxide and an important source of methane. Low latitude peatlands contain an estimated pool of 90 Pg C, of which ca. 70 Pg C is stored in Southeast Asian peatlands. However, the Holocene development of this carbon reservoir is poorly established. Here we provide a synthesis of carbon uptake rates by tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia across millennial timescales for the past 11,000 years. Our reconstruction of the carbon accumulation history for Borneo, Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia is based on a synthesis of radiocarbon dated peat profiles, modeling of peatland extent, and a new carbon accumulation record from Brunei (NW-Borneo). During the early Holocene the first peatlands formed in southern Borneo under the influence of a strong monsoon and rapid rise in sea-level. The carbon accumulation rate (CAR) in these peatlands was on average 60 g C m-2 yr-1 at this time. Peatlands started to spread across the coastal lowlands of Borneo, Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia after 8000 cal BP only when the rate of rising sea-level decreased. The major phase of coastal peatland initiation lasted from 7000 to 4000 cal BP. This period was marked by a Holocene precipitation maximum, suppressed El Niño activity, and the Holocene maximum in sea-level on the Sunda Shelf. The mean CAR of coastal peatlands at this time was 80 g C m-2 yr-1, with a Holocene peak of ~100 g C m-2 yr-1 from 4900 to 4500 cal BP. Significantly, atmospheric CO2 concentrations measured in the Taylor Dome Antarctic ice core indicate a plateau during this period of otherwise rising CO2 concentrations. During the Late Holocene CAR declined both in coastal peatlands (ca. 70 g C m-2 yr-1) and in southern Borneo (ca. 20 g C m-2 yr-1) in response to falling sea-levels and increased El Niño frequency and intensity. In fact, several peatlands in southern Borneo have stopped accumulating peat-carbon under higher El Niño activity. These results

  3. Fluxes and concentrations of volatile organic compounds from a South-East Asian tropical rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langford

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As part of the OP3 field study of rainforest atmospheric chemistry, above-canopy fluxes of isoprene, monoterpenes and oxygenated volatile organic compounds were made by virtual disjunct eddy covariance from a South-East Asian tropical rainforest in Malaysia. Approximately 500 hours of flux data were collected over 48 days in April–May and June–July 2008. Isoprene was the dominant non-methane hydrocarbon emitted from the forest, accounting for 80% (as carbon of the measured emission of reactive carbon fluxes. Total monoterpene emissions accounted for 18% of the measured reactive carbon flux. There was no evidence for nocturnal monoterpene emissions and during the day their flux rate was dependent on both light and temperature. The oxygenated compounds, including methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde, contributed less than 2% of the total measured reactive carbon flux. The sum of the VOC fluxes measured represents a 0.4% loss of daytime assimilated carbon by the canopy, but atmospheric chemistry box modelling suggests that most (90% of this reactive carbon is returned back to the canopy by wet and dry deposition following chemical transformation. The emission rates of isoprene and monoterpenes, normalised to 30 °C and 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 PAR, were 1.6 mg m−2 h−1 and 0.46mg m−2 h−1 respectively, which was 4 and 1.8 times lower respectively than the default value for tropical forests in the widely-used MEGAN model of biogenic VOC emissions. This highlights the need for more direct canopy-scale flux measurements of VOCs from the world's tropical forests.

  4. Ozone fluxes over South-East Asian tropical rainforest and oil palm plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jennifer; Coyle, Mhairi; Helfter, Carole; Dorsey, James; Gallagher, Martin; Percival, Carl; Nemitz, Eiko; Fowler, David

    2010-05-01

    Ozone flux measurements were made over a South-East Asian tropical rainforest (April & June/July 2008) and an oil palm plantation (June 2008), as part of the NERC OP3 and ACES projects. Flux measurements over the rainforest were made at the Bukit Atur Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) tower, where ozone fluxes were measured by the gradient approach (concentrations at 30, 45, 60, 75 m) and by eddy-covariance (45 and 75 m). The hourly median flux at the forest site peaked before midday and did not differ greatly between Period 1 (P1, April, end of wet season) and Period 3 (P3, June/July, dry season). The periods were however clearly contrasted by the different levels of ambient ozone and concentrations were larger during P1 by about 50 %, with diurnal hourly medians ranging from 26 - 38 ?g m-3 in P1 versus 15 - 27 ?g m-3 in P3. Ozone deposition velocities were smaller during P1 than P3 and median daytime maxima of deposition velocity in P1 were 5 mm s-1 compared to 11 mm s-1 in P3. The magnitude of fluxes and deposition velocities are similar to those observed over the Amazon rainforest (Rummel et al., 2007), but the diurnal profile differs slightly as ozone concentrations showed a stronger diurnal amplitude in the Amazon. Fluxes from 45 and 75 m are compared and ozone flux divergence with height is investigated. Flux measurements at the oil palm plantation were made using the eddy covariance method for 8 days (4th to 11th June 2008). During this period concentrations were very small with a diurnal range of 0 - 7 ?g m-3, probably due to the combined effect of a low measurement height, low turbulence and O3 destruction by soil NO emissions. However, median deposition velocity was 5 mm s-1 indicating that the oil palms are an effective sink for ozone. The ozone flux will be decomposed into stomatal ozone uptake by the vegetation, estimated from conductance modelling, ozone destruction by VOC chemistry (estimated from the measured VOC concentrations) and ozone destruction

  5. Neglected tropical diseases among the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN: overview and update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN constitute an economic powerhouse, yet these countries also harbor a mostly hidden burden of poverty and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Almost 200 million people live in extreme poverty in ASEAN countries, mostly in the low or lower middle-income countries of Indonesia, the Philippines, Myanmar, Viet Nam, and Cambodia, and many of them are affected by at least one NTD. However, NTDs are prevalent even among upper middle-income ASEAN countries such as Malaysia and Thailand, especially among the indigenous populations. The three major intestinal helminth infections are the most common NTDs; each helminthiasis is associated with approximately 100 million infections in the region. In addition, more than 10 million people suffer from either liver or intestinal fluke infections, as well as schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF. Intestinal protozoan infections are widespread, while leishmaniasis has emerged in Thailand, and zoonotic malaria (Plasmodium knowlesi infection causes severe morbidity in Malaysia. Melioidosis has emerged as an important bacterial NTD, as have selected rickettsial infections, and leptospirosis. Leprosy, yaws, and trachoma are still endemic in focal areas. Almost 70 million cases of dengue fever occur annually in ASEAN countries, such that this arboviral infection is now one of the most common and economically important NTDs in the region. A number of other arboviral and zoonotic viral infections have also emerged, including Japanese encephalitis; tick-borne viral infections; Nipah virus, a zoonosis present in fruit bats; and enterovirus 71 infection. There are urgent needs to expand surveillance activities in ASEAN countries, as well as to ensure mass drug administration is provided to populations at risk for intestinal helminth and fluke infections, LF, trachoma, and yaws. An ASEAN Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional

  6. Neglected tropical diseases among the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): overview and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Strych, Ulrich; Chang, Li-Yen; Lim, Yvonne A L; Goodenow, Maureen M; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2015-04-01

    The ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) constitute an economic powerhouse, yet these countries also harbor a mostly hidden burden of poverty and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Almost 200 million people live in extreme poverty in ASEAN countries, mostly in the low or lower middle-income countries of Indonesia, the Philippines, Myanmar, Viet Nam, and Cambodia, and many of them are affected by at least one NTD. However, NTDs are prevalent even among upper middle-income ASEAN countries such as Malaysia and Thailand, especially among the indigenous populations. The three major intestinal helminth infections are the most common NTDs; each helminthiasis is associated with approximately 100 million infections in the region. In addition, more than 10 million people suffer from either liver or intestinal fluke infections, as well as schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF). Intestinal protozoan infections are widespread, while leishmaniasis has emerged in Thailand, and zoonotic malaria (Plasmodium knowlesi infection) causes severe morbidity in Malaysia. Melioidosis has emerged as an important bacterial NTD, as have selected rickettsial infections, and leptospirosis. Leprosy, yaws, and trachoma are still endemic in focal areas. Almost 70 million cases of dengue fever occur annually in ASEAN countries, such that this arboviral infection is now one of the most common and economically important NTDs in the region. A number of other arboviral and zoonotic viral infections have also emerged, including Japanese encephalitis; tick-borne viral infections; Nipah virus, a zoonosis present in fruit bats; and enterovirus 71 infection. There are urgent needs to expand surveillance activities in ASEAN countries, as well as to ensure mass drug administration is provided to populations at risk for intestinal helminth and fluke infections, LF, trachoma, and yaws. An ASEAN Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional Medicines

  7. Cognitive performance during passive heat exposure in Japanese males and tropical Asian males from Southeast Asian living in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanto, Titis; Toramoto, Sayo; Maeda, Yasuhiko; Son, Su-Young; Umezaki, Sonomi; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2017-01-05

    Heat acclimatization studies have reported that tropical natives have better physiological function to tolerate heat exposure compared to those from temperate natives, in which may result in a better ability to show a better resistance to performance losses during heat stress. In this study, we investigate whether the degree of heat acclimatization affects cognitive abilities during heat exposure by comparing heat acclimatization level of subjects from Southeast Asia and temperate natives from Japan. Eleven tropical males from Southeast Asia and ten temperate males from Japan participated in this study and performed two types of cognitive task: short-term memory test and mental arithmetic test, under control and passive heat exposure conditions. Passive heat condition was stimulated through leg immersion protocol by immersing subjects' lower legs into a hot water maintained at 42 °C in a chamber controlled at 28 °C air temperature and 50% relative humidity. The results show that the subjects in tropical group, who had smaller increase of rectal temperature, did not show any performance losses in both cognitive tests during heat exposure, while for Japanese group, there was performance decrement in mental arithmetic test during heat exposure (P performance by increasing oxyhemoglobin in their prefrontal cortex area during performing the tasks during heat exposure. In addition, the subjects in the Japanese group showed higher increase of oxyhemoglobin when they performed the tasks during heat exposure than those when they performed the tasks in control condition (P performance between control and heating conditions. In addition to a better ability to maintain their homeostasis during heat exposure, tropical natives from Southeast Asia showed better resistance to performance loss during heat exposure in comparison with temperate natives from Japan. The tropical natives also showed smaller increase of oxyhemoglobin indicating less cognitive effort to maintain

  8. Responses of soil fungi to logging and oil palm agriculture in Southeast Asian tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, K L; D'Angelo, H; Brearley, F Q; Gedallovich, S M; Babar, N; Yang, N; Gillikin, C M; Gradoville, R; Bateman, C; Turner, B L; Mansor, P; Leff, J W; Fierer, N

    2015-05-01

    Human land use alters soil microbial composition and function in a variety of systems, although few comparable studies have been done in tropical forests and tropical agricultural production areas. Logging and the expansion of oil palm agriculture are two of the most significant drivers of tropical deforestation, and the latter is most prevalent in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to compare soil fungal communities from three sites in Malaysia that represent three of the most dominant land-use types in the Southeast Asia tropics: a primary forest, a regenerating forest that had been selectively logged 50 years previously, and a 25-year-old oil palm plantation. Soil cores were collected from three replicate plots at each site, and fungal communities were sequenced using the Illumina platform. Extracellular enzyme assays were assessed as a proxy for soil microbial function. We found that fungal communities were distinct across all sites, although fungal composition in the regenerating forest was more similar to the primary forest than either forest community was to the oil palm site. Ectomycorrhizal fungi, which are important associates of the dominant Dipterocarpaceae tree family in this region, were compositionally distinct across forests, but were nearly absent from oil palm soils. Extracellular enzyme assays indicated that the soil ecosystem in oil palm plantations experienced altered nutrient cycling dynamics, but there were few differences between regenerating and primary forest soils. Together, these results show that logging and the replacement of primary forest with oil palm plantations alter fungal community and function, although forests regenerating from logging had more similarities with primary forests in terms of fungal composition and nutrient cycling potential. Since oil palm agriculture is currently the mostly rapidly expanding equatorial crop and logging is pervasive across tropical ecosystems, these findings may have broad applicability.

  9. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S

    2001-01-01

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO(trademark) exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages

  10. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.

    2002-02-07

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO{trademark} exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer- coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km

  11. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S

    2001-05-22

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFOTM exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer-coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas the

  12. Sulfur cycling and sulfide intrusion in mixed Southeast Asian tropical seagrass meadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer, Marianne; Pedersen, Ole; Ikejima, Kou

    2006-01-01

    Seagrass distribution and sediment biogeochemical conditions were measured around Libong Island in the Andaman Sea, Thailand. Seagrass diversity was moderate for a tropical site (four species found: Cymodocea rotundata, Enhalus acoroides, Halophila ovalis and Thalassia hemprichii......), with the diminutive species H. ovalis particularly abundant and perhaps serving as important food for dugongs present in the area. Although the sediment organic matter content was low in the seagrass meadows, the sulfate reduction rates were high (48-138 mmol m-2 d-1). A significant positive relationship between...... belowground biomass and sulfate reduction rates across the seagrass species examined indicates that stimulation of microbial activity in the rhizosphere sediments is controlled by the biomass of roots and rhizomes, rather than by specific seagrass characteristics (e.g., morphology, plant activity). The low...

  13. Temporal and spatial variations of soil carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide fluxes in a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, M.; Kosugi, Y.; Takanashi, S.; Hayashi, Y.; Kanemitsu, S.; Osaka, K.; Tani, M.; Nik, A. R.

    2010-09-01

    To clarify the factors controlling temporal and spatial variations of soil carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes, we investigated these gas fluxes and environmental factors in a tropical rainforest in Peninsular Malaysia. Temporal variation of CO2 flux in a 2-ha plot was positively related to soil water condition and rainfall history. Spatially, CO2 flux was negatively related to soil water condition. When CO2 flux hotspots were included, no other environmental factors such as soil C or N concentrations showed any significant correlation. Although the larger area sampled in the present study complicates explanations of spatial variation of CO2 flux, our results support a previously reported bipolar relationship between the temporal and spatial patterns of CO2 flux and soil water condition observed at the study site in a smaller study plot. Flux of CH4 was usually negative with little variation, resulting in the soil at our study site functioning as a CH4 sink. Both temporal and spatial variations of CH4 flux were positively related to the soil water condition. Soil N concentration was also related to the spatial distribution of CH4 flux. Some hotspots were observed, probably due to CH4 production by termites, and these hotspots obscured the relationship between both temporal and spatial variations of CH4 flux and environmental factors. Temporal variation of N2O flux and soil N2O concentration was large and significantly related to the soil water condition, or in a strict sense, to rainfall history. Thus, the rainfall pattern controlled wet season N2O production in soil and its soil surface flux. Spatially, large N2O emissions were detected in wet periods at wetter and anaerobic locations, and were thus determined by soil physical properties. Our results showed that, even in Southeast Asian rainforests where distinct dry and wet seasons do not exist, variation in the soil water condition related to rainfall history controlled the

  14. Simulating atmospheric composition over a South-East Asian tropical rainforest: performance of a chemistry box model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. M. Pugh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric composition and chemistry above tropical rainforests is currently not well established, particularly for south-east Asia. In order to examine our understanding of chemical processes in this region, the performance of a box model of atmospheric boundary layer chemistry is tested against measurements made at the top of the rainforest canopy near Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Multi-variate optimisation against ambient concentration measurements was used to estimate average canopy-scale emissions for isoprene, total monoterpenes and nitric oxide. The excellent agreement between estimated values and measured fluxes of isoprene and total monoterpenes provides confidence in the overall modelling strategy, and suggests that this method may be applied where measured fluxes are not available, assuming that the local chemistry and mixing are adequately understood. The largest contributors to the optimisation cost function at the point of best-fit are OH (29%, NO (22% and total peroxy radicals (27%. Several factors affect the modelled VOC chemistry. In particular concentrations of methacrolein (MACR and methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK are substantially overestimated, and the hydroxyl radical (OH concentration is substantially underestimated; as has been seen before in tropical rainforest studies. It is shown that inclusion of dry deposition of MACR and MVK and wet deposition of species with high Henry's Law values substantially improves the fit of these oxidised species, whilst also substantially decreasing the OH sink. Increasing OH production arbitrarily, through a simple OH recycling mechanism , adversely affects the model fit for volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Given the constraints on isoprene flux provided by measurements, a substantial decrease in the rate of reaction of VOCs with OH is the only remaining option to explain the measurement/model discrepancy for OH. A reduction in the isoprene+OH rate constant of 50%, in conjunction with

  15. Overview: oxidant and particle photochemical processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (the OP3 project: introduction, rationale, location characteristics and tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Hewitt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In April–July 2008, intensive measurements were made of atmospheric composition and chemistry in Sabah, Malaysia, as part of the "Oxidant and particle photochemical processes above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest" (OP3 project. Fluxes and concentrations of trace gases and particles were made from and above the rainforest canopy at the Bukit Atur Global Atmosphere Watch station and at the nearby Sabahmas oil palm plantation, using both ground-based and airborne measurements. Here, the measurement and modelling strategies used, the characteristics of the sites and an overview of data obtained are described. Composition measurements show that the rainforest site was not significantly impacted by anthropogenic pollution, and this is confirmed by satellite retrievals of NO2 and HCHO. The dominant modulators of atmospheric chemistry at the rainforest site were therefore emissions of BVOCs and soil emissions of reactive nitrogen oxides. At the observed BVOC:NOx volume mixing ratio (~100 pptv/pptv, current chemical models suggest that daytime maximum OH concentrations should be ca. 105 radicals cm−3, but observed OH concentrations were an order of magnitude greater than this. We confirm, therefore, previous measurements that suggest that an unexplained source of OH must exist above tropical rainforest and we continue to interrogate the data to find explanations for this.

  16. Issues in Counseling Southeast-Asian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Mary Silvia

    1988-01-01

    Addresses factors generating culture shock in Southeast Asians. Presents a model for the acculturation process of international students. Examines basic assumptions of counseling in light of Asian culture. Asserts that the basic counseling practices used with Americans are inappropriate with Asians. Discusses the dissimilarities. (BH)

  17. Effects of duration of stay in temperate area on thermoregulatory responses to passive heat exposure in tropical south-east Asian males residing in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijayanto Titis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we investigated the effects of duration of stay in a temperate area on the thermoregulatory responses to passive heat exposure of residents from tropical areas, particularly to clarify whether they would lose their heat tolerance during passive heat exposure through residence in a temperate country, Japan. Methods We enrolled 12 males (mean ± SE age 25.7 ± 1.3 years from south-east Asian countries who had resided in Japan for a mean of 24.5 ± 5.04 months, and 12 Japanese males (age 24.1 ± 0.9 years. Passive heat exposure was induced through leg immersion in hot water (42°C for 60 minutes under conditions of 28°C air temperature and 50% relative humidity. Results Compared with the Japanese group, the tropical group displayed a higher pre-exposure rectal temperature (P P = 0.03. Additionally, the tropical group showed a tendency towards a lower total sweat rate (P = 0.06 and lower local sweat rate on the forehead (P = 0.07. The tropical group also had a significantly longer sweating onset time on the upper back (P = 0.04 compared with the Japanese groups. The tropical group who stayed in Japan for > 23 months sweated earlier on the forehead and upper back than those who stayed in Japan P P = 0.03 for the forehead and upper back, respectively. There was a positive correlation between duration of stay in Japan and total sweat rate (r = 0.58, P r = −0.73, P = 0.01 and on the upper back (r = −0.66, P = 0.02. Other physiological indices measured in this study did not show any difference between the subjects in the tropical group who had lived in Japan for a shorter time and those who had lived there for a longer time. Conclusions We conclude that the nature of heat acclimatization of the sweating responses to passive heat exposure that are acquired from long-term heat acclimatization is decayed by a stay in a temperate area, as shown

  18. Role of the SEAMEO TROPMED Network in health human resources development. Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization. Tropical Medicine and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongsuphajaisiddhi, T; Salazar, N

    1998-06-01

    The Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) is a chartered international organization for the promotion of regional cooperation in education, science, technology and culture. The Regional Tropical Medicine and Public Health Network (TROPMED) operates through four specialized Centers in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand, with a coordinating unit, the TROPMED Central Office in Bangkok, Thailand. In line with the overall mission of SEAMEO, the role of TROPMED is to promote health and to prevent or control disease, thus improving the quality of life of people in the Asia-Pacific Region. Toward this end, SEAMEO TROPMED serves to facilitate the strengthening of national and institutional capabilities in research and training through postgraduate academic programs; short-term training courses; scientific fora; publications and information dissemination and as such, has been in the mainstream of health human resources development since its inception in 1967. To date, a total of 3,353 TROPMED alumni have benefited from training in 26 regular course offerings; of these, 1,596 were females and 1,757, males. From 1991 to 1995, a total of 434 key health personnel have attended short-term training courses, with increasing attendance from Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam. TROPMED's effectiveness comes from the collective strength of and the spirit of cooperation among its host institutions and partners. Faced with a health scenario of both developing and developed economies, SEAMEO TROPMED aims to further its role as an international forum for health development thus, addressing the need for effective strategies for health sector reform and advocacy of relevant health, environmental and development policies through its various programs and activities.

  19. Understanding the Southeast Asian haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Karthik K. R.; Baikie, T.; T, Mohan Dass E.; Huang, Y. Z.; Guet, C.

    2017-08-01

    The Southeast Asian region had been subjected to a drastic reduction in air quality from the biomass burnings that occurred in 2013 and 2015. The smoke from the biomass burnings covered the entire region including Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, with haze particulate matter (PM) reducing the air quality to hazardous levels. Here we report a comprehensive size-composition-morphology characterization of the PM collected from an urban site in Singapore during the two haze events. The two haze events were a result of biomass burning and occurred in two different geographical source regions. We show the similarities and variations of particle size distribution during hazy and clear days during the two haze events. Sub-micron particles (<1 μm) dominate (˜50%) the aerosols in the atmosphere during clear and hazy days. Using electron microscopy, we also categorize the PM, namely soot, organic-inorganic clusters and hybrid particles. The composition and morphology were similar in both the haze events. The majority of the PM is composed of carbon (˜51%) and other elements pertaining to the earth’s crust. The complexity of the mixing state of the PM is highlighted and the role of the capture mode is addressed. We also present the morphological characterization of all the classified PM. The box counting method is used to determine the fractal dimensions of the PM, and the dimensionality varied for every classification from 1.79 to 1.88. We also report the complexities of particles and inconsistencies in the existing approaches to understand them.

  20. Participation in Southeast Asian pollution control policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Peter; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.; Huitema, Dave; O'Toole, Laurence J.

    1998-01-01

    Although public awareness of environmental issues in Southeast Asian countries has increased dramatically during the nineties, there has not been a corresponding rise in the level of participation in environmental decision-making. Public participation often takes places at the end of a

  1. Impending conservation crisis for Southeast Asian amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jodi; Brown, Rafe; Bain, Raoul; Kusrini, Mirza; Inger, Robert; Stuart, Bryan; Wogan, Guin; Thy, Neang; Chan-ard, Tanya; Trung, Cao Tien; Diesmos, Arvin; Iskandar, Djoko T.; Lau, Michael; Ming, Leong Tzi; Makchai, Sunchai; Truong, Nguyen Quang; Phimmachak, Somphouthone

    2010-01-01

    With an understudied amphibian fauna, the highest deforestation rate on the planet and high harvesting pressures, Southeast Asian amphibians are facing a conservation crisis. Owing to the overriding threat of habitat loss, the most critical conservation action required is the identification and strict protection of habitat assessed as having high amphibian species diversity and/or representing distinctive regional amphibian faunas. Long-term population monitoring, enhanced survey efforts, collection of basic biological and ecological information, continued taxonomic research and evaluation of the impact of commercial trade for food, medicine and pets are also needed. Strong involvement of regional stakeholders, students and professionals is essential to accomplish these actions. PMID:20007165

  2. Globalization and Women in Southeast Asian Higher Education Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    This case study of Southeast Asian women in higher education management investigates culture-specific dimensions of "glass ceiling" impediments to career advancement in higher education. Respondents note that despite considerable training and expertise, Asian values and ideologies demand enactment of a construct of Asian femininity that…

  3. New tools in monitoring East and Southeast Asian environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Thomas W.; Shuchman, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    By all economic measures East and Southeast Asia are major success stories and emerging powerhouses in the global economy. This region continues to outperform, by a wide margin, other regions of the developing world and the industrial countries as well. However, this economic growth has been at a cost to the environment that is increasingly evident and may threaten future growth. Losses of tropical forests, unsustainable agriculture, unsound energy production and use, urban and industrial pollution, and the depletion of coastal and marine resources all impact current and future growth. However, information obtained from Mission-To-Planet-Earth sensors and other remote sensing devices may provide a basis for policies that help reduce environmental damage and promote resource sustainability. Three examples using Landsat, AVHRR, and interferometric RADAR data illustrate remote sensing applications to Asian development and environmental sustainability.

  4. Cervical cancer screening among Southeast Asian American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ivy K; Dinh, Khanh T

    2011-02-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer is high among Southeast Asian American women, but their participation in preventive cervical cancer screening is alarmingly low. This paper reviews the literature on factors associated with participation in cervical cancer screening among women of Vietnamese, Cambodian and Hmong descent in the United States. These factors include acculturation, age, marital status, knowledge about cervical cancer, apprehension about cervical cancer screening, financial concerns, access to health care, and physician characteristics and recommendation. Suggestions for future research include the need to investigate the role of physicians treating Southeast Asian American women, the need for more extensive up-to-date studies on the current generation of young Southeast Asian American women, and the use of more advanced assessments of acculturation. Overall, much more work is needed in order to deepen our understanding of the various ways to improve the rate of cervical cancer screening among Southeast Asian American women.

  5. Observations of total peroxy nitrates and total alkyl nitrates during the OP3 campaign: isoprene nitrate chemistry above a south-east Asian tropical rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruffo, E.; di Carlo, P.; Dari-Salisburgo, C.; Biancofiore, F.; Giammaria, F.; Lee, J.; Moller, S.; Evans, M. J.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jones, C.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2012-02-01

    Measurements of total peroxy nitrates (ΣRO2NO2, ΣPNs), total alkyl nitrates (ΣRONO2, ΣANs) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were made above the surface of a Malaysian tropical rain forest in Borneo, using a laser-induced fluorescence instrument developed at the University of L'Aquila (Italy). This new instrument uses the direct excitation of NO2 at 532 nm in order to measure its concentrations detecting by the NO2 fluorescence at wavelengths longer than 610 nm. ΣPNs and ΣANs are indirectly measured after their thermal dissociation into NO2. Observations showed enhanced levels of NO2 during nighttime, an increase of ΣPNs during the afternoon and almost no evident diurnal cycle of ΣANs. The diurnal maximums of 200 pptv for ΣPNs and ΣANs are well below the peaks reported in other forest sites. A box model constrained with measured species, reproduces well the observed ΣPNs, but overestimates ΣANs concentrations. The reason of this model-observation discrepancy could be a wrong parameterization in the isoprene nitrates (INs) chemistry mechanism. Sensitivity tests show that: (1) reducing the yield of INs from the reaction of peroxy nitrates with NO to almost the lowest values reported in literature (5%), (2) reducing the INs recycling to 70% and (3) keeping the INs dry deposition at 4 cm s-1, improve the agreement between modelled and measured ΣANs of 20% on average. These results imply that in the tropical rain forest, even if ΣPNs and ΣANs concentrations are lower than those observed in other North American forests, the yield and dry deposition of INs are similar. Another comparable result is that in the INs oxidation its recycling dominates with only a 30% release of NO2, which has implications on tropospheric ozone production and aerosol budget.

  6. Multi-layered population structure in Island Southeast Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörseburg, Alexander; Pagani, Luca; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Brucato, Nicolas; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas

    2016-01-01

    The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here, we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognised major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5 kya, we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years. PMID:27302840

  7. How will Southeast Asian petrochemicals impact the HPI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    Development of East Asia's petrochemical industry has been phenomenal, with major complexes built in numerous locations. The Southeast Asian countries of particular interest are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Brunei and Vietnam. As new capacity is built in this region, these large operating facilities will affect supply and demand for key petrochemical products--ethylene and polyolefins. What are the potential regional effects from this new capacity? Traditional net export countries will have to re-evaluate their future marketing strategies to remain competitive in Southeast Asia and other trading areas. As East Asia's petrochemical industry comes of age, competition will undoubtedly increase. However, this growing region offers opportunities to widen manufacturing basis. The paper discusses basic chemical demands and the outlook for the Asian petrochemical industry

  8. Evolution of gliding in Southeast Asian geckos and other vertebrates is temporally congruent with dipterocarp forest development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Matthew P; Greenbaum, Eli; Jackman, Todd R; Bauer, Aaron M

    2012-12-23

    Gliding morphologies occur in diverse vertebrate lineages in Southeast Asian rainforests, including three gecko genera, plus frogs, snakes, agamid lizards and squirrels. It has been hypothesized that repeated evolution of gliding is related to the dominance of Asian rainforest tree floras by dipterocarps. For dipterocarps to have influenced the evolution of gliding in Southeast Asian vertebrates, gliding lineages must have Eocene or later origins. However, divergence times are not known for most lineages. To investigate the temporal pattern of Asian gliding vertebrate evolution, we performed phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses. New sequence data for geckos incorporate exemplars of each gliding genus (Cosymbotus, Luperosaurus and Ptychozoon), whereas analyses of other vertebrate lineages use existing sequence data. Stem ages of most gliding vertebrates, including all geckos, cluster in the time period when dipterocarps came to dominate Asian tropical forests. These results demonstrate that a gliding/dipterocarp correlation is temporally viable, and caution against the assumption of early origins for apomorphic taxa.

  9. Southeast Asian Languages - High Priority Materials Development Needs. Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. B.

    The material development needs for the Southeast Asian languages are analyzed as follows: (1) both student and reference grammars must be produced; (2) student and reference English-Foreign Language dictionaries are needed; (3) research is needed in sociolinguistics, semantic analyses, linguistic surveys; (4) elementary, intermediate and advanced…

  10. Deploying Renewables in Southeast Asian Countries: Trends and Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper is part of the IEA ongoing analysis of global renewable energy markets and policies. It focuses on six Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. The report investigates the potentials and barriers for scaling up market penetration of renewable energy technologies in the electricity, heating and transport sectors in the six countries.

  11. Food Preferences, Beliefs and Practices of Southeast Asian Refugee Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Mary; Harris, Linda J.

    1988-01-01

    Results from a study of 207 Southeast Asian refugee high school students indicate that these students have maintained strong ties to their native foods and traditional meal patterns. Cambodian, Vietnamese, and Hmong students showed varying degrees of nutritional awareness. Implications of beliefs, preferences, and practices for nutrition education…

  12. Southeast Asian history and the Mediterranean analogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutherland, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Historians of Southeast Asia have been inspired by Fernand Braudel's classic The Mediterranean because of its focus on the sea and multidisciplinary approach, and because it seems to solve two recalcitrant historiographical problems: the definition of time and space, and the reconciliation of local

  13. The Kra Canal and Southeast Asian Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Suryati Sulong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a conceptual study that attempts to analyse the possible effects of the development of the Kra Isthmus Canal on ASEAN relations. The Kra Canal would constitute a mega-project, a passageway that would connect the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand at the Isthmus of Kra, Thailand. Although the proposed Kra Canal is projected to provide many economic and trade benefits to Thailand, and to the region as a whole, steps toward its development have yet to be taken. There has been much debate over the costs for trade, the costs for the environment, national and regional security concerns, as well as major concerns related to political and economic relations in the region. Therefore, one of the main purposes of this study is to contribute to the debate on the possible impact of the devel-opment of the Kra Canal on ASEAN’s regional relations. In particular, it proposes that the development of the Kra Canal could threaten regional solidarity as it would physically divide maritime Southeast Asia from main-land Southeast Asia, which would ultimately result in an economic, cultural and political divide of ASEAN itself.

  14. Social meanings of marijuana use for Southeast Asian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juliet P; Kirkpatrick, Sean

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes findings from a pilot study of drug use and environment for Southeast Asian youths in the San Francisco Bay Area. From interviews with 31 drug-involved youths living in two low-income predominantly ethnic minority neighborhoods, smoking marijuana emerged as pervasive and highly normative. Smoking marijuana provided a means for coping with the stresses of home and community life, and located youths, moreover, within an alternative ghetto lifestyle of rap music, marijuana smoking, and youth crime, as modeled by co-resident ethnic minority peers, with which many Southeast Asian youths identified. The findings indicate the importance of the social environment as well as social status in the substance use of this group of second-generation youth.

  15. Medication Errors in the Southeast Asian Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Salmasi

    Full Text Available Medication error (ME is a worldwide issue, but most studies on ME have been undertaken in developed countries and very little is known about ME in Southeast Asian countries. This study aimed systematically to identify and review research done on ME in Southeast Asian countries in order to identify common types of ME and estimate its prevalence in this region.The literature relating to MEs in Southeast Asian countries was systematically reviewed in December 2014 by using; Embase, Medline, Pubmed, ProQuest Central and the CINAHL. Inclusion criteria were studies (in any languages that investigated the incidence and the contributing factors of ME in patients of all ages.The 17 included studies reported data from six of the eleven Southeast Asian countries: five studies in Singapore, four in Malaysia, three in Thailand, three in Vietnam, one in the Philippines and one in Indonesia. There was no data on MEs in Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Timor. Of the seventeen included studies, eleven measured administration errors, four focused on prescribing errors, three were done on preparation errors, three on dispensing errors and two on transcribing errors. There was only one study of reconciliation error. Three studies were interventional.The most frequently reported types of administration error were incorrect time, omission error and incorrect dose. Staff shortages, and hence heavy workload for nurses, doctor/nurse distraction, and misinterpretation of the prescription/medication chart, were identified as contributing factors of ME. There is a serious lack of studies on this topic in this region which needs to be addressed if the issue of ME is to be fully understood and addressed.

  16. Medication Errors in the Southeast Asian Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Shahrzad; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Hong, Yet Hoi; Ming, Long Chiau; Wong, Tin Wui

    2015-01-01

    Medication error (ME) is a worldwide issue, but most studies on ME have been undertaken in developed countries and very little is known about ME in Southeast Asian countries. This study aimed systematically to identify and review research done on ME in Southeast Asian countries in order to identify common types of ME and estimate its prevalence in this region. The literature relating to MEs in Southeast Asian countries was systematically reviewed in December 2014 by using; Embase, Medline, Pubmed, ProQuest Central and the CINAHL. Inclusion criteria were studies (in any languages) that investigated the incidence and the contributing factors of ME in patients of all ages. The 17 included studies reported data from six of the eleven Southeast Asian countries: five studies in Singapore, four in Malaysia, three in Thailand, three in Vietnam, one in the Philippines and one in Indonesia. There was no data on MEs in Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Timor. Of the seventeen included studies, eleven measured administration errors, four focused on prescribing errors, three were done on preparation errors, three on dispensing errors and two on transcribing errors. There was only one study of reconciliation error. Three studies were interventional. The most frequently reported types of administration error were incorrect time, omission error and incorrect dose. Staff shortages, and hence heavy workload for nurses, doctor/nurse distraction, and misinterpretation of the prescription/medication chart, were identified as contributing factors of ME. There is a serious lack of studies on this topic in this region which needs to be addressed if the issue of ME is to be fully understood and addressed.

  17. Improving communication skills in the Southeast Asian health care context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Susilo, Astrid Pratidina

    2014-12-01

    The aim of these two PhD thesis are to develop a guideline on doctor-patient communication skills based on cultural characteristics of Southeast Asian context and to develop communication skills training for nurses to enhance their contribution to the informed consent and shared decision making process, in the same context. These studies started with qualitative methods; including grounded theory methodology, by exploring doctors', patients', medical students' and nurses' perceptions on the current and desired communication skills in which influenced by culture. Based on the results, we design communication skills training and evaluate the training with quantitative methods, using pre and post test studies. Southeast Asian desired ideal partnership style in communicating with their doctors. More emphasize on basic skills such as listening to subtle non-verbal cues are needed for doctors and nurses. A guideline on doctor-patient communication tailored to local culture was developed as well as training for nurses using 4CID design to enhance their contribution to the shared decision making process. To promote two-way interaction between doctors and patients and between health professionals require mastering basic skills in communicating with people, such as explorations on the unspoken concern. In a culturally hierarchical context of Indonesia, this two-way interaction is quite a challenge. To generalize our studies to other culture, more studies with rigorous methods should follow. To promote the use of basic skills in communicating with patients to approach the desired partnership communication style in Southeast Asian context, we need to use local evidences.

  18. Infectious Diseases and Tropical Cyclones in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jietao; Han, Weixiao; Jiang, Baofa; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Ying

    2017-05-07

    Southeast China is frequently hit by tropical cyclones (TCs) with significant economic and health burdens each year. However, there is a lack of understanding of what infectious diseases could be affected by tropical cyclones. This study aimed to examine the impacts of tropical cyclones on notifiable infectious diseases in southeast China. Disease data between 2005 and 2011 from four coastal provinces in southeast China, including Guangdong, Hainan, Zhejiang, and Fujian province, were collected. Numbers of cases of 14 infectious diseases were compared between risk periods and reference periods for each tropical cyclone. Risk ratios (RR s ) were calculated to estimate the risks. TCs were more likely to increase the risk of bacillary dysentery, paratyphoid fever, dengue fever and acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis ( ps infectious diseases. TCs are more likely to increase the risk of intestinal and contact transmitted infectious diseases than to decrease the risk, and more likely to decrease the risk of respiratory infectious diseases than to increase the risk. Findings of this study would assist in developing public health strategies and interventions for the reduction of the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.

  19. Infectious Diseases and Tropical Cyclones in Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jietao Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Southeast China is frequently hit by tropical cyclones (TCs with significant economic and health burdens each year. However, there is a lack of understanding of what infectious diseases could be affected by tropical cyclones. This study aimed to examine the impacts of tropical cyclones on notifiable infectious diseases in southeast China. Disease data between 2005 and 2011 from four coastal provinces in southeast China, including Guangdong, Hainan, Zhejiang, and Fujian province, were collected. Numbers of cases of 14 infectious diseases were compared between risk periods and reference periods for each tropical cyclone. Risk ratios (RRs were calculated to estimate the risks. TCs were more likely to increase the risk of bacillary dysentery, paratyphoid fever, dengue fever and acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (ps < 0.05 than to decrease the risk, more likely to decrease the risk of measles, mumps, varicella and vivax malaria (ps < 0.05 than to increase the risk. In conclusion, TCs have mixed effects on the risk of infectious diseases. TCs are more likely to increase the risk of intestinal and contact transmitted infectious diseases than to decrease the risk, and more likely to decrease the risk of respiratory infectious diseases than to increase the risk. Findings of this study would assist in developing public health strategies and interventions for the reduction of the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.

  20. Developing Common Competencies for Southeast Asian General Dental Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuenjitwongsa, Supachai; Poolthong, Suchit; Bullock, Alison; Oliver, Richard G

    2017-09-01

    Current policy in Southeast Asian dental education focuses on high-quality dental services from new dental graduates and the free movement of dental practitioners across the region. The Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Dental Councils have proposed the "Common Major Competencies for ASEAN General Dental Practitioners" to harmonize undergraduate dental education. This article discusses how the ASEAN competencies were developed and established to assist the development of general dental practitioners with comparable knowledge, skills, and attitudes across ASEAN. The competencies were developed through four processes: a questionnaire about current national oral health problems, a two-round Delphi process that sought agreement on competencies, a panel discussion by representatives from ASEAN Dental Councils, and data verification by the representatives after the meeting. Key themes of the ASEAN competencies were compared with the competencies from the U.S., Canada, Europe, Australia, and Japan. A total of 33 competency statements, consistent with other regions, were agreed upon and approved. Factors influencing the ASEAN competencies and their implementation include oral health problems in ASEAN, new knowledge and technology in dentistry, limited institutional resources, underregulated dental schools, and uneven distribution of dental practitioners. The ASEAN competencies will serve as the foundation for further developments in ASEAN dental education including policy development, curriculum revision, quality assurance, and staff development. Collaboration amongst stakeholders is essential for successful harmonization of ASEAN dental education.

  1. Misclassification of smoking status among Southeast Asian adult immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewers, M E; Dhatt, R K; Moeschberger, M L; Guthrie, R M; Kuun, P; Chen, M S

    1995-12-01

    A total of 1,403 Southeast Asian adult immigrant males (n = 783) and females (n = 620) from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam who currently resided in Central Ohio were interviewed to determine the self-reported smoking prevalence among them, and underwent biochemical confirmation of their smoking status. Variables having to do with the subjects' sociodemography, acculturation, and smoking history that were related to the misclassification of smoking status were also investigated. Self-reported current smoking rates were 40.9% and 5.6% for males and females, respectively. After verification of the subjects' smoking status by saliva cotinine assay (smoker status > or = 14 ng/ml), the rates of smoking were found to be greater, at 43.7% for males and 14.8% for females. Years of education, self-reported smoking status, country of origin, and method of healthcare payment were significant predictors of misclassification. These findings suggest that the prevalence of smoking is higher among Southeast Asian adult females than has been previously reported. Variables that predict misclassification with regard to smoking status are presented, and their implications for clinicians and researchers are discussed.

  2. Southeast Asian Adolescents’ Perceptions of Immigrant Parenting Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zha Blong Xiong

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In their countries of origin, immigrant youth are unlikely to question the age-old child-rearing practices of their elders; however, the parenting of adolescents in an adopted country can become a major source of family conflict. The purpose of this study is to investigate how Southeast Asian adolescents growing up in the United States perceive their parents’ practices in six areas of parenting responsibility identified by the National Extension Parent Education Model: caring for self, understanding, guiding, nurturing, motivating, and advocating. Four focus groups were conducted with 37 Southeast Asian (Cambodian, Hmong, Lao, and Vietnamese adolescent boys and girls between the ages of 14 to 19 years to ascertain how they perceived parenting behaviors. An analytic induction procedure was used to analyze transcripts from in-depth focus group discussions. Results indicate wide divergence between the idealized practices of the model, the parents’ actual practices, and adolescents’ perceptions of parenting practices. The study has important implications for the growing number of immigrant families from diverse cultures who are parenting adolescents in unfamiliar cultural contexts and for the educators, human service providers, and others who work with them.

  3. "This Is American Get Punished": Unpacking Narratives of Southeast Asian Refugees in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Gail

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores acculturative experiences and perceptions of Southeast Asian refugees residing in the Midwestern US through analysis of oral history narratives of Southeast Asian refugees representing the countries and/or cultures of Burma, Laos, the Philippines, Singapore and Vietnam. Through this paper, I seek to add to the sparse research…

  4. The Influence of Summertime Convection Over Southeast Asia on Water Vapor in the Tropical Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. S.; Fu, R.; Fueglistaler, S.; Liu, Y. S.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The relative contributions of Southeast Asian convective source regions during boreal summer to water vapor in the tropical stratosphere are examined using Lagrangian trajectories. Convective sources are identified using global observations of infrared brightness temperature at high space and time resolution, and water vapor transport is simulated using advection-condensation. Trajectory simulations are driven by three different reanalysis data sets, GMAO MERRA, ERA-Interim, and NCEP/NCAR, to establish points of consistency and evaluate the sensitivity of the results to differences in the underlying meteorological fields. All ensembles indicate that Southeast Asia is a prominent boreal summer source of tropospheric air to the tropical stratosphere. Three convective source domains are identified within Southeast Asia: the Bay of Bengal and South Asian subcontinent (MON), the South China and Philippine Seas (SCS), and the Tibetan Plateau and South Slope of the Himalayas (TIB). Water vapor transport into the stratosphere from these three domains exhibits systematic differences that are related to differences in the bulk characteristics of transport. We find air emanating from SCS to be driest, from MON slightly moister, and from TIB moistest. Analysis of pathways shows that air detrained from convection over TIB is most likely to bypass the region of minimum absolute saturation mixing ratio over the equatorial western Pacific; however, the impact of this bypass mechanism on mean water vapor in the tropical stratosphere at 68 hPa is small 0.1 ppmv). This result contrasts with previously published hypotheses, and it highlights the challenge of properly quantifying fluxes of atmospheric humidity.

  5. The Hmong Diaspora: preserved South-East Asian genetic ancestry in French Guianese Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Nicolas; Mazières, Stéphane; Guitard, Evelyne; Giscard, Pierre-Henri; Bois, Etienne; Larrouy, Georges; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The Hmong Diaspora is one of the widest modern human migrations. Mainly localised in South-East Asia, the United States of America, and metropolitan France, a small community has also settled the Amazonian forest of French Guiana. We have biologically analysed 62 individuals of this unique Guianese population through three complementary genetic markers: mitochondrial DNA (HVS-I/II and coding region SNPs), Y-chromosome (SNPs and STRs), and the Gm allotypic system. All genetic systems showed a high conservation of the Asian gene pool (Asian ancestry: mtDNA=100.0%; NRY=99.1%; Gm=96.6%), without a trace of founder effect. When compared across various Asian populations, the highest correlations were observed with Hmong-Mien groups still living in South-East Asia (Fst<0.05; P-value<0.05). Despite a long history punctuated by exodus, the French Guianese Hmong have maintained their original genetic diversity. Copyright © 2012 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Sustainable solutions for solid waste management in Southeast Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyen Nguyen Ngoc; Schnitzer, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. Today's rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term 'zero emission systems'. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with today's technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material input-output model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed.

  7. Dialysis and Quality of Dialysate in Southeast Asian Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomotaka Naramura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of dialysis patients has been increasing in Southeast Asia, but statistical data about these patients and on the quality of dialysates in Southeast Asian dialysis facilities are still imprecise. For this study, dialysis-related statistical data were collected in Southeast Asia. Methods: A survey of the quality of dialysates was carried out at 4 dialysis facilities in Vietnam and Cambodia. The dialysis patient survey included the numbers of dialysis facilities and patients receiving dialysis, a ranking of underlying diseases causing the initiation of dialysis, the number of patients receiving hemodialysis (HD/on-line hemodiafiltration/continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, the number of HD monitoring devices installed, the cost of each session of dialysis (in USD, the percentage of out-of-pocket payments, and the 1-year survival rates of the dialysis patients (in percent. The dialysate survey covered the endotoxin (ET level and bacterial count in tap water, in water filtered through a reverse osmosis system and in dialysate. Results: In each of the countries, the most frequent reason for the initiation of dialysis is diabetes mellitus. HD is usually carried out according to the ‘reuse' principle. The 1-year survival rates are 70% in Myanmar and about 90% in the Philippines and Malaysia. The ET levels in standard dialysates were satisfactory at 2 facilities. The bacterial counts in dialysates were not acceptable at any of the facilities investigated. Conclusion: There is an urgent need to teach medical workers involved in dialysis how to prepare sterile and ET-free dialysates.

  8. Regional Commonalities and Regional Identities: Forging a Normative Understanding of Southeast Asian Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürol Baba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, most of the IR academia’s attention on Southeast Asian regionalism utilised constructivism and/or realism and has focused on ASEAN and its derivatives. This article aims to skew this angle by elaborating a possible relationship between Asian values and a normative understanding of Southeast Asian identity. The major reason for this article’s focus on a normative interpretation is that a practical application of Southeast Asian identity is not very achievable due to various ethnic, cultural, political, territorial, and historical diversities. While the region is diverse, there are also a number of commonalities among its states. Asian values, from a Confucian perspective, account for some of these commonalities. By using constructivists’ claims on both the links between norms and identity and the dynamic interaction between values and norms, this article argues that Asian values could contribute to the development of Amitav Acharya’s widely cited normative/ideational format of Southeast Asian identity. The article takes ASEAN identity as a case study and aims to show why a normative identity is more achievable than a practical identity among Southeast Asians, and how Asian values might contribute to the creation of this shared identity.

  9. A Preliminary Study of a Health-Promoting Lifestyle Among Southeast Asian Women in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Hsin Lee

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine and understand the predicting factors of a health-promoting lifestyle (HPL in Southeast Asian women in Taiwan. One hundred and five Southeast Asian women in Tainan were recruited. Face-to-face interviews with structured questionnaires were used for data collection. The findings showed that, among the six dimensions of HPL, subjects scored highest in self-actualization and lowest in health responsibility. Subjects who could read and write Chinese had a more positive HPL; stepwise regression analysis revealed that the ability to read Chinese could explain 26.2% of the total variance of HPL in Southeast Asian women. The results of this study can help health care professionals understand the HPL and to design appropriate health-promoting educational programs to improve the well-being and overall quality of life of Southeast Asian women in Taiwan.

  10. Maritime archaeology of Kalinga and the contact with southeast Asian countries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    During the last five thousand years in the maritime history of India, Kaling played an important role in diffusing the Indian culture in Southeast Asian countries. Archaeological exploration and excavations, epigraphical evidences and literary...

  11. Analytical Methods for Mycotoxin Detection in Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chee Wei; Chung, Gerald; Chan, Sheot Harn

    2017-10-03

    Aflatoxins B 1 (AFB 1 ) and B₂ (AFB₂) and G 1 and G₂ remain the top mycotoxins routinely analyzed and monitored by Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) national laboratories primarily for food safety regulation in the major food commodities, nuts and spices. LC tandem fluorescence detection (LC–fluorescence) represents a current mainstream analytical method, with a progressive migration to a primary method by LC tandem MS (MS/MS) for the next half decade. Annual proficiency testing (PT) is conducted by ASEAN Food Reference Laboratories (AFRLs) for mycotoxin testing as part of capability building in national laboratories, with the scope of PT materials spanning from naturally mycotoxin-contaminated spices and nuts in the early 2010s to the recent contamination of corn flour in 2017 for total aflatoxin assay development. The merits of the mainstream LC–fluorescence method are witnessed by a significant improvement ( P < 0.05) in PT z -score passing rates (≤2) from 11.8 to 79.2% for AFB 1 , 23.5 to 83.3% for AFB₂, and 23.5 to 79.2% for total aflatoxins in the last 5 years. This paper discusses the journey of ASEAN national laboratories in analytical testing through AFRLs, and the progressive collective adoption of a multimycotoxin LC-MS/MS method aided by an isotopic dilution assay as a future primary method for safer food commodities.

  12. Cigarette price level and variation in five Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Alex C; Ross, Hana; Ratanachena, Sophapan; Dorotheo, E Ulysses; Foong, Kin

    2015-06-01

    To monitor and analyse impacts of the interaction between tobacco excise tax policy and industry price strategy, on the price level and variation of cigarettes sold in five Southeast Asian countries (Indonesia, Cambodia, Lao PDR, the Philippines and Vietnam). Prices of cigarette sold by sticks and packs were collected through an in-person survey of retailers during 2011. Mean cigarette prices and price variation were calculated in each study country for single cigarettes, whole packs and brand groups. Price variation of whole packs was greater in countries with ad-valorem excise tax structures (Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam) than in countries with multitiered specific excise taxes (Indonesia and the Philippines). The price variation for single sticks appeared to be driven by local currency denomination. Cigarettes sold individually cost more per stick than cigarettes sold in whole packs in every brand group except for Indonesia's domestic brands. Tobacco industry strategy and excise tax structure drove the price level and variation of cigarettes sold in packs, while currency denominations influence the selling price of single sticks. To maximise the effectiveness of tobacco tax policies, countries should adopt specific excise tax structures to decrease cigarette price variation, which would minimise opportunities for smokers to 'trade down' to a cheaper brand to avoid a tax-driven price increase. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Population structure of the Southeast Asian river catfish Mystus nemurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, S; Tan, S G; Siraj, S S; Yusoff, K

    2003-12-01

    A total of 143 microsatellites were isolated from Mystus nemurus using a 5' anchored polymerase chain reaction technique or the random amplified hybridization microsatellite method, the first set of microsatellite markers developed for the Southeast Asian river catfish. Twenty polymorphic microsatellite loci were used as markers for population characterization of M. nemurus from six different geographical locations in Malaysia (Perak, Kedah, Johor, UPM, Sarawak and Terengganu). The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 11 with 6.3 as the average number of alleles per locus. Characterization of the populations showed relatively high levels of genetic variation compared with previous studies using allozyme markers. The highest genetic similarity was found between Perak and Kedah, while the highest genetic distance was found between Terengganu and Kedah. The majority of clustering was in accordance with geographical locations and the histories of the populations. Microsatellite analysis indicated that the Sarawak population might be genetically closer to the Peninsular Malaysian populations than has been previously shown by other molecular marker studies.

  14. Physical disorders among Southeast Asian refugee outpatients with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, K; Westermeyer, J; Neider, J

    1996-09-01

    The study assessed the prevalence and duration of axis III physical disorders and the resulting level of disability among Southeast Asian refugee outpatients with axis I psychiatric disorders. A total of 266 consecutive patients who were evaluated in a psychiatric outpatient clinic were assessed for the presence of axis III conditions through questions about physical symptoms, a medical history and review of records, physical examination, and laboratory screening. The sample included 158 Hmong, 58 Laotian, 43 Vietnamese, and seven Cambodian patients. Fifty-five percent of the patients had one or more axis III disorders, most of which were chronic and were not associated with extreme disability. Neurological conditions were most common, and the sequelae of war-related trauma were prominent. No associations were found between the presence of axis III conditions and age, gender, marital status, or ethnic group. In 48 cases, the axis III condition may have caused or exacerbated the axis I condition. Routine medical history and a physical examination, including a neurological examination, are recommended for all psychiatric patients, including outpatients.

  15. Borneo and Indochina are major evolutionary hotspots for Southeast Asian biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Mark; Stelbrink, Björn; Morley, Robert J; Hall, Robert; Carvalho, Gary R; Cannon, Charles H; van den Bergh, Gerrit; Meijaard, Erik; Metcalfe, Ian; Boitani, Luigi; Maiorano, Luigi; Shoup, Robert; von Rintelen, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Tropical Southeast (SE) Asia harbors extraordinary species richness and in its entirety comprises four of the Earth's 34 biodiversity hotspots. Here, we examine the assembly of the SE Asian biota through time and space. We conduct meta-analyses of geological, climatic, and biological (including 61 phylogenetic) data sets to test which areas have been the sources of long-term biological diversity in SE Asia, particularly in the pre-Miocene, Miocene, and Plio-Pleistocene, and whether the respective biota have been dominated by in situ diversification, immigration and/or emigration, or equilibrium dynamics. We identify Borneo and Indochina, in particular, as major "evolutionary hotspots" for a diverse range of fauna and flora. Although most of the region's biodiversity is a result of both the accumulation of immigrants and in situ diversification, within-area diversification and subsequent emigration have been the predominant signals characterizing Indochina and Borneo's biota since at least the early Miocene. In contrast, colonization events are comparatively rare from younger volcanically active emergent islands such as Java, which show increased levels of immigration events. Few dispersal events were observed across the major biogeographic barrier of Wallace's Line. Accelerated efforts to conserve Borneo's flora and fauna in particular, currently housing the highest levels of SE Asian plant and mammal species richness, are critically required. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Substance Use and Sexual Orientation among East and Southeast Asian Adolescents in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yuko; Chen, Weihong; Poon, Colleen S.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between substance use and sexual orientation among Asian adolescents in Canada. We analyzed an East- and Southeast-Asian subsample of a province-wide, school-based survey (weighted N = 51,349). Compared to heterosexual adolescents of the same gender, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and mostly…

  17. Change in the tropical cyclone activity around Korea by the East Asian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Jeoung-Yun

    2017-12-01

    Correlation between the frequency of summer tropical cyclones (TCs) affecting Korea and the East Asian summer monsoon index (EASMI) was analyzed over the last 37 years. A clear positive correlation existed between the two variables, and this high positive correlation remained unchanged even when excluding El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) years. To investigate the causes of the positive correlation between the two variables in non-ENSO years, after the 8 years with the highest EASMI (high EASMI years) and the 8 years with the lowest EASMI (low EASMI years) were selected, and the average difference between the two phases was analyzed. In high EASMI years, in the difference between the two phases regarding 850 and 500 hPa streamline, anomalous cyclones were reinforced in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, while anomalous anticyclones were reinforced in mid-latitude East Asian areas. Due to these two anomalous pressure systems, anomalous southeasterlies developed near Korea, with these anomalous southeasterlies playing the role of anomalous steering flows making the TCs head toward areas near Korea. In addition, a monsoon trough strengthened more eastward, and TCs in high EASMI years occurred more in east ward over the western North Pacific.

  18. Reference Database File TABR Based on Tropical Asian Bees

    OpenAIRE

    Tadauchi, Osamu; Mitai, Katsushi; Inoue, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    A reference database file, TABR, based on tropical Asian bees was constructed and is available to the public via the Internet. Each record is composed of 11 items, and consists of scientific names (family, genus and species), distribution data, type designation with sex, type locality, type depository, source of the original description, synonymy, references and notes. A home page and an example of a search of the TABR database is presented. It is administered by a SIGMA management system. A ...

  19. Southeast Asian Women of Chinese Ancestry: New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Fernie; Lundquist, Gerald W.

    1980-01-01

    Background and historical information regarding adaptation assimilation of Chinese women to living in Southeast Asia includes details of Chinese immigration to Southeast Asia, socialization factors affecting identity and change, and language education. (Journal availability: National Dissemination and Assessment Center, California State…

  20. The nuclear power development program of south-east asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Lee, Tae Jun; Lee, Byung Jun

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the status of nuclear policy environments and nuclear power programmes of South-east Asian countries which are emerging as major markets in the international nuclear industry. To do this, the study investigated seven South-east Asian countries which are especially expected to strengthen nuclear cooperation with our country : China, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, India and the Philippines. Considering the above, the study concentrated upon the status and the environment of nuclear development, as well as its planning and regulatory structure including energy resource environments, energy development policy and planning, and the major problems in nuclear power development encountered by those counties. This study could be used to develop the national policy of nuclear technological cooperation and nuclear business with South-east Asian countries, which will be expected to develop active nuclear power programmes int eh future. 41 tabs., 9 figs., 49 refs. (Author)

  1. Caregiving in Developing East and Southeast Asian Countries [and] Caregiving among Middle and Low Income Aged in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Nelson W. S.; Kwan, Alex Y. H.

    This report consists of two papers on caregiving in Asian countries. The first, "Caregiving in Developing East and Southeast Asian Countries" by Nelson W. S. Chow, discusses the change in the caregiving pattern for the urban elderly in developing countries of East and Southeast Asia. It includes examples from studies carried out in…

  2. Evolution of the Automobile Industry in Asian Countries : Principally Focusing on Southeast Asia and India

    OpenAIRE

    Tomozawa, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1990s, new production trends have been evident in the Asian automobile industry. Japan constituted 85.5% of the total amount of the motor vehicles production in Asia in 1990, but that figure fell to 57.6% by 2000. In contrast, China and India have increased their vehicle production thanks to huge foreign direct investment into their automobile sector. Southeast Asian countries, especially Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, have also experienced a rapid growth of the automobile indust...

  3. Southeast Asian International Students Adjusting to Jordanian Universities: Views from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazzi, Khaled; Al-Jarrah, Abdelnaser

    2016-01-01

    Using a qualitative research methodology, we interviewed 20 Southeast Asian undergraduate students from Malaysia and Indonesia attending universities in northern Jordan to identify any adjustment problems they may have been facing. These international students experienced pressure to succeed from their sponsoring agencies and families, a very…

  4. The Psychosocial Adjustment of the Southeast Asian Refugee: An Overview of Empirical Findings and Theoretical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicassio, Perry M.

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes clinical and research literature on Southeast Asian refugees' adjustment in the United States and proposes the adoption of theoretical models that may help explain individual differences. Reports that acculturation, learned helplessness, and stress management models appear to aid the conceptualizing of refugee problems and provide a…

  5. International Marriages and Marital Citizenship. Southeast Asian Women on the Move

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fresnoza-Flot, A.; Ricordeau, G.

    2017-01-01

    While marriage has lost its popularity in many developed countries and is no longer an obligatory path to family formation, it has gained momentum among binational couples as states reinforce their control over human migration. Focusing on the case of Southeast Asian women who have been epitomized

  6. Pollen of Southeast Asian Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), with an overview of the pollen fossil record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulalacao, L.J.; Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate pollen morphological descriptions of Alchornea in the literature, which are almost completely based on African and American species, the pollen of eight Southeast Asian species of Alchornea was investigated, using light and scanning electron microscopy. Very little variation

  7. Migration and Health. The Mental Health of Southeast Asian Refugees Resettling in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiser, Morton

    1995-01-01

    Data from 1981, 1983, and 1991 to 1993 permit an analysis of the changes in stress, social resources, coping, mental health, employment, English proficiency, family reunification, consumer practices, and traditional and Canadian customs over the first decade of resettlement for Southeast Asian refugees in Canada. (SLD)

  8. Doctor-Patient Communication in a Southeast Asian Setting: The Conflict between Ideal and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Utarini, Adi; Soebono, Hardyanto; Van Dalen, Jan; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2011-01-01

    Doctor-patient communication has been extensively studied in non-Western contexts and in relation to patients' cultural and education backgrounds. This study explores the perceived ideal communication style for doctor-patient consultations and the reality of actual practice in a Southeast Asian context. We conducted the study in a teaching…

  9. "Smoking": Use of Cigarettes, Cigars and Blunts among Southeast Asian American Youth and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. P.; Battle, R. S.; Lipton, R.; Soller, B.

    2010-01-01

    Increased use of cigars has been noted among youth, as well as use of blunts (hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana). Three types of relationships have been previously hypothesized between use of tobacco and marijuana in substance use progression. We aimed to assess these relationships for Southeast Asian American youth and adults in an urban…

  10. Doctors in a Southeast Asian country communicate sub-optimally regardless of patients' educational background.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claramita, M.; Dalen, J.V.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between the style of doctor-patient communication and patients' educational background in a Southeast Asian teaching hospital setting using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). METHODS: We analyzed a total of 245 audio-taped consultations involving 30

  11. Doctor-patient communication in a Southeast Asian setting: the conflict between ideal and reality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claramita, M.; Utarini, A.; Soebono, H.; Dalen, J. Van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    Doctor-patient communication has been extensively studied in non-Western contexts and in relation to patients' cultural and education backgrounds. This study explores the perceived ideal communication style for doctor-patient consultations and the reality of actual practice in a Southeast Asian

  12. Indicators of quality use of medicines in South-East Asian countries : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H. T.; Wirtz, V. J.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F. M.; Taxis, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To identify indicators of quality use of medicines used in South-East Asian region. Methods A systematic review was conducted searching MEDLINE, Embase and The International Network for Rational Use of Drugs (INRUD) and The World Health Organization (WHO) website. Original studies or

  13. Visiting the Site of Death: Experiences of the Bereaved after the 2004 Southeast Asian Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Pal; Tonnessen, Arnfinn; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined how many bereaved relatives of Norwegian tourists who perished in the 2004 Southeast Asian Tsunami had visited the site of death and the most important outcome from the visit. We conducted in-depth interviews (n = 110) and used self-report questionnaires (Impact of Event Scale--Revised, Inventory of Complicated Grief, and…

  14. Current food and nutrition situation in south Asian and south-east Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, C

    1996-09-01

    Food production in the countries of South and South-East Asia has shown a general upward trend during the last decade. Despite the considerable increase in population in many of these countries, food production per capita in 1988-90 was significantly higher as compared to 1979-81 figures, the increase being specially marked in such countries as Vietnam, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Available daily calorie supply was adequate to meet the requirement. The overall pattern of food production however has shown little change, with cereal production continuing to account for a predominant part of food production. There is no evidence of a significant uptrend with respect to production of pulses, milk, horticultural products, poultry or meat production in most countries. A unique and unfortunate feature of the nutrition situation in South-Asian countries is that the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is as high as 34% (1990), ranging from 25% in Sri Lanka to 50% in Bangladesh (as against less than 7% in the countries of Europe and North America). Even in countries of Africa where the overall food and nutrition situation is worse than in South Asia, the incidence is well below 20%. This is a reflection of the poor state of maternal nutrition in pregnancy. Florid nutritional deficiency diseases have shown a steep decline over the last two decades, but goitre and iron deficiency anaemia continue to be major public health problems, though some headway has been made with regard to the control of the former. Severe forms of growth retardation in children have declined but the majority suffer from mild and moderate forms of growth retardation. Countries of the Region are in varying stages of developmental transition. Among the burgeoning middle classes in some of these countries there are evidences of escalation of degenerative diseases such as diabetes and coronary heart disease. With increasing life expectancy, geriatric nutritional problems will demand increasing

  15. Genomic copy number variations in three Southeast Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chee-Seng; Pawitan, Yudi; Sim, Xueling; Ong, Rick T H; Seielstad, Mark; Lee, Edmund J D; Teo, Yik-Ying; Chia, Kee-Seng; Salim, Agus

    2010-07-01

    Research on the role of copy number variations (CNVs) in the genetic risk of diseases in Asian populations has been hampered by a relative lack of reference CNV maps for Asian populations outside the East Asians. In this article, we report the population characteristics of CNVs in Chinese, Malay, and Asian Indian populations in Singapore. Using the Illumina Human 1M Beadchip array, we identify 1,174 CNV loci in these populations that corroborated with findings when the same samples were typed on the Affymetrix 6.0 platform. We identify 441 novel loci not previously reported in the Database of Genomic Variations (DGV). We observe a considerable number of loci that span all three populations and were previously unreported, as well as population-specific loci that are quite common in the respective populations. From this we observe the distribution of CNVs in the Asian Indian population to be considerably different from the Chinese and Malay populations. About half of the deletion loci and three-quarters of duplication loci overlap UCSC genes. Tens of loci show population differentiation and overlap with genes previously known to be associated with genetic risk of diseases. One of these loci is the CYP2A6 deletion, previously linked to reduced susceptibility to lung cancer. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Impacts of hunting on tropical forests in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Rhett D; Sreekar, Rachakonda; Brodie, Jedediah F; Brook, Sarah; Luskin, Matthew; O'Kelly, Hannah; Rao, Madhu; Scheffers, Brett; Velho, Nandini

    2016-10-01

    Although deforestation and forest degradation have long been considered the most significant threats to tropical biodiversity, across Southeast Asia (Northeast India, Indochina, Sundaland, Philippines) substantial areas of natural habitat have few wild animals (>1 kg), bar a few hunting-tolerant species. To document hunting impacts on vertebrate populations regionally, we conducted an extensive literature review, including papers in local journals and reports of governmental and nongovernmental agencies. Evidence from multiple sites indicated animal populations declined precipitously across the region since approximately 1980, and many species are now extirpated from substantial portions of their former ranges. Hunting is by far the greatest immediate threat to the survival of most of the region's endangered vertebrates. Causes of recent overhunting include improved access to forests and markets, improved hunting technology, and escalating demand for wild meat, wildlife-derived medicinal products, and wild animals as pets. Although hunters often take common species, such as pigs or rats, for their own consumption, they take rarer species opportunistically and sell surplus meat and commercially valuable products. There is also widespread targeted hunting of high-value species. Consequently, as currently practiced, hunting cannot be considered sustainable anywhere in the region, and in most places enforcement of protected-area and protected-species legislation is weak. The international community's focus on cross-border trade fails to address overexploitation of wildlife because hunting and the sale of wild meat is largely a local issue and most of the harvest is consumed in villages, rural towns, and nearby cities. In addition to improved enforcement, efforts to engage hunters and manage wildlife populations through sustainable hunting practices are urgently needed. Unless there is a step change in efforts to reduce wildlife exploitation to sustainable levels, the

  17. Asymmetric Exchange Rate Exposure - Research in Southeast Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Thi Hong Le; Ha Thi Cam Huynh; Hong Thi Thu Dinh

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to analyse the impact of exchange rate exposure on stock returns in six countries representative of Southeast Asia, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam from 2009 to 2014. Both nominal and real exchange rates are taken into account for evaluating exchange rate fluctuations via panel data. In order to achieve this goal, a panel regressive estimation approach is proposed in which a GLS model is firstly used to treat heteroscedasticity in the...

  18. Phylogenetic distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dog Y chromosomes illuminates dog origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K Brown

    Full Text Available Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1 assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus and 2 compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog.

  19. Phylogenetic Distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian Village Dog Y Chromosomes Illuminates Dog Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah K.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L.; Ahrens, Kristen D.; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N.

    2011-01-01

    Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog. PMID:22194840

  20. Engineering analysis of ERTS data for southeast Asian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydt, H. L.; Mcnair, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The present program focuses on rice because of its importance world-wide as a food. Specifically, the focus is on rice fields in the Philippines. Two primary program objectives are: (1) to establish the feasibility of extracting from ERTS imagery the areas where rice is grown, and (2) to determine those measurements on the imagery which enable the assessment of crop condition. Achieving these objectives with procedures which can be cost-effective can lead the way toward yield prediction, irrigation system management, and similar functions which are known to be important needs in Southeast Asia.

  1. Neighbour Programme: The Mixture of Southeast Asian Visual Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanny Wijaya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Neighbour Programme was initiated in 2010 by three institutions from Southeast Asia: Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand; then Indonesia joined them a year later in 2011. These institutions, which specialise in art and design, decided to develop a project about cultural exchange that aimed to reconnect art and design in the form of a dialogue and research as practice. This project also intended to include forming mutual networks to organise exchange programmes, creating cultural collisions within this mixture. Based on thought that Southeast Asia’s countries have the same root of art, culture and heritage, Neighbour focused on searching a different topic each year that could be explored and developed into knowledge and understanding for both students and lecturers, and hopefully to publics about their own visual culture. Neighbour has running since 2010 and still developing until present. This project has used different methods, such as Constructivist Learning that gave new perspective of gaining knowledge; and hopefully Neighbour will keep trying to find a new method to engage art, design, and culture with publics internationally. 

  2. Asymmetric Exchange Rate Exposure - Research in Southeast Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Thi Hong Le

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to analyse the impact of exchange rate exposure on stock returns in six countries representative of Southeast Asia, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam from 2009 to 2014. Both nominal and real exchange rates are taken into account for evaluating exchange rate fluctuations via panel data. In order to achieve this goal, a panel regressive estimation approach is proposed in which a GLS model is firstly used to treat heteroscedasticity in the panel data and, then, a GMM estimator is employed to ensure the consistency of the estimates. The results point out that the exchange rate exposure of these countries is asymmetric. At market level, for a rise in the exchange rate (or local currency depreciates, the average stock returns tend to decrease. However, due to the favourable impact of currency depreciation on the net export position, the reduction speed of stock returns is faster than the rising speed of the exchange rate.

  3. A large modern Southeast Asian human skeletal collection from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techataweewan, Nawaporn; Tuamsuk, Panya; Toomsan, Yanyong; Woraputtaporn, Worawut; Prachaney, Parichat; Tayles, Nancy

    2017-09-01

    The Khon Kaen University Human Skeleton Research Centre has a large human collection consisting of 745 modern northeastern Thai (Isan) skeletons derived from bodies bequeathed to the Department of Anatomy during the period 1979-2014. The aim of this paper is to document the collection and address the question of whether the collection may be representative of local Isan people, or populations of the wider region of mainland Southeast Asia. This will determine its value as a reference collection for forensic anthropology in particular but also for all other fields of research about human skeletal biology. Sex is recorded for 99.6% of the skeletons, and age at death for 91.7%. The collection consists of two-thirds males, one-third females. It includes 10 individuals less than 19 years of age, and adults ranging in age from 20 to 109 years of age. Average age at death is 62 years. Other data available for smaller proportions of the collection include cause of death, occupation, and height and weight at the time of donation. Dates of birth are estimated to range from the late 19th Century to the most recent in 1988. Analysis of the demographic composition of the collection shows that is likely to be representative of the ancestral mix of the Isan people, and of the village farmers who still form a large portion of the Isan population. It may also represent 20th Century populations of much of Southeast Asia where agriculture dominates the economy. The collection forms a valuable resource for research on regional human skeletal characteristics for use in forensic anthropology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Asian tigers, African lions: comparing the development performance of Southeast Asia and Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Berendsen, B.; Dietz, A.J.; Schulte, Nordholt H.; Veen, van der, R.

    2013-01-01

    Asian Tigers, African Lions is an anthology of contributions by scholars and (former) diplomats related to the 'Tracking Development' research project, funded by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and coordinated by the African Studies Centre and KITLV, both in Leiden, in collaboration with scholars based in Africa and Asia. The project compared the performance of growth and development of four pairs of countries in Southeast Asia and Sub-Sahara Africa during the last sixty years. I...

  5. Creating an Association of Southeast Asian Nations Payment System: Policy and Regulatory Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Khiaonarong, Tanai

    2013-01-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is expected to benefit from the significant growth in the Asia-Pacific payments market. Growth in economic activity would increase the size, scale, and scope of payment transactions. Enabling the scale and scope of payments would in turn increase economic activity. This would also require national payment systems to be regionalized and operate with cross-border and multi-currency capabilities. As existing regional payment arrangements have il...

  6. The 2030 Architecture of Association of Southeast Asian Nations Free Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Suthiphand Chirathivat; Piti Srisangnam

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates and analyzes the present status, potential, and prospects of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) free trade agreements (FTAs). It begins with a review of the historical evolution of ASEAN FTAs, which captures the achievements of the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA) and the efforts meant to lead to a further step of deeper integration, i.e., the realization of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by 2015. The paper then offers a view on how the grouping adopte...

  7. Biowaste fuels South-East Asian COGEN schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M.

    1998-01-01

    This article reports on the COGEN Programme of the European Commission in association with the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), and considers the benefits of using biowaste for the production of energy using cogeneration with the corresponding reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases. The substitution of rice husks for the fuel in a cogeneration plant at a Thai rice mill, and the combustion of wood in the cogeneration plant at the Homet Raya plant in Malaysia are described, and details are given of the backgrounds to the projects, locations, the technologies used, and the process economics. The next phase of the COGEN programme due to start in 1998 which will see the programme expanded to include coal-fired and gas-fired cogeneration projects is discussed

  8. Doctors in a Southeast Asian country communicate sub-optimally regardless of patients' educational background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Dalen, Jan Van; Van Der Vleuten, Cees Pm

    2011-12-01

    To explore the relationship between the style of doctor-patient communication and patients' educational background in a Southeast Asian teaching hospital setting using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). We analyzed a total of 245 audio-taped consultations involving 30 internal medicine residents with 7-10 patients each in the internal medicine outpatient clinics. The patients were categorized into a group with a high and a group with a low educational level. We ranked the data into 41 RIAS utterances and RIAS-based composite categories in order of observed frequency during consultations. The residents invariantly used a paternalistic style irrespective of patients' educational background. The RIAS utterances and the composite categories show no significant relationship between communication style and patients' educational level. Doctors in a Southeast Asian country use a paternalistic communication style during consultations, regardless of patients' educational background. To approach a more partnership doctor-patient communication, culture and clinical environment concern of Southeast Asian should be further investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Examining the Academic Achievement-Delinquency Relationship Among Southeast Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Laura

    2017-03-01

    The extent to which poor academic achievement is strongly related to delinquency among Southeast Asian Americans (SEAA) remains unclear; reasons are methodological limitations and aggregated findings for Asian Americans, which mask evidence that SEAA have a higher prevalence of criminality and poor academic performance than other Asian American groups. The present study examines the academic achievement-delinquency relationship in a diverse group of 1,214 SEAA using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to make causal inferences and assess whether poor academic achieving SEAA, after being matched with higher academic achieving SEAA, displayed a higher prevalence of delinquency. Findings showed that, even after matching, poor academic achieving SEAA were still more likely to exhibit delinquent behavior than those who performed academically better. Interventions targeting SEAA communities will need to focus more on improving academic achievement to directly prevent and decrease delinquent behavior.

  10. Phylogeny and cryptic diversification in Southeast Asian flying geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Lee Grismer, L; Das, Indraneil; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2012-11-01

    The closed-canopy forests of Southeast Asia are home to an impressive number of vertebrates that have independently evolved morphologies that enhance directed aerial descent (gliding, parachuting). These assemblages include numerous mammal, frog, snake, and lizard clades. Several genera of gekkonid lizards, in particular, have evolved specialized structures such as cutaneous expansions, flaps, and midbody patagia, that enhance lift generation in the context of unique gliding and parachuting locomotion. The genus Ptychozoon represents arguably the most morphologically extreme, highly specialized clade of gliding geckos. Despite their notoriety and celebrated locomotor ability, members of the genus Ptychozoon have never been the subject of a species-level molecular phylogenetic analysis. In this paper, we utilize molecular sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear gene fragments to estimate the evolutionary relationships of this unique group of flying geckos. Capitalizing on the recent availability of genetic samples for even the rarest of known species, we include the majority of known taxa and use model-based phylogenetic methods to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Because one species, P. kuhli, exhibits an unusually wide distribution coupled with an impressive range of morphological variation, we additionally use intensive phylogeographic/population genetic sampling, phylogenetic network analyses, and Bayesian species delimitation procedures to evaluate this taxon for the possible presence of cryptic evolutionary lineages. Our results suggest that P. kuhli may consist of between five and nine unrecognized, distinct species. Although we do not elevate these lineages to species status here, our findings suggest that lineage diversity in Ptychozoon is likely dramatically underestimated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Extension of PIRATA in the tropical South-East Atlantic: an initial one ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as an anemometer, air temperature, humidity and short-wave solar radiation probes, and a rain gauge. The initial results from the first year of data collected by the buoy are presented with a view to providing scientific and societal motivation for the continuation of the extension of PIRATA in the tropical South-East Atlantic.

  12. Restoration Ecology of Lowland tropical Peatlands in Southeast Asia: Current Knowledge and Future Research Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Page, S.; Hoscilo, A.; Wösten, J.H.M.; Jauhiainen, J.; Silvius, M.J.; Rieley, J.; Ritzema, H.P.; Tansey, K.; Graham, L.; Vasander, H.; Limin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of restoration ecology are well established for northern peatlands, but at an early stage for tropical peatlands. Extensive peatland areas in Southeast Asia have been degraded through deforestation, drainage and fire, leading to on- and off-site environmental and socio-economic impacts of

  13. Performance of technical trading rules: evidence from Southeast Asian stock markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharavanij, Piyapas; Siraprapasiri, Vasan; Rajchamaha, Kittichai

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the profitability of technical trading rules in the five Southeast Asian stock markets. The data cover a period of 14 years from January 2000 to December 2013. The instruments investigated are five Southeast Asian stock market indices: SET index (Thailand), FTSE Bursa Malaysia KLC index (Malaysia), FTSE Straits Times index (Singapore), JSX Composite index (Indonesia), and PSE composite index (the Philippines). Trading strategies investigated include Relative Strength Index, Stochastic oscillator, Moving Average Convergence-Divergence, Directional Movement Indicator and On Balance Volume. Performances are compared to a simple Buy-and-Hold. Statistical tests are also performed. Our empirical results show a strong performance of technical trading rules in an emerging stock market of Thailand but not in a more mature stock market of Singapore. The technical trading rules also generate statistical significant returns in the Malaysian, Indonesian and the Philippine markets. However, after taking transaction costs into account, most technical trading rules do not generate net returns. This fact suggests different levels of market efficiency among Southeast Asian stock markets. This paper finds three new insights. Firstly, technical indicators does not help much in terms of market timing. Basically, traders cannot expect to buy at a relative low price and sell at a relative high price by just using technical trading rules. Secondly, technical trading rules can be beneficial to individual investors as they help them to counter the behavioral bias called disposition effects which is the tendency to sell winning stocks too soon and holding on to losing stocks too long. Thirdly, even profitable strategies could not reliably predict subsequent market directions. They make money from having a higher average profit from profitable trades than an average loss from unprofitable ones.

  14. Hemoglobin Constant Spring among Southeast Asian Populations: Haplotypic Heterogeneities and Phylogenetic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittaya Jomoui

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CS is an abnormal Hb caused by a mutation at the termination codon of α2-globin gene found commonly among Southeast Asian and Chinese people. Association of Hb CS with α°-thalassemia leads to a thalassemia intermedia syndrome commonly encountered in the region. We report chromosome background and addressed genetic origins of Hb CS observed in a large cohort of Hb CS among Southeast Asian populations.A study was done on 102 Vietnamese (aged 15-49 year-old and 40 Laotian (aged 18-39 year-old subjects with Hb CS and results compared with 120 Hb CS genes in Thailand. Hematological parameters were recorded and Hb analysis was performed using capillary electrophoresis. Hb CS mutation and thalassemia genotypes were defined by DNA analysis. Six DNA polymorphisms within α-globin gene cluster including 5'Xba I, Bgl I, Inter-zeta HVR, AccI, RsaI and αPstI 3', were determined using PCR-RFLP assay.Nine different genotypes of Hb CS were observed. In contrast to the Thai Hb CS alleles which are mostly linked to haplotype (+-S + + -, most of the Vietnamese and the Laotian Hb CS genes were associated with haplotype (+-M + + -, both of which are different from that of the European Hb CS.Hb CS is commonly found in combination with other thalassemias among Southeast Asian populations. Accurate genotyping of the cases requires both hematologic and DNA analyses. At least two independent origins are associated with the Hb CS gene which could indirectly explain the high prevalence of this Hb variant in the region.

  15. Southeast Asian diversity: first insights into the complex mtDNA structure of Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Martin; Zimmermann, Bettina; Röck, Alexander; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Horst, David; Horst, Basil; Sengchanh, Sourideth; Sanguansermsri, Torpong; Horst, Jürgen; Krämer, Tanja; Schneider, Peter M; Parson, Walther

    2011-02-18

    Vast migrations and subsequent assimilation processes have shaped the genetic composition of Southeast Asia, an area of close contact between several major ethnic groups. To better characterize the genetic variation of this region, we analyzed the entire mtDNA control region of 214 unrelated donors from Laos according to highest forensic quality standards. To detail the phylogeny, we inspected selected SNPs from the mtDNA coding region. For a posteriori data quality control, quasi-median network constructions and autosomal STR typing were performed. In order to describe the mtDNA setup of Laos more thoroughly, the data were subjected to population genetic comparisons with 16 East Asian groups. The Laos sample exhibited ample mtDNA diversity, reflecting the huge number of ethnic groups listed. We found several new, so far undescribed mtDNA lineages in this dataset and surrounding populations. The Laos population was characteristic in terms of haplotype composition and genetic structure, however, genetic comparisons with other Southeast Asian populations revealed limited, but significant genetic differentiation. Notable differences in the maternal relationship to the major indigenous Southeast Asian ethnolinguistic groups were detected. In this study, we portray the great mtDNA variety of Laos for the first time. Our findings will contribute to clarify the migration history of the region. They encourage setting up regional and subpopulation databases, especially for forensic applications. The Laotian sequences will be incorporated into the collaborative EMPOP mtDNA database http://www.empop.org upon publication and will be available as the first mtDNA reference data for this country.

  16. Effect of economic growth and environmental quality on tourism in Southeast Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah

    2017-02-01

    The tourism is an important sector in generating income for a country, nevertheless, tourism is sensitive toward the changes in economy, as well as changes in environmental quality. By employing econometric models of error correction on annual data, this study examines the influence of environmental quality, domestic and global economic growth on foreign tourist arrivals in selected Southeast Asian countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, and Singapore. The findings of this study showed that all of countries long run model were proved statistically, indicated that world economic growth as well as environmental quality affect foreign tourism arrivals.

  17. To Build or to Destroy? The Philippine Experience with Walls and a Southeast Asian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranhilio Callangan Aquino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There are threads that undoubtedly bind us, but we Southeast Asians are accurately described as pluricultural and multi-ethnic. We have lived thus for several centuries now and most of the histories of the nations that constitute our part of the globe bear the marks of attempts of various colonizers to deal with ethnicity and to make us more “manageable” by bringing us Islam first, then Christianity—though in various forms as well, and attempting to cope with the Babel of our many languages through some imposed common medium—in the case of the Philippines, Spanish, marginally, and English, considerably!

  18. ‘Borderless’ Southeast Asia historiography: New scholarship on the interactions and exchanges between Southeast Asia and its South Asian and Chinese neighbours in the pre-1500 era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Hall

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of:Nola Cooke, Li Tana and James A. Anderson (eds, The Tongking Gulf through history. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011, x + 223 pp. [Encounters with Asia Series.] ISBN 9780812243369. Price: USD 59.95 (hardback.Derek Heng, Sino-Malay trade and diplomacy from the tenth through the fourteenth century. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2009, xiii + 286 pp. [Research in International Studies, Southeast Asia Series 121.] ISBN 9780896802711. Price: USD 28.00 (paperback.Hermann Kulke, K. Kesavapany and Vijay Sakhuja (eds, Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa: Reflections on the Chola naval expeditions to Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2009, xxv + 337 pp. [Nalanda-Sriwijaya Series.] ISBN 9789812509365, price: USD 39.90 (hardback; 9789812309372, USD 59.90 (paperback.Pierre-Yves Manguin, A. Mani and Geoff Wade (eds, Early interactions between South and Southeast Asia: Reflections on cross-cultural exchange. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2011, xxxi + 514 pp. [Nalanda-Sriwijaya Series.] ISBN 9789814345101, price USD 49.90 (paperback; 9789814311168, USD 59.90 (hardback. [India Hardcover Edition co-published with Manohar Publishers and Distributors, India.]Geoff Wade and Sun Laichen (eds, Southeast Asia in the fifteenth century: The China factor. Singapore: NUS Press; Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2010, xii + 508 pp. ISBN 9789971694487. Price: USD 32.00.

  19. Climate change vulnerability map of Southeast Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    anshory

    Sources of Data. 15. Appendix 2. Climate Hazard Maps of Southeast Asia. 18. Appendix 2A. Tropical cyclone frequency (event per year from 1980-2003). 18 ... availability of the data) of Southeast Asian countries (Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Indonesia, ..... similar values and identifies big jumps in datasets.

  20. Women's roundtable discussion on the economic, social and political impacts of the Southeast Asian financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, G

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes the main issues revealed at a women's roundtable discussion on the Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of the Southeast Asian Financial Crisis. The discussion was organized by the Development Alternatives of Women for the New Era (DAWN) and was held during April 12-14, 1998, in Manila, the Philippines. The aim was to explore the effects of the financial crisis and its management by states and multilateral agencies on women's political, economic, cultural, and social status; and to reach regional understanding of new issues for the women's movement in Asia and to identify areas of advocacy. Participants included women scholars and activists from Southeast, East, and South Asia; Africa; the Caribbean; Latin America; and the Pacific. Participants came from a wide variety of backgrounds. Nine issues were emphasized. For example, some predicted the currency devaluation before July 1997. The financial crisis is linked with globalization. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the primary institution for addressing the financial crisis. IMF conditions on inflation rates and budget surpluses are recessionary and government budget oriented. The crisis has exposed cronyism and corruption within capitalism. Patriarchal values have reemerged as Asian values. Women have lost jobs and income, while the cost of living continues to increase. Prostitution has become more acceptable as legitimate work. Women's human rights are not legally protected. State ideology assumes domestic and sex roles. Issues in each region are identified. 14 key issues pertain to all regions.

  1. Southeast Asian Medicinal Plants as a Potential Source of Antituberculosis Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaibu Babaji Sanusi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite all of the control strategies, tuberculosis (TB is still a major cause of death globally and one-third of the world’s population is infected with TB. The drugs used for TB treatment have drawbacks of causing adverse side effects and emergence of resistance strains. Plant-derived medicines have since been used in traditional medical system for the treatment of numerous ailments worldwide. There were nine major review publications on antimycobacteria from plants in the last 17 years. However, none is focused on Southeast Asian medicinal plants. Hence, this review is aimed at highlighting the medicinal plants of Southeast Asian origin evaluated for anti-TB. This review is based on literatures published in various electronic database. A total of 132 plants species representing 45 families and 107 genera were reviewed; 27 species representing 20.5% exhibited most significant in vitro anti-TB activity (crude extracts and/or bioactive compounds 0–<10 µg/ml. The findings may motivate various scientists to undertake the project that may result in the development of crude extract that will be consumed as complementary or alternative TB drug or as potential bioactive compounds for the development of novel anti-TB drug.

  2. Fruits and Vegetables Consumption and Associated Factors among In-School Adolescents in Five Southeast Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of fruits and vegetable consumption and associated factors among Southeast Asian in-school adolescents. Data were collected by self-report questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 16,084) of school children aged 13 to 15 years in five Southeast Asian countries. Overall, 76.3% of the 13 to 15 year-olds had inadequate fruits and vegetables consumptions (less than five servings per day); 28% reported consuming fruits less than ...

  3. Response of Southeast Asian Muslims to the increasingly globalized world: discourse and action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iik Arifin Mansurnoor

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Habiéndose desarrollado a partir de una orientación global, el Islam en el sudeste asiático se ha vuelto global desde sus inicios. El sudeste musulmán de Asia siempre ha aceptado y participado en el mundo globalizado, aunque manteniendo una cierta atención sobre el origen y el objetivo de la acción y del diseño global. Históricamente el sudeste musulmán de Asia se enfrenta a la globalización y al colonialismo con una crítica formal. El Islam ha encontrado dos importantes bases de apoyo para su traducción en el sudeste asiático: el Estado y los líderes religiosos autónomos. Con la creciente sofisticación y penetración del colonialismo occidental, las organizaciones musulmanas modernas poco a poco han asumido el papel social de los desaparecidos estados indígenas y otras instituciones. El Sudeste musulmán de Asia ha mostrado su visión moral del mundo globalizado y su diseño para lograrlo. En este artículo, se hace hincapié en las principales tendencias de la espiritualidad centradas en los movimientos del sudeste musulmán de Asia, representados por las organizaciones de masas, las instituciones tradicionales reformadas, y los movimientos sociales más significativos en esta región. A pesar de que la hegemonía del estado y la presencia cada vez más decisiva de la shari'a, a veces interfieren y matizan las actividades de estos movimientos, ellos han sin lugar a dudas demostrado la viabilidad y el potencial del movimiento de espiritualidad centrado en la reestructuración de los rápidos cambios que hoy en día ocurre en el mundo globalizado._____________ABSTRACT:Having itself grown out of a global orientation, Islam in Southeast Asia has gone global since its inception. Southeast Asian Muslims always welcome and participate in the globalized world, even though they are vigilant to the origin and aim of global action and design. Historically Southeast Asian Muslims faced globalization and colonialism with responsible

  4. Tropical Forest Monitoring in Southeast Asia Using Remotely Sensed Optical Time Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Kenneth Joseph

    Despite the importance of tropical forest ecosystems, they continue to be transformed at an alarming rate. In Southeast Asia, the historical deforestation narrative of a growing population gradually encroaching upon forest land is being replaced by the dominating influence of large-scale plantati......Despite the importance of tropical forest ecosystems, they continue to be transformed at an alarming rate. In Southeast Asia, the historical deforestation narrative of a growing population gradually encroaching upon forest land is being replaced by the dominating influence of large......-scale plantations. In particular, the global demand for natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) has been reported as the cause of widespread forest conversion. A critical component of forest conservation strategies, such as Reduced Emission from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+), relies upon the monitoring...

  5. Characteristics and Pedagogical Behaviours of Good EFL Instructors: The Views of Selected Southeast Asian and Mexican SLTE Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Kenneth G.; Lara Herrera, Romero

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the views of selected Southeast Asian and Mexican second language teacher education students regarding the characteristics and pedagogical behaviours of good EFL instructors. A total of 116 participants from Mexico, Brunei, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Cambodia, and Vietnam took part in the…

  6. Cross-sectional study of Hepatitis B Awareness among Chinese and Southeast Asian Canadians in the Vancouver-Richmond community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Cheung

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B (HBV is endemic and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Asia. British Columbia has the highest proportion of Chinese and Southeast Asians among all Canadian provinces. The present study was designed to evaluate the degree of concern for and knowledge of HBV in this high-risk community.

  7. Understanding How Key Institutional Agents Provide Southeast Asian American Students with Access to Social Capital in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.; Mueller, M. Kalehua.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we focus on understanding how institutional agents can and do foster success among Southeast Asian American (SEAA) students in higher education. Specifically, qualitative methods were utilized to examine the experiences of 34 SEAA undergraduate students at 5 public 4-year colleges and universities across the United States and…

  8. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug…

  9. Birth Weight, Apgar Scores, Labor and Delivery Complications and Prenatal Characteristics of Southeast Asian Adolescents and Older Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Ingrid; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined 337 adolescents and 876 older mothers who delivered live-born, single infants between 1980-1982. Absence of alcohol and tobacco consumption among Southeast Asian subjects may have contributed to generally favorable Apgar scores, length of gestation, and birth weights. High frequencies of alcohol and tobacco consumption among White…

  10. Evidence of increased tropical moisture in southeast Australian alpine precipitation during ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Alison; McGowan, Hamish

    2016-10-01

    An understanding of past atmospheric variability during El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events is critical for informing debate on current and future changes in precipitation in a warming world. Here we show that atmospheric moisture content over much of Australia during inflow-generating precipitation days (≥10 mm d-1) associated with La Niña (El Niño) events has increased (decreased) over the period 1958-2015. This is most notable in tropical latitudes which are the source of moisture of most precipitation ≥ 10 mm in southeast Australia (SEA). These trends are consistent with climate model projections and increases in tropical sea surface temperatures since the 1950s. They confirm that enhanced tropical ocean forcing of interannual climate variability through ENSO due to global warming is changing the hydroclimate of midlatitudes and in-turn will require major changes to water resource use and management.

  11. Genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis East African-Indian family in three tropical Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yih-Yuan; Chang, Jia-Ru; Huang, Wei-Feng; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Cheng, Han-Yin; Sun, Jun-Ren; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Su, Ih-Jen; Lin, Ming-Shian; Chen, Wei; Dou, Horng-Yunn

    2017-12-01

    The Beijing lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is the most predominant MTB strain in Asian countries and is spreading worldwide, however, the East African-Indian (EAI) lineage is also particularly prevalent in many tropical Asian countries. The evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of tropical Asian countries remain unknown. The EAI strains collected from patients in Taiwan were analyzed using spacer oligonucleotide typing and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing, and compared with published profiles from Cambodia and Singapore to investigate potential epidemiological linkages. Among the three countries, the EAI lineage was most prevalent in Cambodia (60%; Singapore, 25.62%; and Taiwan, 21.85%), having also the highest rates of multidrug resistance and lowest rates of clustering of MTB isolates. We describe a convenient method using seven selected MIRU-VNTR loci for first-line typing to discriminate Beijing and EAI lineages. A potential epidemiological linkage in these tropical Asian countries is also discussed based on a minimum-spanning tree constructed using 24 MIRU-VNTR loci of MTB EAI strains. This study identified evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of two other tropical Asian countries, Cambodia and Singapore. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Scaling Information Infrastructures: the Case of the Medical Licensing System in a Southeast Asian Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Ngoc Nguyen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scaling health information system from small scale pilots to national systems in developing countries poses a key challenge to system designers and health managers. As a consequence, many projects dissolve and die before they reach the scale where they are useful for information management. The concept of bootstrapping from the Information Infrastructure literature has proven useful to discuss and understand how to initiate and grow large-scale, complex and networked information systems from scratch. We use this concept to analyze and discuss an empirical case of building a large scale medical licensing system in a Southeast Asian country. Beyond describing the process leading up to the success of the licensing system, we contribute by identifying a range of factors influencing the bootstrapping process and we suggest extensions to make the bootstrapping strategy relevant in this context.

  13. Evaluation of the 2013 Southeast Asian Haze on Solar Generation Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Maghami

    Full Text Available Pollution in Southeast Asia is a major public energy problem and the cause of energy losses. A significant problem with respect to this type of pollution is that it decreases energy yield. In this study, two types of photovoltaic (PV solar arrays were used to evaluate the effect of air pollution. The performance of two types of solar arrays were analysed in this research, namely, two units of a 1 kWp tracking flat photovoltaic (TFP and two units of a 1 kWp fixed flat photovoltaic arrays (FFP. Data analysis was conducted on 2,190 samples at 30 min intervals from 01st June 2013, when both arrays were washed, until 30th June 2013. The performance was evaluated by using environmental data (irradiation, temperature, dust thickness, and air pollution index, power output, and energy yield. Multiple regression models were predicted in view of the environmental data and PV array output. Results showed that the fixed flat system was more affected by air pollution than the tracking flat plate. The contribution of this work is that it considers two types of photovoltaic arrays under the Southeast Asian pollution 2013.

  14. Evaluation of the 2013 Southeast Asian Haze on Solar Generation Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Mohammadreza; Hizam, Hashim; Gomes, Chandima; Hajighorbani, Shahrooz; Rezaei, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Pollution in Southeast Asia is a major public energy problem and the cause of energy losses. A significant problem with respect to this type of pollution is that it decreases energy yield. In this study, two types of photovoltaic (PV) solar arrays were used to evaluate the effect of air pollution. The performance of two types of solar arrays were analysed in this research, namely, two units of a 1 kWp tracking flat photovoltaic (TFP) and two units of a 1 kWp fixed flat photovoltaic arrays (FFP). Data analysis was conducted on 2,190 samples at 30 min intervals from 01st June 2013, when both arrays were washed, until 30th June 2013. The performance was evaluated by using environmental data (irradiation, temperature, dust thickness, and air pollution index), power output, and energy yield. Multiple regression models were predicted in view of the environmental data and PV array output. Results showed that the fixed flat system was more affected by air pollution than the tracking flat plate. The contribution of this work is that it considers two types of photovoltaic arrays under the Southeast Asian pollution 2013.

  15. Characteristics of tropical cyclone extreme precipitation and its preliminary causes in Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wenyu; Ren, Fumin; Wu, Liguang; Chen, Lianshou; Ding, Chenchen

    2018-03-01

    Extreme precipitation induced by a tropical cyclone (TC) is of great concern to Southeast China. Regional characteristics of daily TC-induced extreme precipitation (TCEP) between 1958 and 2016 and the associated preliminary causes over Southeast China (Zhejiang, Fujian, and Shanghai) were examined by applying the objective synoptic analysis technique, TC track similarity area index, daily precipitation observations, and reanalysis data. The intensity and frequency of high-intensity TCEP (≥ 100, ≥ 200, ≥ 300 mm) have had an increasing trend over recent decades. Most of TCEP occurs from July to September, with frequency peaks in August for TCEP at all intensity levels, apart from the frequency for TCEP ≥ 300 mm that peaks in September. Regions with high frequency and large TCEP (R-HFLTs) (relatively high frequency for TCEP ≥ 100 mm) were concentrated along the coastline of the southern coastal Fujian (Southern R-HFLT), the regions from northern coastal Fujian to southernmost coastal Zhejiang (Central R-HFLT), and central coastal Zhejiang (Northern R-HFLT), decreasing from the coastline to inland. The Central R-HFLT region had the highest TCEP intensity and frequency for TCEP ≥ 100 mm compared with the other R-HFLTs. Further analysis showed that the special terrain of Southeast China matched the spatial distribution of TCEP, which highlights the significance of the topography of Southeast China. To discover other factors responsible for the heavy TCEP, we compared two TC groups that influence Central R-HFLT. Under a more northerly direction and slow movement combined with the unique terrain, TCs with stronger vortex circulation generated heavier TCEP during landfall in Central R-HFLT. Heavy TCEP occurred with easterly and southeasterly winds interacting with terrain over the eastern coast for Central R-HFLT. Although large changes in the internal and external environment were sensitive to the observed TCEP intensity, the interaction between TC circulation

  16. Beta-globin gene linked DNA haplotypes and frameworks in three South-East Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundrieser, J; Sanguansermsri, T; Papp, T; Laig, M; Flatz, G

    1988-09-01

    DNA haplotypes and frameworks (numbers in parenthesis) linked to the beta-globin gene were determined by restriction fragment analysis using eight restriction endonucleases on 86 (97) chromosomes bearing the normal beta-globin gene (HBB*A) and 108 (118) chromosomes bearing HBB*E in subjects homozygous for HBB*A or HBB*E from three South-East Asian populations with high HBB*E frequencies (northern Thailand, north-eastern Thailand and Cambodia). A systematic nomenclature for beta-globin gene-linked haplotype characterized by six polymorphic sites is introduced. In all populations, HBB*A occurred preferentially (greater than 80%) in linkage with the haplotype 41 (+----+) and all three frameworks described by Antonarakis et al. (1982). In contrast, almost 80% of the HBB*E genes occurred with the haplotype 27 (-+- ). In northern and north-eastern Thailand, HBB*E was present almost exclusively in frame-work 2; HBB*E in framework 3 (Asian) was limited to the Khmer population of Cambodia, and the frequency of HBB*E-linked framework 3 increased from the west to the east in this country.

  17. Transnational labour migration and the politics of care in the Southeast Asian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Lan Anh; Yeoh, Brenda S A; Wattie, Anna Marie

    2012-06-01

    Recent increases in female labour migration in and from Asia have triggered a surge of interest in how the absence of the mother and wife for extended periods of time affects the left-behind family, particularly children, in labour-sending countries. While migration studies in the region have shown that the extended family, especially female relatives, is often called on for support in childcare during the mother's absence it is not yet clear how childcare arrangements are made. Drawing on in-depth interviews with non-parent carers of left-behind children in Indonesia and Vietnam, the paper aims to unveil complexities and nuances around care in the context of transnational labour migration. In so doing it draws attention to the enduring influence of social norms on the organisation of family life when women are increasingly drawn into the global labour market. By contrasting a predominantly patrilineal East Asian family structure in Vietnam with what is often understood as a bilateral South-East Asian family structure in Indonesia, the paper seeks to provide interesting comparative insights into the adaptive strategies that the transnational family pursues in order to cope with the reproductive vacuum left behind by the migrant mother.

  18. Biodiversity Conservation in Southeast Asian Timber Concessions: a Critical Evaluation of Policy Mechanisms and Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rona A. Dennis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropical deforestation is leading to a loss of economically productive timber concessions, as well as areas with important environmental or socio-cultural values. To counteract this threat in Southeast Asia, sustainable forest management (SFM practices are becoming increasingly important. We assess the tools and guidelines that have been developed to promote SFM and the progress that has been made in Southeast Asia toward better logging practices. We specifically focus on practices relevant to biodiversity issues. Various regional or national mechanisms now inform governments and the timber industry about methods to reduce the impact of production forestry on wildlife and the forest environment. However, so many guidelines have been produced that it has become difficult to judge which ones are most relevant. In addition, most guidelines are phrased in general terms and lack specific recommendations targeted to local conditions. These might be reasons for the generally slow adoption of SFM practices in the region, with only a few countries having incorporated the guidelines into national legislation. Malaysia, Indonesia, and Laos are among the frontrunners in this process. Overall there is progress, especially in the application of certification programs, the planning and management of high conservation value forests, the regulation and control of hunting, and silvicultural management. To reduce further forest loss, there is a need to accelerate the implementation of good forest management practices. We recommend specific roles for governments, the forestry industry, and nongovernmental organizations in further promoting the implementation of SFM practices for biodiversity conservation.

  19. A review of biodiversity-related issues and challenges in megadiverse Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina von Rintelen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is one of the ten member states of the economically and politically diverse regional organization of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN. Southeast Asia comprises four of the 25 global biodiversity hotspots, three of the 17 global megadiverse countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines and the most diverse coral reefs in the world. All member states are Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD. We discuss ASEAN-wide joint activities on nature conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity that do not stop at national borders. The Indonesian archipelago comprises two of the world’s biodiversity hotspots (areas with a high degree of endemic species that are highly threatened by loss of habitats: Its insular character and complex geological history led to the evolution of a megadiverse fauna and flora on the global scale. The importance of biodiversity, e.g., in traditional medicine and agriculture, is deep-rooted in Indonesian society. Modern biodiversity pathways include new fields of application in technology, pharmacy and economy along with environmental policies. This development occurred not only in Indonesia but also in other biodiversity-rich tropical countries. This review summarizes and discusses the unique biodiversity of Indonesia from different angles (science, society, environmental policy, and bioeconomy and brings it into context within the ASEAN region. The preconditions of each member state for biodiversity-related activities are rather diverse. Much was done to improve the conditions for biodiversity research and use in several countries, primarily in those with a promising economic development. However, ASEAN as a whole still has further potential for more joint initiatives. Especially Indonesia has the highest biodiversity potential within the ASEAN and beyond, but likewise the highest risk of biodiversity loss. We conclude that Indonesia has not taken full advantage of this

  20. A Case of Strychnine Poisoning from a Southeast Asian Herbal Remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhapricha, Terry; Pomerleau, Adam C

    2017-04-01

    Strychnine is a highly toxic alkaloid found in both naturally occurring compounds and commercial products. Extracts of fruits from the strychnine plant have been used in Southeast Asia as remedies for various illnesses. We describe strychnine poisoning from ingestion of a Southeast Asian herbal supplement quantitatively confirmed by serum and urine analysis. A 40-year-old Cambodian woman presented to the emergency department with a complaint of jaw pain and spasms. The patient was staying with a relative and drank 2 oz from an unmarked bottle that she thought contained vodka. She then developed trismus and abdominal cramping, after which a family member said the bottle contained a compound called "slang nut." Her vital signs were as follows: heart rate 102 beats/min, blood pressure 142/72 mm Hg, respiratory rate 20 breaths/min, and oxygen level 100%. The physical examination revealed no significant abnormalities. Serum toxicologic screens were negative except for strychnine levels that revealed a serum concentration of 350 ng/mL and a urine concentration >200 ng/mL. The patient was observed for 2.5 h and discharged with no long-term complications. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Strychnine is a well-known compound that has been used in poisons, rodenticides, and performance enhancing drugs for years. In the Western world, strychnine is a much less common poisoning given that its use has been restricted because of the potential for severe toxicity; however, given its potentially high mortality, it is important to be aware of other sources of exposure, including those from herbal and homeopathic remedies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Leo Suryadinata (ed.), Southeast Asia’s Chinese Businesses in an Era of Globalization: Coping with the rise of China, Singapore, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2006, 374 pp.

    OpenAIRE

    Astarita, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    Globalisation and the emergence of China as an economic power are two of the most significant international developments of recent decades, and have had a profound impact on the socio-political and economic background of the Southeast Asia region. Leo Suryadinata’s book focuses on three issues: the rise of China and its impact on Southeast Asia’s economies and businesses, especially on those involving ethnic Chinese; Southeast Asian government policies—particularly economic and business polic...

  2. Hardcore smoking in three South-East asian countries: results from the global adult tobacco survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Jugal; Jena, Pratap Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Chandan; Swain, Monali; Das, Sagarika; Banerjee, Indrani

    2013-01-01

    Hardcore smoking is represented by a subset of daily smokers with high nicotine dependence, inability to quit and unwillingness to quit. Estimating the related burden could help us in identifying a high risk population prone to tobacco induced diseases and improve cessation planning for them. This study assessed the prevalence and associated factors of hardcore smoking in three South-East Asian countries and discussed its implication for smoking cessation intervention in this region. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data of India, Bangladesh and Thailand were analyzed to quantify the hardcore smoking prevalence in the region. On the basis of review, an operational definition of hardcore smoking was adopted that includes (1) current daily smoker, (2) no quit attempt in the past 12 months of survey or last quit attempt of less than 24 hours duration, (3) no intention to quit in next 12 months or not interested in quitting, (4) time to first smoke within 30 minutes of waking up, and (5) knowledge of smoking hazards. Logistic regression analysis was carried out using hardcore smoking status as response variable and gender, type of residence, occupation, education, wealth index and age-group as possible predictors. There were 31.3 million hardcore smokers in the three Asian countries. The adult prevalence of hardcore smoking in these countries ranges between 3.1% in India to 6% in Thailand. These hardcore smokers constitute 18.3-29.7% of daily smokers. The logistic regression model indicated that age, gender, occupation and wealth index are the major predictors of hardcore smoking with varied influence across countries. Presence of a higher number of hardcore smoking populations in Asia is a major public health challenge for tobacco control and cancer prevention. There is need of intensive cessation interventions with due consideration of contextual predictors.

  3. Ethnic Chinese Remigration from Southeast Asian Countries since 1960s: A Case Study of Malaysian Chinese Outflows

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Total outflows of Chinese from Southeast Asian countries since the Second World War reached around 3 million. They headed to the developed countries such as the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, France and Singapore. As for the case of Malaysia, large number of Malaysian Chinese remigrated to Singapore, United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia for new residence since the end of the Second World War. They left Malaysia because of political discrimination, economic re...

  4. Pathogenic waterborne free-living amoebae: An update from selected Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Majid, Mohamad Azlan; Mahboob, Tooba; Mong, Brandon G J; Jaturas, Narong; Richard, Reena Leeba; Tian-Chye, Tan; Phimphila, Anusorn; Mahaphonh, Panomphanh; Aye, Kyaw Nyein; Aung, Wai Lynn; Chuah, Joon; Ziegler, Alan D; Yasiri, Atipat; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Lim, Yvonne A L; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2017-01-01

    Data on the distribution of free-living amoebae is still lacking especially in Southeast Asian region. The aquatic environment revealed a high occurrence of free-living amoebae (FLA) due to its suitable condition and availability of food source, which subsequently causes infection to humans. A total of 94 water samples consisted of both treated and untreated from Laos (31), Myanmar (42), and Singapore (21) were investigated for the presence of pathogenic FLA. Each water sample was filtered and cultured onto non-nutrient agar seeded with live suspension of Escherichia coli and incubated at room temperature. Morphological identification was conducted for both trophozoites and cysts via microscopic stains (Giemsa and immunofluorescence). The presence of Naegleria-like structures was the most frequently encountered in both treated and untreated water samples, followed by Acanthamoeba-like and Vermamoeba-like features. To identify the pathogenic isolates, species-specific primer sets were applied for molecular identification of Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, and Vermamoeba. The pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba lenticulata and A. triangularis were detected from untreated water samples, while Vermamoeba vermiformis was found in both treated and untreated water samples. Our results suggested that poor water quality as well as inadequate maintenance and treatment might be the cause of this alarming problem since chlorine disinfection is ineffective in eradicating these amoebas in treated water samples. Regular monitoring and examination of water qualities are necessary in order to control the growth, hence, further preventing the widespread of FLA infections among the public.

  5. Revision, phylogeny, and microhabitat shifts in the Southeast Asian spider genus Aetana (Araneae, Pholcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard A. Huber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The previously poorly known Southeast Asian spider genus Aetana Huber, 2005 is revised. Fifteen species are newly described, and the first SEM data and a first phylogenetic analysis of the genus are presented. Four species groups are well supported, one restricted to Borneo, two restricted to the Philippines, and one ranging from the Philippines to Fiji. The cladistic analysis and field observations suggest that the ancestor of Aetana built its web close to the ground, in confined spaces among and under rocks and logs. In at least two cases, evolutionary shifts of microhabitat resulted in species being adapted to life in higher forest strata, with correlated morphological and behavioral changes (lighter coloration; longer abdomen; additional sheet in web or more strongly domed web. The following species are newly described: A. abadae Huber, sp. nov., A. baganihan Huber, sp. nov., A. banahaw Huber, sp. nov., A. kiukoki Huber, sp. nov., A. libjo Huber, sp. nov., A. loboc Huber, sp. nov., A. lozadae Huber, sp. nov., A. manansalai Huber, sp. nov., A. ocampoi Huber, sp. nov., A. paragua Huber, sp. nov. and A. pasambai Huber, sp. nov. from the Philippines; A. gaya Huber, sp. nov., A. indah Huber, sp. nov., A. lambir Huber, sp. nov. and A. poring Huber, sp. nov. from northern Borneo. The female of A. kinabalu Huber, 2005 is newly described. A potential case of female genital dimorphism is documented in A. ocampoi Huber, sp. nov.

  6. Injury and Social Correlates among in-School Adolescents in Four Southeast Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supa Pengpid

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine estimates of the prevalence and social correlates of injury among adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Cross-sectional national data from the Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS included 9,333 students at the ages from 13 to 15 years inclusive from Indonesia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand is chosen by a two-stage cluster sample design to represent all students in grades 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 in each country. The percentage of adolescents reporting one or more serious injuries within the past 12 months was 42.2% for all countries, ranging from 27.0% in Myanmar to 46.8% in Thailand. By major activity, “fall” (14.6% was the leading external cause of injury, followed by playing or training for a sport (9.9% and vehicle accident (6.1%. In multivariate regression analysis Thailand and Indonesia, being male, substance use (smoking and drinking alcohol and psychological distress were associated with annual injury prevalence. Risk factors of substance use and psychological distress should be considered in an integrated approach to injury etiology in planning injury prevention and safety promotion activities among school children.

  7. Nursing qualification and workforce for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Economic Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendi, Ferry; Nursalam, N; Kurniati, Anna; Gunawan, Joko

    2018-01-23

    International nurse migration among Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries has the potential to increase the effectiveness of health services and access for the ASEAN Economic Community. Providing equivalent nursing qualifications and licensure standards and increasing the availability of the nursing workforce has become a challenge for ASEAN members. The purpose of this study is: 1) to comparatively analyze information on nursing licensing examinations (NLE) across ASEAN countries; and 2) to present information on the human resources required for a successful nursing workforce. This study reviews all documents published on the subject within the ASEAN Economic Community. NLE systems exist in all ASEAN Member States (AMSs)s except Brunei, Vietnam, and Lao PDR. Nursing education systems also vary across ASEAN countries. Language as a means of general communication and nursing examinations also differs. The availability of a qualified health workforce at the regional level is above the threshold in some areas. However, at the national level, Indonesia, Myanmar, Cambodia, and Lao PDR fall below the threshold. Professional licensure requirements differ among ASEAN nurses as a part of the process to become a qualified nurse in host and source countries. Mutual Recognition Agreements on nursing services should address the differences in NLE requirements as well as the availability of nurses. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Variable number of tandem repeats of 9 Plasmodium vivax genes among Southeast Asian isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Nyunt, Myat Htut; Yun, Seung-Gyu; Lu, Feng; Cheng, Yang; Han, Jin-Hee; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Park, Won Sun; Hong, Seok-Ho; Lim, Chae-Seung; Cao, Jun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Cui, Liwang; Han, Eun-Taek

    2017-06-01

    The variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) provides valuable information about both the functional and evolutionary aspects of genetic diversity. Comparative analysis of 3 Plasmodium falciparum genomes has shown that more than 9% of its open reading frames (ORFs) harbor VNTRs. Although microsatellites and VNTR genes of P. vivax were reported, the VNTR polymorphism of genes has not been examined widely. In this study, 230 P. vivax genes were analyzed for VNTRs by SERV, and 33 kinds of TR deletions or insertions from 29 P. vivax genes (12.6%) were found. Of these, 9 VNTR fragments from 8 P. vivax genes were used for PCR amplification and sequence analysis to examine the genetic diversity among 134 isolates from four Southeast Asian countries (China, Republic of Korea, Thailand, and Myanmar) with different malaria endemicity. We confirmed the existence of extensive polymorphism of VNTR fragments in field isolates. This detection provides several suitable markers for analysis of the molecular epidemiology of P. vivax field isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Determinants of economic freedom of the Association of Southeast Asian Nation economic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Debbie C. Magallon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the determinants of the well-being of people across the world is economic freedom. It is the freedom to choose the ways to produce, sell, and use your private resources, while respecting rights of the other to practice the same. The primordial intention of the study was to investigate the factors affecting economic freedom in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN Economic Community. Human Development Index (HDI, Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI and GDP per capita are dimensions considered to characterize the level of a country’s economic freedom. Trend performance of AEC in these indexes was also determined. The empirical estimate was based on a panel dataset covering 6 member-countries of the ASEAN Economic Community from 2001 to 2010. The model was estimated through Ordinary Least Squares (OLS multiple linear regression analysis. For the trend performance of the indexes, Singapore found to have a remarkable performance. The empirical result strongly suggests that CPI and GDP per capita foster economic freedom. For every 1% decrease in CPI would lead to an increase in economic freedom index by.121 % and for every 1% increase in GDP per capita, EFI will increase by .019%.

  10. Volatility Forecasting Models and Market Co-Integration: A Study on South-East Asian Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erie Febrian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatility forecasting is an imperative research field in financial markets and crucial component in most financial decisions. Nevertheless, which model should be used to assess volatility remains a complex issue as different volatility models result in different volatility approximations. The concern becomes more complicated when one tries to use the forecasting for asset distribution and risk management purposes in the linked regional markets. This paper aims at observing the effectiveness of the contending models of statistical and econometric volatility forecasting in the three South-east Asian prominent capital markets, i.e. STI, KLSE, and JKSE. In this paper, we evaluate eleven different models based on two classes of evaluation measures, i.e. symmetric and asymmetric error statistics, following Kumar's (2006 framework. We employ 10-year data as in sample and 6-month data as out of sample to construct and test the models, consecutively. The resulting superior methods, which are selected based on the out of sample forecasts and some evaluation measures in the respective markets, are then used to assess the markets cointegration. We find that the best volatility forecasting models for JKSE, KLSE, and STI are GARCH (2,1, GARCH(3,1, and GARCH (1,1, respectively. We also find that international portfolio investors cannot benefit from diversification among these three equity markets as they are cointegrated.

  11. When Indian crabs were not yet Asian - biogeographic evidence for Eocene proximity of India and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Sebastian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The faunal and floral relationship of northward-drifting India with its neighboring continents is of general biogeographic interest as an important driver of regional biodiversity. However, direct biogeographic connectivity of India and Southeast Asia during the Cenozoic remains largely unexplored. We investigate timing, direction and mechanisms of faunal exchange between India and Southeast Asia, based on a molecular phylogeny, molecular clock-derived time estimates and biogeographic reconstructions of the Asian freshwater crab family Gecarcinucidae. Results Although the Gecarcinucidae are not an element of an ancient Gondwana fauna, their subfamily Gecarcinucinae, and probably also the Liotelphusinae, evolved on the Indian Subcontinent and subsequently dispersed to Southeast Asia. Estimated by a model testing approach, this dispersal event took place during the Middle Eocene, and thus before the final collision of India and the Tibet-part of Eurasia. Conclusions We postulate that the India and Southeast Asia were close enough for exchange of freshwater organisms during the Middle Eocene, before the final Indian-Eurasian collision. Our data support geological models that assume the Indian plate having tracked along Southeast Asia during its move northwards.

  12. Effects of land use-change on some properties of tropical soils - An example from Southeast Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geissen, V.; Sánchez-Hernández, R.; Kampichler, C.; Ramos-Reyes, R.; Sepulveda-Lozada, A.; Ochoa-Gaona, S.; Jong, de B.H.J.; Huerta-Lwanga, E.; Hernández-Daumás, S.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effects of land-use and land-cover changes on physical and chemical properties of soil in tropical South-East Mexico. In the study area of about 5500 km2, the dominant land use is pastureland (Pa seasonal agriculture (TA), fruit plantations (FP), sugarcane, (SC) secondary (SF) and

  13. Sex preference for children in Thailand and some other South-East Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongboonsin, K; Ruffolo, V P

    1995-09-01

    In Southeast Asia general impressions are that son preference exists in Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam, and that there is no sex bias in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. Social and cultural factors are given as the reasons supporting sex bias. The suggestion is made that change in cultural setting may be accomplished through IEC programs. Women's status should be improved, and young people's attitudes and norms must be changed. Coombs's scale is considered a useful means of assessing the extent of sex preference within a country, which is a necessary step before initiating programs. The 1994 Cairo Plan of Action regards the empowerment of women and improved status as necessary for the success of population programs and national development. Most of the countries in Southeast Asia experienced fertility decline during 1990-95. Fertility in Asian countries declined faster than fertility in Indochinese countries. Brunei has the smallest population and Indonesia has the largest population. Singapore has the lowest percentage increase (11.5%) in population and Laos has the highest (35.8%). Laos is the only country in the region with an expected increase in the population growth rate. Cambodia and Myanmar are declining, but at a very slow rate. Population projections for the year 2000 show that the most populous countries will be Indonesia (218 million), Vietnam (81.5 million), and the Philippines (76.1 million). Sex preferences can be measured by indicators such as Goodkind's sex combination preference among women with two children, the percentage of second-birth intervals under 3 years by the sex of the first birth, or the sex ratio of child mortality. Validity is questioned when parity progression ratios, ordinary least square regression of birth intervals, the excess of male over female births, and the sex ratio at birth are used. Coombs's scale is useful when aiming to eliminate the confounding influence of preference in number. Prior research has

  14. Southeast Asian Mega-Droughts of the Past 5 Centuries from Tree Rings and Historical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, B. M.

    2007-12-01

    The need for understanding the natural range of climate variability in the monsoon regions of Asia - among the worldês most heavily populated and most dependent on agriculture - is critical for making sound planning decisions in the face of expected hydrological changes associated with global climate change. As part of a US National Science Foundation-funded project (Tree Ring Reconstructions of Asian Monsoon Climate Variability) we have produced climate-responsive tree-ring records from tropical Asia that span the past five centuries. We find compelling evidence for 18th century decadal-scale summer monsoon droughts that span from India to Vietnam. Historical records corroborate that periods of severe drought occurred across much of the region during this time, while speleothem and coral records suggest multiple decadal-scale droughts for much of the Little Ice Age period in India, and elevated Sea Surface Temperature (SST) during the 18th century for much of the tropical Pacific, respectively. Tropical Pacific SST anomalies are seen as one key component to monsoon variability over the study region, with El Ni?o and La Ni?a like conditions resulting in rainfall reductions and increases, respectively, with corresponding opposite-sign anomalies across much of western North America. Persistent anomaly trends in the SST fields can result in the kinds of decadal-scale variability our studies suggest, although this is not the entire story. We explore the role of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), first defined in 1999 as a Pacific-wide measure of variability that is physically distinct from both the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in contributing to protracted -mega-droughts" in the region related to weakening monsoon strength, as suggested by recent research. Interestingly, near-millennium-aged conifers from Vietnam and Laos have been located and much longer records are now being constructed. Of great interest is

  15. Fluvial organic carbon losses from oil palm plantations on tropical peat, Sarawak, Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah; Page, Susan; Evans, Chris; Whelan, Mick; Gauci, Vincent; Lip Khoon, Kho

    2017-04-01

    Tropical peatlands are valuable stores of carbon. However, tropical peat swamp forests (TPSFs) in Southeast Asia have increasingly been converted to other land-uses. For example, more than 25% of TPSFs are now under oil palm plantations. This conversion - requiring felling and burning of trees and drainage of the peat - can enhance carbon mineralization, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) losses and can contribute significantly to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, changing these natural carbon sinks into carbon sources. At present, relatively few scientifically sound studies provide dependable estimates of gaseous and fluvial carbon losses from oil palm plantations or from drained tropical peat in general. Here we present an annual (54 week) estimate of the export of dissolved and particulate organic carbon in water draining two oil palm estates and nearby stands of TPSF in Sarawak, Malaysia, subjected to varying degrees of past anthropogenic disturbance. Spectrophotometric techniques including SUVA254 (Specific Ultra-Violet Absorption) were used to gain insight into the aromaticity and subsequent bioavailability of the exported DOC. Water draining plantation and deforested land had a higher proportion of labile carbon compared to water draining forested areas. Preliminary data suggest a total fluvial DOC flux from plantations of ca. 190 g C m-2 year-1; nearly three times estimates from intact TPSFs (63 g C m-2 year-1). DOC accounted for between 86 % - 94 % of the total organic carbon lost (most of which was bioavailable). Wit et al. (2015) estimates that an average of 53 % of peat-derived DOC is decomposed and emitted as CO2, on a monthly basis. Based on these estimates our data suggests an additional 101 g CO2 m-2 may be emitted indirectly from fluvial organic carbon in degraded TPSFs per year. Overall, these findings emphasize the importance of including fluvial organic carbon fluxes when quantifying the impact of anthropogenic disturbance on the

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Disordered Sleep in Southeast Asian Indians with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarabalan Rajendran

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSleep disturbances are common in individuals with diabetes. Patients with diabetes have higher rates of insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness and increased incidence of restless leg syndrome. The purpose of our study was to investigate the prevalence and determine the predictors of sleep dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes in a southeast Asian Indian population.MethodsWe enrolled 120 patients with type 2 diabetes who attended an endocrinology clinic in a tertiary-care hospital. After we collected their demographic data, we recorded their anthropometric measurements. Fasting, postprandial blood glucose values and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c values were then obtained. Quality of sleep was evaluated in all the patients through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, which is a questionnaire that assesses sleep quality and disturbances over a monthlong period. A Global Sleep Quality score ≥5 discriminates between good and poor sleepers.ResultsThe mean global PSQI score was 7.08 (standard deviation, 3.89, which suggested poor sleep quality in this population. Sixty-nine percent of patients had a global PSQI score ≥5, indicating that they were "poor sleepers." The global PSQI score positively correlated with the duration of diabetes and was also independent of other variables such as age, gender, body mass index, HbA1c, or medications.ConclusionWe found a high prevalence of sleep dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. We also found a significant correlation between duration of diabetes and quality of sleep, independent of other variables. It is important for physicians to address the quality and duration of sleep in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  17. Oral health disparities of children among Southeast Asian immigrant women in arranged transnational marriages in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y C; Yen, Y Y; Chang, C S; Ting, C C; Chen, P H; Chen, C C; Peng, W D; Chen, F L; Hu, C Y; Huang, H L

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the oral health disparities and oral health care needs of children whose parents are Southeast Asian immigrant women in arranged transnational marriages. We used the baseline data of the Lay Health Advisor Approach to Promote Oral Health Program (LHA-POHP) to explore the disparities in oral health between immigrant and native children, and the factors associated with their oral health. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted to collect data from mothers and their preschool children in Southern Taiwan in 2011. A total of 590 (440 natives, 150 immigrants) children aged 4-6 years and their mothers completed the questionnaire and oral examination. Multiple regression models were used to analyze the association between children's oral health and their related factors. The caries index was 6.05 in immigrant children and 3.88 in native children (p teeth in the labial surfaces was higher among immigrants, ranging from 14.7 to 22%. The factor associated with children's caries index was maternal tooth brushing frequency (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.95-41.05). When the mothers did not direct children to brush teeth after eating sweets, their children were more likely to have decayed teeth (aOR = 3.54, 95% CI 1.04-12.03). Children's filled teeth were related to their dental regular check-ups (aOR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.26-4.10). Disparities in oral health among immigrant and native children were observed. The findings suggest that culturally adequate oral health promotion intervention programs should be implemented for immigrants.

  18. Spontaneous dyskinesia in first-episode psychosis in a Southeast Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jimmy; Poon, Lye-Yin; Chong, Siow-Ann

    2008-10-01

    Spontaneous dyskinesia in first-episode psychosis was described previously with varying incidence rates ranging from zero to 53%. Dyskinesia was also found to be more common in siblings of patients with both schizophrenia and dyskinesia. This condition was linked with structural brain abnormalities and posited to be another subtype of schizophrenia with striatal pathology. Whether there are ethnic variations in the rates of spontaneous dyskinesia is unknown because of the paucity of studies in this area. This study aims to establish the rates of spontaneous dyskinesia in a Southeast Asian population of drug-naive patients experiencing their first psychotic episode and to examine the clinical correlates. A total of 908 patients were examined, of which, 76.1% were Chinese; 15.4%, Malays; 6.2%, Indians; and 2.3%, from other minor ethnic groups. Schizophrenia was diagnosed in 48.9% of the population. There were 3 patients of Chinese descent who had "minimal" or "mild" dyskinetic movements when rated with the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale, but none fulfilled the Schooler and Kane criteria for spontaneous dyskinesia. Their dyskinetic movements resolved when reassessed 3 and 6 months after treatment with antipsychotic medications. Of the 3 patients, 2 were treatment resistant and subsequently treated with clozapine. This is the largest study to date examining the prevalence of spontaneous dyskinesia. We hypothesize that there is an ethnically based difference in the rates of spontaneous dyskinesia that could reflect underlying genetic variations. Patients with dyskinetic movements at baseline could have a more treatment refractory course of illness.

  19. Subsidence in tropical peatlands: Estimating CO2 fluxes from peatlands in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, A.; Harvey, C. F.; Seppalainen, S. S.; Chaussard, E.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical peatlands of Southeast Asia are an important global carbon stock. However, they are being rapidly deforested and drained. Peatland drainage facilitates peat decomposition, releases sequestered peat carbon to the atmosphere as CO2, and leads to subsidence of the peat surface. As a result, subsidence measurements can be used to monitor peatland carbon loss over time. Until now, subsidence measurements have been primarily limited to ground-based point measurements using subsidence poles. Here we demonstrate a powerful method to measure peatland subsidence rates across much larger areas than ever before. Using remotely sensed InSAR data, we map subsidence rates across thousands of square kilometers in Southeast Asia and validate our results against ground-based subsidence measurements. The method allows us to monitor subsidence in remote locations, providing unprecedented spatial information, and the first comprehensive survey of land uses such as degraded peatlands, burnt and open areas, shrub lands, and smallholder farmlands. Strong spatial patterns emerged, with the highest subsidence rates occurring at the centers of peat domes, where the peat is thickest and drainage depths are likely to be largest. Peatland subsidence rates were also strongly dependent on current and historical land use, with typical subsidence rates ranging from 2-4 cm/yr. Finally, we scaled up our results to calculate total annual emissions from peat decomposition in degraded peatlands.

  20. ENSO Effect on East Asian Tropical Cyclone Landfall via Changes in Tracks and Genesis in a Statistical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Emmi; Hall, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Improvements on a statistical tropical cyclone (TC) track model in the western North Pacific Ocean are described. The goal of the model is to study the effect of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on East Asian TC landfall. The model is based on the International Best-Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) database of TC observations for 1945-2007 and employs local regression of TC formation rates and track increments on the Nino-3.4 index and seasonally varying climate parameters. The main improvements are the inclusion of ENSO dependence in the track propagation and accounting for seasonality in both genesis and tracks. A comparison of simulations of the 1945-2007 period with observations concludes that the model updates improve the skill of this model in simulating TCs. Changes in TC genesis and tracks are analyzed separately and cumulatively in simulations of stationary extreme ENSO states. ENSO effects on regional (100-km scale) landfall are attributed to changes in genesis and tracks. The effect of ENSO on genesis is predominantly a shift in genesis location from the southeast in El Nino years to the northwest in La Nina years, resulting in higher landfall rates for the East Asian coast during La Nina. The effect of ENSO on track propagation varies seasonally and spatially. In the peak activity season (July-October), there are significant changes in mean tracks with ENSO. Landfall-rate changes from genesis- and track-ENSO effects in the Philippines cancel out, while coastal segments of Vietnam, China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan show enhanced La Nina-year increases.

  1. Genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis East African–Indian family in three tropical Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Yuan Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Beijing lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB is the most predominant MTB strain in Asian countries and is spreading worldwide, however, the East African–Indian (EAI lineage is also particularly prevalent in many tropical Asian countries. The evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of tropical Asian countries remain unknown. Methods: The EAI strains collected from patients in Taiwan were analyzed using spacer oligonucleotide typing and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit–variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing, and compared with published profiles from Cambodia and Singapore to investigate potential epidemiological linkages. Results: Among the three countries, the EAI lineage was most prevalent in Cambodia (60%; Singapore, 25.62%; and Taiwan, 21.85%, having also the highest rates of multidrug resistance and lowest rates of clustering of MTB isolates. We describe a convenient method using seven selected MIRU-VNTR loci for first-line typing to discriminate Beijing and EAI lineages. A potential epidemiological linkage in these tropical Asian countries is also discussed based on a minimum-spanning tree constructed using 24 MIRU-VNTR loci of MTB EAI strains. Conclusion: This study identified evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of two other tropical Asian countries, Cambodia and Singapore. Keywords: East African–Indian family, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tropical Asian countries

  2. Health Impact Assessment of PM10 and PM2.5 in 27 Southeast and East Asian Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Bae, Sanghyuk; Kashima, Saori; Tsuda, Toshihide; Doi, Hiroyuki; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the annual health impacts of particulate matter (PM) less than 10 μm diameter (PM10) and less than 2.5-μm diameter (PM2.5) in 27 cities in Southeast and East Asian countries (Japan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Vietnam) for the year 2009 (n = 50,756,699). We estimated the number of cases attributable to long-term exposure. We used a scenario that reduced the annual mean values for PM10 and PM2.5 to 20 and 10 μg/m, respectively. A reduction in long-term exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 would have postponed 8% to 9% of all-cause mortality or about 37,000 deaths. One third of them were associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and one ninth of them were associated with lung cancer mortality. Current air pollution levels in Southeast and East Asian countries have a nonnegligible public health impact.

  3. Oral and Hand Hygiene Behaviour and Risk Factors among In-School Adolescents in Four Southeast Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824 of school children aged 13 to 15 years in India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Results indicate that overall, 22.4% of school children reported sub-optimal oral hygiene (Southeast Asian countries found sub-optimal hygiene behaviour. Several determinants of sub-optimal hygiene behaviour were identified that can inform programmes in order to improve oral and hand hygiene behaviour of this adolescent population.

  4. Fruits and vegetables consumption and associated factors among in-school adolescents in five Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2012-10-11

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of fruits and vegetable consumption and associated factors among Southeast Asian in-school adolescents. Data were collected by self-report questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 16,084) of school children aged 13 to 15 years in five Southeast Asian countries. Overall, 76.3% of the 13 to 15 year-olds had inadequate fruits and vegetables consumptions (less than five servings per day); 28% reported consuming fruits less than once per day and 13.8% indicated consuming vegetables less than once per day. In multivariable analysis, lack of protective factors and being physically inactive were associated with inadequate fruits and vegetable consumption, and sedentary behaviour and being overweight was protective of inadequate fruits and vegetable consumption. The results stress the need for intervention programmes aimed at increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, targeting proximal factors such as the family environment and distal factors by aiming at integrating other risk factors such as physical activity into health promotion among adolescents.

  5. Fruits and Vegetables Consumption and Associated Factors among In-School Adolescents in Five Southeast Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of fruits and vegetable consumption and associated factors among Southeast Asian in-school adolescents. Data were collected by self-report questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 16,084 of school children aged 13 to 15 years in five Southeast Asian countries. Overall, 76.3% of the 13 to 15 year-olds had inadequate fruits and vegetables consumptions (less than five servings per day; 28% reported consuming fruits less than once per day and 13.8% indicated consuming vegetables less than once per day. In multivariable analysis, lack of protective factors and being physically inactive were associated with inadequate fruits and vegetable consumption, and sedentary behaviour and being overweight was protective of inadequate fruits and vegetable consumption. The results stress the need for intervention programmes aimed at increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, targeting proximal factors such as the family environment and distal factors by aiming at integrating other risk factors such as physical activity into health promotion among adolescents.

  6. CO/sub 2/ emission and agricultural productivity in southeast asian region: a pooled mean group estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.; Kazi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Frequent natural calamities, extreme climatic events and unexpected seasonal changes are the obvious examples of global warming. Carbon emissions by industrial units all over the world are believed to be the major contributor of the global warming that can lead to reduced agricultural productivity. This paper examines the impact of CO emission on agricultural productivity in Southeast Asian countries. It investigates the dynamic relationship between CO emission (along with other control-variables) and agricultural output using panel data set comprising data from Southeast Asian countries. Following the dynamic heterogeneous panel techniques developed by Pesaran and Shin (1999) for estimating the short- run and long-run effects using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model in the error correction form, the study then estimated the empirical model based on pooled mean group (PMG) estimator. The study found that increased CO emission resulted in higher agricultural productivity because of the fact that farmers around the globe quickly adapt to climate change. In addition, use of submersible pump and other capital machineries significantly increased agricultural yield and led to reduced dependency on human capital, while use of chemical fertilizers increased productivity in short-run but had a harmful impact in the long-run. (author)

  7. Immigrant Entrepreneurship: Why Immigrants choose to become self-employed? : A Qualitative study of South and Southeast Asian Immigrant Entrepreneurs in Umea City

    OpenAIRE

    Sinnya, Utsav; Parajuli, Nipesh

    2012-01-01

    After going through the literature on entrepreneurship we found that very little studies have been done whether culture and family business traditions influence the decisions of entrepreneurship. Most people from the South and Southeast Asia had cultural and family business backgrounds. The purpose of our study is to investigate if culture and family business traditions of South andSoutheast Asian immigrants affect their decision to become self-employed and if so how. This will enhance the un...

  8. Passive cooling techniques through reflective and radiative roofs in tropical houses in Southeast Asia: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karam M. Al-Obaidi

    2014-09-01

    Exploring these approaches in detail allows us to rethink how to effectively adapt these techniques to overcome the build-up of heat in modern tropical houses in Southeast Asia. This study reviews the physical characteristics of these approaches to guide architects and building designers. Results indicate a great reduction in operational cost. However, the significant differences in the performance of colour and material properties should be considered, given that the selected approach strongly affects the required thermal conditions of a building.

  9. Historical Biogeography of the Southeast Asian genus Spatholobus (Legum.-Papilionoideae) and its allies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder-Numan, Jeannette W.A.

    1996-01-01

    The genera Butea, Meizotropis and Spatholobus (Leguminosae—Papilionoideae), occurring in continental Southeast Asia and the West Malesian Archipelago, are treated phylogenetically with Kunstleria as an outgroup. The genera Spatholobus (29 species), Butea and Meizotropis (each 2 species) are usually

  10. Fertility trends and prospects in East and South-East Asian countries and implications for policies and programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leete, R

    1991-01-01

    Fertility trends and prospects for east and southeast Asian countries including cities in China, Taiwan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, and Viet Nam are described. Additional discussion focuses on family planning methods, marriage patterns, fertility prospects, theories of fertility change, and policy implications for the labor supply, labor migrants, increased female participation in the labor force (LFP), human resource development, and social policy measures. Figures provide graphic descriptions of total fertility rates (TFRS) for 12 countries/areas for selected years between 1960-90, TFR for selected Chinese cities between 1955-90, the % of currently married women 15-44 years using contraception by main method for selected years and for 10 countries, actual and projected TFR and annual growth rates between 1990-2020 for Korea and Indonesia. It is noted that the 1st southeast Asian country to experience a revolution in reproductive behavior was Japan with below replacement level fertility by 1960. This was accomplished by massive postponement in age at marriage and rapid reduction in marital fertility. Fertility was controlled primarily through abortion. Thereafter every southeast Asian country experienced fertility declines. Hong Kong, Penang, Shanghai, Singapore, and Taipei and declining fertility before the major thrust of family planning (FP). Chinese fertility declines were reflected in the 1970s to the early 1980s and paralleled the longer, later, fewer campaign and policy which set ambitious targets which were strictly enforced at all levels of administration. Korea and Taiwan's declines were a result of individual decision making to restrict fertility which was encouraged by private and government programs to provide FP information and subsidized services. The context was social and economic change. Indonesia's almost replacement level fertility was achieved dramatically through the 1970s and 1980s by

  11. Predictors of Complicated Grief after a Natural Disaster: A Population Study Two Years after the 2004 South-East Asian Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Pal; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined predictors of complicated grief (CG) in Norwegians 2 years after bereavement in the 2004 South-East Asian tsunami. A cross-sectional postal survey retrospectively covering disaster experiences and assessing CG according to the Inventory of Complicated Grief yielded 130 respondents (35 directly disaster-exposed and 95 not…

  12. Iran’s scientific dominance and the emergence of South-East Asian countries in the Arab Gulf Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moed, H.

    2016-07-01

    A longitudinal bibliometric analysis of publications indexed in Thomson Reuters' Incites and Elsevier's Scopus, and published from the Arab Gulf States and neighbouring countries, shows clear effects of major political events during the past 35 years. Predictions made in 2006 by the US diplomat Richard N. Haass on political changes in the Middle East have come true in the Gulf States’ national scientific research systems, to the extent that Iran has become in 2015 by far the leading country in the Arab Gulf, and South-East Asian countries including China, Malaysia and South Korea have become major scientific collaborators, displacing the USA and other large Western countries. But collaborations patterns among Gulf States show no apparent relationship with differences in Islam denominations. (Author)

  13. Petroleum systems in rift basins – a collective approach in South-east Asian basins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doust, H.; Sumner, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper synthesizes some of the main conclusions reached in a recent regional review of the Tertiary basins of Southeast Asia, carried out by Shell. Four distinctive types of petroleum systems, correlating with the four main stages of basin evolution (early to late syn-rift and early to late

  14. Overview of 2010-2013 spring campaigns of Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) in the northern Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.; Anh, N.; Reid, J. S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Wang, S.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Chen, W.; Welton, E. J.; Liang, S.; Sopajaree, K.; Maring, H. B.; Janjai, S.; Chantara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) is a grass-root program and seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA. A series of field experiments have been conducted during springtime biomass burning seasons in northern Southeast Asia, i.e., Dongsha Experiment in 2010, Son La Campaigns in 2011 and 2012, and BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) in 2013, respectively. Given an example, during 2010 Dongsha Experiment, a monitoring network for ground-based measurements was established, including five stations from northern Thailand and central Vietnam to Taiwan, with a supersite at the Dongsha Island (i.e. Pratas Island) in South China Sea (or East Sea). Aerosol chemistry sampling was performed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. This experiment provides a relatively complete and first dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the source/sink region for below marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere of biomass burning/air pollutants in the northern SE Asia. This presentation will give an overview of these 7-SEAS activities and their results, particularly for the characterization of biomass-burning aerosol at source regions in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam, and receptor stations in Taiwan, which is rarely studied.

  15. Evaluation of the URIT-2900 automated hematology analyzer for screening of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Southeast Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnpean, Rossarin; Pansuwan, Anupong; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of the URIT-2900 Hematology Analyzer for screening of hemoglobinopathies commonly found in Southeast Asian populations was examined. Appropriate cut-off values of MCV and MCH for screening of α(0) and β thalassemias were derived from the receiver operator characteristic curve conducted initially on 279 subjects with various thalassemia genotypes. Validation was performed additionally in a cohort of another unrelated 313 subjects. The best cut off values of MCV and MCH were found to be 78fL and 27pg, respectively. Using these cut off values in combination with the dichlorophenolindophenol test in screening of α(0) thalassemia, β thalassemia and Hb E in a cohort study revealed 100% sensitivity, 79.6% specificity, 80.0% positive predictive value and 100% negative predictive value. The combined blood cell counting using the URIT-2900 Automated Hematology Analyzer and dichlorophenolindophenol test is suitable for population screening of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Southeast Asia. Copyright © 2011 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing Climatic Impacts due to Land Use Change over Southeast Asian Maritime Continent base on Mesoscale Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, N.; Christopher, S. A.; Nair, U. S.

    2014-12-01

    Due to increasing urbanization, deforestation, and agriculture, land use change over Southeast Asia has dramatically risen during the last decades. Large areas of peat swamp forests over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent region (10°S~20°N and 90°E~135°E) have been cleared for agricultural purposes. The Center for Remote Imaging, Sensing and Processing (CRISP) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived land cover classification data show that changes in land use are dominated by conversion of peat swamp forests to oil palm plantation, open lowland or lowland mosaic categories. Nested grid simulations based on Weather Research Forecasting Version 3.6 modelling system (WRFV3.6) over the central region of the Sarawak coast are used to investigate the climatic impacts of land use change over Maritime Continent. Numerical simulations were conducted for August of 2009 for satellite derived land cover scenarios for years 2000 and 2010. The variations in cloud formation, precipitation, and regional radiative and non-radiative parameters on climate results from land use change have been assessed based on numerical simulation results. Modelling studies demonstrate that land use change such as extensive deforestation processes can produce a negative radiative forcing due to the surface albedo increase and evapotranspiration decrease, while also largely caused reduced rainfall and cloud formation, and enhanced shortwave radiative forcing and temperature over the study area. Land use and land cover changes, similar to the domain in this study, has also occurred over other regions in Southeast Asia including Indonesia and could also impact cloud and precipitation formation in these regions.

  17. Interdecadal shift in the relationship between the East Asian summer monsoon and the tropical Indian Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ruiqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Pusan National University, Division of Earth Environmental System, Busan (Korea); Ha, Kyung-Ja [Pusan National University, Division of Earth Environmental System, Busan (Korea); Li, Jianping [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China)

    2010-06-15

    In this work, the authors investigate changes in the interannual relationship between the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and the tropical Indian Ocean (IO) in the late 1970s. By contrasting the correlations of the EASM index (EASMI) with the summer IO sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) between 1953-1975 and 1978-2000, a pronounced different correlation pattern is found in the tropical IO. The SSTA pattern similar to the positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) shows a strongly positive correlation with the EASMI in 1953-1975. But in 1978-2000, significant negative correlation appears in the northern IO and the IOD-like correlation pattern disappears. It is indicated that the summer strong IOD events in 1953-1975 can cause a weaker-than-normal western North Pacific (WNP) subtropical high, which tends to favor a strong EASM. In 1978-2000, the connection between the summer IOD and the WNP circulation is disrupted by the climate shift. Instead, the northern IO shows a close connection with the WNP circulation in 1978-2000. The warming over the northern IO is associated with the significant enhanced 500 hPa geopotential height and an anomalous anticyclone over the WNP. The change in the IO-EASM relationship is attributed to the interdecadal change of the background state of the ocean-atmosphere system and the interaction between the ENSO and IO. In recent decades, the tropical IO and tropical Pacific have a warmer mean SST, which has likely strengthened (weakened) the influence of the northern IO (IOD) on the EASM. In addition, due to the increase in the ENSO variability along with the higher mean equatorial eastern Pacific SST in 1978-2000, the influence of ENSO on the East Asian summer circulation experiences a significant strengthening after the late 1970s. Because the warming over the northern IO is associated with the significant warming in the equatorial eastern Pacific, the strengthened ENSO-EASM relationship has likely also contributed to the strengthened

  18. An Approach to Building Capacity for Nuclear Security and Safeguards in Thailand and the Southeast Asian Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengvanich, P.; Chanyotha, S.; Nilsuwankosit, S.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: A master’s degree programme in nuclear security and safeguards has been developed and offered at Chulalongkorn University for the first time in 2013 in order to develop necessary human resources in the fields of nuclear security and safeguards who can continue to work, conduct research, or serve as educators in these fields in Thailand and the Southeast Asian region. The first group of 20 students joined the programme in 2013 and recently graduated. The programme was one-of-its-kind, as there have not been many similar specialized programmes in nuclear security and safeguards in the past. In this paper, challenges and lessons learned throughout the programme are reported. Experience from the pilot programme will be used to improve the next round of the programme which is expected to start in 2017. With this program, more nuclear knowledge can be shared and maintained among the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries to ensure the peaceful utilization of nuclear technology in the region. (author

  19. Asian tigers, African lions : comparing the development performance of Southeast Asia and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.; Dietz, A.J.; Schulte, Nordholt H.; Veen, van der R.

    2013-01-01

    Asian Tigers, African Lions is an anthology of contributions by scholars and (former) diplomats related to the 'Tracking Development' research project, funded by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and coordinated by the African Studies Centre and KITLV, both in Leiden, in collaboration

  20. Fruiting and flushing phenology in Asian tropical and temperate forests: implications for primate ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanya, Goro; Tsuji, Yamato; Grueter, Cyril C

    2013-04-01

    In order to understand the ecological adaptations of primates to survive in temperate forests, we need to know the general patterns of plant phenology in temperate and tropical forests. Comparative analyses have been employed to investigate general trends in the seasonality and abundance of fruit and young leaves in tropical and temperate forests. Previous studies have shown that (1) fruit fall biomass in temperate forest is lower than in tropical forest, (2) non-fleshy species, in particular acorns, comprise the majority of the fruit biomass in temperate forest, (3) the duration of the fruiting season is shorter in temperate forest, and (4) the fruiting peak occurs in autumn in most temperate forests. Through our comparative analyses of the fruiting and flushing phenology between Asian temperate and tropical forests, we revealed that (1) fruiting is more annually periodic (the pattern in one year is similar to that seen in the next year) in temperate forest in terms of the number of fruiting species or trees, (2) there is no consistent difference in interannual variations in fruiting between temperate and tropical forests, although some oak-dominated temperate forests exhibit extremely large interannual variations in fruiting, (3) the timing of the flushing peak is predictable (in spring and early summer), and (4) the duration of the flushing season is shorter. The flushing season in temperate forests (17-28 % of that in tropical forests) was quite limited, even compared to the fruiting season (68 %). These results imply that temperate primates need to survive a long period of scarcity of young leaves and fruits, but the timing is predictable. Therefore, a dependence on low-quality foods, such as mature leaves, buds, bark, and lichens, would be indispensable for temperate primates. Due to the high predictability of the timing of fruiting and flushing in temperate forests, fat accumulation during the fruit-abundant period and fat metabolization during the

  1. Ethnoregional social dramas of Southeast Asian in globalism: recasting cultural heritage for ethnic revivals

    OpenAIRE

    Matondang, Saiful Anwar; Giordano, Christian; Colombijn, Freek

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an interpretative symbolic analysis of present global phenomenon that gives rise ethnic culture as regional identity. With a multi-sited ethnography (Marcus, 1995 and 1998), this book is a sort of comparative ethnographies which sought the collective identities of the Melayu Baru or Neo-Malay and Chinese Peranakan or Nanyang in two cities of Southeast Asia. The Neo-Malay with Islam solidarity (Ummah) is attached to ethnoregional community, in contrast, the Chinese Nanyang or ...

  2. Measures for regional security and arms control in the South-East Asian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uren, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of regional security and arms control in the South-East Asia raises some new and difficult issues. No approach to ensuring regional security could be complete without military dimension including the following categories: regional arms control; global arms control measure; confidence building measures that are designed to enhance the transparency of defense policies; confidence building measures that encourage cooperation among the military forces in the region

  3. Comparing Diverse Southeast Asian Reactions to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    2015, https://www.cfr.org/ blog -post/what-will-tpp-mean-southeast-asia. 61 “Trans Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement (TPP): 7 Things You Should...headlines/trans-pacific-partnership-should-indonesia- join-or-not/item6122?. Antony Crockett, “Could Indonesia Join the TPP?” Kluwer Arbitration Blog ...Joining TPP?” National Interest, June 30, 2015, http://nationalinterest.org/ blog /the-buzz/the-philippines-thailand-south-korea- taiwan-joining-tpp

  4. ‘A Bazaar in the Coliseum': Marketing Southeast Asian Handicrafts in New York, 1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Way

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay reconstitutes the meaning and significance of places, objects and people associated with an unstudied pavilion displaying handicrafts at the Southeast Asia Rehabilitation and Trade Development Exhibit held in the New York Coliseum from 25 June to 29 June, 1956. It pays particular attention to the ways the importance assigned to the pavilion correlates with general features of Orientalism that Edward Said analyzed in his book of the same name. Following its publication in 1978, some American cultural historians changed their focus from Europe to the United States, and from the West’s relationship with the Middle East to its relationship with Asia. In this essay, I move the geography of their scholarship from Asia to Southeast Asia and place emphasis on Vietnam. Furthermore, I identify the use of local material and visual culture in U.S. State Department aid programs active in the region, within American Cold War imperatives. The ‘tent-like enclosure’ featured in the Coliseum aimed to display ‘oriental objects’ in an environment that was to appear natural and convey the spirit of the places where they were made; it was to have ‘the atmosphere of an oriental bazaar’. The objects consisted of handicrafts that renowned American industrial designer Russel Wright collected during a recent trip he made to Southeast Asia on behalf of the U.S. State Department’s International Cooperation Administration. The ICA contracted Wright to evaluate the feasibility of establishing a multi-year program to produce and export handicrafts from there to the United States. I examine how Wright’s activity in Southeast Asia and New York City, along with the purpose, appearance and location of the pavilion in the Coliseum, prompted Wright, the pavilion’s designers, American government officials and the press to consider it ‘oriental,’ and its contents antithetical to characteristics of contemporary American culture yet also well-suited to

  5. Evaluation of the 2013 Southeast Asian Haze on Solar Generation Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Maghami, Mohammadreza; Hizam, Hashim; Gomes, Chandima; Hajighorbani, Shahrooz; Rezaei, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Pollution in Southeast Asia is a major public energy problem and the cause of energy losses. A significant problem with respect to this type of pollution is that it decreases energy yield. In this study, two types of photovoltaic (PV) solar arrays were used to evaluate the effect of air pollution. The performance of two types of solar arrays were analysed in this research, namely, two units of a 1 kWp tracking flat photovoltaic (TFP) and two units of a 1 kWp fixed flat photovoltaic arrays (FF...

  6. Enhancement of seasonal prediction of East Asian summer rainfall related to the western tropical Pacific convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. Y.; Ahn, J. B.; Yoo, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The prediction skills of climate model simulations in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and East Asian region are assessed using the retrospective forecasts of seven state-of-the-art coupled models and their multi-model ensemble (MME) for boreal summers (June-August) during the period 1983-2005, along with corresponding observed and reanalyzed data. The prediction of summer rainfall anomalies in East Asia is difficult, while the WTP has a strong correlation between model prediction and observation. We focus on developing a new approach to further enhance the seasonal prediction skill for summer rainfall in East Asia and investigate the influence of convective activity in the WTP on East Asian summer rainfall. By analyzing the characteristics of the WTP convection, two distinct patterns associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) developing and decaying modes are identified. Based on the multiple linear regression method, the East Asia Rainfall Index (EARI) is developed by using the interannual variability of the normalized Maritime continent-WTP indices (MPIs), as potentially useful predictors for rainfall prediction over East Asia, obtained from the above two main patterns. For East Asian summer rainfall, the EARI has superior performance to the East Asia summer monsoon index (EASMI) or each MP index (MPI). Therefore, the regressed rainfall from EARI also shows a strong relationship with the observed East Asian summer rainfall pattern. In addition, we evaluate the prediction skill of the East Asia reconstructed rainfall obtained by statistical-empirical approach using the cross-validated EARI from the individual models and their MME. The results show that the rainfalls reconstructed from simulations capture the general features of observed precipitation in East Asia quite well. This study convincingly demonstrates that rainfall prediction skill is considerably improved by using the statistical-empirical method compared to the dynamical models

  7. Diversity and human perceptions of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) in Southeast Asian megacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Kong-Wah; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Wan, Tao; Lee, Ping-Shin; Li, Zong-Xu; Chen, Xing; Wang, Yun-Yu; Wilson, John-James

    2016-10-01

    Urbanization requires the conversion of natural land cover to cover with human-constructed elements and is considered a major threat to biodiversity. Bee populations, globally, are under threat; however, the effect of rapid urban expansion in Southeast Asia on bee diversity has not been investigated. Given the pressing issues of bee conservation and urbanization in Southeast Asia, coupled with complex factors surrounding human-bee coexistence, we investigated bee diversity and human perceptions of bees in four megacities. We sampled bees and conducted questionnaires at three different site types in each megacity: a botanical garden, central business district, and peripheral suburban areas. Overall, the mean species richness and abundance of bees were significantly higher in peripheral suburban areas than central business districts; however, there were no significant differences in the mean species richness and abundance between botanical gardens and peripheral suburban areas or botanical gardens and central business districts. Urban residents were unlikely to have seen bees but agreed that bees have a right to exist in their natural environment. Residents who did notice and interact with bees, even though being stung, were more likely to have positive opinions towards the presence of bees in cities.

  8. Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Southeast Asian newborns: diagnostic assessment using capillary electrophoresis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivorakun, Hataichanok; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Changtrakul, Yossombat; Komwilaisak, Patcharee; Fucharoen, Supan

    2011-04-01

    We have investigated the Capillarys 2 Hemoglobin testing system to assist in presumptive diagnosis of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies commonly found in Southeast Asia. Study was conducted on 226 newborns. Hematological parameters were recorded and Hb profiles were examined on the Capillarys 2 Hemoglobin analyzer (SEBIA). DNA analyses were used to establish the final diagnoses. Among 226 newborns examined, 122 had thalassemias with 17 different genotypes. The capillary electrophoresis system could provide useful data for presumptive diagnoses of cases, especially those with Hb E and α-thalassemia. Hb E was found to be 2.6-6.2% in heterozygote whereas Hb Bart's were clearly observed in cases with compound heterozygous or homozygous α(+)-thalassemia and heterozygous α(0)-thalassemia. Hb H disease and other forms of α-thalassemia could be differentiated based on the presence of Hb Bart's and its percentage. The capillary electrophoresis system is applicable to newborn screening for common forms of thalassemia in Southeast Asia. Copyright © 2011 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Population Structure of Pseudocercospora fijiensis in Costa Rica Reveals Shared Haplotype Diversity with Southeast Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Amanda; Charles, Melodi; Chavan, Suchitra; Muñoz, Miguel; Gómez-Alpizar, Luis; Ristaino, Jean Beagle

    2017-12-01

    Pseudocercospora fijiensis is the causal pathogen of black Sigatoka, a devastating disease of banana that can cause 20 to 80% yield loss in the absence of fungicides in banana crops. The genetic structure of populations of P. fijiensis in Costa Rica was examined and compared with Honduran and global populations to better understand migration patterns and inform management strategies. In total, 118 isolates of P. fijiensis collected from Costa Rica and Honduras from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed using multilocus genotyping of six loci and compared with a previously published global dataset of populations of P. fijiensis. The Costa Rican and Honduran populations shared haplotype diversity with haplotypes from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas but not Africa for all but one of the six loci studied. Gene flow and shared haplotype diversity was found in Honduran and Costa Rican populations of the pathogen. The data indicate that the haplotypic diversity observed in Costa Rican populations of P. fijiensis is derived from dispersal from initial outbreak sources in Honduras and admixtures between genetically differentiated sources from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas.

  10. Vertical variation in leaf gas exchange parameters for a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Yoshiko; Takanashi, Satoru; Yokoyama, Naoto; Philip, Elizabeth; Kamakura, Mai

    2012-11-01

    Vertical variation in leaf gas exchange characteristics of trees grown in a lowland dipterocarp forest in Peninsular Malaysia was investigated. Maximum net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and electron transport rate of leaves at the upper canopy, lower canopy, and forest floor were studied in situ with saturated condition photosynthetic photon flux density. The dark respiration rate of leaves at the various heights was also studied. Relationships among gas exchange characteristics, and also with nitrogen content per unit leaf area and leaf dry matter per area were clearly detected, forming general equations representing the vertical profile of several important parameters related to gas exchange. Numerical analysis revealed that the vertical distribution of gas exchange parameters was well determined showing both larger carbon gain for the whole canopy and at the same time positive carbon gain for the leaves of the lowest layer. For correct estimation of gas exchange at both leaf and canopy scales using multi-layer models, it is essential to consider the vertical distribution of gas exchange parameters with proper scaling coefficients.

  11. A regional cooperative clinical study of radiotherapy for cervical cancer in east and south-east Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Takashi; Kato, Shingo; Cao, Jianping; Zhou Juying; Susworo, Raden; Supriana, Nana; Sato, Shinichiro; Ohno, Tatsuya; Suto, Hisao; Nakamura, Yuzuru; Cho, Chul-Koo; Ismail, Fuad B.; Calaguas, Miriam J.C.; Reyes, Rey H. de los; Chansilpa, Yaowalak; Thephamongkhol, Kullathom; Nguyen Ba Duc; To Anh Dung; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy differed widely in east and south-east Asia because of technical, cultural, and socio-economic differences. With the purpose of standardizing radiotherapy for cervical cancer in the region, an international clinical study was conducted. Materials and methods: Eleven institutions in eight Asian countries participated in the study. Between 1996 and 1998, 210 patients with stage IIIB cervical cancer were enrolled. Patients were treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy (total dose, 50 Gy) and either high-dose-rate (HDR) or low-dose-rate (LDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) according to the institutional practice. The planned point A dose was 20-28 Gy/4 fractions for HDR-ICBT and 30-40 Gy/1-2 fractions for LDR-ICBT. Results: Hundred patients were treated with HDR-ICBT and 110 were treated with LDR-ICBT. The ICBT doses actually delivered to point A ranged widely: 12-32 Gy in the HDR group and 26-52.7 Gy in the LDR group. The 5-year follow-up rate among the countries differed greatly, from 29% to 100%. The 5-year major complication rates were 6% in the HDR group and 10% in the LDR group. The 5-year overall survival rates were 51.1% in the HDR group and 57.5% in the LDR group. Conclusions: Although there were several problems with treatment compliance and patients' follow-up, the study suggests that the protocols provided favorable outcomes with acceptable rates of late complications in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer in east and south-east Asia

  12. Identifying Health and Safety Concerns in Southeast Asian Immigrant Nail Salon Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Hannah; Khan, Khalid; Lau, Christine; Leung, Holden; Montgomery, Dede; Rohlman, Diane S

    2015-01-01

    Nail salon workers are exposed to a variety of toxic chemicals at levels that remain unreported and have undetermined health consequences. The objective of the study was to gather information about the hazards in nail salons along with safety practices and health concerns of nail salon workers. A survey was conducted on 65 nail salon workers who were immigrants from Southeast Asia in Oregon, USA. More than 20% of the participants reported nose irritation and allergies as the most common health problems. Rare and no use of gloves and mask were reported among 72% and 32% of the participants, respectively. A significantly higher number of participants with "fair" or "poor" self-reported general health condition was found among the workers who applied acrylic nails compared with those who were not involved in this application. Findings of the study emphasize the need for more research to determine the relationship between chemical exposures in nail salons and health outcomes.

  13. Measures for regional security and arms control in the South-East Asian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahbubani, K.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that the continued ability of South-East Asia to remain as one of the most peaceful regions of the world hinges upon ASEAN's ability to remain an agile and viable organization, one that is sensitively attuned to the new challenges of the day and is able to rise to meet them. So far, ASEAN's track record has been quite remarkable, especially in comparison with other regions around the world. This Conference could usefully suggest that a greater effort be made to understand the mysterious reasons behind ASEAN's success, in the hope that it may hold lessons for other regions. ASEAN, for its part, must continue to remain humble and adaptable

  14. Suicidal behaviors and associated factors among university students in six countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Yi, Siyan; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-04-01

    A large data gap remains on suicidal behaviors among youth in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, despite the increasing rates of suicide in Asian cultures that may be related to rapid economic changes and the loss of social stability. This study was therefore conducted to explore the prevalence of and factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among university students in six ASEAN member states. Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 4675 undergraduate university students, mean age 20.6 years (SD=2.7), range of 18-30 years, from Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. The overall prevalence of ever suicidal ideation and ever suicide attempt among students in this study was 11.7% and 2.4%, respectively. Different rates of these suicidal behaviors were observed across the countries. In multivariable logistic regression models, suicidal ideation was significantly associated with psychosocial factors including childhood sexual abuse, depressive symptoms, involvement in physical fights, and poor academic performance as well as socio-environmental factors including living with parents or guardians and low involvement in organized religious activity. Suicide attempt was significantly associated with childhood sexual abuse, depressive symptoms, low involvement in organized religious activity and being underweight or overweight. Our findings suggest that individual-level strategies for suicide prevention should be targeted toward students with poor academic performance, mental health problems and a history of adverse childhood experiences. Particular attention should be paid to the role of families that could be a potential stressor in the lives of university students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effectiveness of weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) biocontrol in Southeast Asian citrus and mango

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim; Cuc, Nguyen Thi Thu; Wiwatwitaya, Decha

    2013-01-01

    Oecophylla ants may protect tropical plantation crops against pests. Cost-benefit studies comparing ant-based protection with conventional methods are needed to assess whether it is economically viable. Here we contrast profits in ant and chemically protected plots in a Thai and a Vietnamese citrus...... measures to provide a viable alternative to chemical pest control....... clypealis, which destroyed the mango flowers in the weaver ant treatments, and a result of weaver ants protecting this leafhopper to obtain its honeydew. Thus, weaver ants alone may work effectively in some settings whereas in other cases ant control need to be supplemented with additional IPM control...

  16. Acceptance and Adherence to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA in a Southeast Asian privately funded healthcare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheah Hooi Ken Lee

    Full Text Available Background: There is limited data on long term Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP adherence in Southeast Asian countries. This is a prospective study on CPAP adherence among Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients in a Southeast Asian privately funded healthcare system. Methods: Patients with moderate-severe OSA who had been initiated on CPAP at least one year previously were contacted for a scripted telephone interview to assess compliance and factors associated with CPAP adherence. Results: Of 135 consecutive patients diagnosed to have moderate to severe OSA, 78 (57.8% were initiated on CPAP treatment while 57 (42.2% rejected CPAP upfront. 41 (52.6% who initiated CPAP remained adherent at one year. OSA severity (AHI, ODI and symptomatic improvement after CPAP were associated with better adherence. Presence of machine related side effects was associated with lower adherence. Inconvenience, cost and poor disease perception were reported as major barriers to uptake of CPAP therapy. Conclusions: In this Southeast Asian privately funded healthcare system, almost half of all patients with significant OSA rejected CPAP treatment upfront, but adherence among those who started CPAP is comparable to other reports. Challenges with CPAP acceptance as well as CPAP adherence need to be addressed to improve outcomes.

  17. Integrative Taxonomy of Southeast Asian Snail-Eating Turtles (Geoemydidae: Malayemys Reveals a New Species and Mitochondrial Introgression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Ihlow

    Full Text Available Based on an integrative taxonomic approach, we examine the differentiation of Southeast Asian snail-eating turtles using information from 1863 bp of mitochondrial DNA, 12 microsatellite loci, morphology and a correlative species distribution model. Our analyses reveal three genetically distinct groups with limited mitochondrial introgression in one group. All three groups exhibit distinct nuclear gene pools and distinct morphology. Two of these groups correspond to the previously recognized species Malayemys macrocephala (Chao Phraya Basin and M. subtrijuga (Lower Mekong Basin. The third and genetically most divergent group from the Khorat Basin represents a previously unrecognized species, which is described herein. Although Malayemys are extensively traded and used for religious release, only few studied turtles appear to be translocated by humans. Historic fluctuations in potential distributions were assessed using species distribution models (SDMs. The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM projection of the predictive SDMs suggests two distinct glacial distribution ranges, implying that the divergence of M. macrocephala and M. subtrijuga occurred in allopatry and was triggered by Pleistocene climate fluctuations. Only the projection derived from the global circulation model MIROC reveals a distinct third glacial distribution range for the newly discovered Malayemys species.

  18. South China, East Vietnam or West Philippine? Comparative Framing Analysis of Regional News Coverage of Southeast Asian Sea Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Bradley C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, the world paid scant attention to the sporadic skirmishes and sovereignty squabbles in what is known by many as the South China Sea. However, in the past few years, there have been several noteworthy happenings that have drawn the attention of media outlets, including a Chinese oil rig placement near Vietnam, a Philippineinternational court case, a U.S.–ASEAN summit, and Chinese reclamation projects. Many of the countries involved are members of the regional grouping known as ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations. This study examined Asean’s English-language press, looking at the amount, patterns, and tone of coverage given to regional maritime disputes. Results indicate that use of the term ‘South China Sea’ prevails in all countries except Vietnam. The Asean newspapers have devoted a consistent and substantial amount of space to covering the topic. Indonesia’s Jakarta Post tended to use neutral or positive language when mentioning Asean and the US, while China saw more negative associations in the coverage. Further research is suggested, taking into account mass communication theories and perspectives.

  19. Socioeconomic impact of cancer in member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): the ACTION study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimman, Merel; Jan, Stephen; Kingston, David; Monaghan, Helen; Sokha, Eav; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Bounxouei, Bounthaphany; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Khin, Myo; Cristal-Luna, Gloria; Khuhaprema, Thiravud; Hung, Nguyen Chan; Woodward, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Cancer can be a major cause of poverty. This may be due either to the costs of treating and managing the illness as well as its impact upon people's ability to work. This is a concern that particularly affects countries that lack comprehensive social health insurance systems and other types of social safety nets. The ACTION study is a longitudinal cohort study of 10,000 hospital patients with a first time diagnosis of cancer. It aims to assess the impact of cancer on the economic circumstances of patients and their households, patients' quality of life, costs of treatment and survival. Patients will be followed throughout the first year after their cancer diagnosis, with interviews conducted at baseline (after diagnosis), three and 12 months. A cross-section of public and private hospitals as well as cancer centers across eight member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will invite patients to participate. The primary outcome is incidence of financial catastrophe following treatment for cancer, defined as out-of-pocket health care expenditure at 12 months exceeding 30% of household income. Secondary outcomes include illness induced poverty, quality of life, psychological distress, economic hardship, survival and disease status. The findings can raise awareness of the extent of the cancer problem in South East Asia and its breadth in terms of its implications for households and the communities in which cancer patients live, identify priorities for further research and catalyze political action to put in place effective cancer control policies.

  20. Ethnic Chinese Remigration from Southeast Asian Countries since 1960s: A Case Study of Malaysian Chinese Outflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Xiaoli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Total outflows of Chinese from Southeast Asian countries since the Second World War reached around 3 million. They headed to the developed countries such as the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, France and Singapore. As for the case of Malaysia, large number of Malaysian Chinese remigrated to Singapore, United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia for new residence since the end of the Second World War. They left Malaysia because of political discrimination, economic restrictions, and unequal educational and cultural treatment. According to Malaysia census data and natural population growth rate, this paper made estimation that by 201 0 a total of 1.13 million ethnic Chinese had migrated out of Malaysia. After deducting the number of ethnic Chinese moving to Malaysia, the Malaysian Chinese migrating abroad reached 1.05 million. Malaysian Chinese left Malaysia in the manner of permanent residents and short-term migrants. Permanent residents include those in the skill stream, family stream and those with special eligibility. Short-term migrants refer to visiting scholars, foreign students, guest labor, business expatriates and expatriate professionals. As a matter of fact, there has been a serious brain drain through Chinese remigration from Malaysia.

  1. Reflections on attitudes, experiences, and vulnerability of intimate partner violence among Southeast Asian college women living in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongpriwan, Vipavee; Buseh, Aaron; Arunothong, Wachiraporn

    2015-12-01

    To provide culturally sensitive intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention programs for ethnic groups, a basic foundational understanding of Southeast Asian (SEA) women living in the United States is vital. The purpose of this study was to describe SEA college women's perceptions of IPV and how the women recognize their vulnerability to such violent situations. Qualitative methods using focus group discussions were employed to elicit participants' perceptions. Participants included 18 SEA college women, ages 18-34 (Mean=22; SD=7.22). Transcriptions were analyzed using a content analysis approach. Five themes emerged: recognition of IPV; perception of individual vulnerability to IPV; experience and responses to IPV; help seeking and support system; and strategies used for prevention of IPV. Findings yielded an understanding of intertwined issues of cultural norms associated with IPV, social and economic disparities, and challenges for IPV prevention in SEA communities. Culturally sensitive prevention programs will be more effective by reforming cultural values, while at the same time promoting non-violent relationships and increasing access to services. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Sexual and reproductive health issues facing Southeast Asian beer promoters: a qualitative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Gail C; Spitzer, Denise L

    2010-07-01

    In Southeast Asia, hundreds of thousands of young rural women migrate from their villages to the larger cities in search of work. Many find employment with beer companies or in the clubs where beer is sold, promoting the sale of beer. Previous research suggests these young migrants are in a highly vulnerable position. This paper will describe the findings of an October 2009 meeting to develop a research agenda on the sexual and reproductive health of beer promoters and a subsequent pilot study of focus groups with beer promoters to review this agenda. Participants of the research meeting representing beer promoters, academics, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), government and the beer industry from Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam collaborated in the development of three key research themes. The themes were verified in focus group discussions with beer promoters organized by local research partners in all four countries. The focus group participants were asked what they felt were the key sexual and reproductive health issues facing them in a non-directive and unstructured manner, and then asked to comment more specifically on the research priorities developed at the meeting. The focus groups were recorded digitally, transcribed, and translated into English. The data were analyzed by coding for common themes and then developing matrices to compare themes between groups. The participants of the meeting identified three key research themes: occupational health (including harassment and violence, working conditions, and fair pay), gender and social norms (focusing on the impact of power relations between the genders on women's health), and reproductive health (knowledge and access to reproductive health care services). The participants in the focus groups in all four countries agreed that these were key priorities for them, though the emphasis on the most important issues varied between groups of women. Sexual harassment in the workplace and challenges in

  3. Sexual and reproductive health issues facing Southeast Asian beer promoters: a qualitative pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitzer Denise L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Southeast Asia, hundreds of thousands of young rural women migrate from their villages to the larger cities in search of work. Many find employment with beer companies or in the clubs where beer is sold, promoting the sale of beer. Previous research suggests these young migrants are in a highly vulnerable position. This paper will describe the findings of an October 2009 meeting to develop a research agenda on the sexual and reproductive health of beer promoters and a subsequent pilot study of focus groups with beer promoters to review this agenda. Methods Participants of the research meeting representing beer promoters, academics, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, government and the beer industry from Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam collaborated in the development of three key research themes. The themes were verified in focus group discussions with beer promoters organized by local research partners in all four countries. The focus group participants were asked what they felt were the key sexual and reproductive health issues facing them in a non-directive and unstructured manner, and then asked to comment more specifically on the research priorities developed at the meeting. The focus groups were recorded digitally, transcribed, and translated into English. The data were analyzed by coding for common themes and then developing matrices to compare themes between groups. Results The participants of the meeting identified three key research themes: occupational health (including harassment and violence, working conditions, and fair pay, gender and social norms (focusing on the impact of power relations between the genders on women's health, and reproductive health (knowledge and access to reproductive health care services. The participants in the focus groups in all four countries agreed that these were key priorities for them, though the emphasis on the most important issues varied between groups of women

  4. Singapore Genome Variation Project: a haplotype map of three Southeast Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Yik-Ying; Sim, Xueling; Ong, Rick T H; Tan, Adrian K S; Chen, Jieming; Tantoso, Erwin; Small, Kerrin S; Ku, Chee-Seng; Lee, Edmund J D; Seielstad, Mark; Chia, Kee-Seng

    2009-11-01

    The Singapore Genome Variation Project (SGVP) provides a publicly available resource of 1.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 268 individuals from the Chinese, Malay, and Indian population groups in Southeast Asia. This online database catalogs information and summaries on genotype and phased haplotype data, including allele frequencies, assessment of linkage disequilibrium (LD), and recombination rates in a format similar to the International HapMap Project. Here, we introduce this resource and describe the analysis of human genomic variation upon agglomerating data from the HapMap and the Human Genome Diversity Project, providing useful insights into the population structure of the three major population groups in Asia. In addition, this resource also surveyed across the genome for variation in regional patterns of LD between the HapMap and SGVP populations, and for signatures of positive natural selection using two well-established metrics: iHS and XP-EHH. The raw and processed genetic data, together with all population genetic summaries, are publicly available for download and browsing through a web browser modeled with the Generic Genome Browser.

  5. Analysing the aid effectiveness on the living standard: A check-up on Southeast Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareena Begum Irfan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research work aims to analyse the effect that the disaggregated developmental aid has had on the health status and the standard of living in the urban sector after the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs were established. Infant Mortality and Improved sanitation facilities are taken as indicators for health status and urbanisation respectively; and the relationship between disaggregated health aid with Infant Mortality Rate (IMR and disaggregated aid for water and sanitation with improved sanitation facilities was analysed for the years from 2002–2012 using data from India, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Cambodia, Vietnam and Lao PDR of Southeast Asia through the dynamic panel data modelling using the Generalized Methods of Moments (GMMs. Findings suggest that the developmental aid has not been effective in both the health sector and urbanisation sector. Moreover, improvement in health status has been growth driven. With the advent of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs; the most important thing to ensure is that the disbursed aid is used effectively to achieve the very purposes it is being given for and to reduce the gaps in various classes of developing countries in the region.

  6. Community pharmacy and emerging public health initiatives in developing Southeast Asian countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansyah, Andi; Sainsbury, Erica; Krass, Ines

    2016-09-01

    The development of health and healthcare systems in South-East Asia has influenced the practice of community pharmacy. Over the years, community pharmacy in the region has striven to expand services beyond dispensing to encompass more involvement in public health issues. Searches were conducted in Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PubMed for articles published between January 2000 and December 2014, with 21 studies in five countries meeting the inclusion criteria. The findings showed increasing interest in research into the delivery of pharmacy services and public health initiatives. Overall, the review found that provision of some health services in pharmacies was common; however, most public health initiatives appeared to be poorly implemented, had limited evidence and were not demonstrated to be sustainable across the sector. This indicates that the practice of community pharmacy in the region has not significantly changed over the past 14 years with respect to the scope and quality of pharmacy services provided, and fundamental policy changes are necessary to improve this situation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 2013 Southeast Asian smoke haze: fractionation of particulate-bound elements and associated health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betha, Raghu; Behera, Sailesh N; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-04-15

    Recurring biomass burning-induced smoke haze is a serious regional air pollution problem in Southeast Asia (SEA). The June 2013 haze episode was one of the worst air pollution events in SEA. Size segregated particulate samples (2.5-1.0 μm; 1.0-0.5 μm; 0.5- 0.2 μm; and 60%) of the elements was present in oxidizable and residual fractions while the bioavailable (exchangeable) fraction accounted for up to 20% for most of the elements except K and Mn. Deposition of inhaled potentially toxic trace elements in various regions of the human respiratory system was estimated using a Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry model. The particle depositions in the respiratory system tend to be more severe during hazy days than those during nonhazy days. A prolonged exposure to finer particles can thus cause adverse health outcomes during hazy days. Health risk estimates revealed that the excessive lifetime carcinogenic risk to individuals exposed to biomass burning-impacted aerosols (18 ± 1 × 10(-6)) increased significantly (P < 0.05) compared to those who exposed to urban air (12 ± 2 × 10(-6)).

  8. Fast Transport from Southeast Asia Boundary Layer Sources to Northern Europe: Rapid Uplift in Typhoons and Eastward Eddy Shedding of the Asian Monsoon Anticyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R.; Vogel, B.; Guenther, G.; Grooss, J. U.; Hoor, P. M.; Kraemer, M.; Mueller, S.; Zahn, A.; Riese, M.

    2014-12-01

    During the TACTS aircraft campaign enhanced tropospheric trace gases such as CO, CH4, and H2O and reduced stratospheric O3 were measured in situ in the lowermost stratosphere over Northern Europe on 26 September 2012. The measurements indicate that these air masses differ from the stratospheric background. The calculation of 40 day backward trajectories with the trajectory module of the CLaMS model shows that these air masses are affected by the Asian monsoon anticyclone. Some air masses originate from the boundary layer in Southeast Asia/West Pacific and are rapidly lifted (1-2 days) within a typhoon. Afterwards they are injected directly into the anticyclonic circulation of the Asian monsoon. The subsequent long-range transport (8-14 days) of enhanced water vapour and pollutants to the lowermost stratosphere in Northern Europe is driven by eastward transport of tropospheric air from the Asian monsoon anticyclone caused by an eddy shedding event. We find that the combination of rapid uplift by a typhoon and eastward eddy shedding from the Asian monsoon anticyclone is an additional fast transport pathway that, for the case studied here, carries boundary emissions from Southeast Asia/West Pacific within approximately 5 weeks to the lowermost stratosphere in Northern Europe.

  9. Systematics and biogeography of the Hylarana frog (Anura: Ranidae) radiation across tropical Australasia, Southeast Asia, and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Lauren A; Prendini, Elizabeth; Kraus, Fred; Raxworthy, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    We present an inclusive molecular phylogeny for Hylarana across its global distribution, utilizing two mitochondrial and four nuclear gene regions for 69 of the 97 currently described species. We use phylogenetic methods to test monophyly of Hylarana, determine relationships among ten putative subgenera, identify major clades, reconstruct biogeographic history, and estimate continental dispersal dates. Results support Hylarana as a monophyletic group originating approximately 26.9MYA and comprising eight clades that partly correspond to currently described subgenera plus two new groups. The African and Australasian species each form clades embedded within a paraphyletic Southeast Asian group. We estimate that Africa and Australasia were colonized by Hylarana s.l. from SE Asia approximately 18.7 and 10.8MYA, respectively. Biogeographic reconstructions also support three separate colonization events in India from Southeast Asia. Examination of museum specimens identified morphological characters useful for delineating subgenera and species. We herein elevate all supported subgenera to genus rank and formally describe two new genera to produce a revised taxonomy congruent with our new phylogenetic and biogeographic findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The 13th South-East Asian Congress of Medical Physics (SEACOMP 2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings comprise selected, edited papers that were presented at the 13th SOUTH EAST ASIAN CONGRESS OF MEDICAL PHYSICS with the theme of “Improving the quality of human health through physics”, held in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 10-12 December 2015. It was hosted by Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University (UIN Sunan Kalijaga), Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) and University of Indonesia (UI) in association with the South East Asia Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP). Yogyakarta was the ancient capital of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. It is famous for the UNESCO world heritage site of Borobudur temple. This temple was built in the 9 th century during the reign of the Sailendra Dynasty. The temple was designed in the Javanese Buddhist architectural style. The monument was restored by the Indonesian government with UNESCO's help in 1975 and 1982. The congress attracted about 241 participants from 13 countries. Twelve invited speakers delivered nine plenary lectures as well as four pre-congress workshops. A total of 86 oral and 65 poster presentations were given. A variety of topics were discussed, ranging from the most advanced topics such as proton therapy, image-guided radiotherapy, functional MRI to the more conventional ones such as dose distribution, simulation, dosimetry, quality assurance, etc. In this proceedings papers are published under five categories, namely therapeutics, diagnostics, nuclear medicine, biomedical engineering and biophysics. (paper)

  11. Establishing multiple omics baselines for three Southeast Asian populations in the Singapore Integrative Omics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Woei-Yuh; Tantoso, Erwin; Begum, Husna; Zhou, Lihan; Zou, Ruiyang; He, Cheng; Chan, Sze Ling; Tan, Linda Wei-Lin; Wong, Lai-Ping; Xu, Wenting; Moong, Don Kyin Nwe; Lim, Yenly; Li, Bowen; Pillai, Nisha Esakimuthu; Peterson, Trevor A; Bielawny, Tomasz; Meikle, Peter J; Mundra, Piyushkumar A; Lim, Wei-Yen; Luo, Ma; Chia, Kee-Seng; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Brunham, Liam R; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Too, Heng Phon; Soong, Richie; Wenk, Markus R; Little, Peter; Teo, Yik-Ying

    2017-09-21

    The Singapore Integrative Omics Study provides valuable insights on establishing population reference measurement in 364 Chinese, Malay, and Indian individuals. These measurements include > 2.5 millions genetic variants, 21,649 transcripts expression, 282 lipid species quantification, and 284 clinical, lifestyle, and dietary variables. This concept paper introduces the depth of the data resource, and investigates the extent of ethnic variation at these omics and non-omics biomarkers. It is evident that there are specific biomarkers in each of these platforms to differentiate between the ethnicities, and intra-population analyses suggest that Chinese and Indians are the most biologically homogeneous and heterogeneous, respectively, of the three groups. Consistent patterns of correlations between lipid species also suggest the possibility of lipid tagging to simplify future lipidomics assays. The Singapore Integrative Omics Study is expected to allow the characterization of intra-omic and inter-omic correlations within and across all three ethnic groups through a systems biology approach.The Singapore Genome Variation projects characterized the genetics of Singapore's Chinese, Malay, and Indian populations. The Singapore Integrative Omics Study introduced here goes further in providing multi-omic measurements in individuals from these populations, including genetic, transcriptome, lipidome, and lifestyle data, and will facilitate the study of common diseases in Asian communities.

  12. Assessment of condyle and glenoid fossa morphology using CBCT in South-East Asians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Al-koshab

    Full Text Available Proper imaging allows practitioners to evaluate an asymptomatic tempormandibular joint (TMJ for potential degenerative changes prior to surgical and orthodontic treatment. The recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT allows measurement of TMJ bony structures with high accuracy. A study was undertaken to determine the morphology, and its variations, of the mandibular condyle and glenoid fossa among Malay and Chinese Malaysians.CBCT was used to assess 200 joints in 100 subjects (mean age, 30.5 years. i-CAT CBCT software and The Mimics 16.0 software were employed to measure the volume, metrical size, position of each condyle sample and the thickness of the roof of the glenoid fossa (RGF.No significant gender differences were noted in thickness of the RGF and condylar length; however condylar volume, width, height and the joint spaces were significantly greater among males. With regards to comparison of both TMJs, the means of condylar volume, width and length of the right TMJ were significantly higher, while the means of the left condylar height and thickness of RGF were higher. When comparing the condylar measurements and the thickness of RGF between the two ethnic groups, we found no significant difference for all measurements with exception of condylar height, which is higher among Chinese.The similarity in measurements for Malays and Chinese may be due to their common origin. This information can be clinically useful in establishing the diagnostic criteria for condylar volume, metrical size, and position in the Malaysian East Asians population.

  13. Tropical South-East Atlantic response to ENSO as an ecosystem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cases were selected based on indices of Pacific sea surface temperature and South-East African rainfall. ... an El Niño event, and higher sardine Sardinops sagax catches tend to follow a La Niña event, through the northward and southward shift respectively of the South Atlantic anticyclone and attendant coastal upwelling.

  14. Urban growth patterns in major Southeast Asian cities: Toward exposure mapping and vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandapaka, Pradeep; Kamarajugedda, Shankar A.; Lo, Edmond Y. M.

    2017-04-01

    Southeast Asia (SEA) is undergoing rapid urbanization, with urban population percentage increasing from 32% in 1990 to 48% in 2015. It is projected that by the year 2040, urban regions in SEA account for 60% of its total population. The region is home to 600 million people, with many densely populated cities, including megacities such as Jakarta, Bangkok, and Manila. The region has more than 20,000 islands, and many cities lie on coastal low-lands and floodplains. These geographical characteristics together with the increasing population, infrastructure growth, and changing climate makes the region highly vulnerable to natural hazards. This study assessed urban growth dynamics in major (defined as population exceeding 1 million) SEA cities using remotely sensed night-time lights (NTL) data. A recently proposed brightness gradient approach was applied on 21 years (1992-2012) of NTL annual composites to derive core-urban (CU) and peri-urban (PU) regions within each city. The study also assessed the sensitivity of above extracted urban categories to different NTL thresholds. The temporal trends in CU and PU regions were quantified, and compared with trends in socio-economic indicators. The spatial expansion of CU and PU regions were found to depend on geographical constraints and socio-economic factors. Quantification of urban growth spatial-temporal patterns, as conducted here contributes towards the understanding of exposure and vulnerability of people and infrastructures to natural hazards, as well as the evolving trends for assessment under projected urbanization conditions. This will underpin better risk assessment efforts for present and future planning.

  15. Detection of freshwater cyanotoxins and measurement of masked microcystins in tilapia from Southeast Asian aquaculture farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Brett; Maul, Ronald; Campbell, Katrina; Elliott, Christopher T

    2017-06-01

    Recently, there has been a rise in freshwater harmful algal blooms (HABs) globally, as well as increasing aquaculture practices. HABs can produce cyanotoxins, many of which are hepatotoxins. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for nine cyanotoxins across three classes including six microcystins, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin and anatoxin-a. The method was used to analyse free cyanotoxin(s) in muscle (n = 34), liver (n = 17) and egg (n = 9) tissue samples of 34 fish sourced from aquaculture farms in Southeast Asia. Conjugated microcystin was analysed by Lemieux oxidation to ascertain the total amount of microcystin present in muscle. Some tilapia accumulated free microcystin-LR in the muscle tissue at a mean of 15.45 μg/kg dry weight (dw), with total microcystin levels detected at a mean level of 110.1 μg/kg dw, indicating that the amount of conjugated or masked microcystin present in the fish muscle accounted for 85% of the total. Higher levels of cyanotoxin were detected in the livers, with approximately 60% of those tested being positive for microcystin-LR and microcystin-LF, along with cylindrospermopsin. Two fish from one of the aquaculture farms contained cylindrospermopsin in the eggs; the first time this has been reported. The estimated daily intake for free and total microcystins in fish muscle tissue was 2 and 14 times higher, respectively, than the tolerable daily intake value. This survey presents the requirement for further monitoring of cyanotoxins, including masked microcystins, in aquaculture farming in these regions and beyond, along with the implementation of guidelines to safeguard human health. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  16. Exclusive breastfeeding plan of pregnant Southeast Asian women: what encourages them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Nikmah Salamia; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo; Hidayati, Fatimah; Sapriani, Irma; Suradi, Rulina; Grobbee, Diederick E; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated factors involved in breastfeeding planning of pregnant Asian women. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 207 pregnant women visiting the Budi Kemuliaan Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia, between June and August 2011. The planned breastfeeding duration and determinants were sought using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Most subjects had low income (84.1%) and education (79.7%). Women who had been informed about breastfeeding had a higher likelihood to plan longer (≥6 months) breastfeeding (odds ratio [OR] 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-3.75; p=0.04), whereas women who had breastfed previous children over a shorter period had a lower likelihood (OR 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.59; p=0.001). Age, low education level, first pregnancy, and low income had no association with breastfeeding plans. Working mothers who had to return to work before 6 months and worked for >8 hours/day were less likely to plan longer breastfeeding (OR 0.14; 95% CI 0.02-0.83; p=0.03 vs. OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.17-1.63; p=0.27), whereas those intending to express their milk were more likely to breastfeed longer (OR 16.85; 95% CI 4.21-67.48; pprolonged breastfeeding has little to do with maternal age, education, or number of pregnancies. However, mothers who work, who had previously breastfed for a short period, and who are not well informed about breastfeeding tend to plan shorter breastfeeding. Among mothers who work, it is the length of maternal leave and required working hours that determine the plans.

  17. Evaluating the Predictability of South-East Asian Floods Using ECMWF and GloFAS Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillosu, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Between July and September 2017, the monsoon season caused widespread heavy rainfall and severe floods across countries in South-East Asia, notably in India, Nepal and Bangladesh, with deadly consequences. According to the U.N., in Bangladesh 140 people lost their lives and 700,000 homes were destroyed; in Nepal at least 143 people died, and more than 460,000 people were forced to leave their homes; in India there were 726 victims of flooding and landslides, 3 million people were affected by the monsoon floods and 2000 relief camps were established. Monsoon season happens regularly every year in South Asia, but local authorities reported the last monsoon season as the worst in several years. What made the last monsoon season particularly severe in certain regions? Are these causes clear from the forecasts? Regarding the meteorological characterization of the event, an analysis of forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) for different lead times (from seasonal to short range) will be shown to evaluate how far in advance this event was predicted and start discussion on what were the factors that led to such a severe event. To illustrate hydrological aspects, forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) will be shown. GloFAS is developed at ECMWF in co-operation with the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) and with the support of national authorities and research institutions such as the University of Reading. It will become operational at the end of 2017 as part of the Copernicus Emergency Management Service. GloFAS couples state-of-the-art weather forecasts with a hydrological model to provide a cross-border system with early flood guidance information to help humanitarian agencies and national hydro-meteorological services to strengthen and improve forecasting capacity, preparedness and mitigation of natural hazards. In this case GloFAS has shown good potential to become a useful tool for better and

  18. Contaminant profiles in Southeast Asian immigrants consuming fish from polluted waters in northeastern Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schantz, Susan L., E-mail: schantz@illinois.edu [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Gardiner, Joseph C. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University (United States); Aguiar, Andrea [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Tang, Xiaoqin; Gasior, Donna M. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University (United States); Sweeney, Anne M. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center USA (United States); Peck, Jennifer D. [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (United States); Gillard, Douglas; Kostyniak, Paul J. [Toxicology Research Center, University at Buffalo (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Recent immigrants to the USA from Southeast Asia may be at higher risk of exposure to fish-borne contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE) and methylmercury (MeHg) because of their propensity to engage in subsistence fishing. Exposure to contaminants was assessed in men and women of Hmong descent living in Green Bay, Wisconsin, where the Fox River and lower Green Bay are contaminated with PCBs, and to a lesser extent with mercury. Serum samples from 142 people were analyzed for PCBs and p,p'-DDE by capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture detection (ECD). Whole blood was analyzed for total mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Lipid-adjusted total PCB concentrations ranged from 8.7 to 3,091 ng/g (full range of the data), with a geometric mean of 183.6 ng/g (estimated after eliminating one outlier). DDE ranged from 0.3 to 7,083 (full range of the data) with a geometric mean of 449.8 ng/g (estimated after eliminating two outliers). Men had higher PCB and DDE concentrations than women. Serum PCB concentrations were significantly correlated with fish consumption (r=0.43, p<0.0001), whereas DDE concentrations were not (r=0.09,p=0.29). Instead, serum DDE was strongly associated with the number of years spent in a Thai refugee camp before immigrating to the USA (r=0.60;p<0.0001). PCB congeners 138, 153, 118 and 180 accounted for a smaller percentage of the total PCBs than has been reported in other fish-eating populations, and several lightly chlorinated congeners were present in relatively large amounts. Mercury exposure was low in this population. In conclusion, Hmong immigrants in northeastern Wisconsin are at risk of elevated PCB exposure from consumption of locally caught fish. The pattern of exposure is somewhat different than patterns in other fish-eating populations, possibly due to use of Aroclor 1242 by the paper industry in

  19. Contaminant profiles in Southeast Asian immigrants consuming fish from polluted waters in northeastern Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schantz, Susan L.; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Aguiar, Andrea; Tang, Xiaoqin; Gasior, Donna M.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Peck, Jennifer D.; Gillard, Douglas; Kostyniak, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent immigrants to the USA from Southeast Asia may be at higher risk of exposure to fish-borne contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE) and methylmercury (MeHg) because of their propensity to engage in subsistence fishing. Exposure to contaminants was assessed in men and women of Hmong descent living in Green Bay, Wisconsin, where the Fox River and lower Green Bay are contaminated with PCBs, and to a lesser extent with mercury. Serum samples from 142 people were analyzed for PCBs and p,p'-DDE by capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture detection (ECD). Whole blood was analyzed for total mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Lipid-adjusted total PCB concentrations ranged from 8.7 to 3,091 ng/g (full range of the data), with a geometric mean of 183.6 ng/g (estimated after eliminating one outlier). DDE ranged from 0.3 to 7,083 (full range of the data) with a geometric mean of 449.8 ng/g (estimated after eliminating two outliers). Men had higher PCB and DDE concentrations than women. Serum PCB concentrations were significantly correlated with fish consumption (r=0.43, p<0.0001), whereas DDE concentrations were not (r=0.09,p=0.29). Instead, serum DDE was strongly associated with the number of years spent in a Thai refugee camp before immigrating to the USA (r=0.60;p<0.0001). PCB congeners 138, 153, 118 and 180 accounted for a smaller percentage of the total PCBs than has been reported in other fish-eating populations, and several lightly chlorinated congeners were present in relatively large amounts. Mercury exposure was low in this population. In conclusion, Hmong immigrants in northeastern Wisconsin are at risk of elevated PCB exposure from consumption of locally caught fish. The pattern of exposure is somewhat different than patterns in other fish-eating populations, possibly due to use of Aroclor 1242 by the paper industry in this region.

  20. Comparison of Land Surface Phenology Detections from Geostationary (AHI) and Polar-orbiting (VIIRS) Sensors in Tropical Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface phenology (LSP) is an important indicator of ecosystem response to global change and reflects the exchange of water, energy, and carbon between the land surface and the atmosphere. However, the extraction of LSP in tropical Southeast Asia is very challenging due to weak seasonal variation and frequent cloud commination during the vegetation growing season. The successful launch of Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) onboard Himawari-8 geostationary satellite in October 2014 provides large opportunities to obtain cloud-free observations in daily time series data because it collects data every 10 minutes at a spatial resolution of 500m-2000 m. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard operational Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite provides global moderate-resolution (375-750 m) data once every day. To compare the capability of AHI and VIIRS observations to monitor LSP in frequently-cloud-covered tropical Southeast Asia, this research first extracted LSP metrics based on the time series of daily two-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2) from AHI and VIIRS using a hybrid piecewise logistic model in 2015 and 2016. The daily AHI EVI2 was calculated from diurnal observations after EVI2 at every 10 minutes was angularly corrected using an empirical kernel-driven model to eliminate the effect caused by the varying sun-satellite geometry. Subsequently, we compared the phenological transition dates of greenup onset and dormancy onset retrieved from AHI and VIIRS data at both pixel level and country level. Finally, we assessed the influences of the quality of daily observation from AHI and VIIRS on the reconstruction of EVI2 time series and the retrievals of phenological dates.

  1. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: Interplay of sea breeze, trade wind, typhoon, and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ge, Cui; Yang, Zhifeng; Hyer, Edward J.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Chew, Boon-Ning; Mahmud, Mastura; Zhang, Yongxin; Zhang, Meigen

    2013-03-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRFchem) is used to simulate the transport of smoke particles over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent during September-October 2006. In this period, dry conditions associated with the moderate El Niño event caused the largest regional biomass burning outbreak since 1997. Smoke emission in WRFchem is specified according to the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) database derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire products. The modeled smoke transport pathway is found to be consistent with the MODIS true color images and measured mass concentration of surface PM10 (particulate matter with diameter less than 10 μm). The interplay of sea/land breezes, typhoons and storms over the subtropical western Pacific Ocean, trade winds, and topographic effects, can be clearly seen in the model simulation. The most severe smoke events in 1-5 October 2006 are found to be associated with the meteorological responses to the typhoon Xangsane (#18) over the western subtropical Pacific Ocean, which moved smoke from Sumatra eastward in the lower troposphere (below 700 hPa), forming smoke layers mixed with and above the boundary layer clouds over Borneo. In contrast, the second largest week-long smoke transport event of 15-18 October 2006 was associated with the seasonal monsoonal transition period, during which smoke plumes were wide spread over the 5°S-5°N zone as a result of (a) the near surface divergence coupled with the 700 hPa bifurcation of wind (flowing both to the west and to the east), and (b) the near-surface southeasterly and easterly winds along the equator transporting smoke from Borneo to Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Analysis of data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarisation (CALIOP) shows that smoke particles in October 2006 were primarily located within 3.5 km above the surface. Smoke particles contributed roughly half

  2. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) under the highly seasonal rainfall regime of the Asian monsoon in mainland Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambelluca, T. W.; Mudd, R. G.; Liu, W.; Kobayashi, N.; Ziegler, A. D.; Miyazawa, Y.; Kumagai, T.; Huang, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Asian Monsoon dominates the climate of the mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) region, characterized by a highly seasonal rainfall regime in which 80-90% of annual rainfall occurs during the 6-month (May-October) wet season. The accompanying extremes in soil moisture, solar radiation, and vapor pressure deficit exert strong controls on ecosystem fluxes, including evapotranspiration (ET). Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), the major commercial crop currently replacing traditional agriculture and secondary forests in MSEA is a native of the equatorial Amazon rainforest, and differs physiologically from the dominant native SE Asian forest tree species. It sheds its leaves in the middle of the dry season and flushes new leaves before the onset of the wet season. In some areas, rubber cultivation is suspected of having caused changes in local climate and watershed processes, including a dramatic downward trend in fog frequency and large increases in surface runoff and soil erosion (Wu et al., 2001, Int. J. Sust. Dev. World Ecol. 8:337-345). Guardiola-Claramonte et al. (2008, Ecohydrology 1:13-22; 2010, Ecohydrology 3:306-314) noted striking differences in the timing and rate of dry season root-water extraction under rubber as compared with other vegetation types. To investigate the environmental impacts of rubber, eddy covariance flux towers were installed to monitor energy, water, and carbon exchange at rubber plantation sites in northeastern Thailand and Cambodia. Results of the first two years of observations at the sites indicate that controls on ET differ between wet and dry seasons, with varying responses to energy, soil moisture, canopy wetness, and leaf area. Despite the long dry season and loss of leaves for several weeks, rubber accumulates exceptionally high annual ET totals, exceeding those of natural forest and other plant functional types in the region. The phenology of rubber represents a disruption of the land-atmosphere interactions of native and other non

  3. A consensus plan for action to improve access to cancer care in the association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In many countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), cancer is an increasing problem due to ageing and a transition to Western lifestyles. Governments have been slow to react to the health consequences of these socioeconomic changes, leading to the risk of a cancer epidemic overwhelming the region. A major limitation to motivating change is the paucity of high-quality data on cancer, and its socioeconomic repercussions, in ASEAN. Two initiatives have been launched to address these issues. First, a study of over 9000 new cancer patients in ASEAN - the ACTION study - which records information on financial difficulties, as well as clinical outcomes, subsequent to the diagnosis. Second, a series of roundtable meetings of key stakeholders and experts, with the broad aim of producing advice for governments in ASEAN to take appropriate account of issues relating to cancer, as well as to generate knowledge and interest through engagement with the media. An important product of these roundtables has been the Jakarta Call to Action on Cancer Control. The growth and ageing of populations is a global challenge for cancer services. In the less developed parts of Asia, and elsewhere, these problems are compounded by the epidemiological transition to Western lifestyles and lack of awareness of cancer at the government level. For many years, health services in less developed countries have concentrated on infectious diseases and mother-and-child health; despite a recent wake-up call (United Nations, 2010), these health services have so far failed to allow for the huge increase in cancer cases to come. It has been estimated that, in Asia, the number of new cancer cases per year will grow from 6.1 million in 2008 to 10.6 million in 2030 (Sankaranarayanan et al., 2014). In the countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), corresponding figures are 770 thousand in 2012 (Figure 1), rising to 1.3 million in 2030 (Ferlay et al., 2012). ASEAN

  4. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport from equatorial Southeast Asian Maritime Continent to the Philippines: First comparison of ensemble analysis with in situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Cui; Wang, Jun; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Posselt, Derek J.; Xian, Peng; Hyer, Edward

    2017-05-01

    Atmospheric transport of smoke from equatorial Southeast Asian Maritime Continent (Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia) to the Philippines was recently verified by the first-ever measurement of aerosol composition in the region of the Sulu Sea from a research vessel named Vasco. However, numerical modeling of such transport can have large uncertainties due to the lack of observations for parameterization schemes and for describing fire emission and meteorology in this region. These uncertainties are analyzed here, for the first time, with an ensemble of 24 Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) simulations. The ensemble reproduces the time series of observed surface nonsea-salt PM2.5 concentrations observed from the Vasco vessel during 17-30 September 2011 and overall agrees with satellite (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data. The difference of meteorology between National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP's) Final (FNL) and European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF's) ERA renders the biggest spread in the ensemble (up to 20 μg m-3 or 200% in surface PM2.5), with FNL showing systematically superior results. The second biggest uncertainty is from fire emissions; the 2 day maximum Fire Locating and Modelling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) emission is superior than the instantaneous one. While Grell-Devenyi (G3) and Betts-Miller-Janjić cumulus schemes only produce a difference of 3 μg m-3 of surface PM2.5 over the Sulu Sea, the ensemble mean agrees best with Climate Prediction Center (CPC) MORPHing (CMORPH)'s spatial distribution of precipitation. Simulation with FNL-G3, 2 day maximum FLAMBE, and 800 m injection height outperforms other ensemble members. Finally, the global transport model (Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS)) outperforms all WRF

  5. Outcomes of Low-Risk Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in Southeast Asian Women Treated With Breast Conservation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Fuh Yong; Wang, Fuqiang; Chen, John Ju; Tan, Chiew Har; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the outcomes of Southeast Asian (SEA) women with low-risk ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Retrospective chart reviews of patients treated with BCS for DCIS from 1995 to 2011 were performed. Patients meeting the selection criteria from Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 5194 were included. Most patients received adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) consisting of whole-breast RT delivered to 50 Gy followed by a 10-Gy boost to the tumor bed. Results: Of 744 patients with pathologic diagnosis of pure DCIS identified, 273 met the selection criteria: low-intermediate grade (LIG), n=219; high grade (HG), n=54. Median follow-up for these patients was 60 months. There were 8 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTRs) in total, 7 of which were DCIS. The estimated actuarial IBTR rates at 5 and 10 years for the entire cohort are 1.8% and 4.3%, respectively. Of the 219 patients with LIG DCIS, 210 received RT and 9 did not. There were 7 IBTRs in LIG DCIS, 2 among the 9 patients who did not receive RT. The IBTR rates in LIG DCIS at 5 and 10 years are 2.3% and 4.2%, respectively. All patients with HG DCIS received RT. There was only 1 IBTR occurring beyond 5 years, giving an estimated IBTR rate of 4.5% at 10 years. Conclusions: SEA women with screen-detected DCIS have exceedingly low rates of IBTR after BCS, comparable to that observed in reports of similar patients with low-risk DCIS treated with adjuvant radiation

  6. Outcomes of Low-Risk Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in Southeast Asian Women Treated With Breast Conservation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Fuh Yong, E-mail: fuhyong@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Wang, Fuqiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Chen, John Ju [Department of Cancer Informatics, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Tan, Chiew Har [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Tan, Puay Hoon [Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital (Singapore)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To examine the outcomes of Southeast Asian (SEA) women with low-risk ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Retrospective chart reviews of patients treated with BCS for DCIS from 1995 to 2011 were performed. Patients meeting the selection criteria from Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 5194 were included. Most patients received adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) consisting of whole-breast RT delivered to 50 Gy followed by a 10-Gy boost to the tumor bed. Results: Of 744 patients with pathologic diagnosis of pure DCIS identified, 273 met the selection criteria: low-intermediate grade (LIG), n=219; high grade (HG), n=54. Median follow-up for these patients was 60 months. There were 8 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTRs) in total, 7 of which were DCIS. The estimated actuarial IBTR rates at 5 and 10 years for the entire cohort are 1.8% and 4.3%, respectively. Of the 219 patients with LIG DCIS, 210 received RT and 9 did not. There were 7 IBTRs in LIG DCIS, 2 among the 9 patients who did not receive RT. The IBTR rates in LIG DCIS at 5 and 10 years are 2.3% and 4.2%, respectively. All patients with HG DCIS received RT. There was only 1 IBTR occurring beyond 5 years, giving an estimated IBTR rate of 4.5% at 10 years. Conclusions: SEA women with screen-detected DCIS have exceedingly low rates of IBTR after BCS, comparable to that observed in reports of similar patients with low-risk DCIS treated with adjuvant radiation.

  7. Modelling the species distribution of flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps, an endangered South-East Asian small felid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wilting

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim, altitude (SRTM and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World. Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation. In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo, information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations, and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation

  8. Attitudes Towards Prenatal Genetic Counseling, Prenatal Genetic Testing, and Termination of Pregnancy among Southeast and East Asian Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ginger J; Cameron, Carrie A; Czerwinski, Jennifer L; Mendez-Figueroa, Hector; Peterson, Susan K; Noblin, Sarah Jane

    2017-10-01

    Recognizing the heterogeneity of the Asian population with regards to acculturation, education, health awareness, and cultural values is vital for tailoring culturally sensitive and appropriate care. Prior studies show that cultural values influence perceptions of genetics within Asian populations. The reputation of the family unit factors into decisions such as pregnancy termination and disclosure of family medical history, and the nondirective model of American genetic counseling may conflict with the historical Asian model of paternalistic health care. Previous studies also provide conflicting evidence regarding correlations between education, acculturation, age, and awareness and perceptions of genetic testing. The aims of this study were to describe attitudes towards prenatal genetics among Southeast and East Asian women living in the United States for varying amounts of time and to explore sociocultural factors influencing those attitudes. Twenty-three Asian women who were members of Asian cultural organizations in the United States were interviewed via telephone about their attitudes towards prenatal genetic counseling, prenatal genetic testing, and termination of pregnancy. Responses were transcribed and coded for common themes using a thematic analysis approach. Four major themes emerged. In general, participants: (1) had diverse expectations for genetic counselors; (2) tended to weigh risks and benefits with regards to genetic testing decisions; (3) had mixed views on termination for lethal and non-lethal genetic conditions; and (4) identified cultural factors which influenced testing and termination such as lack of available resources, societal shame and stigma, and family pressure. These findings may allow prenatal genetic counselors to gain a richer, more nuanced understanding of their Asian patients and to offer culturally tailored prenatal genetic counseling.

  9. Temporal and spatial fluctuations of phytoplankton in a tropical coastal lagoon, southeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, S.; Bozelli, RL.; Esteves, FA.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of the phytoplankton community in the tropical coastal Imboassica lagoon, an environment naturally isolated from the ocean by a narrow sandbar, was analysed every two weeks for 19 months by sampling three sites. During this study, the lagoon received direct input of marine water three times, resulting in remarkable salinity, nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton biomass variations in both temporal and spatial aspects. The phytoplankton biomass presented re...

  10. Burden of cancer attributable to tobacco smoking in member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina, Susi Ari; Endarti, Dwi; Thavorncharoensap, Montarat

    2016-10-01

    Cancer is an increasing problem in ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations). Tobacco use is a well-established risk factor for many types of cancers. Evidence on burden of cancer attributable to tobacco is essential to raise public and political awareness of the negative effects of tobacco on cancer and to be used to stimulate political action aims at reducing smoking prevalence in ASEAN member countries. The objective of this study was to estimate burden of cancer attributable to tobacco smoking in ASEAN, 2012. In this study, smoking prevalence was combined with Relative Risks (RRs) of cancer to obtain Smoking Attributable Fractions (SAFs). Cancer incidence and mortality data among individuals aged 15 years and older were derived from GLOBOCAN 2012. Fourteen types of cancer were included in the analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the impact of the use of alternative RRs and the use of alternative prevalence of smoking in some countries. The findings showed that tobacco smoking was responsible for 131,502 cancer incidence and 105,830 cancer mortality in ASEAN countries in 2012. In other words, tobacco smoking was accounted for 28.4% (43.3% in male and 8.5% in female) of cancer incidence and 30.5% (44.2% in male and 9.4% in female) of cancer mortality in ASEAN. When looking at the types of cancer, lung cancer showed the strongest association with tobacco smoking. Incidence of cancer and cancer mortality attributable to tobacco smoking varied by countries due to the differences in size of population, background risk of cancer, and prevalence of smoking in each country. According to the sensitivity analyses, RRs of lung cancer, pharynx cancer, and larynx cancer used in the estimates have significant impact on the estimates. As about one-third of cancer incidence and mortality in ASEAN are attributable to tobacco smoking ASEAN member countries are strongly encouraged to put in place stronger tobacco control policies and to strengthen the

  11. Prevalence and associated factors of illicit drug use among university students in the association of southeast Asian nations (ASEAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Susilowati, Indri Hapsari

    2017-04-06

    Illicit drug use among university students has been recognized as a global public health issue in recent years. It may lead to poor academic performance that in turn leads to poor productivity in their later life. This study explores prevalence of and factors associated with illicit drug use among university students in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). This multi-country cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. A multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select undergraduate students from one or two universities in each country for self-administered questionnaire survey. Multivariate logistic regression analyses was performed to explore risk factors related to illicit drug use. Participants included 7,923 students with a mean age of 20.6 years (SD = 2.8), ranging from 18-30 years. The overall prevalence of frequent (≥10 times), infrequent (1-9 times) and ever (at least once) illicit drug use in the past 12 months was 2.2, 14.7, and 16.9%, respectively. After adjustment, male students were significantly less likely to be infrequent (1-9 times vs. never), but significantly more likely to be ever users compared to females. Compared to those living with parents/guardians, students living away from parents/guardians were significantly less likely to be frequent (≥10 times vs. never) and infrequent users. Students from lower-middle-income countries were significantly more likely to be frequent and infrequent users, but significantly less likely to be ever users compared to those from upper-middle or high-income countries. Students with poor subjective health status were significantly more likely to be frequent users compared to those who reported good subjective health status. Students who reported binge drinking in the past month were significantly more likely to be infrequent users, but significantly less likely to be ever users. Our

  12. Non-Traditional Security Threats in the Border Areas: Terrorism, Piracy, Environmental Degradation in Southeast Asian Maritime Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabova, E. L.

    2013-11-01

    In addition to facilitating peaceful trade and economic development, sovereign territory, territorial waters and international waters are being used by various criminal groups that pose threats to governments, businesses and civilian population in Southeast Asia. Nonstate criminal maritime activities were not receiving appropriate attention as they were overshadowed by traditional military security challenges. Yet more and more frequently, the non-traditional actors challenge lines of communication, jeopardize access to strategic resources, complicate traditional defence tasks, and harm the environment. Understanding the nature of non-traditional threats, and the ways to combat them, requires international legal, historical and political science analysis within a united problem-oriented approach. A fair critique to pure interest, power and knowledge -based theories of regime formation was developed by E.K. Leonard's1, who explained the evolution of the international system from the global governance perspective. The present study is based on the premise that pure nation-state approaches are incapable of providing a theoretical ground for addressing the growing influence of international criminal networks in South East Asia. From an international relations theory perspective, the author of this study agrees with D.Snidal2 that the hegemonic stability theory has "limits" and is insufficient in describing modern challenges to sustainable international security regime, including non-traditional threats, where collective action is more efficient from an interest and capability standpoint. At the same time the author of this study does not share the viewpoint on "marginalization"3 of international law in current international order due to its fragmentation and regionalization4 and "global power shifts"5 . The United Nations, as a global institution at the top of the vertical hierarchy of international legal order, and the EU as an example of "self-contained" regime along

  13. Testing the phylogenetic affinities of Southeast Asia's rarest geckos: Flap-legged geckos (Luperosaurus), Flying geckos (Ptychozoon) and their relationship to the pan-Asian genus Gekko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Das, Indraneil; Min, Yong

    2012-06-01

    Some of Southeast Asia's most poorly known vertebrates include forest lizards that are rarely seen by field biologists. Arguably the most enigmatic of forest lizards from the Indo Australian archipelago are the Flap-legged geckos and the Flying geckos of the genera Luperosaurus and Ptychozoon. As new species have accumulated, several have been noted for their bizarre combination of morphological characteristics, seemingly intermediate between these genera and the pan-Asian gecko genus Gekko. We used the first multilocus phylogeny for these taxa to estimate their relationships, with particular attention to the phylogenetic placement of the morphologically intermediate taxa Ptychozoon rhacophorus, Luperosaurus iskandari, and L. gulat. Surprisingly, our results demonstrate that Luperosaurus is more closely related to Lepidodactylus and Pseudogekko than it is to Gekko but that some species currently classified as Luperosaurus are nested within Gekko. The Flying Gecko genus Ptychozoon is also nested within Gekko, suggesting that higher-level taxonomic revision of the generic boundaries within Southeast Asian gekkonines will be a priority for the immediate future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impacts of land use, restoration, and climate change on tropical peat carbon stocks in the twenty-first century: implications for climate mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew W. Warren; Steve Frolking; Zhaohua Dai; Sofyan Kurnianto

    2016-01-01

    The climate mitigation potential of tropical peatlands has gained increased attention as Southeast Asian peatlands are being deforested, drained and burned at very high rates, causing globally significant carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere. We used a process-based dynamic tropical peatland model to explore peat carbon (C) dynamics...

  15. Temporal and spatial fluctuations of phytoplankton in a tropical coastal lagoon, southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Melo

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variability of the phytoplankton community in the tropical coastal Imboassica lagoon, an environment naturally isolated from the ocean by a narrow sandbar, was analysed every two weeks for 19 months by sampling three sites. During this study, the lagoon received direct input of marine water three times, resulting in remarkable salinity, nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton biomass variations in both temporal and spatial aspects. The phytoplankton biomass presented relatively low values ranging, on average, from 0.54 mg.L-1 in the station closest to the sea (station 1 to 1.34 mg.L-1 in the station close to a macrophyte bank (station 3. Diatoms and cryptomonads dominated in stations 1 and 2 (located relatively close to station 1, yet receiving the runoff of domestic sewage, and euglenoids, cryptomonads and dinoflagellates at station 3. Stations 1 and 2 usually presented the same dominant species but station 2 presented a higher phytoplankton biomass. On the other hand, station 3 showed more similar results concerning phytoplankton biomass with station 2, however the dominant species were usually different. The high fluctuations of salinity and the reduced nutrient availability are pointed out as the main factors structuring the dynamics of the phytoplankton community at the Imboassica lagoon.

  16. Temporal and spatial fluctuations of phytoplankton in a tropical coastal lagoon, southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, S; Bozelli, R L; Esteves, F A

    2007-08-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of the phytoplankton community in the tropical coastal Imboassica lagoon, an environment naturally isolated from the ocean by a narrow sandbar, was analysed every two weeks for 19 months by sampling three sites. During this study, the lagoon received direct input of marine water three times, resulting in remarkable salinity, nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton biomass variations in both temporal and spatial aspects. The phytoplankton biomass presented relatively low values ranging, on average, from 0.54 mg x L(-1) in the station closest to the sea (station 1) to 1.34 mg x L(-1) in the station close to a macrophyte bank (station 3). Diatoms and cryptomonads dominated in stations 1 and 2 (located relatively close to station 1, yet receiving the runoff of domestic sewage), and euglenoids, cryptomonads and dinoflagellates at station 3. Stations 1 and 2 usually presented the same dominant species but station 2 presented a higher phytoplankton biomass. On the other hand, station 3 showed more similar results concerning phytoplankton biomass with station 2, however the dominant species were usually different. The high fluctuations of salinity and the reduced nutrient availability are pointed out as the main factors structuring the dynamics of the phytoplankton community at the Imboassica lagoon.

  17. Prospects of nuclear power development in Southeast and South Asian nations, and the impacts of Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Tomohiko; Nakasugi, Hideo; Wada, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    The Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake followed by Tsunami on March 11, 2011, has brought about strong socio-political impacts internationally including to Asian countries. This report provides updated information on nuclear energy development program in Asian countries. It also touches on impacts caused by the Fukushima Accident in Asian countries that plan to introduce nuclear power as well as those plan to expand their nuclear power programs. The article focuses on following countries in the regions: Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam; India, and Pakistan. (author)

  18. Spinning droplets: non-first generation East and Southeast Asian Australian poets and the discourse of water

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane, Rosalind Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Poetry written by diasporic Asian groups in Australia has been gaining increasing attention, especially with the 2013 release of Contemporary Asian Australian Poets edited by Adam Aitken, Kim Cheng Boey and Michelle Cahill, the first anthology of this kind of work. This thesis aims to be the first instance of sustained critical attention paid to many of the poets included in this anthology, including Adam Aitken, Ivy Alvarez, Lachlan Brown, Lily Chan, Bella Li, Debbie Lim, Miriam Wei Wei Lo, ...

  19. Feminist Interventions for Southeast Asian Women Trauma Survivors: Deconstructing Gender-Based Violence and Developing Structures of Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsworthy, Kathryn L.

    An analysis of structural and institutional violence against women in three cultures in Southeast Asia, Thailand, Cambodia, and among refugees of Burma, was generated by groups of women and men from these countries. Group members also discussed strategies for transforming systems supporting gender-based violence into structures of peace and…

  20. TVET Initiatives in Southeast Asian Countries in Response to Increasing Labour Mobility within the Region and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paryono

    2011-01-01

    The International Labour Organisation (ILO) report (2007) highlights that labour productivity, education and migration play important roles in shaping competitiveness, growth and development in Southeast Asia. The statistics also reveal interesting aspects of labour mobility. Thirteen and a half million migrants originate from countries in the…

  1. Size-resolved aerosol water uptake and cloud condensation nuclei measurements as measured above a Southeast Asian rainforest during OP3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Irwin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the properties of fine particles on the formation of clouds and precipitation in the tropical atmosphere is of primary importance to their impacts on radiative forcing and the hydrological cycle. Measurements of aerosol number size distribution, hygroscopicity in both sub- and supersaturated regimes and composition were taken between March and July 2008 in the tropical rainforest in Borneo, Malaysia, marking the first study of this type in an Asian tropical rainforest. Hygroscopic growth factors (GF at 90 % relative humidity (RH for the dry diameter range D0 = 32–258 nm, supersaturated water uptake behaviour for the dry diameter range D0 = 45–300 nm and aerosol chemical composition were simultaneously measured using a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (HTDMA, a Droplet Measurement Technologies Cloud Condensation Nuclei counter (CCNc and an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS respectively.

    The hygroscopicity parameter κ was derived from both CCNc and HTDMA measurements, with the resulting values of κ ranging from 0.05–0.37, and 0.17–0.37, respectively. Although the total range of κ values is in good agreement, there are inconsistencies between CCNc and HTDMA derived κ values at different dry diameters. Results from a study with similar methodology performed in the Amazon rainforest report values for κ within a similar range to those reported in this work, indicating that the aerosol as measured from both sites shows similar hygroscopic properties. However, the derived number of cloud condensation nuclei (NCCN were much higher in the present experiment than the Amazon, resulting in part from the increased total particle number concentrations observed in the Bornean rainforest. This contrast between the two environments may be of substantial importance in describing the impacts of particles in the tropical atmosphere.

  2. Carbon budget of tropical forests in Southeast Asia and the effects of deforestation: an approach using a process-based model and field measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adachi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available More reliable estimates of the carbon (C stock within forest ecosystems and C emission induced by deforestation are urgently needed to mitigate the effects of emissions on climate change. A process-based terrestrial biogeochemical model (VISIT was applied to tropical primary forests of two types (a seasonal dry forest in Thailand and a rainforest in Malaysia and one agro-forest (an oil palm plantation in Malaysia to estimate the C budget of tropical ecosystems in Southeast Asia, including the impacts of land-use conversion. The observed aboveground biomass in the seasonal dry tropical forest in Thailand (226.3 t C ha−1 and the rainforest in Malaysia (201.5 t C ha−1 indicate that tropical forests of Southeast Asia are among the most C-abundant ecosystems in the world. The model simulation results in rainforests were consistent with field data, except for the NEP, however, the VISIT model tended to underestimate C budget and stock in the seasonal dry tropical forest. The gross primary production (GPP based on field observations ranged from 32.0 to 39.6 t C ha−1 yr−1 in the two primary forests, whereas the model slightly underestimated GPP (26.5–34.5 t C ha−1 yr−1. The VISIT model appropriately captured the impacts of disturbances such as deforestation and land-use conversions on the C budget. Results of sensitivity analysis showed that the proportion of remaining residual debris was a key parameter determining the soil C budget after the deforestation event. According to the model simulation, the total C stock (total biomass and soil C of the oil palm plantation was about 35% of the rainforest's C stock at 30 yr following initiation of the plantation. However, there were few field data of C budget and stock, especially in oil palm plantation. The C budget of each ecosystem must be evaluated over the long term using both the model simulations and observations to

  3. A Regional Decision Support Scheme for Pest Risk Analysis in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, T; MacLeod, A; Mumford, J D; Nghiem, T P L; Tan, H T W; Papworth, S K; Corlett, R T; Carrasco, L R

    2016-05-01

    A key justification to support plant health regulations is the ability of quarantine services to conduct pest risk analyses (PRA). Despite the supranational nature of biological invasions and the close proximity and connectivity of Southeast Asian countries, PRAs are conducted at the national level. Furthermore, some countries have limited experience in the development of PRAs, which may result in inadequate phytosanitary responses that put their plant resources at risk to pests vectored via international trade. We review existing decision support schemes for PRAs and, following international standards for phytosanitary measures, propose new methods that adapt existing practices to suit the unique characteristics of Southeast Asia. Using a formal written expert elicitation survey, a panel of regional scientific experts was asked to identify and rate unique traits of Southeast Asia with respect to PRA. Subsequently, an expert elicitation workshop with plant protection officials was conducted to verify the potential applicability of the developed methods. Rich biodiversity, shortage of trained personnel, social vulnerability, tropical climate, agriculture-dependent economies, high rates of land-use change, and difficulties in implementing risk management options were identified as challenging Southeast Asian traits. The developed methods emphasize local Southeast Asian conditions and could help support authorities responsible for carrying out PRAs within the region. These methods could also facilitate the creation of other PRA schemes in low- and middle-income tropical countries. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. A New Chronology for the Bronze Age of Northeastern Thailand and Its Implications for Southeast Asian Prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Charles F W; Douka, Katerina; Higham, Thomas F G

    2015-01-01

    There are two models for the origins and timing of the Bronze Age in Southeast Asia. The first centres on the sites of Ban Chiang and Non Nok Tha in Northeast Thailand. It places the first evidence for bronze technology in about 2000 B.C., and identifies the origin by means of direct contact with specialists of the Seima Turbino metallurgical tradition of Central Eurasia. The second is based on the site of Ban Non Wat, 280 km southwest of Ban Chiang, where extensive radiocarbon dating places the transition into the Bronze Age in the 11th century B.C. with likely origins in a southward expansion of technological expertise rooted in the early states of the Yellow and Yangtze valleys, China. We have redated Ban Chiang and Non Nok Tha, as well as the sites of Ban Na Di and Ban Lum Khao, and here present 105 radiocarbon determinations that strongly support the latter model. The statistical analysis of the results using a Bayesian approach allows us to examine the data at a regional level, elucidate the timing of arrival of copper base technology in Southeast Asia and consider its social impact.

  5. Interannual and Interdecadal Variations of the East Asian Summer Monsoon and Tropical Pacific SSTs. Part I: Roles of the Subtropical Ridge

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, C.-P.; Zhang, Yongsheng; Li, Tim

    2000-01-01

    The interannual relationship between the East Asian summer monsoon and the tropical Pacific SSTs is studied using rainfall data in the Yangtze River Valley and the NCEP reanalysis for 1951–96. The datasets are also partitioned into two periods, 1951–77 and 1978–96, to study the interdecadal variations of this relationship. A wet summer monsoon is preceded by a warm equatorial eastern Pacific in the previous winter and followed by a cold equatorial eastern Pacific in the following fa...

  6. Did the demise of Green Sahara play a role in the mid-to-late Holocene megadrought and `missing millennia' in southeast Asian societies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, M. L.; Johnson, K. R.; Pausata, F. S. R.; White, J.; Yang, H.; Henderson, G. M.; Conrad, C.

    2017-12-01

    The mid-to-late Holocene in eastern Africa and Eurasia was characterized by one of, if not the, largest climate anomalies of the past 10,000 years (i.e. the `4.2 ka event'), yet the cause of this event remains enigmatic. The nature and geographical extent of the event has been a topic of great interest because of its potential connections with societal upheavals in western Asia and northeastern Africa. However, while paleoclimate data from India and southern China show evidence for a large-scale megadrought during this period, there have hitherto been no high-resolution and well-dated records from mainland southeast Asia (MSEA) to document the regional footprint of this event. This is somewhat surprising given that this period also coincides with what has been termed the `missing millennia' in MSEA, which refers to the major gap in archeological evidence that may have some link with the broader Asian monsoon failure during this time. To help shed light on the potential connection between climate change and the missing millennia, we have compiled four new speleothem oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope records from Tham Doun Mai cave in northern Laos. The δ18O profiles show a general increasing trend through much of the Holocene which is interpreted to reflect an overall weakening of the Southeast Asian monsoon. This general trend is punctuated by a marked positive δ18O shift at 4-5 ka, signifying an overall reduction in monsoon strength that persisted until 3.5 ka. Interestingly, the onset of this anomaly coincides with the cessation in speleothem growth of three speleothems, and a 4 per mil increase in δ13C for the speleothem that continued to grow. We interpret this large and abrupt increase in δ13C to reflect enhanced CO2 degassing due to a much slower drip-rate (supported by a slower growth rate), and the hiatuses to reflect large groundwater deficits to those drip sites. The onset of this abrupt megadrought in northern Laos is consistent with abrupt

  7. Local Media in Global Conflict: Southeast Asian Newspapers and the Politics of Peace in Israel/Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubu Ozohu-Suleiman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is often assumed that local media are a potential deescalating tool in global conflict. This study examines how four leading newspapers in Southeast Asia (Star of Malaysia, Philstar of the Philippines, Jakarta Post of Indonesia, and The Nation of Thailand reported the Israeli-Palestinian conflict during the year after the 2009 Gaza War. A census of 536 reports was coded for tones (to detect alignment, frames (to detect characterization of the conflict, and sources (to examine correlation with coverage tones. The results show fragmented alignment of the newspapers with Palestine and Israel. Conflict frames on offensives, fighting, threats, military strategies, demonization, death, and destruction were most prevalent. Coverage tones were significantly correlated with sources, suggesting that the potential of local media to serve as deescalating tools in global conflicts is subject to the varying political contexts in which they operate in relation to specific conflicts.

  8. Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust in a tropical Asian mega-city, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Murakami, Michio; Wattayakorn, Gullaya; Togo, Ayako; Takada, Hideshige

    2007-10-01

    We collected samples of roadside air, automobile exhaust soot, tires, asphalt, and used engine oil in a tropical Asian mega-city, Bangkok, Thailand, and analyzed them for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes. The concentrations and compositions of PAHs and hopanes were utilized to identify the sources of PAHs in street dust, in which high concentrations of PAHs were reported in our previous study. Weight-based concentrations of total PAHs had the following order: gasoline-powered vehicle soot (2600+/-2900 microg/g; n=4)>diesel-powered vehicle soot (115+/-245 microg/g; n=7) approximately roadside aerosols (101+/-35 microg/g; n=5) approximately used engine oil (97+/-65 microg/g; n=4) approximately tire wear particles (82+/-41 microg/g; n=5)>asphalt (2.3+/-1.6 microg/g; n=3)>street dust (1.1+/-0.8 microg/g; n=10). In cluster analysis, all the source materials fell into different clusters from that in which street dust fell, indicating that multiple source materials contribute to PAHs in the street dust. Multiple regression analysis of PAH profiles and diagnostics of hopane compositions identified tire debris as the major contributor of PAHs to street dust, followed by diesel vehicle exhaust.

  9. Oceanographic Currents and Local Ecological Knowledge Indicate, and Genetics Does Not Refute, a Contemporary Pattern of Larval Dispersal for The Ornate Spiny Lobster, Panulirus ornatus in the South-East Asian Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoc Tan Dao

    Full Text Available Here we utilize a combination of genetic data, oceanographic data, and local ecological knowledge to assess connectivity patterns of the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798 in the South-East Asian archipelago from Vietnam to Australia. Partial mitochondrial DNA control region and 10 polymorphic microsatellites did not detect genetic structure of 216 wild P. ornatus samples from Australia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Analyses show no evidence for genetic differentiation among populations (mtDNA control region sequences ΦST = -0.008; microsatellite loci FST = 0.003. A lack of evidence for regional or localized mtDNA haplotype clusters, or geographic clusters of microsatellite genotypes, reveals a pattern of high gene flow in P. ornatus throughout the South-East Asian Archipelago. This lack of genetic structure may be due to the oceanography-driven connectivity of the pelagic lobster larvae between spawning grounds in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and, possibly, Indonesia. The connectivity cycle necessitates three generations. The lack of genetic structure of P. ornatus population in the South-East Asian archipelago has important implications for the sustainable management of this lobster in that the species within the region needs to be managed as one genetic stock.

  10. The Rising Burden of Diabetes and Hypertension in Southeast Asian and African Regions: Need for Effective Strategies for Prevention and Control in Primary Health Care Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To review the available literature on burden of diabetes mellitus (DM and hypertension (HTN and its coexistence in Southeast Asian (SEA and the African (AFR regions and to suggest strategies to improve DM and HTN prevention and control in primary health care (PHC in the two regions. Methods. A systematic review of the papers published on DM, HTN, and prevention/control of chronic diseases in SEA and AFR regions between 1980 and December 2012 was included. Results. In the year 2011, SEA region had the second largest number of people with DM (71.4 million, while the AFR region had the smallest number (14.7 million. Screening studies identified high proportions (>50% of individuals with previously undiagnosed HTN and DM in both of the SEA and AFR regions. Studies from both regions have shown that DM and HTN coexist in type 2 DM ranging from 20.6% in India to 78.4% in Thailand in the SEA region and ranging from 9.7% in Nigeria to 70.4% in Morocco in the AFR region. There is evidence that by lifestyle modification both DM and HTN can be prevented. Conclusion. To meet the twin challenge of DM and HTN in developing countries, PHCs will have to be strengthened with a concerted and multipronged effort to provide promotive, preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services.

  11. Suicidal ideation and associated factors among students aged 13-15 years in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess suicidal ideation and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13-15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the cross-sectional global school-based student health survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation in the past 12 months across seven ASEAN countries was 12.3%, significantly higher in girls (15.1%) than boys (9.3%). Among seven ASEAN countries with the highest prevalence of suicidal ideation was in the Philippines (17.0%) and Vietnam (16.9%) and the lowest in Myanmar (1.1%) and Indonesia (4.2%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, female gender, older age (14 or 15 years), living in a lower middle income country, having no friends, loneliness, bullying victimisation, having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months, lack of parental or guardian support, tobacco use and having a history of ever got drunk were associated with suicidal ideation. Different rates of suicidal ideation were observed in ASEAN member states. Several risk factors for suicidal ideation were identified which can help guide preventive efforts.

  12. Prevalence, demographic and psychosocial correlates for school truancy among students aged 13-15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2017-11-01

    Truancy among adolescents may negatively affect the achievement of academic goals. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of school truancy in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states. The analysis included 28 419 school children aged 13-15 years from seven ASEAN member states that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of past 30 day truancy across six ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 24.8%; ranging from below 20% in Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam to more than 30% in Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, and the Philippines. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, socio-demographic factors (older age, being male, the experience of hunger), externalising behaviour (tobacco use, alcohol use, having been in a physical fight, being bullied, having sustained an injury), and lack of protective social-familial factors (lack of peer support and lack of parental or guardian support) were found to be associated with truancy. High rates of truancy were found in ASEAN member states calling for interventions aimed to reduce truancy considering identified associated factors.

  13. Is healthcare a 'Necessity' or 'Luxury'? an empirical evidence from public and private sector analyses of South-East Asian countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jahangir Am; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam

    2015-01-01

    South-East Asian Regional (SEAR) countries range from low- to middle-income countries and have considerable differences in mix of public and private sector expenditure on health. This study intends to estimate the income-elasticities of healthcare expenditure in public and private sectors separately for investigating whether healthcare is a 'necessity' or 'luxury' for citizens of these countries. Panel data from 9 SEAR countries over 16 years (1995-2010) were employed. Fixed- and random-effect models were fitted to estimate income-elasticity of public, private and total healthcare expenditure. Results showed that one percent point increase in GDP per capita increased private expenditure on healthcare by 1.128%, while public expenditure increased by only 0.412%. Inclusion of three-year lagged variables of GDP per capita in the models did not have remarkable influence on the findings. The citizens of SEAR countries consider healthcare as a necessity while provided through public sector and a luxury when delivered by private sector. By increasing the public provisions of healthcare, more redistribution of healthcare resources can be ensured, which can accelerate the journey of SEAR countries towards universal health coverage.

  14. Reciprocal Relations between Official Development Assistance Recipient and Donor Countries: Case of South Korean Overseas Construction Business and Southeast Asian Countries’ Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Won Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, official development assistance (ODA is generally perceived to be an alternative means to develop infrastructure. Donor countries may expect benefits such as increased construction project orders in recipient countries. However, it remains arguable whether ODA contributes to reciprocal relations between recipient and donor countries. The case of South Korea can provide empirical data given that its government has expanded the amount of ODA to encourage overseas construction business while supporting Southeast Asian countries. In this research, gross national income (GNI, gross domestic product (GDP, foreign direct investment (FDI, and construction project orders awarded by South Korean construction companies in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka are analyzed according to the variation of ODA awarded by South Korea. The analysis results show that the influence of ODA upon economic situation of recipient countries varies according to their economic volume and development policy. From the donor country’s perspective, enhanced performance of construction business can be expected by means of cooperation with local construction business.

  15. Linking data to tobacco control program action among students aged 13-15 in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states, 2000-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirichotiratana, N; Sovann, S; Aditama, T Y; Krishnan, M; Kyaing, N N; Miguel-Baquilod, M; Hai, P T; Sinha, D N; Warren, C W; Jones, N R

    2008-12-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has made tobacco use prevention a primary health issue. All ASEAN countries except Indonesia have ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), the world's first public health treaty on tobacco control. Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data were collected from representative samples of students in school grades associated with ages 13-15 in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos (Vientiane), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam (Hanoi). Current cigarette smoking ranged from less than 5% (Vietnam and Cambodia) to 20.2% in Malaysia. Current use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was less than 10% in all countries. Boys were significantly more likely than girls to smoke cigarettes or use other tobacco products. Exposure to second-hand smoke in public places was greater than 50%, direct pro-tobacco advertising exposure was greater than 75% and over 10% of students were exposed to indirect advertising. Over 60% of students who currently smoked cigarettes wanted to stop, but 80% who tried to quit in the year prior to the survey failed. Efforts to reduce the current and projected harm caused by tobacco use in the ASEAN countries are urgently needed. ASEAN countries need to expand their national comprehensive tobacco prevention and control programs and enforce those laws already passed. Without this effort little reduction can be expected in the burden of chronic diseases and tobacco-related mortality.

  16. South-East Asian Fortified Stone Walls: Angkor Thom (Cambodia, Ho Citadel (Vietnam and Ratu Boko (Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Lluís Pérez Garcia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze three significant examples of defensive walls from South-East Asia made of solid stone blocks (both rock as well as stone-like laterite and provided with different but equivalent functions –a fortified imperial capital-city (Angkor Thom, in Cambodia, a fortified royal citadel (Ho Citadel, in the North of Vietnam and a royal palace with a partly fortified appearance (Ratu Boko, in Java Island, Indonesia–, focusing on their constructive and technical characteristics and establishing parallels between them and their closest counterparts, from China and India. We will see how their design and structure can be closely related to the fortifications of neighbouring empires, as places of origin of their strong cultural influences and, at the same time, we will try to identify the local particularities. We will pay special attention to the form of the fortified enceintes, considering the long tradition of the quadrangular plan in the walls of royal capitals, inspired in the ideal model of Chinese and Indian cities. Our research also make us think that the walls of Ratu Boko, despite their functions as symbolic limits or for retaining the soil, could also have had a defensive purpose, no matter if secondary, or at least they could be used to provide protection to the complex in case of external menace.

  17. Hormonal induction of thumb pads and the evolution of secondary sexual characteristics of the Southeast Asian fanged frog, Rana blythii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, S B; Carroll, L; Hess, D L

    1997-12-15

    The fanged frogs of Southeast Asia do not express most of the hormone-dependent secondary sexual characteristics such as thumb pads that are common to other ranid frogs. At the same point in the evolutionary history of the group that these androgen-mediated characteristics are lost, male parental care first evolves. This behavior is often correlated with low androgen levels. Prior work indicates that in one of the fanged frogs, Rana blythii, adult males have low androgen levels compared to North Temperate species of Rana. This leads to the question of whether these low androgen levels are related to the unusual male parental care and the lack of expression of the thumb pad and other hormone-dependent secondary sexual characteristics in this species. We tested that hypothesis by examining the effects of exogenous dihydrotestosterone supplements on the expression of thumb pads in Rana blythii. Dihydrotestosterone injections appear to stimulate the expression of the thumb pad in R. blythii. These results support the hypothesis that low androgen levels are involved in the loss of the thumb pad in R. blythii. This work provides an example of how mapping characters on phylogenies can be a powerful approach for gaining insights into proximate physiological mechanisms of selection at the evolutionary level.

  18. Complex pollination of a tropical Asian rainforest canopy tree by flower-feeding thrips and thrips-feeding predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Toshiaki; Nishimura, Sen; Tani, Naoki; Ng, Kevin Kit Siong; Lee, Soon Leong; Muhammad, Norwati; Okuda, Toshinori; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-11-01

    In tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia, a highly fecund thrips (Thrips spp.) responds rapidly to the mass flowering at multiple-year intervals characteristic of certain species such as the canopy tree studied here, Shorea acuminata, by feeding on flower resources. However, past DNA analyses of pollen adherent to thrips bodies revealed that the thrips promoted a very high level of self-pollination. Here, we identified the pollinator that contributes to cross-pollination and discuss ways that the pollination system has adapted to mass flowering. By comparing the patterns of floral visitation and levels of genetic diversity in adherent pollen loads among floral visitors, we evaluated the contribution of each flower visitor to pollination. The big-eyed bug, Geocoris sp., a major thrips predator, was an inadvertent pollinator, and importantly contributed to cross-pollination. The total outcross pollen adhering to thrips was approximately 30% that on the big-eyed bugs. Similarly, 63% of alleles examined in S. acuminata seeds and seedlings occurred in pollen adhering to big-eyed bugs; about 30% was shared with pollen from thrips. During mass flowering, big-eyed bugs likely travel among flowering S. acuminata trees, attracted by the abundant thrips. Floral visitation patterns of big-eyed bugs vs. other insects suggest that these bugs can maintain their population size between flowering by preying upon another thrips (Haplothrips sp.) that inhabits stipules of S. acuminata throughout the year and quickly respond to mass flowering. Thus, thrips and big-eyed bugs are essential components in the pollination of S. acuminata. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  19. Sources of sedimentary PAHs in tropical Asian waters: differentiation between pyrogenic and petrogenic sources by alkyl homolog abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Mahua; Togo, Ayako; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Murakami, Michio; Takada, Hideshige; Zakaria, Mohamad P; Chiem, Nguyen H; Tuyen, Bui Cach; Prudente, Maricar; Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Bhattacharya, Badal; Mishra, Pravakar; Tana, Touch Seang

    2009-02-01

    We collected surface sediment samples from 174 locations in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and the Philippines and analyzed them for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes. PAHs were widely distributed in the sediments, with comparatively higher concentrations in urban areas (Sigma PAHs: approximately 1000 to approximately 100,000 ng/g-dry) than in rural areas ( approximately 10 to approximately 100g-dry), indicating large sources of PAHs in urban areas. To distinguish petrogenic and pyrogenic sources of PAHs, we calculated the ratios of alkyl PAHs to parent PAHs: methylphenanthrenes to phenanthrene (MP/P), methylpyrenes+methylfluoranthenes to pyrene+fluoranthene (MPy/Py), and methylchrysenes+methylbenz[a]anthracenes to chrysene+benz[a]anthracene (MC/C). Analysis of source materials (crude oil, automobile exhaust, and coal and wood combustion products) gave thresholds of MP/P=0.4, MPy/Py=0.5, and MC/C=1.0 for exclusive combustion origin. All the combustion product samples had the ratios of alkyl PAHs to parent PAHs below these threshold values. Contributions of petrogenic and pyrogenic sources to the sedimentary PAHs were uneven among the homologs: the phenanthrene series had a greater petrogenic contribution, whereas the chrysene series had a greater pyrogenic contribution. All the Indian sediments showed a strong pyrogenic signature with MP/P approximately 0.5, MPy/Py approximately 0.1, and MC/C approximately 0.2, together with depletion of hopanes indicating intensive inputs of combustion products of coal and/or wood, probably due to the heavy dependence on these fuels as sources of energy. In contrast, sedimentary PAHs from all other tropical Asian cities were abundant in alkylated PAHs with MP/P approximately 1-4, MPy/Py approximately 0.3-1, and MC/C approximately 0.2-1.0, suggesting a ubiquitous input of petrogenic PAHs. Petrogenic contributions to PAH homologs varied among the countries: largest in Malaysia

  20. Diversification in a biodiversity hotspot--the evolution of Southeast Asian rhacophorid tree frogs on Borneo (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Stefan T; Schweizer, Manuel; Das, Indraneil; Haas, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    The tree-frog family Rhacophoridae is a major group contributing to the high pecies richness and reproductive diversity among vertebrates of Sundaland. Nonetheless, rhacophorid evolution, specially on Borneo, has not been studied within a phylogenetic context. In this study, we examine the phylogenetic relationships of 38 (out of 41) Bornean species of Rhacophoridae, in combination with data from previous phylogenetic studies. In the final super matrix of 91 species, we analyse sequence data from two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes. The resulting trees show the genus Rhacophorus as a paraphyletic assemblage. As a consequence, we transfer Rhacophorus appendiculatus and R. kajau to two other genera and propose the new phylogeny-based combinations--Kurixalus appendiculatus and Feihyla kajau, respectively. Furthermore, we use our phylogenetic hypotheses to reconstruct the evolution of reproductive modes in rhacophorid tree frogs. Direct development to the exclusion of a free larval stage evolved twice independently, once in an ancestor of the Pseudophilautus+Raorchestes clade in India and Sri Lanka, and once within Philautus in Southeast Asia. The deposition of egg clutches covered by a layer of jelly in Feihyla is also present in F. kajau and thus confirms our generic reassignment. The remarkably high diversity of rhacophorid tree frogs on Borneo is the outcome of a complex pattern of repeated vicariance and dispersal events caused by past changes in the climatic and geological history of the Sunda shelf. We identified geographic clades of closely related endemic species within Rhacophorus and Philautus, which result from local island radiations on Borneo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Revision of the Southeast Asian millipede genus Orthomorpha Bollman, 1893, with the proposal of a new genus (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natdanai Likhitrakarn

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The large genus Orthomorpha is rediagnosed and is shown to currently comprise 51 identifiable species ranging from northern Myanmar and Thailand in the Northwest to Lombok Island, Indonesia in the Southeast. Of them, 20 species have been revised and/or abundantly illustrated, based on a restudy of mostly type material; further 12 species are described as new: O. atypica sp. n., O. communis sp. n., O. isarankurai sp. n., O. picturata sp. n., O. similanensis sp. n., O. suberecta sp. n., O. tuberculifera sp. n., O. subtuberculifera sp. n. and O. latiterga sp. n., all from Thailand, as well as O. elevata sp. n., O. spiniformis sp. n. and O. subelevata sp. n., from northern Malaysia. The type-species O. beaumontii (Le Guillou, 1841 is redescribed in due detail from male material as well, actually being a senior subjective synonym of O. spinala (Attems, 1932, syn. n. Two additional new synonymies are proposed: O. rotundicollis (Attems, 1937 = O. tuberculata (Attems, 1937, syn. n., and O. butteli Carl, 1922 = O. consocius Chamberlin, 1945, syn. n., the valid names to the left. All species have been keyed and all new and some especially widespread species have been mapped. Further six species, including two revised from type material, are still to be considered dubious, mostly because their paraterga appear to be too narrow to represent Orthomorpha species. A new genus, Orthomorphoides gen. n., diagnosed versus Orthomorpha through only moderately well developed paraterga, coupled with a poorly bi- or trifid gonopod tip, with at least some of its apical prongs being short spines, is erected for two species: O. setosus (Attems, 1937, the type-species, which is also revised from type material, and O. exaratus (Attems, 1953, both comb. n. ex Orthomorpha.

  2. Influence of temperate, subtropical, and tropical fruit consumption on risk of type 2 diabetes in an Asian population123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lesley M; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; van Dam, Rob M

    2017-01-01

    Background: Findings on the relation between fruit consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been inconsistent. Objectives: We examined whether the consumption of total, temperate, subtropical, and tropical fruit is associated with T2DM risk and whether differences in the carbohydrate quality of fruit influence T2DM risk in Asians. Design: We included 45,411 participants in the Singapore Chinese Health Study who were 45–74 y old and had no diabetes, cancer, or cardiovascular disease at recruitment (1993–1998). Fruit intake was assessed with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Physician-diagnosed incident T2DM cases were reported at follow-up 1 (1999–2004) and follow-up 2 (2006–2010) interviews. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of diabetes risk. Results: In 494,741 person-years of follow-up, 5207 participants developed T2DM. After adjustment for lifestyle and dietary risk factors, high total fruit consumption was not consistently associated with lower T2DM risk [men: HR of 1.33 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.71) for ≥3 servings/d compared with fruit [HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.86) for ≥1 serving/d compared with rarely consumed; P-trend = 0.001] but not for lower or moderate GI fruit. In women, the consumption of temperate fruit, but not of subtropical or tropical fruit, was associated with lower T2DM risk [HR: 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.92) for ≥1 serving/d compared with rarely; P-trend = 0.006]. Conclusions: The consumption of temperate fruit, such as apples, was associated with a lower risk of T2DM in women, whereas the consumption of higher-GI fruit, such as bananas, was associated with higher risk in men. The impact of fruit consumption on the risk of diabetes may differ by the type of fruit, which may reflect differences in the glycemic impact or phytochemical content. PMID:28179225

  3. Influence of temperate, subtropical, and tropical fruit consumption on risk of type 2 diabetes in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperet, Derrick Johnston; Butler, Lesley M; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; van Dam, Rob M

    2017-03-01

    Background: Findings on the relation between fruit consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been inconsistent. Objectives: We examined whether the consumption of total, temperate, subtropical, and tropical fruit is associated with T2DM risk and whether differences in the carbohydrate quality of fruit influence T2DM risk in Asians. Design: We included 45,411 participants in the Singapore Chinese Health Study who were 45-74 y old and had no diabetes, cancer, or cardiovascular disease at recruitment (1993-1998). Fruit intake was assessed with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Physician-diagnosed incident T2DM cases were reported at follow-up 1 (1999-2004) and follow-up 2 (2006-2010) interviews. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of diabetes risk. Results: In 494,741 person-years of follow-up, 5207 participants developed T2DM. After adjustment for lifestyle and dietary risk factors, high total fruit consumption was not consistently associated with lower T2DM risk [men: HR of 1.33 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.71) for ≥3 servings/d compared with fruit [HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.86) for ≥1 serving/d compared with rarely consumed; P -trend = 0.001] but not for lower or moderate GI fruit. In women, the consumption of temperate fruit, but not of subtropical or tropical fruit, was associated with lower T2DM risk [HR: 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.92) for ≥1 serving/d compared with rarely; P -trend = 0.006]. Conclusions: The consumption of temperate fruit, such as apples, was associated with a lower risk of T2DM in women, whereas the consumption of higher-GI fruit, such as bananas, was associated with higher risk in men. The impact of fruit consumption on the risk of diabetes may differ by the type of fruit, which may reflect differences in the glycemic impact or phytochemical content. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. SARS-Coronavirus ancestor's foot-prints in South-East Asian bat colonies and the refuge theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Teeling, Emma; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude

    2011-10-01

    One of the great challenges in the ecology of infectious diseases is to understand what drives the emergence of new pathogens including the relationship between viruses and their hosts. In the case of the emergence of SevereAcute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), several studies have shown coronavirus diversity in bats as well as the existence of SARS-CoV infection in apparently healthy bats, suggesting that bats may be a crucial host in the genesis of this disease. To elucidate the biogeographic origin of SARS-CoV and investigate the role that bats played in its emergence, we amplified coronavirus sequences from bat species captured throughout Thailand and assessed the phylogenetic relationships to each other and to other published coronavirus sequences. To this end, RdRp sequence of Coronavirinae was targeted by RT-PCR in non-invasive samples from bats collected in Thailand. Two new coronaviruses were detected in two bat species: one Betacoronavirus in Hipposideros larvatus and one Alphacoronavirus in Hipposiderosarmiger. Interestingly, these viruses from South-East Asia are related to those previously detected in Africa (Betacoronavirus-b) or in Europe (Alphacoronavirus & Betacoronavirus-b). These findings illuminate the origin and the evolutionary history of the SARS-CoV group found in bats by pushing forward the hypothesis of a Betacoronavirus spill-over from Hipposideridae to Rhinolophidae and then from Rhinolophidae to civets and Human. All reported Betacoronaviruses-b (SARS-CoV group) of Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae respectively cluster in two groups despite their broad geographic distribution and the sympatry of their hosts, which is in favor of an ancient and genetically independent evolution of Betacoronavirus-b clusters in these families. Moreover, despite its probable pathogenicity, we found that a Betacoronavirus-b can persistently infect a medium-sized hipposiderid bat colony. These findings illustrate the importance of the host

  5. China's Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Review of: China’s Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia: Indonesia / by John Lee. Trends in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2013. Pp. 40. Paperback: $9.90/S$12.90. PDF available: http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/Trends_2013-3.pdf......Review of: China’s Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia: Indonesia / by John Lee. Trends in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2013. Pp. 40. Paperback: $9.90/S$12.90. PDF available: http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/Trends_2013-3.pdf...

  6. Indo-Pacific climate during the decaying phase of the 2015/16 El Niño: role of southeast tropical Indian Ocean warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zesheng; Du, Yan; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Wang, Chunzai

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of southeast tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) sea surface temperature (SST) warming on Indo-Pacific climate during the decaying phase of the 2015/16 El Niño by using observations and model experiments. The results show that the SETIO SST warming in spring 2016 enhanced local convection and forced a "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern in the lower troposphere. The "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean consists of anomalous westerly flow south of the equator and anomalous easterly flow north of the equator. The anomalous easterly flow then extended eastward into the western North Pacific (WNP) and facilitates the development or the maintenance of an anomalous anticyclone over the South China Sea (SCS). Correspondingly, the eastern part of the Bay of Bengal, the SCS and the WNP suffered less rainfall. Such precipitation features and the associated "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern shifted northward about five latitudes in summer 2016. Additionally, the SETIO warming can induce local meridional circulation anomalies, which directly affect Indo-Pacific climate. Numerical model experiments further confirm that the SETIO SST warming plays an important role in modulating Indo-Pacific climate.

  7. Chemical Composition and Emission Sources of the Fine Particulate Matters in a Southeast Asian Mega City (Dhaka, Bangladesh)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution has significant impact on human health, climate change, agriculture, visibility reduction, and also on the atmospheric chemistry. There are many studies already reported about the direct relation of the human mortality and morbidity with the increase of the atmospheric particulate matters. Especially, fine particulate matters can easily enter into the human respiratory system and causes many diseases. Particulate matters have the properties to absorb the solar radiation and impact on the climate. Dhaka, Bangladesh is a densely populated mega-city in the world. About 16 million inhabitants are living within an area of 360 square kilometers. Air quality situation has been degrading due to unplanned growth, increasing vehicles, severe traffic jams, brick kilns, industries, construction, and also transboundary air pollution. A rapidly growing number of vehicles has worsen the air quality in spite of major policy interventions, e.g., ban of two-stroke and three-wheeled vehicles, phase out of 20 years old vehicles, conversion to compressed natural gas (CNGs), etc. Introduction of CNGs to reduce air pollution was not the solution for fine particles at all, as evidence shows that CNGs and diesel engines are the major sources of fine particles. High concentration of the air pollutants in Dhaka city such as PM, carbonaceous species (black and organic carbon), CO, etc. has already been reported. PM2.5 mass, chemical composition (e.g., BC, OC, SO42-, NO3-, trace elements, etc.), aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and emission sources of our recent measurements at the highly polluted south East Asian Mega city (Dhaka) Bangladesh will be presented in the conference. PM2.5 samples were collected on filters with Digital PM2.5 sampler (Switzerland) and Air photon, USA. BC was measured from filters (with thermal and optical method) and also real time with an Aethalometer AE42 (Magee Scitific., USA). Water soluble ions were determined from filters with ion chromatogram. AOD

  8. Knowledge about, attitude toward, and practice of skin lightening products use and its social correlates among university students in five Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge about, attitude toward, and use of skin lightening products (SLP) and its social and psychological correlates among university students from five Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. In a cross sectional survey, 3259 undergraduate university students (Mean age = 20.5 years, SD = 1.6) from five ASEAN countries responded to an anonymous questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude, poor mental health, and SLP use. Overall, 79.1% of the students were aware that the use of SLP can harm the skin, and 30.1% knew the active ingredients of SLP. Most students had a positive perception of having a lighter skin tone and SLP. Overall, the prevalence of SLP use over the past 12 months was 30.7%, 16.7% of male, and 30.0% of female students, ranging from 13.4% in Myanmar to 69.4% in Thailand. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, among women, older age, coming from a poorer family, residing in an upper middle income country, awareness of active skin lightening ingredients, and poor mental health were associated with SLP, while among men, not aware of the negative effects of SLP and awareness of active skin lightening ingredients and poor mental health were associated with SLP use. A high prevalence of SLP use was found in a large sample of ASEAN university students, and several social and mental health-related risk factors were found that may help in guiding interventions. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. Late Triassic granites from Bangka, Indonesia: A continuation of the Main Range granite province of the South-East Asian Tin Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Samuel Wai-Pan; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Roselee, Muhammad H.; Teschner, Claudia; Murtadha, Sayed; Oliver, Grahame J. H.; Ghani, Azman A.; Chang, Su-Chin

    2017-05-01

    The South-East Asian Tin Belt is one of the most tin-productive regions in the world. It comprises three north-south oriented granite provinces, of which the arc-related Eastern granite province and the collision-related Main Range granite province run across Thailand, Singapore, and Indonesia. These tin-producing granite provinces with different mineral assemblages are separated by Paleo-Tethyan sutures exposed in Thailand and Malaysia. The Eastern Province is usually characterised by granites with biotite ± hornblende. Main Range granites are sometimes characterised by the presence of biotite ± muscovite. However, the physical boundary between the two types of granite is not well-defined on the Indonesian Tin Islands, because the Paleo-Tethyan suture is not exposed on land there. Both hornblende-bearing (previously interpreted as I-type) and hornblende-barren (previously interpreted as S-type) granites are apparently randomly distributed on the Indonesian Tin Islands. Granites exposed on Bangka, the largest and southernmost Tin Island, no matter whether they are hornblende-bearing or hornblende-barren, are geochemically similar to Malaysian Main Range granites. The average ɛNd(t) value obtained from the granites from Bangka (average ɛNd(t) = -8.2) falls within the range of the Main Range Province (-9.6 to -5.4). These granites have SIMS zircon U-Pb ages of ca. 225 Ma and ca. 220 Ma, respectively that are both within the period of Main Range magmatism (∼226-201 Ma) in the Peninsular Malaysia. We suggest that the granites exposed on Bangka represent the continuation of the Main Range Province, and that the Paleo-Tethyan suture lies to the east of the island.

  10. Emerging pests and diseases of South-east Asian cassava: a comprehensive evaluation of geographic priorities, management options and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, Ignazio; Minato, Nami; Alvarez, Elizabeth; Ngo, Dung Tien; Hoat, Trinh Xuan; Aye, Tin Maung; Pardo, Juan Manuel; Wongtiem, Prapit; Wyckhuys, Kris Ag

    2016-06-01

    Cassava is a major staple, bio-energy and industrial crop in many parts of the developing world. In Southeast Asia, cassava is grown on >4 million ha by nearly 8 million (small-scale) farming households, under (climatic, biophysical) conditions that often prove unsuitable for many other crops. While SE Asian cassava has been virtually free of phytosanitary constraints for most of its history, a complex of invasive arthropod pests and plant diseases has recently come to affect local crops. We describe results from a region-wide monitoring effort in the 2014 dry season, covering 429 fields across five countries. We present geographic distribution and field-level incidence of the most prominent pest and disease invaders, introduce readily-available management options and research needs. Monitoring work reveals that several exotic mealybug and (red) mite species have effectively colonised SE Asia's main cassava-growing areas, occurring in respectively 70% and 54% of fields, at average field-level incidence of 27 ± 2% and 16 ± 2%. Cassava witches broom (CWB), a systemic phytoplasma disease, was reported from 64% of plots, at incidence levels of 32 ± 2%. Although all main pests and diseases are non-natives, we hypothesise that accelerating intensification of cropping systems, increased climate change and variability, and deficient crop husbandry are aggravating both organism activity and crop susceptibility. Future efforts need to consolidate local capacity to tackle current (and future) pest invaders, boost detection capacity, devise locally-appropriate integrated pest management (IPM) tactics, and transfer key concepts and technologies to SE Asia's cassava growers. Urgent action is needed to mobilise regional as well as international scientific support, to effectively tackle this phytosanitary emergency and thus safeguard the sustainability and profitability of one of Asia's key agricultural commodities. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016

  11. Systematics and natural history of Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) with descriptions of eight new species from Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, L Lee; Wood, Perry L; Anuar, Shahrul; Riyanto, Awal; Ahmad, Norhayati; Muin, Mohd A; Sumontha, Montri; Grismer, Jesse L; Onn, Chan Kin; Quah, Evan S H; Pauwels, Olivier S A

    2014-10-31

    A well-supported and well-resolved phylogeny based on a concatenated data set from one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes, six morphological characters, and nine color pattern characters for 44 of the 50 species of the Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) is consistent with the previous taxonomy of Cnemaspis based solely on morphology and color pattern. Cnemaspis is partitioned into four major clades that collectively contain six species groups. The monophyly of all clades and species groups is strongly supported and they are parapatrically distributed across well-established, biogeographical regions ranging from southern Vietnam westward through southern Indochina, southward through the Thai-Malay Peninsula, then eastward to Borneo. Eight new species (Cnemaspis omari sp. nov. from the Thai-Malaysian border; C. temiah sp. nov. from Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia; C. stongensis sp. nov. from Gunung Stong, Kelantan, Malaysia; C. hangus sp. nov. from Bukit Hangus, Pahang, Malaysia; C. sundagekko sp. nov. from Pulau Siantan, Indonesia; C. peninsularis sp. nov. from southern Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, and C. mumpuniae sp. nov. and C. sundainsula sp. nov. from Pulau Natuna Besar, Indonesia) are described based on morphology and color pattern and all but C. sundagekko sp. nov. are included in the phylogenetic analyses. Cnemaspis kendallii is polyphyletic and a composite of six species. An updated taxonomy consistent with the phylogeny is proposed for all 50 species and is based on 25 morphological and 53 color pattern characters scored across 594 specimens. Cladogenetic events and biogeographical relationships within Cnemaspis were likely influenced by this group's low vagility and the cyclical patterns of geographical and environmental changes in Sundaland over the last 25 million years and especially within the last 2.5 million years. The phylogeny indicates that nocturnality, diurnality, substrate preferences, and the presence of

  12. Associations between mortality and meteorological and pollutant variables during the cool season in two Asian cities with sub-tropical climates: Hong Kong and Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggins, William B; Chan, Emily Y Y; Yang, Chunyuh; Chong, Marc

    2013-07-19

    Numerous studies have found associations between extreme temperatures and human mortality but relatively few studies have been done in sub-tropical and tropical cities, especially in Asia. In this study we examine the impact of cold temperatures, cold waves and other meteorological and environmental variables on cool season mortality in 2 subtropical Asian cities. Separate analysis of daily mortality time-series from Hong Kong and Taipei using Generalized Additive Models with natural mortality as the outcome daily mean temperature as the main explanatory variable and relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed, pollutants (nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), respirable suspended particulates (PM(10)), ozone (O(3)), seasonality and day of the week controlled as potential confounders. Lags up to 35 days were considered for temperature, and distributed lag models were used to determine the number of lags for final models. Subgroup analyses were also done by gender, age group, cause of death and geographical area of residence. Cold temperatures were strongly associated with higher mortality with lagged effects persisting up to 3 weeks in Hong Kong and 2 weeks in Taipei. Cold effects were much stronger for deaths among older people and non-cancer deaths. Prolonged cold spells modestly but significantly raised mortality after accounting for the effects of individual cold days. Higher daily ozone levels were also strongly associated with higher short-term mortality in Taipei and Hong Kong, while relative humidity and solar radiation were weakly and inconsistently associated with mortality. Cold temperatures and cold spells substantially increase short-term mortality in sub-tropical Asian cities particularly among the elderly. Greater attention needs to be paid to the adverse health effects of cold temperatures. Interventions including provisions of shelters, cold weather warnings and education about the possible health effects of cold temperature should

  13. Ecological Energetics of Tropical Limpet Cellana Testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758) Living on the Rocky Shore of Ohoiwait, Southeast Moluccas, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Khouw, Abraham S

    2008-01-01

    Study on ecological energetics of tropical limpet C. testudinaria has been carried out at approximatelyone year from October 2001 to September 2002. Population energy budgets estimated on theassumption of steady state conditions for C. testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758) on the rocky shore ofOhoiwait, are presented. Large difference in population structure, and hence energetics, occurred atdifferent localities along the rocky shore. Relatively high proportions (98 %) of the assimilated energywas lo...

  14. Unravelling proximate cues of mass flowering in the tropical forests of South-East Asia from gene expression analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, Suat Hui; Satake, Akiko; Numata, Shinya; Ichie, Tomoaki; Lee, Soon Leong; Basherudin, Norlia; Muhammad, Norwati; Kondo, Toshiaki; Otani, Tatsuya; Hashim, Mazlan; Tani, Naoki

    2017-10-01

    Elucidating the physiological mechanisms of the irregular yet concerted flowering rhythm of mass flowering tree species in the tropics requires long-term monitoring of flowering phenology, exogenous and endogenous environmental factors, as well as identifying interactions and dependencies among these factors. To investigate the proximate factors for floral initiation of mast seeding trees in the tropics, we monitored the expression dynamics of two key flowering genes, meteorological conditions and endogenous resources over two flowering events of Shorea curtisii and Shorea leprosula in the Malay Peninsula. Comparisons of expression dynamics of genes studied indicated functional conservation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and LEAFY (LFY) in Shorea. The genes were highly expressed at least 1 month before anthesis for both species. A mathematical model considering the synergistic effect of cool temperature and drought on activation of the flowering gene was successful in predicting the observed gene expression patterns. Requirement of both cool temperature and drought for floral transition suggested by the model implies that flowering phenologies of these species are sensitive to climate change. Our molecular phenology approach in the tropics sheds light on the conserved role of flowering genes in plants inhabiting different climate zones and can be widely applied to dissect the flowering processes in other plant species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Elevational sensitivity in an Asian 'hotspot': moth diversity across elevational gradients in tropical, sub-tropical and sub-alpine China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, L A; Nakamura, A; Burwell, C J; Tang, Y; Cao, M; Whitaker, T; Sun, Z; Huang, H; Kitching, R L

    2016-05-23

    South-western China is widely acknowledged as a biodiversity 'hotspot': there are high levels of diversity and endemism, and many environments are under significant anthropogenic threats not least climate warming. Here, we explore diversity and compare response patterns of moth assemblages among three elevational gradients established within different climatic bioregions - tropical rain forest, sub-tropical evergreen broad-leaved forest and sub-alpine coniferous forest in Yunnan Province, China. We hypothesised that tropical assemblages would be more elevationally stratified than temperate assemblages, and tropical species would be more elevationally restricted than those in the temperate zone. Contrary to our hypothesis, the moth fauna was more sensitive to elevational differences within the temperate transect, followed by sub-tropical and tropical transects. Moths in the cooler and more seasonal temperate sub-alpine gradient showed stronger elevation-decay beta diversity patterns, and more species were restricted to particular elevational ranges. Our study suggests that moth assemblages are under threat from future climate change and sub-alpine rather than tropical faunas may be the most sensitive to climate change. These results improve our understanding of China's biodiversity and can be used to monitor future changes to herbivore assemblages in a 'hotspot' of biodiversity.

  16. Elevational sensitivity in an Asian ‘hotspot’: moth diversity across elevational gradients in tropical, sub-tropical and sub-alpine China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, L. A.; Nakamura, A.; Burwell, C. J.; Tang, Y.; Cao, M.; Whitaker, T.; Sun, Z.; Huang, H.; Kitching, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    South-western China is widely acknowledged as a biodiversity ‘hotspot’: there are high levels of diversity and endemism, and many environments are under significant anthropogenic threats not least climate warming. Here, we explore diversity and compare response patterns of moth assemblages among three elevational gradients established within different climatic bioregions - tropical rain forest, sub-tropical evergreen broad-leaved forest and sub-alpine coniferous forest in Yunnan Province, China. We hypothesised that tropical assemblages would be more elevationally stratified than temperate assemblages, and tropical species would be more elevationally restricted than those in the temperate zone. Contrary to our hypothesis, the moth fauna was more sensitive to elevational differences within the temperate transect, followed by sub-tropical and tropical transects. Moths in the cooler and more seasonal temperate sub-alpine gradient showed stronger elevation-decay beta diversity patterns, and more species were restricted to particular elevational ranges. Our study suggests that moth assemblages are under threat from future climate change and sub-alpine rather than tropical faunas may be the most sensitive to climate change. These results improve our understanding of China’s biodiversity and can be used to monitor future changes to herbivore assemblages in a ‘hotspot’ of biodiversity. PMID:27211989

  17. An annotated checklist of trees and relatives in tropical montane forests from southeast Peru: the importance of continue collecting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Farfan-Rios

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The tropical Andes and adjacent Amazon are Earth’s highest biodiversity hotspot. Manu National Park in southeastern Peru encompasses an entire watershed, ranging from Andean highlands to Amazonian lowlands, and is a megadiverse landscape on the Andes to Amazon transition. Here we present an annotated checklist of trees and related species is along an elevation gradient in the Manu Biosphere Reserve that runs from sub-montane forests at 800 m elevation up to the tree line at 3625 m. Based on a network of 21 1-hectare permanent tree plots and botanical explorations, the floristic information is systematized by elevation ranges, geographical distribution and endemism. These preliminary results show 1108 species. Of these, 43% are new records for the region of Cusco, 15 species are new records for the Peruvian flora, 40 species are endemics for Peru, and 30 are potential new species for science. Another 39.7% are identified to genus or family level and remain morphospecies. Additionally, we show altitudinal range expansion for 45.2% of identified species (302 species. These results were found in a transect of plots spanning only 20 km of geographic distance, and are a sample of the high tree diversity in these mountainous ecosystems. The data show how poorly collected and understudied these ecosystems are. Basic floristic studies and collections are imperative for a better understanding of species distribution and function of ecosystems, and the basic biodiversity of the tropical Andes. They will also help to answer a major, unresolved question in modern global ecology of how tropical forests will respond to global climate change.

  18. A normal reference of bone mineral density (BMD measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in healthy thai children and adolescents aged 5-18 years: a new reference for Southeast Asian Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pairunyar Nakavachara

    Full Text Available Ethnic-specific normative data of bone mineral density (BMD is essential for the accurate interpretation of BMD measurement. There have been previous reports of normative BMD data for Caucasian and Asian children including Japanese, Chinese, Korean and Indian. However, the normative BMD data for Southeast Asian including Thai children and adolescents are not currently available. The goals of our study were 1 to establish normative data of BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, bone area (BA and lean body mass (LBM for healthy Thai children and adolescents; aged 5-18 years measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar Prodigy and 2 to evaluate the relationships between BMD vs. age, sex, puberty, weight, height, calcium intake and the age of menarche in our population. Gender and age-specific BMD (L2-4; LS and total body; TB, BMADLS (apparent BMD of the lumbar spine, BMC (L2-4 and total body, BA (L2-4 and total body and LBM were evaluated in 367 children (174 boys and 193 girls. All parameters increased progressively with age. A rapid increase in BMD, BMC and BMADLS was observed at earlier ages in girls. Gender and Tanner stage-specific BMD normative data were also generated. The dynamic changes of BMD values from childhood to early and late puberty of Thai children appeared to be consistent with those of Caucasian and Asian populations. Using a multiple-regression, weight and Tanner stage significantly affected BMDLS, BMDTB and BMADLS in both genders. Only in girls, height was found to have significant influence on BMDTB and BMADLS. The positive correlation between BMD and several demographic parameters, except the calcium intake, was observed. In summary, we established a normal BMD reference for Thai children and adolescents and this will be of useful for clinicians and researchers to appropriately assess BMD in Thais and other Southeast Asian children.

  19. An Introduction to Human Rights in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnama, H.R.; Sharom, Azmi; Mullen, Matthew; Asuncion, Melizel; Hayes, Michael

    2015-01-01

    When the Southeast Asian Human Rights Studies Network (SEAHRN) was formed in 2009 one of its first activities was the development of a textbook for Southeast Asia students. This was in response to its objective of improving teaching on human rights in Southeast Asian universities. Given that

  20. Temporal Decorrelation Effect in Carbon Stocks Estimation Using Polarimetric Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolInSAR (Case Study: Southeast Sulawesi Tropical Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laode M Golok Jaya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper was aimed to analyse the effect of temporal decorrelation in carbon stocks estimation. Estimation of carbon stocks plays important roles particularly to understand the global carbon cycle in the atmosphere regarding with climate change mitigation effort. PolInSAR technique combines the advantages of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR and Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR technique, which is evidenced to have significant contribution in radar mapping technology in the last few years. In carbon stocks estimation, PolInSAR provides information about vertical vegetation structure to estimate carbon stocks in the forest layers. Two coherence Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images of ALOS PALSAR full-polarimetric with 46 days temporal baseline were used in this research. The study was carried out in Southeast Sulawesi tropical forest. The research method was by comparing three interferometric phase coherence images affected by temporal decorrelation and their impacts on Random Volume over Ground (RvoG model. This research showed that 46 days temporal baseline has a significant impact to estimate tree heights of the forest cover where the accuracy decrease from R2=0.7525 (standard deviation of tree heights is 2.75 meters to R2=0.4435 (standard deviation 4.68 meters and R2=0.3772 (standard deviation 3.15 meters respectively. However, coherence optimisation can provide the best coherence image to produce a good accuracy of carbon stocks.

  1. Southeast Asian Studies in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chou, Cynthia Gek Hua; Platt, Martin B.

    2012-01-01

    As pressures mount to adopt new or alternative instructional delivery methods to achieve innovative education, there has been a strong orientation towards emphasising the need to integrate the latest technological applications to achieve the best in teaching and learning experiences. Moving away ...

  2. Air-sea interactions of semi-volatile organic compounds in the tropical environment of Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Major urban and industrial centers increase loadings of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs to proximate sea waters through riverine transport, atmospheric deposition via dry particle deposition, wet deposition, and air-sea gas exchange. In addition to acting as sinks for SVOCs, oceans can act as sources of SVOCs to coastal atmospheres and play important roles in the global biogeochemistry of SVOCs. Particle-sorbed SVOCs can settle to the ocean surface by dry particle deposition, a uni-directional advective transport process from the atmosphere to the water, the removal rate by which is a function of the physical and chemical properties of the aerosols and bound pollutants, meteorological conditions and surface characteristics. In addition, SVOCs are removed from the atmosphere and transported to the waters by precipitation scavenging of atmospheric vapors and particles, which are incorporated into the rain within or below the clouds. After SVOCs are deposited into the bulk seawater, water-column partitioning can affect the distribution of pollutants between the dissolved aqueous and the solid phases and eventually impact the fate of these compounds in oceans. Other than the abovementioned processes, air-sea exchange can make SVOCs diffuse across the air-sea interface; however, the sea surface microlayer (SML, a unique compartment at the air-sea boundary defined operationally as the upper millimeter (1 ∼ 1000 μm of the sea surface, has large storage capacity to delay the transport of SVOCs across the interface. This article reports the dry particle deposition and wet deposition of selected SVOCs based on an extensive set of yearly data collected in Singapore. Singapore, a representative country of Southeast Asia (SEA, is a small but highly developed island with dense industrial parks in the Southwestern part, where the terrestrial sources affect the surrounding coasts. In this study, Singapore’s Southern coastline was chosen during

  3. Functional traits determine heterospecific use of risk-related social information in forest birds of tropical South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Yong, Ding Li; Janra, Muhammad Nazri; Fitri, Liza M; Prawiradilaga, Dewi; Sieving, Kathryn E

    2016-12-01

    In birds and mammals, mobbing calls constitute an important form of social information that can attract numerous sympatric species to localized mobbing aggregations. While such a response is thought to reduce the future predation risk for responding species, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence to support this hypothesis. One way to test the link between predation risk reduction and mobbing attraction involves testing the relationship between species' attraction to mobbing calls and the functional traits that define their vulnerability to predation risk. Two important traits known to influence prey vulnerability include relative prey-to-predator body size ratio and the overlap in space use between predator and prey; in combination, these measures strongly influence prey accessibility, and therefore their vulnerability, to predators. Here, we combine community surveys with behavioral experiments of a diverse bird assemblage in the lowland rainforest of Sumatra to test whether the functional traits of body mass (representing body size) and foraging height (representing space use) can predict species' attraction to heterospecific mobbing calls. At four forest sites along a gradient of forest degradation, we characterized the resident bird communities using point count and mist-netting surveys, and determined the species groups attracted to standardized playbacks of mobbing calls produced by five resident bird species of roughly similar body size and foraging height. We found that (1) a large, diverse subcommunity of bird species was attracted to the mobbing calls and (2) responding species (especially the most vigorous respondents) tended to be (a) small (b) mid-storey foragers (c) with similar trait values as the species producing the mobbing calls. Our findings from the relatively lesser known bird assemblages of tropical Asia add to the growing evidence for the ubiquity of heterospecific information networks in animal communities, and provide empirical

  4. Seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton in two tropical rivers of varying size and human impact in Southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okechukwu Idumah Okogwu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton occurrence and dynamics in rivers are mainly shaped by hydrophysical conditions and nutrient availability. Phytoplankton main structuring factors have been poorly studied in West African rivers, and this study was undertaken to identify these conditions in two tropical rivers that vary in size and human impact. For this, environmental variables and phytoplankton monthly samples were collected from the middle reaches of Asu and Cross rivers during an 18 months survey from March 2005-July 2006. Phytoplankton biomass (F=11.87, p=0.003, Shannon-Weiner diversity and species richness (F=5.93, p=0.003 showed significant seasonality in Asu but not in Cross River. Data was analyzed with Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA and showed environmental differences between the two rivers, nitrate in Asu River (5.1-15.5mg/L was significantly higher than Cross River (0.03-1.7mg/L, while PO4 (0.2-0.9mg/L was significantly lower in Asu River compared to Cross River (0.03-2.6mg/L (p<0.05. Eutrophic factors (NO3 determined primarily phytoplankton dynamics in Asu River, especially during the dry season, whereas hydrophysical factors (depth, transparency and temperature shaped phytoplankton in Cross River. Taxa indicative of an eutrophic condition, such as Euglena, Chlorella, Chlorococcus, Ceratium, Peridinium, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Closterium, Scenedesmus and Pediastrum spp., were frequently encountered in the shallow impounded Asu River, while riverine species, such as Frustulia rhomboids, Gyrosigma sp., Opephora martyr and Surirella splendida dominated Cross River. A succession pattern was observed in the functional groups identified: Na/MP→TB→P (rainy→dry season was observed in Asu River, whereas MP/D predominated in Cross River for both seasons. We concluded that, if nutrients predominate hydrophysical factors in shaping phytoplankton during dry season (half of the year then, they are as important as hydrophysical factors structuring

  5. Effect of the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean warming since the late 1970s on wintertime Northern Hemispheric atmospheric circulation and East Asian climate interdecadal changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Cuijiao; Yang, Xiu-Qun; Sun, Xuguang; Yang, Dejian; Jiang, Yiquan; Feng, Tao; Liang, Jin

    2018-04-01

    Observation reveals that the tropical Pacific-Indian Ocean (TPIO) has experienced a pronounced interdecadal warming since the end of the 1970s. Meanwhile, the wintertime midlatitude Northern Hemispheric atmospheric circulation and East Asian climate have also undergone substantial interdecadal changes. The effect of the TPIO warming on these interdecadal changes are identified by a suite of AMIP-type atmospheric general circulation model experiments in which the model is integrated from September 1948 to December 1999 with prescribed historical, observed realistic sea surface temperature (SST) in a specific region and climatological SST elsewhere. Results show that the TPIO warming reproduces quite well the observed Northern Hemispheric wintertime interdecadal changes, suggesting that these interdecadal changes primarily originate from the TPIO warming. However, each sub-region of TPIO has its own distinct contribution. Comparatively, the tropical central-eastern Pacific (TCEP) and tropical western Pacific (TWP) warming makes dominant contributions to the observed positive-phase PNA-like interdecadal anomaly over the North Pacific sector, while the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) warming tends to cancel these contributions. Meanwhile, the TIO and TWP warming makes dominant contributions to the observed positive NAO-like interdecadal anomaly over the North Atlantic sector as well as the interdecadal anomalies over the Eurasian sector, although the TWP warming's contribution is relatively small. These remote responses are directly attributed to the TPIO warming-induced tropical convection, rainfall and diabatic heating increases, in which the TIO warming has the most significant effect. Moreover, the TPIO warming excites a Gill-type pattern anomaly over the tropical western Pacific, with a low-level anticyclonic circulation anomaly over the Philippine Sea. Of three sub-regions, the TIO warming dominates such a pattern, although the TWP warming tends to cancel this effect

  6. Remarks on the tropical Asian and Australian taxa included in Diplospora or Tricalysia (Rubiaceae — Ixoroideae — Gardenieae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, S.J.; Robbrecht, E.

    1991-01-01

    The Asian and Australian species generally included in Diplospora or Tricalysia are shown to form an artificial assemblage. A few species even do not belong to the Gardenieae-Diplosporinae and need to be transferred to other tribes of the Ixoroideae. So Diplospora malaccensis, Diplospora minahassae,

  7. Emergence of the Asian 1 genotype of dengue virus serotype 2 in viet nam: in vivo fitness advantage and lineage replacement in South-East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Ty Hang Vu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A better description of the extent and structure of genetic diversity in dengue virus (DENV in endemic settings is central to its eventual control. To this end we determined the complete coding region sequence of 187 DENV-2 genomes and 68 E genes from viruses sampled from Vietnamese patients between 1995 and 2009. Strikingly, an episode of genotype replacement was observed, with Asian 1 lineage viruses entirely displacing the previously dominant Asian/American lineage viruses. This genotype replacement event also seems to have occurred within DENV-2 in Thailand and Cambodia, suggestive of a major difference in viral fitness. To determine the cause of this major evolutionary event we compared both the infectivity of the Asian 1 and Asian/American genotypes in mosquitoes and their viraemia levels in humans. Although there was little difference in infectivity in mosquitoes, we observed significantly higher plasma viraemia levels in paediatric patients infected with Asian 1 lineage viruses relative to Asian/American viruses, a phenotype that is predicted to result in a higher probability of human-to-mosquito transmission. These results provide a mechanistic basis to a marked change in the genetic structure of DENV-2 and more broadly underscore that an understanding of DENV evolutionary dynamics can inform the development of vaccines and anti-viral drugs.

  8. Methyl chloride in the UT/LS observed by CARIBIC: global distribution, Asian summer monsoon outflow, and use as a tracer for tropical air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. K.; Umezawa, T.; Oram, D.; Sauvage, C.; Rauthe-Schoech, A.; Montzka, S. A.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2014-12-01

    We present spatiotemporal variations of methyl chloride (CH3Cl) in the UT/LS observed mainly by the CARIBIC passenger aircraft for the years 2005-2011. The CH3Cl mixing ratio in the UT over Europe was higher than that observed at a European surface baseline station year-round, indicative of a persistent positive vertical gradient at NH mid latitudes. A series of flights over Africa and South Asia show that CH3Cl mixing ratios increase toward tropical latitudes, and the observed UT CH3Cl level over these two regions and the Atlantic was higher than that measured at remote surface sites. Strong emissions of CH3Cl in the tropics combined with meridional transport through the UT may explain such vertical and latitudinal gradients. Comparisons with CO data indicate that non-combustion sources in the tropics dominantly contribute to forming the latitudinal gradient of CH3Cl in the UT. We also observed elevated CH3Cl and CO in air influenced by biomass burning in South America and Africa, and the enhancement ratios derived for CH3Cl to CO in those regions agree with previous observations. In contrast, correlations indicate a high CH3Cl to CO ratio of 2.9±0.5 ppt ppb-1 in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone and domestic biofuel emissions in South Asia are inferred to be responsible. We estimated CH3Cl emissions from South Asia to be 134±23 Gg Cl yr-1, which is higher than a previous estimate due to the higher CH3Cl to CO ratio observed in this study. We also examine the use of CH3Cl as a tracer of tropical tropospheric air in the LMS, where we identified air masses with elevated CH3Cl that were however stratospheric in terms of N2O. Back trajectories suggest recent low-latitude origins of such air masses in early summer. In this season, high CH3Cl LMS air shows a clear branch connecting stratospheric and tropical tropospheric air on N2O-CH3Cl scatterplots. This distinct feature vanishes in late summer when the LMS is ventilated by tropospheric air.

  9. Teaching Modern Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Williamson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching about Southeast Asia to undergraduates at an American liberal arts college presents several challenges. At my institution, it is the only course on the region in the curriculum; thus no preparation, and no follow-up. I have therefore struggled with the approach that I should take–pulled between a wish for students to gain an empirical understanding of Southeast Asian life, and a desire to have them learn the concepts and theories of critical inquiry. Obviously I am still learning how to successfully accomplish such an ambitious undertaking.

  10. 學位論文形構南洋籍婚姻移民論述之分析 A Discourse Analysis of Taiwanese Theses and Dissertations on Southeast Asian Marriage-Based Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    許誌庭 Chih-Ting Hsu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 1990年代勞力短缺及婚配失衡現象日益嚴重,南洋籍勞工及女性婚姻移民入臺遂蔚為風潮。相較於單純付出勞力的行業勞工,婚姻移民與臺灣社會有著更為多樣且重大的聯結,而受到社會廣泛的凝視,藉由蒐羅與南洋籍婚姻移民相關的碩博士論文共702篇,本文運用論述分析法,探討學位論文對南洋籍婚姻移民進行論述建構的過程,研究結論如下: 1.參與論文產製的系所眾多,對南洋籍婚姻移民進行全面問題化的檢視。 2.論文主題未盡然符合學門屬性且重複性高,引發學術從眾行為。 3.對南洋籍婚姻移民形構出「社會論述」、「教育論述」、「醫療論述」及「批判論述」四種類型。 4.過度強調個人層面,政策制度面的研究較為不足。 5.以負面假設為主要檢證方向,然研究結果仍未有定論,而得以提供持續研究的合理性。 In the 1990s, an increasing labor shortage led to a surge in the number of Southeast Asian laborers in Taiwan. At the same time, a low marriage rate, caused by gender imbalances in the population, brought about a rapid increase in the number of female marriage-based immigrants. Compared to laborers, who simply provide labor services, marriage-based immigrants possess more diverse and significant links with Taiwanese society, thereby attracting substantial social scrutiny. In this study, 702 master’s degree theses and doctoral dissertations on topics related to Southeast Asian marriage-based immigrants in Taiwan were examined. Discourse analysis was conducted to explore the process of discourse development in master’s and doctoral studies related to Southeast Asian marriage-based immigrants. The research results were as follows: 1.Relevant theses and dissertations have been developed in numerous departments and graduate institutes, indicating an emphasis on and full-scale problematization of marriage

  11. François Gipouloux, The Asian Mediterranean: Port Cities and Trading Networks in China, Japan and Southeast Asia, 13th-21st Century,

    OpenAIRE

    Schottenhammer, Angela

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, François Gipouloux published his La Méditerranée asiatique. Villes portuaires et réseaux marchands en Chine, au Japon et en Asie du Sud-Est, xvie-xxie siècle (Paris, CNRS Éditions), providing scholars for the first time with a general Braudelian synthesis that compared the European and the Asian “Mediterraneans.” He distinguished three different Mediterranean spaces: the European Méditerranées of the repubbliche marinare, the Hanseatic League in the Baltic Seas, and the Asian Mediter...

  12. Southeast Asia: Of Tigers and Turmoil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kline, Jeff; Morris, James; Syrett, Ann; Szeles, Erno

    1997-01-01

    .... Economic growth has been phenomenal for most Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, while Cambodia and Vietnam are struggling to provide a basic economic foundation to feed their people...

  13. The Aenictus ceylonicus species group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Aenictinae from Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weeyawat Jaitrong Jaitrong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aenictus is a diverse group of army ants in the Old World tropics and subtropics. The Southeast Asian species of the Aenictus ceylonicus group are revised to include twenty-three species (4 named and 19 new species: Aenictus appressipilosus sp. n., A. baliensis sp. n., A. brevipodus sp. n., A. concavus sp. n., A. cylindripetiolus sp. n., A. eguchii sp. n., A. formosensis Forel, 1913 stat. n., A. fuchuanensis Zhou, 2001, A. gonioccipus sp. n., A. itoi sp. n., A. jawadwipa sp. n., A. khaoyaiensis sp. n., A. lifuiae Terayama, 1984, A. longicephalus sp. n., A. maneerati sp. n., A. minipetiolus sp. n., A. pilosus sp. n., A. pinkaewi sp. n., A. sundalandensis sp. n., A. thailandianus Terayama & Kubota, 1993, A. watanasiti sp. n., A. wilaiae sp. n., and A. wiwatwitayai sp. n. Aenictus ceylonicus var. formosensis Forel is removed from synonymy with A. ceylonicus and raised to full species. Lectotype and paralectotypes are designated for A. ceylonicus. Redescriptions of Aenictus ceylonicus (Mayr, 1866 (India and Sri Lanka and A. doryloides Wilson, 1964 (India are provided. The queen of A. cylindripetiolus is described. A key to the Southeast Asian species of the group is given based on the worker caste. Most of the Southeast Asian species of this species group have more or less limited distribution ranges. This may be due to the poor dispersal ability generally seen among the Aenictus species, in which the propagule (reproductive unit is an apterous queen plus accompanying workers.

  14. Data from: Testing models of speciation from genome sequences: divergence and asymmetric admixture in Island Southeast Asian Sus species during the Plio-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantz, L.A.F.; Madsen, O.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Groenen, M.; Lohse, H.

    2014-01-01

    In many temperate regions, ice ages promoted range contractions into refugia resulting in divergence (and potentially speciation), while warmer periods led to range expansions and hybridization. However, the impact these climatic oscillations had in many parts of the tropics remains elusive. Here,

  15. Doctor-Patient Communication in Southeast Asia: A Different Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Nugraheni, Mubarika D. F.; van Dalen, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Studies of doctor-patient communication generally advocate a partnership communication style. However, in Southeast Asian settings, we often see a more one-way style with little input from the patient. We investigated factors underlying the use of a one-way consultation style by doctors in a Southeast Asian setting. We conducted a qualitative…

  16. Corporate governance and corruption : A comparative study of Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijayati, Nureni; Hermes, Niels; Holzhacker, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The weak corporate governance framework in Indonesia, as in other countries in Southeast Asia, was deemed a crucial factor in deepening the financial and economic crisis in the late 1990s. Over a decade after the 1997 Asian financial crisis, Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries have made

  17. Higher Education in South-East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    South-East Asia is a region of vast development diversity but also many commonalities. And the development of higher education in the region, stemmed from its different historical background is changing rapidly towards their respective socio-economic needs. The publication is a joint research study by UNESCO Bangkok and Southeast Asian Ministers…

  18. Stable carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, isotope analysis of plants from a South Asian tropical forest: Implications for primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Patrick; Blumenthal, Scott A; Dittus, Wolfgang; Wedage, Oshan; Lee-Thorp, Julia A

    2017-06-01

    Stable isotope analysis of primate tissues in tropical forest contexts is an increasingly popular means of obtaining information about niche distinctions among sympatric species, including preferences in feeding height, forest canopy density, plant parts, and trophism. However, issues of equifinality mean that feeding height, canopy density, as well as the plant parts and plant species consumed, may produce similar or confounding effects. With a few exceptions, researchers have so far relied largely on general principles and/or limited plant data from the study area as references for deducing the predominant drivers of primate isotope variation. Here, we explore variation in the stable carbon (δ 13 C), nitrogen (δ 15 N), and oxygen (δ 18 O) isotope ratios of 288 plant samples identified as important to the three primate species from the Polonnaruwa Nature Sanctuary, Sri Lanka, relative to plant part, season, and canopy height. Our results show that plant part and height have the greatest effect on the δ 13 C and δ 18 O measurements of plants of immediate relevance to the primates, Macaca sinica, Semnopithecus priam thersites, and Trachypithecus vetulus, living in this monsoonal tropical forest. We find no influence of plant part, height or season on the δ 15 N of measured plants. While the plant part effect is particularly pronounced in δ 13 C between fruits and leaves, differential feeding height, and plant taxonomy influence plant δ 13 C and δ 18 O differences in addition to plant organ. Given that species composition in different regions and forest types will differ, the results urge caution in extrapolating general isotopic trends without substantial local baselines studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Decoding the drivers of bank erosion on the Mekong river: The roles of the Asian monsoon, tropical storms, and snowmelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Stephen E; Leyland, Julian; Kummu, Matti; Räsänen, Timo A; Lauri, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate links between climate and simulated river bank erosion for one of the world's largest rivers, the Mekong. We employ a process-based model to reconstruct multidecadal time series of bank erosion at study sites within the Mekong's two main hydrological response zones, defining a new parameter, accumulated excess runoff (AER), pertinent to bank erosion. We employ a hydrological model to isolate how snowmelt, tropical storms and monsoon precipitation each contribute to AER and thus modeled bank erosion. Our results show that melt (23.9% at the upstream study site, declining to 11.1% downstream) and tropical cyclones (17.5% and 26.4% at the upstream and downstream sites, respectively) both force significant fractions of bank erosion on the Mekong. We also show (i) small, but significant, declines in AER and hence assumed bank erosion during the 20th century, and; (ii) that significant correlations exist between AER and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Of these modes of climate variability, we find that IOD events exert a greater control on simulated bank erosion than ENSO events; but the influences of both ENSO and IOD when averaged over several decades are found to be relatively weak. However, importantly, relationships between ENSO, IOD, and AER and hence inferred river bank erosion are not time invariant. Specifically, we show that there is an intense and prolonged epoch of strong coherence between ENSO and AER from the early 1980s to present, such that in recent decades derived Mekong River bank erosion has been more strongly affected by ENSO. PMID:23926362

  20. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Frugivory and seed dispersal by the Asian Elephant Elephas maximus in the tropical forests of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal plays a potential role in plant species demographic processes. Elephants are important seed-dispersing agents. We studied frugivory and seed dispersal by Asian Elephants in the tropical deciduous and thorn forests of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India. We determined fruit consumption based on the presence of seeds and fruit remnants in elephant dung piles. In total, we identified seeds of eight plant species belonging to seven families in 16% out of 455 dung piles examined between 1991 and 2004. Coinciding with a peak fruiting season in the study area, seeds and other fruit parts appeared in the dung piles significantly more frequently during the dry season than in the wet seasons (southwest and northeast monsoons. Owing to differences in fruit species abundance in different habitats, there was more evidence of fruit consumption in the dry thorn than in the dry and moist deciduous forests. This corresponds with insufficient grass availability in thorn forests during the dry season and an increase in browse consumption as a supplementary diet. Seeds of Tamarindus indica and Acacia intsia were found in elephant dung more frequently than other species. Seed and fruit remnants were found in almost an equal number of dung piles of both bulls and herds.

  1. The impact of different GFR estimating equations on the prevalence of CKD and risk groups in a Southeast Asian cohort using the new KDIGO guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitiyakara Chagriya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO group recommended that patients with CKD should be assigned to stages and composite relative risk groups according to GFR (G and proteinuria (A criteria. Asians have among the highest rates of ESRD in the world, but establishing the prevalence and prognosis CKD is a problem for Asian populations since there is no consensus on the best GFR estimating (eGFR equation. We studied the effects of the choice of new Asian and Caucasian eGFR equations on CKD prevalence, stage distribution, and risk categorization using the new KDIGO classification. Methods The prevalence of CKD and composite relative risk groups defined by eGFR from with Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI; standard (S or Chinese(C MDRD; Japanese CKD-EPI (J-EPI, Thai GFR (T-GFR equations were compared in a Thai cohort (n = 5526 Results There was a 7 fold difference in CKD3-5 prevalence between J-EPI and the other Asian eGFR formulae. CKD3-5 prevalence with S-MDRD and CKD-EPI were 2 - 3 folds higher than T-GFR or C-MDRD. The concordance with CKD-EPI to diagnose CKD3-5 was over 90% for T-GFR or C-MDRD, but they only assigned the same CKD stage in 50% of the time. The choice of equation also caused large variations in each composite risk groups especially those with mildly increased risks. Different equations can lead to a reversal of male: female ratios. The variability of different equations is most apparent in older subjects. Stage G3aA1 increased with age and accounted for a large proportion of the differences in CKD3-5 between CKD-EPI, S-MDRD and C-MDRD. Conclusions CKD prevalence, sex ratios, and KDIGO composite risk groupings varied widely depending on the equation used. More studies are needed to define the best equation for Asian populations.

  2. Applying Advanced Ground-Based Remote Sensing in the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent to Characterize Regional Proficiencies in Smoke Transport Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James R.; Ge, Cui; Wang, Jun; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Bucholtz, Anthony; Hyer, Edward J.; Reid, Elizabeth A.; Chew, Boon Ning; Liew, Soo-Chin; Salinas, Santo V.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This work describes some of the most extensive ground-based observations of the aerosol profile collected in Southeast Asia to date, highlighting the challenges in simulating these observations with a mesoscale perspective. An 84-h WRF Model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) mesoscale simulation of smoke particle transport at Kuching, Malaysia, in the southern Maritime Continent of Southeast Asia is evaluated relative to a unique collection of continuous ground-based lidar, sun photometer, and 4-h radiosonde profiling. The period was marked by relatively dry conditions, allowing smoke layers transported to the site unperturbed by wet deposition to be common regionally. The model depiction is reasonable overall. Core thermodynamics, including landsea-breeze structure, are well resolved. Total model smoke extinction and, by proxy, mass concentration are low relative to observation. Smoke emissions source products are likely low because of undersampling of fires in infrared sun-synchronous satellite products, which is exacerbated regionally by endemic low-level cloud cover. Differences are identified between the model mass profile and the lidar profile, particularly during periods of afternoon convective mixing. A static smoke mass injection height parameterized for this study potentially influences this result. The model does not resolve the convective mixing of aerosol particles into the lower free troposphere or the enhancement of near-surface extinction from nighttime cooling and hygroscopic effects.

  3. Globalization and its discontents in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klinken, G.; Owen, N.G.

    2013-01-01

    Something was missing from the Asian Studies conference I attended in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 2009: a panel on globalization. Instead, there was one on the impact of climate change in Southeast Asia, and one on the coming "East Asian community." For the rest, as they had done for years, nations in

  4. Regionalising Higher Education for Repositioning Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Que Anh

    2017-01-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has led the way in constructing the East Asian region with China, Japan, and South Korea, and an inter-regional entity with the European Union (EU)--known as the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM). The initial aims were security and trade. Recently, however, higher education has been brought into these…

  5. Popular Music in Southeast Asia : Banal Beats, Muted Histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, Bart; Keppy, Peter; Schulte Nordholt, Henk

    2017-01-01

    'Popular Music in Southeast Asia: Banal Beats, Muted Histories' offers a cultural history of modern Southeast Asia from the original vantage point of popular music since the 1920s up to the present. By creatively connecting indigenous musical styles with foreign musical genres, Southeast Asians

  6. The social formation and cultural identity of Southeast Asian frontier society: Focused on the concept of maritime Zomia as frontier in connection with the ocean and the inland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Seok-Joon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the applicability of the Zomia concept for social scientific studies of the Malaysian region, with a focus on the Malaysian port cities, including Melaka. While for both empirical and socio-cultural reasons the term Zomia itself may not be entirely appropriate to the Malaysian Melaka region, the analytical implications that are based on James C. Scott’s usage of it, particularly the emphasis on the cultural dynamics of inter-ethnic, inter-national, and inter-religious relations of port areas, can be of great utility to those working in the Malaysian region. Zomia is a neologism gaining popularity with the publication of James C. Scott’s provocative book, The art of not being governed: an anarchist history of upland Southeast Asia. The term of Zomia is designed to indicate the people who has not been governed by the nation-state and national regime.

  7. The New Political Economy of Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    would be adopted widely for courses in Asian studies and political economy.’ – Hal Hill, The Australian National University ‘The different parts of the Southeast Asian puzzle fit better together as a consequence of reading this valuable book, which brings history back in to show how regions learn from...... each other and establish an identity.’ – Alice Amsden, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, US This well-researched book examines the dramatic transformation of Southeast Asian countries from agricultural and mining economies to industrial nations. In doing so, it explores the effects of development...

  8. Fiscal 1997 report on a feasibility survey of cooperation in relation to the joint implementation activities in Southeast Asian countries (6 nations); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Tonan Asia chiikikoku (rokkakoku) ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren no kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the COP3 Conference on Global Warming held in Kyoto in December 1997, the framework on greenhouse gases was agreed in discussions comprehensively made among Japan, the U.S. and the E.U. As a result, it is for 6 gases including CO2 and methane, and total emissions in developed countries are to be reduced 5% at least during 2008-2012 from the 1990 level. Target of each country is determined by gaps, and Japan`s reduction target is 6%. Therefore, to pass the numerical target agreed, it is necessary to take measures such as rationalization of the energy use by energy saving, etc. in the country and also measures such as promotion of the greenhouse gas emission control in developing countries. Accordingly, for the future development of NEDO`s AIJ project, a possibility of cooperation in the joint implementation was surveyed such as the state of greenhouse gas emissions of countries which are objects of GAP in Southeast Asian countries and neighboring countries, policies of the countries after the COP3 agreement, technological transfer for the emission control, etc. Countries for survey are Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam and Myanmar. 21 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Hemodialysis versus Peritoneal Dialysis: A Comparison of Survival Outcomes in South-East Asian Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Khin, Lay-Wai; Lau, Titus; Chua, Horng-Ruey; Vathsala, A; Lee, Evan; Luo, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Studies comparing patient survival of hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) have yielded conflicting results and no such study was from South-East Asia. This study aimed to compare the survival outcomes of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who started dialysis with HD and PD in Singapore. Survival data for a maximum of 5 years from a single-center cohort of 871 ESRD patients starting dialysis with HD (n = 641) or PD (n = 230) from 2005-2010 was analyzed using the flexible Royston-Parmar (RP) model. The model was also applied to a subsample of 225 propensity-score-matched patient pairs and subgroups defined by age, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. After adjusting for the effect of socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, the risk of death was higher in patients initiating dialysis with PD than those initiating dialysis with HD (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-2.59; pdialysis with HD experienced better survival outcomes than those who initiated dialysis with PD in Singapore, although survival outcomes may not differ between the two dialysis modalities in young and healthier patients. These findings are potentially confounded by selection bias, as patients were not randomized to the two dialysis modalities in this cohort study.

  10. Political Terrorism in Southeast Asia and US Policy Issues: Case Studies of Thailand and Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, George

    1998-01-01

    ... and regional Southeast Asian relations. The main purpose of this thesis is to examine political terrorism in Southeast Asia, with particular attention paid to terrorism conducted by separatist groups in Thailand and Indonesia...

  11. Hemodialysis versus Peritoneal Dialysis: A Comparison of Survival Outcomes in South-East Asian Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    Full Text Available Studies comparing patient survival of hemodialysis (HD and peritoneal dialysis (PD have yielded conflicting results and no such study was from South-East Asia. This study aimed to compare the survival outcomes of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD who started dialysis with HD and PD in Singapore.Survival data for a maximum of 5 years from a single-center cohort of 871 ESRD patients starting dialysis with HD (n = 641 or PD (n = 230 from 2005-2010 was analyzed using the flexible Royston-Parmar (RP model. The model was also applied to a subsample of 225 propensity-score-matched patient pairs and subgroups defined by age, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease.After adjusting for the effect of socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, the risk of death was higher in patients initiating dialysis with PD than those initiating dialysis with HD (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-2.59; p<0.001, although there was no significant difference in mortality between the two modalities in the first 12 months of treatment. Consistently, in the matched subsample, patients starting PD had a higher risk of death than those starting HD (HR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.30-2.28, p<0.001. Subgroup analysis showed that PD may be similar to or better than HD in survival outcomes among young patients (≤65 years old without diabetes or cardiovascular disease.ESRD patients who initiated dialysis with HD experienced better survival outcomes than those who initiated dialysis with PD in Singapore, although survival outcomes may not differ between the two dialysis modalities in young and healthier patients. These findings are potentially confounded by selection bias, as patients were not randomized to the two dialysis modalities in this cohort study.

  12. Indoor human exposure to size-fractionated aerosols during the 2015 Southeast Asian smoke haze and assessment of exposure mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ruchi; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2017-11-01

    The 2015 smoke haze episode was one of the most severe and prolonged transboundary air pollution events ever seen in Southeast Asia (SEA), affecting the air quality of several countries within the region including Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. The 24 h mean outdoor PM2.5 (particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) concentrations ranged from 72–157 μg m‑3 in Singapore during this episode, exceeding the WHO 24 h mean PM2.5 guidelines (25 μg m‑3) several times over. The smoke haze episode not only affected ambient air quality, but also indoor air quality due to the migration of PM of different sizes from the outdoor to the indoor environment. Despite the frequent occurrence of smoke haze episodes over the years, their potential health impacts on indoor building occupants remain largely unknown in SEA due to the lack of systematic investigations and observational data. The current work was carried out in Singapore to assess human exposure to size-resolved PM during the 2015 smoke haze episode, and to evaluate the effectiveness of exposure mitigation measures in smoke-haze-impacted naturally ventilated indoor environments. The potential health risks associated with exposure to PM2.5 were assessed based on the concentrations of redox active particulate-bound trace elements, which are known to be harmful to human health, with and without exposure mitigation. Overall, it was observed that human health exposure to PM2.5 and its carcinogenic chemical components was reduced substantially by 62% (p < 0.05) while using an air cleaner. However, extremely small hazardous particles were only partially removed by the air cleaner and remain a matter of concern for public health.

  13. Towards TCCON Tropics: Assessment and Measurements of Carbon and its Climate Impacts in Southeast Asia (T3AM C2lImA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, I.; Velazco, V. A.; Schwandner, F. M.; Macatangay, R. C.; Griffith, D. W. T.

    2015-12-01

    TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) measurements of CO2 and CH4 have been and are currently used extensively and globally for satellite validation, for comparison with atmospheric chemistry models and to study atmosphere-biosphere exchanges of carbon. With the global effort to cap greenhouse gas emissions, TCCON has become vital for validating satellite-based greenhouse gas data from past, current and future missions like Japanese GOSAT (Greenhouse Gas Observing SATellite) and GOSAT-2, NASA's OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2) and OCO-3, ESA's Carbon Monitoring Satellite (CarbonSat), Chinese TanSat, and others. The lack of reliable validation data for the satellite-based greenhouse gas observing missions in the tropical regions is a common limitation in global carbon-cycle modeling studies that have a tropical component. The international CO2 modeling community have specified a requirement for "expansion of the CO2 observation network within the tropics" to reduce uncertainties in regional estimates of CO2 sources and sinks using atmospheric transport models. A TCCON site in the western tropical Pacific is a logical next step in obtaining additional knowledge that would greatly contribute to the understanding of the Earth's atmosphere and better constraining a major tropical region experiencing tremendous economic and population growth. Here, we present a complete site assessment for a possible TCCON site in the Philippines and our decision on the site where a new TCCON FTS will be installed. This site assessment was conducted in cooperation with the Energy Development Corporation (EDC, Philippines), National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES, Japan), University of Wollongong (UoW, Australia), NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the University of the Philippines (UP-IESM), the TCCON science team, and the GOSAT-2 science team.

  14. Marchés gaziers du Sud-Est asiatique : évolutions et enseignements New Trends and Lessons from Southeast Asian Natural Gas Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delafosse E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le contexte et les évolutions observés dans le Sud-Est asiatique constituent des objets d'analyse privilégiés pour l'identification des facteurs de développement des marchés du gaz naturel à l'échelle de la planète. Après avoir explicité la croissance des consommations nationales dans la région, tant dans les pays industrialisés que dans les Pays en Voie de Développement (PVD, nous verrons ce qui en découle du point de vue de la dynamique régionale des échanges de gaz naturel. Cette analyse nous conduira à détailler l'intérêt et les conditions d'un recours accru au gaz naturel dans les PVD. Au terme de cette démarche, l'obstacle fondamental aux développements gaziers dans ce groupe de pays sera mis en évidence. Within the current world context of the growth of reserves and consumption of natural gas, the Southeast Asia area is due for special analysis for several reasons. In particular, an effort must be made to understand the mutations taking place and the stakes in the growing interest producers and consumers are showing in this energy source. The economic performances of combined-cycle power plants make natural gas a competitive energy source for use in generating electricity. Many countries in the area have to cope with a very fast increase in the demand for electricity and have been led to introduce this type of equipment in their plans to expand their electric power plants. This policy enables them to make use of an energy source to which access is initially constrained by necessity, because of the presence of economies of scale, to consume large volumes. Consumption by the electric sector effectively markes it possible for all these countries to consume this energy in industrial and residential-tertiary sectors where its specific qualities are readily apparent. The introduction of natural gas is also a way of diversifying energy supplies. For the industrialized countries (Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong

  15. Clouded leopards, the secretive top-carnivore of South-East Asian rainforests: their distribution, status and conservation needs in Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilting, Andreas; Fischer, Frauke; Abu Bakar, Soffian; Linsenmair, K Eduard

    2006-01-01

    Background The continued depletion of tropical rainforests and fragmentation of natural habitats has led to significant ecological changes which place most top carnivores under heavy pressure. Various methods have been used to determine the status of top carnivore populations in rainforest habitats, most of which are costly in terms of equipment and time. In this study we utilized, for the first time, a rigorous track classification method to estimate population size and density of clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa) in Tabin Wildlife Reserve in north-eastern Borneo (Sabah). Additionally, we extrapolated our local-scale results to the regional landscape level to estimate clouded leopard population size and density in all of Sabah's reserves, taking into account the reserves' conservation status (totally protected or commercial forest reserves), their size and presence or absence of clouded leopards. Results The population size in the 56 km2 research area was estimated to be five individuals, based on a capture-recapture analysis of four confirmed animals differentiated by their tracks. Extrapolation of these results led to density estimates of nine per 100 km2 in Tabin Wildlife Reserve. The true density most likely lies between our approximately 95 % confidence interval of eight to 17 individuals per 100 km2. Conclusion We demonstrate that previous density estimates of 25 animals/100 km2 most likely overestimated the true density. Applying the 95% confidence interval we calculated in total a very rough number of 1500–3200 clouded leopards to be present in Sabah. However, only 275–585 of these animals inhabit the four totally protected reserves that are large enough to hold a long-term viable population of > 50 individuals. PMID:17092347

  16. Chromosomal-Level Assembly of the Asian Seabass Genome Using Long Sequence Reads and Multi-layered Scaffolding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Vij

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report here the ~670 Mb genome assembly of the Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer, a tropical marine teleost. We used long-read sequencing augmented by transcriptomics, optical and genetic mapping along with shared synteny from closely related fish species to derive a chromosome-level assembly with a contig N50 size over 1 Mb and scaffold N50 size over 25 Mb that span ~90% of the genome. The population structure of L. calcarifer species complex was analyzed by re-sequencing 61 individuals representing various regions across the species' native range. SNP analyses identified high levels of genetic diversity and confirmed earlier indications of a population stratification comprising three clades with signs of admixture apparent in the South-East Asian population. The quality of the Asian seabass genome assembly far exceeds that of any other fish species, and will serve as a new standard for fish genomics.

  17. Reactive nitrogen deposition to South East Asian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Marco, Chiara F.; Phillips, Gavin J.; Thomas, Rick; Tang, Sim; Nemitz, Eiko; Sutton, Mark A.; Fowler, David; Lim, Sei F.

    2010-05-01

    The supply of reactive nitrogen (N) to global terrestrial ecosystems has doubled since the 1960s as a consequence of human activities, such as fertilizer application and production of nitrogen oxides by fossil-fuel burning. The deposition of atmospheric N species constitutes a major nutrient input to the biosphere. Tropical forests have been undergoing a radical land use change by increasing cultivation of sugar cane and oil palms and the remaining forests are increasingly affected by anthropogenic activities. Yet, quantifications of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to tropical forests, and nitrogen cycling under near-pristine and polluted conditions are rare. The OP3 project ("Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a Southeast Asian Tropical Rainforest") was conceived to study how emissions of reactive trace gases from a tropical rain forest mediate the regional scale production and processing of oxidants and particles, and to better understand the impact of these processes on local, regional and global scale atmospheric composition, chemistry and climate. As part of this study we have measured reactive, nitrogen containing trace gas (ammonia, nitric acid) and the associated aerosol components (ammonium, nitrate) at monthly time resolution using a simple filter / denuder for 16 months. These measurements were made at the Bukit Atur Global Atmospheric Watch tower near Danum Valley in the Malaysian state of Sabah, Borneo. In addition, the same compounds were measured at hourly time-resolution during an intensive measurement period, with a combination of a wet-chemistry system based on denuders and steam jet aerosol collectors and an aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), providing additional information on the temporal controls. During this period, concentrations and fluxes of NO, NO2 and N2O were also measured. The measurements are used for inferential dry deposition modelling and combined with wet deposition data from the South East Asian Acid

  18. Leisure Time Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle Correlates among Students Aged 13–15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN Member States, 2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13–15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS between 2007 and 2013. The measure asked about overall physical activity, walking or biking to school, and on time spent sitting. Overall, the prevalence of physical inactivity was 80.4%, ranging from 74.8% in Myanmar to 90.7% in Cambodia and sedentary behaviour 33.0%, ranging from 10.5% in Cambodia and Myanmar to 42.7% in Malaysia. In multivariate logistic regression, not walking or biking to school, not attending physical education classes, inadequate vegetable consumption and lack of protective factors (peer and parental or guardian support were associated with physical inactivity, and older age (14 and 15 years old, coming from an upper middle income country, being overweight or obese, attending physical education classes, alcohol use, loneliness, peer support and lack of parental or guardian supervision were associated with sedentary behaviour. In boys, lower socioeconomic status (in the form of having experienced hunger and coming from a low income or lower middle income country were additionally associated with physical inactivity, and in girls, higher socioeconomic status, not walking or biking to school and being bullied were additionally associated with sedentary behaviour. In conclusion, a very high prevalence of leisure physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among school going adolescents in ASEAN was found and several factors identified that may inform physical activity promotion programmes in school-going adolescents in ASEAN.

  19. MRI Fusion-Targeted Transrectal Prostate Biopsy and the Role of Prostate-Specific Antigen Density and Prostate Health Index for the Detection of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer in Southeast Asian Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Teck Wei; Png, Keng Siang; Lee, Chau Hung; Yuwono, Arianto; Yeow, Yuyi; Chong, Kian Tai; Lee, Yee Mun; Tan, Cher Heng; Tan, Yung Khan

    2017-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that targeted biopsy has a higher detection rate for clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) than systematic biopsy. We defined csPCa as any Gleason sum ≥7 cancer. In patients with Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) 3 lesions, to determine if factors, such as prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) and prostate health index (PHI), can predict csPCa and help select patients for biopsy. We report the first series of targeted biopsies in Southeast Asian men, with comparison against systematic biopsy. Consecutive patients were registered into a prospective institutional review board-approved database in our institution. We reviewed patients who underwent biopsy from May 2016 to June 2017. Inclusion criteria for our study were patients with at least one PI-RADS ≥3, and who underwent both targeted and systematic biopsies in the same sitting. There were 115 patients in the study, of whom 74 (64.3%) had a previous negative systematic biopsy. Targeted biopsies detected significantly less Gleason 6 cancers than systematic biopsies (p < 0.01), and demonstrated significantly higher sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value (NPV) for the detection of csPCa. For patients with PI-RADS 3 lesions, PHI and PSAD were found to be the best predictors for csPCa. PSAD <0.10 ng/mL/mL had an NPV of 93% and sensitivity of 92%, while allowing 20% of patients to avoid biopsy. PHI cutoff of <27 would allow 34% of patients to avoid biopsy, with both sensitivity and NPV of 100%. Targeted prostate biopsies were found to be significantly superior to systematic biopsies for the detection of csPCa, while detecting less Gleason 6 cancer. Usage of PSAD and PHI cutoff levels in patients with PI-RADS 3 lesions may enable a number of patients to avoid unnecessary biopsy.

  20. Leisure Time Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle Correlates among Students Aged 13–15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States, 2007–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13–15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The measure asked about overall physical activity, walking or biking to school, and on time spent sitting. Overall, the prevalence of physical inactivity was 80.4%, ranging from 74.8% in Myanmar to 90.7% in Cambodia and sedentary behaviour 33.0%, ranging from 10.5% in Cambodia and Myanmar to 42.7% in Malaysia. In multivariate logistic regression, not walking or biking to school, not attending physical education classes, inadequate vegetable consumption and lack of protective factors (peer and parental or guardian support) were associated with physical inactivity, and older age (14 and 15 years old), coming from an upper middle income country, being overweight or obese, attending physical education classes, alcohol use, loneliness, peer support and lack of parental or guardian supervision were associated with sedentary behaviour. In boys, lower socioeconomic status (in the form of having experienced hunger) and coming from a low income or lower middle income country were additionally associated with physical inactivity, and in girls, higher socioeconomic status, not walking or biking to school and being bullied were additionally associated with sedentary behaviour. In conclusion, a very high prevalence of leisure physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among school going adolescents in ASEAN was found and several factors identified that may inform physical activity promotion programmes in school-going adolescents in ASEAN. PMID:26891312

  1. Leisure Time Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle Correlates among Students Aged 13-15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13-15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The measure asked about overall physical activity, walking or biking to school, and on time spent sitting. Overall, the prevalence of physical inactivity was 80.4%, ranging from 74.8% in Myanmar to 90.7% in Cambodia and sedentary behaviour 33.0%, ranging from 10.5% in Cambodia and Myanmar to 42.7% in Malaysia. In multivariate logistic regression, not walking or biking to school, not attending physical education classes, inadequate vegetable consumption and lack of protective factors (peer and parental or guardian support) were associated with physical inactivity, and older age (14 and 15 years old), coming from an upper middle income country, being overweight or obese, attending physical education classes, alcohol use, loneliness, peer support and lack of parental or guardian supervision were associated with sedentary behaviour. In boys, lower socioeconomic status (in the form of having experienced hunger) and coming from a low income or lower middle income country were additionally associated with physical inactivity, and in girls, higher socioeconomic status, not walking or biking to school and being bullied were additionally associated with sedentary behaviour. In conclusion, a very high prevalence of leisure physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among school going adolescents in ASEAN was found and several factors identified that may inform physical activity promotion programmes in school-going adolescents in ASEAN.

  2. JPRS Report, East Asia Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-08

    JPRS-SEA-91-012 8 MAY 1991 ANNIVERSARY 1941 - 1991 JPRS Report— East Asia Southeast Asia DXIC QUALITY IKSPEÜIW 19980515 124...NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 East Asia Southeast Asia JPRS-SEA-91-012 CONTENTS 8 May 1991 INTER-ASIAN Khun Sa To...5 INDONESIA POLITICAL Rudini Discusses Political Deregulation Issue [SUARA PEMBARUAN16 Mar] 7 Editorial Decries Corruption Problem [SUARA

  3. Connecting tropical climate change with Southern Ocean heat uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yen-Ting; Xie, Shang-Ping; Deser, Clara; Kang, Sarah M.

    2017-09-01

    Under increasing greenhouse gas forcing, climate models project tropical warming that is greater in the Northern than the Southern Hemisphere, accompanied by a reduction in the northeast trade winds and a strengthening of the southeast trades. While the ocean-atmosphere coupling indicates a positive feedback, what triggers the coupled asymmetry and favors greater warming in the northern tropics remains unclear. Far away from the tropics, the Southern Ocean (SO) has been identified as the major region of ocean heat uptake. Beyond its local effect on the magnitude of sea surface warming, we show by idealized modeling experiments in a coupled slab ocean configuration that enhanced SO heat uptake has a profound global impact. This SO-to-tropics connection is consistent with southward atmospheric energy transport across the equator. Enhanced SO heat uptake results in a zonally asymmetric La-Nina-like pattern of sea surface temperature change that not only affects tropical precipitation but also has influences on the Asian and North American monsoons.

  4. Phytoplankton functional groups for ecological assessment in young sub-tropical reservoirs: case study of the Nam-Theun 2 Reservoir, Laos, South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Martinet

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The early stages following the creation of reservoirs are typically physical and biological unstable periods due to the conversion from a lotic to a lentic ecosystem. The sub-tropical Nam Theun 2 Reservoir (Laos was impounded in 2008. Several limnological parameters were monitored from March 2009 to December 2011 in order to understand the evolution of the phytoplankton community. A strong inter annual variability of hydrodynamic pattern was observed. Rainfall and hydraulic balance were the main physical factors driving the community structure. Periods of highest hydraulic stability led to a phytoplankton biomasses increase. The first assemblages were dominated by the S-C-strategists reaching high biomasses but low diversity. Over the three years, phytoplankton became more diverse due to a diversification of ecological niches, mostly explained by a greater water transparency and a more stable thermal stratification. The applicability of functional groups for biomonitoring in this young sub-tropical reservoir was investigated and compared to a classical taxonomical approach. The dominant functional groups (Lo, A, E, F, N and P characterized the NT2 Reservoir as meso-oligotrophic with a tolerance to low nutrients supply. Our results support the hypothesis that a functional group approach is more informative than a species-based approach to assess trophic level and dissolved organic carbon concentrations in such reservoirs.

  5. Analysis of the 1998 Southeast Monsoon and the Diurnal Rainfall Cycle in the South China Sea (SCS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLeod, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    The onset and maintenance of the Southeast Asian monsoon (SEAM) has far-reaching implications for global circulation as well as and the local welfare of a substantial portion of the world's population residing in Southeast Asia...

  6. Is a U.S. Military Presence in Southeast Asia Necessary in the Twenty-First Century?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siow, Terry

    2000-01-01

    For many years, the U.S. military presence in Southeast Asia (SEA) has served as an important stabilizing factor in region and has allow countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN...

  7. Optical properties of a tropical estuary during wet and dry conditions in the Nha Phu estuary, Khanh Hoa Province, south-east Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten; Hai, Doan Nhu; Lam, Nguyen Ngoc

    2010-01-01

    into the estuary. This complied with a residence time of four and a half days derived from a basic physical relation. Optical properties were in general comparable to temperate estuaries in dry conditions although Chl a concentrations were lower in Nha Phu. A second distinctive point, as compared to temperate...... properties in a tropical wet and dry estuary are compared and discussed in relation to those of temperate estuaries. Sampling in the Nha Phu estuary, Vietnam, consisted of five stations on a transect from head to mouth that was sampled four times during dry conditions and three times during wet conditions...... with high values at the head and lower in the central part of the estuary. The depth of the photic zone was reduced by up to 50% during wet conditions. A residence time in the estuary of 5–6 days was derived from the rate of change of K d(PAR) after a period of heavy rain and discharge of freshwater...

  8. Decision support system for peatland management in the humid tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzema, H.P.; Grobbe, T.; Chong, T.; Wösten, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Large areas of globally important tropical peatland in Southeast Asia are threatened by land clearance, degradation and fire, jeopardising their natural functions as reservoirs of biodiversity, carbon stores and hydrological buffers. Many development projects on tropical peatlands have failed

  9. Uncle Frank's Fakebook of Fairy Tales for Asian American Moms and Dads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Frank; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes and introduces folklore and fairy tales of Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, Hmong, and Southeast Asian cultures as compared to Western fairy tales and Western corruptions of Asian tales. Reviews several titles currently available and introduces the scholarly literature on Asian folk tales designed for Asian American parents. (JB)

  10. Implications of Biodiesel-Induced Land-Use Changes for CO2 Emissions: Case Studies in Tropical America, Africa, and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter M. J. Achten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are receiving growing negative attention. Direct and/or indirect land-use changes that result from their cultivation can cause emissions due to carbon losses in soils and biomass and could negate any eventual greenhouse gas (GHG reduction benefit. This paper evaluates the implications of land-use change emission on the climate-change mitigation potential of different biofuel production systems in 12 case studies in six countries. We calculated carbon debts created by conversion of different land-use types, ranging from annual cropland to primary forest. We evaluated case studies using three different biofuel crops: oil palm, Jatropha, and soybean. The time needed for each biofuel production system to pay back its carbon debt was calculated based on a life-cycle assessment of the GHG reduction potentials of the system. Carbon debts range from 39 to 1743.7 Mg C02 ha-1. The oil palm case studies created the largest carbon debts (472.8-1743.7 t C02 ha-1 because most of the area expansion came at the expense of dense tropical forest. The highest debt was associated with plantation on peatland. For all cases evaluated, only soybean in Guarantã do Norte and Alta Floresta, Brazil needed less than one human generation (30 years to repay the initial carbon debt. Highest repayment times were found for Jatropha (76-310 years and oil palm (59-220 years case studies. Oil palm established in peatlands had the greatest repayment times (206-220 years. High repayment times for Jatropha resulted from the combined effects of land-cover change and low CO2 emission reduction rate. These outcomes raise serious questions about the sustainability of biofuel production. The carbon implications of conversion of (semi-natural systems with medium to high biomass indicate that, in order to generate climate benefits, cultivation of biofuel feedstocks should be restricted to areas that already have low carbon content.

  11. South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, I

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration and HIV infections in the Mekong Region countries of Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam. The HIV/AIDS situation is profiled in each country. The populations at risk include legal and undocumented cross-border migrants, internal migrants, sex workers, and mobile occupational persons, such as truck drivers, fishermen, seafarers, and cross-border traders. Currently, there is little regional cooperation on the issue of HIV among migrants. Prevalence is high in most of the region. Programs range from being very developed in Thailand to minimal in China. Recently, nongovernmental organizations have created innovative models. AIDSCAP studies have focused on river trade routes along the Thai-Lao border and fishing ports in Thailand and Cambodia. The Asian Research Center for Migration has researched fishermen in 6 countries; Burmese women in Thailand; migrants along the Thai-Myanmar borders; and the impact of transportation routes on the spread of HIV/AIDS along six main inter-country routes. Coordination of Action Research has engaged in research and action projects in 8 southeast Asian countries. The region would benefit from information exchanges about lessons learned and best practices. Field researchers could use better technical support. Regional strategies are useful for providing support from origin to destination.

  12. Asian Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Asian Ginseng Share: On This Page Background How Much ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about Asian ginseng—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources ...

  13. Tropical and Monsoonal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    1978 and Bosart, 1983). These domes often then subside this ridge is absent. The East Asian trough was deep near the Gulf of Mexico coast. When the...statified global tmo- tin p; atuns caried out so far, are probably applicable sphere to tropical thermal forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 2217-2237. ot

  14. The Security Environment in Southeast Asia and Australia, 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    CRM 95-212/March 1996 The Security Environment in Southeast Asia and Australia , 1995-2010 Lyall Breckon 19960408 091 Cleared for Public Release...Asia’s successful mainstream .• 10 Vietnam 20 Other Southeast Asian countries 27 Australia 29 New Zealand 34 Trends in Southeast Asia with...Asia-Pacific Region (APR) between now and 2010. This research memorandum focuses on the most probable trends relating to Southeast Asia and Australia

  15. Two new combinations in Asian Adenia (Passifloraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1967-01-01

    In the course of the revision of the Asian species of the genus Adenia Forsk. (tropical and subtropical Africa, tropical S.E. Asia, Malay Archipelago, N. Australia) it appeared that two valid old epithets have been overlooked which should have priority. Consequently the fairly well established names

  16. Technology helps Asian women balance family and work | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-26

    Oct 26, 2010 ... A website is helping Southeast Asian women earn an income and balance their work and home lives. Called eHomemakers, it is Southeast Asia's only community network that promotes the use of information and communication technologies to telework and run small home businesses.

  17. Real Estate and the Asian Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Quigley, John M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper suggests that activities in the real estate markets in Southeast and East Asian economies were an important contributing force to the financial crises of 1997 in the Asian economies. The analysis relies upon unpublished data reported contemporaneously by financial institutions and market watchers to document the extent of the imbalances in the real property market that were evident to informed observers at the time of the financial collapse. The analysis argues that a series of ref...

  18. Tropical radioecology tropical radioecology

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, M

    2012-01-01

    Tropical Radioecology is a guide to the wide range of scientific practices and principles of this multidisciplinary field. It brings together past and present studies in the tropical and sub-tropical areas of the planet, highlighting the unique aspects of tropical systems. Until recently, radioecological models for tropical environments have depended upon data derived from temperate environments, despite the differences of these regions in terms of biota and abiotic conditions. Since radioactivity can be used to trace environmental processes in humans and other biota, this book offers examples of studies in which radiotracers have been used to assess biokinetics in tropical biota. Features chapters, co-authored by world experts, that explain the origins, inputs, distribution, behaviour, and consequences of radioactivity in tropical and subtropical systems. Provides comprehensive lists of relevant data and identifies current knowledge gaps to allow for targeted radioecological research in the future. Integrate...

  19. Further Molecular Analysis of G6PD Deficiency Variants in Southern Vietnam and a Novel Variant Designated as G6PD Ho Chi Minh (173 A>G; 58 Asp>Gly): Frequency Distributions of Variants Compared with Those in Other Southeast Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Fumihiko; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Pham, Nghiem Minh; Hayashi, Taeko; Kasahara, Yuichi; Dung, Nguyen The; Kido, Yasutoshi; Kanbe, Toshio; Tantular, Indah S

    2017-08-01

    We conducted a survey of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency among newborn babies at Tu Du Hospital, Ho Chi Minh, southern Vietnam. A total of 90 deficient babies were detected, including 85 in the Kinh ethnic group, 4 Chinese, and 1 in the K'Ho minority group. In the Kinh ethnic group, G6PD variants such as G6PD Viangchan (n=32), Kaiping (n=11), Canton (n=8), Chinese-5 (n=7), Union (n=5) and Quing Yuan (n=4) were detected. A variant with silent mutations at 1311 C>T and IVS11 nt 93 T>C was also detected in 17 cases. A novel mutation (173 A>G) in exon 4 with a predicted amino acid change of 58 Asp>Gly was also found in a Kinh newborn girl and her father, and it was designated as G6PD Ho Chi Minh. These findings demonstrated that the Kinh ethnic group in southern Vietnam has 8 different G6PD variants, indicating that the members of this group have many ancestors in terms of G6PD variants from Southeast Asia, China, and Oceania. We compared the frequency distribution of G6PD variants in the Kinh population with those of other Southeast Asian populations, and the Kinh population's distribution was quite similar to that in the Thai population, but differed from it by the absence of G6PD Mahidol.

  20. What drives cold-related excess mortality in a south Asian tropical monsoon climate-season vs. temperatures and diurnal temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Kinney, Patrick L

    2017-06-01

    Despite the tropical climate which is characterized by generally high temperatures and persistent mild temperatures during the winter season, Bangladesh, along with many other tropical countries, experiences strong winter and cold-related excess mortality. The objective of this paper was to analyse the nature of these cold effects and understand the role of season vs. temperature and diurnal changes in temperature. For approaching these questions, we applied different Poisson regression models. Temperature as well as diurnal temperature range (DTR) were considered as predictor variables. Different approaches to seasonality adjustment were evaluated and special consideration was given to seasonal differences in atmospheric effects. Our findings show that while seasonality adjustment affected the magnitude of cold effects, cold-related mortality persisted regardless the adjustment approach. Strongest effects of low temperatures were observed at the same day (lag 1) with an increase of 1.7% (95% CI = 0.86-2.54%) per 1 °C decrease in temperature during the winter season. Diurnal temperature affected mortality with increasing levels at higher ranges. Mortality increased with 0.97% (95% CI = 0.17-1.75%) when looking at the entire season, but effects of DTR were not significant during winter when running a seasonal model. Different from effects observed in the mid-latitudes, cold effects in Bangladesh occurred on a very short time scale highlighting the role of temperature versus season. Insufficient adaptation with regard to housing and clothing might lead to such cold-related increases in mortality despite rather moderate temperature values. Although the study did not demonstrate an effect of DTR during the cold season, the strong correlation with (minimum) temperature might cause a multicollinearity problem and effects are difficult to attribute to one driver.

  1. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and overweight in Asian American adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Kim Cook

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES, and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12–17 from the 2007–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS. In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level, age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities, low family income (<300% of the Federal Poverty Level, and being male. Multiplicative interaction terms between low family income and two ethnicities, Southeast Asian and Vietnamese that had the lowest SES among Asian ethnic groups, were significantly associated with greatly elevated odds of being overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively. These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans.

  2. Water vapor increase in the northern hemispheric lower stratosphere by the Asian monsoon anticyclone observed during TACTS campaign in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf, Christian; Vogel, Bärbel; Hoor, Peter; Günther, Gebhard; Krämer, Martina; Müller, Rolf; Müller, Stephan; Riese, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Water vapor plays a key role in determining the radiative balance in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) and thus the climate of the Earth (Forster and Shine, 2002; Riese et al., 2012). Therefore a detailed knowledge about transport pathways and exchange processes between troposphere and stratosphere is required to understand the variability of water vapor in this region. The Asian monsoon anticyclone caused by deep convection over and India and east Asia is able to transport air masses from the troposphere into the nothern extra-tropical stratosphere (Müller et al. 2016, Vogel et al. 2016). These air masses contain pollution but also higher amounts of water vapor. An increase in water vapor of about 0.5 ppmv in the extra-tropical stratosphere above a potential temperature of 380 K was detected between August and September 2012 by in-situ instrumentation above the European northern hemisphere during the HALO aircraft mission TACTS. Here, we investigated the origin of this water vapor increase with the help of the 3D Lagrangian chemistry transport model CLaMS (McKenna et al., 2002). We can assign an origin of the moist air masses in the Asian region (North and South India and East China) with the help of model origin tracers. Additionally, back trajectories of these air masses with enriched water vapor are used to differentiate between transport from the Asia monsoon anticyclone and the upwelling of moister air in the tropics particularly from the Pacific and Southeast Asia.

  3. Nuclear energy in Southeast Asia pull rods or scram

    OpenAIRE

    Somboonpakron, Pasit.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Southeast Asia is experiencing a nuclear energy renaissance. Why have some Southeast Asian countries chosen to pursue nuclear power, while others have not? Among those pursuing nuclear energy, why are some moving more quickly than others? The hypothesis of this thesis is that countries are more likely pursue nuclear power if its benefits outweigh benefits from the same level of effort in other sources of energy. Analyses of these countrie...

  4. Energy in Southeast Asia: from Networks to Markets Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Southeast Asia is one of the world's most dynamic regions and experiences strong economic and energy demand growth rates. In this context, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is seeking to interconnect the electric grids and gas networks of the countries through two initiatives, the Asean Power Grid and the Trans-Asean Gas Pipeline, in order to pool resources and optimize energy markets integration in the region

  5. Predictable patterns of the Asian and Indo-Pacific summer precipitation in the NCEP CFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jianyin [CMA Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Yang, Song; Kumar, Arun [NOAA/NWS/NCEP Climate Prediction Center, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Hu, Zeng-Zhen [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); Huang, Bohua [George Mason University, Department of Climate Dynamics, Fairfax, VA (United States); Zhang, Zuqiang [CMA National Climate Center, Beijing (China)

    2009-06-15

    The predictable patterns of the Asian and Indo-Pacific summer precipitation in the NCEP climate forecast system (CFS) are depicted by applying a maximized signal-to-noise empirical orthogonal function analysis. The CFS captures the two most dominant modes of observed climate patterns. The first most dominant mode is characterized by the climate features of the onset years of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), with strong precipitation signals over the tropical eastern Indian and western Pacific oceans, Southeast Asia, and tropical Asian monsoon regions including the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea. The second most dominant mode is characterized by the climate features of the decay years of ENSO, with weakening signals over the western-central Pacific and strengthening signals over the Indian Ocean. The CFS is capable of predicting the most dominant modes several months in advance. It is also highly skillful in capturing the air-sea interaction processes associated with the precipitation features, as demonstrated in sea surface temperature and wind patterns. (orig.)

  6. Oil refining and product marketing developments in southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Views on the future are based on supplies from a relatively stable Middle East and continued economic growth in the southeast Asian and Pacific countries. Under these circumstances the oil market for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will expand considerably during the decade of the 90's. Pacific country demand, 5.92 MMB/D, in 1990 is likely to grow to 7.06 MMB/D in 2000. Regional production could supply about 40% of this. The Asia-Pacific shortage of refining capacity could lead to high regional refined product prices and health refining profit margins. (author)

  7. A War Too Long: The USAF in Southeast Asia, 1961-1975

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schlight, John

    1996-01-01

    .... While Americans undoubtedly delayed a communist victory in South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia long enough to spare Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries a similar fate, the American public grew...

  8. Floods in Southeast Asia: A health priority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Torti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of all the natural disasters, floods are the most common in both developed and developing countries, accounting for approximately 40% of all natural disasters. Flooding has severe implications on human health before, during, and after the onset of a flood. Southeast Asia is a region that is especially prone to frequent and severe natural disasters. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is comprised of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore and Myanmar. In this manuscript, I discuss why flooding is a problem is Southeast Asia and why I feel flooding warrants attention compared to other problems in the area due to the serious health impactions that arise as a result of flooding. I also explore why flooding warrants attention compared to other health concerns in the region.

  9. Anthropometric measurements among four Asian countries in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nurul Izzah Abd Rahman

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... proportions. There are several distinctive anthropometric dimensions that are noticeable when comparisons between ethnic and race groups are made, such as the mean stature and sitting height [11]. The Southeast Asian countries have strong relations and associations in terms of race, culture and history.

  10. Intercountry prevalences and practices of betel-quid use in south, southeast and eastern Asia regions and associated oral preneoplastic disorders: an international collaborative study by Asian betel-quid consortium of south and east Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Yin, Bang-Liang; Sunarjo; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Liu, Zhi-Wen; Li, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Kuntoro; Utomo, Budi; Rajapakse, Palandage Sunethra; Warusavithana, Supun Amila; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Abdullah, Norlida; Shrestha, Prashanta; Kwan, Aij-Lie; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2011-10-01

    Health risks stemming from betel-quid (BQ) chewing are frequently overlooked by people. Updated epidemiological data on the increased BQ use among Asian populations using comparable data collection methods have not been widely available. To investigate the prevalence, patterns of practice and associated types of oral preneoplastic disorders, an intercountry Asian Betel-quid Consortium study (the ABC study) was conducted for Taiwan, Mainland China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nepal and Sri Lanka. A random sample of 8,922 subjects was recruited, and the data were analyzed using survey-data modules adjusted for the complex survey design. Chewing rates among men (10.7-43.6%) were significantly higher than women (1.8-34.9%) in Taiwan, Mainland China, Nepal and Sri Lanka, while women's rates (29.5-46.8%) were higher than that for men (9.8-12.0%) in Malaysia and Indonesia. An emerging, higher proportion of new-users were identified for Hunan in Mainland China (11.1-24.7%), where Hunan chewers have the unique practice of using the dried husk of areca fruit rather than the solid nut universally used by others. Men in the Eastern and South Asian study communities were deemed likely to combine chewing with smoking and drinking (5.6-13.6%). Indonesian women who chewed BQ exhibited the highest prevalence of oral lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis and oral leukoplakia (9.1-17.3%). Lower schooling, alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking were identified as being associated with BQ chewing. In conclusion, the ABC study reveals the significant cultural and demographic differences contributing to practice patterns of BQ usage and the great health risks that such practices pose in the Asian region. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  11. China's Ties with Southeast Asia : From Green Shoots to Sustained Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Kensuke Tanaka

    2011-01-01

    China's rebound happened relatively quickly owing to a large extent to timely macroeconomic policy responses to the crisis. Lagging somewhat behind China, most Southeast Asian countries have now entered the transition from recession to recovery. Some export-dependent Southeast Asian countries shifted their export destination to China to benefit from its early recovery. This switch of export destination to China illustrates China's important role in leading the recovery of the region. Enhancin...

  12. Effect of convection on the thermal structure of the troposphere and lower stratosphere including the tropical tropopause layer in the South Asian monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsin, M.; Sunilkumar, S. V.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Parameswaran, K.; Krishna Murthy, B. V.; Emmanuel, Maria

    2018-04-01

    Influence of convection on the thermal structure of Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere (TLS) is investigated using radiosonde data, obtained from Trivandrum (8.5°N, 76.9°E), Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), Bhubaneswar (20.25°N, 85.83°E), Kolkata (22.65°N, 88.45°E) and Singapore (1.37°N, 103.98°E), collected during different convective categories classified based on the altitude of deep convective cloud tops (CT) in the period 2008-2014. During deep convective events, the temperature showed lower tropospheric cooling, an upper tropospheric warming and an anomalous cooling (warming) below (above) the cold point tropopause (CPT) with respect to the clear-sky value. While warming in the upper troposphere is strongest (∼2-4 K) around 10-12 km, anomalous cooling (warming) below (above) the CPT is maximum around 15.5 km (17.5 km) with values in the range of-2 to -4 K (3-6 K). These temperature perturbations are observed 5-6 days prior to the convective events. In response to deep convection, surface cooling up to ∼ -4 K is also observed. This study showed that the magnitude of cold and warm anomalies increases with strength of convection. During deep convection, the potential temperature (θ) shows a decrease (<5 K) in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) from the TTL-base up to CPT compared to that on clear-sky days, confirming the vertical mixing of convective air from the lower atmosphere to the TTL-levels. Correlation analysis between different TTL parameters suggests that, as the cloud top altitude increases, along with the adiabatic process, diabatic process also plays a major role in the TTL. An interesting feature observed during deep convection is the ascent of TTL-base by ∼1.5 km and descent of CPT and TTL-top by 0.5 km, which effectively thins the TTL by ∼2 km.

  13. Evaluation of the allergenicity of tropical pollen and airborne spores in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, F T; Lim, S H; Shang, H S; Dahlia, M D; Goh, D Y; Lee, B W; Tan, H T; Tan, T K

    2000-04-01

    Sensitization to pollen and spores of the Southeast Asian tropical region is not well documented. This study evaluated the allergenicity of the tropical airspora in Singapore. On the basis of the results of an aerobiologic survey of the airspora profile of Singapore, crude extracts of 23 main spore (fungal and fern) and pollen types were prepared. A total of 231 patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 76 healthy controls were evaluated by skin prick test (SPT). Total and specific IgE levels were also quantified by the fluorescence allergosorbent test (FAST). All 23 allergenic extracts tested elicited positive SPT responses. Among the patients with atopic diseases, extracts of oil-palm pollen (Elaeis guineensis) were observed to have the highest frequency of positive reactions (40%), followed by extracts of resam-fern spores (Dicranopteris linearis) (34%) and sea-teak pollen (Podocarpus polystachyus) (33.8%). Fungal spores with the highest SPT responses were Curvularia spp. (26-32%) and Drechslera-like spores (31%). Positive responses to these extracts correlated with total serum IgE levels of the subjects and were significantly associated with the presence of atopic disease. We have documented sensitization to tropical pollen and spores in our population. Its association with atopy suggests that it has a role in allergic diseases in the tropics.

  14. Pneumonia in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Tow Keang; Siow, Wen Ting

    2018-01-01

    Pneumonia in the tropics poses a heavy disease burden. The complex interplay of climate change, human migration influences and socio-economic factors lead to changing patterns of respiratory infections in tropical climate but also increasingly in temperate countries. Tropical and poorer countries, especially South East Asia, also bear the brunt of the global tuberculosis (TB) pandemic, accounting for almost one-third of the burden. But, as human migration patterns evolve, we expect to see more TB cases in higher income as well as temperate countries, and rise in infections like scrub typhus from ecotourism activities. Fuelled by the ease of air travel, novel zoonotic infections originating from the tropics have led to global respiratory pandemics. As such, clinicians worldwide should be aware of these new conditions as well as classical tropical bacterial pneumonias such as melioidosis. Rarer entities such as co-infections of leptospirosis and chikungunya or dengue will need careful consideration as well. In this review, we highlight aetiologies of pneumonia seen more commonly in the tropics compared with temperate regions, their disease burden, variable clinical presentations as well as impact on healthcare delivery. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  15. Turning value chains into social gains in Southeast Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Global value chains, which now form the largest share of the world's trade, involve producers and enterprises that produce goods as inputs for other producers. In Southeast Asian countries, these industries employ large numbers of low-skilled workers, particularly women. Governments aim to facilitate these value chains ...

  16. Language Education Policy and Practice in East and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Andy; Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    East and Southeast Asia represents a linguistically and culturally diverse region. For example, more than 700 languages are spoken in Indonesia alone. It is against this backdrop of diversity that the ten countries that comprise Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) have recently signed the ASEAN Charter which, while calling for respect…

  17. New evidence to promote entrepreneurship in Southeast Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... Just over half of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) entrepreneurs said their products/services are not new to customers. About 60% of businesses in the region believe there is high competition, which poses a significant challenge to business viability. In addition, few businesses are ...

  18. The Nature of Values Education in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. Murray

    In recent years, concern in several Southeast Asian nations about the deterioration of values within their societies has resulted in renewed efforts to teach values by means of special courses in the schools. This paper compares the current programs of values education in four of the nations: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Phillipines, and Singapore.…

  19. Turning value chains into social gains in Southeast Asia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Global value chains, which now form the largest share of the world's trade, involve producers and enterprises that produce goods as inputs for other producers. In Southeast Asian countries, these industries employ large numbers of low-skilled workers, particularly women. Governments aim to facilitate these value chains ...

  20. Falls amongst older people in Southeast Asia: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, M H; Tan, M P; Mackenzie, L; Lovarini, M; Suttanon, P; Clemson, L

    2017-04-01

    The older population in the Southeast Asian region is accelerating and is expected to surpass the proportion of the ageing population in North America and Europe in the future. This study aims to identify the research literature related to falls among older people in Southeast Asia, to examine current practice and discuss the future direction on falls prevention and interventions in the region. A scoping review design was used. A systematic literature search was conducted using the Medline, CINAHL, AMED, Ageline, PsycINFO, Web of Sciences, Scopus, Thai-Journal Citation Index, MyCite and trial registries databases. Thirty-seven studies and six study protocols were included, from Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Indonesia and the Philippines. One-sixth of the studies involved interventions, while the remainder were observational studies. The observational studies mainly determined the falls risk factors. The intervention studies comprised multifactorial interventions and single interventions such as exercises, educational materials and visual correction. Many of the studies replicated international studies and may not have taken into account features unique to Southeast Asia. Our review has revealed studies evaluating falls and management of falls in the Southeast Asian context. More research is required from all Southeast Asian countries to prepare for the future challenges of managing falls as the population ages. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of El-Niño on South Asian Monsoon and agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.

    2015-12-01

    Mukherjee A, Wang S.Y.Abstract:The South Asian Monsoon has a prominent and significant impact on South Asian countries like India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and it is one of the most studied phenomena in the world. The monsoon is historically known to be influenced by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The inter-annual and inter-decadal variability of seasonal precipitation over India strongly depends upon the ENSO phasing. The average southwest monsoon rainfall received during the years with El Niño was found to be less compared to normal years and the average rainfall during the northeast monsoon is higher in coastal Andhra Pradesh. ENSO is anti-correlated with Indian summer monsoon (ISM). The last prominent effect of ENSO on India's monsoon occurred in 2009 with 23% reduction in annual rainfall, reducing summer sown crops such as rice, sugar cane etc. and pushing up food prices. Climatic resources endowment plays a major role in planning agricultural production in tropical and sub-tropical environment especially under rain-fed agriculture, and so contingent crop planning drawn on this relationship would help to mitigate the effects of ENSO episodes in the region. The unexplored area in this domain of research is the changes in the frequency and intensity of ENSO due to global warming and its impact on ENSO prediction and agricultural management practices. We analyze the last 30 years datasets of Pacific SST, and precipitation and air temperature over Southeast Asia to examine the evolution of ENSO teleconnections with ISM, as well as making estimates of drought indices such as Palmer Drought Severity Index. This research can lead toward better crop management strategies in the South Asian monsoon region.

  2. Use of GIS for estimating potential and actual forest biomass for continental South and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. R. Iverson; S. Brown; A. Prasad; H. Mitasova; A. J. R. Gillespie; A. E. Lugo

    1994-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) was used to estimate total biomass and biomass density of the tropical forest in south and southeast Asia because available data from forest inventories were insufficient to extrapolate biomass-density estimates across the region.

  3. The draft genome of tropical fruit durian (Durio zibethinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Bin Tean; Lim, Kevin; Yong, Chern Han; Ng, Cedric Chuan Young; Rao, Sushma Ramesh; Rajasegaran, Vikneswari; Lim, Weng Khong; Ong, Choon Kiat; Chan, Ki; Cheng, Vincent Kin Yuen; Soh, Poh Sheng; Swarup, Sanjay; Rozen, Steven G; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Tan, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Durian (Durio zibethinus) is a Southeast Asian tropical plant known for its hefty, spine-covered fruit and sulfury and onion-like odor. Here we present a draft genome assembly of D. zibethinus, representing the third plant genus in the Malvales order and first in the Helicteroideae subfamily to be sequenced. Single-molecule sequencing and chromosome contact maps enabled assembly of the highly heterozygous durian genome at chromosome-scale resolution. Transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of sulfur-, ethylene-, and lipid-related pathways in durian fruits. We observed paleopolyploidization events shared by durian and cotton and durian-specific gene expansions in MGL (methionine γ-lyase), associated with production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). MGL and the ethylene-related gene ACS (aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase) were upregulated in fruits concomitantly with their downstream metabolites (VSCs and ethylene), suggesting a potential association between ethylene biosynthesis and methionine regeneration via the Yang cycle. The durian genome provides a resource for tropical fruit biology and agronomy.

  4. South Asian high and Asian-Pacific-American climate teleconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peiqun; Song, Yang; Kousky, Vernon E.

    2005-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the mid-Pacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion, they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  5. Southeast Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1984-01-01

    .... This report contains information about Southeast Asia including military operations, international relations, foreign trade, political parties, foreign government, economics, agriculture, and health...

  6. Southeast Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    Partial Contents: Southeast Asia, Exchange Dealer, Budget Review, Declared Nonactive, Candidacy, Finance Minister, Economic Policy, Exchange Rate, Farm, Defense Ministers, Labor Party,Local Car Manufacturer...

  7. Policy and priorities for national cancer control planning in low- and middle-income countries: Lessons from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Costs in Oncology prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Evidence to guide policymakers in developing affordable and equitable cancer control plans are scarce in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The 2012-2014 ASEAN Costs in Oncology Study prospectively followed-up 9513 newly diagnosed cancer patients from eight LMIC in Southeast Asia for 12 months. Overall and country-specific incidence of financial catastrophe (out-of-pocket health costs ≥ 30% of annual household income), economic hardship (inability to make necessary household payments), poverty (living below national poverty line), and all-cause mortality were determined. Stepwise multinomial regression was used to estimate the extent to which health insurance, cancer stage and treatment explained these outcomes. The one-year incidence of mortality (12% in Malaysia to 45% in Myanmar) and financial catastrophe (24% in Thailand to 68% in Vietnam) were high. Economic hardship was reported by a third of families, including inability to pay for medicines (45%), mortgages (18%) and utilities (12%), with 28% taking personal loans, and 20% selling assets (not mutually exclusive). Out of households that initially reported incomes above the national poverty levels, 4·9% were pushed into poverty at one year. The adverse economic outcomes in this study were mainly attributed to medical costs for inpatient/outpatient care, and purchase of drugs and medical supplies. In all the countries, cancer stage largely explained the risk of adverse outcomes. Stage-stratified analysis however showed that low-income patients remained vulnerable to adverse outcomes even when diagnosed with earlier cancer stages. The LMIC need to realign their focus on early detection of cancer and provision of affordable cancer care, while ensuring adequate financial risk protection, particularly for the poor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of the South-East Monsoon System - An Investigation of the Dynamical Controls on the Monsoon System Over Geologic Time Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, A.; Lunt, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The South-East Asian monsoon is a fundamental feature in the global climate system cycling energy, moisture and momentum from tropical to extra-tropical latitudes. Societies rely extensively on precipitation during the monsoon season to sustain population centres and economic activity such as agriculture. However the current monsoon system has not always been in its current configuration varying extensively throughout geological time. However little is known about the driving factors behind its creation and evolution. A series of numerical model simulation (HadCM3L) using state of the art reconstructed paleogeographies have been employed to investigate the evolution of the S.E. Asian monsoon system for each geological stage (32 simulations in total) since the beginning of the Cretaceous. Two methodologies, i) a fixed regional precipitation signal based on the current monsoon regions modern areal extent and ii) a migrating regional construct based on the modern day monsoon regions back rotated through time are investigated. These two methodologies allow an examination of the evolution of tropical precipitation over time in the region. The large-scale processes (paleogeography, CO2) of the monsoon system and the regional dynamics (e.g. sea surface temperatures, regional atmospheric circulation, oceanic heat transport, land-sea temperature differential) that control them are also examined with numerical results compared against available proxy data. Preliminary results indicate a downward trend in global precipitation since the late Eocene with significant change at the E/O boundary. In addition, tropical precipitation (40°N - 40°S) has seen a downward trend in rainfall since the mid-Cretaceous. S.E. Asia is shown to be influenced by changes in topographical features/ location, CO2 concentrations, and the regional atmospheric circulation playing a key role in modification of the monsoon system which drive variability on tectonic time scales.

  9. Ant-gardens of tropical Asian rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Eva; Maschwitz, Ulrich

    2006-05-01

    Ant-garden (AG) associations are systems of epiphytic plants and arboricolous (i.e., tree-living) ants, in which the ants build fragile carton nests containing organic material. They collect and incorporate seeds or fruits of epiphytes that then germinate and grow on the nest [sensu Corbara et al. (1999) 38:73-89]. The plant roots stabilize the nest carton. AGs have been well-known in the neotropics for more than 100 years. In contrast, reports on similar associations in the paleotropics are scarce so far. After discovering a first common AG system on giant bamboo [Kaufmann et al. (2001) 48:125-133], we started a large-scale survey for AGs in Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, and southern Thailand. A great variety of AG systems (altogether including 18 ant species and 51 plant species) was discovered and is described in the present paper. The high number of species participating in AG associations was reflected by a great variability in the specific appearances of the nest gardens. Frequently, further groups of organisms (e.g., hemipteran trophobionts, fungi) were also involved. Preference patterns of particular ant and epiphyte species for each other and for particular phorophytes (carrier trees) were detected. We integrate domatia-producing, so-called ant-house epiphytes in our study and compare their phases of establishment, as well as other characteristics, to “classical” AGs, coming to the conclusion that they should be regarded only as a special type of AG epiphyte and not as a separate ecological category.

  10. Strategies for Astronomy Development in the Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthornthum, Boonrucksar

    2015-08-01

    Astronomy in the Southeast Asia has significantly growth. New telescopes and instruments, number of astronomers and astronomical activities have been increased during the past decade. Nevertheless, there are still some constraints for the development of astronomy in the Southeast Asia, especially national policy and funding in astronomy, proper scientific training programs, critical number of astronomers and concrete collaboration in the region.Long-term plans for key science direction, infrastructures, human resources and capacity buildings need to be considered for the sustainable development of Astronomy in the region. Southeast Asian Regional Office for Astronomy Development: SEA ROAD will take an important role for the regional collaboration and accomplishment on the development in astronomy in the Southeast Asia.

  11. Risk group characteristics and viral transmission clusters in South-East Asian patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF 01_AE and subtype B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Oyomopito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 epidemics in Asian countries are driven by varying exposures. The epidemiology of the regional pandemic has been changing with the spread of HIV-1 to lower-risk populations through sexual transmission. Common HIV-1 genotypes include subtype B and circulating recombinant form (CRF 01_AE. Our objective was to use HIV-1 genotypic data to better quantify local epidemics. TASER-M is a multicenter prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients. Associations between HIV exposure, patient sex, country of sample origin and HIV-1 genotype were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Phylogenetic methods were used on genotypic data to investigate transmission relationships. A total of 1086 patients from Thailand, Hong Kong, Malaysia and the Philippines were included in analyses. Proportions of male patients within countries varied (Thailand: 55.6%, Hong Kong: 86.1%, Malaysia: 81.4%, Philippines: 93.8%; p < 0.001 as did HIV exposures (heterosexual contact: Thailand: 85.7%, Hong Kong, 46.2%, Malaysia: 47.8%, Philippines: 25.0%; p < 0.001. After adjustment, we found increased subtype B infection among men who have sex with men, relative to heterosexual-reported exposures (odds ratio = 2.4, p < 0.001. We further describe four transmission clusters of eight to 15 treatment naïve, predominantly symptomatic patients (two each for subtype B and CRF01_AE. Risk-group subpopulations differed with respect to the infecting HIV-1 genotype. Homosexual exposure patients had higher odds of being infected with subtype B. Where HIV-1 genotypes circulate within countries or patient risk-groups, local monitoring of genotype-specific transmissions may play a role in focusing public health prevention strategies. Phylogenetic evaluations provide complementary information for surveillance and monitoring of viruses with high mutation rates such as HIV-1 and Ebola.

  12. EMIGRATION FROM RUSSIA TO SOUTHEAST ASIA: FACTORS, GEOGRAPHY AND IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Ryazantsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the geographical features and trends of emigration of Russian citizens to the countries of Southeast Asia on the basis of a comparative analysis of domestic and foreign statistics. The results of sociological research in these countries have been used: interviews with experts and migrant citizens of various countries of the former USSR who live or stay in Southeast Asia for more than six months. In the course of the study, a comprehensive methodology was developed and the degree of favorableness of the migration and visa regimes of the Southeast Asian countries for Russian citizens has been assessed for a number of characteristics. Factors attracting Russian citizens to the countries of the region in the context of the migration theory of the factors of “pull and push” have been revealed. The socio-demographic structure of migration flows and the geographical features of the resettlement of Russian citizens in the Southeast Asian countries have been considered. The main channels of migration of Russian citizens to the region are given: temporary labor migration, migration for permanent residence, and tourism. Several groups of Russian-speaking migrants in the Southeast Asian countries have been singled out: migrants who have moved to permanent residence, as a rule, opened their own businesses; temporary migrant workers who work for several years in Southeast Asia, are tied to work and are planning to return to Russia after some time; temporary migrants who live in Southeast Asia for several months and periodically return to Russia; Russian women who married citizens of Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and other Southeast Asian countries – former students who studied in the USSR and Russia. On the basis of expert assessments, the types of migration and visa regimes of the countries of Southeast Asia for Russian citizens have been highlighted. Specifics of the formation of Russian-speaking communities in the countries of the

  13. Prevalence of Endemic Pig-Associated Zoonoses in Southeast Asia: A Review of Findings from the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna L; Burniston, Stephanie; Conlan, James V; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Welburn, Susan C; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Allen, John; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2015-05-01

    The increasing intensification of pork production in southeast Asia necessitates an urgent requirement to better understand the dual impact of pig-associated zoonotic disease on both pig production and human health in the region. Sharing porous borders with five countries and representing many regional ethnicities and agricultural practices, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) appears well placed to gauge the levels of pig-associated zoonoses circulating in the wider region. Despite this, little is known about the true impact of zoonotic pathogens such as leptospirosis, Trichinella, hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis (JE), and Taenia solium on human health and livestock production in the country. A comprehensive review of the published prevalences of these five pig-associated zoonoses in Lao PDR has demonstrated that although suspicion remains high of their existence in pig reservoirs across the country, epidemiological data are scarce; only 31 epidemiological studies have been undertaken on these diseases in the past 25 years. A greater understanding of the zoonoses prevalence and subsequent risks associated with pork production in the southeast Asian region could help focus public health and food safety interventions at key points along the value chain, benefiting both livestock producers and the broader animal and human health systems in the region. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Genetic structure and colonization history of the fruit fly Bactrocera tau (Diptera: Tephritidae) in China and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, W; Kerdelhué, C; Ye, H

    2014-06-01

    Bactrocera tau (Walker), a major invasive pest worldwide, was first described in Fujian (China) in 1849 and has dispersed to tropical and subtropical Asia and the South Pacific region. Few data are available on its colonization history and expansion processes. This pilot study attempted to reconstruct the colonization history and pathways of this pest in China and neighboring Southeast Asian countries based on mitochondrial DNA. Results of the study showed six genetic groups corresponding to geographical characteristics, although the pattern was relatively weak. Homogeneous genetic patterns were observed within southern and central China, and northern Vietnam. Continuous colonization from the coast of southern China to inland regions of China and northern Vietnam was suggested. Strong genetic structure was observed in western China, Thailand, and Laos. The isolation of four of the six groups was most probably attributable to major topographical barriers of western China. Yunnan acted as a contact zone of B. tau in China and neighboring Southeast Asia. The absence of isolation by distance and the overall low phylogeographic structure of B. tau suggested that long distance dispersal events and human activities could play a major role in the colonization and expansion patterns of B. tau. By analyzing the genetic diversity, gene flow, haplotype phylogeny, and demographic history of 23 fly populations, we hypothesized that B. tau could have been introduced long ago in southern China, from which it further expanded or that southern China could correspond to the native range of this species.

  15. Water vapor increase in the lower stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere due to the Asian monsoon anticyclone observed during the TACTS/ESMVal campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf, Christian; Vogel, Bärbel; Hoor, Peter; Afchine, Armin; Günther, Gebhard; Krämer, Martina; Müller, Rolf; Müller, Stefan; Spelten, Nicole; Riese, Martin

    2018-03-01

    The impact of air masses originating in Asia and influenced by the Asian monsoon anticyclone on the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere is investigated based on in situ measurements. A statistically significant increase in water vapor (H2O) of about 0.5 ppmv (11 %) and methane (CH4) of up to 20 ppbv (1.2 %) in the extratropical stratosphere above a potential temperature of 380 K was detected between August and September 2012 during the HALO aircraft missions Transport and Composition in the UT/LMS (TACTS) and Earth System Model Validation (ESMVal). We investigate the origin of the increased water vapor and methane using the three-dimensional Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). We assign the source of the moist air masses in the Asian region (northern and southern India, eastern China, southeast Asia, and the tropical Pacific) based on tracers of air mass origin used in CLaMS. The water vapor increase is correlated with an increase of the simulated Asian monsoon air mass contribution from about 10 % in August to about 20 % in September, which corresponds to a doubling of the influence from the Asian monsoon region. Additionally, back trajectories starting at the aircraft flight paths are used to differentiate transport from the Asian monsoon anticyclone and other source regions by calculating the Lagrangian cold point (LCP). The geographic location of the LCPs, which indicates the region where the set point of water vapor mixing ratio along these trajectories occurs, can be predominantly attributed to the Asian monsoon region.

  16. Multi-Satellite Synergy for Aerosol Analysis in the Asian Monsoon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Petrenko, Maksym

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols represent one of the greatest uncertainties in environmental and climate research, particularly in tropical monsoon regions such as the Southeast Asian regions, where significant contributions from a variety of aerosol sources and types is complicated by unstable atmospheric dynamics. Although aerosols are now routinely retrieved from multiple satellite Sensors, in trying to answer important science questions about aerosol distribution, properties, and impacts, researchers often rely on retrievals from only one or two sensors, thereby running the risk of incurring biases due to sensor/algorithm peculiarities. We are conducting detailed studies of aerosol retrieval uncertainties from various satellite sensors (including Terra-/ Aqua-MODIS, Terra-MISR, Aura-OMI, Parasol-POLDER, SeaWiFS, and Calipso-CALIOP), based on the collocation of these data products over AERONET and other important ground stations, within the online Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS) framework that was developed recently. Such analyses are aimed at developing a synthesis of results that can be utilized in building reliable unified aerosol information and climate data records from multiple satellite measurements. In this presentation, we will show preliminary results of. an integrated comparative uncertainly analysis of aerosol products from multiple satellite sensors, particularly focused on the Asian Monsoon region, along with some comparisons from the African Monsoon region.

  17. Monitoring tropical environments with Space Shuttle photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfert, Michael R.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.

    1989-01-01

    Orbital photography from the Space Shuttle missions (1981-88) and earlier manned spaceflight programs (1962-1975) allows remote sensing time series to be constructed for observations of environmental change in selected portions of the global tropics. Particular topics and regions include deforestation, soil erosion, supersedimentation in streams, lacustrine, and estuarine environments, and desertification in the greater Amazon, tropical Africa and Madagascar, South and Southeast Asia, and the Indo-Pacific archipelagoes.

  18. Tropical Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigh, Ronald B.; Nations, James D.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a summary of scientific knowledge about the rainforest environment, a tropical ecosystem in danger of extermination. Topics include the current state of tropical rainforests, the causes of rainforest destruction, and alternatives of rainforest destruction. (BT)

  19. The Influence of Country of Origin and Academic Level on Asian Students' Gains of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    The author examines whether gains of learning of Asian students are the same or different if they are from (a) East Asia, (b) South and Central Asia, or (c) Southeast Asia at undergraduate and graduate levels. Results indicated that East Asian students' gains of learning in personal development, science and development, general education,…

  20. Identity, Empathy and "Otherness": Asian Women, Education and Dowries in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopal, Kalwant

    2009-01-01

    This article will examine Asian women's views on the practice of dowries in the UK. The research is based on 20 in-depth interviews with Asian women studying for a Social Sciences degree in a "new" (post-1992) university in the southeast of England. All of the interviews were tape-recorded and the data transcribed. The data was analysed…

  1. Diverse Asian American Families and Communities: Culture, Structure, and Education (Part 1: Why They Differ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Susan J.; Rahman, Zaynah; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Witenstein, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on 11 diverse Asian American (AA) communities, this article discusses the similarities and differences across East, South, and Southeast Asians. Of two parts in this journal issue, Part 1 presents a review of literature and census data to understand the cultural and structural factors of different types of coethnic communities (strong, weak,…

  2. Cervical cancer prevention: Asian-American women's knowledge and participation in screening practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Katina; Clark, Lindsay; Eng, Whitney; Wu, Lily; Raker, Christina; Clark, Melissa; Tejada-Berges, Trevor; Dizon, Don S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cervical cancer knowledge and prevention strategy participation among Chinese-American women compared with Southeast-Asian-American women. We performed a cross-sectional survey of Chinese and Southeast Asian women in Rhode Island. Anonymous surveys were administered following informed consent. The survey included demographics and questions related to health care practices, cervical cancer, and the human papilloma virus (HPV). Categorical variables were compared by Fisher's exact test. Mean scores of correct answers on the knowledge questions were compared by Student's t-test and analysis of variance. Ninety-six Chinese women and 132 Southeast Asian women were included in the analysis. Sixty-seven percent of Chinese women had at least a college education compared with 37% of Southeast Asian women (p women reported annual household incomes of greater than $100,000 compared with 3% of Southeast Asian women (p = .0003). Twenty percent of Southeast Asian women did not have health insurance compared with 10% of Chinese women (p = .06). Among both groups, 25% of participants either never had a pap test or did not know if they ever had a pap test. There was a greater lack of knowledge about the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer among Chinese (mean 2.9 out of 8 questions) compared with Southeast Asian (mean 3.6 out of 8 questions; p = .02). Regardless of ethnic subgroup, education, or income, all participants had a poor knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV. This study supports the need for improvement in cervical cancer prevention education among all Asian women. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN INTIMATE PARTNER HOMICIDES AMONG ETHNIC SUBGROUPS OF ASIANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    SABRI, BUSHRA; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.; DABBY, FIROZA CHIC

    2013-01-01

    This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 was analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly nine out of ten cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans. PMID:26391620

  4. Gender Differences in Intimate Partner Homicides Among Ethnic Sub-Groups of Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Dabby, Firoza Chic

    2016-03-01

    This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 were analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly 9 out of 10 cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within-group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Phytomass in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert R. Mead

    1998-01-01

    Phytomass tables are presented for the southeast Alaska archipelago. Average phytomass for each sampled species of tree, shrub, grass, forb, lichen, and moss in 10 forest and 4 nonforest vegetation types is shown.

  6. Southeast Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-23

    195010 JPRS-SEA-87-059 23 APRIL 1987 Dis iv ib ulion . ü r,limited TV A XZB; Southeast Asia Report FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE...87-059 23 APRIL 1987 SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT CONTENTS INDONESIA Jakarta’s Position on Afghan Issue Praised (ANTARA NEWS BULLETIN, 17 Mar 87) 1...various dates) 91 Daily Worries About Overpopulation , Unemployment (Editorial; BAN MUANG, 26 Jan 87) 1°5 Briefs Smugglers to PRK ^J° Workers

  7. Southeast Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-31

    282043 JPRS-SEA-86-129 31 JULY 1986 Southeast Asia Report 19980605 201 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE REPRODUCED BV NATIONAL...addressed to Joint Publications Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-S.EA-86-129 31 JULY 1986 SOUTHEAST ASIA ...WELFARE Reporters Criticized for Taking Bribes , Writing False Stories (SAIGON GIAI PHONG, 14 May 86) . 96 POPULATION, CUSTOMS, AND CULTURE

  8. East Asia: Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-25

    JPRS-SEA-90-022 25 JULY 1990 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— East Asia Southeast Asia 19990510 141 REPRODUCED BY U.S...Uxitaaitod DTIC QUALITY arsPBCTESD, East Asia Southeast Asia JPRS-SEA-90-022 CONTENTS 25 JULY 1990 BURMA Karen Guerrillas Threaten To Kill Foreign...Crossborder Smuggling in Minh Hai Continues [KINH TE DOI NGOAI 5 May] 18 Report on Timber Export Corruption Case, Vice Minister’s Involvement [NHAN

  9. Demand management implementation in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaboriboon, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The need to apply transportation system management, to developing countries is urgent. Attempts to alleviate severe traffic congestion in their metropolises have so far failed to provide adequate solutions. The countries are faced with many difficulties because of the lack of sufficient financial resources together with their complex internal administrative and political problems. They are incapable of providing sufficient road space to cope with the escalating demand in private automobiles. This has led to excessive delays in urban traveling, environmental pollution problems, decline of road-based public transit services and deterioration of the quality of life in these metropolises. Demand management, in use for decades in the Western world, has also been recognized in Singapore`s famous area licensing scheme (ALS) making other Southeast Asian Metropolises aware of its advantages as an alternative in solving their chaotic traffic problems. However, realization is far different from implementation and still many metropolises are not able to apply the technique. Singapore and Thailand, two leaders among many other Southeast Asian regions in economics, tourism, trade and industry handle their problems far differently, especially the traffic congestion problem. While a number of demand management schemes have been implemented successfully in Singapore since 1975, Bangkok is still struggling to implement such measures to alleviate severe traffic congestion problems. This article intends to high light the successful practices and unsuccessful attempts of demand management techniques applied in Singapore and Bangkok.

  10. Tropical radioecology

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, M

    2012-01-01

    Tropical Radioecology is a guide to the wide range of scientific practices and principles of this multidisciplinary field. It brings together past and present studies in the tropical and sub-tropical areas of the planet, highlighting the unique aspects of tropical systems. Until recently, radioecological models for tropical environments have depended upon data derived from temperate environments, despite the differences of these regions in terms of biota and abiotic conditions. Since radioactivity can be used to trace environmental processes in humans and other biota, this book offers examples of studies in which radiotracers have been used to assess biokinetics in tropical biota. Features chapters, co-authored by world experts, that explain the origins, inputs, distribution, behaviour, and consequences of radioactivity in tropical and subtropical systems. Provides comprehensive lists of relevant data and identifies current knowledge gaps to allow for targeted radioecological research in the future. Integrate...

  11. Linking Young Astronomers in Southeast Asia: The SEAYAC Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio Sese, Rogel Mari

    2015-08-01

    The importance of involving young astronomers in developing astronomy cannot be overemphasized. This is very much true in areas where astronomy is still an emerging and minor field, such as in the Southeast Asian (SEA) region. However, recent years have seen a sudden spark of interest in developing professional astronomy within SEA, primarily for young astronomers and students. This was especially highlighted during the 2009 International Year of Astronomy. In this presentation, we introduce the Southeast Asian Young Astronomers Collaboration (SEAYAC), a recently formed organization that aims to provide a venue for professional and personal interaction for young astronomers in the SEA region. Here we present the background and rationale behind the formation of SEAYAC, its current status as well as planned future activities aimed at developing collaborations between young astronomers in the SEA region. We will also discuss the problems and challenges being faced by SEAYAC as well as its future plan of actions.

  12. The Borderlands of Southeast Asia: Geopolitics, Terrorism, and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    unstoppable migration from Mexico and other places into the United States. Meanwhile, scholars in Europe follow the European Union’s (EU’s) expansion...merchants in Manila would trade Southeast Asian and Chinese products for silver brought to the Philippines from the mines of Mexico . Once a year, a...negotiations to join a regional Asia Pacific trade agree- ment known as the Trans-Pacific Partnership ( TPP ) agreement. The United States, Australia, Peru, and

  13. Key outbound tourism markets in South-East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Asia and the Pacific is not only a major tourism destination region but also an increasingly important tourism outbound market. This study, a collaborative project between Tourism Australia (TA) and the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), aims to provide an up-to-date perspective of the major tourism trends in five key South-East Asian outbound markets: Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. The report includes a regional overview in terms of tourism and travel patterns, a deta...

  14. Political terrorism in Southeast Asia and US polity issues : case studies of Thailand and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, George R.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The end of the Cold War has brought about a decrease in global tensions while regional disorder has increased. In particular, Southeast Asia has become an area of regional economic and political instability. As a result, the possibility of an increase in terrorism, separatist violence, ethnic disputes, and stained regional relations takes on greater significance, both for United States foreign policy and regional Southeast Asian relati...

  15. Establishing a foot-and-mouth disease laboratory network in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleeson, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division has established an effective laboratory network in Southeast Asia to support the diagnostic requirements of the Southeast Asian Foot-and-mouth disease control campaign (SEAFMD). All laboratories have a capability to accurately detect and type foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen in clinical specimens and to conduct the screening test for detection of serum antibodies against the endemic sero-types of the virus. (author)

  16. The Paradoxical Impact of Globalisation on Women’s Political Representation: A Review of Situations In Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azizah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The representation of women in a political system is a good test of its claims to democracy. Although there are some progress, the level of women political representation in Southeast Asian countries is still low. Women activists propose the adoption of gender quotas as a fast track to address this issue, but the implementation find many obstacles. This article base of my research which want to examine the impact of globalisation for women’s political representation in Southeast Asian countries. The discussion begin with the overview of women’s political representation issue and some theoretical framewoks for adressing that issue. It identified that globalisation has positive and negative impacts on women’s representation. On the one hand, it encourages the emergence of a global gender equality regime which influences pattern of women’s political representation among Southeast Asian countries. Yet, on the otherhand, itpromotes neo-liberalism ideology which is “inherently oppose to policy interventionism”and it also promotes liberal democratic practices, which oppose affirmative policy for women, included gender quota in parliament.We concludes that the paradoxical impact of globalisation causes progress for increasing women’s representation in Southeast Asian countries move slowly. The efforts for increasing women’s representation in some Southeast Asian countries have not been supported by governments’ “intervention” policies such as gender quota and social welfare policies. Southeast Asian countries are also trapped in a liberal democracy practice which promotes ‘one person one vote’ (equality of opportunity. Thus, the opposition to affirmative action (equality of result is so high. Although some Southeast Asian countries have women quota articles, the implementation has been undermined so far.

  17. Young Asian Dutch constructing Asianness: Understanding the role of Asian popular culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kartosen, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is about young Asian Dutch, panethnic Asian identities and identifications, and Asian/Asian Dutch popular culture. It addresses several pressing questions, including: why do young Asian Dutch, who were born and/or raised in the Netherlands, identify as Asian and construct Asian identities? What is the content or meaning of these Asian identities and identifications young Asian Dutch imagine? And how do these relate to young Asian Dutch’ Dutch and homeland identities and i...

  18. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Dynamics and Structures of Terrorist Threats in Southeast Asia, Held at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanley, Jr., John T; Hassig, Kongdan O; Ziemke, Caroline F

    2005-01-01

    ... in the Southeast Asian region; to explore the possibilities of establishing more formal cooperative and collaborative links among academic, analytical, and government institutions dealing with the problem of countering terrorism...

  19. India China Rivalry and Competition in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine the implications of these gradual and in some cases opposing shifts in foreign policy of China and India in Southeast Asia. Both countries are increasingly struggling for a hegemonic position in the developing countries and especially in Southeast Asia...... which is unfolding in the Southeast Asian region is being played out in light of the wider global arena where also the interest and capabilities of the United States must be taken into consideration. The rivalry is manifold therefore the analysis must be based on an approach which seeks to explain....... This struggle comes in different forms, sectors and countries and is in many cases intertwined geo-political and geo-economic rivalry. It is not always possible to distinguish between traditional security related rivalry or mere state based or private sector based competition. As this paper argues the rivalry...

  20. Asian Americans in leadership positions in academic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Don K

    2012-03-01

    To examine Asian American (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asian, Philippine and South Pacific Islands, and Middle East) representation in national organizations and editorial boards important in US academic surgery. Asian Americans are overrepresented in academic departments of surgery relative to their demographic proportion of US population. Not examined is their involvement in leadership positions in the field. Current rosters were surveyed for surgeons with Asian American surnames with federally supported research, members of leading surgical specialty organizations, residency review committees for surgical specialties, surgical boards of the American Board of Medical Specialties, and editorial boards of leading surgical journals. Asian Americans are principal investigators in 18.9% of National Institutes of Health-supported grants in departments of surgery, and 7.7% of Society of University Surgeons and 3.2% of American Surgical Association memberships. Asian American representation on governing boards of professional organizations is only 2.3%, and none on the Boards of Regents of the American College of Surgeons, the various American Board of Medical Specialties surgical boards and councils, the residency review committees for surgery, and governing councils of 7 of 10 professional organizations. Of 302 US surgeons on the editorial boards of 5 leading surgical journals, 6 were Asian Americans (2.0%). Asian American academic surgeons are absent from the governing boards of surgical organizations and peer-reviewed surgical journals, a situation that mentorship and the development of effective social networks though an Asian American surgeons' association may correct.

  1. Intermediate transport in Southeast Asia. [Carts, cycles, mini-buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.K.

    1977-06-01

    Traffic flows through the streets of Southeast Asian countries even though they are used for almost all aspects of human and animal existence. The carts, bicycles, tricycles, and motorcycles, motorized three-wheelers, mini-buses are the so-called intermediate-transport vehicles. It is upon this group of vehicles that a culture--constrained by its own unique economic, environmental, and technological factors--exerts its influence most directly toward the solution of the transport problem. Transportation fills more service roles in Southeast Asian cities than in Western cities. Communication facilities such as telephones and postal services are notoriously unreliable. The personal encounter is all important in social and business interactions in Southeast Asia. Each of the transport modes is examined in view of design and use in a number of specific cultural settings for the countries in Southeast Asia. Present use of intermediate transport in developed countries is discussed briefly, and its further development predicted--pointing out the health and conservation advantages. (MCW)

  2. Southeast Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-22

    006037 JPRS-SEA-85-129 2 2 August 198 5 Southeast Asia Report -minim .... -«trw.ni i i ^.„ .iB^n^jj^j Äpfwovsd to pabEa «stea»«f...Joint Publications Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 222U1. JPRS-SEA-85-129 22 August 1985 SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT...Jun 85) Equality Between State Enterprises, Cooperatives Sought ^ ^ (NHAN DAN, 18 Jun 85) POPULATION , CUSTOMS AND CULTURE NHAN DAN Sounds Alarm

  3. East Asia: Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-03

    JPRS-SEA-90-023 3 AUGUST 1990 !■■■■■ !■■■■■ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS 91$ East Asia Southeast Asia 19990510 139...DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 4 East Asia Southeast Asia JPRS-SEA-90-023 CONTENTS 3 A UGUST1990 INDONESIA East Timor Governor Describes Province’s...percent thought the cadres were taking bribes from the men; and 19.5 percent thought the cadres were decadent in quality and life style. Clearly, the

  4. Asian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on natural gas which now appears ready to take a leading role on the world energy stage. Demand for natural gas, and specifically LNG, will be strong throughout the world, particularly in Asia. Indonesia and Malaysia will become much more dependent on natural gas in the Asian market. In Thailand, where remarkable economic growth has been fueled by imported oil and domestically produced natural gas, LNG may soon have to be imported from neighboring countries. The author sees Thailand's imports of natural gas increasing from 1.5 to 4.5 million tons annually. Similarly, Korea's imports of LNG will rise from 2 to 8 million tons between 1987 and 2000. In Japan, energy demand is expected to increase at an even faster rate in the 1990s. Given the opposition to nuclear power generation and growing concern about the greenhouse effect, it is likely that LNG will satisfy a major portion of Japan's increasing demand for energy. Japanese gas companies are studying the possibility of establishing a national pipeline network to move gas beyond metropolitan areas

  5. Tropical Veterinarian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TROPICAL VETERINARIAN is an international journal devoted to all aspects of veterinary science as practiced in the tropics, including livestock production and management, animal disease (domestic and wild), various aspects of preventive medicine and public health and basic and applied research in these areas.

  6. Southeast Asian Space Programs: Motives, Cooperation, and Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    may also cooperate to some degree in order to competitively balance larger extra-regional actors to preserve their postcolonial autonomy. While the...robust space program for a lower-middle income country. As a pioneer of the Cold War non-aligned movement with jealously protected postcolonial ...to invest in building domestic capabilities than others in the region with a postcolonial history of having to fend for themselves. On the other

  7. Comparative economic value added on Southeast Asian banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintang Dewanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the bank's performance comparison across countries in some ASEAN members which are listed in the stock exchange, as well as to analyse the influence of Economic Value Added (EVA and some financial ratios on the company stock return. Analysis suggests some results. In Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines, the movement of EVA follows the movement of Gross Domestic Product (GDP. This study also finds that Earning per Share (EPS, only in Singapore, and Return on Equity (ROE and Return on Assets (ROA, only in the Philippines, have an influence on stock return. Only in the Philippines where EVA together with ROA has an effect on stock return.

  8. Borassodendron (Palmae) in the Southeast Asian fossil pollen record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maloney, B.K.

    2000-01-01

    Borassodendron machadonis pollen occurred throughout the Holocene pollen record of Nong Thale Song Hong, Thailand, until about 4000 BP. It was also present in one sample from Khok Phanom Di, Thailand, and in the Mahakam Delta, Kalimantan, records, but B. machadonis has not been reported from the

  9. Networking Among Southeast Asian Psychological Societies to Improve Services *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Supratiknya

    2015-09-01

    contained individual whose values and relations are the products of her or his own choice. Individuals are antecedent to the society in which they live and the possession of a self is given prior to its

  10. A small cohort of Island Southeast Asian women founded Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Murray P; Nelson, Michael G; Tumonggor, Meryanne K; Ricaut, François-X; Sudoyo, Herawati

    2012-07-22

    The settlement of Madagascar is one of the most unusual, and least understood, episodes in human prehistory. Madagascar was one of the last landmasses to be reached by people, and despite the island's location just off the east coast of Africa, evidence from genetics, language and culture all attests that it was settled jointly by Africans, and more surprisingly, Indonesians. Nevertheless, extremely little is known about the settlement process itself. Here, we report broad geographical screening of Malagasy and Indonesian genetic variation, from which we infer a statistically robust coalescent model of the island's initial settlement. Maximum-likelihood estimates favour a scenario in which Madagascar was settled approximately 1200 years ago by a very small group of women (approx. 30), most of Indonesian descent (approx. 93%). This highly restricted founding population raises the possibility that Madagascar was settled not as a large-scale planned colonization event from Indonesia, but rather through a small, perhaps even unintended, transoceanic crossing.

  11. Young Asian Dutch constructing Asianness: Understanding the role of Asian popular culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartosen, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is about young Asian Dutch, panethnic Asian identities and identifications, and Asian/Asian Dutch popular culture. It addresses several pressing questions, including: why do young Asian Dutch, who were born and/or raised in the Netherlands, identify as Asian and construct Asian

  12. 日常環境風險因應的經驗學習歷程:以北部都會區東南亞籍新移民女性為例 The Experiential Learning Process of Coping with Daily Environmental Risk: A Case Study of Southeast Asian Female Immigrants in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    高佩瑤 Pai-Yeow Kaw

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 本研究從成人學習取徑出發,以Jarvis的經驗學習觀點為理論架構,探索及了解東南亞籍新移民女性因應環境風險的經驗學習歷程及其構成要素。 在研究方法上,本研究採取質性詮釋典範,深度訪談六位居住於北部兩個都會區的東南亞籍新移民女性。研究結果發現,東南亞籍新移民女性的學習型態隨著環境議題性質及關懷對象的不同而呈現三條路徑:非學習、非反思性行動學習、反思性混合學習型態。反思性經驗學習歷程隨著居臺時間長短及感受的變化而漸次進入三個階段:「被動順應」、「主動融入」及「創新再造」,而個人感受如何又深受社會情境因素所引導,如語言溝通環境、家庭及社會的支持程度、臺灣傳統家庭觀念、傳統母職角色及國家與社會規範等等,是構成她們感受經驗傾向負面、自主或充滿自信的主要因素,也直接影響她們採取何種學習方式:1. 當負面感受強烈時,學習型態傾向被動模仿以符合家人期待;2. 當自主感取得時,學習型態由被動轉為主動,以過去的個人生命傳記為基礎,藉由複製舊經驗、身體感受、認知強化及人際互助等方式將舊經驗融入及再製新經驗;3. 一旦自信心建立,則逐漸形塑出一種整合新舊經驗的創新生活原則與家庭社會關係網絡,改變自我與家庭、社會甚至環境的關係。 This study applied Jarvis’s experiential learning perspective as a theoretical framework to explore and understand female Southeast Asian immigrants’ experiential learning processes when coping with daily environmental risks, and to analyze their major components. Using qualitative methods, we conducted in-depth interviews with six female Southeast Asian immigrants who live in two cities in northern Taiwan. We found that their learning patterns developed along three learning

  13. Sediment Transport Capacity and Channel Processes in a Humid Tropical Montane River - Rio Pacuare, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, P.; McDowell, P. F.

    2017-12-01

    Investigating sediment transport capacity as well as the spatial and temporal variations of sediment flux are critical component of river research, especially for applications in resource management and conservation, hazards assessment and planning, and riverine ecology. The bedload fraction of sediment transported through montane rivers often defines channel and bed form processes. It is understood that humid tropical montane rivers are capable of producing some of the largest quantities of sediment per unit drainage area. Bedload flux reported on a few Southeast Asian humid tropical montane rivers show that bedload constituted 16-75% of the total sediment load - this is notably higher than the generally accepted 10% of a channel's sediment load. However, to date almost all of the research done on sediment transport in humid tropical systems has focused on suspended load. This study presents annual bedload transport rate estimates for six field sites distributed within 45 river kilometers (Rkm) of the montane portion of the Rio Pacuare, located in the Talamanca Mountains of Costa Rica. This research reveals that flows capable of mobilizing the D84 occur on average at least once but often multiple times a year in this river system. The Rio Pacuare has a sufficient supply of sediment to meet its high transport capacity needs. As a result, large active bars composed of imbricated boulders define channel form at moderate and low flows throughout the study area. Differences in the magnitude, as well as the spatial and temporal variations of sediment flux at each field site are discussed in relation to stream power, and annual/inter-annual precipitation patterns. A unique mix of field and remote sensing techniques were applied to address these questions and to overcome some of the challenges of tropical river research. For example, due to the large grain size and high stream energy, grain mobilization and validation of modeled shear stress requirements for transport

  14. Lateral carbon fluxes and CO2 outgassing from a tropical peat-draining river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Müller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tropical peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle due to their immense carbon storage capacity. However, pristine peat swamp forests are vanishing due to deforestation and peatland degradation, especially in Southeast Asia. CO2 emissions associated with this land use change might not only come from the peat soil directly but also from peat-draining rivers. So far, though, this has been mere speculation, since there has been no data from undisturbed reference sites. We present the first combined assessment of lateral organic carbon fluxes and CO2 outgassing from an undisturbed tropical peat-draining river. Two sampling campaigns were undertaken on the Maludam River in Sarawak, Malaysia. The river catchment is covered by protected peat swamp forest, offering a unique opportunity to study a peat-draining river in its natural state, without any influence from tributaries with different characteristics. The two campaigns yielded consistent results. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations ranged between 3222 and 6218 μmol L−1 and accounted for more than 99 % of the total organic carbon (TOC. Radiocarbon dating revealed that the riverine DOC was of recent origin, suggesting that it derives from the top soil layers and surface runoff. We observed strong oxygen depletion, implying high rates of organic matter decomposition and consequently CO2 production. The measured median pCO2 was 7795 and 8400 μatm during the first and second campaign, respectively. Overall, we found that only 32 ± 19 % of the carbon was exported by CO2 evasion, while the rest was exported by discharge. CO2 outgassing seemed to be moderated by the short water residence time. Since most Southeast Asian peatlands are located at the coast, this is probably an important limiting factor for CO2 outgassing from most of its peat-draining rivers.

  15. Competitive Dairy Value Chains in Southeast Asia – Part II : Dairy Expert Roundtable Meeting, December 8 & 9, 2010, Muak Lek, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haartsen, L.; Lee, van der J.; Wouters, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The regional Dairy Expert Roundtable Meeting on “Competitive Dairy Value Chains in Southeast Asia” provided a forum for participants from six Southeast Asian countries to discuss how dairy value chains in this region can become more competitive and sustainable. The demand for dairy products in these

  16. Volcanic ash: a hazard for aviation in Southeast Asia (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelley, P.; Newhall, C. G.

    2013-12-01

    There are more than 500 potentially active volcanoes in Southeast Asia. Ash from eruptions of Volcanic Explosivity Index 3 (VEI 3) and larger pose local hazards while eruptions of VEI 4 or greater could disrupt trade, travel, and daily life in large parts of the region. To better manage and understand the risk volcanic ash presents to Southeast Asia, this study quantifies the long-term probability of an eruption interfering with aviation in the region. Southeast Asian volcanoes are classified into 5 groups, using satellite data, by their morphology and, where known, their eruptive history. ';Laguna' type are fields of maars, cinder cones and spatter cones, named for the Laguna Volcanic Field, Philippines. ';Mayon' type volcanoes are open-vent (i.e., observably degassing), frequently active, steep sided stratocones with small summit craters, spatter ramparts, small pyroclastic fans (typically 5 km and surrounded by ignimbrite sheets (Toba Caldera, Indonesia; Tambora Volcano, Indonesia). In addition, silicic dome complexes that might potentially produce large caldera-forming eruptions are classified as Toba-Tambora type. The eruptive histories of most volcanoes in Southeast Asia are poorly constrained. Assuming that volcanoes with similar morphologies have had similar eruption histories, we use eruption histories of well-studied examples of each morphologic category as proxy histories for understudied volcanoes in the class. Results from this work are used to model volcanic ash contamination scenarios for the Southeast Asia. This new classification scheme can be applied globally for a variety of uses.

  17. Mediterranean climate and some tropical teleconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, P.; Price, C.; Krichak, S.; Saaroni, H.; Osetinsky, I.; Barkan, J.; Kishcha, P.; Ziv, B.

    2006-01-01

    Some strong natural fluctuations of climate in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) region are shown to be connected to the major tropical systems, e.g., El Ni no Southern Oscillation, South Asian Monsoon and hurricanes. Modelling of the severe floods suggests a relation to tropical hurricanes. For a specific event, high-resolution modelling of the severe flood on December 3-5, 2001 in Israel suggests a relation to hurricane Olga. In order to understand the factors governing the Eastern Mediterranean climate variability in the summer season, the relationship between extreme summer temperatures and the South Asian Monsoon was examined. Other tropical factors, like the Red Sea Trough system and the Saharan dust, also contribute to the Mediterranean climate variability

  18. State of rare disease management in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Supian, Azuwana; Lim, Jeremy; Zafra, Matt; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad

    2016-08-02

    Rare diseases, also referred to as orphan diseases, are characterised by their low prevalence with majority of them are chronically debilitating and life threatening. Given the low prevalence and the widely dispersed but very small patient base for each disease, there may often be a disproportion in the availability of treatments and resources to manage patients, spur research and train experts. This is especially true in Southeast Asian countries that are currently in the process of implementing or revising their universal health coverage schemes. This paper aims to examine the status of rare disease management in Southeast Asian countries. It will serve as the basis for a more active discussion on how countries in the region can address an under-recognised rare disease burden and enhance national and regional capacities. The study consists of literature reviews and key stakeholders interviews in six focus countries, including the Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand and five countries as best practice, comprising of France, Canada, Australia, Taiwan, and South Korea. Rare disease management initiatives across each country were examined based on the World Health Organization's framework for action in strengthening health systems. The results suggest rare disease management remains challenging across Southeast Asia, as many of the focus countries face fundamental issues from basic healthcare systems to funding. Nonetheless, there are substantial improvement opportunities, including leveraging best practices from around the world and organising a multi-stakeholder and regional approach and strategy. Southeast Asian countries have made significant progress in the management of rare disease, but there remain key areas for substantial development opportunities.

  19. Control of Asian cycad scale on Cycas revoluta and C. taitungensis using Imicide trunk microinjection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry A. Tattar; Arnold Farran

    2007-01-01

    Asian cycad scale is native to Thailand and southern China but was imported to Florida on nursery stock. This insect has since spread on imported cycads to Guam, Hawaii and Puerto Rico where it poses a threat to native cycads in tropical forests. In 2005, the Asian cycad scale had already infested native cycads throughout the forests of Guam, many of which are

  20. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vietnamese, 46 percent of Chinese, 23 percent of Filipinos and 21 percent of Asian Indians are not fluent in English. In 2015, 75.5 percent of Asian American spoke a language other than English at home. Educational Attainment: According ...

  1. Equatorward dispersion of the Sarychev volcanic plume and the relation to the Asian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Griessbach, Sabine; Hoffmann, Lars

    2017-04-01

    Sulfur dioxide emissions and subsequent sulfate aerosols from strong volcanic eruptions have large impact on global climate. Although most of previous studies attribute the global influence to volcanic eruptions in the tropics, high-latitude volcanic eruptions are also an important cause for global climate variations. In fact, the potential climate impact of volcanic also largely depends on the season when eruptions occur, the erupted plume height and the surrounding meteorological conditions. This work focuses on the eruption of a high-latitude volcano Sarychev, and the role of Asian summer monsoon (ASM) during the transport and dispersion of the erupted plumes. First, the sulfur dioxide emission rate and height of emission of the Sarychev eruption in June 2009 are modelled using a Lagrangian particle dispersion model named Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC), together with sulfur dioxide observations of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS/Aqua) and a backward trajectory approach. Then, the transport and dispersion of the plumes are modelled with MPTRAC and validated with sulfur dioxide observations from AIRS and aerosol observations from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS). The modelled trajectories and the MIPAS data both show the plumes are transported towards the tropics from the southeast edge of the ASM (in the vertical range of 340-400K) controlled by the clockwise winds of ASM, and from above the ASM (above 400K) in form of in-mixing process. Especially, in the vertical range around 340-400K, a transport barrier based on potential vorticity (PV) gradients separates the 'aerosol hole' inside of the ASM circulation and the aerosol-rich surrounding area, which shows the PV gradients based barrier may be more practical than the barrier based on the geopotential height. With help of ASM circulation, the aerosol transported to the tropics and stayed in the tropical lower stratosphere for about eight months

  2. ICT in the Changing Landscape of Higher Education in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kian-Sam; Songan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    As in the developed nations, developing countries in the Southeast Asian region increasingly are recognising the important role higher education plays in enhancing the human resources of a nation for promoting its development in a world of depleting natural resources. Advances and pervasiveness of ICT in the society mean that higher education…

  3. The treaty on the South-East Asia nuclear-weapon-free zone (the Bangkok treaty)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapathy, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Bangkok Treaty was signed in 1995 during the Fifth ASEAN Summit by the 10 South-East Asian countries. It represents a commitment on the part of the signatories to the Treaty to maintain peace and stability in the region in the spirit of peaceful coexistence, mutual understanding and cooperation

  4. Healthcare entitlements for citizens and trans-border mobile peoples in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormond, M.E.; Chan, Chee Khoon; Verghis, Sharuna

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on transborder issues shaping transitions in Southeast Asian countries’ health systems. In section 1, we address the regionalisation of health governance by examining economic and social policies and charters affecting health and healthcare within ASEAN. We look specifically at

  5. Health claims on food products in Southeast Asia: regulatory frameworks, barriers, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Karin Y M; van der Beek, Eline M; Chan, M Y; Zhao, Xuejun; Stevenson, Leo

    2015-09-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations aims to act as a single market and allow free movement of goods, services, and manpower. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the current regulatory framework for health claims in Southeast Asia and to highlight the current barriers and opportunities in the regulatory frameworks in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. To date, 5 countries in Southeast Asia, i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, have regulations and guidelines to permit the use of health claims on food products. There are inconsistencies in the regulations and the types of evidence required for health claim applications in these countries. A clear understanding of the regulatory frameworks in these countries may help to increase trade in this fast-growing region and to provide direction for the food industry and the regulatory community to develop and market food products with better nutritional quality tailored to the needs of Southeast Asian consumers. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Teaching Asian American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Linda H.

    2000-01-01

    Uses data from interviews with parents of Asian American students, observations, and literature reviews to identify cultural and language issues that must be considered in teaching this population. The paper discusses the history of Asian immigrants, attitudes toward education among Asians, the relationship between teaching styles and Asian…

  7. Non-Responsive Feeding Practices, Unhealthy Eating Behaviors, and Risk of Child Overweight and Obesity in Southeast Asia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Sitthisongkram, Somporn; Greaney, Mary L; Wallington, Sherrie F; Ruengdej, Praewrapee

    2017-04-19

    Childhood obesity is increasing dramatically in many Southeast Asian countries, and becoming a significant public health concern. This review summarizes the evidence on associations between parental feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and the risk of overweight and obesity in Southeast Asian children 2-12 years old. We systematically searched five electronic academic/research (PubMed, PsycINFO, ProQuest Nursing, Medline, and CINAHL) databases using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement for peer-reviewed studies published in English between January 2000 and December 2016. Fourteen observational studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Reviewed studies were examined separately for preschool- and school-aged children and revealed that non-responsive parental feeding practices and unhealthy child eating behaviors were associated with a risk of child overweight and obesity in several Southeast Asian countries. Nonetheless, due to the small number of identified studies ( n = 14) and because only about half of the Southeast Asian countries (Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, the Philippines, and Malaysia) were represented (5/11) in the examined studies, additional research is needed to further understand the factors associated with childhood obesity among children in Southeast Asia to develop interventions that are tailored to the specific needs of Southeast Asian countries and designed to address practices and behaviors that may promote childhood obesity.

  8. Patrilineal perspective on the Austronesian diffusion in Mainland Southeast Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Dong He

    Full Text Available The Cham people are the major Austronesian speakers of Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA and the reconstruction of the Cham population history can provide insights into their diffusion. In this study, we analyzed non-recombining region of the Y chromosome markers of 177 unrelated males from four populations in MSEA, including 59 Cham, 76 Kinh, 25 Lao, and 17 Thai individuals. Incorporating published data from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, our results indicated that, in general, the Chams are an indigenous Southeast Asian population. The origin of the Cham people involves the genetic admixture of the Austronesian immigrants from Island Southeast Asia (ISEA with the local populations in MSEA. Discordance between the overall patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA in the Chams is evidenced by the presence of some Y chromosome lineages that prevail in South Asians. Our results suggest that male-mediated dispersals via the spread of religions and business trade might play an important role in shaping the patrilineal gene pool of the Cham people.

  9. Thaksinomics: A New Asian Paradigm; Strategic Insights: v.2, issue 12 (December 2003)

    OpenAIRE

    Looney, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This article appeared in Strategic Insights (December 2003), v.2 no.12 Prior to the Asian Economic Crisis sparked by the collapse of the Thai baht in 1997, Southeast Asia looked like a sure bet for a long period of high sustained economic growth. As a region, Southeast Asia's economies are the most open to international trade. While such openness spurred their growth for several decades, in the post 1997 period it has left them increasingly vulnerable to adverse economic and political sh...

  10. The future of tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Five anthropogenic drivers--land use change, wood extraction, hunting, atmospheric change, climate change--will largely determine the future of tropical forests. The geographic scope and intensity of these five drivers are in flux. Contemporary land use change includes deforestation (approximately 64,000 km(2) yr(-1) for the entire tropical forest biome) and natural forests regenerating on abandoned land (approximately 21,500 km(2) yr(-1) with just 29% of the biome evaluated). Commercial logging is shifting rapidly from Southeast Asia to Africa and South America, but local fuelwood consumption continues to constitute 71% of all wood production. Pantropical rates of net deforestation are declining even as secondary and logged forests increasingly replace old-growth forests. Hunters reduce frugivore, granivore and browser abundances in most forests. This alters seed dispersal, seed and seedling survival, and hence the species composition and spatial template of plant regeneration. Tropical governments have responded to these local threats by protecting 7% of all land for the strict conservation of nature--a commitment that is only matched poleward of 40 degrees S and 70 degrees N. Protected status often fails to stop hunters and is impotent against atmospheric and climate change. There are increasing reports of stark changes in the structure and dynamics of protected tropical forests. Four broad classes of mechanisms might contribute to these changes. Predictions are developed to distinguish among these mechanisms.

  11. From Forever Foreigners to Model Minority: Asian American Men in Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yomee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite their long history in the United States, relatively little scholarly attention has been paid to Asian Americans and their lived experience in sports. The purpose of this study was to give voices to Asian American men by focusing on their experiences in sports. In particular, this study examined the experiences of East Asian and Southeast Asian American male college students who were often perceived as “foreign” and “pejoratively feminine” racialized minority yet participated in sports that were associated with dominant masculinity in the U.S. The setting of the study was as a predominately White institution located in Upstate New York where Asian Americans make up about one percent of the total student population. Qualitative research method was employed for the study. Six Asian American male students were recruited through snowball and purposeful sampling methods. In-depth interviews were conducted to reveal the rich stories of these Asian American men. The research showed that the stories of Asian American male college students were much nuanced and complicated. Specifically, this study revealed that Asian American men were constantly otherized as “forever foreigners” who did not have a legitimate citizenship in the United States. Also, Asian Americans faced unique ideas about their manhood that either highlighted emasculated and feminized masculinity or hyper-masculinity. In dealing with these situations, Asian American men employed unique cultural strategies to challenge and resist racial stereotypes through sports.

  12. Crossroads of Tropical Meteorology and Atmospheric Composition in the Maritime Continent: Recent Field Results from the 7SEAS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. S.; Atwood, S. A.; Campbell, J. R.; Chew, B. N.; Garay, M. J.; Holben, B. N.; Holz, R.; Hyer, E. J.; Jonsson, H.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Lagrosas, N.; Lynch, P.; Mahmud, M.; Narisma, G.; Posselt, D. J.; Reid, E. A.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Simpas, J.; Turk, F. J.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2009, seasonal field campaigns have been conducted by the 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) project throughout the Maritime Continent to study the lifecycle and meteorological impacts of aerosol particles. However given the complex interactions between air, land and sea in the region, aerosol impact studies are significantly confounded by a host of meteorological phenomena. At the same time, aerosol and other compositional studies add a new perspective on atmospheric processes. In this presentation we briefly outline aerosol lifecycle connections to the phases of ENSO, IOD, and the MJO as observed in measurements made through networks and intensive operations periods. However, our focus is on the ramification of these observations on aerosol-cloud relationships at more regional and local levels. Connections between the MJO and tropical cyclone formation as well as the advection of lower free tropospheric dry layers frame aerosol-convection relationships. The frequent formation of trans-MC squall lines and their associated cold pools significantly modifies common conceptual models of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction. We close with a list of suggested tropical meteorology research topics and questions which we believe are most relevant to understanding atmospheric composition in this region.

  13. Quality management practices in the south east Asian airlines' operations function

    OpenAIRE

    Subagyo, Toto Hardiyanto

    2002-01-01

    Despite the recent Asian economics crisis (1997-1998), air traffic volumes in Asia- Pacific will continue to grow over the next decade. As the market is becoming more and more attractive, the competition amongst the airlines operating in the region has challenged the Southeast Asian carriers. The demanded quality of product/service by the customer has become a crucial issue. The ability to provide quality products and services is increasingly becoming a key determinant of an...

  14. Health and social welfare of expatriates in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Henry; Gollogly, James G

    2014-01-01

    Since the end of the Vietnam War and increasing tourism to Asia, there has been ongoing reverse migration of Westerners to Southeast Asia. Some, but not all, have pensions and modest assets. Some acquire a locals spouse and raise a second family. Many of those who arrived early are now aging rapidly and are depleting their financial resources. Health problems become socio/economic threats. None of the Asian target countries that attract reverse migrants have adequate health care and social safety nets that are available to them. The usual health care safety nets expected in western countries do not cover their nationals in a foreign country. This essay discusses these problems as seen from the perspective of two practicing physicians in Southeast Asia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A panel of 130 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms for ancestry assignment in five Asian populations and in Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Lin, Chih-Peng; Huang, Tsun-Ying; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Hsieh, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Yen; Yin, Hsiang-I; Tseng, Li-Hui; Lee, James Chun-I

    2017-06-01

    Ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphism (AISNP) panels for differentiating between East and Southeast Asian populations are scarce. This study aimed to identify AISNPs for ancestry assignment of five East and Southeast Asian populations, and Caucasians. We analyzed 145 autosomal SNPs of the 627 DNA samples from individuals of six populations (234 Taiwanese Han, 91 Filipinos, 79 Indonesians, 60 Thais, 71 Vietnamese, and 92 Caucasians) using arrays. The multiple logistic regression model and a multi-tier approach were used for ancestry classification. We observed that 130 AISNPs were effective for classifying the ethnic origins with fair accuracy. Among the 130 AISNPs, 122 were useful for stratification between these five Asian populations and 64 were effective for differentiating between Caucasians and these Asian populations. For differentiation between Caucasians and Asians, an accuracy rate of 100% was achieved in these 627 subjects with 50 optimal AISNPs among the 64 effective SNPs. For classification of the five Asian populations, the accuracy rates of ancestry inference using 20 to 57 SNPs for each of the two Asian populations ranged from 74.1% to 100%. Another 14 degraded DNA samples with incomplete profiling were analyzed, and the ancestry of 12 (85.7%) of those subjects was accurately assigned. We developed a 130-AISNP panel for ethnic origin differentiation between the five East and Southeast Asian populations and Caucasians. This AISNP set may be helpful for individual ancestral assignment of these populations in forensic casework.

  16. Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Peter H.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the deforestation problem and some efforts for solving the problem. Considers the impact of population growth, poverty, and ignorance. Includes a discussion of the current rapid decline in tropical forests, the consequences of destruction, and an outlook for the future. (YP)

  17. Current and future CO2 emissions from drained peatlands in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, A.; Page, S.; Canadell, J.G.; Silvius, M.; Kwadijk, J.; Wösten, H.; Jauhiainen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia store at least 42 000 Million metric tonnes (Mt) of soil carbon. Human activity and climate change threatens the stability of this large pool, which has been decreasing rapidly over the last few decades owing to deforestation, drainage and fire. In this

  18. Mexico's commercial relations with asiatic southeast: agreements and social agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Carlos Zottele Allende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican state built a complex and thorough system of agreements with the countries that integrate the Pacific Basin. Despite this effort, there is an important and increasing deficit in commercial exchange with the Asian Southeast Nations. The global balance trade compensates this inequity with the sur-plus set up with the United States of America. There are a lot of aspects that contribute to the explanation of these phenomena, but here it will be take into consideration just the important matters, in order to explain why the Mexican exports have the "natural" tendency to satisfy some UsA demands, which is still the mayor world importer.

  19. Southeast Asia and U.S. Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byers, Michael; Clark, Jr., R. W; Sporn, James

    1996-01-01

    The Southeast Asia region consists of the following countries Brunei, Burma Cambodia Indonesia Laos, Malaysia Philippines, Singapore Thailand and Vietnam For the purpose of this paper, Southeast Asia...

  20. An Exploration of How Marital Expectations and Socio-Economic Status Impact Post-Secondary Educational and Professional Goals of Northern California Asian Indian Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the impact of marital expectations and socio-economic status on post-secondary educational and professional goals of Northern California Asian Indian immigrant women both before and after marriage. For the purposes of this study, 15 Southeast Asian Indian immigrant women from the Sacramento metropolitan region…

  1. AHP 35: Review Essay: COMPARATIVE BORDERLANDS ACROSS DISCIPLINES AND ACROSS SOUTHEAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Noseworthy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Early in the colonial period, many studies examining upland Southeast Asia focused on ethnography and ecology as a means for the colonial state to better understand the region's geography. This process resulted in the construction of physical, social, and intellectual boundaries that sought to maintain control of the colonial enterprise. The natural borderlands of the region defied such easy definition – the highlands, the plains at the edges of deltas, and heavily forested regions – became a fascination of colonial study. In the climate of pending Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN integration, which promises to begin the process of loosening restrictions for border crossing between Southeast Asian states by area residents, the study of borderlands has risen again. Because many of these border areas have pockets of highlands culture, continued study of the uplands is particularly relevant to deepening an understanding of the region. This review of several books on the Southeast Asian uplands explores historical and cultural strategies of individuals, particularly in Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, the Dayak community on the island of Borneo, and the Cham community in Vietnam and Cambodia, as well as some of the challenges that they face regarding 'the borderlands'. Putting these studies in conversation can help develop an interdisciplinary dialogue between scholars in Anthropology, Political Science, Linguistics, Ethnomusicology, and History, allowing for a more integrated international perspective.

  2. Rainfall variability over South-east Asia - connections with Indian monsoon and ENSO extremes: new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripalani, R. H.; Kulkarni, Ashwini

    1997-09-01

    Seasonal and annual rainfall data for 135 stations for periods varying from 25 to 125 years are utilized to investigate and understand the interannual and short-term (decadal) climate variability over the South-east Asian domain. Contemporaneous relations during the summer monsoon period (June to September) reveal that the rainfall variations over central India, north China, northern parts of Thailand, central parts of Brunei and Borneo and the Indonesian region east of 120°E vary in phase. However, the rainfall variations over the regions surrounding the South China Sea, in particular the north-west Philippines, vary in the opposite phase. Possible dynamic causes for the spatial correlation structure obtained are discussed.Based on the instrumental data available and on an objective criteria, regional rainfall anomaly time series for contiguous regions over Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia and Philippines are prepared. Results reveal that although there are year-to-year random fluctuations, there are certain epochs of the above- and below-normal rainfall over each region. These epochs are not forced by the El Niño/La Nina frequencies. Near the equatorial regions the epochs tend to last for about a decade, whereas over the tropical regions, away from the Equator, epochs last for about three decades. There is no systematic climate change or trend in any of the series. Further, the impact of El Niño (La Nina) on the rainfall regimes is more severe during the below (above) normal epochs than during the above (below) normal epochs. Extreme drought/flood situations tend to occur when the epochal behaviour and the El Niño/La Nina events are phase-locked.

  3. Post-fire fluxes and sources of carbon in previously burnt tropical swamp peatlands, Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupascu, M.; Akhtar, H.; Smith, T. E. L.; Sukmaria binti Hj Sukri, R.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical peatlands hold about 15-19% of the global organic carbon (C) pool of which 77% in Southeast Asia. Nonetheless Southeast Asian peatlands have been exploited for timber and land for agriculture leading to rapid deforestation, extensive drainage and frequent fires. Direct C-emissions through peat combustion must be quantified to examine the impact of peat fires on global and regional C-budgets, however it is also essential to evaluate oxidative decomposition of peat after fires for a complete understanding of ecosystem-scale fire impact. This kind of investigation is necessary also to understand the effect of peat burning on peat decomposition, because burning effects on the belowground environment are variable, depending on burnt frequency and fire severity. After a fire, ecosystems act as a C-source for months-to-years as ecosystem-respiration (Reco) exceeds photosynthesis. Furthermore during fires, the surface peat with a higher proportion of the more modern rapidly-cycled C burns preferentially. The loss of the surface peat possibly can reduce oxidative soil CO2 emissions, as the deeper, older peat, has more recalcitrant compounds. However, CO2emissions from this old C pool are a net flux to the atmosphere compared to the modern C. Within this context, we are quantifying the magnitudes and patterns of ecosystem-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) through cavity-ring spectroscopy in different transects of an intact tropical peat swamp forest and in two degraded forest areas affected by two and six fires over the last 40 years in Brunei, on the island of Borneo. We are using natural tracers such as δ13C and 14C to investigate the age and sources (auto- and heterotrophic) of C contributing to Reco and we are continuously monitoring soil temperature and water table level. Preliminary data show a similar magnitude of CO2 efflux between the intact (5.3 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1) and burnt areas (6.4 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1), with higher soil

  4. Moisture flux divergence over the tropical Indian Ocean using INSAT 1B data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Rao, L.V.G.

    /plain; charset=UTF-8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE TENTH ASIAN CONFERENCE ON REMOTE SENSING NOV. 23-29. 1989 KUAlA LUMPUR. MALAYSIA ACRS 1989 ASIAN CONFERENCE ON REMOTE SENSING .IM)~SroREFLUX DIVERGENCE OVER THE TROPICAL INDIAN OCEAN USING INSAT 18 DATA H. R...

  5. Southeast Regional Experiment Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This is the final report of the Southeast Regional Experiment Station project. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), a research institute of the University of Central Florida (UCF), has operated the Southeast Regional Experiment Station (SE RES) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since September 1982. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) provides technical program direction for both the SE RES and the Southwest Regional Experiment Station (SW RES) located at the Southwest Technology Development Institute at Las Cruces, New Mexico. This cooperative effort serves a critical role in the national photovoltaic program by conducting system evaluations, design assistance and technology transfer to enhance the cost-effective utilization and development of photovoltaic technology. Initially, the research focus of the SE RES program centered on utility-connected PV systems and associated issues. In 1987, the SE RES began evaluating amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film PV modules for application in utility-interactive systems. Stand-alone PV systems began receiving increased emphasis at the SE RES in 1986. Research projects were initiated that involved evaluation of vaccine refrigeration, water pumping and other stand-alone power systems. The results of this work have led to design optimization techniques and procedures for the sizing and modeling of PV water pumping systems. Later recent research at the SE RES included test and evaluation of batteries and charge controllers for stand-alone PV system applications. The SE RES project provided the foundation on which FSEC achieved national recognition for its expertise in PV systems research and related technology transfer programs. These synergistic products of the SE RES illustrate the high visibility and contributions the FSEC PV program offers to the DOE.

  6. Key strategies to further reduce stunting in Southeast Asia: lessons from the ASEAN countries workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Martin W; de Pee, Saskia; Hop, Le Thi; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Laillou, Arnaud; Minarto; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Soekarjo, Damayanti; Soekirman; Solon, J Antonio; Theary, Chan; Wasantwisut, Emorn

    2013-06-01

    To further reduce stunting in Southeast Asia, a rapidly changing region, its main causes need to be identified. Assess the relationship between different causes of stunting and stunting prevalence over time in Southeast Asia. Review trends in mortality, stunting, economic development, and access to nutritious foods over time and among different subgroups in Southeast Asian countries. Between 1990-2011, mortality among under-five children declined from 69/1,000 to 29/1,000 live births. Although disease reduction, one of two direct causes of stunting, has played an important role which should be maintained, improvement in meeting nutrient requirements, the other direct cause, is necessary to reduce stunting further. This requires dietary diversity, which is affected by rapidly changing factors: economic development; urbanization, giving greater access to larger variety of foods, including processed and fortified foods; parental education; and modernizing food systems, with increased distance between food producers and consumers. Wealthier consumers are increasingly able to access a more nutritious diet, while poorer consumers need support to improve access, and may also still need better hygiene and sanitation. In order to accelerate stunting reduction in Southeast Asia, availability and access to nutritious foods should be increased by collaboration between private and public sectors, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) can play a facilitating role. The private sector can produce and market nutritious foods, while the public sector sets standards, promotes healthy food choices, and ensures access to nutritious foods for the poorest, e.g, through social safety net programs.

  7. Southeast Asia's import demand for skim milk powder: Implications for US exporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C G; Cessna, J G; Blayney, D P

    2018-02-14

    Dairy industries in Southeast Asia are small and produce less than the domestic market demands. As expenditure and population grow in Southeast Asia, it is expected that the expenditures on skim milk powder (SMP) will grow. In this study, we examined the competitiveness of US SMP in the Southeast Asian market with respect to other leading dairy exporters, including the European Union (EU-28), New Zealand, and Australia. Using monthly data from 2006 to 2015, Rotterdam models were used to estimate import demands for SMP in 4 Southeast Asian countries. In a scenario using annual averages from 2013 to 2015 as a baseline, our findings suggest that a 10% reduction in the US price of SMP would cause Indonesia, Singapore, Vietnam, and the Philippines SMP imports from the United States to increase by 3.96, 0.44, 2.68, and 1.94 kt, respectively. Under the same scenario, the value of US SMP imports would decrease for Indonesia, Vietnam, and the Philippines by $4.12, $2.93, and $2.48 million, respectively; however, the value of US SMP to Singapore would increase by $0.20 million. Singapore and Indonesia expenditures for the US SMP are elastic, which means that as expenditure and population in Southeast Asia continue to grow, a 1% increase in SMP expenditure in Singapore and Indonesia would result in 1.25 and 1.20% increases in US SMP exports. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantifying pollution transport from the Asian monsoon anticyclone into the lower stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ploeger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollution transport from the surface to the stratosphere within the Asian monsoon circulation may cause harmful effects on stratospheric chemistry and climate. Here, we investigate air mass transport from the monsoon anticyclone into the stratosphere using a Lagrangian chemistry transport model. We show how two main transport pathways from the anticyclone emerge: (i into the tropical stratosphere (tropical pipe, and (ii into the Northern Hemisphere (NH extratropical lower stratosphere. Maximum anticyclone air mass fractions reach around 5 % in the tropical pipe and 15 % in the extratropical lowermost stratosphere over the course of a year. The anticyclone air mass fraction correlates well with satellite hydrogen cyanide (HCN and carbon monoxide (CO observations, confirming that pollution is transported deep into the tropical stratosphere from the Asian monsoon anticyclone. Cross-tropopause transport occurs in a vertical chimney, but with the pollutants transported quasi-horizontally along isentropes above the tropopause into the tropics and NH.

  9. A biogeographical study on tropical flora of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua

    2017-12-01

    The tropical climate in China exists in southeastern Xizang (Tibet), southwestern to southeastern Yunnan, southwestern Guangxi, southern Guangdon, southern Taiwan, and Hainan, and these southern Chinese areas contain tropical floras. I checked and synonymized native seed plants from these tropical areas in China and recognized 12,844 species of seed plants included in 2,181 genera and 227 families. In the tropical flora of southern China, the families are mainly distributed in tropical areas and extend into temperate zones and contribute to the majority of the taxa present. The genera with tropical distributions also make up the most of the total flora. In terms of geographical elements, the genera with tropical Asian distribution constitute the highest proportion, which implies tropical Asian or Indo-Malaysia affinity. Floristic composition and geographical elements are conspicuous from region to region due to different geological history and ecological environments, although floristic similarities from these regions are more than 90% and 64% at the family and generic levels, respectively, but lower than 50% at specific level. These differences in the regional floras could be influenced by historical events associated with the uplift of the Himalayas, such as the southeastward extrusion of the Indochina geoblock, clockwise rotation and southeastward movement of Lanping-Simao geoblock, and southeastward movement of Hainan Island. The similarity coefficients between the flora of southern China and those of Indochina countries are more than 96% and 80% at family and generic levels, indicating their close floristic affinity and inclusion in the same biogeographically floristic unit.

  10. The New Asian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  11. Emerging Asian Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezise, Philip H.

    What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

  12. Asian Art on Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggreen, Gunhild Ravn

    2010-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i seminaret Visualising Asian Modernity diskuteres forholdet mellem antropologi og samtidskunst i lyset af hvorledes asiatisk kunst fremvises og formidles i vestlig og dansk sammenhæng.......Med udgangspunkt i seminaret Visualising Asian Modernity diskuteres forholdet mellem antropologi og samtidskunst i lyset af hvorledes asiatisk kunst fremvises og formidles i vestlig og dansk sammenhæng....

  13. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  14. Nonstationarity in timing of extreme precipitation across China and impact of tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xihui; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Shi, Peijun

    2017-02-01

    This study examines the seasonality and nonstationarity in the timing of extreme precipitation obtained by annual maximum (AM) sampling and peak-over-threshold (POT) sampling techniques using circular statistics. Daily precipitation data from 728 stations with record length of at least 55 years across China were analyzed. In general, the average seasonality is subject mainly to summer season (June-July - August), which is potentially related to East Asian monsoon and Indian monsoon activities. The strength of precipitation seasonality varied across China with the highest strength being in northeast, north, and central-north China; whereas the weakest seasonality was found in southeast China. There are three seasonality types: circular uniform, reflective symmetric, and asymmetric. However, the circular uniform seasonality of extreme precipitation was not detected at stations across China. The asymmetric distribution was observed mainly in southeast China, and the reflective distribution of precipitation extremes was also identified the other regions besides the above-mentioned regions. Furthermore, a strong signal of nonstationarity in the seasonality was detected at half of the weather stations considered in the study, exhibiting a significant shift in the timing of extreme precipitation, and also significant trends in the average and strength of seasonality. Seasonal vapor flux and related delivery pathways and also tropical cyclones (TCs) are most probably the driving factors for the shifts or changes in the seasonality of extreme precipitation across China. Timing of precipitation extremes is closely related to seasonal shifts of floods and droughts and which means much for management of agricultural irrigation and water resources management. This study sheds new light on nonstationarity in timing of precipitation extremes which differs from existing ones which focused on precipitation extremes from perspective of magnitude and intensity.

  15. Influence of Northeast Monsoon cold surges on air quality in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfold, M. J.; Latif, M. T.; Samah, A. A.; Mead, M. I.; Harris, N. R. P.

    2017-10-01

    Ozone (O3) is an important ground-level pollutant. O3 levels and emissions of O3 precursors have increased significantly over recent decades in East Asia and export of this O3 eastward across the Pacific Ocean is well documented. Here we show that East Asian O3 is also transported southward to tropical Southeast (SE) Asia during the Northeast Monsoon (NEM) season (defined as November to February), and that this transport pathway is especially strong during 'cold surges'. Our analysis employs reanalysis data and measurements from surface sites in Peninsular Malaysia, both covering 2003-2012, along with trajectory calculations. Using a cold surge index (northerly winds at 925 hPa averaged over 105-110°E, 5°N) to define sub-seasonal strengthening of the NEM winds, we find the largest changes in a region covering much of the Indochinese Peninsula and surrounding seas. Here, the levels of O3 and another key pollutant, carbon monoxide, calculated by the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) Reanalysis are on average elevated by, respectively, >40% (∼15 ppb) and >60% (∼80 ppb) during cold surges. Further, in the broader region of SE Asia local afternoon exceedances of the World Health Organization's air quality guideline for O3 (100 μg m-3, or ∼50 ppb, averaged over 8 h) largely occur during these cold surges. Day-to-day variations in available O3 observations at surface sites on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia and in corresponding parts of the MACC Reanalysis are similar, and are clearly linked to cold surges. However, observed O3 levels are typically ∼10-20 ppb lower than the MACC Reanalysis. We show that these observations are also subject to influence from local urban pollution. In agreement with past work, we find year-to-year variations in cold surge activity related to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), but this does not appear to be the dominant influence of ENSO on atmospheric composition in this region. Overall, our study

  16. The Strategic Positioning of Australian Research Universities in the East Asian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Regional tendencies in higher education are increasingly important, for example the common rise of North-East Asian universities in China, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan and South Korea, and Singapore in South-East Asia, to a major global role, following the prior trajectory of Japan. Though the rapidly modernizing Post-Confucian countries do not…

  17. (Un)Necessary Toughness?: Those "Loud Black Girls" and Those "Quiet Asian Boys."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Joy L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the process of identity construction and its relationship to discursive and representational acts in producing students as academic and social beings. Drawing on Judith Butler's work on gender performativity, the paper highlights African American female and southeast Asian American male high school students, analyzing the symbolic and…

  18. Implications of greenhouse gas emission mitigation scenarios for the main Asian regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834521; van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; van Vliet, J.; Mendoza Beltran, A.; Deetman, S.; den Elzen, M.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to limit global mean temperature increase, long-term greenhouse gas emissions need to be reduced. This paper discusses the implications of greenhouse gas emission reductions for major Asian regions (China, India, Indonesia, South-East Asia, Japan and Korea) based on results from the IMAGE

  19. Evolution of life history traits in Asian freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) based on multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wowor, Daisy; Muthu, Victor; Meier, Rudolf; Balke, Michael; Cai, Yixiong; Ng, Peter K L

    2009-08-01

    Freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium are free-living decapod crustaceans that are commonly encountered in tropical streams and lakes. We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the diverse Southeast and East Asian fauna based on >3 kb sequence data from three nuclear and two mitochondrial markers for almost 50% of the described fauna. We reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships and track the evolution of key life history traits. Our tree suggests that the last common ancestor of the Asian Macrobrachium laid numerous small eggs and had prolonged larval development ("PLD") in saline coastal waters after which the adults matured in freshwater habitats. We also argue for five independent losses of the marine larval phase to yield five clades of species that develop entirely in freshwater and have fewer and larger eggs than the species with PLD. These species have either semi-abbreviated (two origins) with at least one free-swimming stage or abbreviated larval development ("ALD": three origins) which lack free-swimming larvae. A Shimodaira-Hasegawa test rejects all trees that would imply a single loss of the marine larval phase, but alternative and equally parsimonious optimizations exist that imply a smaller number of losses. However, these scenarios would require the re-acquisition of free-swimming larvae. A concentrated-change test supports Pereira and Garcia's [Pereira, G.A., Garcia, J.V., 1995. Larval development of Macrobrachium reyesi Pereira (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), with a discussion on the origin of abbreviated development in palaemonids. J. Crust. Biol. 15, 117-133] hypothesis of a significant correlation between living in freshwater and the origin of semi-abbreviated and abbreviated larval development. Our phylogenetic tree also reveals that Asian Macrobrachium have independently become cavernicolous at least twice, and invaded the highly acidic waters of freshwater and peat swamps two or three times.

  20. Carbon leaching from tropical peat soils and consequences for carbon balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Rixen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drainage and deforestation turned Southeast (SE Asian peat soils into a globally important CO2 source, because both processes accelerate peat decomposition. Carbon losses through soil leaching have so far not been quantified and the underlying processes have hardly been studied. In this study, we use results derived from nine expeditions to six Sumatran rivers and a mixing model to determine leaching processes in tropical peat soils, which are heavily disturbed by drainage and deforestation. Here we show that a reduced evapotranspiration and the resulting increased freshwater discharge in addition to the supply of labile leaf litter produced by re-growing secondary forests increase leaching of carbon by ~200%. Enhanced freshwater fluxes and leaching of labile leaf litter from secondary vegetation appear to contribute 38% and 62% to the total increase, respectively. Decomposition of leached labile DOC can lead to hypoxic conditions in rivers draining disturbed peatlands. Leaching of the more refractory DOC from peat is an irrecoverable loss of soil that threatens the stability of peat-fringed coasts in SE Asia.

  1. Reabsorption of returning workers from the Gulf: the Asian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, S

    1994-01-01

    This study examines trends in return labor migration from the Middle East to South Asia and Southeast Asia. Survey data were used to describe trends in outmigration and socioeconomic characteristics of return migrants and to examine the extent to which return migration is associated with skill level and use of savings and remittances on their return. General trends indicate a decline in outmigration during the late 1980s and early 1990s, after oil prices dropped in 1986. Migrants from Pakistan and Korea declined by half during 1981-85 and by 40% among Indian migrants. The demand for service workers and migrants willing to accept cuts in wages was unaffected. Outmigration from Southeast Asian countries grew in the recent past. These increases were due to the replacement of workers from Jordan and Yemen who were expelled from Saudi Arabia after the Gulf crisis. The shift in occupational demand to service and higher level workers is expected to weaken migration from Pakistan and Bangladesh and to strengthen migration from Sri Lanka and other Southeast Asian countries with a skilled migrant labor force. Outmigration from Southeast Asian countries increased to high-growth destination countries such as Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore. Socioeconomic characteristics of migrants varied by country of origin. For instance, Philippine migrants were better educated. Migrants from Thailand, Bangladesh, and Pakistan were from rural and impoverished areas. Sri Lanka and the Philippines had many women migrants. Return migrants encountered high unemployment. Return migrants to Korea had fewer reemployment problems. Reemployment was associated with local country conditions. Unskilled workers had the highest rates of unemployment. Savings tended to be invested in real estate and housing. Savings and investment from remittance income was high in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Thailand.

  2. Biscayne aquifer, southeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Howard; Hull, John E.

    1978-01-01

    Peak daily pumpage from the highly permeable, unconfined Biscayne aquifer for public water-supply systems in southeast Florida in 1975 was about 500 million gallons. Another 165 million gallons was withdrawn daily for irrigation. Recharge to the aquifer is primarily by local rainfall. Discharge is by evapotranspiration, canal drainage, coastal seepage, and pumping. Pollutants can enter the aquifer by direct infiltration from land surface or controlled canals, septic-tank and other drainfields, drainage wells, and solid-waste dumps. Most of the pollutants are concentrated in the upper 20 to 30 feet of the aquifer; public supply wells generally range in depth from about 75 to 150 feet. Dilution, dispersion, and adsorption tend to reduce the concentrations. Seasonal heavy rainfall and canal discharge accelerate ground-water circulation, thereby tending to dilute and flush upper zones of the aquifer. The ultimate fate of pollutants in the aquifer is the ocean, although some may be adsorbed by the aquifer materials en route to the ocean, and some are diverted to pumping wells. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. HIV in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, S

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeast Asia. Prostitution and injecting drug use are two major factors in the appearance of HIV/AIDS in a country. But, it is the correct social network that assures its transmission to epidemic proportions. Heterosexual transmission in Cambodia, Myanmar, and Thailand is linked with prevalence among female sex workers and their clients. In Malaysia, the Ministry of Health responded immediately, but the number of new infections continued to increase. The failures suggest the need for more effective, intensive health education programs, outreach by nongovernmental organizations, and peer education at the grassroots level and in remote areas. Public health officials need to promote political change. International agencies could play an important role, if countries such as Myanmar, Cambodia, and Viet Nam were open to international exchanges. In Myanmar, political unrest has a priority over the need for aggressive health interventions. In Indonesia, the Islamic influence prevents recognition of the country's significant sex industry or the existence of a homosexual community. In Cambodia, health officials warned about the high number of sexual partners, high mobility rate, and low condom use, but HIV spread rapidly in the 1990s. Thailand initiated a 100% condom campaign to combat HIV prevalence in the 1990s, and HIV prevalence declined among sex workers and military recruits. Risk factors for rapid transmission include mobility, the number of sexual partners/sex worker, the proportion engaging in commercial sex, and the rate of regular condom use among sex workers.

  4. Permian of Southeast Asia: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Henri

    2002-08-01

    Permian rocks are widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia. Because of the tropical-equatorial climate the rocks are commonly deeply weathered and covered by dense vegetation over much of the region. Elsewhere, Permian rocks are well exposed and easy to access, particularly where limestone outcrops have weathered to form spectacular, castellated, tower karst. Many limestone outcrops, containing abundant fusulinaceans, were early recognized to be of Permian age, but many outcrops without fusulinaceans, erroneously assigned to the Permian, were found subsequently to be of Triassic age, and more careful studies have established the Permian age of rocks of other lithologies. It is now recognized that different depositional environments are represented by the Permian deposits in various parts of the region. Massive limestones, widespread throughout the region, represent extensive carbonate platforms; local occurrences of thick bedded cherts indicate deposition in deep marine environments, coal, bauxite and clastic sediments with vertebrate remains in North Vietnam and Laos indicate deposition in a continental environment, and pebbly mudstones in Myanmar, Peninsular Thailand, northwest Malaysia and Sumatra, are considered to have been formed in a glacial environment. Volcanic rocks are absent in northwest Peninsular Malaysia and Peninsular Thailand, but are extensively developed in North Vietnam, Sumatra, the eastern Malay Peninsula and Timor. Fossils, representing many fossil groups, are often prolific in Permian sediments, with fusulinaceans, for example, occurring in astronomical numbers in many limestone outcrops. Age-diagnostic fossils demonstrate that the whole of the Permian is represented in different areas of Southeast Asia. Fossil faunal and floral assemblages have been used to establish climatic conditions and environments of deposition, to define distinct crustal blocks and to provide the basis for reconstructing the palaeogeography during Permian times.

  5. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of caecilians from Southeast Asia (Amphibia, Gymnophiona, Ichthyophiidae), with special reference to high cryptic species diversity in Sundaland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Kanto; Matsui, Masafumi; Yong, Hoi-Sen; Ahmad, Norhayati; Yambun, Paul; Belabut, Daicus M; Sudin, Ahmad; Hamidy, Amir; Orlov, Nikolai L; Ota, Hidetoshi; Yoshikawa, Natsuhiko; Tominaga, Atsushi; Shimada, Tomohiko

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships and estimated the history of species diversification and character evolution in two ichthyophiid genera: Caudacaecilia and Ichthyophis. We estimated the phylogenetic relationships of 67 samples from 33 localities in Southeast Asia from 3840-bp sequences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and cyt b genes using Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony methods. The Southeast Asian samples formed a well-supported clade differentiated from a South Asian sample. The Southeast Asian clade was divided into two subclades, one containing samples from South China, Indochina, Malay Peninsula, and Java. The other consisted of samples from Borneo and the Philippines. Neither Caudacaecilia nor Ichthyophis was monophyletic, nor did samples with or without light stripes lateral to the body form clades. We found several distinct sympatric lineages and undescribed species, especially from Sundaland. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of daily versus monthly fire emissions on atmospheric model applications in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, M. E.; Voulgarakis, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Shindell, D. T.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Fires are widely used throughout the tropics to create and maintain areas for agriculture, but are also significant contributors to atmospheric trace gas and aerosol concentrations. However, the timing and magnitude of fire activity can vary strongly by year and ecosystem type. For example, frequent, low intensity fires dominate in African savannas whereas Southeast Asian peatland forests are susceptible to huge pulses of emissions during regional El Niño droughts. Despite the potential implications for modeling interactions with atmospheric chemistry and transport, fire emissions have commonly been input into global models at a monthly resolution. Recognizing the uncertainty that this can introduce, several datasets have parsed fire emissions to daily and sub-daily scales with satellite active fire detections. In this study, we explore differences between utilizing the monthly and daily Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) products as inputs into the NASA GISS-E2 composition climate model. We aim to understand how the choice of the temporal resolution of fire emissions affects uncertainty with respect to several common applications of global models: atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and climate. Focusing our analysis on tropical ozone, carbon monoxide, and aerosols, we compare modeled concentrations with available ground and satellite observations. We find that increasing the temporal frequency of fire emissions from monthly to daily can improve correlations with observations, predominately in areas or during seasons more heavily affected by fires. Differences between the two datasets are more evident with public health applications: daily resolution fire emissions increases the number of days exceeding World Health Organization air quality targets.

  7. Predicting dispersal of auto-gyrating fruit in tropical trees: a case study from the Dipterocarpaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James R; Bagchi, Robert; Ellens, Judith; Kettle, Chris J; Burslem, David F R P; Maycock, Colin R; Khoo, Eyen; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2015-05-01

    Seed dispersal governs the distribution of plant propagules in the landscape and hence forms the template on which density-dependent processes act. Dispersal is therefore a vital component of many species coexistence and forest dynamics models and is of applied value in understanding forest regeneration. Research on the processes that facilitate forest regeneration and restoration is given further weight in the context of widespread loss and degradation of tropical forests, and provides impetus to improve estimates of seed dispersal for tropical forest trees. South-East Asian lowland rainforests, which have been subject to severe degradation, are dominated by trees of the Dipterocarpaceae family which constitute over 40% of forest biomass. Dipterocarp dispersal is generally considered to be poor given their large, gyration-dispersed fruits. However, there is wide variability in fruit size and morphology which we hypothesize mechanistically underpins dispersal potential through the lift provided to seeds mediated by the wings. We explored experimentally how the ratio of fruit wing area to mass ("inverse wing loading," IWL) explains variation in seed dispersal kernels among 13 dipterocarp species by releasing fruit from a canopy tower. Horizontal seed dispersal distances increased with IWL, especially at high wind speeds. Seed dispersal of all species was predominantly local, with 90% of seed dispersing <10 m, although maximum dispersal distances varied widely among species. We present a generic seed dispersal model for dipterocarps based on attributes of seed morphology and provide modeled seed dispersal kernels for all dipterocarp species with IWLs of 1-50, representing 75% of species in Borneo.

  8. A cost-efficient method to assess carbon stocks in tropical peat soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M. W.; Kauffman, J. B.; Murdiyarso, D.; Anshari, G.; Hergoualc'h, K.; Kurnianto, S.; Purbopuspito, J.; Gusmayanti, E.; Afifudin, M.; Rahajoe, J.; Alhamd, L.; Limin, S.; Iswandi, A.

    2012-11-01

    Estimation of belowground carbon stocks in tropical wetland forests requires funding for laboratory analyses and suitable facilities, which are often lacking in developing nations where most tropical wetlands are found. It is therefore beneficial to develop simple analytical tools to assist belowground carbon estimation where financial and technical limitations are common. Here we use published and original data to describe soil carbon density (kgC m-3; Cd) as a function of bulk density (gC cm-3; Bd), which can be used to rapidly estimate belowground carbon storage using Bd measurements only. Predicted carbon densities and stocks are compared with those obtained from direct carbon analysis for ten peat swamp forest stands in three national parks of Indonesia. Analysis of soil carbon density and bulk density from the literature indicated a strong linear relationship (Cd = Bd × 495.14 + 5.41, R2 = 0.93, n = 151) for soils with organic C content > 40%. As organic C content decreases, the relationship between Cd and Bd becomes less predictable as soil texture becomes an important determinant of Cd. The equation predicted belowground C stocks to within 0.92% to 9.57% of observed values. Average bulk density of collected peat samples was 0.127 g cm-3, which is in the upper range of previous reports for Southeast Asian peatlands. When original data were included, the revised equation Cd = Bd × 468.76 + 5.82, with R2 = 0.95 and n = 712, was slightly below the lower 95% confidence interval of the original equation, and tended to decrease Cd estimates. We recommend this last equation for a rapid estimation of soil C stocks for well-developed peat soils where C content > 40%.

  9. Modern Political and Economic Aspects of the Oil and Gas Complex in the Southeast Asia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I. Salygin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstracUThe article reviews the problems caused by the conflict of interests between certain Southeast Asian countries and other states, China foremost, which aroused from oil and gas field development on disputable offshore sections. At the same time the positions of the region's leading transnational corporations in the field of oil and gas policy and their relationships with the countries-ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations members are outlined. Separately are represented the foreign policy stands of Indonesia, Vietnam, Brunei, Philippines and Malaysia on territorial disputes over offshore oil and gas fields. These processes are pushing both European and American business to abandon the conventional schemes and accept the new conditions of their activity in Southeast Asia.

  10. Shaping Southeast Asia: Tracing Tourism Imaginaries in Guidebooks and Travel Blogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix M. Bergmeister

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism constitutes both an economic activity and a cultural force that involves a dynamic interplay between travelers and their ideas about the societies they visit. This paper traces the construction and negotiation of “tourism imaginaries” (Salazar, 2012 in popular guidebooks and independent travel-blogs, critically examining questions of representation and power relations in a Southeast Asian context. Employing critical discourse analysis, this paper investigates how particular Southeast Asian destinations are represented from a Western perspective. Whereas long-established commercial media such as guidebooks function mainly to communicate destination images to the reader, recent participatory media formats (e.g. travel-blogs are more experienced-based and enable tourists to form ideas about foreign places in idiosyncratic ways. The preliminary insights of this study show that hegemonic narratives from guidebooks are rather reproduced than critically challenged and subverted in the examples under review.

  11. Echinococcosis with particular reference to Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Donald P

    2010-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by adult or larval cestodes belonging to the genus Echinococcus (family Taeniidae). The two major species of medical and public health importance are E. granulosus and E. multilocularis, which, respectively, cause cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE). Both CE and AE are serious and severe diseases, the latter especially so, with high fatality rates and poor prognosis if managed incorrectly. A number of recent reports indicate that CE and AE are of increasing public health concern and that both can be regarded as emerging or re-emerging diseases. This review discusses aspects of the biology, life-cycle characteristics, aetiology, and the global and Southeast Asian regional distribution and transmission of the Echinococcus organisms, and covers the epidemiology, clinical features, treatment and diagnosis of the diseases they cause. The current countermeasures available for the control and prevention of AE and CE, including the development of animal vaccines for the latter, are also reviewed. E. granulosus still has a wide geographical distribution although effective control against CE has been achieved in some regions. E. multilocularis is more problematic as the primary transmission cycle is almost always sylvatic so that efficient and cost-effective control of AE remains a formidable challenge. Chemotherapy has facilitated less invasive surgical management of CE and AE. Nevertheless, as will be emphasised, there is a clear need for new advances in the prevention and control of both these neglected diseases.

  12. Evidence of frequent introductions of Japanese encephalitis virus from south-east Asia and continental east Asia to Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Takeshi; Loan, Hyunh Thi Kim; Inoue, Shingo; Sumiyoshi, Makoto; Haruta, Yasuhiro; Nga, Phan Thi; Huoung, Vu Thi Que; del Carmen Parquet, Maria; Hasebe, Futoshi; Morita, Kouichi

    2009-04-01

    The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) circulating in Japan consists of viruses with multiple phylogenetic origins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that some JEV strains have recently migrated from south-east and continental east Asian countries. One phylogenetic subcluster of the JEV strains circulating in Japan was closely related to viruses isolated in Vietnam and China's inland region while other JEV subclusters were related to viruses isolated in Shanghai, China. One virus subcluster, however, was isolated solely in Japan and was not found in any other Asian country. Therefore, our data suggests that the JEVs that have remained or are circulating in Japan include a mixture of viruses that have previously migrated from south-east and continental east Asian countries.

  13. The South Asian genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  14. Dynamics of the Textiles & Apparel Industries in Southeast Asia : A Preliminary Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Esho, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    The apparel industry is a representative case of a buyer-driven global value chain, as suggested by Gary Gereffi. We examine this hypothesis by focusing on the textile and apparel industries in Southeast Asian countries, especially the Philippines, Malaysia, and Thailand. We found that there are two different kinds of value chains in these industries. In one, the lead firms are engaged in chemical fiber production, and, in the other, the lead firms are engaged in fast fashion retailing. The f...

  15. Human trafficking in Southeast Asia and U.S. national security

    OpenAIRE

    Snoke, Joshua H.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The United States government finds human trafficking to be an important subject and is placing increasing focus on the issue. The Southeast Asian portion of the Western Pacific encompasses a substantial portion of global trafficking, much of which has a final destination in the United States. This thesis asks the following question: How does trafficking in persons (TIP) affect U.S. national security interests and regional stability in ...

  16. Rural Finance and Microfinance Development in Transition Countries in Southeast and East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Llanto, Gilberto M.; Fukui, Ryu

    2006-01-01

    Microfinance is an emerging important financial subsector in Asian transition countries. Its role is to improve financial access of the poor and small economic players and thus help them to build assets, thereby contribute to poverty alleviation. This paper provides an overview of rural finance and microfinance development in transition countries in Southeast and East Asia—Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Vietnam, and Mongolia—focusing on the institutional evolution and the inter-relation between ...

  17. Changing Roles of the United States and Japan in the Security of Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    President Clinton’s personal appeal for restraint, China resumed testing in early October, 1993 after more than a year of tests, when it exploded a nuclear...has helped Thailand assimilate so smoothly both the ethnic Chinese minority and the high levels of Japanese investment; personal friendliness and...Japanese prosperity and the growing prosperity of southern China and Southeast Asian countries, particularly ASEAN, attracted traffikers looking to expand

  18. The Asian methanol market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Hideki

    1995-01-01

    For the purpose of this presentation, Asia has been broadly defined as a total of 15 countries, namely Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Myanmar, India, Vietnam, Australia and New Zealand. In 1994 and the first half of 1995, the methanol industry and its derivative industries experienced hard time, because of extraordinarily high methanol prices. In spite of this circumstance, methanol demand in Asian countries has been growing steadily and remarkably, following Asian high economic growth. Most of this growth in demand has been and will continue to be met by outside supply. However, even with increased import of methanol from outside of Asia, as a result of this growth, Asian trade volume will be much larger in the coming years. Asian countries must turn their collective attention to making logistics and transportation for methanol and its derivatives more efficient in the Asian region to make better use of existing supply resources. The author reviews current economic growth as his main topic, and explains the forecast of the growth of methanol demand and supply in Asian countries in the near future

  19. Tropical peatland carbon dynamics simulated for scenarios of disturbance and restoration and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolking, S. E.; Warren, M.; Dai, Z.; Kurnianto, S.; Hagen, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical peatlands contain a globally significant carbon pool. Southeast Asian peatlands are being deforested, drained and burned at very high rates, mostly for conversion to industrial oil palm or pulp and paper plantations. The climate mitigation potential of tropical peatlands has gained increasing attention in recent years as persistent greenhouse gas emissions can be avoided or decreased if peatlands remain intact or are rehabilitated. In addition, peatland conservation or rehabilitation for climate mitigation also includes multiple co-benefits such as maintenance of ecosystem services, biodiversity, and air quality from reduced fire occurrence. Inventory guidelines and methodologies have only recently become available, and are based on few data from a limited number of sites. Few heuristic tools are available to evaluate the impact of management practices on carbon dynamics in tropical peatlands, and the potential climate mitigation benefits of peatland restoration. We used a process based dynamic tropical peatland model to explore the C dynamics of several peatland management trajectories represented by hypothetical scenarios, within the context of simulated 21st century climate change. All scenarios with land use, including those with optimal restoration, simulate C loss over the 21st century, with C losses ranging from 10% to essentially 100% of pre-disturbance values. Fire, either prescribed as part of a crop rotation cycle, or stochastic occurrences in sub-optimally managed degraded land can be the dominant C-loss pathway, particularly in the drier climate scenario we tested. A single 25-year oil palm rotation, with a prescribed initial burn, lost 40-50 kg C/m2, equivalent to accumulation during the previous 500 years, 10-30% of which was restored in 75 years of optimal restoration. Our results indicate that even under the most optimistic scenario of hydrological and forest restoration and the wettest climate regime, only about one-third of the carbon

  20. Historical biogeography and ecological niche modelling of the Asimina-Disepalum clade (Annonaceae): role of ecological differentiation in Neotropical-Asian disjunctions and diversification in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pui-Sze; Thomas, Daniel C; Saunders, Richard M K

    2017-08-14

    The Asimina-Disepalum clade (Annonaceae subfam. Annonoideae tribe Annoneae) includes a major Neotropical-Asian biogeographical disjunction. We evaluate whether this disjunction can be explained by the Eocene boreotropics hypothesis, which relies on the existence of extensive boreotropical forests during the Late Palaeocene-Early Eocene thermal maximum (52-50 Ma), followed by disruption of boreotropical vegetation during post-Eocene cooling. Molecular dating using an uncorrelated relaxed molecular clock (UCLD) model with two fossil calibrations, ancestral range estimation, and ecological niche modelling across evolutionary time were performed. Our focus was the geographical origin of Disepalum and general biogeographic patterns within this genus. Comparison of ecological tolerance among extant species and niche reconstructions at ancestral nodes within the clade enabled insights in likely migration routes of lineages, as well as evaluating the role of bioclimatic ecological differentiation in the diversification of Disepalum within Southeast Asia. The inferred vicariance event associated with the Asimina-Disepalum disjunction is estimated to have originated ca. 40 Mya [95% highest posterior density (HPD): 44.3-35.5 Mya]. The Disepalum crown lineage is estimated to have originated ca. 9 Mya (95% HPD: 10.6-7.6), either in western Malesia and continental Southeast Asia, or exclusively in western Malesia. Ecological niche modelling shows that seasonality of temperature and precipitation are major contributors determining the geographical range of species. Ancestral niche modelling furthermore indicates that the ancestor of the Asimina-Disepalum clade likely had bioclimatic preferences close to conditions found in current tropical and subtropical climates across Asia, whereas the ancestors of the Asimina and Disepalum crown groups are projected onto the more subtropical and tropical regions, respectively. The vicariance event associated with the Neotropical-Asian

  1. Population characteristics and health care needs of Asian Pacific Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin-Fu, J S

    1988-01-01

    Asian Pacific Americans are one of the smallest but fastest growing minority groups in the United States. Between 1970 and 1980, this population increased 142 percent, from 1.5 million to 3.7 million. This dramatic growth is due largely to a change in U.S. immigration policies in the mid-1960s and the continuous influx of refugees from Southeast Asia since 1975. Despite such sharp increase, Asian Pacific Americans remain one of the most poorly understood minorities, and their health care needs have received relatively little attention. Health policy makers, planners, and service providers need to have a better understanding of the population characteristics of Asian Pacific Americans in order to address their needs properly. Asian Pacific Americans are largely recent immigrants and refugees. They are extremely heterogeneous and bipolar in socioeconomic status and health indices. Because of their small numbers until the last two decades, many health workers have had little exposure to this minority, their culture, and health problems. Health workers need to be sensitive to the ethnocultural barriers that confront recent arrivals; be aware of the genetic disorders, infectious diseases, and mental health problems common in this population; and realize that anatomical and physiological differences may require attention in certain surgical procedures and medical management. Neglecting the health care needs of Asian Pacific Americans is not simply a violation of the principle of equality for all, but also an imprudent act that increases the mortalities and morbidities and health care costs of the nation. PMID:3124193

  2. The NOW regional coupled model: Application to the tropical Indian Ocean climate and tropical cyclone activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Samson, G.; Masson, S.; Lengaigne, M.; Keerthi, M.G.; Vialard, J.; Pous, S.; Madec, G.; Jourdain, N.C.; Jullien, S.; Menkes, C.; Marchesiello, P.

    , France, 3Indo-French Cell for Water Sciences, IISc-NIO-IITM-IRD Joint International Laboratory, NIO, Goa, India, 4LMI ICEMASA, IRD, Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, 5Laboratoire de Glaciologie et G... be related to an overly active cumulus parameterization in KF. 1. Introduction The Indian Ocean (IO) is unique among the three tropical oceans for being bounded to the north by the Asian continent. The resulting summer land-sea temperature gradient promotes...

  3. Parvalbumin--the major tropical fish allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dawn Li-Chern; Neo, Keng Hwee; Yi, Fong Cheng; Chua, Kaw Yan; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Giam, Yoke Chin; Van Bever, Hugo P S; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-08-01

    Fish allergy is common in countries where consumption is high. Asian nations are amongst the world's largest consumers of fish but the allergen profiles of tropical fish are unknown. This study sought to evaluate the allergenicity of four commonly consumed tropical fish, the threadfin (Polynemus indicus), Indian anchovy (Stolephorus indicus), pomfret (Pampus chinensis) and tengirri (Scomberomorus guttatus). Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity with parvalbumin of cod fish (Gad c 1), the major fish allergen, was also studied. Detection of tropical fish and cod specific-IgE was performed by UniCap assay, and skin prick tests were also carried out. The IgE-binding components of tropical fish were identified using IgE immunoblot techniques, and cross-reactivity with Gad c 1 was assessed by ELISA inhibition and IgE immunoblot inhibition. Clinically, nine of 10 patients studied were allergic to multiple fish. All patients exhibited detectable specific-IgE to cod fish (10 of 10 skin prick test positive, eight of 10 UniCap assay positive) despite lack of previous exposure. The major allergen of the four tropical fish was the 12-kDa parvalbumin. IgE cross-reactivity of these allergens to Gad c 1 was observed to be moderate to high in the tropical fish studied. Parvalbumins are the major allergens in commonly consumed tropical fish. They are cross-reactive with each other as well as with Gad c 1. Commercial tests for cod fish appear to be sufficient for the detection of tropical fish specific-IgE.

  4. Regional Journalism in Southeast Asia and ASEAN Identity in Making: Asia News Network as a Case for International and Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulaş Başar Gezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Somehow in analogy with the European Union, 10 Southeast Asian countries are in the process of forming a political and economic union which is (ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations for decades. This process of regional integration goes in tandem with the regional media associations such as Asia News Network (ANN which is an Asian-German initiative that consists of daily newspapers from various Asian countries. As a regional association covering not only all ASEAN countries, but also ASEAN neighbors; ANN may serve a significant role for regional collaboration and integration. The network is instrumental to the promotion of freedom of speech which is not always easy to propound in some of these countries. This article analyzes news coverage and publication policy of ANN and discusses challenges and opportunities of regional journalism in SEA as a case for international and intercultural communication.

  5. A comparative analysis of renewable electricity support mechanisms for Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the applicability of eight renewable electricity policy mechanisms for Southeast Asian electricity markets. It begins by describing the methodology behind 90 research interviews of stakeholders in the electricity industry. It then outlines four justifications given by respondents for government intervention to support renewables in Southeast Asia: unpriced negative externalities, counteracting subsidies for conventional energy sources, the public goods aspect of renewable energy, and the presence of non-technical barriers. The article develops an analytical framework to evaluate renewable portfolio standards, green power programs, public research and development expenditures, systems benefits charges, investment tax credits, production tax credits, tendering, and feed-in tariffs in Southeast Asia. It assesses each of these mechanisms according to the criteria of efficacy, cost effectiveness, dynamic efficiency, equity, and fiscal responsibility. The study concludes that one mechanism, feed-in tariffs, is both the most preferred by respondents and the only one that meets all criteria. (author)

  6. A comparative analysis of renewable electricity support mechanisms for Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [National University of Singapore, Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-04-15

    This study evaluates the applicability of eight renewable electricity policy mechanisms for Southeast Asian electricity markets. It begins by describing the methodology behind 90 research interviews of stakeholders in the electricity industry. It then outlines four justifications given by respondents for government intervention to support renewables in Southeast Asia: unpriced negative externalities, counteracting subsidies for conventional energy sources, the public goods aspect of renewable energy, and the presence of non-technical barriers. The article develops an analytical framework to evaluate renewable portfolio standards, green power programs, public research and development expenditures, systems benefits charges, investment tax credits, production tax credits, tendering, and feed-in tariffs in Southeast Asia. It assesses each of these mechanisms according to the criteria of efficacy, cost effectiveness, dynamic efficiency, equity, and fiscal responsibility. The study concludes that one mechanism, feed-in tariffs, is both the most preferred by respondents and the only one that meets all criteria. (author)

  7. Revisiting Asian monsoon formation and change associated with Tibetan Plateau forcing: I. Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Guoxiong; Liu, Yimin; Duan, Anmin; Bao, Qing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Dong, Buwen [University of Reading, Department of Meteorology, National Centre for Atmospheric Science, Reading (United Kingdom); Liang, Xiaoyun [China Meteorological Administration, National Climate Center, Beijing (China); Yu, Jingjing [China Meteorological Administration, National Meteorological Information Center, Beijing (China)

    2012-09-15

    Numerical experiments with different idealized land and mountain distributions are carried out to study the formation of the Asian monsoon and related coupling processes. Results demonstrate that when there is only extratropical continent located between 0 and 120 E and between 20/30 N and the North Pole, a rather weak monsoon rainband appears along the southern border of the continent, coexisting with an intense intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). The continuous ITCZ surrounds the whole globe, prohibits the development of near-surface cross-equatorial flow, and collects water vapor from tropical oceans, resulting in very weak monsoon rainfall. When tropical lands are integrated, the ITCZ over the longitude domain where the extratropical continent exists disappears as a consequence of the development of a strong surface cross-equatorial flow from the winter hemisphere to the summer hemisphere. In addition, an intense interaction between the two hemispheres develops, tropical water vapor is transported to the subtropics by the enhanced poleward flow, and a prototype of the Asian monsoon appears. The Tibetan Plateau acts to enhance the coupling between the lower and upper tropospheric circulations and between the subtropical and tropical monsoon circulations, resulting in an intensification of the East Asian summer monsoon and a weakening of the South Asian summer monsoon. Linking the Iranian Plateau to the Tibetan Plateau substantially reduces the precipitation over Africa and increases the precipitation over the Arabian Sea and the northern Indian subcontinent, effectively contributing to the development of the South Asian summer monsoon. (orig.)

  8. [The geopolitics of tropical diseases: a geo-epidemiological perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Chan

    2005-12-01

    The objective of my article is to investigate how the West had strong interest in tropical diseases and developed tropical medicine and hygiene from the 1870s through the 1910s. Its focus is to identify the geopolitical conditions in which the West constructed 'tropical diseases' to extend its imperial interests into non-Western tropical regions. The article has several specific research tasks: first, I attempt to explore the way in which European people transformed their attitudes toward tropical diseases from the sixteenth century to the 1860s. A variety of writings by European physicians are discussed; the second part shows European change in its domestic sanitary situation in relation to its imperial interests in tropical regions. Sanitary hygiene in metropole and colonies are not separate, but interconnected; third, the paper illuminates how the West responded to the spread of 'Asiatic cholera' in the nineteenth century. Cholera provides a typical example for the West to perceive Asian origin of tropical diseases; finally, the article demonstrates that hygienic governance of tropical diseases is the key to imperial dominion over colonies by taking the Panama Canal as an example. Although several European countries such as Spain, Britain, Germany, and France had strong imperial interests in the Panama Canal that might facilitate trade between the Atlantic and the Pacific, they failed to occupy the canal because of their inability to control high prevalence of malaria and yellow fever. Taking advantage of 'tropical medicine,' the United States succeeded in taking up the canal by eradicating tropical diseases in the canal. It was owing to the scientific development of tropical hygiene and medicine that the West transformed its pessimistic into optimistic position about the colonization of tropical regions. Tropical diseases became the geopolitical reference for Western conceptualization of Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Pacific.

  9. Stakeholder views on factors influencing the wellbeing and health sector engagement of young Asian New Zealanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris-John, Roshini; Wong, Agnes; Sobrun-Maharaj, Amritha; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2016-03-01

    INTRODUCTION In New Zealand, while the term 'Asians' in popular discourse means East and South-east Asian peoples, Statistics New Zealand's definition includes people of many nationalities from East, South and South-east Asia, all with quite different cultural norms, taboos and degrees of conservatism. In a context where 'Asian' youth data are typically presented in aggregate form, there are notable gaps in knowledge regarding the contextual determinants of health in this highly heterogeneous group. This qualitative study explored key stakeholder views on issues that would be most useful to explore on the health and wellbeing of Asian youth and processes that would foster engagement of Asian youth in health research. METHODS Interviews were conducted with six key stakeholders whose professional activities were largely focused on the wellbeing of Asian people. The general inductive approach was used to identify and analyse themes in the qualitative text data. FINDINGS Six broad themes were identified from the key stakeholder interviews framed as priority areas that need further exploration: cultural identity, integration and acculturation; barriers to help-seeking; aspects to consider when engaging Asian youth in research (youth voice, empowerment and participatory approach to research); parental influence and involvement in health research; confidentiality and anonymity; and capacity building and informing policy. CONCLUSION With stakeholders strongly advocating the engagement of Asian youth in the health research agenda this study highlights the importance of engaging youth alongside service providers to collaborate on research and co-design responsive primary health care services in a multicultural setting. KEYWORDS Asian youth; New Zealand; health research; minority health; Community and social participation.

  10. Potential impacts of global warming on Australia's unique tropical biodiversity and implications for tropical biodiversity in general

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilbert, David W

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Globally, forest clearing is often thought to be the greatest threat to biodiversity in the tropics, and rates of clearing are certainly highest there, particularly in tropical South-East Asia. Climate change in the tropics has been less studied in tropical regions than in temperate, boreal or arctic ecosystems. However, modelling studies in Australian rainforests indicate that climate change may be a particularly significant threat to the long-term preservation of the biodiversity of tropical, rainforest biodiversity. Our research has shown that global warming can have a particularly strong impact on the biodiversity of mountainous tropical regions, including the Wet Tropics of north-east Queensland. Here, the mountain tops and higher tablelands are relatively cool islands in a sea of warmer climates. These species-rich islands, mostly limited in their biodiversity by warm interglacial periods, are separated from each other by the warmer valleys and form a scattered archipelago of habitat for organisms that are unable to survive and reproduce in warmer climates. Many of the endemic Australian Wet Tropics species live only in these cooler regions. Similar situations occur throughout south-east Asia and in the highlands of the Neotropics. Unfortunately, these upland and highland areas represent the majority of biodiversity conservation areas because they are less suitable for clearing for agriculture. This presentation will summarise research about the potential impacts of climate change on the biodiversity in Australia's rainforests, the potential implications for tropical biodiversity in general and discuss the limitations of these projections and the need for further research that could reduce uncertainties and inform effective adaptation strategies

  11. Genomic structure of the native inhabitants of Peninsular Malaysia and North Borneo suggests complex human population history in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Chee-Wei; Lu, Dongsheng; Deng, Lian; Wong, Lai-Ping; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Lu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoji; Yunus, Yushimah; Aghakhanian, Farhang; Mokhtar, Siti Shuhada; Hoque, Mohammad Zahirul; Voo, Christopher Lok-Yung; Abdul Rahman, Thuhairah; Bhak, Jong; Phipps, Maude E; Xu, Shuhua; Teo, Yik-Ying; Kumar, Subbiah Vijay; Hoh, Boon-Peng

    2018-02-01

    Southeast Asia (SEA) is enriched with a complex history of peopling. Malaysia, which is located at the crossroads of SEA, has been recognized as one of the hubs for early human migration. To unravel the genomic complexity of the native inhabitants of Malaysia, we sequenced 12 samples from 3 indigenous populations from Peninsular Malaysia and 4 native populations from North Borneo to a high coverage of 28-37×. We showed that the Negritos from Peninsular Malaysia shared a common ancestor with the East Asians, but exhibited some level of gene flow from South Asia, while the North Borneo populations exhibited closer genetic affinity towards East Asians than the Malays. The analysis of time of divergence suggested that ancestors of Negrito were the earliest settlers in the Malay Peninsula, whom first separated from the Papuans ~ 50-33 thousand years ago (kya), followed by East Asian (~ 40-15 kya), while the divergence time frame between North Borneo and East Asia populations predates the Austronesian expansion period implies a possible pre-Neolithic colonization. Substantial Neanderthal ancestry was confirmed in our genomes, as was observed in other East Asians. However, no significant difference was observed, in terms of the proportion of Denisovan gene flow into these native inhabitants from Malaysia. Judging from the similar amount of introgression in the Southeast Asians and East Asians, our findings suggest that the Denisovan gene flow may have occurred before the divergence of these populations and that the shared similarities are likely an ancestral component.

  12. Southeast Region Headboat Survey-Catch Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Region Headboat Survey (SRHS), administered by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Southeast Fisheries Science Center (SEFSC) personnel based at...

  13. NCDC Southeast Federal Records Center Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — East Point, Georgia is the former location of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) Southeast regional Federal Records Center (FRC). The southeast...

  14. Ethnicity predicts viral rebound after travel to the tropics in HIV-infected travelers to the tropics in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreselassie, H M; Kraus, D; Fux, C A; Haubitz, S; Scherrer, A; Hatz, C; Veit, O; Stoeckle, M; Fehr, J; de Lucia, S; Cavassini, M; Bernasconi, E; Schmid, P; Furrer, H; Staehelin, C

    2017-09-01

    The number of HIV-infected individuals from developed countries travelling to tropical and subtropical areas has increased as a result of the clinical and survival benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy. The aim of our study was to describe the traveler population in the SHCS and to determine the frequency of viral rebound in virologically suppressed individuals after a travel episode to the tropics compared to non-travelers. Swiss HIV Cohort Study participants with at least one follow-up visit between 1 January 1989 and 28 February 2015 were eligible for inclusion in the study. The primary outcome was the occurrence of viral rebound (viral load > 200 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) after a travel episode compared with a nontravel episode in previously suppressed individuals (≤ 200 copies/mL). All virologically suppressed patients contributed multiple travel or nontravel episodes to the analysis. Logistic regression was performed including factors associated with viral rebound. We included 16 635 patients in the study, of whom 6084 (36.5%) had ever travelled to the tropics. Travel frequency increased over time, with travellers showing better HIV parameters than nontravellers [less advanced Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) stage and higher CD4 count nadir]. Viral rebound was seen in 477 (3.9%) of 12 265 travel episodes and in 5121 (4.5%) of 114 884 nontravel episodes [unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-0.97]. Among these 477 post-travel viral rebounds, 115 had a resistance test performed and 51 (44%) of these showed new resistance mutations. Compared with European and North American patients, the odds for viral rebound were significantly lower in Southeast Asian (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.51-0.88) and higher in sub-Saharan African (SSA) patients (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.22-1.62). Travel further increased the odds of viral rebound in SSA patients (OR 2.00; 95% CI 1.53-2.61). Region of origin is the main risk factor for viral rebound

  15. Phylogenomic Analysis Reveals an Asian Origin for African Burkholderia pseudomallei and Further Supports Melioidosis Endemicity in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarovich, Derek S; Garin, Benoit; De Smet, Birgit; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Vandamme, Peter; Jacobs, Jan; Lompo, Palpouguini; Tahita, Marc C; Tinto, Halidou; Djaomalaza, Innocente; Currie, Bart J; Price, Erin P

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, an environmental bacterium that causes the deadly disease melioidosis, is endemic in northern Australia and Southeast Asia. An increasing number of melioidosis cases are being reported in other tropical regions, including Africa and the Indian Ocean islands. B. pseudomallei first emerged in Australia, with subsequent rare dissemination event(s) to Southeast Asia; however, its dispersal to other regions is not yet well understood. We used large-scale comparative genomics to investigate the origins of three B. pseudomallei isolates from Madagascar and two from Burkina Faso. Phylogenomic reconstruction demonstrates that these African B. pseudomallei isolates group into a single novel clade that resides within the more ancestral Asian clade. Intriguingly, South American strains reside within the African clade, suggesting more recent dissemination from West Africa to the Americas. Anthropogenic factors likely assisted in B. pseudomallei dissemination to Africa, possibly during migration of the Austronesian peoples from Indonesian Borneo to Madagascar ~2,000 years ago, with subsequent genetic diversity driven by mutation and recombination. Our study provides new insights into global patterns of B. pseudomallei dissemination and adds to the growing body of evidence of melioidosis endemicity in Africa. Our findings have important implications for melioidosis diagnosis and management in Africa. IMPORTANCE Sporadic melioidosis cases have been reported in the African mainland and Indian Ocean islands, but until recently, these regions were not considered areas where B. pseudomallei is endemic. Given the high mortality rate of melioidosis, it is crucial that this disease be recognized and suspected in all regions of endemicity. Previous work has shown that B. pseudomallei originated in Australia, with subsequent introduction into Asia; however, the precise origin of B. pseudomallei in other tropical regions remains poorly understood. Using

  16. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and subsequent photochemical production of secondary organic aerosol in mesocosm studies of temperate and tropical plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyche, K. P.; Ryan, A. C.; Hewitt, C. N.; Alfarra, M. R.; McFiggans, G.; Carr, T.; Monks, P. S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Capes, G.; Hamilton, J. F.; Pugh, T. A. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Silver birch (Betula pendula) and three Southeast Asian tropical plant species (Ficus cyathistipula, Ficus benjamina and Caryota millis) from the pantropical fig and palm genera were grown in a purpose-built and environment-controlled whole-tree chamber. The volatile organic compounds emitted from these trees were characterised and fed into a linked photochemical reaction chamber where they underwent photo-oxidation under a range of controlled conditions (relative humidity or RH ~65-89%, volatile organic compound-to-NOx or VOC / NOx ~3-9 and NOx ~2 ppbV). Both the gas phase and the aerosol phase of the reaction chamber were monitored in detail using a comprehensive suite of on-line and off-line chemical and physical measurement techniques. Silver birch was found to be a high monoterpene and sesquiterpene but low isoprene emitter, and its emissions were observed to produce measurable amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via both nucleation and condensation onto pre-existing seed aerosol (YSOA 26-39%). In contrast, all three tropical species were found to be high isoprene emitters with trace emissions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. In tropical plant experiments without seed aerosol there was no measurable SOA nucleation, but aerosol mass was shown to increase when seed aerosol was present. Although principally isoprene emitting, the aerosol mass produced from tropical fig was mostly consistent (i.e. in 78 out of 120 aerosol mass calculations using plausible parameter sets of various precursor specific yields) with condensation of photo-oxidation products of the minor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) co-emitted; no significant aerosol yield from condensation of isoprene oxidation products was required in the interpretations of the experimental results. This finding is in line with previous reports of organic aerosol loadings consistent with production from minor biogenic VOCs co-emitted with isoprene in principally isoprene-emitting landscapes in Southeast

  17. The Asian petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selwa, Christopher.

    1996-03-01

    The Asian Petrochemical Industry brings you up to date with the latest developments in this dynamic region and covers all the key issues, giving detailed analysis and comment on: the general economic outlook; demand and production trends for basic petrochemicals and specialities in individual countries; political stability and how with affects growth and investment opportunities; security of supply; the import of petrochemicals and the aim of the region to become a net exporter by 2000; capacity increases - the relative merits of new plant construction versus expanding existing plants; the financing of petrochemical projects; the use of appropriate projects; the use of appropriate technology and patent provision in the Gatt treaty; increasing environmental concerns and the 'responsible care' initiative. The Asian Petrochemical Industry presents an overview of each Asian player in the petrochemical and associated industries, comparing and contrasting the countries within the region. (Author)

  18. Economic growth and change in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2004-01-01

    This report focuses on economic trends since the 1970s in rural southeast Alaska. These trends are compared with those in the Nation and in nonmetropolitan areas of the country to determine the extent to which the economy in rural southeast Alaska is affected by regional activity and by larger market forces. Many of the economic changes occurring in rural southeast...

  19. Educational Attainment in Southeast Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, Laura; Henken, Rob; Dickman, Anneliese

    2010-01-01

    In metro Milwaukee, as a part of the WIRED Initiative, the Regional Workforce Alliance (RWA)--a collaboration of organizations representing workforce development, economic development and education across southeast Wisconsin--has established the framework for pursuing the local talent dividend goal and a regional strategy for increasing…

  20. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  1. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  2. Lupus among Asians and Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... threatening. According to recent studies supported by CDC, Asian women and Hispanic women are more likely to be ... Francisco were funded later to estimate how many Asian and Hispanic women and men have lupus. These two new studies— ...

  3. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain medications. Are There Any Special Issues for Asian Women Regarding Bone Health? Recent studies indicate a number ... regard to developing osteoporosis: Compared with Caucasian women, Asian women have been found to consume less calcium. One ...

  4. Representations of desires in some recent gay Asian-American writings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Stephen O

    2003-01-01

    This article explores conceptions of same-sex sexual behavior and desires by American gay males who grew up in Pacific Island or Asian societies. In the absence of systematic survey data, representations, which are not assumed to be autobiographical, by two South Asian émigrés to Canada (Badruddin Khan and Shyam Selvadurai), two second generation Filipino-Americans (Joël Tan and Ricardo Ramos), a second generation Chinese-Hawaiian (Norman Wong) and three men of Chinese descent born and raised in Southeast Asia (Lawrence Chua, Justin Chin, and T. C. Huo) are examined. The unsatisfying script of sexual submission of Asians to whites is particularly central, except for the South Asians. These books provide recurrent evidence of role distance, of switching roles (often without rewriting a dominance-submission conception of insertion-reception) and of some degree of reconceiving the (sexual) self.

  5. Piomiosite tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José de Araújo Torres

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve 7 casos de piomiosite tropical, enfatizando a exceção que constituem, quando se considera a extrema raridade da supuração muscular em outras doenças e citando várias idéias existentes quanto à sua patogenia. O quadro clínico dos 7 casos é semelhante à maioria dos já relatados em outros trabalhos, aparecendo entretanto piodermite em 2 doentes, o que não é comum. A freqüência da eosinofilia e a normalidade de enzimas geralmente elevadas em outras miopatias, estão de acordo com as publicações existentes. Embora o tratamento seja basicamente cirúrgico, aceita a possibilidade de cura com antibióticos, cujo uso empírico poderia abortar inúmeros casos, contribuindo para o virtual desconhecimento da doença no meio brasileiro. Considera provável ser grande número de doentes tratado como portadores de abscessos como quaisquer outros, sem se atentar para a já referida resistência dos músculos esqueléticos à supuração. Dá importância ao desconhecimento da doença como causa de demora no diagnóstico, com possíveis repercussões no prognóstico. Esse fato, aliado a semelhanças climáticas de certas regiões brasileiras com zonas africanas onde a incidência é alta, justifica, segundo o autor, maior interesse pela doença.Seven cases of tropical pyomyositis are reported emphasizing the unique character of muscular suppuration, an exceedingly unusual occurrence in other diseases; possible explanations as to the pathogenical mechanismsare reviewed. Clinical aspects are similar to those of previously described cases but for pyodermitis, an unconmmon feature found in two cases. Eosinophila and normal leveis of serum enzymes usually altered in other muscle diseases are also in accordance to previous papers. Surgical drainage is the treatment of choice, but the early administration of antibiotics might abort the evolution of many cases; the empirical use of such drugs modifies clinical course and most patients

  6. Piomiosite tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José de Araújo Torres

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve 7 casos de piomiosite tropical, enfatizando a exceção que constituem, quando se considera a extrema raridade da supuração muscular em outras doenças e citando várias idéias existentes quanto à sua patogenia. O quadro clínico dos 7 casos é semelhante à maioria dos já relatados em outros trabalhos, aparecendo entretanto piodermite em 2 doentes, o que não é comum. A freqüência da eosinofilia e a normalidade de enzimas geralmente elevadas em outras miopatias, estão de acordo com as publicações existentes. Embora o tratamento seja basicamente cirúrgico, aceita a possibilidade de cura com antibióticos, cujo uso empírico poderia abortar inúmeros casos, contribuindo para o virtual desconhecimento da doença no meio brasileiro. Considera provável ser grande número de doentes tratado como portadores de abscessos como quaisquer outros, sem se atentar para a já referida resistência dos músculos esqueléticos à supuração. Dá importância ao desconhecimento da doença como causa de demora no diagnóstico, com possíveis repercussões no prognóstico. Esse fato, aliado a semelhanças climáticas de certas regiões brasileiras com zonas africanas onde a incidência é alta, justifica, segundo o autor, maior interesse pela doença.

  7. Cervical cancer prevention training in South East Asian LMICs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Soon-Yau Ng

    2017-02-01

    Singapore is a first-world economy with a healthcare system that can support this mode of training and is geographically proximate to Southeast Asian LMICs that need this training. This makes it possible for model of tiered training with trainers on site in the LMICs and more advanced training where trainees receive training in Singapore. We present a case study where this tiered system of training is applied to Cambodia and demonstrate that this model of training is not only effective but also sustainable.

  8. Scrolling and Strolling, Asian Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Joan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a lesson on Asian cultures. Asian cultures demonstrate respect for nature through their art. Students learned how to use Asian brush techniques and designs to create scrolls. They also learned how to write Haiku, a three-line form of poetry that uses a pattern of syllables.

  9. South Asian Diaspora in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2005-01-01

    and exclusion, individualization and interdependency, these relationships are delineated on the basis of two empirical projects, combined with an array of secondary sources. South Asian youth are becoming a part of the receiving society along with developing their complex diaspora identities through strategies...... societies, South Asian countries and the South Asian diaspora living in Scandinavia....

  10. Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in Taiwan: Comparison between women born in Taiwan and other southeast countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yu-Jie

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan's national vaccination program has successfully decreased the prevalence of hepatitis B infection after twenty years of implementation and might be indirectly beneficial to the second generation. In this study, we compared the hepatitis B infection status of two groups: pregnant Taiwanese women and other Southeast Asian women, who because they had immigrated later in life to Taiwan by marriage to a Taiwanese man, had not been exposed to that vaccination program to evaluate the effect of hepatitis vaccination program on women of child-bearing age and further explored the potential impact of immigration on the hepatitis B public health policy in Taiwan. Methods Data was collected from 10,327 women born in Taiwan and 1,418 women born in other Southeast Asian countries, both groups receiving prenatal examinations at Fooyin University Hospital between 1996 and 2005. The results of serum hepatitis B s-Antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis B e-Antigen (HBeAg tests and other demographic data were obtained by medical chart review. Results The pregnant women from Taiwan had a higher HBsAg positive rate (15.5% but lower HBeAg(+/HBsAg(+ ratio (32.1% than the women from other countries (8.9% and 52.4%. For those born before July, 1984, the period of no national vaccination program, Taiwanese women had a higher HBsAg positive rate than other Southeast Asian women (15.7% vs. 8.4%, but for women born after that day and before June 1986, the period of vaccination for high risk newborns, the HBsAg positive rates found to be slightly lower for Taiwanese women than for other Southeast Asian women (11.4% vs. 12.3% and the difference was more significant (3.1% vs. 28.6% after June 1986, the period of vaccination for all newborns. While the HBeAg(+/HBsAg(+ ratios decreased with age in both groups, they were consistently higher in women from other Southeast Asian countries than in women born in Taiwan after age 20. Conclusion In Taiwan, the neonatal

  11. HIV Among Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Asians in the United States Format: Select ...

  12. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds,

  13. Asian Media Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research...

  14. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region...

  15. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is expected to become an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ... of all cases of blindness from glaucoma in China. There is great racial diversity among Asian populations, and these differences are represented in the presentation ...

  16. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  17. Diabetes in Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Rhee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally, particularly in Asia. According to the 2013 Diabetes Atlas, an estimated 366 million people are affected by diabetes worldwide; 36% of those affected live in the Western Pacific region, with a significant proportion in East Asia. The reasons for this marked increase in the prevalence of diabetes can be extrapolated from several distinct features of the Asian region. First, the two most populated countries, China and India, are located in Asia. Second, Asians have experienced extremely rapid economic growth, including rapid changes in dietary patterns, during the past decades. As a result, Asians tend to have more visceral fat within the same body mass index range compared with Westerners. In addition, increased insulin resistance relative to reduced insulin secretory function is another important feature of Asian individuals with diabetes. Young age of disease onset is also a distinctive characteristic of these patients. Moreover, changing dietary patterns, such as increased consumption of white rice and processed red meat, contributes to the deteriorated lifestyle of this region. Recent studies suggest a distinctive responsiveness to novel anti-diabetic agents in Asia; however, further research and efforts to reverse the increasing prevalence of diabetes are needed worldwide.

  18. Australian Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Moreno; Javier F. Navas

    2003-01-01

    We study European options on the ratio of the stock price to its average and viceversa. Some of these options are traded in the Australian Stock Exchange since 1992, thus we call them Australian Asian options. For geometric averages, we obtain closed-form expressions for option prices. For arithmetic means, we use different approximations that produce very similar results.

  19. Malaysian Cinema, Asian Film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der William

    2002-01-01

    This title series departs from traditional studies of national cinema by accentuating the intercultural and intertextual links between Malaysian films and Asian (as well as European and American) film practices. Using cross-cultural analysis, the author characterizes Malaysia as a pluralist society

  20. Thyroid cancer incidence among Asian immigrants to Ontario, Canada: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Baiju R; Griffiths, Rebecca; Hall, Stephen F

    2017-09-01

    The highest rates of thyroid cancer are observed in Pacific Island nations as well as Australia and Asian countries bordering the Pacific. The objective of this study was to determine the risk for thyroid cancer among immigrants to Canada from Southeast and East Asia compared with immigrants from other regions and nonimmigrants. This was a population-based, longitudinal cohort study using health care administrative data to examine all residents of Ontario without pre-existing thyroid cancer. Individuals were followed from January 1997 or 5 years after they became eligible for health care coverage in Ontario, whichever came later. Patients were followed until March 2015 for incident-differentiated thyroid cancer, and then for recurrence. The study followed 14,659,733 individuals for a median of 17 years. Thyroid cancer incidence was 43.8 cases per 100,000 person-years among Southeast Asian immigrants, 28.6 cases per 100,000 person-years among East Asian immigrants, 21.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among other immigrants, and 14.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among nonimmigrants. Incidence was highest among immigrants from the Philippines (52.7 cases per 100,000 person-years), South Korea (33.5 cases per 100,000 person-years), and China (30.0 cases per 100,000 person-years). Adjusted hazard ratios for thyroid cancer compared with nonimmigrants were 2.66 (95% confidence interval, 2.48-2.84) for Southeast Asian immigrants, 1.87 (95% confidence interval, 1.75-2.00) for East Asian immigrants, and 1.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.45-1.57) for other immigrants. Immigrants were more likely to have papillary histology and stage I cancer. East Asian immigrants, but not Southeast Asian immigrants, had a lower risk of recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.94] and 1.01 [95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.26], respectively). Immigrants from Southeast and East Asia had markedly higher thyroid cancer incidence than nonimmigrants. At particularly elevated