WorldWideScience

Sample records for tropical production systems

  1. Development and application of a crossbreeding simulation model for goat production systems in tropical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Y; Oishi, K; Hirooka, H

    2011-12-01

    A deterministic simulation model was developed to estimate biological production efficiency and to evaluate goat crossbreeding systems under tropical conditions. The model involves 5 production systems: pure indigenous, first filial generations (F1), backcross (BC), composite breeds of F1 (CMP(F1)), and BC (CMP(BC)). The model first simulates growth, reproduction, lactation, and energy intakes of a doe and a kid on a 1-d time step at the individual level and thereafter the outputs are integrated into the herd dynamics program. The ability of the model to simulate individual performances was tested under a base situation. The simulation results represented daily BW changes, ME requirements, and milk yield and the estimates were within the range of published data. Two conventional goat production scenarios (an intensive milk production scenario and an integrated goat and oil palm production scenario) in Malaysia were examined. The simulation results of the intensive milk production scenario showed the greater production efficiency of the CMP(BC) and CMP(F1) systems and decreased production efficiency of the F1 and BC systems. The results of the integrated goat and oil palm production scenario showed that the production efficiency and stocking rate were greater for the indigenous goats than for the crossbreeding systems.

  2. Long term hydrogen production potential of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system in tropical weather of Singapore

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-08-23

    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system provides highest solar energy conversion efficiency among all the photovoltaic technologies and provides the most suitable option to convert solar energy into hydrogen, as future sustainable energy carrier. So far, only conventional flat plate PV systems are being used for almost all of the commercial applications. However, most of the studies have only shown the maximum efficiency of hydrogen production using CPV. In actual field conditions, the performance of CPV-Hydrogen system is affected by many parameter and it changes continuously during whole day operation. In this paper, the daily average and long term performances are proposed to analyze the real field potential of the CPV-Hydrogen system, which is of main interest for designers and consumers. An experimental setup is developed and a performance model is proposed to investigate the average and long term production potential of CPV-Hydrogen system. The study is carried out in tropical weather of Singapore. The maximum CPV efficiency of 27-28% and solar to hydrogen (STH) efficiency of 18%, were recorded. In addition, the CPV-Hydrogen system showed the long term average efficiency of 15.5%, for period of one year (12-months), with electrolyser rating of 47 kWh/kg and STH production potential of 218 kWh/kg. Based upon the DNI availability, the system showed hydrogen production potential of 0.153-0.553 kg/m/month, with average production of 0.43 kg/m/month. However, CPV-Hydrogen system has shown annual hydrogen production potential of 5.162 kg/m/year in tropical weather of Singapore.

  3. Importance of silvopastoral systems on caloric stress reduction in tropical livestock productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Navas Panadero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock systems in Colombia have been developed taking concepts and technologies from the green revolution, where gramineous monocrop is privileged over arboreal cover in grazing lands. This model has not taken into account the climatic conditions of the different tropical ecosystems, in which variables as temperature, relative humidity and evaporation can limit the animal´s productive and reproductive efficiency, besides being a risk factor for illness occurrence in the herd. Bos Taurus and Bos Indicus breeds show termoneutral ranges where its genetic potential can be express. However, out of this comfort area animals can enter in caloric stress which in consequence reduces its performance and sometimes can end up causing death. Silvopastoral systems comprise several functions; it contributes to lessen caloric stress since temperature under the tree canopy can reach between 2 and 9°C lower in comparison to open pastures. Differences in temperature reduction have been found among silvopastoral systems and species, being the tree group arrangements and the species with high density canopy, those with superior effect. Interactions among components should be analyzed in order to design systems that incorporate enough arboreal cover to achieve caloric stress reductions, but without affecting forage production in pastures. Silvopastoral systems contribute to improve animal welfare.

  4. Identifying N fertilizer regime and vegetable production system in tropical Brazil using (15) N natural abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Caio T; Urquiaga, Segundo; Chalk, Phillip M; Mata, Maria Gabriela F; Souza, Paulo O

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted in areas of vegetable production in tropical Brazil, with the objectives of (i) measuring the variation in δ(15)  N in soils, organic N fertilizer sources and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) from different farming systems, (ii) measuring whether plant δ(15)  N can differentiate organic versus conventional lettuce and (iii) identifying the factors affecting lettuce δ(15)  N. Samples of soil, lettuce and organic inputs were taken from two organic, one conventional and one hydroponic farm. The two organic farms had different N-sources with δ(15)  N values ranging from 0.0 to +14.9‰ (e.g. leguminous green manure and animal manure compost, respectively), and differed significantly (P hydroponic lettuce δ(15)  N (+4.5 ± 0.2‰) due to manure inputs. The N from leguminous green manure made a small contribution to the N nutrition of lettuce in the multi-N-source organic farm. To differentiate organic versus conventional farms using δ(15)  N the several subsets of mode of fertilization should be considered. Comparisons of δ(15)  N of soil, organic inputs and lettuce allowed a qualitative analysis of the relative importance of different N inputs. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Microorganisms in Soils of Bovine Production Systems in Tropical Lowlands and Tropical Highlands in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Molina-Guzmán, Licet Paola; Henao-Jaramillo, Paula Andrea; Gutiérrez-Builes, Lina Andrea; Ríos-Osorio, Leonardo Alberto

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the physical and chemical effects of extensive grazing on soils have been performed in Colombia, but the effects of dairy cattle rearing on the biological properties of soils are not well known. The objective of this study was to evaluate microorganisms in 48 soils from livestock farms in the highland and lowland tropics in the Northern and Magdalena Medio subregions of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia). Principal component analysis demonstrated differences in the edaphic comp...

  6. Microorganisms in Soils of Bovine Production Systems in Tropical Lowlands and Tropical Highlands in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licet Paola Molina-Guzmán

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the physical and chemical effects of extensive grazing on soils have been performed in Colombia, but the effects of dairy cattle rearing on the biological properties of soils are not well known. The objective of this study was to evaluate microorganisms in 48 soils from livestock farms in the highland and lowland tropics in the Northern and Magdalena Medio subregions of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia. Principal component analysis demonstrated differences in the edaphic compositions of the soils, with increased percentages of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the density of microorganisms in farms that have soils with moderate phosphorus and nitrogen contents, low potassium content, and a moderately acidic pH. Agglomerative cluster analysis showed two groups for the highland tropic soils and six groups for the lowland tropic soils based on their population densities and interactions with the studied parameters. These results represent a first attempt to describe the density of microorganisms and the effect of soil physicochemical parameters on colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in areas with determinant agroecological conditions, microbial functional diversity, and the presence of mycorrhizal fungi in livestock farm soils in Colombia.

  7. Tropical Cyclone Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P. Peggy; Knosp, Brian W.; Vu, Quoc A.; Yi, Chao; Hristova-Veleva, Svetla M.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Tropical Cyclone Infor ma tion System (TCIS) is a Web portal (http://tropicalcyclone.jpl.nasa.gov) that provides researchers with an extensive set of observed hurricane parameters together with large-scale and convection resolving model outputs. It provides a comprehensive set of high-resolution satellite (see figure), airborne, and in-situ observations in both image and data formats. Large-scale datasets depict the surrounding environmental parameters such as SST (Sea Surface Temperature) and aerosol loading. Model outputs and analysis tools are provided to evaluate model performance and compare observations from different platforms. The system pertains to the thermodynamic and microphysical structure of the storm, the air-sea interaction processes, and the larger-scale environment as depicted by ocean heat content and the aerosol loading of the environment. Currently, the TCIS is populated with satellite observations of all tropical cyclones observed globally during 2005. There is a plan to extend the database both forward in time till present as well as backward to 1998. The portal is powered by a MySQL database and an Apache/Tomcat Web server on a Linux system. The interactive graphic user interface is provided by Google Map.

  8. Long term hydrogen production potential of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system in tropical weather of Singapore

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad; Chua, Kian Jon Ernest; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    far, only conventional flat plate PV systems are being used for almost all of the commercial applications. However, most of the studies have only shown the maximum efficiency of hydrogen production using CPV. In actual field conditions, the performance

  9. Soil carbon sequestration in rainfed production systems in the semiarid tropics of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasarao, Ch; Lal, Rattan; Kundu, Sumanta; Babu, M B B Prasad; Venkateswarlu, B; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-07-15

    Severe soil organic carbon (SOC) depletion is a major constraint in rainfed agroecosystems in India because it directly influences soil quality, crop productivity and sustainability. The magnitude of soil organic, inorganic and total carbon stocks in the semi-arid bioclimate is estimated at 2.9, 1.9 and 4.8 Pg respectively. Sorghum, finger millet, pearl millet, maize, rice, groundnut, soybean, cotton, food legumes etc. are predominant crop production systems with a little, if any, recycling of organic matter. Data from the long term experiments on major rainfed production systems in India show that higher amount of crop residue C input (Mg/ha/y) return back to soil in soybean-safflower (3.37) system practiced in Vertisol region of central India. Long term addition of chemical fertilizer and organic amendments improved the SOC stock. For every Mg/ha increase in SOC stock in the root zone, there occurs an increase in grain yield (kg/ha) of 13, 101, 90, 170, 145, 18 and 160 for groundnut, finger millet, sorghum, pearl millet, soybean and rice, respectively. Long-term cropping without using any organic amendment and/or mineral fertilizers can severely deplete the SOC stock which is the highest in groundnut-finger millet system (0.92 Mg C/ha/y) in Alfisols. Some agroforestry systems also have a huge potential of C sequestration to the extent of 10Mg/ha/y in short rotation eucalyptus and Leucaena plantations. The critical level of C input requirements for maintaining SOC at the antecedent level ranges from 1.1 to 3.5 Mg C/ha/y and differs among soil type and production systems. National level policy interventions needed to promote sustainable use of soil and water resources include prohibiting residue burning, reducing deforestation, promoting integrated farming systems and facilitating payments for ecosystem services. A wide spread adoption of these measures can improve soil quality through increase in SOC sequestration and improvement in agronomic productivity of

  10. JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) brings together satellite and in situ data sets from various sources to help you find information for a particular...

  11. Evaluation of local energy sources in milk production in a tropical silvopastoral system with Erythrina poeppigiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ferrer, Guillermo; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Alayón-Gamboa, Armando

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of four local energy sources (sorghum grain, green banana, polished rice, and sugarcane molasses) fed to dairy cows on intake, milk production and composition, and economic viability in a silvopastoral system in Costa Rica (Turrialba). Twelve grazing cows (Jersey × Central American Milking Creole), with a mean live weight of 332 kg (SD 34), were supplemented with 0.5 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg/LW of Erythrina porppigiana fresh foliage daily. Experimental design was a replicated change-over 4 × 4 Latin Square. The pasture composition was 11 and 17 % of star grass (Cynodon niemfuensis), 32 and 28 % of ruzzi grass (Brachiaria rusisiensis), and 45 and 42 % of natural grasses (Axonopus compresus and Paspalum conjugatum) at initial and final times of the essay, respectively. The grass allowance was 30.14 DM/cow/day. Significant differences were found among treatments for variable milk fat content (P  0.05) resulted for total milk production (sorghum 9.0 kg/cow/day; green banana 8.9 kg/cow/day; polished rice 8.8 kg/cow/day; molasses 8.6 kg/cow/day) and fat-corrected milk (FCM). The financial analysis showed that all treatments were economically viable; however, supplementation with green bananas and molasses were the most favorable due to the low costs incurred.

  12. Changes in the Diversity of Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi after Cultivation for Biofuel Production in a Guantanamo (Cuba) Tropical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Hernández, Guillermina; Roldán, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a native vegetation soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba), in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity) were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare) did not occur in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C) were higher in the soil cultivated with the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the native vegetation soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable for the long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosytems. PMID:22536339

  13. Changes in the diversity of soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi after cultivation for biofuel production in a Guantanamo (Cuba tropical system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Alguacil

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a native vegetation soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba, in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare did not occur in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C were higher in the soil cultivated with the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the native vegetation soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable for the long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosytems.

  14. Primary production of tropical marine ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattathiri, P.M.A.

    Among tropical marine ecosystems estuaries are one of the highly productive areas and act as a nursery to large number of organisms. The primary production in most of the estuaries is less during the monsoon period. Post-monsoon period shows...

  15. Mixed grazing systems of goats with cattle in tropical conditions: an alternative to improving animal production in the pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Alexis, S; Periacarpin, F; Jackson, F; Boval, M

    2014-08-01

    Mixed grazing systems combining sheep and cattle have shown better growth performance for one or both species. This observation has been attributed to their complementary feeding behaviour and the reduced host infection by gastrointestinal nematodes. Less attention has been paid to mixed grazing systems combining goats and cattle. Here, continuously grazing goats mixed with cattle (M) were compared with control goats reared alone (C) under tropical conditions. The comparison was conducted with gastrointestinal nematode-infected (I) and non-infected (nI) goats. Thus, the four treatments were cattle with gastrointestinal nematode-infected goats (MI), gastrointestinal nematode-infected goats alone (CI), cattle with non-infected goats (MnI) and non-infected goats (CnI). Average daily gain (ADG, g/day) and grass production were measured for the four groups of animals (six goats and two heifers treated with MI or MnI) grazing for 3 months on 4 subplots. Monthly measurements were performed over 5-day periods. This pattern was replicated in space for a second set of four subplots and in time for six successive cohorts of animals (bands 1 to 6). The ADG of goats in mixed grazing conditions was higher than controls irrespective of the infection status (32.6 v. 18.4 g/day for MI v. CI; 44.2 v. 33.5 g/day for MnI v. CnI). Concomitantly, the average biomass was lower for mixed grazing animals compared with controls (174 v. 170 for MI and MnI; 235 v. 208 for CI and CnI, respectively), suggesting better use of the sward. For daily BW gain (g/kg DM), mixed grazing also yielded better results than the control (1.88 v. 0.52 g BW/kg DM per day for MI v. CI; 2.08 v. 1.47 g BW/kg DM per day for MnI and CnI). Mixed grazing of goats and heifers offers a promising alternative for increasing goat and overall animal production as well as improving the management of pastures.

  16. Modelling nutrient management in tropical cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Delve, R. (ed.); Probert, M. (ed.)

    2004-01-01

    Metadata only record In tropical regions, organic materials are often more important than fertilizers in maintaining soil fertility, yet fertilizer recommendations and most crop models are unable to take account of the level and quality of organic inputs that farmers use. Computer simulation models, such as the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) developed by CSIRO and the Queensland Department of Primary Industries, have proven their value in many cropping environments. Thes...

  17. Introduction of energy-production systems from plant resources. The question of transferring to agricultural-production systems in tropical Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, F.

    1981-01-01

    The current economic and food situations of the African countries located in the semi-arid zones are introduced. The case of the region north of Maradi, Niger, is taken as an example of the ecological use of a rural environment. The results of the experimental unit at Thysse Kaynor Sonkorong, Senegambia, are examined with regard to the energy balance of the rural eco-system. The use of technologies for biomass production to develop small irrigated fields is examined.

  18. Diversity of Ammonia Oxidizing Archaea in Tropical Compost Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vidya eDe Gannes; Gaius eEudoxie; David H Dyer; William James Hickey

    2012-01-01

    Composting is widely used to transform waste materials into valuable agricultural products. In the tropics, large quantities of agricultural wastes could be potentially useful in agriculture after composting. However, while microbiological processes of composts in general are well established, relatively little is known about microbial communities that may be unique to these in tropical systems, particularly nitrifiers. The recent discovery of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) has changed the p...

  19. Polycyclic selection system for the tropical rainforests of northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen T. Dale; Grahame B. Applegate

    1992-01-01

    The polycyclic selection logging system developed and practiced for many years in the tropical rainforests of north Queensland has been successful in integrating timber production with the protection of conservation values. The system has been used by the Queensland Forest Service to manage north Queensland rainforests. The Queensland system has considerable potential...

  20. PRODUCTIVITY AND TICK LOAD IN Bos Indicus X B. taurus CATTLE IN A TROPICAL DRY FOREST SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sofía Salazar Benjumea

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks cause significant economic losses to the Colombian cattle sector: reduction in meat and milk production, blood losses and transmission of blood parasites. The degree of infestation depends on the breed, physiological state and nutrition of the animal and on microclimatic characteristics, which affect the tick life cycle. Diverse studies suggest that given the characteristics of intensive silvopastoral systems (ISS, tick loads within these systems are lower. In this study, the tick loads of grazing animals were monitored for five animal groups: three at an ISS and two at traditional farms located on the Valley of Ibague (Tolima. within the ISS, there were greater tick loads in high production cows (P = 0.026 and a positive relationship (P < 0.05 between milk production and tick load in August sampling. Greater tick counts were also observed in the in San Javier (traditional farm group compared to all other animal groups. We conclude that the dynamics of ticks is a complex phenomenon affected by many factors, whose association determines the observed tick population at any given time.

  1. Growth, biomass production and photosynthesis of Cenchrus ciliaris L. under Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne based silvopastoral systems in semi arid tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A K; Tiwari, H S; Bhatt, R K

    2010-11-01

    The growth, biomass production and photosynthesis of Cenchrus ciliaris was studied under the canopies of 17 yr old Acacia tortilis trees in semi arid tropical environment. On an average the full grown canopy of A. tortilis at the spacing of 4 x 4 m allowed 55% of total Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) which in turn increased Relative Humidity (RH) and reduced under canopy temperature to -1.75 degrees C over the open air temperature. C. ciliaris attained higher height under the shade of A. tortilis. The tiller production and leaf area index decreased marginally under the shade of tree canopies as compared to the open grown grasses. C. ciliaris accumulated higher chlorophyll a and b under the shade of tree canopies indicating its shade adaptation potential. The assimilatory functions such as rate of photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic water use efficiency (PN/TR) and carboxylation efficiency (PN/CINT) decreased under the tree canopies due to low availability of PAR. The total biomass production in term of fresh and dry weight decreased under the tree canopies. On average of 2 yr C. ciliaris had produced 12.78 t ha(-1) green and 3.72 -t ha(-1) dry biomass under the tree canopies of A. tortilis. The dry matter yield reduced to 38% under the tree canopies over the open grown grasses. The A. tortilis + C. ciliaris maintained higher soil moisture, organic carbon content and available N P K for sustainable biomass production for the longer period. The higher accumulation of crude protein, starch, sugar and nitrogen in leaves and stem of C. ciliaris indicates that this grass species also maintained its quality under A. tortilis based silvopastoral system. The photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation are closely associated with available PAR indicating that for sustainable production of this grass species in the silvopasture systems for longer period about 55% or more PAR is required.

  2. Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis differentially affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in soil when cultivated for biofuel production in a Guantanamo (Cuba) tropical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Hernández, G.; Torres, P.; Roldán, A.

    2012-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a control soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba), in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity) were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare) disappeared in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C) were improved by the cultivation of the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the control soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable in long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosystems.

  3. Birds as predators in tropical agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bael, Sunshine A; Philpott, Stacy M; Greenberg, Russell; Bichier, Peter; Barber, Nicholas A; Mooney, Kailen A; Gruner, Daniel S

    2008-04-01

    Insectivorous birds reduce arthropod abundances and their damage to plants in some, but not all, studies where predation by birds has been assessed. The variation in bird effects may be due to characteristics such as plant productivity or quality, habitat complexity, and/or species diversity of predator and prey assemblages. Since agroforestry systems vary in such characteristics, these systems provide a good starting point for understanding when and where we can expect predation by birds to be important. We analyze data from bird exclosure studies in forests and agroforestry systems to ask whether birds consistently reduce their arthropod prey base and whether bird predation differs between forests and agroforestry systems. Further, we focus on agroforestry systems to ask whether the magnitude of bird predation (1) differs between canopy trees and understory plants, (2) differs when migratory birds are present or absent, and (3) correlates with bird abundance and diversity. We found that, across all studies, birds reduce all arthropods, herbivores, carnivores, and plant damage. We observed no difference in the magnitude of bird effects between agroforestry systems and forests despite simplified habitat structure and plant diversity in agroforests. Within agroforestry systems, bird reduction of arthropods was greater in the canopy than the crop layer. Top-down effects of bird predation were especially strong during censuses when migratory birds were present in agroforestry systems. Importantly, the diversity of the predator assemblage correlated with the magnitude of predator effects; where the diversity of birds, especially migratory birds, was greater, birds reduced arthropod densities to a greater extent. We outline potential mechanisms for relationships between bird predator, insect prey, and habitat characteristics, and we suggest future studies using tropical agroforests as a model system to further test these areas of ecological theory.

  4. Management of tropical forests for products and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    John I. Zerbe

    1992-01-01

    Tropical forests have always been sources for prized timbers, rubber, tannin, and other forest products for use worldwide. However, with the recent concern regarding global change, the importance of effective forest products management and utilization has increased significantly. The USDA Forest Service's Forest Products Laboratory at Madison, Wisconsin, has...

  5. Development of livestock production in the tropics: farm and farmers’ perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, S.J.; Udo, H.M.J.; Viets, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    Because of an increasing demand for animal-source foods, an increasing desire to reduce poverty and an increasing need to reduce the environmental impact of livestock production, tropical farming systems with livestock must increase their productivity. An important share of the global human and

  6. Organic livestock production: an emerging opportunity with new challenges for producers in tropical countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, M; Subrahmanyeswari, B; Mukherjee, R; Kumar, S

    2011-12-01

    Agrochemicals, veterinary drugs, antibiotics and improved feeds can increase the food supply while minimising production costs in various livestock production systems around the world. However, these days, quality-conscious consumers are increasingly seeking environmentally safe, chemical-residue-free healthy foods, along with product traceability and a high standard of animal welfare, which organic production methods are said to ensure. Organic production is not only a challenge for producers in developing countries, it offers new export opportunities as well. Organic agriculture is practised by 1.8 million producers in 160 countries, and production of organically grown food continues to increase steadily by 15% per year. Most tropical countries are now exporting organic agricultural products but, apart from organic beef from Brazil and Argentina, organic livestock products are yetto take off. Most trade in organic livestock products is restricted to the European Union and other developed nations. Nevertheless, tropical countries cannot afford to neglect this emerging system of animal production. Organic production is knowledge- and management-intensive. Producers must be well versed in organic production standards, principles and practices, which require a high degree of knowledge and skill. In organic production, it is not simply the final product but the whole production process that must be inspected and approved by the accredited certification bodies. Organic livestock farming is still evolving, and further research is needed to make it sustainable. In this paper, the authors review the prospects of organic animal husbandry and its possible constraints in developing and tropical countries.

  7. Nitrogenous nutrients and primary production in a tropical oceanic environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.; Devassy, V.P.

    Measurements of the concentrations of nitrogenous nutrients and primary production were made at 10 stations along 8 degrees N and 10 degrees N in the tropical oceanic Lakshadweep waters Inorganic nitrogen (NO3, NO2 and NH4) accounted for less than...

  8. Diversity of Ammonia Oxidizing Archaea in Tropical Compost Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya eDe Gannes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Composting is widely used to transform waste materials into valuable agricultural products. In the tropics, large quantities of agricultural wastes could be potentially useful in agriculture after composting. However, while microbiological processes of composts in general are well established, relatively little is known about microbial communities that may be unique to these in tropical systems, particularly nitrifiers. The recent discovery of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA has changed the paradigm of nitrification being initiated solely by ammonia oxidizing bacteria. In the present study, AOA abundance and diversity was examined in composts produced from combinations of plant waste materials common in tropical agriculture (rice straw, sugar cane bagasse, coffee hulls, which were mixed with either cow- or sheep-manure. The objective was to determine how AOA abundance and diversity varied as a function of compost system and time, the latter being a contrast between the start of the compost process (mesophilic phase and the finished product (mature phase. The results showed that AOA were relatively abundant in composts of tropical agricultural wastes, and significantly more so than were the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Furthermore, while the AOA communities in the composts were predominatly group I.1b, the communities were diverse and exhibited structures that diverged between compost types and phases. These patterns could be taken as indicators of the ecophysiological diversity in the soil AOA (groub I.1b, in that significantly different AOA communties developed when exposed to varying physico-chemical environments. Nitrification patterns and levels differed in the composts which, for the mature material, could have signifcant effects on its performanc as a plant growth medium. Thus, it will also be important to determine the association of AOA (and diversity in their communities with nitrification in these systems.

  9. milled degermed maize products for tropical countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... satisfaction scores were registered for the different products after increasing ... tion, particularly as a thick dough prepared by boiling ... particular to residual lipids originating from the germ, .... dispersed in 300 ml of cold water.

  10. Growing tropical forage legumes in full sun and silvopastoral systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Alberto do Carmo Araújo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth was evaluated three tropical forage legumes in two cropping systems: silvopastoral system (SSP and full sun. A completely randomized design was adopted in factorial three legumes (estilosanthes cv. Campo Grande (Stylozanthes macrocephala x Stylozanthes capitata, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth and macrotiloma (Macrotyloma axillare cv. Java x two farming systems, with 4 repetitions. A eucalyptus SSP already deployed, with spatial arrangement of 12 x 2 m between trees was used. Legumes were planted in January 2014 a uniform cut being made in May 2014. The court assessment was carried out 125 days after the uniformity cut. There was difference for mass production of dry legumes (PMMSL between cultivation systems, evidencing increased productivity in the farming full sun. The macrotiloma showed higher PMSL (5.29 kg DM ha-1 cut-1, while the kudzu obtained the lowest yield (3.42 kg DM ha-1 cut-1 in the sun growing full. The cultivation of legumes in SSP increased the levels of mineral matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber. The shade provided by the SSP caused a reduction in the mass of dry matter production, but also altered the chemical composition of the studied legumes.

  11. Ethanol production from tropical sugar beet juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sanette

    2012-07-05

    Jul 5, 2012 ... South Africa and transport costs constitute approximately. 20% of South Africa's gross domestic product (Singh,. 2006). Globally transportation accounts for 30% of the energy demand and is responsible ..... fermentation by wine yeasts in media containing structurally complex nitrogen sources. J. Inst. Brew.

  12. Tropical forests and the changing earth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon L

    2006-01-29

    Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of the rate of climate change. Recent research on deforestation rates and ecological changes within intact forests, both areas of recent research and debate, are reviewed, and the implications for biodiversity (species loss) and climate change (via the global carbon cycle) addressed. Recent impacts have most likely been: (i) a large source of carbon to the atmosphere, and major loss of species, from deforestation and (ii) a large carbon sink within remaining intact forest, accompanied by accelerating forest dynamism and widespread biodiversity changes. Finally, I look to the future, suggesting that the current carbon sink in intact forests is unlikely to continue, and that the tropical forest biome may even become a large net source of carbon, via one or more of four plausible routes: changing photosynthesis and respiration rates, biodiversity changes in intact forest, widespread forest collapse via drought, and widespread forest collapse via fire. Each of these scenarios risks potentially dangerous positive feedbacks with the climate system that could dramatically accelerate and intensify climate change. Given that continued land-use change alone is already thought to be causing the sixth mass extinction event in Earth's history, should such feedbacks occur, the resulting biodiversity and societal consequences would be even more severe.

  13. Importance of adaptation and genotype × environment interactions in tropical beef breeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, H M

    2012-05-01

    This paper examines the relative importance of productive and adaptive traits in beef breeding systems based on Bos taurus and tropically adapted breeds across temperate and (sub)tropical environments. In the (sub)tropics, differences that exist between breeds in temperate environments are masked by the effects of environmental stressors. Hence in tropical environments, breeds are best categorised into breed types to compare their performance across environments. Because of the presence of environmental stressors, there are more sources of genetic variation in tropical breeding programmes. It is therefore necessary to examine the genetic basis of productive and adaptive traits for breeding programmes in those environments. This paper reviews the heritabilities and genetic relationships between economically important productive and adaptive traits relevant to (sub)tropical breeding programmes. It is concluded that it is possible to simultaneously genetically improve productive and adaptive traits in tropically adapted breeds of beef cattle grazed in tropical environments without serious detrimental consequences for either adaptation or production. However, breed-specific parameters are required for genetic evaluations. The paper also reviews the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions impacting on production and adaptation of cattle, where 'genotype' is defined as breed (within a crossbreeding system), sire within breed (in a within-breed selection programme) or associations between economically important traits and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs - within a marker-assisted selection programme). It is concluded that re-ranking of breeds across environments is best managed by the use of the breed type(s) best suited to the particular production environment. Re-ranking of sires across environments is apparent in poorly adapted breed types across extreme tropical and temperate environments or where breeding animals are selected in a temperate

  14. Combining ability of tropical maize cultivars in organic and conventional production systems Capacidade de combinação de milho tropical em sistemas de produção orgânico e convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to identify maize germplasm for the organic productions system and to compare the genetic effects of the grain yield of maize cultivars in organic and conventional production systems. Diallel crosses were made between six maize cultivars and the hybrid combinations were evaluated in conventional and organic production systems. The hybrid combinations produced different grain yields in the two production systems. The interaction between general combining ability and production systems was significant for grain yield, ear height and number of ears. This indicates that the additive genetic effects differ in organic and conventional production systems. The specific combining abilities (SCA were significant for grain yield and plant height, indicating a significant difference between the non-additive effects. However, the SCA x production systems interactions were not significant for those traits. It was concluded that for the development of maize cultivars for the organic production system, selection must be made in the specific environment for the expression of favorable alleles that confer advantages for adapting to this system; the general combining ability of genitors is different for the two production systems, but the specific combining ability isn't different in organic and conventional systems.Os objetivos foram identificar germoplasma de milho para o sistema de produção orgânica e comparar os efeitos genéticos da produtividade de grãos de cultivares de milho em sistemas de produção orgânico e convencional. Para isso, cruzamentos dialélicos foram realizados entre seis cultivares de milho e as combinações híbridas avaliadas em sistemas de produção orgânico e convencional. Os híbridos apresentaram diferentes produtividades de grãos nos dois sistemas de produção. A interação entre a capacidade geral de combinação (CGC e os sistemas de produção (SP foi significativa para produtividade de gr

  15. Landsat Pathfinder tropical forest information management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, W.; Chomentowski, W.; Harville, J.; Skole, D.; Vellekamp, K.

    1994-01-01

    A Tropical Forest Information Management System_(TFIMS) has been designed to fulfill the needs of HTFIP in such a way that it tracks all aspects of the generation and analysis of the raw satellite data and the derived deforestation dataset. The system is broken down into four components: satellite image selection, processing, data management and archive management. However, as we began to think of how the TFIMS could also be used to make the data readily accessible to all user communities we realized that the initial system was too project oriented and could only be accessed locally. The new system needed development in the areas of data ingest and storage, while at the same time being implemented on a server environment with a network interface accessible via Internet. This paper summarizes the overall design of the existing prototype (version 0) information management system and then presents the design of the new system (version 1). The development of version 1 of the TFIMS is ongoing. There are no current plans for a gradual transition from version 0 to version 1 because the significant changes are in how the data within the HTFIP will be made accessible to the extended community of scientists, policy makers, educators, and students and not in the functionality of the basic system.

  16. An analysis of tropical hardwood product importation and consumption in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul M. Smith; Michael P. Haas; William G. Luppold; William G. Luppold

    1995-01-01

    The consumption of forest products emanating from tropical rainforests is an issue that is receiving increasing attention in the United States. This attention stems from concerns over the sustainability of tropical ecosystems. However, trade statistics show the United States imported only 4.0 percent of all tropical timber products traded globally in 1989. In addition...

  17. Phosphate fertilisers and management for sustainable crop production in tropical acid soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, S.H.; Friesen, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive research has been conducted over the past 25 years on the management of plant nutrients, especially N and P, for crop production on acidic infertile tropical soils. Under certain conditions, the use of indigenous phosphate rock (PR) and modified PR products, such as partially acidulated PR or compacted mixtures of PR with superphosphates, are attractive alternatives, both agronomically and economically, to the use of conventional water-soluble P fertilisers for increasing crop productivity on Oxisols and Ultisols. A combination of the effects of proper P and N management including biological N 2 fixation, judicious use of lime, and the use of acid-soil tolerant and/or P-efficient cultivars in cropping systems that enhance nutrient cycling and use efficiency, can provide an effective technology to sustainably increase crop productivity and production in tropical agro-ecosystems dominated by these acid soils. (author)

  18. NOAA JPSS Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS)-based Tropical Cyclone (TC) Products from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The JPSS Microwave Sounder-based Tropical Cyclone (TC) Products provide estimates of tropical cyclone maximum wind speed, minimum sea level pressure, radii of 34,...

  19. Pasture shade and farm management effects on cow productivity in the tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Ainsworth, Justin A.W.; Moe, Stein R.; Skarpe, Christina

    2012-01-01

    This is the postprint version of the article. The published article can be located at the publisher's webpage Shade, provided by trees within pastures, can affect cattle productivity through mitigating heat stress and by altering understorey pasture growth and cattle behaviour. Models for daily milk yield and body condition were used to evaluate the effect of pasture shade on dual purpose cow productivity within a silvopastoral system in a dry tropical province of Nicaragua. Daily milk yie...

  20. Effects of an evaporative cooling system on plasma cortisol, IGF-I, and milk production in dairy cows in a tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titto, Cristiane Gonçalves; Negrão, João Alberto; Titto, Evaldo Antonio Lencioni; Canaes, Taissa de Souza; Titto, Rafael Martins; Pereira, Alfredo Manuel Franco

    2013-03-01

    Access to an evaporative cooling system can increase production in dairy cows because of improved thermal comfort. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of ambient temperature on thermoregulation, plasma cortisol, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), and productive status, and to determine the efficiency of an evaporative cooling system on physiological responses under different weather patterns. A total of 28 Holstein cows were divided into two groups, one with and the other without access to a cooling system with fans and mist in the free stall. The parameters were analyzed during morning (0700 hours) and afternoon milking (1430 hours) under five different weather patterns throughout the year (fall, winter, spring, dry summer, and rainy summer). Rectal temperature (RT), body surface temperature (BS), base of tail temperature (TT), and respiratory frequency (RF) were lower in the morning ( P milk production during spring and summer ( P < 0.01).

  1. Oceanic upwelling and productivity in the eastern tropical Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, P.C.; Philbrick, V.; Chavez, F.P.

    1991-01-01

    An oceanographic survey of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean in August-November 1990 found a productive, nutrient-rich, moderately high-chlorophyll surface layer in two oceanic upwelling regions: the equatorial divergence, especially east of the Galapagos, and the countercurrent divergence out to 105 degree W, > 1,000 km west of the Costa Rica Dome. Although NO 3 is not depleted in upwelling regions, relationships among nutrient concentrations and temperature in 1986-1988 data from the same area show that NO 3 is the first macronutrient to be depleted in adjacent, less-productive regions. A three-dimensional, two-layer box model of NO 3 flux within and into the euphotic zone gives estimated rates of new production that are ∼29% of measured rates of 14 C phytoplankton production. Persistence of excess NO 3 in the euphotic zone exceeds 1 yr under high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll conditions off the equator where weak upwelling, or downwelling, occurs. These results indicate substantial control or limitation of NO 3 utilization and productivity in nutrient-rich oceanic regions of the eastern tropical Pacific

  2. Diversity and abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea in tropical compost systems

    OpenAIRE

    de Gannes, Vidya; Eudoxie, Gaius; Dyer, David H.; Hickey, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Composting is widely used to transform waste materials into valuable agricultural products. In the tropics, large quantities of agricultural wastes could be potentially useful in agriculture after composting. However, while microbiological processes of composts in general are well established, relatively little is known about microbial communities that may be unique to these in tropical systems, particularly nitrifiers. The recent discovery of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) has changed the p...

  3. Regulation of Population Densities of Heterodera cajani and Other Plant-Parasitic Nematodes by Crop Rotations on Vertisols, in Semi-Arid Tropical Production Systems in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. B.; Rego, T. J.; Mohiuddin, M.; Rao, V. N.

    1996-01-01

    The significance of double crop (intercrop and sequential crop), single crop (rainy season crop fallow from June to September), and rotations on densities of Heterodera cajani, Helicotylenchus retusus, and Rotylenchulus reniformis was studied on Vertisol (Typic Pellusterts) between 1987 and 1993. Cowpea (Vigna sinensis), mungbean (Phaseolus aureus), and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) greatly increased the population densities of H. cajani and suppressed the population densities of other plant-parasitic nematodes. Mean population densities of H. cajani were about 8 times lower in single crop systems than in double crop systems, with pigeonpea as a component intercrop. Plots planted to sorghum, safflower, and chickpea in the preceding year contained fewer H. cajani eggs and juveniles than did plots previously planted to pigeonpea, cowpea, or mungbean. Continuous cropping of sorghum in the rainy season and safflower in the post-rainy season markedly reduced the population density of H. cajani. Sorghum, safflower, and chickpea favored increased population densities of H. retusus. Adding cowpea to the system resulted in a significant increase in the densities of R. reniformis. Mean densities of total plant-parasitic nematodes were three times greater in double crop systems, with pigeonpea as a component intercrop than in single crop systems with rainy season fallow component. Cropping systems had a regulatory effect on the nematode populations and could be an effective nematode management tactic. Intercropping of sorghum with H. cajani tolerant pigeonpea could be effective in increasing the productivity of traditional production systems in H. cajani infested regions. PMID:19277141

  4. Management and conservation of tropical acid soils for sustainable crop production. Proceedings of a consultants meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    Forests of the tropics are invaluable ecosystems of global, regional and local importance, particularly in terms of protection and conservation of biodiversity and water resources. The indiscriminate conversion of tropical forests into agricultural land as a result of intense human activities - logging and modem shifting cultivation - continues to cause soil erosion and degradation. However, the acid savannahs of the world, such as the cerrado of Brazil, the Llanos in Venezuela and Colombia, the savannahs of Africa, and the largely anthropic savannahs of tropical Asia, encompass vast areas of potentially arable land. The acid soils of the savannahs are mostly considered marginal because of low inherent fertility and susceptibility to rapid degradation. These constraints for agricultural development are exacerbated by the poverty of new settlers who try to cultivate such areas after deforestation. Low- or minimum-input systems are not sustainable on these tropical acid soils but, with sufficient investment and adequate technologies, they can be highly productive. Thus, there is a need to develop management practices for sustainable agricultural production systems on such savannah acid soils. The Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Sub-programme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture strongly supports an integrated approach to soil, water and nutrient management within cropping systems. In this context, nuclear and related techniques can be used to better understand the processes and factors influencing the productivity of agricultural production systems, and improve them through the use of better soil, water and nutrient management practices. A panel of experts actively engaged in field projects on acid soils of savannah agro-ecosystems in the humid and sub-humid tropics convened in March 1999 in Vienna to review and discuss recent research progress, along the following main lines of investigation: (i) utilization of

  5. Estimating productivity of tropical forest plantations by climatic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, D.

    1996-12-31

    This study presents an alternative method of estimating wood production at regional/global levels from tropical plantations based on climatic variables. A generic model for estimating potential yield in tropical plantations was formulated. The model was developed for teak (Tectona grandis L. F.) as a case study. Available data of teak sample plots from India, Myanmar, Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast, consisting of 153 plots distributed over 38 meteorological stations were used. A new base age invariant site index function was developed and the site index of each plot was estimated. The mean annual volume increment (MAI) of each plot from existing yield tables was then interpolated. Treating MAI at 50 years (rotation age) as potential yield of teak, a model was constructed which could explain about 59% variance of the potential yield. Models constructed for estimating the maximum MAI and the site index of teak explained the variability up to 61% and 57% respectively. The models underestimated the productivity of teak in Indonesia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast. The rainfall and the relative humidity have been identified as the most important climatic variables influencing the growth of teak. The length of the growing season and the temperature of the warmest month of the growing season were found significant in the models. The temperature and the day length (sunshine) have not been found to be the limiting factors for the growth of teak. However, the maximum temperature beyond a certain upper limit has a negative effect on growth. The study indicates that this upper limit is around 33 deg C for teak. The models could be used to forecast the potential yield of the existing as well as planned teak plantations in the tropical region. 109 refs, 15 figs, 11 tabs

  6. Soil phosphorus dynamics in a humid tropical silvopastoral system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperband, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    In developing countries of the humid tropics, timber exploitation and agricultural expansion frequently result in deforestation. Extensive land management, coupled with inherently low soil fertility invariably produce declines in agricultural/livestock productivity which eventually lead to land abandonment and further deforestation. Phosphorus is often the major nutrient limiting plant growth in tropical soils. Agroforestry systems have been considered as viable alternatives to current land use practices. Several hypotheses suggest that combining trees with crops or pasture, especially leguminous species will improve soil nutrient cycling, soil structure and soil organic matter. In this experiment Erythrina berteroana (an arboreous legume) was grown in native grass pastures in Costa Rica to determine the effects of tree pruning and cattle grazing on soil P availability. I measured soil P fluxes as well as changes in pasture biomass over an 18-month period. In a separate field experiment, I determined decomposition rates and P release characteristics of Erythrina leaves, pasture grass clippings and cattle dung. Erythrina leaves decomposed faster than both pasture grass and cattle dung. Erythrina and pasture residues released 4-5 times less P than dung. Phosphorus fluxes after tree pruning and grazing were highly dynamic for all treatments. Tree pruning increased labile soil P over time when coupled with grazing. Pasture biomass production was greatest in the grazed tree treatment. Pasture biomass P production and concentration was greatest in the non-grazed treatment. Trees and grazing together tended to increase nutrient (P) turnover which stimulated biomass production. In contrast, trees without grazing promoted nutrient (P) accumulation in pasture biomass

  7. Soil phosphorus dynamics in a humid tropical silvopastoral system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooperband, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    In developing countries of the humid tropics, timber exploitation and agricultural expansion frequently result in deforestation. Extensive land management, coupled with inherently low soil fertility invariably produce declines in agricultural/livestock productivity which eventually lead to land abandonment and further deforestation. Phosphorus is often the major nutrient limiting plant growth in tropical soils. Agroforestry systems have been considered as viable alternatives to current land use practices. Several hypotheses suggest that combining trees with crops or pasture, especially leguminous species will improve soil nutrient cycling, soil structure and soil organic matter. In this experiment Erythrina berteroana (an arboreous legume) was grown in native grass pastures in Costa Rica to determine the effects of tree pruning and cattle grazing on soil P availability. I measured soil P fluxes as well as changes in pasture biomass over an 18-month period. In a separate field experiment, I determined decomposition rates and P release characteristics of Erythrina leaves, pasture grass clippings and cattle dung. Erythrina leaves decomposed faster than both pasture grass and cattle dung. Erythrina and pasture residues released 4-5 times less P than dung. Phosphorus fluxes after tree pruning and grazing were highly dynamic for all treatments. Tree pruning increased labile soil P over time when coupled with grazing. Pasture biomass production was greatest in the grazed tree treatment. Pasture biomass P production and concentration was greatest in the non-grazed treatment. Trees and grazing together tended to increase nutrient (P) turnover which stimulated biomass production. In contrast, trees without grazing promoted nutrient (P) accumulation in pasture biomass.

  8. Hydrological structure and biological productivity of the tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, U.D.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    Hydrological structure analyses of regions in the tropical Atlantic Ocean have consistently revealed the existence of a typical tropical structure characterized by a nitrate-depleted mixed layer above the thermocline. The important biological...

  9. Symbiotic Performance of Herbaceous Legumes in Tropical Cover Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil Ibewiro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing use of herbaceous legumes such as mucuna (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis [Wright] Bruck and lablab (Lablab purpureus [L.] Sweet in the derived savannas of West Africa can be attributed to their potential to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2. The effects of management practices on N2 fixation in mucuna and lablab were examined using 15N isotope dilution technique. Dry matter yield of both legumes at 12 weeks was two to five times more in in situ mulch (IM than live mulch (LM systems. Land Equivalent Ratios, however, showed 8 to 30% more efficient utilization of resources required for biomass production under LM than IM systems. Live mulching reduced nodule numbers in the legumes by one third compared to values in the IM systems. Similarly, nodule mass was reduced by 34 to 58% under LM compared to the IM systems. The proportion of fixed N2 in the legumes was 18% higher in LM than IM systems. Except for inoculated mucuna, the amounts of N fixed by both legumes were greater in IM than LM systems. Rhizobia inoculation of the legumes did not significantly increase N2 fixation compared to uninoculated plots. Application of N fertilizer reduced N2 fixed in the legumes by 36 to 51% compared to inoculated or uninoculated systems. The implications of cover cropping, N fertilization, and rhizobia inoculation on N contributions of legumes into tropical low-input systems were discussed.

  10. Phenology and biomass production of adapted and non-adapted tropical corn populations in Central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel production in the Midwestern United States has largely focused on corn (Zea mays L.) grain for ethanol production and more recently, corn stover for lignocellulosic ethanol. As an alternative to conventional corn, tropical corn populations have been evaluated. Tropical corn is the term used ...

  11. Production of tropical forage grasses under different shading levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Eduardo Torres

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the forage production of three tropical forage grasses under different shading levels. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, University Unit of Aquidauana (UEMS/UUA, in a soil classified as Ultisol sandy loam texture. The treatments consisted of three grasses species combinations (B. brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisck and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, submitted to four shading levels (0, 30, 50 and 75%, arranged in a completely randomized blocks design in a factorial 3 x 4, with eight replications. After harvest, the plants were separated into shoot and roots for determination of shoot fresh mass (SFM, shoot dry mass (SDM and roots dry mass production. After analysis of variance, the qualitative factor was subjected to comparison of averages by Tukey’s test, and the quantitative factor to analysis of polynomial regression, being interactions appropriately unfolded. It was verified that B. decumbens, by its linearly increasing production of forage and less decrease of root formation, is the most recommended for shading conditions compared to grasses Tanzania and Marandu.

  12. Nursery function of tropical back-reef systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.J.; Dahlgren, C.P.; Kellison, G.T.; Kendall, M.S.; Layman, C.A.; Ley, J.A.; Nagelkerken, I.; Serafy, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Similar to nearshore systems in temperate latitudes, the nursery paradigm for tropical back-reef systems is that they provide a habitat for juveniles of species that subsequently make ontogenetic shifts to adult populations on coral reefs (we refer to this as the nursery function of back-reef

  13. Development of livestock production in the tropics: farm and farmers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosting, S J; Udo, H M J; Viets, T C

    2014-08-01

    Because of an increasing demand for animal-source foods, an increasing desire to reduce poverty and an increasing need to reduce the environmental impact of livestock production, tropical farming systems with livestock must increase their productivity. An important share of the global human and livestock populations are found within smallholder mixed-crop-livestock systems, which should, therefore, contribute significantly towards this increase in livestock production. The present paper argues that increased livestock production in smallholder mixed-crop-livestock systems faces many constraints at the level of the farm and the value chain. The present paper aims to describe and explain the impact of increased production from the farm and farmers' perspective, in order to understand the constraints for increased livestock production. A framework is presented that links farming systems to livestock value chains. It is concluded that farming systems that pass from subsistence to commercial livestock production will: (1) shift from rural to urban markets; (2) become part of a different value chain (with lower prices, higher demands for product quality and increased competition from peri-urban producers and imports); and (3) have to face changes in within-farm mechanisms and crop-livestock relationships. A model study showed that feed limitation, which is common in tropical farming systems with livestock, implies that maximum herd output is achieved with small herd sizes, leaving low-quality feeds unutilised. Maximal herd output is not achieved at maximal individual animal output. Having more animals than required for optimal production - which is often the case as a larger herd size supports non-production functions of livestock, such as manure production, draught, traction and capital storage - goes at the expense of animal-source food output. Improving low-quality feeds by treatment allows keeping more animals while maintaining the same level of production. Ruminant

  14. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass, and food w...

  15. Cutover tropical forest productivity potential merits assessment, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. Wadsworth; Brynne Bryan; Julio Figueroa-Colón

    2010-01-01

    Timber extraction continues to add to vast cutover tropical forests. They are unattractive economically because of the loss of merchantable timber and the long delay foreseen for recovery. Despite this, wood in cutover tropical forests is in line to become more marketable as demand continues and old-growth forests become less accessible. In a cutover forest in Puerto...

  16. Climate seasonality limits leaf carbon assimilation and wood productivity in tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabien H. Wagner; Bruno Herault; Damien Bonal; Clement Stahl; Liana O. Anderson; Timothy R. Baker; Gabriel Sebastian Becker; Hans Beeckman; Danilo Boanerges Souza; Paulo Cesar Botosso; David M. J. S. Bowman; Achim Brauning; Benjamin Brede; Foster Irving Brown; Jesus Julio Camarero; Plinio Barbosa Camargo; Fernanda C. G. Cardoso; Fabricio Alvim Carvalho; Wendeson Castro; Rubens Koloski Chagas; Jerome Chave; Emmanuel N. Chidumayo; Deborah A. Clark; Flavia Regina Capellotto Costa; Camille Couralet; Paulo Henrique da Silva Mauricio; Helmut Dalitz; Vinicius Resende de Castro; Jacanan Eloisa de Freitas Milani; Edilson Consuelo de Oliveira; Luciano de Souza Arruda; Jean-Louis Devineau; David M. Drew; Oliver Dunisch; Giselda Durigan; Elisha Elifuraha; Marcio Fedele; Ligia Ferreira Fedele; Afonso Figueiredo Filho; Cesar Augusto Guimaraes Finger; Augusto Cesar Franco; Joao Lima Freitas Junior; Franklin Galvao; Aster Gebrekirstos; Robert Gliniars; Paulo Mauricio Lima de Alencastro Graca; Anthony D. Griffiths; James Grogan; Kaiyu Guan; Jurgen Homeier; Maria Raquel Kanieski; Lip Khoon Kho; Jennifer Koenig; Sintia Valerio Kohler; Julia Krepkowski; Jose Pires Lemos-Filho; Diana Lieberman; Milton Eugene Lieberman; Claudio Sergio Lisi; Tomaz Longhi Santos; Jose Luis Lopez Ayala; Eduardo Eijji Maeda; Yadvinder Malhi; Vivian R. B. Maria; Marcia C. M. Marques; Renato Marques; Hector Maza Chamba; Lawrence Mbwambo; Karina Liana Lisboa Melgaco; Hooz Angela Mendivelso; Brett P. Murphy; Joseph O' Brien; Steven F. Oberbauer; Naoki Okada; Raphael Pelissier; Lynda D. Prior; Fidel Alejandro Roig; Michael Ross; Davi Rodrigo Rossatto; Vivien Rossi; Lucy Rowland; Ervan Rutishauser; Hellen Santana; Mark Schulze; Diogo Selhorst; Williamar Rodrigues Silva; Marcos Silveira; Susanne Spannl; Michael D. Swaine; Jose Julio Toledo; Marcos Miranda Toledo; Marisol Toledo; Takeshi Toma; Mario Tomazello Filho; Juan Ignacio Valdez Hernandez; Jan Verbesselt; Simone Aparecida Vieira; Gregoire Vincent; Carolina Volkmer de Castilho; Franziska Volland; Martin Worbes; Magda Lea Bolzan Zanon; Luiz E. O. C. Aragao

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal climate drivers of the carbon cycle in tropical forests remain poorly known, although these forests account for more carbon assimilation and storage than any other terrestrial ecosystem. Based on a unique combination of seasonal pan-tropical data sets from 89 experimental sites (68 include aboveground wood productivity measurements and 35 litter...

  17. Trophic interactions and productivity of copepods as live feed from tropical Taiwanese outdoor aquaculture ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanda, Elisa; Drillet, Guillaume; Huang, Cheng-Chien

    2015-01-01

    The present study describes three outdoor ponds for mass rearing of copepods in tropical southern Taiwan. The systems are designed for culturing and harvesting of copepods, which are used as live feed in the production of groupers in the region. However, the production of the most common copepod...... to enable a correct description of the copepods ecology and a preliminary evaluation of the status of the pond management; and (III) provide advices for improved management leading towards a higher and more stable output of P. annandalei. Copepods were experiencing prey ad libitum since the quantity...... during high season. This harvest, in terms of biomass, corresponded to 20–40% of the copepod standing stock, which indicates a sustainable management when compared to the secondary productivity of the copepods. To further increase the copepod production of the ponds, better water quality must be achieved...

  18. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here...

  19. Genetic improvements to productivity of cattle in tropical Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, J.E.; Vercoe, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Improvement in productivity of cattle in some areas of tropical Africa is likely to be related mainly to improvement in environmental conditions, including the implementation of effective vaccination programmes and an increased availability of feed. In other areas, scope also exists to increase output by increasing the genetic potential of indigenous breeds and animals. The variation within indigenous breeds in resistance to environmental stresses and in genetic potentials could be exploited by within-breed selection but responses are likely to be slow. Initial attempts at genetic improvements should therefore concentrate on utilizing between-breed variation in these traits by identifying breeds with the required attributes and crossing them to the breed under improvement. Increases in milk yield and size are mainly dependent on the successful implementation of cross-breeding programmes aimed at maintaining high resistance to environmental stresses while also increasing genetic potentials up to the level that can be supported by the available nutrition. The most suitable combination of breeds to be used in these crosses is not known at present. However, in areas of high trypanosome challenge, crosses between trypanotolerant breeds from East and West Africa may be the best option. In areas of lower trypanosome challenge but where high levels of other environmental stresses exist, crosses between indigenous and Indian breeds may be the most appropriate. Only in those areas where parasite and disease challenge is low and the plane of nutrition is high will crosses to higher yielding European Bos taurus breeds be suitable. Improved standards of living of sections of society and increases in population have contributed to increased demand for cattle products. If this demand is to be met from African sources, output must be increased. Some of the ways in which this may be achieved are considered in the paper. (author)

  20. Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems......Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems...

  1. Real-Time Forecasting System of Winds, Waves and Surge in Tropical Cyclones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graber, Hans C; Donelan, Mark A; Brown, Michael G; Slinn, Donald N; Hagen, Scott C; Thompson, Donald R; Jensen, Robert E; Black, Peter G; Powell, Mark D; Guiney, John L; Cardone, Vincent J; Cox, Andrew T

    2006-01-01

    ... of tropical cyclones The results of this forecasting system would provide real-time information to the National Hurricane Center during the tropical cyclone season in the Atlantic for establishing improved...

  2. Identifying and Analyzing Uncertainty Structures in the TRMM Microwave Imager Precipitation Product over Tropical Ocean Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbo; Kummerow, Christian D.; Elsaesser, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite continuous improvements in microwave sensors and retrieval algorithms, our understanding of precipitation uncertainty is quite limited, due primarily to inconsistent findings in studies that compare satellite estimates to in situ observations over different parts of the world. This study seeks to characterize the temporal and spatial properties of uncertainty in the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager surface rainfall product over tropical ocean basins. Two uncertainty analysis frameworks are introduced to qualitatively evaluate the properties of uncertainty under a hierarchy of spatiotemporal data resolutions. The first framework (i.e. 'climate method') demonstrates that, apart from random errors and regionally dependent biases, a large component of the overall precipitation uncertainty is manifested in cyclical patterns that are closely related to large-scale atmospheric modes of variability. By estimating the magnitudes of major uncertainty sources independently, the climate method is able to explain 45-88% of the monthly uncertainty variability. The percentage is largely resolution dependent (with the lowest percentage explained associated with a 1 deg x 1 deg spatial/1 month temporal resolution, and highest associated with a 3 deg x 3 deg spatial/3 month temporal resolution). The second framework (i.e. 'weather method') explains regional mean precipitation uncertainty as a summation of uncertainties associated with individual precipitation systems. By further assuming that self-similar recurring precipitation systems yield qualitatively comparable precipitation uncertainties, the weather method can consistently resolve about 50 % of the daily uncertainty variability, with only limited dependence on the regions of interest.

  3. Seasonal shift in net ecosystem production in a tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.S.P.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    ) and community respiration (R). Measurements of these variables are a prerequisite to assess the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. Del Giorgio et al. (1997) suggested that metabolic balance depends on the primary productivity of the system. The rate...), and heterotrophy is not restricted to oligotrophic sys- tems. Of late, there has been considerable debate on the role of planktonic communities as sources (del Giorgio et al. 1997; Duarte et al. 2001) or sinks (Williams 1998) of carbon in subtropical and temperate...

  4. Infrared heater system for warming tropical forest understory plants and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. Kimball; Aura M. Alonso-Rodríguez; Molly A. Cavaleri; Sasha C. Reed; Grizelle González; Tana E. Wood

    2018-01-01

    The response of tropical forests to global warming is one of the largest uncertainties in predicting the future carbon balance of Earth. To determine the likely effects of elevated temperatures on tropical forest understory plants and soils, as well as other ecosystems, an infrared (IR) heater system was developed to provide in situ warming for the Tropical Responses...

  5. Wave ensemble forecast system for tropical cyclones in the Australian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, Stefan; Greenslade, Diana; Kepert, Jeffrey D.

    2018-05-01

    Forecasting of waves under extreme conditions such as tropical cyclones is vitally important for many offshore industries, but there remain many challenges. For Northwest Western Australia (NW WA), wave forecasts issued by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology have previously been limited to products from deterministic operational wave models forced by deterministic atmospheric models. The wave models are run over global (resolution 1/4∘) and regional (resolution 1/10∘) domains with forecast ranges of + 7 and + 3 day respectively. Because of this relatively coarse resolution (both in the wave models and in the forcing fields), the accuracy of these products is limited under tropical cyclone conditions. Given this limited accuracy, a new ensemble-based wave forecasting system for the NW WA region has been developed. To achieve this, a new dedicated 8-km resolution grid was nested in the global wave model. Over this grid, the wave model is forced with winds from a bias-corrected European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast atmospheric ensemble that comprises 51 ensemble members to take into account the uncertainties in location, intensity and structure of a tropical cyclone system. A unique technique is used to select restart files for each wave ensemble member. The system is designed to operate in real time during the cyclone season providing + 10-day forecasts. This paper will describe the wave forecast components of this system and present the verification metrics and skill for specific events.

  6. Eutrophication effects on phytoplankton size-fractioned biomass and production at a tropical estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Mariana; Araújo, Moacyr; Flores-Montes, Manuel; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Eliane; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid

    2015-02-28

    Size-fractioned phytoplankton (pico, nano and microplankton) biomass and production were estimated throughout a year at Recife harbor (NE Brazil), a shallow well mixed tropical hypereutrophic estuary with short residence times but restricted water renewal. Intense loads of P-PO4 (maximum 14 μM) resulted in low N:P ratios (around 2:1), high phytoplankton biomass (B=7.1-72 μg chl-a L(-1)), production (PP=10-2657 μg C L(-1) h(-1)) and photosynthetic efficiency (P(B)=0.5-45 μg C μg chl-a(-1)), but no oxygen depletion (average O2 saturation: 109.6%). Nanoplankton dominated phytoplankton biomass (66%) but micro- and nanoplankton performed equivalent primary production rates (47% each). Production-biomass models indicate an export of the exceeding microplankton biomass during most of the year, possibly through grazing. The intense and constant nutrient and organic matter loading at Recife harbor is thus supporting the high microplankton productivity that is not accumulating on the system nor contributing to oxygen depletion, but supporting the whole system's trophic web. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Why do forest products become less available? A pan-tropical comparison of drivers of forest-resource degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, Kathleen; Gerstner, Katharina; Geijzendorffer, Ilse R.; Herold, Martin; Seppelt, Ralf; Wunder, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Forest products provide an important source of income and wellbeing for rural smallholder communities across the tropics. Although tropical forest products frequently become over-exploited, only few studies explicitly address the dynamics of degradation in response to socio-economic drivers. Our study addresses this gap by analyzing the factors driving changes in tropical forest products in the perception of rural smallholder communities. Using the poverty and environment network global datas...

  8. Biomass production and composition of temperate and tropical maize in central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioethanol production in the Midwestern U.S. has largely focused on corn (Zea mays L.) grain for starch-based ethanol production. There has been growing interest in lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for biofuels. Because corn adapted to the tropics does not initiate senescence as early as ada...

  9. Sustainable forest management of tropical forests can reduce carbon emissions and stabilize timber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Sasaki; G.P. Asner; Yude Pan; W. Knorr; P.B. Durst; H.O. Ma; I. Abe; A.J. Lowe; L.P. Koh

    2016-01-01

    The REDD+ scheme of the United Nations Framework Conventionon Climate Change has provided opportunities to manage tropical forests for timber production and carbon emission reductions. To determine the appropriate loggingtechniques, we analyzed potential timber production and carbon emission reductions under two logging techniques over a 40-year period of selective...

  10. Cost-benefit analysis of a green electricity system in Japan considering the indirect economic impacts of tropical cyclones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, Miguel; Zhang, Qi; Longarte-Galnares, Gorka

    2012-01-01

    Global warming is likely to profoundly influence future weather patterns, and one consequence of this is the likelihood of an increase in tropical cyclone intensity. The present paper presents a cost-benefit analysis of introducing significant amounts of green energy in the electricity system in Japan in the light of the economic damage that an increase in tropical cyclone intensity could have on GDP growth between 2010 and 2085. Essentially the passage of a tropical cyclone will result not only in physical damage but also on a decrease in economic productivity due to precautionary cessation of the economic activity, which has an effect on GDP growth. By comparing the economic performance of different electricity system scenarios with the indirect economic damage of tropical cyclones from 2010 to 2085, based on the yearly economic data of green electricity, fossil fuel, GDP and population, it can be seen that the green scenarios are generally a cost-effective way of mitigating the effects of these weather systems, despite the large amount of initial investments necessary. - Highlights: ► Climate change is likely to increase the future strength of tropical cyclones. ► An increase in tropical cyclone strength would reduce GDP growth in Japan. ► Reducing green-house gas emissions is a cost-effective mitigation strategy.

  11. Improved Pig Production and Performance in the Tropics | Enem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pig production can yield relatively rapid rate of economic return on capital due to the ... of production, housing, feeding, health, and product marketing were discussed to enable a prospective pig farmer have a wonderful return on investment.

  12. Diversity and abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea in tropical compost systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gannes, Vidya; Eudoxie, Gaius; Dyer, David H; Hickey, William J

    2012-01-01

    Composting is widely used to transform waste materials into valuable agricultural products. In the tropics, large quantities of agricultural wastes could be potentially useful in agriculture after composting. However, while microbiological processes of composts in general are well established, relatively little is known about microbial communities that may be unique to these in tropical systems, particularly nitrifiers. The recent discovery of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) has changed the paradigm of nitrification being initiated solely by ammonia oxidizing bacteria. In the present study, AOA abundance and diversity was examined in composts produced from combinations of plant waste materials common in tropical agriculture (rice straw, sugar cane bagasse, and coffee hulls), which were mixed with either cow- or sheep-manure. The objective was to determine how AOA abundance and diversity varied as a function of compost system and time, the latter being a contrast between the start of the compost process (mesophilic phase) and the finished product (mature phase). The results showed that AOA were relatively abundant in composts of tropical agricultural wastes, and significantly more so than were the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Furthermore, while the AOA communities in the composts were predominatly group I.1b, the communities were diverse and exhibited structures that diverged between compost types and phases. These patterns could be taken as indicators of the ecophysiological diversity in the soil AOA (group I.1b), in that significantly different AOA communties developed when exposed to varying physico-chemical environments. Nitrification patterns and levels differed in the composts which, for the mature material, could have significant effects on its performance as a plant growth medium. Thus, it will also be important to determine the association of AOA (and diversity in their communities) with nitrification in these systems.

  13. Product Configuration Systems and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...

  14. Utilization of tropical crop residues and agroindustrial by-products in animal nutrition. Constraints and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, T.R.; Parra, R.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of by-products and crop residues as animal feeds is increasing steadily. This is a consequence of the increasing demand for cereal grains as both human and animal (chiefly poultry) food, and the increasing demand for energy coupled with decreasing availability of fossil fuels. The effects of these two trends are that primary use of land for livestock production (usually grazing systems) will steadily diminish; at the same time, sources of biomass will increase in importance as renewable energy sources, and greater emphasis will be placed on draught animal power. Most by-products and crop residues are fibrous and therefore of only low to moderate nutritive value, or have special physical and chemical characteristics making them difficult to incorporate in conventional ''balanced'' rations. Such feed raw materials may need special processing and/or special forms of supplementation if they are to be used efficiently. It is hypothesized that industrial by-products and crop residues will be more efficiently utilized if they are incorporated in diversified and integrated production systems, i.e. (a) livestock production is integrated with production of cash crops both for food and fuel; (b) different livestock species are utilized in the same enterprise in a complementary way; (c) livestock feeding is based on crop residues (energy) supplemented with protein-rich forages and aquatic plants; and (d) animal wastes are recycled and used for food, fertilizer and fuel. This strategy is particularly suitable for the conditions in (i) tropical countries, whose climate favours high crop/biomass yields per unit area and ease of fermentation of organic wastes, and (ii) family farms, for which diversification means greater opportunity for self-sufficiency and increased possibilities for use of family resources. (author)

  15. Why do forest products become less available? A pan-tropical comparison of drivers of forest-resource degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Kathleen; Gerstner, Katharina; Geijzendorffer, Ilse R.; Herold, Martin; Seppelt, Ralf; Wunder, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Forest products provide an important source of income and wellbeing for rural smallholder communities across the tropics. Although tropical forest products frequently become over-exploited, only few studies explicitly address the dynamics of degradation in response to socio-economic drivers. Our

  16. Warming affects growth rates and microcystin production in tropical bloom-forming microcystis strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, Trung; Dao, Thanh Son; Vo, Truong Giang; Lürling, Miquel

    2018-01-01

    Warming climate is predicted to promote cyanobacterial blooms but the toxicity of cyanobacteria under global warming is less well studied. We tested the hypothesis that raising temperature may lead to increased growth rates but to decreased microcystin (MC) production in tropical Microcystis

  17. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geissen, V.; Que Ramos, F.; Bastidas-Bastidas, de P.J.; Díaz-González, G.; Bello-Mendoza, R.; Huerta-Lwanga, E.; Ruiz-Suárez, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn— bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha-1week-1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the

  18. High primary production contrasts with intense carbon emission in a eutrophic tropical reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, Rafael M.; Nóbrega, Gabriel N.; Junger, Pedro C.; Figueiredo, Aline V.; Andrade, Anízio S.; Moura, de Caroline G.B.; Tonetta, Denise; Oliveira, Ernandes S.; Araújo, Fabiana; Rust, Felipe; Piñeiro-Guerra, Juan M.; Mendonça, Jurandir R.; Medeiros, Leonardo R.; Pinheiro, Lorena; Miranda, Marcela; Costa, Mariana R.A.; Melo, Michaela L.; Nobre, Regina L.G.; Benevides, Thiago; Roland, Fábio; Klein, de Jeroen; Barros, Nathan O.; Mendonça, Raquel; Becker, Vanessa; Huszar, Vera L.M.; Kosten, Sarian

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies from temperate lakes indicate that eutrophic systems tend to emit less carbon dioxide (CO2) and bury more organic carbon (OC) than oligotrophic ones, rendering them CO2 sinks in some cases. However, the scarcity of data from tropical systems is critical for a

  19. Predictors of death and production performance of layer chickens in opened and sealed pens in a tropical savannah environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Aminu; Raji, Abdullahi Abdullahi; Madugu, Shuaibu A; Hassan, Akinola Waheed; Fasina, Folorunso Oludayo

    2014-09-12

    Layer chickens are exposed to high risks of production losses and mortality with impact on farm profitability. The harsh tropical climate and severe disease outbreaks, poor biosecurity, sub-minimal vaccination and treatment protocols, poor management practices, poor chick quality, feed-associated causes, and unintended accidents oftentimes aggravate mortality and negatively affect egg production. The objectives of this study were to estimate the probability of survival and evaluate risk factors for death under different intensive housing conditions in a tropical climate, and to assess the production performance in the housing systems. Daily mean mortality percentages and egg production figures were significantly lower and higher in the sealed pens and open houses (P ratio for mortality of layers raised in sealed pens was 0.568 (56.8%). Reasons for spiked mortality in layer chickens may not always be associated with disease. Hot-dry climatic environment is associated with heat stress, waning immunity and inefficient feed usage and increase probability of death with reduced egg production; usage of environmentally controlled building in conditions where environmental temperature may rise significantly above 25°C will reduce this impact. Since younger birds (19-38 weeks) are at higher risk of death due to stress of coming into production, management changes and diseases, critical implementation of protocols that will reduce death at this precarious period becomes mandatory. Whether older chickens' better protection from death is associated with many prophylactic and metaphylactic regimen of medications/vaccination will need further investigation.

  20. Interactions between atmospheric circulation, nutrient deposition, and tropical forest primary production (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.; van der Werf, G.; Mahowald, N. M.

    2010-12-01

    Tropical forests influence regional and global climate by means of several pathways, including by modifying surface energy exchange and by forming clouds. High levels of precipitation, leaching, and soil weathering limit nutrient availability in these ecosystems. Phosphorus (P) is a key element limiting net primary production, and in some areas, including forests recovering from prior disturbance, nitrogen (N) also may limit some components of production. Here we quantified atmospheric P and N inputs to these forests from fires using satellite-derived estimates of emissions and atmospheric models. In Africa and South America, cross-biome transport of fire-emitted aerosols and reactive N gases from savannas and areas near the deforestation frontier increased deposition of P and N in interior forests. Equatorward atmospheric transport during the dry (fire) season in one hemisphere was linked with surface winds moving toward the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the other hemisphere. Deposition levels were higher in tropical forests in Africa than in South America because of large savanna areas with high levels of fire emissions in both southern and northern Africa. We conclude by describing a potential feedback loop by which equatorward transport of fire emissions, dust, and spores sustains the productivity of tropical forests. We specifically assessed evidence that savanna-to-forest atmospheric transport of nutrients increases forest productivity, height, and rates of evapotranspiration (ET). In parallel, we examined the degree to which increases in ET and surface roughness in tropical forests have the potential to strengthen several components of the Hadley circulation, including deep convection, equatorward return flow (near the surface), and the intensity of seasonal drought in the subtropics (thereby increasing fires). These interactions are important for understanding biogeochemical - climate interactions on millennial timescales and for quantifying how

  1. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  2. Diurnal sampling reveals significant variation in CO2 emission from a tropical productive lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, P C J; Barbosa, F A R

    2014-08-01

    It is well accepted in the literature that lakes are generally net heterotrophic and supersaturated with CO2 because they receive allochthonous carbon inputs. However, autotrophy and CO2 undersaturation may happen for at least part of the time, especially in productive lakes. Since diurnal scale is particularly important to tropical lakes dynamics, we evaluated diurnal changes in pCO2 and CO2 flux across the air-water interface in a tropical productive lake in southeastern Brazil (Lake Carioca) over two consecutive days. Both pCO2 and CO2 flux were significantly different between day (9:00 to 17:00) and night (21:00 to 5:00) confirming the importance of this scale for CO2 dynamics in tropical lakes. Net heterotrophy and CO2 outgassing from the lake were registered only at night, while significant CO2 emission did not happen during the day. Dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature trends over the diurnal cycle indicated the dependence of CO2 dynamics on lake metabolism (respiration and photosynthesis). This study indicates the importance of considering the diurnal scale when examining CO2 emissions from tropical lakes.

  3. Timber production in selectively logged tropical forests in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Keller; Gregory P. Asner; Geoffrey Blate; Frank McGlocklin; John Merry; Marielos Peña-Claros; Johan Zweede

    2007-01-01

    Selective logging is an extensive land-use practice in South America. Governments in the region have enacted policies to promote the establishment and maintenance of economically productive and sustainable forest industries.However, both biological and policy constraints threaten to limit the viability of the industry over the long term.Biological constraints, such as...

  4. Protozoan Diversity in a productive fishpond of a tropical plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the Protozoan species diversity in a productive fishpond of the Jos Plateau, Nigeria was investigated at 7 day interval over a period of 11 months. Samples were collected from water column and sediment. Protozoans were found to compose of the flagellates sarcodines and cilliates. There was a significant ...

  5. Extracellular products of photosynthesis in a tropical environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gomes, H.R.; Pant, A.

    Extracellular products in the Arabian Sea averaged 0.42 g/cm2/day and represented 35% of the total carbon fixed by phytoplankton. No seasonal changes are observed during the two seasons i.e. premonsoon (Jan-Feb) and onset of southwest monsoon (April...

  6. Minimizing Risks of Invasive Alien Plant Species in Tropical Production Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Padmanaba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Timber production is the most pervasive human impact on tropical forests, but studies of logging impacts have largely focused on timber species and vertebrates. This review focuses on the risk from invasive alien plant species, which has been frequently neglected in production forest management in the tropics. Our literature search resulted in 114 publications with relevant information, including books, book chapters, reports and papers. Examples of both invasions by aliens into tropical production forests and plantation forests as sources of invasions are presented. We discuss species traits and processes affecting spread and invasion, and silvicultural practices that favor invasions. We also highlight potential impacts of invasive plant species and discuss options for managing them in production forests. We suggest that future forestry practices need to reduce the risks of plant invasions by conducting surveillance for invasive species; minimizing canopy opening during harvesting; encouraging rapid canopy closure in plantations; minimizing the width of access roads; and ensuring that vehicles and other equipment are not transporting seeds of invasive species. Potential invasive species should not be planted within dispersal range of production forests. In invasive species management, forewarned is forearmed.

  7. Effects of liana load, tree diameter and distances between conspecifics on seed production in tropical timber trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Kollmann, J.; Peña-Claros, M.

    2009-01-01

    Seed production in tropical timber trees is limited by abiotic resources, pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation. Resource availability is influenced by the number of competing trees and by lianas that often reach high densities in disturbed parts of tropical forests. The distance between

  8. Benthic macrofaunal structure and secondary production in tropical estuaries on the Eastern Marine Ecoregion of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissoli, Lorena B; Bernardino, Angelo F

    2018-01-01

    Tropical estuaries are highly productive and support diverse benthic assemblages within mangroves and tidal flats habitats. Determining differences and similarities of benthic assemblages within estuarine habitats and between regional ecosystems may provide scientific support for management of those ecosystems. Here we studied three tropical estuaries in the Eastern Marine Ecoregion of Brazil to assess the spatial variability of benthic assemblages from vegetated (mangroves) and unvegetated (tidal flats) habitats. A nested sampling design was used to determine spatial scales of variability in benthic macrofaunal density, biomass and secondary production. Habitat differences in benthic assemblage composition were evident, with mangrove forests being dominated by annelids (Oligochaeta and Capitellidae) whereas peracarid crustaceans were also abundant on tidal flats. Macrofaunal biomass, density and secondary production also differed between habitats and among estuaries. Those differences were related both to the composition of benthic assemblages and to random spatial variability, underscoring the importance of hierarchical sampling in estuarine ecological studies. Given variable levels of human impacts and predicted climate change effects on tropical estuarine assemblages in Eastern Brazil, our data support the use of benthic secondary production to address long-term changes and improved management of estuaries in Eastern Brazil.

  9. Ecological and socio-economic functions across tropical land use systems after rainforest conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Jochen; Rembold, Katja; Allen, Kara; Beckschäfer, Philip; Buchori, Damayanti; Clough, Yann; Faust, Heiko; Fauzi, Anas M; Gunawan, Dodo; Hertel, Dietrich; Irawan, Bambang; Jaya, I Nengah S; Klarner, Bernhard; Kleinn, Christoph; Knohl, Alexander; Kotowska, Martyna M; Krashevska, Valentyna; Krishna, Vijesh; Leuschner, Christoph; Lorenz, Wolfram; Meijide, Ana; Melati, Dian; Nomura, Miki; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Qaim, Matin; Siregar, Iskandar Z; Steinebach, Stefanie; Tjoa, Aiyen; Tscharntke, Teja; Wick, Barbara; Wiegand, Kerstin; Kreft, Holger; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-05-19

    Tropical lowland rainforests are increasingly threatened by the expansion of agriculture and the extraction of natural resources. In Jambi Province, Indonesia, the interdisciplinary EFForTS project focuses on the ecological and socio-economic dimensions of rainforest conversion to jungle rubber agroforests and monoculture plantations of rubber and oil palm. Our data confirm that rainforest transformation and land use intensification lead to substantial losses in biodiversity and related ecosystem functions, such as decreased above- and below-ground carbon stocks. Owing to rapid step-wise transformation from forests to agroforests to monoculture plantations and renewal of each plantation type every few decades, the converted land use systems are continuously dynamic, thus hampering the adaptation of animal and plant communities. On the other hand, agricultural rainforest transformation systems provide increased income and access to education, especially for migrant smallholders. Jungle rubber and rubber monocultures are associated with higher financial land productivity but lower financial labour productivity compared to oil palm, which influences crop choice: smallholders that are labour-scarce would prefer oil palm while land-scarce smallholders would prefer rubber. Collecting long-term data in an interdisciplinary context enables us to provide decision-makers and stakeholders with scientific insights to facilitate the reconciliation between economic interests and ecological sustainability in tropical agricultural landscapes. © 2016 The Authors.

  10. Relationships between the Tropical Pacific and the Southern California Current productivity at different timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella-Gutiérrez, J. L.; Herguera, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    The influence of Tropical Pacific in climate during the Common Era has been largely debated due to the lack of agreement between proxies. Some records suggest a La Niña-like conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and El Niño-like conditions during the Little Ice Age (LIA) (i.e. Graham et al., 2007), but other records suggest the contrary (i.e. Conroy et al., 2008). Here we present a 2.3Ky biogenic based record from San Lázaro Basin that, in its different modes of variability, contains both visions. Furthermore, these proxies share a centennial mode of variability that dominates the last millennium and connects the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) with the Western North America Drought Area Index (WNA-DAI) through variations in the thermocline.San Lázaro Basin (SLB) is a suboxic basin located in the southern dynamic boundary of the California Current System (CCS). During La Niña-like conditions, the intensification of the trade winds increase the Ekman transport and the invasion of subartic waters, with the result of a shoaled thermocline and enhanced ecosystem productivity. When the winds relax, El Niño-like conditions became, and the intrusion of warm stratified water from the tropical and subtropical regions plummeted the productivity and a coccolitophorid based ecosystem dominates. The opposite relation between Carbonates and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in SLB sediments confirms this observations. A significant positive correlation between XRF measurements of Br/Si with TOC and Ca counts with Carbonates, allows us to study SCC variability from interannual to centennial resolution.The Spectral Analysis of Br/Si and Carbonates show a common 110y cycle that is also present in the IPWP and WNA-DAI with a ENSO-like pattern. This centennial mode is excited by warm Equatorial Pacific conditions as its variance is correlated with Galapagos precipitation record. Although Galapagos precipitation record has been related with ENSO intensity, the Br

  11. Tropical radioecology

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, M

    2012-01-01

    Tropical Radioecology is a guide to the wide range of scientific practices and principles of this multidisciplinary field. It brings together past and present studies in the tropical and sub-tropical areas of the planet, highlighting the unique aspects of tropical systems. Until recently, radioecological models for tropical environments have depended upon data derived from temperate environments, despite the differences of these regions in terms of biota and abiotic conditions. Since radioactivity can be used to trace environmental processes in humans and other biota, this book offers examples of studies in which radiotracers have been used to assess biokinetics in tropical biota. Features chapters, co-authored by world experts, that explain the origins, inputs, distribution, behaviour, and consequences of radioactivity in tropical and subtropical systems. Provides comprehensive lists of relevant data and identifies current knowledge gaps to allow for targeted radioecological research in the future. Integrate...

  12. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Geissen, V.; Que Ramos, F.; Bastidas-Bastidas, de, P.J.; Díaz-González, G.; Bello-Mendoza, R.; Huerta-Lwanga, E.; Ruiz-Suárez, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn— bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha-1week-1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 lg L-1, respective...

  13. Achieving production and conservation simultaneously in tropical agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renwick, Anna R.; Vickery, Juliet A.; Potts, Simon G.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing population size and demand for food in the developing world is driving the intensification of agriculture, often threatening the biodiversity within the farmland itself and in the surrounding landscape. This paper quantifies bird and tree species richness, tree carbon and farmer's gross...... for the rural populations, and ensuring ‘sustained agricultural growth’ within such systems while minimising negative impacts on biodiversity and other key ecosystem services will be a major future challenge....

  14. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and Food Systems (IJOTAFS) publishes high-quality peer reviewed articles, in English, in all areas of agriculture and food production and processing including tree production, pesticide science, post harvest biology and technology, seed science, irrigation, agricultural engineering, water resources management, marine ...

  15. Productive vegetation: relationships between net primary productivity, vegetation types and climate change in the Wet Tropics bioregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Vanessa Valdez; Williams, Stephen E.; VanDerWal, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: There is now ample evidence demonstrating the impacts of climate change on biodiversity and human society (Walther ef a/. 2002). Numerous studies have shown climate change is one of the most significant threats to tropical forests, such as the Wet Tropics Heritage Area, due to their high biodiversity and endemism (Pounds ef al. 1999; Hughes 2000; Parmesan and Yohe 2003). Williams ef al. (2003) suggested that small shifts in net primary productivity (NPP) as a result of climate change could lead to potentially massive follow-on effects for the extremely diverse and vulnerable rainforest flora and fauna. It is therefore crucial to explore the relationships between NPP and local biodiversity, especially to create models for different climate change scenarios. Nevertheless, NPP in the Wet Tropics has yet to be estimated. This is the first study to provide a general NPP estimate for the Wet Tropics bioregion using climate surrogates (Schuur 2003). This technique estimates NPP in an accurate, repeatable, and cost-effective way. NPP values were linked to vegetation types and examined under various climatic and environmental conditions. Results show a significant difference in productivity according to vegetation types and climatic variables, with temperature and rainfall seasonality as the most important determining variables. Additionally, lowland and upland vegetations showed a significant difference in productivity patterns throughout the year. Vegetation types located above 1000 metres in altitude had the lowest values of mean annual productivity due to their high rainfall and low temperatures; vegetation types located below 600 metres showed increased productivity values during the wet season (December-March). Net primary productivity will certainly be impacted by changes in temperature and rainfall, due to climate change. Although an increase in NPP values can be predicted for upland areas, the more widely distributed lowlands will drastically

  16. On the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM): Bringing NASA's Earth System Science Program to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall

    1998-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission is the first mission dedicated to measuring tropical and subtropical rainfall using a variety of remote sensing instrumentation, including the first spaceborne rain-measuring radar. Since the energy released when tropical rainfall occurs is a primary "fuel" supply for the weather and climate "engine"; improvements in computer models which predict future weather and climate states may depend on better measurements of global tropical rainfall and its energy. In support of the STANYS conference theme of Education and Space, this presentation focuses on one aspect of NASA's Earth Systems Science Program. We seek to present an overview of the TRMM mission. This overview will discuss the scientific motivation for TRMM, the TRMM instrument package, and recent images from tropical rainfall systems and hurricanes. The presentation also targets educational components of the TRMM mission in the areas of weather, mathematics, technology, and geography that can be used by secondary school/high school educators in the classroom.

  17. An Analysis of the U.S. Wood Products Import Sector: Prospects for Tropical Wood Products Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A.R.T.W. Bandara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. has dramatically altered its wood product imports and exports during the past few years,and at present, it is the second largest wood product importer in the world. Hence, an understanding ofmarket structures, factors in selecting foreign suppliers, and the emphasis placed on environmentalissues/certification are critical to understand from the perspective of wood products importers in the U.S.This study provides an analysis of the U.S. wood products import sector with special emphasis on currentand future opportunities for tropical wood products exporters to the U.S. market.In this study, 158 wood products importers in the U.S. were surveyed using a mailingquestionnaire. The adjusted response rate was 40.6 percent. Results indicated that most of the respondentswere small to medium scale firms, but major importers of wood products. According to respondents,wood products to the U.S. mainly come from Brazil, Chile, and China. From the importers’ perspective,Brazilian wood products ranked first for its quality followed by wood products from Chile and Finland.Product quality, long term customer relationships, on-time delivery of orders, fair prices, and supplierreputation were the factors deemed important in selecting overseas suppliers. Majority of respondentswere importing certified wood products. FSC, SFI, and ISO 14000 were the mostly accepted certificationprograms. However, certification was not a major factor in foreign supplier selection criteria. Whenconsidered the U.S. wood products importers’ tendency to diversify their products and species imported,attractive opportunities exist for wood products suppliers from tropical countries.

  18. Cooling performance assessment of horizontal earth tube system and effect on planting in tropical greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkon, S.; Thepa, S.; Namprakai, P.; Pratinthong, N.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The cooling ability of HETS is studied for planting in tropical greenhouse. • The effective of system was moderate with COP more than 2.0. • Increasing diameter and air velocity increase COP more than other parameters. • The plant growth with HETS was significantly better than no-HETS plant. - Abstract: The benefit of geothermal energy is used by the horizontal earth tube system (HETS); which is not prevalent in tropical climate. This study evaluated geothermal cooling ability and parameters studied in Thailand by mathematical model. The measurement of the effect on plant cultivation was carried out in two identical greenhouses with 30 m 2 of greenhouse volume. The HETS supplied cooled air to the model greenhouse (MGH), and the plant growth results were compared to the growth results of a conventional greenhouse (CGH). The prediction demonstrated that the coefficient of performance (COP) in clear sky day would be more than 2.0 while in the experiment it was found to be moderately lower. The parameters study could be useful for implementation of a system for maximum performance. Two plants Dahlias and head lettuce were grown satisfactory. The qualities of the plants with the HETS were better than the non-cooled plants. In addition, the quality of production was affected by variations of microclimate in the greenhouses and solar intensity throughout the cultivation period

  19. Trace Gas Emissions From the Production and Use of Biofuels in the African Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschi, I.; Yokelson, R. J.; Ward, D. E.; Christian, T. J.; Hao, W. M.

    2001-12-01

    Biomass burning is an important source of many atmospheric trace gases and particles that play a significant role in regional-global, tropospheric and stratospheric chemical processes, and in the global climate. About 80% of biomass burning is thought to occur in the tropics in association with traditional land management practices and domestic biofuel use. More than 220 Tg (1 Tg = 1 x 1012 g) of fuel-wood and 11 Tg of charcoal are consumed annually for domestic heating and cooking in tropical Africa alone. Approximately 90% of the fuel-wood is consumed in open fires in rural areas. Previously, the emissions for fuel-wood fires and charcoal use and production in the tropics were known for only a limited number of chemical species. During SAFARI-2000 we conducted field experiments in remote Zambian villages and observed most of the major trace gases emitted from the production and use of biofuels using open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy, which provides an artifact-free overview of the trace gases present above several ppbv. Our OP-FTIR was deployed for several spot measurements over the course of an earthen kiln charcoal-making process and of several open wood and charcoal fires, all of which were built and tended by local inhabitants. We quantified the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC). Our results also show much higher emission factors for methanol (CH3OH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), and formaldehyde (CH2O) from domestic biofuel production and use than from savanna fires in southern Africa. Thus, these year-round OVOC emissions will play an important role in the photochemistry of the troposphere and in the acidity of aerosols and precipitation especially in tropical regions.

  20. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed to be a simple, easily stowed, high growth volume, low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables...

  1. Macauba: a promising tropical palm for the production of vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo Carlos Augusto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing global demand for vegetable oils for food and for replacing fossil fuels leads to increased oilseeds production. Almost 122 of the current 187 million tons of vegetable oils produced in the world correspond to palm and soybean oils. The oil palm is cultivated in the tropical zone, in areas formerly occupied by forests, and soybean oil is a by-product of protein meal production. The diversification of raw materials for the vegetable oil market is thus strategic for both food and non-food sectors. Sources for vegetable oil should be economically competitive and provide sustainability indexes higher than that provided by oil palm and soybean. In this context, we describe the potential of Acrocomia aculeata, popularly known as macauba. Macauba is an American palm from the tropical zones which presents oil productivity and quality similar to that of the oil palm. It grows spontaneously in a wide range of environments and it is not very water demanding. Macauba palm has a high potential for oil production and for diversification of co-products with some potential of value aggregation. Such a perennial and sustainable species will probably fulfill the requirements to become an important new commercial oilseed crop.

  2. Tropical Fruit Pulps: Processing, Product Standardization and Main Control Parameters for Quality Assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Farias Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fruit pulp is the most basic food product obtained from fresh fruit processing. Fruit pulps can be cold stored for long periods of time, but they also can be used to fabricate juices, ice creams, sweets, jellies and yogurts. The exploitation of tropical fruits has leveraged the entire Brazilian fruit pulp sector due mainly to the high acceptance of their organoleptic properties and remarkable nutritional facts. However, several works published in the last decades have pointed out unfavorable conditions regarding the consumption of tropical fruit pulps. This negative scenario has been associated with unsatisfactory physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of fruits pulps as outcomes of little knowledge and improper management within the fruit pulp industry. There are protocols for delineating specific identity and quality standards (IQSs and standardized good manufacturing practices (GMP for fruit pulps, which also embrace standard operating procedures (SOPs and hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP, although this latter is not considered mandatory by the Brazilian legislation. Unfortunately, the lack of skilled labor, along with failures in complying established protocols have impaired quality of fruit pulps. It has been necessary to collect all information available with the aim to identify the most important hazards within fruit pulp processing lines. Standardizing methods and practices within the Brazilian fruit pulp industry would assurance high quality status to tropical fruit pulps and the commercial growth of this vegetal product towards international markets.

  3. Relationships between meiofaunal biodiversity and prokaryotic heterotrophic production in different tropical habitats and oceanic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusceddu, Antonio; Gambi, Cristina; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Scopa, Mariaspina; Danovaro, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Tropical marine ecosystems are among the most diverse of the world oceans, so that assessing the linkages between biodiversity and ecosystem functions (BEF) is a crucial step to predict consequences of biodiversity loss. Most BEF studies in marine ecosystems have been carried out on macrobenthic diversity, whereas the influence of the meiofauna on ecosystem functioning has received much less attention. We compared meiofaunal and nematode biodiversity and prokaryotic heterotrophic production across seagrass, mangrove and reef sediments in the Caribbean, Celebes and Red Seas. For all variables we report the presence of differences among habitats within the same region, and among regions within the same habitat. In all regions, the richness of meiofaunal taxa in reef and seagrass sediments is higher than in mangrove sediments. The sediments of the Celebes Sea show the highest meiofaunal biodiversity. The composition of meiofaunal assemblages varies significantly among habitats in the same region. The nematode beta diversity among habitats within the same region is higher than the beta diversity among regions. Although one site per habitat was considered in each region, these results suggest that the composition of meiofaunal assemblages varies primarily among biogeographic regions, whereas the composition of nematode assemblages varies more considerably among habitats. Meiofauna and nematode biodiversity and prokaryotic heterotrophic production, even after the removal of covariate effects linked with longitude and the quantity and nutritional quality of organic matter, are positively and linearly linked both across regions and within each habitat type. Our results confirm that meiofauna and nematode biodiversity may influence benthic prokaryotic activity, which, in turn, implies that diversity loss could have negative impacts on ecosystem functioning in these systems.

  4. Relationships between meiofaunal biodiversity and prokaryotic heterotrophic production in different tropical habitats and oceanic regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pusceddu

    Full Text Available Tropical marine ecosystems are among the most diverse of the world oceans, so that assessing the linkages between biodiversity and ecosystem functions (BEF is a crucial step to predict consequences of biodiversity loss. Most BEF studies in marine ecosystems have been carried out on macrobenthic diversity, whereas the influence of the meiofauna on ecosystem functioning has received much less attention. We compared meiofaunal and nematode biodiversity and prokaryotic heterotrophic production across seagrass, mangrove and reef sediments in the Caribbean, Celebes and Red Seas. For all variables we report the presence of differences among habitats within the same region, and among regions within the same habitat. In all regions, the richness of meiofaunal taxa in reef and seagrass sediments is higher than in mangrove sediments. The sediments of the Celebes Sea show the highest meiofaunal biodiversity. The composition of meiofaunal assemblages varies significantly among habitats in the same region. The nematode beta diversity among habitats within the same region is higher than the beta diversity among regions. Although one site per habitat was considered in each region, these results suggest that the composition of meiofaunal assemblages varies primarily among biogeographic regions, whereas the composition of nematode assemblages varies more considerably among habitats. Meiofauna and nematode biodiversity and prokaryotic heterotrophic production, even after the removal of covariate effects linked with longitude and the quantity and nutritional quality of organic matter, are positively and linearly linked both across regions and within each habitat type. Our results confirm that meiofauna and nematode biodiversity may influence benthic prokaryotic activity, which, in turn, implies that diversity loss could have negative impacts on ecosystem functioning in these systems.

  5. Energy production systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Thomas Howard

    2017-01-01

    Energy Production Systems Engineering presents IEEE, Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards of engineering systems and equipment in utility electric generation stations. Electrical engineers that practice in the energy industry must understand the specific characteristics of electrical and mechanical equipment commonly applied to energy production and conversion processes, including the mechanical and chemical processes involved, in order to design, operate and maintain electrical systems that support and enable these processes. To aid this understanding, Energy Production Systems Engineeringdescribes the equipment and systems found in various types of utility electric generation stations. This information is accompanied by examples and practice problems. It also addresses common issues of electrical safety that arise in electric generation stations.

  6. A model for the identification of tropical weather systems over South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-07-03

    Jul 3, 2002 ... with, these two high-pressure systems, controls to a large extent, the weather of ... researchers provided general rules to differentiate between tropical- ..... inclusion of this graph therefore does not serve as a verification of.

  7. Real-Time Forecasting System of Winds, Waves and Surge in Tropical Cyclones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graber, Hans C; Donelan, Mark A; Brown, Michael G; Slinn, Donald N; Hagen, Scott C; Thompson, Donald R; Jensen, Robert E; Black, Peter G; Powell, Mark D; Guiney, John L

    2004-01-01

    .... The results of this forecasting system would provide real-time information to the National Hurricane Center during the tropical cyclone season in the Atlantic for establishing improved advisories...

  8. Real-Time Forecasting System of Winds, Waves and Surge in Tropical Cyclones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graber, Hans C; Donelan, Mark A; Brown, Michael G; Slinn, Donald N; Hagen, Scott C; Thompson, Donald R; Jensen, Robert E; Black, Peter G; Powell, Mark D; Guiney, John L; Cardone, Vincent J; Cox, Andrew T; Augustus, Ellsworth H; Colonnese, Christopher P

    2003-01-01

    .... The results of this forecasting system would provide real-time information to the National Hurricane Center during the tropical cyclone season in the Atlantic for establishing improved advisories...

  9. Real-Time Forecasting System of Winds, Waves and Surge in Tropical Cyclones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graber, Hans C; Donelan, Mark A; Brown, Michael G; Slinn, Donald N; Hagen, Scott C; Thompson, Donald R; Jensen, Robert E; Black, Peter G; Powell, Mark D; Guiney, John L

    2005-01-01

    .... The results of this forecasting system would provide real-time information to the National Hurricane Center during the tropical cyclone season in the Atlantic for establishing improved advisories...

  10. Real-Time Forecasting System of Winds, Waves and Surge in Tropical Cyclones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graber, Hans C; Donelan, Mark A; Brown, Michael G; Slinn, Donald N; Hagen, Scott C; Thompson, Donald R; Jensen, Robert E; Black, Peter G; Powell, Mark D; Guiney, John L

    2005-01-01

    The long-term goal of this partnership is to establish an operational forecasting system of the wind field and resulting waves and surge impacting the coastline during the approach and landfall of tropical cyclones...

  11. Real-Time Forecasting System of Winds, Waves and Surge in Tropical Cyclones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graber, Hans C; Donelan, Mark A; Brown, Michael G; Slinn, Donald N; Hagen, Scott C; Thompson, Donald R; Jensen, Robert E; Black, Peter G; Powell, Mark D; Guiney, John L

    2004-01-01

    The long-term goal of this partnership is to establish an operational forecasting system of the wind field and resulting waves and surge impacting the coastline during the approach and landfall of tropical cyclones...

  12. Real-Time Forecasting System of Winds, Waves and Surge in Tropical Cyclones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graber, Hans C; Donelan, Mark A; Brown, Michael G; Slinn, Donald N; Hagen, Scott C; Thompson, Donald R; Jensen, Robert E; Black, Peter G; Powell, Mark D; Guiney, John L; Cardone, Vincent J; Cox, Andrew T; Augustus, Ellsworth H; Colonnese, Christopher P

    2003-01-01

    The long-term goal of this partnership is to establish an operational forecasting system of the wind field and resulting waves and surge impacting the coastline during the approach and landfall of tropical cyclones...

  13. Phosphorus, carbon- and nitrogen interactions in productive and degraded tropical pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberson, A.; Hegglin, D. D.; Nesper, M.; Rao, I.; Fonte, S.; Ramirez, B.; Velasquez, J.; Tamburini, F.; Bünemann, E. K.; Frossard, E.

    2011-12-01

    Pastures are the main land use in deforested areas of tropical South America. The highly weathered soils of these regions usually have low total and available phosphorus (P) contents. Low P availability can strongly limit plant and animal productivity and other soil ecosystem functions. Most introduced pastures of Brachiaria spp. are grass-alone (GA) while some are grass-legume (GL) pastures. The majority of the introduced pastures, particularly the grass-alone are at some state of degradation (GD). Pasture degradation induces severe loss of plant biomass production, with drastic ecological and economic implications. Although the importance of P deficiency in pasture degradation has been recognized, the knowledge generated on stoichiometry of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and P along pathways of the nutrient cycles of pastures, with different botanical composition and productivity, has been very limited. We will present results of a case study realized during 2010 to 2011 in the forest margins agro-ecosystem of the department of Caquetá, Colombia. Our objectives were to determine: i) whether P availability is lower in degraded compared to productive pastures, and ii) whether the introduction of legumes in the pasture increases P availability through enhanced biological P cycling through plant growth, plant litter decomposition and the soil microbial biomass; and iii) whether pasture types (GA vs GL) and the state of pasture degradation affect the C:N:P ratios in nutrient pools of the soil-plant system. An on-farm study was conducted on nine farms in the department of Caquetá, Colombia. On every farm three different pasture types were studied: degraded grass alone pastures (GD), productive grass-alone pastures (GA) and productive grass-legume pastures (GL). Basic soil characteristics and indicators on soil P status, microbial P cycling, plant biomass production, plant litter deposition and nutrient concentrations in plant tissue were determined. Analysis of P, C and N

  14. Studies on saponin production in tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and Maesa lanceolata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Ahmad; Geelen, Danny

    2015-09-01

    The continuous need for new compounds with important medicinal activities has lead to the identification and characterization of various plant-derived natural products. As a part of this program, we studied the saponin production from two tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and M. lanceolata and evaluated several treatments to enhance their saponin production. In this experiment, we present the analyses of saponin production from greenhouse grown plants by means of TLC and HPLC-MS. We observed that the content of saponin from these plants varied depending on organ and physiological age of the plants. In addition, the impact of elicitors on saponin accumulation on in vitro grown plants was analyzed using TLC. The production of saponin was very stable and not affected by treatment with methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. In conclusion, Maesa saponins are constitutively produced in plants and the level of these compounds in plants is mainly affected by the developmental or physiological stage.

  15. Cloud Cover Assessment for Operational Crop Monitoring Systems in Tropical Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaque Daniel Rocha Eberhardt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential of optical remote sensing data to identify, map and monitor croplands is well recognized. However, clouds strongly limit the usefulness of optical imagery for these applications. This paper aims at assessing cloud cover conditions over four states in the tropical and sub-tropical Center-South region of Brazil to guide the development of an appropriate agricultural monitoring system based on Landsat-like imagery. Cloudiness was assessed during overlapping four months periods to match the typical length of crop cycles in the study area. The percentage of clear sky occurrence was computed from the 1 km resolution MODIS Cloud Mask product (MOD35 considering 14 years of data between July 2000 and June 2014. Results showed high seasonality of cloud occurrence within the crop year with strong variations across the study area. The maximum seasonality was observed for the two states in the northern part of the study area (i.e., the ones closer to the Equator line, which also presented the lowest averaged values (15% of clear sky occurrence during the main (summer cropping period (November to February. In these locations, optical data faces severe constraints for mapping summer crops. On the other hand, relatively favorable conditions were found in the southern part of the study region. In the South, clear sky values of around 45% were found and no significant clear sky seasonality was observed. Results underpin the challenges to implement an operational crop monitoring system based solely on optical remote sensing imagery in tropical and sub-tropical regions, in particular if short-cycle crops have to be monitored during the cloudy summer months. To cope with cloudiness issues, we recommend the use of new systems with higher repetition rates such as Sentinel-2. For local studies, Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles (UAVs might be used to augment the observing capability. Multi-sensor approaches combining optical and microwave data can be another

  16. Strategic grazing management towards sustainable intensification at tropical pasture-based dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congio, Guilhermo F S; Batalha, Camila D A; Chiavegato, Marília B; Berndt, Alexandre; Oliveira, Patrícia P A; Frighetto, Rosa T S; Maxwell, Thomas M R; Gregorini, Pablo; Da Silva, Sila C

    2018-05-01

    Agricultural systems are responsible for environmental impacts that can be mitigated through the adoption of more sustainable principles. Our objective was to investigate the influence of two pre-grazing targets (95% and maximum canopy light interception during pasture regrowth; LI 95% and LI Max , respectively) on sward structure and herbage nutritive value of elephant grass cv. Cameroon, and dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, stocking rate, enteric methane (CH 4 ) emissions by Holstein × Jersey dairy cows. We hypothesized that grazing strategies modifying the sward structure of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) improves nutritive value of herbage, increasing DMI and reducing intensity of enteric CH 4 emissions, providing environmental and productivity benefits to tropical pasture-based dairy systems. Results indicated that pre-sward surface height was greater for LI Max (≈135 cm) than LI 95% (≈100 cm) and can be used as a reliable field guide for monitoring sward structure. Grazing management based on LI 95% criteria improved herbage nutritive value and grazing efficiency, allowing greater DMI, milk yield and stocking rate by dairy cows. Daily enteric CH 4 emission was not affected; however, cows grazing elephant grass at LI 95% were more efficient and emitted 21% less CH 4 /kg of milk yield and 18% less CH 4 /kg of DMI. The 51% increase in milk yield per hectare overcame the 29% increase in enteric CH 4 emissions per hectare in LI 95% grazing management. Thereby the same resource allocation resulted in a 16% mitigation of the main greenhouse gas from pasture-based dairy systems. Overall, strategic grazing management is an environmental friendly practice that improves use efficiency of allocated resources through optimization of processes evolving plant, ruminant and their interface, and enhances milk production efficiency of tropical pasture-based systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Innovativeness in production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Henrik; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    Alignment of market demand and manufacturing capabilities are directly linked to the potential competitive advantage. Pressure for manufacturing companies to customize increase the need for productions systems to handle innovations, especially in SMEs. The paper claims that innovativeness has...... a positive influence of the ability of the manufacturing system to provide specific capabilities that enables the entire production system to positively influence the competitiveness. A comparative case study of three SMEs shows that competitive advantages are obtained through innovative technologies......, but revealed also automation potential in data and information management to be more responsive and cost-effective....

  18. Knowledge gaps in tropical Southeast Asian seagrass systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Jillian Lean Sim; Kendrick, Gary A.; Van Niel, Kimberly P.; Affendi, Yang Amri

    2011-03-01

    Seagrasses are habitats with significant ecological and economic functions but we have limited knowledge of seagrasses in Southeast Asia, the hypothesized centre-of-origin for tropical seagrasses. There have been only 62 ISI-cited publications on the seagrasses of Southeast Asia in the last three decades and most work has been in few sites such as Northwest Luzon in the Philippines and South Sulawesi in Indonesia. Our understanding of the processes driving spatial and temporal distributions of seagrass species here has focussed primarily on backreef and estuarine seagrass meadows, with little work on forereef systems. We used Pulau Tinggi, an island off the southeast coast of Peninsular Malaysia, as an example of a subtidal forereef system. It is characterized by a community of small and fast growing species such as Halophila ovalis (mean shoot density 1454.6 ± 145.1 m -2) and Halodule uninervis (mean shoot density 861.7 ± 372.0 m -2) growing in relatively low light conditions (mean PAR 162.1 ± 35.0 μmol m -2 s -1 at 10 m depth to 405.8 ± 99.0 μmol m -2 s -1 at 3 m water depth) on sediment with low carbonate (mean 9.24 ± 1.74 percentage dry weight), organic matter (mean 2.56 ± 0.35 percentage dry weight) and silt-clay content (mean 2.28 ± 2.43 percentage dry weight). The literature reveals that there is a range of drivers operating in Southeast Asian seagrass systems and we suggest that this is because there are various types of seagrass habitats in this region, i.e. backreef, forereef and estuary, each of which has site characteristics and ecological drivers unique to it. Based on our case study of Pulau Tinggi, we suggest that seagrasses in forereef systems are more widespread in Southeast Asia than is reflected in the literature and that they are likely to be driven by recurring disturbance events such as monsoons, sediment burial and herbivory.

  19. Organic carbon and nitrogen export from a tropical dam-impacted floodplain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbrügg, R.; Suter, S.; Lehmann, M. F.; Wehrli, B.; Senn, D. B.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical floodplains play an important role in organic matter transport, storage, and transformation between headwaters and oceans. However, the fluxes and quality of organic carbon (OC) and organic nitrogen (ON) in tropical river-floodplain systems are not well constrained. We explored the quantity and characteristics of dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM, respectively) in the Kafue River flowing through the Kafue Flats (Zambia), a tropical river-floodplain system in the Zambezi River basin. During the flooding season, > 80% of the Kafue River water passed through the floodplain, mobilizing large quantities of OC and ON, which resulted in a net export of 69-119 kg OC km-2 d-1 and 3.8-4.7 kg ON km-2 d-1, 80% of which was in the dissolved form. The elemental C : N ratio of ~ 20, the comparatively high δ13C values of -25‰ to -21‰, and its spectroscopic properties (excitation-emission matrices) showed that DOM in the river was mainly of terrestrial origin. Despite a threefold increase in OC loads due to inputs from the floodplain, the characteristics of the riverine DOM remained relatively constant along the sampled 410-km river reach. This suggests that floodplain DOM displayed properties similar to those of DOM leaving the upstream reservoir and implied that the DOM produced in the reservoir was relatively short-lived. In contrast, the particulate fraction was 13C-depleted (-29‰) and had a C : N ratio of ~ 8, which indicated that POM originated from phytoplankton production in the reservoir and in the floodplain, rather than from plant debris or resuspended sediments. While the upstream dam had little effect on the DOM pool, terrestrial particles were retained, and POM from algal and microbial sources was released to the river. A nitrogen mass balance over the 2200 km2 flooded area revealed an annual deficit of 15 500-22 100 t N in the Kafue Flats. The N isotope budget suggests that these N losses are balanced by intense N-fixation. Our

  20. Organic carbon and nitrogen export from a tropical dam-impacted floodplain system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zurbrügg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical floodplains play an important role in organic matter transport, storage, and transformation between headwaters and oceans. However, the fluxes and quality of organic carbon (OC and organic nitrogen (ON in tropical river-floodplain systems are not well constrained. We explored the quantity and characteristics of dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM, respectively in the Kafue River flowing through the Kafue Flats (Zambia, a tropical river-floodplain system in the Zambezi River basin. During the flooding season, > 80% of the Kafue River water passed through the floodplain, mobilizing large quantities of OC and ON, which resulted in a net export of 69–119 kg OC km−2 d−1 and 3.8–4.7 kg ON km−2 d−1, 80% of which was in the dissolved form. The elemental C : N ratio of ~ 20, the comparatively high δ13C values of −25‰ to −21‰, and its spectroscopic properties (excitation-emission matrices showed that DOM in the river was mainly of terrestrial origin. Despite a threefold increase in OC loads due to inputs from the floodplain, the characteristics of the riverine DOM remained relatively constant along the sampled 410-km river reach. This suggests that floodplain DOM displayed properties similar to those of DOM leaving the upstream reservoir and implied that the DOM produced in the reservoir was relatively short-lived. In contrast, the particulate fraction was 13C-depleted (−29‰ and had a C : N ratio of ~ 8, which indicated that POM originated from phytoplankton production in the reservoir and in the floodplain, rather than from plant debris or resuspended sediments. While the upstream dam had little effect on the DOM pool, terrestrial particles were retained, and POM from algal and microbial sources was released to the river. A nitrogen mass balance over the 2200 km2 flooded area revealed an annual deficit of 15 500–22 100 t N in

  1. Model for product development of vaccines against neglected tropical diseases: a vaccine against human hookworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Brown, Ami Shah

    2008-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the advances in product development and technology transfer of the vaccine against human hookworm, with particular emphasis on the lessons learned and the challenges of developing a vaccine in the nonprofit sector. The comprehensive approach to vaccine development established by the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative (HHVI) identifies key operational and technical aspects that are essential for a successful partnership with a developing country vaccine manufacturer. This article also highlights the importance of a global access roadmap to guide the vaccine development program. The advancement of new products for the control of neglected tropical diseases portends great challenges for global access, including aspects related to vaccine design, product development and manufacture, vaccine introduction and distribution, financing, knowledge dissemination and intellectual property management. With only three vaccines for neglected tropical diseases in clinical trials - hookworm, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis - we are at the nascent stages of developing vaccines for neglected populations. Product development public-private partnerships, such as the HHVI, continue to show great promise on this front and will eventually provide significant control tools for achieving millennium development goals related to poverty reduction, as well as child and maternal health.

  2. The Role of Natural Products in Drug Discovery and Development against Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mubanga Cheuka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Endemic in 149 tropical and subtropical countries, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs affect more than 1 billion people annually, including 875 million children in developing economies. These diseases are also responsible for over 500,000 deaths per year and are characterized by long-term disability and severe pain. The impact of the combined NTDs closely rivals that of malaria and tuberculosis. Current treatment options are associated with various limitations including widespread drug resistance, severe adverse effects, lengthy treatment duration, unfavorable toxicity profiles, and complicated drug administration procedures. Natural products have been a valuable source of drug regimens that form the cornerstone of modern pharmaceutical care. In this review, we highlight the potential that remains untapped in natural products as drug leads for NTDs. We cover natural products from plant, marine, and microbial sources including natural-product-inspired semi-synthetic derivatives which have been evaluated against the various causative agents of NTDs. Our coverage is limited to four major NTDs which include human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis.

  3. Primary production in a tropical large lake: The role of phytoplankton composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darchambeau, F., E-mail: francois.darchambeau@ulg.ac.be [Chemical Oceanography Unit, University of Liège, Liège (Belgium); Sarmento, H., E-mail: hugo.sarmento@gmail.com [Department of Hydrobiology, Federal University of São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); Descy, J.-P., E-mail: jean-pierre.descy@unamur.be [Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, University of Namur, Namur (Belgium)

    2014-03-01

    Phytoplankton biomass and primary production in tropical large lakes vary at different time scales, from seasons to centuries. We provide a dataset made of 7 consecutive years of phytoplankton biomass and production in Lake Kivu (Eastern Africa). From 2002 to 2008, bi-weekly samplings were performed in a pelagic site in order to quantify phytoplankton composition and biomass, using marker pigments determined by HPLC. Primary production rates were estimated by 96 in situ {sup 14}C incubations. A principal component analysis showed that the main environmental gradient was linked to a seasonal variation of the phytoplankton assemblage, with a clear separation between diatoms during the dry season and cyanobacteria during the rainy season. A rather wide range of the maximum specific photosynthetic rate (P{sub Bm}) was found, ranging between 1.15 and 7.21 g carbon g{sup −1} chlorophyll a h{sup −1}, and was best predicted by a regression model using phytoplankton composition as an explanatory variable. The irradiance at the onset of light saturation (I{sub k}) ranged between 91 and 752 μE m{sup −2} s{sup −1} and was linearly correlated with the mean irradiance in the mixed layer. The inter-annual variability of phytoplankton biomass and production was high, ranging from 53 to 100 mg chlorophyll a m{sup −2} (annual mean) and from 143 to 278 g carbon m{sup −2} y{sup −1}, respectively. The degree of seasonal mixing determined annual production, demonstrating the sensitivity of tropical lakes to climate variability. A review of primary production of other African great lakes allows situating Lake Kivu productivity in the same range as that of lakes Tanganyika and Malawi, even if mean phytoplankton biomass was higher in Lake Kivu. - Highlights: • We provide a 7-year dataset of primary production in a tropical great lake. • Specific photosynthetic rate was determined by community composition. • Annual primary production varied between 143 and 278 mg C m

  4. Primary production in a tropical large lake: The role of phytoplankton composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darchambeau, F.; Sarmento, H.; Descy, J.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplankton biomass and primary production in tropical large lakes vary at different time scales, from seasons to centuries. We provide a dataset made of 7 consecutive years of phytoplankton biomass and production in Lake Kivu (Eastern Africa). From 2002 to 2008, bi-weekly samplings were performed in a pelagic site in order to quantify phytoplankton composition and biomass, using marker pigments determined by HPLC. Primary production rates were estimated by 96 in situ 14 C incubations. A principal component analysis showed that the main environmental gradient was linked to a seasonal variation of the phytoplankton assemblage, with a clear separation between diatoms during the dry season and cyanobacteria during the rainy season. A rather wide range of the maximum specific photosynthetic rate (P Bm ) was found, ranging between 1.15 and 7.21 g carbon g −1 chlorophyll a h −1 , and was best predicted by a regression model using phytoplankton composition as an explanatory variable. The irradiance at the onset of light saturation (I k ) ranged between 91 and 752 μE m −2 s −1 and was linearly correlated with the mean irradiance in the mixed layer. The inter-annual variability of phytoplankton biomass and production was high, ranging from 53 to 100 mg chlorophyll a m −2 (annual mean) and from 143 to 278 g carbon m −2 y −1 , respectively. The degree of seasonal mixing determined annual production, demonstrating the sensitivity of tropical lakes to climate variability. A review of primary production of other African great lakes allows situating Lake Kivu productivity in the same range as that of lakes Tanganyika and Malawi, even if mean phytoplankton biomass was higher in Lake Kivu. - Highlights: • We provide a 7-year dataset of primary production in a tropical great lake. • Specific photosynthetic rate was determined by community composition. • Annual primary production varied between 143 and 278 mg C m −2 y −1 . • Pelagic production was highly

  5. Benthic infaunal community structuring in an acidified tropical estuarine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M Belal; Marshall, David J

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that increasing ocean acidification (OA) should have strong direct and indirect influences on marine invertebrates. While most theory and application for OA is based on relatively physically-stable oceanic ecological systems, less is known about the effects of acidification on nearshore and estuarine systems. Here, we investigated the structuring of a benthic infaunal community in a tropical estuarine system, along a steep salinity and pH gradient, arising largely from acid-sulphate groundwater inflows (Sungai Brunei Estuary, Borneo, July 2011- June 2012). Preliminary data indicate that sediment pore-water salinity (range: 8.07 - 29.6 psu) declined towards the mainland in correspondence with the above-sediment estuarine water salinity (range: 3.58 - 31.2 psu), whereas the pore-water pH (range: 6.47- 7.72) was generally lower and less variable than the estuarine water pH (range: 5.78- 8.3), along the estuary. Of the thirty six species (taxa) recorded, the polychaetes Neanthes sp., Onuphis conchylega, Nereididae sp. and the amphipod Corophiidae sp., were numerically dominant. Calcified microcrustaceans (e.g., Cyclopoida sp. and Corophiidae sp.) were abundant at all stations and there was no clear distinction in distribution pattern along the estuarine between calcified and non-calcified groups. Species richness increased seawards, though abundance (density) showed no distinct directional trend. Diversity indices were generally positively correlated (Spearman's rank correlation) with salinity and pH (p 0.05). Three faunistic assemblages were distinguished: (1) nereid-cyclopoid-sabellid, (2) corophiid-capitellid and (3) onuphid- nereid-capitellid. These respectively associated with lower salinity/pH and a muddy bottom, low salinity/pH and a sandy bottom, and high salinity/pH and a sandy bottom. However, CCA suggested that species distribution and community structuring is more strongly influenced by sediment particle characteristics than by the

  6. A bamboo braced frame system for tropical climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverria, J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost housing system was developed for use in tropical countries, specifically Haiti, with the aims of minimizing environmental impact (including carbon emissions, maximizing use of local and preferably recycled materials, and using local labor. The housing system integrates low-strength concrete blocks (made using recycled concrete aggregate, an innovative seismically-resistant bamboo frame, earthen plasters, bamboo trusses, and metal deck roofs. The bamboo frame relies on flexural yielding of a short rebar dowel to provide ductile performance at a controlled strength level. The plinth walls below the frame and short rebar dowel protects the bamboo from moisture. The top of a plastic soda bottle is used to protect the rebar from moisture and to seal the base of the bamboo culm, allowing mortar to be introduced into the culm above. This paper focuses on the experimental and analytical results of the flexural yielding of the rebar dowel to establish the structural design of this critical component of the system for resisting wind and seismic loads.En este artículo se presenta un sistema de construcción de viviendas de bajo coste para países tropicales en los cuales existe riesgo sísmico. Los objetivos de este trabajo son generar bajo impacto medioambiental (incluyendo las emisiones de carbono, empleo de materiales locales, preferiblemente reciclados, y mano de obra local. Para esta construcción se han empleado bloques de hormigón de baja resistencia (con agregado reciclado junto con un innovador sistema de pórticos de bambú, botellas de plástico, vigas de bambú y cubiertas de chapa. El comportamiento dúctil de la estructura se garantiza introduciendo una barra de acero en la base del pórtico de bambú. Para proteger el bambú de la humedad, el pórtico se monta sobre un zócalo. Los resultados experimentales y analíticos obtenidos se utilizan para el diseño estructural del sistema frente a cargas de viento y sísmicas.

  7. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manuscript should be typed on white A4 paper, double-spaced with wide margin. ... Anyanwu, G. A., Esonu, B. O., Iwuala, F., Okorie, K. and Etuk, E. B. (2003). ... Books: Payne, W. J. A. (1990). An introduction to animal husbandry in the tropics.

  8. Estimates of Crossbreeding Parameters for Defining Optimal Crossbreeding Systems for the Coastal Lowland Tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahi, A.K.; Thorpe, W.

    1999-01-01

    An individual animal model was fitted to data from crossbred herd in the lowland coastal tropics of Kenya to estimate breed cross means for a total of 25 genotypes having different proportions of Ayrshire (A), Brown swiss (B), Friesian (F) and Sahiwal (S) genes. These means were then regressed on gene proportion of breeds and on the coefficients of heterosis and recombination loss. Per lactation, the S contributed 1802 kg and 18.4 kg less milk and milk per unit of metabolic weight (MW), respectively, than the F. The performance of A and B were intermediate. The contribution of the F breed for most traits was superior to that of the other Bos taurus breeds. the heterosis effect between B and S was large for lactation milk yield (MY) (296 kg) and calving interval (CL) (-36 days). The heterosis between A and B for most traits was small, which is consistent with other studies in the literature. The estimates of recombination loss were negative in crosses A * B and B * S for MY,daily milk yield (DMY) and MY expressed per unit MW. Modelling of alternative crossbreeding strategy should be considered in relation to the ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the target production systems, which vary markedly. Therefore, the generalisation that the first cross (F 1 ) is best suited for dairying in the tropics could be misleading, and there is the need to evaluate the potential of synthetic breeds

  9. ATLAS production system

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Klimentov, Alexei; Golubkov, Dmitry; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Wenaus, Torre; Padolski, Siarhei

    2016-01-01

    The second generation of the ATLAS production system called ProdSys2 is a distributed workload manager which used by thousands of physicists to analyze the data remotely, with the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, across a more than hundred heterogeneous sites. It achieves high utilization by combining dynamic job definition based on many criterias, such as input and output size, memory requirements and CPU consumption with manageable scheduling policies and by supporting different kind of computational resources, such as GRID, clouds, supercomputers and volunteering computers. Besides jobs definition Production System also includes flexible web user interface, which implements user-friendly environment for main ATLAS workflows, e.g. simple way of combining different data flows, and real-time monitoring, optimised for using with huge amount of information to present. We present an overview of the ATLAS Production System major components: job and task definition, workflow manager web user i...

  10. Oil production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, J F

    1983-12-21

    A new oil producing system is proposed which consists of a group of underwater wells, an underwater riser and a floating storage facility for the production of the wells. The group of wells and the riser are interconnected through a manifold system in such a way that the production from any well or from the entire group of wells go to the base (foundation) of the riser. From above the riser is connected with the floating storage facility which is equipped, besides tanks for storing the well products, with a separation device for separating the oil and the accompanying gas. The gas is used as a fuel for producing electric power required by the dynamic positioning systems. The products from each well are tested by means of a regulable coupling controlled by means of a cable, which is passed from the surface through the riser. The wellhead equipment for the unslanted wells is mounted on a template previously installed on the sea floor. From the template the well products enter the riser through the manifold unit system.

  11. The seeding and cultivation of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva for algal biomass production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Carl

    Full Text Available Filamentous species of Ulva are ideal for cultivation because they are robust with high growth rates and maintained across a broad range of environments. Temperate species of filamentous Ulva are commercially cultivated on nets which can be artificially 'seeded' under controlled conditions allowing for a high level of control over seeding density and consequently biomass production. This study quantified for the first time the seeding and culture cycle of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva (Ulva sp. 3 and identified seeding density and nursery period as key factors affecting growth and biomass yield. A seeding density of 621,000 swarmers m(-1 rope in combination with a nursery period of five days resulted in the highest growth rate and correspondingly the highest biomass yield. A nursery period of five days was optimal with up to six times the biomass yield compared to ropes under either shorter or longer nursery periods. These combined parameters of seeding density and nursery period resulted in a specific growth rate of more than 65% day(-1 between 7 and 10 days of outdoor cultivation post-nursery. This was followed by a decrease in growth through to 25 days. This study also demonstrated that the timing of harvest is critical as the maximum biomass yield of 23.0 ± 8.8 g dry weight m(-1 (228.7 ± 115.4 g fresh weight m(-1 was achieved after 13 days of outdoor cultivation whereas biomass degraded to 15.5 ± 7.3 g dry weight m(-1 (120.2 ± 71.8 g fresh weight m(-1 over a longer outdoor cultivation period of 25 days. Artificially seeded ropes of Ulva with high biomass yields over short culture cycles may therefore be an alternative to unattached cultivation in integrated pond-based aquaculture systems.

  12. Development of Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by......This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by...

  13. Sustainable production of cultivations, using biological and conservationists techniques; an applicable model to the Colombian warm tropic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro F, Hugo E

    1995-01-01

    The hot Colombian tropics represent nearly 82% of the national territory. The intensive and wrongly use of the soil has been subjected for years in agricultural areas of the inter-Andean valleys, Caribbean region, the eastern plains and others sectors of the commercial agriculture in the hot climate it is promoting a progressive physical, chemical and biological degradation of the soil. The physical losses of soil and organic matter due to erosion, excessive mechanization, flooding rice as single crop, burning of crop residues, unsuitable systems of irrigation and drainage, alkalinization an compaction in cropping areas, and the problems with more incidence in the deployment of land productivity in the areas. The methods to overcome these limitations agree with the application of modem and sustainable technologies focusing production systems. The management of production systems, selecting tillage systems according to the physical development of the soil, planting species in continuous rotation cycles, planting and incorporation of green manure, between two agricultural semesters, the appropriate management of water in non-irrigated crops an modem irrigation and the utilization of crop residues, to return to the soil, part of the nutrients extracted constitute some of the factors management dependent that could affect favorably the land productivity, for the benefit of future generations. Based on these concepts, it is presented in this article some of the experimental results obtained by national of Agriculture Colombian Institute (ICA) in the Regional Soil Program Center of Agricultural Research (Nataima), located in El Espinal, Tolima State, Colombia

  14. Magnitude and variability of methane production and concentration in tropical coastal lagoons sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Petruzzella

    Full Text Available AIM: Coastal wetlands are potential zones for methane (CH4 production. The present study aims to evaluate the spatial variation of CH4 production and concentration in ten tropical coastal lagoons, the influence of aquatic macrophytes on the sediment CH4 concentration and how the magnitude of these potential CH4 production rates compare to those in other ecosystems. METHODS: Sediments were sampled in ten coastal lagoons, with one site in the limnetic region and another site in aquatic macrophyte stands when they were present in the littoral region. We measured the CH4 production as a potential rate, and CH4 concentration was directly measured from sediment samples. RESULTS: The highest potential CH4 production (PMP rates were found in alkaline and hypersaline lagoons. However, Cabiúnas, which is a freshwater lagoon densely colonized by aquatic macrophytes, also exhibited a high PMP rate. We also observed that the sediment CH4 concentration in the littoral region was higher than in the limnetic region in all of the investigated lagoons except Paulista, which presented the opposite pattern. The PMP rates observed in the studied lagoons were low compared to other aquatic ecosystems. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the sediments of saline lagoons are important CH4 production sites, and in general, aquatic macrophytes have a positive influence on methanogenesis, which was evident based on the CH4 concentrations present in the sediments of these lagoons. Further studies should focus on the processes underlying the CH4 patterns observed in the tropical coastal lagoons, especially concerning the coupling between CH4 production and concentration.

  15. Productivity, utilization efficiency and sward targets for mixed pastures of marandugrass, forage peanut and tropical kudzu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the productivity and utilization efficiency of a mixed marandugrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Mandobi and tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides pasture, rotationally stocked at four daily forage allowance levels (6.6, 10.3, 14.3 and 17.9% of live weight, in order to define sward management targets for these mixtures. In each stocking cycle, dry matter (DM accumulation rates, defoliation intensity (%, grazing depth (% and grazed horizon (cm were evaluated. Sward targets were defined according to the sward condition that best conciliated the grass-legume balance and the equilibrium between forage production and utilization. Pastures submitted to higher forage allowance levels showed higher productivity, but were less efficiently utilized. It was not possible to establish sward management targets for marandugrass-tropical kudzu pastures. For marandugrass-forage peanut pastures the best sward state was set with forage allowance of 10.3% of live weight. Under rotational stocking, the following sward targets were suggested for these pastures in the Western Amazon: pre-grazing height of 30-35 cm (June to September or 45-50 cm (October to May and post-grazing sward height of 20-25 cm (June to September or 25-30 cm (October to May.

  16. Photochemical hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Both technical and economic factors affect the cost of producing hydrogen by photochemical processes. Technical factors include the efficiency and the capital and operating costs of the renewable hydrogen conversion system; economic factors include discount rates, economic life, credit for co-product oxygen, and the value of the energy produced. This paper presents technical and economic data for a system that generates on-peak electric power form photochemically produced hydrogen

  17. Independence and Product Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skeide, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Starting from elementary considerations about independence and Markov processes in classical probability we arrive at the new concept of conditional monotone independence (or operator-valued monotone independence). With the help of product systems of Hilbert modules we show that monotone conditional independence arises naturally in dilation theory.

  18. Long-Range Lightning Products for Short Term Forecasting of Tropical Cyclogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businger, S.; Pessi, A.; Robinson, T.; Stolz, D.

    2010-12-01

    This paper will describe innovative graphical products derived in real time from long-range lightning data. The products have been designed to aid in short-term forecasting of tropical cyclone development for the Tropical Cyclone Structure Experiment 2010 (TCS10) held over the western Pacific Ocean from 17 August to 17 October 2010 and are available online at http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/cgi-bin/pacnet/tcs10.pl. The long-range lightning data are from Vaisala’s Global Lightning Data 360 (GLD360) network and include time, location, current strength, polarity, and data quality indication. The products currently provided in real time include i. Infrared satellite imagery overlaid with lighting flash locations, with color indication of current strength and polarity (shades of blue for negative to ground and red for positive to ground). ii. A 15x15 degree storm-centered tile of IR imagery overlaid with lightning data as in i). iii. A pseudo reflectivity product showing estimates of radar reflectivity based on lightning rate - rain rate conversion derived from TRMM and PacNet data. iv. A lightning history product that plots each hour of lightning flash locations in a different color for a 12-hour period. v. Graphs of lightning counts within 50 or 300 km radius, respectively, of the storm center vs storm central sea-level pressure. vi. A 2-D graphic showing storm core lightning density along the storm track. The first three products above can be looped to gain a better understanding of the evolution of the lightning and storm structure. Examples of the graphics and their utility will be demonstrated and discussed. Histogram of lightning counts within 50 km of the storm center and graph of storm central pressure as a function of time.

  19. Assessing the impact of rumen microbial communities on methane emissions and production traits in Holstein cows in a tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Camila S; Veloso, Cristina M; Marcondes, Marcos I; Mantovani, Hilario C; Tomich, Thierry R; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo R; Ferreira, Matheus F L; Dill-McFarland, Kimberly A; Suen, Garret

    2017-12-01

    The evaluation of how the gut microbiota affects both methane emissions and animal production is necessary in order to achieve methane mitigation without production losses. Toward this goal, the aim of this study was to correlate the rumen microbial communities (bacteria, archaea, and fungi) of high (HP), medium (MP), and low milk producing (LP), as well as dry (DC), Holstein dairy cows in an actual tropical production system with methane emissions and animal production traits. Overall, DC cows emitted more methane, followed by MP, HP and LP cows, although HP and LP cow emissions were similar. Using next-generation sequencing, it was found that bacteria affiliated with Christensenellaceae, Mogibacteriaceae, S24-7, Butyrivibrio, Schwartzia, and Treponema were negatively correlated with methane emissions and showed positive correlations with digestible dry matter intake (dDMI) and digestible organic matter intake (dOMI). Similar findings were observed for archaea in the genus Methanosphaera. The bacterial groups Coriobacteriaceae, RFP12, and Clostridium were negatively correlated with methane, but did not correlate with dDMI and dOMI. For anaerobic fungal communities, no significant correlations with methane or animal production traits were found. Based on these findings, it is suggested that manipulation of the abundances of these microbial taxa may be useful for modulating methane emissions without negatively affecting animal production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Seagrasses in tropical Australia, productive and abundant for decades decimated overnight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Peter C; Greenway, Margaret

    2013-03-01

    Seagrass ecosystems provide unique coastal habitats critical to the life cycle of many species. Seagrasses are a major store of organic carbon. While seagrasses are globally threatened and in decline, in Cairns Harbour, Queensland, on the tropical east coast of Australia, they have flourished. We assessed seagrass distribution in Cairns Harbour between 1953 and 2012 from historical aerial photographs, Google map satellite images, existing reports and our own surveys of their distribution. Seasonal seagrass physiology was assessed through gross primary production, respiration and photosynthetic characteristics of three seagrass species, Cymodocea serrulata, Thalassia hemprichii and Zostera muelleri. At the higher water temperatures of summer, respiration rates increased in all three species, as did their maximum rates of photosynthesis. All three seagrasses achieved maximum rates of photosynthesis at low tide and when they were exposed. For nearly six decades there was little change in seagrass distribution in Cairns Harbour. This was most likely because the seagrasses were able to achieve sufficient light for growth during intertidal and low tide periods. With historical data of seagrass distribution and measures of species production and respiration, could seagrass survival in a changing climate be predicted? Based on physiology, our results predicted the continued maintenance of the Cairns Harbour seagrasses, although one species was more susceptible to thermal disturbance. However, in 2011 an unforeseen episodic disturbance - Tropical Cyclone Yasi - and associated floods lead to the complete and catastrophic loss of all the seagrasses in Cairns Harbour.

  1. Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release over the Global Tropics using TRMM Rainfall Products from December 1997 to November 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.

    2003-01-01

    NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2000. Rainfall, latent heating and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DJF 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs west Pacific, Africa vs. S. America ) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent heating (maximum heating level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in stratiform percentage estimates from PR on latent heating profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent heating profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed heating budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (heating product) as well as improve the GCE model. Review of other latent heating algorithms will be discussed in the workshop.

  2. Vertical Profiles of Latent Heat Release over the Global Tropics using TRMM rainfall products from December 1997 to November 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, W.-K.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Meneghini, R.; Halverson, J.; Johnson, R.; Adler, R.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) derived rainfall information will be used to estimate the four-dimensional structure of global monthly latent heating and rainfall profiles over the global tropics from December 1997 to November 2001. Rainfall, latent heating and radar reflectivity structures between El Nino (DE 1997-98) and La Nina (DJF 1998-99) will be examined and compared. The seasonal variation of heating over various geographic locations (i.e., oceanic vs continental, Indian ocean vs. west Pacific, Africa vs. S. America) will also be analyzed. In addition, the relationship between rainfall, latent heating (maximum heating level), radar reflectivity and SST is examined and will be presented in the meeting. The impact of random error and bias in strtaiform percentage estimates from PR on latent heating profiles is studied and will also be presented in the meeting. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model is being used to simulate various mesoscale convective systems that developed in different geographic locations. Specifically, the model estimated rainfall, radar reflectivity and latent heating profiles will be compared to observational data collected from TRMM field campaigns over the South China Sea in 1998 (SCSMEX), Brazil in 1999 (TRMM-LBA), and the central Pacific in 1999 (KWAJEX). Sounding diagnosed heating budgets and radar reflectivity from these experiments can provide the means to validate (heating product) as well as improve the GCE model.

  3. Logging disturbance shifts net primary productivity and its allocation in Bornean tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riutta, Terhi; Malhi, Yadvinder; Kho, Lip Khoon; Marthews, Toby R; Huaraca Huasco, Walter; Khoo, MinSheng; Tan, Sylvester; Turner, Edgar; Reynolds, Glen; Both, Sabine; Burslem, David F R P; Teh, Yit Arn; Vairappan, Charles S; Majalap, Noreen; Ewers, Robert M

    2018-01-24

    Tropical forests play a major role in the carbon cycle of the terrestrial biosphere. Recent field studies have provided detailed descriptions of the carbon cycle of mature tropical forests, but logged or secondary forests have received much less attention. Here, we report the first measures of total net primary productivity (NPP) and its allocation along a disturbance gradient from old-growth forests to moderately and heavily logged forests in Malaysian Borneo. We measured the main NPP components (woody, fine root and canopy NPP) in old-growth (n = 6) and logged (n = 5) 1 ha forest plots. Overall, the total NPP did not differ between old-growth and logged forest (13.5 ± 0.5 and 15.7 ± 1.5 Mg C ha -1  year -1 respectively). However, logged forests allocated significantly higher fraction into woody NPP at the expense of the canopy NPP (42% and 48% into woody and canopy NPP, respectively, in old-growth forest vs 66% and 23% in logged forest). When controlling for local stand structure, NPP in logged forest stands was 41% higher, and woody NPP was 150% higher than in old-growth stands with similar basal area, but this was offset by structure effects (higher gap frequency and absence of large trees in logged forest). This pattern was not driven by species turnover: the average woody NPP of all species groups within logged forest (pioneers, nonpioneers, species unique to logged plots and species shared with old-growth plots) was similar. Hence, below a threshold of very heavy disturbance, logged forests can exhibit higher NPP and higher allocation to wood; such shifts in carbon cycling persist for decades after the logging event. Given that the majority of tropical forest biome has experienced some degree of logging, our results demonstrate that logging can cause substantial shifts in carbon production and allocation in tropical forests. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Diurnal variations in depth profiles of UV-induced DNA damage and inhibition of bacterioplankton production in tropical coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, PM; Poos, JJ; Scheper, BB; Boelen, P; van Duyl, FC

    2002-01-01

    In this study, diurnal changes in bacterial production and DNA damage in bacterio-plankton (measured as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, CPDs) incubated in bags at different depths in tropical coastal waters were investigated. The DNA damage and inhibition of the bacterial production was highest at

  5. Persea schiedeana: A High Oil “Cinderella Species” Fruit with Potential for Tropical Agroforestry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Bost

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Persea schiedeana, a close relative of avocado (Persea americana, is an important part of agroforestry systems and diets in parts of Mesoamerica, particularly in the coffee growing areas of southeastern Mexico and Guatemala, where it is known as chinene, coyo, and yas. Little research attention has been given to this species, other than as a rootstock for avocado. Research carried out in six villages composing the Comité de Recursos Naturales de la Chinantla Alta (CORENCHI in Oaxaca, Mexico shows that Persea schiedeana has potential as a supplement to avocado production in subsistence systems and as a potential oil crop in more market oriented agroforestry systems. This survey of Persea schiedeana in the Chinantla area reports on the ethnoecology and management of chinene, as well as on the morphological diversity of the fruit in the area. High morphological diversity for fruit characters was noted and it is suggested that artificial selection has occurred and been modestly successful for desired fruit characters. Superior fruiting trees, identified during village level “chinene fairs” were targeted for vegetative propagation as part of a participatory domestication project. Such superior genotypes hold potential for addressing food security and creating marketable products in tropical areas around the globe.

  6. Enhancing agricultural productivity and rural incomes through sustainable use of natural resources in the semi arid tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Suhas P; Dixin, Yin; Li, Zhong; Dar, William D; Chander, Girish

    2012-03-30

    A participatory watershed management approach is one of the tested, sustainable and eco-friendly options to upgrade rain-fed agriculture to meet growing food demand along with additional multiple benefits in terms of improving livelihoods, addressing equity issues and biodiversity concerns. Watershed interventions at study sites in Thailand (Tad Fa and Wang Chai) and India (Kothapally) effectively reduced runoff and the associated soil loss. Such interventions at Xiaoxincun (China) and Wang Chai improved groundwater recharging and availability. Enhanced productive transpiration increased rainwater use efficiency for crop production by 13-29% at Xiaoxincun; 13-160% at Lucheba (China), 32-37% at Tad Fa and 23-46% at Wang Chai and by two to five times at Kothapally. Watershed interventions increased significantly the additional net returns from crop production as compared with the pre-watershed intervention period. Increased water availability opened up options for crop diversification with high-value crops, including increased forage production and boosted livestock-based livelihoods. In dryland tropics, integrated watershed management approach enabled farmers to diversify the systems along with increasing agricultural productivity through increased water availability, while conserving the natural resource base. Household incomes increased substantially, leading to improved living and building the resilience of the community and natural resources. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Methyl Mercury Production In Tropical Hydromorphic Soils: Impact Of Gold Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedron, S.; Charlet, L.; Harris, J.; Grimaldi, M.; Cossa, D.

    2007-12-01

    Artisanal alluvial gold mining is important in many tropical developing countries and several million people are involved worldwide. The dominant use of mercury for gold amalgamation in this activity leads to mercury accumulation in soils, to sediment contamination and to methyl mercury (MMHg) bioaccumulation along the food chain. In this presentation we will present recent data on methyl mercury production in hydromorphic soils and tailing ponds from a former gold mining area located in French Guiana (South America). Comparison of specific fluxes between a pristine sub watershed and the contaminated watershed shows that former mining activities lead to a large enhancement of dissolved and particulate MMHg emissions at least by a factor of 4 and 6, respectively. MMHg production was identified in sediments from tailing ponds and in surrounding hydromorphic soils. Moreover, interstitial soil water and tailing pond water profiles sampled in an experimental tailing pond demonstrate the presence of a large MMHg production in the suboxic areas. Both tailing ponds and hydromorphic soils present geochemical conditions that are favorable to bacterial mercury methylation (high soil Hg content, high aqueous ferric iron and dissolved organic carbon concentrations). Although sulfate-reducing bacteria have been described as being the principal mercury methylating bacteria, the positive correlation between dissolved MMHg and ferrous iron concentrations argue for a significant role of iron-reducing bacteria. Identifications by sequencing fragments of 16S rRNA from total soil DNA support these interpretations. This study demonstrates that current and past artisanal gold mining in the tropics lead to methyl mercury production in contaminated areas. As artisanal activities are increasing with increasing gold prices, the bio- magnification of methyl mercury in fish presents an increasing threat to local populations whose diet relies on fish consumption.

  8. Social behaviour of cattle in tropical silvopastoral and monoculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Améndola, L; Solorio, F J; Ku-Vera, J C; Améndola-Massiotti, R D; Zarza, H; Galindo, F

    2016-05-01

    Silvopastoral systems can be a good alternative for sustainable livestock production because they can provide ecosystem services and improve animal welfare. Most farm animals live in groups and the social organization and interactions between individuals have an impact on their welfare. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe and compare the social behaviour of cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) in a silvopastoral system based on a high density of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) combined with guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus), star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) and some trees; with a monoculture system with C. nlemfuensis, in the region of Merida, Yucatán. Eight heifers in each system were observed from 0730 to 1530 h each day for 12 consecutive days during the dry season and 12 consecutive days during the rainy season. The animals followed a rotation between three paddocks, remaining 4 days in each paddock. The vegetation was characterized in the paddocks of the silvopastoral system to estimate the average percentage of shade provided. To make a comparison between systems, we used a t test with group dispersion, and Mann-Whitney tests with the frequency of affiliative and agonistic behaviours. We assessed differences in linearity and stability of dominance hierarchies using Landau's index and Dietz R-test, respectively. The distance of cows with respect to the centroid of the group was shorter, and non-agonistic behaviours were 62% more frequent in the intensive silvopastoral system than in the monoculture one. Heifers in the silvopastoral system had a more linear and non-random dominance hierarchy in both seasons (dry season: h'=0.964; rainy season: h'=0.988), than heifers in the monoculture system (dry season: h'=0.571, rainy season: h'=0.536). The dominance hierarchy in the silvopastoral system was more stable between seasons (R-test=0.779) than in the monoculture system (R-test=0.224). Our results provide the first evidence that heifers in the

  9. Evaluation of tropical Pacific observing systems using NCEP and GFDL ocean data assimilation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan; Wen, Caihong; Yang, Xiaosong; Behringer, David; Kumar, Arun; Vecchi, Gabriel; Rosati, Anthony; Gudgel, Rich

    2017-08-01

    The TAO/TRITON array is the cornerstone of the tropical Pacific and ENSO observing system. Motivated by the recent rapid decline of the TAO/TRITON array, the potential utility of TAO/TRITON was assessed for ENSO monitoring and prediction. The analysis focused on the period when observations from Argo floats were also available. We coordinated observing system experiments (OSEs) using the global ocean data assimilation system (GODAS) from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the ensemble coupled data assimilation (ECDA) from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory for the period 2004-2011. Four OSE simulations were conducted with inclusion of different subsets of in situ profiles: all profiles (XBT, moorings, Argo), all except the moorings, all except the Argo and no profiles. For evaluation of the OSE simulations, we examined the mean bias, standard deviation difference, root-mean-square difference (RMSD) and anomaly correlation against observations and objective analyses. Without assimilation of in situ observations, both GODAS and ECDA had large mean biases and RMSD in all variables. Assimilation of all in situ data significantly reduced mean biases and RMSD in all variables except zonal current at the equator. For GODAS, the mooring data is critical in constraining temperature in the eastern and northwestern tropical Pacific, while for ECDA both the mooring and Argo data is needed in constraining temperature in the western tropical Pacific. The Argo data is critical in constraining temperature in off-equatorial regions for both GODAS and ECDA. For constraining salinity, sea surface height and surface current analysis, the influence of Argo data was more pronounced. In addition, the salinity data from the TRITON buoys played an important role in constraining salinity in the western Pacific. GODAS was more sensitive to withholding Argo data in off-equatorial regions than ECDA because it relied on local observations to correct model biases and

  10. Challenges and opportunities for improving eco-efficiency of tropical forage-based systems to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Peters

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Forage-based livestock production plays a key role in national and regional economies, for food security and poverty alleviation, but is considered a major contributor to agricultural GHG emissions. While demand for livestock products is predicted to increase, there is political and societal pressure both to reduce environmental impacts and to convert some of the pasture area to alternative uses, such as crop production and environmental conservation. Thus, it is essential to develop approaches for sustainable intensification of livestock systems to mitigate GHG emissions, addressing biophysical, socio-economic and policy challenges. This paper highlights the potential of improved tropical forages, linked with policy incentives, to enhance livestock production, while reducing its environmental footprint. Emphasis is on crop-livestock systems. We give examples for sustainable intensification to mitigate GHG emissions, based on improved forages in Brazil and Colombia, and suggest future perspectives.

  11. STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pacheco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to point a set of practical strategies that can be adopted to increase the capacity of constraints resources on production systems, when the constraint is inside the factory and not is in the market. To serve this purpose will be presented strategies based on best practices of the Theory of Constraints, Lean Manufacturing and Total Productive Maintenance. This article also presents the mains tools for the deployment of these methodologies. The survey results have provided an objective set of practical strategy that can be used to increase the capacity and productivity of production systems according to the needs of each manufacturing system.

  12. Production monitoring system for understanding product robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    study is used to demonstrate how the monitoring system can be used to efficiently guide corrective action to improve product performance. It is claimed that the monitoring system can be used to dramatically cut the time taken to identify, planand execute corrective action related to typical quality......In the current quality paradigm, the performance of a product is kept within specification by ensuring that its parts are within specification. Product performance is then validated after final assembly. However, this does not control how robust the product performance is, i.e. how much...... it will vary between the specification limits. In this paper, a model for predicting product performance is proposed, taking into account design, assembly and process parameters live from production. This empowers production to maintain final product performance, instead of part quality. The PRECI‐IN case...

  13. Warming Affects Growth Rates and Microcystin Production in Tropical Bloom-Forming Microcystis Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Bui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Warming climate is predicted to promote cyanobacterial blooms but the toxicity of cyanobacteria under global warming is less well studied. We tested the hypothesis that raising temperature may lead to increased growth rates but to decreased microcystin (MC production in tropical Microcystis strains. To this end, six Microcystis strains were isolated from different water bodies in Southern Vietnam. They were grown in triplicate at 27 °C (low, 31 °C (medium, 35 °C (high and 37 °C (extreme. Chlorophyll-a-, particle- and MC concentrations as well as dry-weights were determined. All strains yielded higher biomass in terms of chlorophyll-a concentration and dry-weight at 31 °C compared to 27 °C and then either stabilised, slightly increased or declined with higher temperature. Five strains easily grew at 37 °C but one could not survive at 37 °C. When temperature was increased from 27 °C to 37 °C total MC concentration decreased by 35% in strains with MC-LR as the dominant variant and by 94% in strains with MC-RR. MC quota expressed per particle, per unit chlorophyll-a and per unit dry-weight significantly declined with higher temperatures. This study shows that warming can prompt the growth of some tropical Microcystis strains but that these strains become less toxic.

  14. Biohydrogen Production from Hydrolysates of Selected Tropical Biomass Wastes with Clostridium Butyricum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Jiang; Fang, Zhen; Chin, Siew-Xian; Tian, Xiao-Fei; Su, Tong-Chao

    2016-06-01

    Biohydrogen production has received widespread attention from researchers in industry and academic fields. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the effects of several key variables in anaerobic fermentation of glucose with Clostridium butyrium, and achieved the highest production rate and yield of hydrogen. Highest H2 yield of 2.02 mol H2/mol-glucose was achieved from 24 h bottle fermentation of glucose at 35 °C, while the composition of medium was (g/L): 15.66 glucose, 6.04 yeast extract, 4 tryptone, 3 K2HPO4, 3 KH2PO4, 0.05 L-cysteine, 0.05 MgSO4·7H2O, 0.1 MnSO4·H2O and 0.3 FeSO4·7H2O, which was very different from that for cell growth. Sugarcane bagasse and Jatropha hulls were selected as typical tropical biomass wastes to produce sugars via a two-step acid hydrolysis for hydrogen production. Under the optimized fermentation conditions, H2 yield (mol H2/mol-total reducing sugar) was 2.15 for glucose, 2.06 for bagasse hydrolysate and 1.95 for Jatropha hull hydrolysate in a 3L fermenter for 24 h at 35 °C, with H2 purity of 49.7-64.34%. The results provide useful information and basic data for practical use of tropical plant wastes to produce hydrogen.

  15. Photovoltaic Systems with and without Radiation Concentrators for Temperate and Tropical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Reis de Souza Sant’Anna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The industrial development of solar photovoltaic technology has attracted investors and influenced governments to establish public policies for the sector. The present research consisted of studying, building and testing low concentration solar radiation systems for photovoltaic energy conversion. The study used optical nonimaging parameters for the V-trough type radiation concentrator constructed of anodized aluminum, to reflect and to cool. Designed to concentrate radiation by about two times and consisting of a set of photovoltaic modules connected in parallel, they were modeled in the Laboratory of Energy Area in the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the Federal University of Vicosa, Brazil, at the coordinates 20°45′14′′ S latitude, 42°52′53′′ W longitude and altitude 648.74 m. They were installed to the geographic North, with the same slope as the local latitude. For comparative analysis, it was determined the electrical characteristics for evaluation of the prototype’s performance with and without radiation concentration, the final productivity for cities in tropical and temperate regions and economic analysis for the system. It was concluded that the prototypes allowed for a gain of energy with concentration, about 31.3% more, and therefore a productivity gain for the analyzed cities in, kWh·kWp−1.

  16. Nitrous oxide production by nitrification and denitrification in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qixing; Babbin, Andrew R.; Jayakumar, Amal; Oleynik, Sergey; Ward, Bess B.

    2015-12-01

    The Eastern Tropical South Pacific oxygen minimum zone (ETSP-OMZ) is a site of intense nitrous oxide (N2O) flux to the atmosphere. This flux results from production of N2O by nitrification and denitrification, but the contribution of the two processes is unknown. The rates of these pathways and their distributions were measured directly using 15N tracers. The highest N2O production rates occurred at the depth of peak N2O concentrations at the oxic-anoxic interface above the oxygen deficient zone (ODZ) because slightly oxygenated waters allowed (1) N2O production from both nitrification and denitrification and (2) higher nitrous oxide production yields from nitrification. Within the ODZ proper (i.e., anoxia), the only source of N2O was denitrification (i.e., nitrite and nitrate reduction), the rates of which were reflected in the abundance of nirS genes (encoding nitrite reductase). Overall, denitrification was the dominant pathway contributing the N2O production in the ETSP-OMZ.

  17. Spatial distribution and secondary production of Copepoda in a tropical reservoir: Barra Bonita, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ. Santos-Wisniewski

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to describe the spatial distribution of zooplankton copepods, their biomass and instantaneous secondary production, in Barra Bonita, a large eutrophic, polymitic reservoir (22° 29' S and 48° 34' W on the Tietê River, of the Paraná basin. Sampling was carried out during two seasons: dry winter and rainy summer. Species composition, age structure and numerical density of each copepod species population were analyzed at 25 sampling stations. Secondary production was calculated for Copepoda, the dominant group in zooplankton communities, taking Calanoida and Cyclopoida separately. Copepoda represented the largest portion of the total zooplankton biomass, the dominant species being Notodiaptomus iheringi among the Calanoida and Mesocyclops ogunnus and Thermocyclops decipiens among the Cyclopoida. The production of Copepoda was higher during the rainy summer (23.61 mgDW.m-3.d-1 in January 1995 than during the dry winter season (14 mgDW.m-3.d-1 in August 1995, following the general pattern of abundance for the whole zooplankton community. Among the copepods, Cyclopoida production was higher than that of Calanoida, a pattern commonly observed for tropical lakes and reservoirs. Barra Bonita copepods are very productive, but there was a great degree of spatial heterogeneity, related to the physical and chemical conditions, particularly the level of nutrients and also to phytoplankton biomass.

  18. Defining product service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2002-01-01

    , company and society benefit from the service systems related to each one of these dimensions, rather than simply one of the above. There are existing examples of the enhancement of business and market share by focusing on PSS, but this is often not a result of upfront strategy and ambitious goals. We...... attempt to identify the nature of such a multiple definition of PSS, the link to proper understanding of value and utility and innovative approaches for PSS-oriented product development. This paper will expand on the phenomenon of PSS in the belief that a proper understanding of PSS will give us...

  19. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  20. Increasing production, the sustained yield method, and reserve structure of agrisilvicultural ecosystems in the moist tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruenig, E F

    1980-09-01

    While substantial improvements first of all require a profound change of political attitudes and the replacement of irrational ideological creeds, improvements of the food situation in addition needs the application of ecologically adapted and economically sound land use techniques. This in turn requires scientific knowledge of the interrelationships between site factors and the structure and functions of crop types. The principles of the structural design of tropical virgin forest ecosystems can be usefully adapted for the development of agroforestry crop types. Such crop types should be capable of producing a sustained yield of food, timber, fuel, medicinal substances, spices and other useful products and, in addition, produce favourable, stabilizing effects on the local, regional and finally global biosphere.

  1. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissen, Violette; Ramos, Franzisco Que; de J Bastidas-Bastidas, Pedro; Díaz-González, Gilberto; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo; Huerta-Lwanga, Esperanza; Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E

    2010-10-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn-bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha⁻¹week⁻¹ for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 μg L⁻¹, respectively), but not with manganese. In deep ground water, no ethylenethiourea was detected. The level of pollution in the region presents a worrisome risk for aquatic life and for human health.

  2. Optimum Temperatures for Net Primary Productivity of Three Tropical Seagrass Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Collier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rising sea water temperature will play a significant role in responses of the world's seagrass meadows to climate change. In this study, we investigated seasonal and latitudinal variation (spanning more than 1,500 km in seagrass productivity, and the optimum temperatures at which maximum photosynthesis and net productivity (for the leaf and the whole plant occurs, for three seagrass species (Cymodocea serrulata, Halodule uninervis, and Zostera muelleri. To obtain whole plant net production, photosynthesis, and respiration rates of leaves and the root/rhizome complex were measured using oxygen-sensitive optodes in closed incubation chambers at temperatures ranging from 15 to 43°C. The temperature-dependence of photosynthesis and respiration was fitted to empirical models to obtain maximum metabolic rates and thermal optima. The thermal optimum (Topt for gross photosynthesis of Z. muelleri, which is more commonly distributed in sub-tropical to temperate regions, was 31°C. The Topt for photosynthesis of the tropical species, H. uninervis and C. serrulata, was considerably higher (35°C on average. This suggests that seagrass species are adapted to water temperature within their distributional range; however, when comparing among latitudes and seasons, thermal optima within a species showed limited acclimation to ambient water temperature (Topt varied by 1°C in C. serrulata and 2°C in H. uninervis, and the variation did not follow changes in ambient water temperature. The Topt for gross photosynthesis were higher than Topt calculated from plant net productivity, which includes above- and below-ground respiration for Z. muelleri (24°C and H. uninervis (33°C, but remained unchanged at 35°C in C. serrulata. Both estimated plant net productivity and Topt are sensitive to the proportion of below-ground biomass, highlighting the need for consideration of below- to above-ground biomass ratios when applying thermal optima to other meadows. The

  3. Optimum Temperatures for Net Primary Productivity of Three Tropical Seagrass Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Catherine J; Ow, Yan X; Langlois, Lucas; Uthicke, Sven; Johansson, Charlotte L; O'Brien, Katherine R; Hrebien, Victoria; Adams, Matthew P

    2017-01-01

    Rising sea water temperature will play a significant role in responses of the world's seagrass meadows to climate change. In this study, we investigated seasonal and latitudinal variation (spanning more than 1,500 km) in seagrass productivity, and the optimum temperatures at which maximum photosynthesis and net productivity (for the leaf and the whole plant) occurs, for three seagrass species ( Cymodocea serrulata, Halodule uninervis , and Zostera muelleri ). To obtain whole plant net production, photosynthesis, and respiration rates of leaves and the root/rhizome complex were measured using oxygen-sensitive optodes in closed incubation chambers at temperatures ranging from 15 to 43°C. The temperature-dependence of photosynthesis and respiration was fitted to empirical models to obtain maximum metabolic rates and thermal optima. The thermal optimum ( T opt ) for gross photosynthesis of Z. muelleri , which is more commonly distributed in sub-tropical to temperate regions, was 31°C. The T opt for photosynthesis of the tropical species, H. uninervis and C. serrulata , was considerably higher (35°C on average). This suggests that seagrass species are adapted to water temperature within their distributional range; however, when comparing among latitudes and seasons, thermal optima within a species showed limited acclimation to ambient water temperature ( T opt varied by 1°C in C. serrulata and 2°C in H. uninervis , and the variation did not follow changes in ambient water temperature). The T opt for gross photosynthesis were higher than T opt calculated from plant net productivity, which includes above- and below-ground respiration for Z. muelleri (24°C) and H. uninervis ( 33°C), but remained unchanged at 35°C in C. serrulata . Both estimated plant net productivity and T opt are sensitive to the proportion of below-ground biomass, highlighting the need for consideration of below- to above-ground biomass ratios when applying thermal optima to other meadows. The

  4. Indirect quantification of fine root production in a near tropical wet mountainous region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X.; Zhang, J.; Huang, C.

    2016-12-01

    The main functions of fine root (defined as diameter floristic) and external (environmental) factors into account, including litter production, canopy density (leaf area index), leaf nutrients (N, K, Ca, Mg, P), weather and/or soil physical conditions (air temperature, humidity, precipitation, solar radiation and soil moisture). The study was conducted in near tropical broadleaf (700 m asl) and conifer (1700 m asl) forests in northeastern Taiwan, generally receiving more than 4000 mm of precipitation per year. For each site, 16 50-cm long minirhizotron tubes were installed. Fine root images were acquired every three weeks. Growth and decline, newly presence and absence of fine roots were delineated by image processing algorithms to derive fine-root productivity through time. Aforementioned internal and external attributes were simultaneously collected as well. Some of these variables were highly correlated and were detrended using principal component analysis. We found that these transformed variables (mainly associated with litter production, precipitation and solar radiation) can delineate the spatiotemporal dynamics of root production well (r2 = 0.87, p = 0.443). In conclusion, this study demonstrated the feasibility of utilized aboveground variables to indirectly assess fine root growth, which could be further developed for the regional scale mapping with aid of remote sensing.

  5. Actual performance and characteristic of a grid connected photovoltaic power system in the tropics: A short term evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Tamer; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Kazem, Hussein A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed an actual performance of grid connected PV system. • We derived accurate models for the system based on the actual performance. • We assist the electricity productively of the proposed system. - Abstract: This paper presents a field operation experience for a grid connected PV system under tropical climate. The system is consisted of a 5 kWp photovoltaic (PV) array and a 6 kW DC/AC inverter. The operation performance data are recorded in order to develop accurate mathematical models for the system as well as to evaluate the productivity of the system. The experiment results show that, the average PV performance (the ratio of the theoretical performance to the actual performance) is 73.12% while the average inverter performance (the ratio of the theoretical inverter efficiency to the actual inverter efficiency) is 98.56%. Moreover, it is found that the daily yield factor of the PV system is 2.51 kW h/kWp day while, the capacity factor is 10.47%. However, it is concluded that the productivity of the system is below the prospected rate and thus, an inspection of the system must be done in order to diagnose the problem of the system’s low productivity. This paper presents worthwhile information for those who are interested in PV system installation in Malaysia and nearby country

  6. Calibration of cosmogenic 3He and 10Be production rates in the High Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blard, Pierre-Henri; Martin, Léo; Lavé, Jérôme; Charreau, Julien; Condom, Thomas; Lupker, Maarten; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier

    2014-05-01

    It is critical to refine both the accuracy and the precision of the in situ cosmogenic dating tool, especially for establishing reliable glacial chronologies that can be compared to other paleoclimatic records. Recent cross-calibrations of cosmogenic 3He in pyroxene and 10Be in quartz [1, 2] showed that, both at low (1300 m) and high elevation (4850 m), the 3He/10Be production ratio was probably ~40% higher than the value of ~23 initially defined in the 90's. This recent update is consistent with the last independent determinations of the sea level high latitude production rates of 10Be and 3He, that are about 4 and 125 at.g-1.yr-1, respectively [e.g. 3, 4]. However, major questions remain about these production rates at high elevation, notably because existing calibration sites for both 3He and 10Be are scarce above 2000 m. It is thus crucial to produce new high precision calibration data at high elevation. Here we report cosmogenic 10Be data from boulders sampled on a glacial fan located at 3800 m in the Central Altiplano (Bolivia), whose age is independently constrained by stratigraphic correlations and radiocarbon dating at ca. 16 ka. These data can be used to calibrate the production rate of 10Be at high elevation, in the Tropics. After scaling to sea level and high latitude, these data yield a sea level high latitude P10 ranging from 3.8 to 4.2 at.g-1.yr-1, depending on the used scaling scheme. These new calibration data are in good agreement with recent absolute and cross-calibration of 3He in pyroxenes and 10Be in quartz, from dacitic moraines located at 4850 m in the Southern Altiplano (22° S, Tropical Andes) [2,5]. The so-obtained 3He/10Be production ratio of 33.3±0.9 (1σ) combined with an absolute 3He production rate locally calibrated in the Central Altiplano, at 3800 m, indeed yielded a sea level high latitude P10 ranging from 3.7±0.2 to 4.1±0.2 at.g-1.yr-1, depending on the scaling scheme [2,5]. These values are also consistent with the 10Be

  7. Evolution of the Tropical Cyclone Integrated Data Exchange And Analysis System (TC-IDEAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, J.; Chao, Y.; Haddad, Z.; Hristova-Veleva, S.; Knosp, B.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P.; Licata, S.; Poulsen, W.; Su, H.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Tropical Cyclone Integrated Data Exchange and Analysis System (TC-IDEAS) is being jointly developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as part of NASA's Hurricane Science Research Program. The long-term goal is to create a comprehensive tropical cyclone database of satellite and airborne observations, in-situ measurements and model simulations containing parameters that pertain to the thermodynamic and microphysical structure of the storms; the air-sea interaction processes; and the large-scale environment.

  8. A Near Real-time Decision Support System Improving Forest Management in the Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, K.; Musinsky, J.; Ledezma, J.; Rasolohery, A.; Mendoza, E.; Kistler, H.; Steininger, M.; Morton, D. C.; Melton, F. S.; Manwell, J.; Koenig, K.

    2013-12-01

    Conservation International (CI) has a decade of experience developing near real-time fire and deforestation monitoring and forecasting systems that channel monitoring information from satellite observations directly to national and sub-national government agencies, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), and local communities. These systems are used to strengthen forest surveillance and monitoring, fire management and prevention, protected areas management and sustainable land use planning. With support from a NASA Wildland Fires grant, in September 2013 CI will launch a brand new near real-time alert system (FIRECAST) to better meet the outstanding needs and challenges users face in addressing ecosystem degradation from wildland fire and illegal forest activities. Outreach efforts and user feedback have indicated the need for seasonal fire forecasts for effective land use planning, faster alert delivery to enhance response to illegal forest activities, and expanded forest monitoring capabilities that enable proactive responses and that strengthen forest conservation and sustainable development actions. The new FIRECAST system addresses these challenges by integrating the current fire alert and deforestation systems and adding improved ecological forecasting of fire risk; expanding data exchange capabilities with mobile technologies; and delivering a deforestation alert product that can inform policies related to land use management and Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). In addition to demonstrating the capabilities of this new real-time alert system, we also highlight how coordination with host-country institutions enhances the system's capacity to address the implementation needs of REDD+ forest carbon projects, improve tropical forest management, strengthen environmental law enforcement, and facilitate the uptake of near real-time satellite monitoring data into business practices of these national/sub-national institutions.

  9. Emission of carbon dioxide from a tropical estuarine system, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; DileepKumar, M.; Manerikar, M.

    Carbon dioxide species were studied in Mandovi-Zuari system, a tropical estuarine complex influenced by strong monsoonal run-off, with implications to build up and air-water exchange of CO sub(2) . Total carbon dioxide (TOC sub(2)) behaved...

  10. Nitrous oxide production from temperate and tropical oyster species in response to nutrient loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, H.; Garate, M.; Moseman-Valtierra, S.

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic pollution, such as nitrogen (N), has the potential to increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in marine ecosystems. Some organisms can be used as important biological indicators for GHG emissions to their environment based on their feeding habits. With large inputs of these anthropogenic pollutants, emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent GHG, can be potentially increased from temperate invertebrates, though not much is known about tropical invertebrates. Thus, we compared N2O emissions in response to N additions from the temperate oyster species Crassostrea virginica and compared it to a tropical species, Isognomon alatus, found in Puerto Rico. Oysters were exposed to two seawater treatments: (1) no nutrient addition (control) and (2) 100µM ammonium nitrate. Each treatment had 4-5 replicates. Measurements for dissolved N2O and nutrients were taken at the start of the incubation and then at two, four, and five hours by collecting water samples of each tank. Dissolved N2O concentrations were analyzed using gas chromatography. We hypothesized that the N addition treatment would produce more N2O for both Rhode Island and Puerto Rico. We found that there was no significant difference between the control and N enriched treatments for C. virginica over the short timespan, although the N enriched treatment did have a steady trend in increasing in N2O concentration over time. Further analysis is needed for the I. alatus, though we expect an increase in N2O emissions due to warmer water temperatures, which might enhance microbial metabolism and production of N2O. This differs from work previously done in a long-term experiment on C. virginica, which showed that N2O significantly in the N enriched treatment over 28-days. Our study shows that short-term pulses of N may not potentially increase N2O emissions, though further analysis is needed for longer-term exposures.

  11. Ozone phytotoxicity evaluation and prediction of crops production in tropical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Nurul Izma; Ramli, Nor Azam; Yahya, Ahmad Shukri

    2013-04-01

    Increasing ozone concentration in the atmosphere can threaten food security due to its effects on crop production. Since the 1980s, ozone has been believed to be the most damaging air pollutant to crops. In Malaysia, there is no index to indicate the reduction of crops due to the exposure of ozone. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the accumulated exposure over a threshold of X ppb (AOTX) indexes in assessing crop reduction in Malaysia. In European countries, crop response to ozone exposure is mostly expressed as AOT40. This study was designed to evaluate and predict crop reduction in tropical regions and in particular, the Malaysian climate, by adopting the AOT40 index method and modifying it based on Malaysian air quality and crop data. Nine AOTX indexes (AOT0, AOT5, AOT10, AOT15, AOT20, AOT25, AOT30, AOT40, and AOT50) were analyzed, crop responses tested and reduction in crops predicted. The results showed that the AOT50 resulted in the highest reduction in crops and the highest R2 value between the AOT50 and the crops reduction from the linear regression analysis. Hence, this study suggests that the AOT50 index is the most suitable index to estimate the potential ozone impact on crops in tropical regions. The result showed that the critical level for AOT50 index if the estimated crop reduction is 5% was 1336 ppb h. Additionally, the results indicated that the AOT40 index in Malaysia gave a minimum percentage of 6% crop reduction; as contrasted with the European guideline of 5% (due to differences in the climate e.g., average amount of sunshine).

  12. Insight into the product film formed on Ni-advanced weathering steel in a tropical marine atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Cheng, Xuequn; Hou, Huaxing; Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaogang

    2018-04-01

    The product film formed on Ni-advanced weathering steel in a tropical marine environment was investigated in detail through outdoor exposure by using diverse surface analysis techniques combined with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning kelvin probe measurements. The results showed that the product film was mainly composed of nanophasic goethite in the inner layer and maghemite, akaganeite, and hematite in the outer layer. Moreover, the resistance to atmospheric corrosion gradually increased from the outermost product film to the innermost film. Ni was significantly enriched in the inner layer in the form of the spinel phase NiFe2O4, which transformed lepidocrocite to fine-grained goethite, withstood the invasion of chloridion, and improved the corrosion potential of the product film in a tropical marine atmosphere.

  13. Net Primary Productivity and Edaphic Fertility in Two Pluvial Tropical Forests in the Chocó Biogeographical Region of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto-Mosquera, Harley; Moreno, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    The net primary productivity (NPP) of tropical forests is a key process of the carbon cycle and therefore for the mitigation of global climate change. It has been proposed that NPP is limited by the availability of soil nutrients in lowland tropical forests and that belowground NPP decreases as edaphic fertility increases. This hypothesis was evaluated in two localities (Opogodó and Pacurita) of the Chocó Biogeographical region, one of the rainiest of the world, where the aboveground (litter and wood) and belowground (fine and coarse roots) components of NPP were measured. Fertility parameters (pH, nutrients, and texture) were also determined and related to NPP. Total NPP was similar between locations (23.7 vs. 24.2 t ha-1 year-1 for Opogodó and Pacurita, respectively). However, components of NPP showed differences: in Pacurita, with steeper topography, NPP of wood and coarse roots were higher; therefore, differences of topography and drainage between localities probably affected the NPP of wood. On the other hand, soils of Opogodó, where NPP of fine roots was higher, showed higher contents of sand, N+, and organic matter (OM). With the increase of pH, OM, N+, K, Mg, and sand, the NPP of leaves and fine roots as well as the percentage of NPP belowground also increased, which suggests NPP limitation by multiple nutrients. The increase of NPP belowground with the availability of edaphic nutrients evidenced a redistribution of the aboveground and belowground components of NPP with the increase of soil fertility in oligotrophic systems, probably as a mechanism to improve the capture of resources.

  14. Sensitivity of tropical climate to low-level clouds in the NCEP climate forecast system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zeng-Zhen [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); NCEP/NWS/NOAA, Climate Prediction Center, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Huang, Bohua; Schneider, Edwin K. [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); George Mason University, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Earth Sciences, College of Science, Fairfax, VA (United States); Hou, Yu-Tai; Yang, Fanglin [NCEP/NWS/NOAA, Environmental Modeling Center, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Wang, Wanqiu [NCEP/NWS/NOAA, Climate Prediction Center, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Stan, Cristiana [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)

    2011-05-15

    In this work, we examine the sensitivity of tropical mean climate and seasonal cycle to low clouds and cloud liquid water path (CLWP) by prescribing them in the NCEP climate forecast system (CFS). It is found that the change of low cloud cover alone has a minor influence on the amount of net shortwave radiation reaching the surface and on the warm biases in the southeastern Atlantic. In experiments where CLWP is prescribed using observations, the mean climate in the tropics is improved significantly, implying that shortwave radiation absorption by CLWP is mainly responsible for reducing the excessive surface net shortwave radiation over the southern oceans in the CFS. Corresponding to large CLWP values in the southeastern oceans, the model generates large low cloud amounts. That results in a reduction of net shortwave radiation at the ocean surface and the warm biases in the sea surface temperature in the southeastern oceans. Meanwhile, the cold tongue and associated surface wind stress in the eastern oceans become stronger and more realistic. As a consequence of the overall improvement of the tropical mean climate, the seasonal cycle in the tropical Atlantic is also improved. Based on the results from these sensitivity experiments, we propose a model bias correction approach, in which CLWP is prescribed only in the southeastern Atlantic by using observed annual mean climatology of CLWP. It is shown that the warm biases in the southeastern Atlantic are largely eliminated, and the seasonal cycle in the tropical Atlantic Ocean is significantly improved. Prescribing CLWP in the CFS is then an effective interim technique to reduce model biases and to improve the simulation of seasonal cycle in the tropics. (orig.)

  15. Optimization of biosurfactant production from Vibrio sp. BSM-30 isolated in tropical waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zengjian; Li, Min; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2017-01-01

    The strain BSM-30 (Vibrio sp.), isolated from Chinese tropical waters, could be a biosurfactant producing bacteria according with results obtained by the oil spreading method. The culture conditions for biosurfactant production were tested respectively such as inoculation (2%,6%,10%,14% as setting), shaking speed(120 r/min,150 r/min,180 r/min as setting), temperature (25°C,30°C,35°C as setting), pH (7,8,9 as setting), salinity (1.5%, 2.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, 5.5% as setting), which results showed that the best culture conditions for BS production were 10% inoculation quantity, 180 r/min, 25°C, pH 8, and 3.5% salinity. The optimization of carbon sources (20g/ of glucose, 20g/L of starch, 20g/L of paraffin oil 20g/L of diesel, 20g/L of oil as setting) and nitrogen sources (6g/L of NaNO3,7.1g/L of KNO3,5.6g/L of NH4NO3,9.3g/L of (NH4)2SO4, 4.2g/L of CO(NH2)2 as setting) were also tested, which results showed that the best nitrogen source and carbon source were (NH4) 2SO4 and soluble starch.

  16. Anthelmintic resistance impact on tropical beef cattle productivity: effect on weight gain of weaned calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Fernando A; Almeida, Gabriel D; Heckler, Rafael P; Lemes, Raul T; Onizuka, Marcel K V; Borges, Dyego G L

    2013-03-01

    The performance of grazing cattle in tropical areas is deeply influenced by parasitism, and the increasing reports of resistance are a threat to effective nematode control. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of avermectins on the performance of weaned calves naturally infected by ivermectin-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The effect of four commercial endectocides (ivermectin 2.25 % + abamectin 1.25 %, ivermectin 3.15 %, doramectin 3.15 %, and doramectin 1 %) on parasitism and performance of a hundred weaned Nellore calves were evaluated during 112 days. The most effective anthelmintic showed efficacy of 84 % and resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) of live weight gain of 11.85 kg, compared to untreated group, 9.05 and 9.41 kg compared to those treated with more ineffective avermectins which showed efficacy of 0 and 48.2 %, respectively. A significant (P < 0.05) and weak negative correlation (r = -0.22) between the eggs per gram (EPG) and body weight was observed, indicating that even the low mean EPG (175 ± 150) observed at day 0 in the control group, with predominance of Haemonchus sp., was responsible for production losses. These results indicate that control of nematode parasites in beef cattle in the weaning phase may not result in increased productivity when carried out without technical criteria.

  17. Physiological and production response of dairy goats bred in a tropical climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; Salles, Maria Gorete Flores; da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Carneiro, Hilton Alexandre Vidal; de Souza, Leonardo Peres; Rondina, Davide; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the adaptability of Saanen and ½Saanen × ½Anglo-Nubian (½S½AN) goats bred in tropical climates. The study included 30 goats, 15 Saanen and 15 ½S½AN. The data was collected during the rainy and dry seasons. During the whole experimental period, the environment variables were recorded, as well as rectal temperature (RT), superficial temperature (ST), respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) and milk production (MP). The adaptability coefficient (AC) was calculated for both genotypes. The averages were evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability. There was a genotype and period of year effect, as well as the interaction genotype × period of year. Pearson's simple correlation analysis was then carried out between milk production and physiological and environment variables. There was a statistical difference ( p goats, regardless of the season. MP was greater in the dry season ( p goats. Under the conditions of the present study, it is concluded that the goats were influenced by climatic factors, where the rainy period was more likely to cause thermal stress in the animals.

  18. Evaluating zootechnical and environmental inefficiency for ecological intensification of tropical livestock systems. Case study of Reunion Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vayssières

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to FAO, animal production would contribute up to 18% to global anthropogenic green house gas (GHG emissions. In the face of an increasing world population and demand in food products, more productive and more environmentally- friendly livestock systems have to be conceived. With that aim, non-renewable energy uses and GHG emissions of main animal productions (dairy cattle, beef cattle, pig, poultry and rabbit were assessed in Reunion tropical island. Based on a method developed in mainland France, energy coefficients and emission factors were redefined to include specificities of the local context and livestock systems. The studied sample comprised 195 farms, i.e. more than 25% of farms overseen by local cooperatives. The study highlights the positive correlation between environmental inefficiency (non renewable energy uses, and GHG emissions per kilogram of animal product and zootechnical inefficiency (quantity of concentrate feed consumed per kilogram of animal product. It is thus possible to intensify ecologically animal productions. Similar studies are rare in countries of the South. Their development supposes even more drastic methodological adaptations than those conducted in Reunion so as to evaluate little- mechanized low-input mixed systems, where livestock activities are multifunctional and use various energy types.

  19. Climate seasonality limits leaf carbon assimilation and wood productivity in tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Fabien H.; Hérault, Bruno; Bonal, Damien; Stahl, Clément; Anderson, Liana O.; Baker, Timothy R.; Becker, Gabriel Sebastian; Beeckman, Hans; Boanerges Souza, Danilo; Botosso, Paulo Cesar; Bowman, David M.J.S.; Bräuning, Achim; Brede, Benjamin; Brown, Foster Irving; Camarero, Jesus Julio; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Cardoso, Fernanda C.G.; Carvalho, Fabrício Alvim; Castro, Wendeson; Chagas, Rubens Koloski; Chave, Jérome; Chidumayo, Emmanuel N.; Clark, Deborah A.; Costa, Flavia Regina Capellotto; Couralet, Camille; Silva Mauricio, Da Paulo Henrique; Dalitz, Helmut; Castro, De Vinicius Resende; Freitas Milani, De Jaçanan Eloisa; Oliveira, De Edilson Consuelo; Souza Arruda, De Luciano; Devineau, Jean-Louis; Drew, David M.; Dünisch, Oliver; Durigan, Giselda; Elifuraha, Elisha; Fedele, Marcio; Ferreira Fedele, Ligia; Figueiredo Filho, Afonso; Finger, César Augusto Guimarães; Franco, Augusto César; Freitas Júnior, João Lima; Galvão, Franklin; Gebrekirstos, Aster; Gliniars, Robert; Lima De Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício; Griffiths, Anthony D.; Grogan, James; Guan, Kaiyu; Homeier, Jürgen; Kanieski, Maria Raquel; Kho, Lip Khoon; Koenig, Jennifer; Kohler, Sintia Valerio; Krepkowski, Julia; Lemos-filho, José Pires; Lieberman, Diana; Lieberman, Milton Eugene; Lisi, Claudio Sergio; Longhi Santos, Tomaz; López Ayala, José Luis; Maeda, Eduardo Eijji; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maria, Vivian R.B.; Marques, Marcia C.M.; Marques, Renato; Maza Chamba, Hector; Mbwambo, Lawrence; Melgaço, Karina Liana Lisboa; Mendivelso, Hooz Angela; Murphy, Brett P.; O'Brien, Joseph J.; Oberbauer, Steven F.; Okada, Naoki; Pélissier, Raphaël; Prior, Lynda D.; Roig, Fidel Alejandro; Ross, Michael; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo; Rossi, Vivien; Rowland, Lucy; Rutishauser, Ervan; Santana, Hellen; Schulze, Mark; Selhorst, Diogo; Silva, Williamar Rodrigues; Silveira, Marcos; Spannl, Susanne; Swaine, Michael D.; Toledo, José Julio; Toledo, Marcos Miranda; Toledo, Marisol; Toma, Takeshi; Tomazello Filho, Mario; Valdez Hernández, Juan Ignacio; Verbesselt, Jan; Vieira, Simone Aparecida; Vincent, Grégoire; Volkmer De Castilho, Carolina; Volland, Franziska; Worbes, Martin; Zanon, Magda Lea Bolzan; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C.

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal climate drivers of the carbon cycle in tropical forests remain poorly known, although these forests account for more carbon assimilation and storage than any other terrestrial ecosystem. Based on a unique combination of seasonal pan-tropical data sets from 89 experimental sites (68

  20. Bullita cave system, Judbarra / Gregory Karst, tropical Australia; Sistemas de cuevas de Bullita, Judbarra / Gregory Karst, Australia tropical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, K. G.; Martini, J. E. J.

    2016-07-01

    In the monsoon tropics of northern Australia, Bullita Cave is the largest (123 km) of a group of extensive, horizontal, joint-controlled, dense network maze caves which are epikarst systems lying at shallow depth beneath a well-developed karrenfield. The Judbarra / Gregory Karst and its caves are restricted to the outcrop belt of the thin, sub-horizontal, Proterozoic Supplejack Dolostone. Karst is further restricted to those parts of the Supplejack that have escaped a secondary dolomitisation event. The karrenfield and underlying cave system are intimately related and have developed in step as the Supplejack surface was exposed by slope retreat. Both show a lateral zonation of development grading from youth to old age. Small cave passages originate under the recently exposed surface, and the older passages at the trailing edge become un roofed or destroyed as the, by then deeply-incised, karrenfield breaks up into isolated ruiniform blocks and pinnacles. Vertical development of the cave has been generally restricted to the epikarst zone by a 3m bed of impermeable and incompetent shale beneath the Supplejack which first perched the water-table, forming incipient phreatic passages above it, and later was eroded by vadose flow to form an extensive horizontal system of passages 10-20m below the karren surface. Some lower cave levels in underlying dolostone occur adjacent to recently incised surface gorges. Speleogenesis is also influenced by the rapid, diffuse, vertical inflow of storm water through the karrenfield, and by ponding of the still-aggressive water within the cave during the wet season dammed up by levees of sediment that accumulate beneath the degraded trailing edge of the karrenfield. The soil, and much biological activity, is not at the bare karren surface, but down on the cave floors, which aids epikarstic solution at depth rather than on the surface. (Author)

  1. Modeling Novo Nordisk Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1997-01-01

    This report describes attributes of models and systems, and how models can be used for description of production systems. There are special attention on the 'Theory of Domains'.......This report describes attributes of models and systems, and how models can be used for description of production systems. There are special attention on the 'Theory of Domains'....

  2. An eddy-permitting, dynamically consistent adjoint-based assimilation system for the tropical Pacific: Hindcast experiments in 2000

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, B.; Heimbach, P.

    2010-01-01

    An eddy-permitting adjoint-based assimilation system has been implemented to estimate the state of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The system uses the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's general circulation model and its adjoint. The adjoint method

  3. Production Systems and Supplier Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedraza-Acosta, Isabel; Pilkington, Alan; Barnes, David

    2016-01-01

    strategic stamping suppliers. Findings: Our contribution is the multi-phased production and product innovation process. This is an advance from traditional supplier selection and also an extension of ideas of supplier-located product development as it includes production system development, and complements...

  4. Long-term Increases in Flower Production by Growth Forms in Response to Anthropogenic Change in a Tropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, S.; Wright, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    There is mounting evidence that anthropogenic global change is altering the ecology of tropical forests. A limited number of studies have focused on long-term trends in tropical reproductive activity, yet differences in reproductive activity should have consequences for demography and ultimately forest carbon, water, and energy balance. Here we analyze a 28-year record of tropical flower production in response to anthropogenic climate change. We show that a multi-decadal increase in flower production is most strongly driven by rising atmospheric CO2, which had approximately 8x the effect of the Multivariate ENSO Index and approximately 13x the effect of rainfall or solar radiation. Interannual peaks in flower production were associated with greater solar radiation and low rainfall during El Niño years. Observed changes in solar radiation explained flower production better than rainfall (models including solar radiation accounted for 94% of cumulative AICc weight compared to 87% for rainfall). All growth forms (lianas, canopy trees, midstory trees, and shrubs) produced more flowers with increasing CO2 except for understory treelets. The increase in flower production was matched by a lengthening of flowering duration for canopy trees and midstory trees; duration was also longer for understory treelets. Given that anthropogenic CO2 emissions will continue to climb over the next century, the long-term increase in flower production may persist unless offset by increasing cloudiness in the tropics, or until rising CO2 and/or warming temperatures associated with the greenhouse effect pass critical thresholds for plant reproduction.

  5. Bioremediation potential of a tropical soil contaminated with a mixture of crude oil and production water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Santos, Silvia Cristina Cunha Dos Santos; Casella, Renata da Costa; Vital, Ronalt Leite; Sebastin, Gina Vasquez; Seldin, Lucy

    2008-12-01

    A typical tropical soil from the northeast of Brazil, where an important terrestrial oil field is located, was accidentally contaminated with a mixture of oil and saline production water. To study the bioremediation potential in this area, molecular methods based on PCR-DGGE were used to determine the diversity of the bacterial communities in bulk and in contaminated soils. Bacterial fingerprints revealed that the bacterial communities were affected by the presence of the mixture of oil and production water, and different profiles were observed when the contaminated soils were compared with the control. Halotolerant strains capable of degrading crude oil were also isolated from enrichment cultures obtained from the contaminated soil samples. Twenty-two strains showing these features were characterized genetically by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and phenotypically by their colonial morphology and tolerance to high NaCl concentrations. Fifteen ARDRA groups were formed. Selected strains were analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing, and Actinobacteria was identified as the main group found. Strains were also tested for their growth capability in the presence of different oil derivatives (hexane, dodecane, hexadecane, diesel, gasoline, toluene, naphthalene, o-xylene, and p-xylene) and different degradation profiles were observed. PCR products were obtained from 12 of the 15 ARDRA representatives when they were screened for the presence of the alkane hydroxylase gene (alkB). Members of the genera Rhodococcus and Gordonia were identified as predominant in the soil studied. These genera are usually implicated in oil degradation processes and, as such, the potential for bioremediation in this area can be considered as feasible.

  6. Biomass Energy Systems and Resources in Tropical Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Lugano (KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    Tanzania has a characteristic developing economy, which is dependent on agricultural productivity. About 90% of the total primary energy consumption of the country is from biomass. Since the biomass is mostly consumed at the household level in form of wood fuel, it is marginally contributing to the commercial energy supply. However, the country has abundant energy resources from hydro, biomass, natural gas, coal, uranium, solar, wind and geothermal. Due to reasons that include the limited technological capacity, most of these resources have not received satisfactory harnessing. For instance: out of the estimated 4.7GW macro hydro potential only 561MW have been developed; and none of the 650MW geothermal potential is being harnessed. Furthermore, besides the huge potential of biomass (12 million tons of oil equivalent), natural gas (45 million cubic metres), coal (1,200 million tones), high solar insolation (4.5 - 6.5 kWh/m2), 1,424km of coastal strip, and availability of good wind regime (> 4 m/s wind speed), they are marginally contributing to the production of commercial energy. Ongoing exploration work also reveals that the country has an active system of petroleum and uranium. On the other hand, after commissioning the 229 km natural gas pipeline from SongoSongo Island to Dar es Salaam, there are efforts to ensure a wider application in electricity generation, households, automotive and industry. Due to existing environmental concerns, biomass resource is an attractive future energy for the world, Tanzania inclusive. This calls for putting in place sustainable energy technologies, like gasification, for their harnessing. The high temperature gasification (HTAG) of biomass is a candidate technology since it has shown to produce improved syngas quality in terms of gas heating value that has less tar. This work was therefore initiated in order to contribute to efforts on realizing a commercial application of biomass in Tanzania. Particularly, the work aimed at

  7. Making Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS Work for Development in Tropical Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Aerni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural innovation in low-income tropical countries contributes to a more effective and sustainable use of natural resources and reduces hunger and poverty through economic development in rural areas. Yet, despite numerous recent public and private initiatives to develop capacities for agricultural innovation, such initiatives are often not well aligned with national efforts to revive existing Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS. In an effort to improve coordination and responsiveness of Capacity Development (CD initiatives, the G20 Agriculture Ministers requested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO to lead the development of a Tropical Agricultural Platform (TAP, which is designed to improve coherence and coordination of CD for agricultural innovation in the tropics. This paper presents a summary of the results obtained from three regional needs assessments undertaken by TAP and its partners. The surveyed tropical regions were Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Central America. The findings reveal a mismatch in all three regions between the external supply of primarily individual CD and the actual demand for institutional CD. The misalignment might be addressed by strengthening south-south and triangular collaboration and by improving the institutional capacities that would render national AIS more demand-oriented and responsive to the needs of smallholders in domestic agriculture.

  8. The Research of Dr. Joanne Simpson: Fifty Years Investigating Hurricanes, Tropical Clouds and Cloud Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, W. -K.; Halverson, J.; Adler, R.; Garstang, M.; Houze, R., Jr.; LeMone, M.; Pielke, R., Sr.; Woodley, W.; O'C.Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This AMS Meteorological Monographs is dedicated to Dr. Joanne Simpson for her many pioneering research efforts in tropical meteorology during her fifty-year career. Dr. Simpson's major areas of scientific research involved the "hot tower" hypothesis and its role in hurricanes, structure and maintenance of trade winds, air-sea interaction, and observations and the mechanism for hurricanes and waterspouts. She was also a pioneer in cloud modeling with the first one-dimensional model and had the first cumulus model on a computer. She also played a major role in planning and leading observational experiments on convective cloud systems. The launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, a joint U.S.-Japan project, in November of 1997 made it possible for quantitative measurements of tropical rainfall to be obtained on a continuous basis over the entire global tropics. Dr. Simpson was the TRAM Project Scientist from 1986 until its launch in 1997. Her efforts during this crucial period ensured that the mission was both well planned scientifically and well engineered as well as within budget. In this paper, Dr. J. Simpson's nine specific accomplishments during her fifty-year career: (1) hot tower hypothesis, (2) hurricanes, (3) airflow and clouds over heated islands, (4) cloud models, (5) trade winds and their role in cumulus development, (6) air-sea interaction, (7) cloud-cloud interactions and mergers, (8) waterspouts, and (9) TRMM science, will be described and discussed.

  9. Economic and Biological Values for Pasture-Based Dairy Cattle Porduction Systems and their Application in Genetic Improvement in the Tropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahinya, P K; Otieno, Tobias Okeno; Kosgey, I S

    2015-01-01

    estimated under fixed herd (FH) and pasture (FP) production circumstances assuming milk marketing based on volume, and volume and butter fat. Further, economic values were estimated involving risk using the Arrow Pratt coefficients at two levels. For the former economic values for the traits ranged from KSh...... during the estimation of economic values. Genetic improvements targeting MY and growth traits would be recommended to production system with unlimited feed supply for profit maximization. However, since dairy production systems in the tropics are characterised by feed scarcity, fixing the herd...

  10. Methods to quantify the impacts of water erosion on productivity of tropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obando, Franco H

    2000-01-01

    A review on methods to quantify the impacts of water erosion on soil properties and crop yield is presented. On the basis of results of soil losses through plastic shading meshes on oxisols in the eastern plains of Colombia, the experimental design to quantify erosion induced losses in soil productivity suggested by Stocking (1985) for tropical soils is modified. With the purpose of producing contrasting levels of natural erosion, simple 33% and 45% shading rates meshes, and superposed 33% and 45% meshes were used. These were stretched out on stocking 5 m x 10 m run-off plots at 40 cm height from soil surface. Annual soil losses produced under the above mentioned shading meshes treatments did not present significant differences. It was demonstrated that 33%, 45% as well as superposed 33% and 45% produce an equivalent surface cover, CVE, greater than 90% comparable to that produced by zero grazing Brachiaria decumbens pasture. Such results allowed presenting modifications to the stocking design. It is recommended to use alternated stripes of bare soil and shading meshes of different width to produce contrasting levels of equivalent soil surface cover and consequently contrasting erosion rates. Design of the modified stocking run-off plots, including collecting channels, collecting tanks and a Geib multibox divisor are presented

  11. Catastrophic shifts in the aquatic primary production revealed by a small low-flow section of tropical downstream after dredging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, H; Enrich-Prast, A

    2015-11-01

    Dredging is a catastrophic disturbance that directly affects key biological processes in aquatic ecosystems, especially in those small and shallow. In the tropics, metabolic responses could still be enhanced by the high temperatures and solar incidence. Here, we assessed changes in the aquatic primary production along a small section of low-flow tropical downstream (Imboassica Stream, Brazil) after dredging. Our results suggested that these ecosystems may show catastrophic shifts between net heterotrophy and autotrophy in waters based on three short-term stages following the dredging: (I) a strongly heterotrophic net primary production -NPP- coupled to an intense respiration -R- likely supported by high resuspended organic sediments and nutrients from the bottom; (II) a strongly autotrophic NPP coupled to an intense gross primary production -GPP- favored by the high nutrient levels and low solar light attenuation from suspended solids or aquatic macrophytes; and (III) a NPP near to the equilibrium coupled to low GPP and R rates following, respectively, the shading by aquatic macrophytes and high particulate sedimentation. In conclusion, changes in aquatic primary production could be an important threshold for controlling drastic shifts in the organic matter cycling and the subsequent silting up of small tropical streams after dredging events.

  12. Effects of the thermal environment on animal production in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertshaw, D.

    1986-01-01

    The problems of heat stress in animal production can be solved by an interdisciplinary approach whereby the engineer, animal scientist and animal physiologist can all interact. By understanding the principles associated with heat flow between an animal and its environment it is possible to predict the potential success of an animal production system. This review analyses the nature of the thermal environment and the way in which it can affect production. Methods for alleviating heat stress are also described. (author)

  13. Products in fusion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henke, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the notion of a product of a normal subsystem with a p-subgroup as defined by Aschbacher (2011) [Asc11, Chapter 8]. In particular, we give a previously unknown, more transparent construction....

  14. Processed Products Database System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  15. Insect community composition and functional roles along a tropical agricultural production gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson; Svensson, Ola; Den Brink, van Paul J.; Gunnarsson, Jonas; Tedengren, Michael

    2018-01-01

    High intensity agricultural production systems are problematic not only for human health and the surrounding environment, but can threaten the provision of ecosystem services on which farm productivity depends. This research investigates the effects of management practices in Costa Rica on on-farm

  16. Tropical Soil Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.

    and environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors...... soil chemical issues are also presented to assess when, why, and how tropical soils differ from soils in other regions. This knowledge can help agricultural specialists in the tropics establish sustainable crop production. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic chemistry, physics...

  17. Fast Pyrolysis of Tropical Biomass Species and Influence of Water Pretreatment on Product Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q; Sun, Ning; George, Anthe

    2016-01-01

    The fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C) and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s). The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute) at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amount of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals) on pyrolysis products is: 1) to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2) to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3) to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4) to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5) to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging). Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time) for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena.

  18. Fast Pyrolysis of Tropical Biomass Species and Influence of Water Pretreatment on Product Distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor James Morgan

    Full Text Available The fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s. The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amount of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals on pyrolysis products is: 1 to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2 to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3 to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4 to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5 to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging. Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena.

  19. Lifetime and per year productivity of sows in four pig farms in the tropics of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek-Mex, Jesús Enrique; Segura-Correa, José Candelario; Alzina-López, Alejandro; Batista-Garcia, Laura

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the lifetime and per year productivity of sows and to determine the effect of some factor on those traits in four pig farms in the tropics of Mexico. Data from 7526 sows for lifetime number of piglets born alive per sow (LBA), lifetime kilograms of piglets at farrowing (LKF), number of piglets born alive per year (NPF/Y), and kilograms of piglets at farrowing per year (KPF/Y); and data from 7230 sows for lifetime number of piglets weaned (LPW), lifetime kilograms of piglets weaned (LKW), number of piglets weaned per year (NPW/Y), and kilograms of piglets weaned per year (KPW/Y) per sow were used. The statistical model for all traits included the fixed effects of farm, year of first farrowing, season of first farrowing, litter size at first farrowing, age at first farrowing, removal reason, simple interactions, and the error term. The means for LBA, LKF, NPF/Y, and KPF/Y were 45.1 piglets, 67.1 kg, 22.7 piglets, and 33.7 kg, respectively. The means for LPW, LKW, NPW/Y, and KPW/Y were 43.2 piglets, 251.9 kg, 21.5 piglets, and 125.1 kg, respectively. All factors were significant for all traits, except for age at first farrowing on LPW and LKW. Sows with large litter sizes and those that farrowed the first time, at an early age, had the highest lifetime and per year productivity. Therefore, more care and better management should be provided to those types of sows to improve the farms profit.

  20. Superovulation and embryo production in tropical adapted Bos taurus (Caracu and Bos indicus (Nelore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Herrera Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare ovarian response and embryo production of superovulated Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows adapted to the environmental conditions from São Paulo State, Brazil. Ninety non-lactating cows from Caracu ( Bos taurus, n=40 and Nelore (Bos indicus, n=50 were treated with an intravaginal device containing progesterone (1.38 mg; CIDRB ®, Pfizer Animal Health, Montreal, Québec, Canada and 2.5 mg, intramuscularly (IM, of estradiol benzoate (Estrogin®, Farmavet, São Paulo, Brazil. Four days later, all animals were treated with multiple IM injections of 400 IU of FSH (Pluset®, Calier, Spain in decreasing doses (75–75; 75–50; 50–25, and 25–25 IU at 12-h intervals over 4 days. On the seventh day, CIDR-B device was removed and cows received, IM, 150 ìg of cloprostenol (Veteglan®, Calier, Spain. Cows were then inseminated 48 and 62 h after cloprostenol treatment and embryos were recovered non-surgically seven days after first insemination. Differences in the number of corpora lutea (CL number, total number of structures (ova/embryos, and number of transferable embryos were analyzed by Student t test. There was no difference (P > 0.05 in the average number of CL, total ova/embryos and transferable embryos of Caracu (11.4 ± 3.3; 8.6 ± 2.6 e 6.0 ± 2.4 and Nelore (12.0 ± 4.1; 9.0 ± 4.3 e 5.1 ± 2.9 cows, respectively. These results suggest that Caracu and Nelore cows superovulated in tropical climate had similar ovarian responses and embryo production.

  1. Effects of liana load, tree diameter and distances between conspecifics on seed production in tropical timber trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Kollmann, Johannes Christian; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2009-01-01

    Seed production in tropical timber trees is limited by abiotic resources, pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation. Resource availability is influenced by the number of competing trees and by lianas that often reach high densities in disturbed parts of tropical forests. The distance between...... conspecific trees affects pollination efficiency and seed predation intensity, and may therefore indirectly affect the long-term sustainability of selective logging. Here we investigate how reproductive status and the number of seeds dispersed per tree are affected by liana load, distance to the nearest...... and positively with tree diameter. In C. ianeirensis the most liana-infested trees dispersed fewer seeds. In T. oblonga the intensity of pre-dispersal seed predation decreased with distance to the nearest conspecifics. There was no evidence that seed viability or seed production decreased with distance...

  2. Evaluation of the productivity decrease risk due to a future increase in tropical cyclone intensity in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Miguel; Longarte-Galnares, Gorka

    2010-12-01

    A number of scientists have recently conducted research that shows that tropical cyclone intensity is likely to increase in the future. This would result in an increase in the damage along with a decrease in economic productivity due to precautionary cessation of the economic activity of the affected areas during the passage of the cyclone. The economic effect of this stop in economic activity is a phenomenon that has not received much attention in the past, and the cumulative effect that it can have on the Japanese economy over the next 75 years has never been evaluated. The starting point for the evaluation of the economic risks is the change in the patterns of tropical cyclone intensity suggested by Knutson and Tuleya. The results obtained show how a significant decrease in the overall productivity of the country could be expected, which could lower GDP by between 6% and 13% by 2085. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Rapid wave and storm surge warning system for tropical cyclones in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appendini, C. M.; Rosengaus, M.; Meza, R.; Camacho, V.

    2015-12-01

    The National Hurricane Center (NHC) in Miami, is responsible for the forecast of tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific basins. As such, Mexico, Central America and Caribbean countries depend on the information issued by the NHC related to the characteristics of a particular tropical cyclone and associated watch and warning areas. Despite waves and storm surge are important hazards for marine operations and coastal dwellings, their forecast is not part of the NHC responsibilities. This work presents a rapid wave and storm surge warning system based on 3100 synthetic tropical cyclones doing landfall in Mexico. Hydrodynamic and wave models were driven by the synthetic events to create a robust database composed of maximum envelops of wind speed, significant wave height and storm surge for each event. The results were incorporated into a forecast system that uses the NHC advisory to locate the synthetic events passing inside specified radiuses for the present and forecast position of the real event. Using limited computer resources, the system displays the information meeting the search criteria, and the forecaster can select specific events to generate the desired hazard map (i.e. wind, waves, and storm surge) based on the maximum envelop maps. This system was developed in a limited time frame to be operational in 2015 by the National Hurricane and Severe Storms Unit of the Mexican National Weather Service, and represents a pilot project for other countries in the region not covered by detailed storm surge and waves forecasts.

  4. Heterotrophic utilization of extracellular products of phytoplankton in a tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gomes, H.; Pant, A; Goes, J.I.; Parulekar, A

    Bacterial uptake of algal exudates has been estimated in a tropical estuary, Dona Paula, Goa, India, where the seasonal fluctuations in hydrographic and nutrient parameters as well as dissolved organic matter concentrations and phytoplankton species...

  5. Palm oil expansion in tropical forest margins or sustainability of production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordwijk, van M.; Pacheco, Pablo; Slingerland, M.A.; Dewi, S.; Khasanah, N.

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil expansion captures headlines, primarily out of concern that encroachment to tropical forest causes environmental problem and ignites social issues. Cascading ecological and social issues cause loss of trust, (threats of) consumer boycotts and multiple standards and certification responses.

  6. First direct landscape-scale measurement of tropical rain forest Leaf Area Index, a key driver of global primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. Clark; Paulo C. Olivas; Steven F. Oberbauer; Deborah A. Clark; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Leaf Area Index (leaf area per unit ground area, LAI) is a key driver of forest productivity but has never previously been measured directly at the landscape scale in tropical rain forest (TRF). We used a modular tower and stratified random sampling to harvest all foliage from forest floor to canopy top in 55 vertical transects (4.6 m2) across 500 ha of old growth in...

  7. In vitro conservation and sustained production of breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae): modern technologies for a traditional tropical crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Susan J.; Ragone, Diane; Shi, Wendy Lei; Alan, Ali R.; Saxena, Praveen K.

    2008-02-01

    Breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) is a traditionally cultivated, high-energy, high-yield crop, but widespread use of the plant for food is limited by poor quality and poor storage properties of the fruit. A unique field genebank of breadfruit species and cultivars exists at the National Tropical Botanical Garden in the Hawaiian Islands and is an important global resource for conservation and sustainable use of breadfruit. However, this plant collection could be damaged by a random natural disaster such as a hurricane. We have developed a highly efficient in vitro plant propagation system to maintain, conserve, mass propagate, and distribute elite varieties of this important tree species. Mature axillary shoot buds were collected from three different cultivars of breadfruit and proliferated using a cytokinin-supplemented medium. The multiple shoots were maintained as stock cultures and repeatedly used to develop whole plants after root differentiation on a basal or an auxin-containing medium. The plantlets were successfully grown under greenhouse conditions and were reused to initiate additional shoot cultures for sustained production of plants. Flow cytometry was used to determine the nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid content and the ploidy status of the in vitro grown population. The efficacy of the micropropagation protocols developed in this study represents a significant advancement in the conservation and sustained mass propagation of breadfruit germplasm in a controlled environment free from contamination.

  8. Conversion of tropical lowland forest reduces nutrient return through litterfall, and alters nutrient use efficiency and seasonality of net primary production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Leuschner, Christoph; Triadiati, Triadiati; Hertel, Dietrich

    2016-02-01

    Tropical landscapes are not only rapidly transformed by ongoing land-use change, but are additionally confronted by increasing seasonal climate variation. There is an increasing demand for studies analyzing the effects and feedbacks on ecosystem functioning of large-scale conversions of tropical natural forest into intensively managed cash crop agriculture. We analyzed the seasonality of aboveground litterfall, fine root litter production, and aboveground woody biomass production (ANPP(woody)) in natural lowland forests, rubber agroforests under natural tree cover ("jungle rubber"), rubber and oil palm monocultures along a forest-to-agriculture transformation gradient in Sumatra. We hypothesized that the temporal fluctuation of litter production increases with increasing land-use intensity, while the associated nutrient fluxes and nutrient use efficiency (NUE) decrease. Indeed, the seasonal variation of aboveground litter production and ANPP(woody) increased from the natural forest to the plantations, while aboveground litterfall generally decreased. Nutrient return through aboveground litter was mostly highest in the natural forest; however, it was significantly lower only in rubber plantations. NUE of N, P and K was lowest in the oil palm plantations, with natural forest and the rubber systems showing comparably high values. Root litter production was generally lower than leaf litter production in all systems, while the root-to-leaf ratio of litter C flux increased along the land-use intensity gradient. Our results suggest that nutrient and C cycles are more directly affected by climate seasonality in species-poor agricultural systems than in species-rich forests, and therefore might be more susceptible to inter-annual climate fluctuation and climate change.

  9. Automated plant, production management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, V. I.; Belov, V. I.

    1984-12-01

    The development of a complex of tasks for the operational management of production (OUP) within the framework of an automated system for production management (ASUP) shows that it is impossible to have effective computations without reliable initial information. The influence of many factors involving the production and economic activity of the entire enterprise upon the plan and course of production are considered. It is suggested that an adequate model should be available which covers all levels of the hierarchical system: workplace, section (bridgade), shop, enterprise, and the model should be incorporated into the technological sequence of performance and there should be provisions for an adequate man machine system.

  10. Tropical systems from the southwest Indian Ocean making landfall over the Limpopo River Basin, southern Africa: a historical perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malherbe, J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study provides perspective on the contribution of landfalling tropical systems (cyclones, depressions, storms and lows) from the southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) towards rainfall over the eastern interior of southern Africa, over the period 1948...

  11. Denitrification: an important pathway for nitrous oxide production in tropical mangrove sediments (Goa, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Bharathi, P A Loka; Bonin, Patricia C; Michotey, Valérie D

    2010-01-01

    Net nitrous oxide production and denitrification activity were measured in two mangrove ecosystems of Goa, India. The relatively pristine site Tuvem was compared to Divar, which is prone to high nutrient input. Stratified sampling at 2-cm intervals within the 0- to 10-cm depth range showed that N2O production at both the locations decreased with depth. Elevated denitrification activity at Divar resulted in maximum production of up to 1.95 nmol N2O-N g(-1) h(-1) at 2 to 4 cm, which was three times higher than at Tuvem. Detailed investigations to understand the major pathway contributing to N2O production performed at Tuvem showed that incomplete denitrification was responsible for up to 43 to 93% of N2O production. Nitrous oxide production rates closely correlated to nitrite concentration (n = 15; r = -0.47; p production. Nitrous oxide production through nitrification was below detection, affirming that denitrification is the major pathway responsible for production of the greenhouse gas. Net N2O production in these mangrove systems are comparatively higher than those reported from other natural estuarine sediments and therefore warrant mitigation measures.

  12. GLOBAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The most significant transformations that globalization produces occur in production. Since the '60s, a new division of labor has made its presence felt in the world, arising from the "de-industrialization" of the developed and transfer production capacity of resource-intensive industries and pollutants from these countries to the developing world. "Dislocation" industry had the interim foreign direct investment made in the new industrialized countries, the latter becoming, in turn, sources of direct foreign investment, taking its capital in other countries in developing handsets. Currently, FDI destination is no longer a priority in developing countries, yet they are increasingly leaning towards the developed countries, due to the attractiveness offered by their economies.

  13. Study of the corrosion products formed on carbon steels in the tropical atmosphere of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaén, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (in selected samples have been used to characterize corrosion products on carbon steels after atmospheric exposure to the tropical Panamanian locations of Panama and Colon, classified according to ISO 9223 as C3 and C5, respectively. Goethite (α-FeOOH of intermediate particle size (20-100 nm, lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH, a spinel phase consisting of non-stoichiometric magnetite (Fe3-xO4 and/or maghemite (γ-Fe2O3 and nano-sized particles were identified in the corrosion products. The spinel phase is related to short term atmospheric exposure transforms in time to other corrosion products. The corrosion resistance increased with fraction of goethite following a saturation-type behavior.

    Se caracterizaron los productos de corrosión de aceros al carbono expuestos a las atmósferas tropicales panameñas localizadas en Panamá y Colón, mediante el uso de la espectroscopia Mössbauer y difracción de rayos-X (en muestras seleccionadas. Las atmósferas se clasifican como C3 y C5, respectivamente, de acuerdo a la norma ISO 9223. Se lograron identificar los compuestos goethita (α-FeOOH de tamaño de partícula intermedio (20-100 nm, lepidocrocita (γ-FeOOH, una fase de espinela consistente en magnetita no estequiométrica (Fe3-xO4 y/o maghemita (γ-Fe2O3, y nanopartículas. La fase de espinela se puede correlacionar con exposiciones cortas a la atmósfera, transformándose en el tiempo en otros productos de corrosión. La resistencia a la corrosión se incrementa con la cantidad de goethita siguiendo una conducta de saturación.

  14. Effect of drought on productivity in a Costa Rican tropical dry forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S. M.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A.; Sato, H.

    2018-04-01

    Climate models predict that precipitation patterns in tropical dry forests (TDFs) will change, with an overall reduction in rainfall amount and intensification of dry intervals, leading to greater susceptibility to drought. In this paper, we explore the effect of drought on phenology and carbon dynamics of a secondary TDF located in the Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP), Costa Rica. Through the use of optical sensors and an eddy covariance flux tower, seasonal phenology and carbon fluxes were monitored over a four-year period (2013-2016). Over this time frame, annual precipitation varied considerably. Total precipitation amounts for the 2013-2016 seasons equaled 1591.8 mm (+14.4 mm SD), 1112.9 mm (+9.9 mm SD), 600.8 mm (+7.6 mm SD), and 1762.2 mm (+13.9 mm SD), respectively. The 2014 and 2015 (ENSO) seasonal precipitation amounts represent a 30% and 63% reduction in precipitation, respectively, and were designated as drought seasons. Phenology was affected by precipitation patterns and availability. The onset of green-up was closely associated with pre-seasonal rains. Drought events lead to seasonal NDVI minimums and changes in phenologic cycle length. Carbon fluxes, assimilation, and photosynthetic light use efficiency were negatively affected by drought. Seasonal minimums in photosynthetic rates and light use efficiency were observed during drought events, and gross primary productivity was reduced by 13% and 42% during drought seasons 2014 and 2015, respectively. However, all four growth seasons were net carbon sinks. Results from this study contribute towards a deeper understanding of the impact of drought on TDF phenology and carbon dynamics.

  15. Tropical continental downdraft characteristics: mesoscale systems versus unorganized convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiro, Kathleen A.; Neelin, J. David

    2018-02-01

    Downdrafts and cold pool characteristics for strong mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) and isolated, unorganized deep precipitating convection are analyzed using multi-instrument data from the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) GoAmazon2014/5 campaign. Increases in column water vapor (CWV) are observed leading convection, with higher CWV preceding MCSs than for isolated cells. For both MCSs and isolated cells, increases in wind speed, decreases in surface moisture and temperature, and increases in relative humidity occur coincidentally with system passages. Composites of vertical velocity data and radar reflectivity from a radar wind profiler show that the downdrafts associated with the sharpest decreases in surface equivalent potential temperature (θe) have a probability of occurrence that increases with decreasing height below the freezing level. Both MCSs and unorganized convection show similar mean downdraft magnitudes and probabilities with height. Mixing computations suggest that, on average, air originating at heights greater than 3 km must undergo substantial mixing, particularly in the case of isolated cells, to match the observed cold pool θe, implying a low typical origin level. Precipitation conditionally averaged on decreases in surface equivalent potential temperature (Δθe) exhibits a strong relationship because the most negative Δθe values are associated with a high probability of precipitation. The more physically motivated conditional average of Δθe on precipitation shows that decreases in θe level off with increasing precipitation rate, bounded by the maximum difference between surface θe and its minimum in the profile aloft. Robustness of these statistics observed across scales and regions suggests their potential use as model diagnostic tools for the improvement of downdraft parameterizations in climate models.

  16. An Ocean Biology-induced Negative Feedback on ENSO in the Tropical Pacific Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R. H.

    2016-02-01

    Biological conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean (e.g., phytoplankton biomass) are strongly regulated by physical changes associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The existence and variation of phytoplankton biomass, in turn, act to modulate the vertical penetration of the incoming sunlight in the upper ocean, presenting an ocean biology-induced heating (OBH) effect on the climate system. Previously, a penetration depth of solar radiation in the upper ocean (Hp) is defined to describe the related bio-climate connections. Parameterized in terms of its relationship with the sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Pacific, an empirical model for interannual Hp variability has been derived from remotely sensed ocean color data, which is incorporated into a hybrid coupled model (HCM) to represent OBH effects. In this paper, various HCM experiments are performed to demonstrate the bio-feedback onto ENSO, including a climatological Hp run (in which Hp is prescribed as seasonally varying only), interannual Hp runs (with different intensities of interannually varying OBH effects), and a run in which the sign of the OBH effect is artificially reversed. Significant modulating impacts on interannual variability are found in the HCM, characterized by a negative feedback between ocean biology and the climate system in the tropical Pacific: the stronger the OBH feedback, the weaker the interannual variability. Processes involved in the feedback are analyzed; it is illustrated that the SST is modulated indirectly by ocean dynamical processes induced by OBH. The significance and implication of the OBH effects are discussed for their roles in ENSO variability and model biases in the tropical Pacific.

  17. Production control system specified quality sausage products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tokarev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of management of production target in technological system of production of sausages of the set quality is considered in article. Decomposition of technological system is considered. Functions of management are allocated: formation of an optimum compounding of forcemeat, expert analysis of a compounding, laboratory analysis of a compounding and its statement. Information technology of interaction of these functions is offered. The mathematical problem definition of finding of an optimum compounding meat product with use of possible substitutes of ingredients is presented. This mathematical problem is a classical linear programming problem whose solution has the standard program. Since the manufacture of the finished product are various nonlinear effects are taken into account at the present time it is practically impossible, the methodology provided in this operation "Expert analysis of the formulation" and "Laboratory analysis of the finished product." An example of calculating the optimum alternative base recipe "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. For an alternative formulation demands were made at a cost of meat, the ingredient composition, as well as the final product organoleptic and physic-chemical indicators should comply with regulatory requirements "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. Indicator acid activity (pH calculated stuffing formulation should be in the range 6.0-6.3. As a partial replacement for the main raw material have been proposed acceptable substitutes. It was necessary to calculate on the basis of the formulation "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002 optimal price and quality alternative formulation. As a result of depreciation of the value of alternative stuffing recipe was 14,5 % when all of the restrictions on the consumer properties. The proposed information technology implemented in the software package "Multi

  18. Cooled Water Production System,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invention refers to the field of air conditioning and regards an apparatus for obtaining cooled water . The purpose of the invention is to develop...such a system for obtaining cooled water which would permit the maximum use of the cooling effect of the water -cooling tower.

  19. The system Around the Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

          The design discipline has traditionally focused on products physical aspects, giving for granted that the context of services, infrastructures and technology will support the product life. A systemic perspective would revise such a focus, in order to project design competences over systemic...... aspects usually neglected by designers. This perspective shift is a challenge for designers, who have very efficient methods and tools to handle physical aspects of product design, but need to define an ?operative paradigm? to operate in a systemic context. An operative paradigm consists of a set of tools...... and methods to handle immaterial aspects such as time sequences, actors? role and logical links in a product service system (PSS). Tools and methods can be borrowed from other disciplinary contexts, their relevance, though, derives from their adaptation to this specific study area: designing in a systemic...

  20. An innovative roofing system for tropical building interiors: Separating heat from useful visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Obaidi, K.M.; Ismail, M.; Abdul Rahman, A.M. [School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2013-07-01

    Generally it has been known that energy consumption costs are high in temperate countries. In buildings, room spaces are normally designed so as to consume less energy for thermal comfort especially in winter. Passive strategies such large double-glazing windows are to contain heat indoors and also for maximum daylight to reduce dependence on artificial lighting. Thus roof lights are popular building design elements in cold and temperate countries. Unlike in the tropics where it has high temperatures and humidity throughout the year, achieving indoor comfort is a challenge especially with plenty of sunshine and unpredictable wind conditions. This paper explores the possibility of roof light for indoor comfort to be considered as a tropical design element. Initial simulation was carried out before any attempt to do life-sized model for empirical data. By simulation, the hypothesis has been achieved but several factors have to be considered. The solution is not as simple as those achieved in the temperate countries. Comfort can be achieved but permutations of several design factors such as dimensions of room, glazing, reflective materials, blackbody concept and building materials need adjustment to meet the Malaysian Comfort Temperature. With this finding the Tropical Architecture would then be redefined with the introduction of this Innovative Roofing System (IRS) as named by the author.

  1. Earthworms and litter management contributions to ecosystem services in a tropical agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonte, Steven J; Six, Johan

    2010-06-01

    important implications for the provision of ecosystem services (e.g., C sequestration, soil fertility, and plant production) by tropical agroforestry systems.

  2. CDOM fluorescence as a proxy of DOC concentration in natural waters : a comparison of four contrasting tropical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rochelle Newall, Emma; Hulot, F. D.; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Merroune, A.

    2014-01-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence or absorption is often proposed as a rapid alternative to chemical methods for the estimation of bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in natural waters. However, the robustness of this method across a wide range of systems remains to be shown. We measured CDOM fluorescence and DOC concentration in four tropical freshwater and coastal environments (estuary and coastal, tropical shallow lakes, water from the freshwater lens ...

  3. Isotope aided studies on sheep and goat production in the Tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The fifteen papers in this volume have been indexed separately. The main focus of the coordinated research program was the use of radioisotopes to investigate ways of increasing the fertility and growth of sheep and goats in the Tropics. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Relative lake level fluctuations and their influence on productivity and resilience in tropical lakes and reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolding, J.; Zwieten, van P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Lakes and reservoirs are traditionally characterised from static morphological or chemical parameters such as depth and dissolved solids, while the dynamic impact of shifting water supplies has received little attention. There is increasing evidence, however, that the hydrodynamic regime in tropical

  5. Arthropod pests of dried fish and fish by product in a tropical urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A four months research survey of arthropod pests infesting dried fish sold in a tropical urban community market (Ogige), Nsukka, Ngeria showed that 10 genera o dried freshwater fish (Synodontis, Hemisynodontis, Oreochromis, Hepsetus, Gymnarchus, Labeo, Protopterus, Heterobranchus, Alestes, Heterotis) and two ...

  6. Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finegan, B.; Pena Claros, M.; Silva de Oliveira, A.; Ascarrunz, N.; Bret-Harte, M.S.; Carreño Rocabado, I.G.; Casanoves, F.; Diaz, S.; Eguiguren Velepucha, P.; Fernandez, F.; Licona, J.C.; Lorenzo, L.; Salgado Negret, B.; Vaz, M.; Poorter, L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. 2. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil

  7. Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finegan, B.; Peña Claros, M.; Oliviera, de A.; Alarcón, A.; Ascarrunz, N.; Bret-Harte, M.S.; Carreño-Rocabado, G.; Casanoves, F.; Díaz, S.; Eguiguren Velepucha, P.; Fernandez, F.; Licona, J.C.; Lorenzo, L.; Salgado Negret, B.; Vaz, M.; Poorter, L.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil and

  8. The SPOOKI post production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, M.; Klasa, M.; Fortier, S.; Fortin, F.; Hardy, G.; Pelletier, L.; Edouard, S.; Archambault, B.; Yazidi, H.

    2010-09-01

    The Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) delivers a large number of numerical weather prediction products to the various weather offices and clients throughout Canada and abroad. The current post production system was built according to the needs and ideology of the 1980's and it is becoming obsolete with time. Its cumbersome architecture is difficult to maintain and requires a lot of human and computing resources. The "Weather Elements" section of CMC is aware of the problems associated with its maintenance in the long term and has therefore decided to review in depth the whole approach to the operational post production. The analysis of present and future needs have led to the development of an innovative concept in the operational production field inspired by the "Plug and Play" process. SPOOKI (Système de Production Orienté-Objet contennant une Kyrielle d'Informations - Object oriented production system containing a myriad of information) was created in its present form in 2007. It is based on a modular approach where each plug-in component is specialized, reusable and autonomous. These object oriented programming characteristics greatly simplify the maintenance of the system. Particular attention was also given to create a user-friendly system for novice users. An experimental version of SPOOKI is currently running in development mode and an operational one is planned to be implemented in the coming year. The poster presentation will describe SPOOKI, the future CMC operational post production system. Several examples of usage will be shown.

  9. Amino acid composition reveals functional diversity of zooplankton in tropical lakes related to geography, taxonomy and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranguren-Riaño, Nelson J; Guisande, Cástor; Shurin, Jonathan B; Jones, Natalie T; Barreiro, Aldo; Duque, Santiago R

    2018-04-16

    Variation in resource use among species determines their potential for competition and co-existence, as well as their impact on ecosystem processes. Planktonic crustaceans consume a range of micro-organisms that vary among habitats and species, but these differences in resource consumption are difficult to characterize due to the small size of the organisms. Consumers acquire amino acids from their diet, and the composition of tissues reflects both the use of different resources and their assimilation in proteins. We examined the amino acid composition of common crustacean zooplankton from 14 tropical lakes in Colombia in three regions (the Amazon floodplain, the eastern range of the Andes, and the Caribbean coast). Amino acid composition varied significantly among taxonomic groups and the three regions. Functional richness in amino acid space was greatest in the Amazon, the most productive region, and tended to be positively related to lake trophic status, suggesting the niche breadth of the community could increase with ecosystem productivity. Functional evenness increased with lake trophic status, indicating that species were more regularly distributed within community-wide niche space in more productive lakes. These results show that zooplankton resource use in tropical lakes varies with both habitat and taxonomy, and that lake productivity may affect community functional diversity and the distribution of species within niche space.

  10. Bioclimatic influence of extension of white and black coat color on Holstein cows production in a hot tropical climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique P, Luis Phanor

    1999-01-01

    Was determined the influence of the white and black hair coat percentage in Holstein cows managed under hot climate condition at the San Jose del Hato farm, located in Palmira, Cauca Valley, Colombia. Three categories or classes of hair score were established, according to the white color distribution and with three observers it was determined the relative frequency of cows within each color category; the productive data were studied through an Anova using the least squares means method and Ducan test for means separation. The results were in agreement with the effect of color categories in the 305 days of milk production and in the total milk production (p < 0.05), being the best producer the cows group with 40 - 60 % white hair coats. These results showed the influence of the hair coat surface over the productive capability of Holstein cattle for selection programs in tropical conditions of hot climates

  11. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and subsequent photochemical production of secondary organic aerosol in mesocosm studies of temperate and tropical plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyche, K. P.; Ryan, A. C.; Hewitt, C. N.; Alfarra, M. R.; McFiggans, G.; Carr, T.; Monks, P. S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Capes, G.; Hamilton, J. F.; Pugh, T. A. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Silver birch (Betula pendula) and three Southeast Asian tropical plant species (Ficus cyathistipula, Ficus benjamina and Caryota millis) from the pantropical fig and palm genera were grown in a purpose-built and environment-controlled whole-tree chamber. The volatile organic compounds emitted from these trees were characterised and fed into a linked photochemical reaction chamber where they underwent photo-oxidation under a range of controlled conditions (relative humidity or RH ~65-89%, volatile organic compound-to-NOx or VOC / NOx ~3-9 and NOx ~2 ppbV). Both the gas phase and the aerosol phase of the reaction chamber were monitored in detail using a comprehensive suite of on-line and off-line chemical and physical measurement techniques. Silver birch was found to be a high monoterpene and sesquiterpene but low isoprene emitter, and its emissions were observed to produce measurable amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via both nucleation and condensation onto pre-existing seed aerosol (YSOA 26-39%). In contrast, all three tropical species were found to be high isoprene emitters with trace emissions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. In tropical plant experiments without seed aerosol there was no measurable SOA nucleation, but aerosol mass was shown to increase when seed aerosol was present. Although principally isoprene emitting, the aerosol mass produced from tropical fig was mostly consistent (i.e. in 78 out of 120 aerosol mass calculations using plausible parameter sets of various precursor specific yields) with condensation of photo-oxidation products of the minor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) co-emitted; no significant aerosol yield from condensation of isoprene oxidation products was required in the interpretations of the experimental results. This finding is in line with previous reports of organic aerosol loadings consistent with production from minor biogenic VOCs co-emitted with isoprene in principally isoprene-emitting landscapes in Southeast

  12. The system around the product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    The design discipline has traditionally focused on products’ physical aspects, giving for granted that the context of services, infrastructures and technology will support the product life. A systemic perspective would revise such a focus, in order to project design competences over systemic...... aspects usually neglected by designers. This perspective shift is a challenge for designers, who have very efficient methods and tools to handle physical aspects of product design, but need to define an ‘operative paradigm’ to operate in a systemic context. An operative paradigm consists of a set of tools...... and methods to handle immaterial aspects such as time sequences, actors’ role and logical links in a product service system (PSS). Tools and methods can be borrowed from other disciplinary contexts, their relevance, though, derives from their adaptation to this specific study area: designing in a systemic...

  13. The roles of productivity and ecosystem size in determining food chain length in tropical terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hillary S; McCauley, Douglas J; Dunbar, Robert B; Hutson, Michael S; Ter-Kuile, Ana Miller; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2013-03-01

    Many different drivers, including productivity, ecosystem size, and disturbance, have been considered to explain natural variation in the length of food chains. Much remains unknown about the role of these various drivers in determining food chain length, and particularly about the mechanisms by which they may operate in terrestrial ecosystems, which have quite different ecological constraints than aquatic environments, where most food chain length studies have been thus far conducted. In this study, we tested the relative importance of ecosystem size and productivity in influencing food chain length in a terrestrial setting. We determined that (1) there is no effect of ecosystem size or productive space on food chain length; (2) rather, food chain length increases strongly and linearly with productivity; and (3) the observed changes in food chain length are likely achieved through a combination of changes in predator size, predator behavior, and consumer diversity along gradients in productivity. These results lend new insight into the mechanisms by which productivity can drive changes in food chain length, point to potential for systematic differences in the drivers of food web structure between terrestrial and aquatic systems, and challenge us to consider how ecological context may control the drivers that shape food chain length.

  14. Interactions between tropical cyclones and mid-latitude systems in the Northeastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, A.; Abarca, S. F.; Raga, G. B.; Vargas, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Major challenges in tropical meteorology include the short-term forecast of tropical cyclone (TC) intensity, which is defined as the maximum tangential wind. Several efforts have been made in order to reach this goal over the last decade: Among these efforts, the study of lightning in the TC inner core (the region inside a disc of 100 km radius from the center) as a proxy to deep convection, has the potential to be used as a predictor to forecast intensity (DeMaria et al, 2012, Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 1828-1842).While most studies focus their objectives in studying the lightning flash density in the inner core, we study the probability of flash occurrence for intensifying and weakening cyclones. We have analyzed the trajectories of the observed 62 tropical cyclones that developed in the basin from 2006 to 2009, and classified them into separate clusters according to their trajectories. These clusters can broadly be described as having trajectories mostly oriented: East-West, towards the central Pacific, NW far from the Mexican coast, parallel to the Mexican coast and recurving towards the Mexican coast.We estimate that probability of inner core lightning occurrence increases as cyclones intensify but the probability rapidly decrease as the systems weaken. This is valid for cyclones in most of the clusters. However, the cyclones that exhibit trajectories that recurve towards the Mexican coast, do not present the same relationship between intensity and inner-core lightning probability, these cyclones show little or no decrease in the lightning occurrence probability as they weaken.We hypothesize that one of the reasons for this anomalous behavior is likely the fact that these cyclones interact with mid-latitude systems. Mid-latitude systems are important in determining the recurving trajectory but they may also influence the TC by advecting mid-level moisture towards the TC inner core. This additional supply of moisture as the system is approaching land may enhance deep

  15. Comparison of TOPEX/Poseidon Sea Level and Linear Model Results forced by Various Wind Products for the Tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackert, Eric C.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to compare TOPEX/Posaidon (T/P) sea level with sea level results from linear ocean model experiments forced by several different wind products for the tropical Pacific. During the period of this study (October 1992 - October 1995), available wind products include satellite winds from the ERS-1 scatterometer product of [HALP 97] and the passive microwave analysis of SSMI winds produced using the variational analysis method (VAM) of [ATLA 91]. In addition, atmospheric GCM winds from the NCEP reanalysis [KALN 96], ECMWF analysis [ECMW94], and the Goddard EOS-1 (GEOS-1) reanalysis experiment [SCHU 93] are available for comparison. The observed ship wind analysis of FSU [STRI 92] is also included in this study. The linear model of [CANE 84] is used as a transfer function to test the quality of each of these wind products for the tropical Pacific. The various wind products are judged by comparing the wind-forced model sea level results against the T/P sea level anomalies. Correlation and RMS difference maps show how well each wind product does in reproducing the T/P sea level signal. These results are summarized in a table showing area average correlations and RMS differences. The large-scale low-frequency temporal signal is reproduced by all of the wind products, However, significant differences exist in both amplitude and phase on regional scales. In general, the model results forced by satellite winds do a better job reproducing the T/P signal (i.e. have a higher average correlation and lower RMS difference) than the results forced by atmospheric model winds.

  16. Diaspore bank of bryophytes in tropical rain forests: the importance of breeding system, phylum and microhabitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel-Silva, Adaíses S; Válio, Ivany Ferraz Marques; Rydin, Håkan

    2012-02-01

    Diaspore banks are crucial for the maintenance and resilience of plant communities, but diaspore banks of bryophytes remain poorly known, especially from tropical ecosystems. This is the first study to focus on the role of diaspore banks of bryophytes in tropical rain forests. Our aim was to test whether microhabitat (substrate type) and species traits (breeding system, phylum) are important in explaining the diaspore bank composition. Using samples cultivated in the laboratory, we assessed the number of species and shoots emerging from bark, decaying wood and soil from two sites of the Atlantic rain forest (montane and sea level) in Brazil by comparing the contribution of species by phylum (mosses, liverworts) and breeding system (monoicous, dioicous). More species emerged from bark (68) and decaying wood (55) than from soil (22). Similar numbers of species were found at both sites. Mosses were more numerous in terms of number of species and shoots, and monoicous species dominated over dioicous species. Substrate pH had only weak effects on shoot emergence. Species commonly producing sporophytes and gemmae had a high contribution to the diaspore banks. These superficial diaspore banks represented the extant vegetation rather well, but held more monoicous species (probably short-lived species) compared to dioicous ones. We propose that diaspore bank dynamics are driven by species traits and microhabitat characteristics, and that short-term diaspore banks of bryophytes in tropical rain forests contribute to fast (re)establishment of species after disturbances and during succession, particularly dioicous mosses investing in asexual reproduction and monoicous mosses investing in sexual reproduction.

  17. Analysis agriculture's impact in a system of lakes on a karst environment with tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea Olea, Selene; Escolero Fuentes, Oscar

    2015-04-01

    This paper has as main object to analyze the impact of agriculture in the water quality of the "Lagos de Montebello" area; which is located in the Southeast of Mexico. This area is prominent by its tropical climate and a karstic environment. The issue arises in a lake system affected by pollution in the later years, which has turned its former clear water into a highly sedimented muddy water in the topographically lower terrains while no polluted on the higher ones; therefore it is intended to determine if the rise in agricultural activity in the lower terrains has induced this phenomenon. The impact of agriculture has been historically studied in temperate climates with karstic environments; nevertheless it has not been very well studied in tropical climates; which are the reason of this proposal to perform a study to analyze the impact of the intensive agriculture running in the area. To develop this project we studied the area regarding to the types of crops that has being established in the zone, being mostly tomato, corn, and bean; and the fertilizers and pesticides applied to them. A groundwater monitoring plan was designed with a variety of phases such as: piezometers building, measurement of groundwater levels, measurement of field parameters, with a two months intervals (Ph, temperature, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids), and water samplings for laboratory analysis (major ions, nutrients, total organic carbon, pesticides) at twice a year, once during rainy season and then on drought. The rates of pollution agents infiltration depends on the type of soil retention and volume of water. The materials found in the soil by the piezometers are clay, silt, sand and variations between them. We determined that the geochemical qualities of the groundwater vary from calcic bicarbonate to calcic sulfated. The results reached with this monitoring provides a preliminary diagnosis on the possible causes and other implications that intensive agriculture in a

  18. Does functional trait diversity predict aboveground biomass and productivity of tropical forests? Testing three alternative hypotheses

    OpenAIRE

    Finegan, B.; Pena Claros, M.; Silva de Oliveira, A.; Ascarrunz, N.; Bret-Harte, M.S.; Carreño Rocabado, I.G.; Casanoves, F.; Diaz, S.; Eguiguren Velepucha, P.; Fernandez, F.; Licona, J.C.; Lorenzo, L.; Salgado Negret, B.; Vaz, M.; Poorter, L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Tropical forests are globally important, but it is not clear whether biodiversity enhances carbon storage and sequestration in them. We tested this relationship focusing on components of functional trait biodiversity as predictors. 2. Data are presented for three rain forests in Bolivia, Brazil and Costa Rica. Initial above-ground biomass and biomass increments of survivors, recruits and survivors + recruits (total) were estimated for trees ≥10 cm d.b.h. in 62 and 21 1.0-ha plots, respecti...

  19. Criteria for evaluating the condition of a tropical cyclone warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, D

    1999-09-01

    This paper evaluates the condition (i.e. health) of a tropical cyclone warning system (TCWS) during a 'quiet period' between infrequent intense cyclones. Capacity to make pre-disaster evaluations is important--disaster warning systems need to be in sound condition before, not after, disaster. The research--part of the UK's International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction Flagship Programme--focuses upon an evaluatory method first used on flood warning systems. The Criteria-development Matrix comprises social, organisational and institutional criteria by which a TCWS may be assessed using a five-stage development scale. This method is used to evaluate Mauritius's TCWS using in-depth interview data. Ways to enhance the method and apply it to other disaster warning systems are discussed. The TCWS in Mauritius is a relatively sound one from which others can learn. Weaknesses requiring attention for Mauritius's TCWS to progress to an advanced level of development are identified.

  20. High yielding tropical energy crops for bioenergy production: Effects of plant components, harvest years and locations on biomass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, K C; Ogoshi, Richard; Zaleski, Halina M; Hashimoto, Andrew G; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2018-03-01

    The composition of lignocellulosic feedstock, which depends on crop type, crop management, locations and plant parts, significantly affects the conversion efficiency of biomass into biofuels and biobased products. Thus, this study examined the composition of different parts of two high yielding tropical energy crops, Energycane and Napier grass, collected across three locations and years. Significantly higher fiber content was found in the leaves of Energycane than stems, while fiber content was significantly higher in the stems than the leaves of Napier grass. Similarly, fiber content was higher in Napier grass than Energycane. Due to significant differences in biomass composition between the plant parts within a crop type, neither biological conversion, including anaerobic digestion, nor thermochemical pretreatment alone is likely to efficiently convert biomass components into biofuels and biobased products. However, combination of anaerobic digestion with thermochemical conversion technologies could efficiently utilize biomass components in generating biofuels and biobased products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A comprehensive survey of fruit grading systems for tropical fruits of Maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoje, Suchitra A; Bodhe, S K

    2015-01-01

    It is said that the backbone of Indian economy is agriculture. The contribution of the agriculture sector to the national GDP (Gross Domestic Products) was 14.6% in the year 2010. To attain a growth rate equivalent to that of industry (viz., about 9%), it is highly mandatory for Indian agriculture to modernize and use automation at various stages of cultivation and post-harvesting techniques. The use of computers in assessing the quality of fruits is one of the major activities in post-harvesting technology. As of now, this assessment is majorly done manually, except for a few fruits. Currently, the fruit quality assessment by machine vision in India is still at research level. Major research has been carried out in countries like China, Malaysia, UK, and Netherlands. To suit the Indian market and psychology of Indian farmers, it is necessary to develop indigenous technology. This paper is the first step toward evaluating the research carried out by the research community all over world for tropical fruits. For the purpose of survey, we have concentrated on the tropical fruits of the state of Maharashtra, while keeping in focus of the review image processing algorithms.

  2. Design of Tropical Flowers Environmental Parameters Wireless Monitoring System Based on MSP430

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jian-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of real-time monitoring tropical flower environment parameters, the paper designs a wireless monitoring system based on MSP430F149 for tropical flower growing parameters. The proposed system uses sensor nodes to obtain data of temperature, humidity and light intensity, sink node to collect data from sensor nodes through wireless sensor network, and monitoring center to process data downloaded from the sink node through RS232 serial port. The node hardware platform is composed of a MSP430F149 processor, AM2306 and NHZD10AI sensors used to adopt temperature, humidity and light intensity data, and an nRF905 RF chip used to receive and send data. The node software, operated in IAR Embedded Workbench, adopts C Language to do node data collection and process, wireless transmission and serial port communication. The software of monitoring center develops in VB6.0, which can provide vivid and explicit real-time monitoring platform for flower farmers.

  3. Research on hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagiri, Toshio

    2002-07-01

    Hydrogen is closely watched for environmental issues in recent years. In this research, hydrogen production systems and production techniques are widely investigated, and selected some hydrogen production process which have high validity for FBR system. Conclusions of the investigation are shown below. (1) Water-electrolysis processes and steam reform processes at low temperatures are already realized in other fields, so they well be easily adopted for FBR system. FBR system has no advantage when compared with other systems, because water-electrolysis processes can be adopted for other electricity generation system. On the other hand, FBR system has an advantage when steam reforming processes at low temperatures will be adopted, because steam reforming processes at 550-600degC can't be adopted for LWR. (2) Thermochemical processes will be able to adopted for FBR when process temperature will be lowered and material problems solved, because their efficiencies are expected high. Radiolysis processes which use ray (for example, gamma rya) emitted in reactor can be generate hydrogen easily, so they will be able to be adopted for FBR if splitting efficiency will be higher. Further investigation and R and D to realize these processes are considered necessary. (author)

  4. Life Cycle and Secondary Production of Four Species from Functional Feeding Groups in a Tropical Stream of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankarappan Anbalagan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on life strategies of species from functional feeding groups (FFGs found in a tropical stream of the Sirumalai hills, South India. We examined the life cycle and secondary production of species of shredders (Lepidostoma nuburagangai, scrapers (Baetis sp., collectors (Choroterpes alagarensis, and predators (Neoperla biseriata. In addition, we studied the assemblage structure of functional feeding groups. We found the collectors occupied the highest percentage, followed in turn by scrapers, predators, and shredders. The diversity of FFGs was higher at riffle areas and assemblage with stream substrates differing in each functional group. An asynchronous life cycle was observed for Baetis, C. alagarensis, and N. biseriata, while L. nuburagangai was found in four to five generations per year. We acquired data on secondary production of scraper species of Baetis, which reached the highest values among all investigated species. This observation stresses the importance of scrapers as playing a key role in converting coarse particulate organic matter to fine particulate organic matter with low or high abundances of shredder population and maintaining the food chain in tropical streams.

  5. The ATLAS Production System Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The second generation of the ATLAS Production System called ProdSys2 is a distributed workload manager that runs daily hundreds of thousands of jobs, from dozens of different ATLAS-specific workflows, across more than a hundred heterogeneous sites. It achieves high utilization by combining dynamic job definition based upon many criteria, such as input and output size, memory requirements and CPU consumption, with manageable scheduling policies and by supporting different kinds of computational resources, such as GRID, clouds, supercomputers and volunteer computers. The system dynamically assigns a group of jobs (task) to a group of geographically distributed computing resources. Dynamic assignment and resource utilization is one of the major features of the system. The Production System has a sophisticated job fault recovery mechanism, which efficiently allows running multi-terabyte tasks without human intervention. We have implemented new features which allow automatic task submission and chaining of differe...

  6. LivestockPlus — The sustainable intensification of forage-based agricultural systems to improve livelihoods and ecosystem services in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As global demand for livestock products (such as meat, milk and eggs is expected to double by 2050, necessary increases to future production must be reconciled with negative environmental impacts that livestock cause. This paper describes the LivestockPlus concept and demonstrates how the sowing of improved forages can lead to the sustainable intensification of mixed crop-forage-livestock-tree systems in the tropics by producing multiple social, economic and environmental benefits. Sustainable intensification not only improves the productivity of tropical forage-based systems but also reduces the ecological footprint of livestock production and generates a diversity of ecosystem services (ES such as improved soil quality and reduced erosion, sedimentation and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Integrating improved grass and legume forages into mixed production systems (crop-livestock, tree-livestock, crop-tree-livestock can restore degraded lands and enhance system resilience to drought and waterlogging associated with climate change. When properly managed tropical forages accumulate large amounts of carbon in soil, fix atmospheric nitrogen (legumes, inhibit nitrification in soil and reduce nitrous oxide emissions (grasses, and reduce GHG emissions per unit livestock product. The LivestockPlus concept is defined as the sustainable intensification of forage-based systems, which is based on 3 interrelated intensification processes: genetic intensification - the development and use of superior grass and legume cultivars for increased livestock productivity; ecological intensification - the development and application of improved farm and natural resource management practices; and socio-economic intensification - the improvement of local and national institutions and policies, which enable refinements of technologies and support their enduring use. Increases in livestock productivity will require coordinated efforts to develop supportive government, non

  7. Maize, tropical (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assem, Shireen K

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important food crop globally after wheat and rice. In sub-Saharan Africa, tropical maize has traditionally been the main staple of the diet; 95 % of the maize grown is consumed directly as human food and as an important source of income for the resource-poor rural population. The biotechnological approach to engineer biotic and abiotic traits implies the availability of an efficient plant transformation method. The production of genetically transformed plants depends both on the ability to integrate foreign genes into target cells and the efficiency with which plants are regenerated. Maize transformation and regeneration through immature embryo culture is the most efficient system to regenerate normal transgenic plants. However, this system is highly genotype dependent. Genotypes adapted to tropic areas are difficult to regenerate. Therefore, transformation methods used with model genotypes adapted to temperate areas are not necessarily efficient with tropical lines. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the method of choice since it has been first achieved in 1996. In this report, we describe a transformation method used successfully with several tropical maize lines. All the steps of transformation and regeneration are described in details. This protocol can be used with a wide variety of tropical lines. However, some modifications may be needed with recalcitrant lines.

  8. Neutron activation analysis of zinc in forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, M.J.A.; Piasentin, R.M.; Primavesi, O.

    2002-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied for the determination of Zn concentration in the main tropical grass forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems, in Brazil. Smaller Zn concentration could be verified in the rainy period. Comparison of results obtained in these analyses of forages dry matter with daily requirements pointed towards deficiency of Zn in the forages. (author)

  9. Assessment of water availability and its relationship with vegetation distribution over a tropical montane system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streher, A. S.; Sobreiro, J. F. F.; Silva, T. S. F.

    2017-12-01

    Water availability is one of the main drivers of vegetation distribution, but assessing it over mountainous regions is difficult given the effects of rugged topography on hydroclimatic dynamics (orographic rainfall, soil water, and runoff). We assessed how water availability may influence the distribution of vegetation types in the Espinhaço Range, a South American tropical mountain landscape comprised of savannas, grasslands, rock outcrops, cloud forests, and semi-deciduous/deciduous forests. For precipitation, we used CHIRPS monthly and daily products (1981- 2016) and 112 rain gauge ground stations, and assessed potential evapotranspiration (PET) using the MODIS MOD16A3 (2000-2013) product. Vegetation types were classified according to the Global Ecoregions by WWF. We show that rainfall has well-defined rainy and dry seasons with a strong latitudinal pattern, there is evidence for local orographic effects. Dry forests (907 mm/yr; 8% cv) and caatinga vegetation (795 mm/yr; 7% cv) had the lowest average annual precipitation and low variance, whilst Atlantic tropical forest in the southeast (1267 mm/yr; 15% cv), cerrado savanna vegetation in the west (1086 mm/yr; 15% cv) and rupestrian grasslands above 800m (1261 mm/yr; 20% cv) received the highest annual precipitation, with the largest observed variance due to their wide latitudinal distribution. Forests and rupestrian grasslands in the windward side of the mountain had a higher frequency of intense rainfall events (> 20mm), accounting for 6% of the CHIRPS daily time series, suggesting orographic effects on precipitation. Annual average PET was highest for dry forests (2437 mm/yr) and caatinga (2461 mm/yr), intermediate for cerrado (2264 mm/yr) and lowest for Atlantic tropical forest (2083 mm/yr) and rupestrian grasslands (2136 mm/yr). All vegetation types received less rainfall than its PET capacity based on yearly data, emphasizing the need for ecophysiological adaptations to water use. Climate change threatens

  10. Effects of canopy photosynthesis saturation on the estimation of gross primary productivity from MODIS data in a tropical forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Propastin, P.; Ibrom, Andreas; Knohl, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) gross primary production (GPP) product (GPPMOD17A2) was evaluated against GPP from the eddy covariance flux measurements (GPPm) at a CO2 flux tower test site in a tropical rainforest in Sulawesi, Indonesia. The dynamics of 8-day GPPMOD17A2...... conditions. Obviously, these seasonal differences are caused by too large seasonal amplitudes in GPPMOD17A2. The observed inconsistencies of the GPPMOD17A2with GPPm were traced to the inputs of the MODIS GPP algorithm, including fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) and light use...... efficiency (εg). This showed that underestimation of low values is caused by several uncertainties in the MODIS fAPAR input, whereas overestimation at high irradiance is caused by the MODIS light use efficiency approach which does not account for saturation of canopy photosynthesis under clear sky conditions...

  11. Tropical Atlantic Hurricanes, Easterly Waves, and West African Mesoscale Convective Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves K. Kouadio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between tropical Atlantic hurricanes (Hs, atmospheric easterly waves (AEWs, and West African mesoscale convective systems (MCSs is investigated. It points out atmospheric conditions over West Africa before hurricane formation. The analysis was performed for two periods, June–November in 2004 and 2005, during which 12 hurricanes (seven in 2004, five in 2005 were selected. Using the AEW signature in the 700 hPa vorticity, a backward trajectory was performed to the African coast, starting from the date and position of each hurricane, when and where it was catalogued as a tropical depression. At this step, using the Meteosat-7 satellite dataset, we selected all the MCSs around this time and region, and tracked them from their initiation until their dissipation. This procedure allowed us to relate each of the selected Hs with AEWs and a succession of MCSs that occurred a few times over West Africa before initiation of the hurricane. Finally, a dipole in sea surface temperature (SST was observed with a positive SST anomaly within the region of H generation and a negative SST anomaly within the Gulf of Guinea. This SST anomaly dipole could contribute to enhance the continental convergence associated with the monsoon that impacts on the West African MCSs formation.

  12. Impact of chlorophyll bias on the tropical Pacific mean climate in an earth system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyung-Gyu; Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2017-12-01

    Climate modeling groups nowadays develop earth system models (ESMs) by incorporating biogeochemical processes in their climate models. The ESMs, however, often show substantial bias in simulated marine biogeochemistry which can potentially introduce an undesirable bias in physical ocean fields through biogeophysical interactions. This study examines how and how much the chlorophyll bias in a state-of-the-art ESM affects the mean and seasonal cycle of tropical Pacific sea-surface temperature (SST). The ESM used in the present study shows a sizeable positive bias in the simulated tropical chlorophyll. We found that the correction of the chlorophyll bias can reduce the ESM's intrinsic cold SST mean bias in the equatorial Pacific. The biologically-induced cold SST bias is strongly affected by seasonally-dependent air-sea coupling strength. In addition, the correction of chlorophyll bias can improve the annual cycle of SST by up to 25%. This result suggests a possible modeling approach in understanding the two-way interactions between physical and chlorophyll biases by biogeophysical effects.

  13. Variations of net ecosystem production due to seasonal precipitation differences in a tropical dry forest of northwest Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduzco, Vivian S.; Garatuza-Payán, Jaime; Yépez, Enrico A.; Watts, Christopher J.; Rodríguez, Julio C.; Robles-Morua, Agustin; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2015-10-01

    Due to their large extent and high primary productivity, tropical dry forests (TDF) are important contributors to atmospheric carbon exchanges in subtropical and tropical regions. In northwest Mexico, a bimodal precipitation regime that includes winter precipitation derived from Pacific storms and summer precipitation from the North American monsoon (NAM) couples water availability with ecosystem processes. We investigated the net ecosystem production of a TDF ecosystem using a 4.5 year record of water and carbon fluxes obtained from the eddy covariance method complemented with remotely sensed data. We identified a large CO2 efflux at the start of the summer season that is strongly related to the preceding winter precipitation and greenness. Since this CO2 efflux occurs prior to vegetation green-up, we infer that respiration is mainly due to decomposition of soil organic matter accumulated from the prior growing season. Overall, ecosystem respiration has an important effect on the net ecosystem production but can be overwhelmed by the strength of the primary productivity during the NAM. Precipitation characteristics during NAM have significant controls on sustaining carbon fixation in the TDF into the fall season. We identified that a threshold of ~350 to 400 mm of monsoon precipitation leads to a switch in the annual carbon balance in the TDF ecosystem from a net source (+102 g C/m2/yr) to a net sink (-249 g C/m2/yr). This monsoonal precipitation threshold is typically exceeded one out of every 2 years. The close coupling of winter and summer periods with respect to carbon fluxes suggests that the annual carbon balance is dependent on precipitation amounts in both seasons in TDF ecosystems.

  14. Understanding Recent Trends in Freezing Level Height over the Tropical Andes Mountains of South America: An Investigation of Reanalysis Products and GEOSCCM Integrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Russell, A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2015-12-01

    As the global climate warms, the height of the 0°C isotherm - aka the freezing level height (FLH) - rises, especially over mountainous regions. Over the past few decades, FLH in the tropical Andes Mountains of South America has been rising at a rate that is 2 to 3 times faster than would be expected considering the zonally-averaged upper troposphere temperature trends and the recent cooling of Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures. Rising FLH could have devastating impacts in this region where most of the dry season runoff comes from seasonal snow melt and glacial melt. Yet, is unclear why FLH is rising so rapidly in this particular area and what the quantitative implications will be for tropical Andean water resources. Reanalysis products tend to disagree on the spatial pattern and strength of FLH changes which confounds the issue by making it difficult to uncover the driving mechanisms of these local changes in FLH. Indeed, there are several possible factors that may be contributing to the unprecedented rise in FLH over the Andes (above and beyond the normally expected effects of greenhouse gases) of which the most likely actors are: changes in the state of the tropical Pacific Ocean, changes in sea surface temperatures in the Atlantic Ocean, shifts in the Hadley cell, indirect effects of stratospheric ozone depletion and recent recovery, and local thermodynamic land-atmosphere feedbacks. To better understand the changes in FLH, which will ultimately contribute to the effort to predict effects on Andean water resources, we analyze FLH in several forcing-separated integrations of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM). By separating out the various forcings (greenhouse gases, sea surface temperatures, ozone depleting substances, volcanic eruptions, and solar fluctuations), we are able to develop hypotheses for mechanistic drivers of FLH changes which can be rigorously tested. These efforts will contribute to the understanding of

  15. Implications of changes in tropical shifting cultivation intensification on land productivity and GHG-related biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustier, Bernard; Ngoy, Alfred; Pietsch, Stephan; Mosnier, Aline

    2017-04-01

    Traditional shifting cultivation used to be a sustainable type of land use for the subsistence of populations in tropical rainforests. The vast resource of moist tropical forests together with low population densities allowed for long fallow periods on sparsely distributed slash and burn parcels with large areas of untouched forest in between. Population growth and concomitant increase in land demand for subsistence as well as increasing infrastructure development for commercial forestry, cash crops and mining, however, altered the picture over recent decades. As a result, fallow periods were reduced due to lack of pristine land. In this study we use field data and modeling results from the Congo Basin to assess the impacts of reduced fallow periods on Carbon sequestration dynamics using a BGC model calibrated and validated with > 150 research plots distributed over the western Congo Basin and representing different management and land use histories. We find that the average carbon sequestration rate reduces over the number of cultivation cycles and that a reduction of the fallow from 10 years to 7 years reduce the average carbon sequestration between 13 and 21% and from 7 years to 4 years between 23 and 29% depending on soil fertility. Results will be discussed in the context of population growth and changes in environmetal conditions.

  16. Tropical Pacific Climate, Carbon, and Ocean Biogeochemical Response to the Central American Seaway in a GFDL Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentman, L. T.; Dunne, J. P.; Stouffer, R. J.; Krasting, J. P.; Wittenberg, A. T.; Toggweiler, J. R.; Broccoli, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    To explore the tropical Pacific climate, carbon, and ocean biogeochemical response to the shoaling and closure of the Central American Seaway during the Pliocene (5.3-2.6 Ma), we performed a suite of sensitivity experiments using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model, GFDL-ESM2G, varying only the seaway widths and sill depths. These novel ESM simulations include near-final closure of the seaway with a very narrow, 1º grid cell wide opening. Net mass transport through the seaway into the Caribbean is 20.5-23.1 Sv with a deep seaway, but only 14.1 Sv for the wide/shallow seaway because of the inter-basin bi-directional horizontal mass transport. Seaway transport originates from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the Pacific and rejoins it in the South Atlantic, reducing the Indonesian Throughflow and transporting heat and salt southward into the South Atlantic, in contrast to present-day and previous seaway simulations. Tropical Pacific mean climate and interannual variability is sensitive to the seaway shoaling, with the largest response to the wider/deeper seaway. In the tropical Pacific, the top 300-m warms 0.4-0.8°C, the equatorial east-west sea surface temperature gradient increases, the north-south sea surface temperature asymmetry at 110°W decreases, thermocline deepens 5-11 m, and the east-west thermocline gradient increases. In the Niño-3 region, ENSO amplitude increases, skewed toward more cold (La Niña) events, El Niño and La Niña develops earlier ( 3 months), the annual cycle weakens and the semi-annual and interannual cycles strengthen from increased symmetry of the north-south sea surface temperature gradient, and atmospheric global teleconnections strengthen with the seaway. The increase in global ocean overturning with the seaway results in a younger average ocean ideal age, reduced dissolved inorganic carbon inventory and marine net primary productivity, and altered inter-basin patterns of surface sediment carbonate

  17. Contribution of landfalling tropical system rainfall to the hydroclimate of the eastern U.S. Corn Belt 1981–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Kellner

    2016-09-01

    Landfalling tropical system rainfall accounts for approximately 20% of the observed monthly rainfall during the tropical storm season (June–November across the eastern U.S. Corn Belt (1981–2012. Correlation between the annual number of landfalling tropical systems and annual yield by state results in no relationship, but correlation of August monthly observed rainfall by climate division to crop reporting district annual yields has a weak to moderate, statistically significant correlation in Ohio districts 30–60 and Indiana CRD 90. ANOVA analysis suggests that landfalling tropical rainfall may actually reduce yields in some state's climate divisions/crop reporting districts while increasing yield in others. Results suggest that there is a balance between landfalling tropical storms providing sufficient rainfall or too much rainfall to be of benefit to crops. Findings aim to provide information to producers, crop advisers, risk managers and commodity groups so that seasonal hurricane forecasts can potentially be utilized in planning for above or below normal precipitation during phenologically important portions of the growing season.

  18. VHF/UHF radar observations of tropical mesoscale convective systems over southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kishore Kumar

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Several campaigns have been carried out to study the convective systems over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, a tropical station in India, using VHF and UHF radars. The height-time sections of several convective systems are investigated in detail to study reflectivity, turbulence and vertical velocity structure. Structure and dynamics of the convective systems are the main objectives of these campaigns. The observed systems are classified into single- and multi-cell systems. It has been observed that most of the convective systems at this latitude are multi-cellular in nature. Simultaneous VHF and UHF radar observations are used to classify the observed precipitating systems as convective, intermediary and stratiform regions. Composite height profiles of vertical velocities in these regions were obtained and the same were compared with the profiles obtained at other geographical locations. These composite profiles of vertical velocity in the convective regions have shown their peaks in the mid troposphere, indicating that the maximum latent heat is being released at those heights. These profiles are very important for numerical simulations of the convective systems, which vary significantly from one geographical location to the other.

    Keywords. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Mesoscale meteorology; Convective processes – Radio science (Remote sensing

  19. VHF/UHF radar observations of tropical mesoscale convective systems over southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kishore Kumar

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Several campaigns have been carried out to study the convective systems over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, a tropical station in India, using VHF and UHF radars. The height-time sections of several convective systems are investigated in detail to study reflectivity, turbulence and vertical velocity structure. Structure and dynamics of the convective systems are the main objectives of these campaigns. The observed systems are classified into single- and multi-cell systems. It has been observed that most of the convective systems at this latitude are multi-cellular in nature. Simultaneous VHF and UHF radar observations are used to classify the observed precipitating systems as convective, intermediary and stratiform regions. Composite height profiles of vertical velocities in these regions were obtained and the same were compared with the profiles obtained at other geographical locations. These composite profiles of vertical velocity in the convective regions have shown their peaks in the mid troposphere, indicating that the maximum latent heat is being released at those heights. These profiles are very important for numerical simulations of the convective systems, which vary significantly from one geographical location to the other. Keywords. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Mesoscale meteorology; Convective processes – Radio science (Remote sensing

  20. Tropical Veterinarian: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. 2012 Author Guidelines: Instructions to Authors: TROPICAL VETERINARIAN welcomes original work on all aspects of veterinary science as practiced in the Tropics, including livestock production and management, animal disease (domestic and wild), various aspects of preventive medicine and public ...

  1. End-product quality of composts produced under tropical and temperate climates using different raw materials: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverial, Julie; Boval, Maryline; Sierra, Jorge; Sauvant, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    A meta-analysis on end-product quality of 442 composts was performed to assess the effects of climate and raw materials on compost quality. The analysis was performed using an ANOVA including a mixed model with nested factors (climate, raw material and publication effect). Tropical composts presented lower carbon, nitrogen, potassium and soluble-carbon contents, and higher electrical conductivity. The results suggest that compost quality in the tropics was affected by weather conditions during composting (e.g. high temperature and rainfall), which induced high losses of carbon and nutrients. For most properties, industrial, sewage sludge and manure-based composts displayed the highest quality under both climates, while the contrary was found for household and municipal solid waste-based composts. The publication effect represented >50% of total variance, which was mainly due to the heterogeneity of the composting procedures. The meta-analysis was found to be a helpful tool to analyse the imbalanced worldwide database on compost quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) with thermo-biological frontal systems of the eastern tropical Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John P; Green, Jonathan R; Espinoza, Eduardo; Hearn, Alex R

    2017-01-01

    Satellite tracking of 27 whale sharks in the eastern tropical Pacific, examined in relation to environmental data, indicates preferential occupancy of thermo-biological frontal systems. In these systems, thermal gradients are caused by wind-forced circulation and mixing, and biological gradients are caused by associated nutrient enrichment and enhanced primary productivity. Two of the frontal systems result from upwelling, driven by divergence in the current systems along the equator and the west coast of South America; the third results from wind jet dynamics off Central America. All whale sharks were tagged near Darwin Island, Galápagos, within the equatorial Pacific upwelling system. Occupancy of frontal habitat is pronounced in synoptic patterns of shark locations in relation to serpentine, temporally varying thermal fronts across a zonal expanse > 4000 km. 80% of shark positions in northern equatorial upwelling habitat and 100% of positions in eastern boundary upwelling habitat were located within the upwelling front. Analysis of equatorial shark locations relative to thermal gradients reveals occupancy of a transition point in environmental stability. Equatorial subsurface tag data show residence in shallow, warm (>22°C) water 94% of the time. Surface zonal current speeds for all equatorial tracking explain only 16% of the variance in shark zonal movement speeds, indicating that passive drifting is not a primary determinant of movement patterns. Movement from equatorial to eastern boundary frontal zones occurred during boreal winter, when equatorial upwelling weakens seasonally. Off Peru sharks tracked upwelling frontal positions within ~100-350 km from the coast. Off Central America, the largest tagged shark (12.8 m TL) occupied an oceanic front along the periphery of the Panama wind jet. Seasonal movement from waning equatorial upwelling to productive eastern boundary habitat is consistent with underlying trophic dynamics. Persistent shallow residence in

  3. Female fruit production depends on female flower production and crown size rather than male density in a continuous population of a tropical dioecious tree (Virola surinamensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba-Hernández, Pablo; Segura, Jorge Lobo; Muñoz-Valverde, Jenny

    2016-11-01

    Factors related to pollen and resource limitation were evaluated to predict female fruit production in a tropical dioecious tree. Pollen limitation via variation in the male density at local scales is expected to limit female reproduction success in dioecious plants. We modeled the roles of local male density, female crown size, crown illumination, and female flower production on female fruit initiation and mature fruit production in a continuous population (62 ha plot) of a tropical dioecious tree (Virola surinamensis). In addition, we used microsatellites to describe the scale of effective pollen flow, the male effective population size, and the spatial genetic structure within/between progenies and males. The local male density was not related to female fruit initiation or mature fruit production. Female floral production had a positive effect on fruit initiation. The female crown size was positively related to fruit maturation. Seeds from the same female and seeds from different but spatially proximal females were generally half-siblings; however, proximal females showed greater variation. Proximal male-female adult pairs were not significantly more genetically related than distant pairs. The probability of paternity was negatively affected by the distance between seeds and males; most effective pollen dispersal events (∼85%) occurred from males located less than 150 m from females. The number of males siring progenies was greater than the number of males found at local scales. Female fecundity in this continuous population of Virola surinamensis is not limited by the availability of pollen from proximal males. Rather, resource allocation to floral production may ultimately determine female reproductive success. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  4. Productivity raising approaches in the logistic production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Rakyta

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the productivity of the logistic production system. The aim is to define the intermediate state of the production machines and equipment (OOE, identification of the material flows, idle time and breakdown forecasting, with the following purchase of the required spare parts. The goal of the system is the satisfaction of the customer´s needs and the minimalisation of not fulfilling the required terms for delivery with simultaneous increasing of the logistic production system productivity.

  5. Primary production and chlorophyll distributions in the subtropical and tropical waters of the Atlantic Ocean in the autumn of 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedernikov, V. I.; Gagarin, V. I.; Demidov, A. B.; Burenkov, V. I.; Stunzhas, P. A.

    2007-06-01

    In October and November 2002, high and relatively high values of the chlorophyll a concentration at the sea surface ( C chl) were observed in the English Channel (0.47 mg/m3), in the waters of the North Atlantic Current (0.25 mg/m3), in the tropical and subtropical anticyclonic gyres (0.07-0.42 mg/m3), and also in the southwestern region of the southern subtropical anticyclonic gyre (usually 0.11-0.23 mg/m3). The central regions of the southern subtropical anticyclonic gyre (SATG) and the North Atlantic tropical gyre (NATR) were characterized by lower values of C chl (0.02-0.08 mg/m3 for the SATG and 0.07-0.14 mg/m3 for the NATR). At most of the SATG stations, the values of the surface primary production ( C phs) varied from 2.5 to 5.5 mg C/m3 per day and were mainly defined by the fluctuations of C chl ( r = +0.78) rather than by those of the assimilation number ( r = +0.54). The low assimilation activity of phytoplankton in these waters (1.3-4.6 mg chl a per hour) pointed to a lack of nutrients. An analysis of the variability of their concentration and the composition of photosynthetic pigments showed that, in the waters north of 30° N, the growth of phytoplankton was mostly restricted by the deficiency of nitrogen, while, in more southern areas, at the majority of stations (about 60%), the phosphorus concentrations were the minimum. At the low concentrations of nitrates and nitrites, ammonium represented itself as a buffer that prevented planktonic algae from extreme degrees of nitric starvation. In the tropical waters and in the waters of the SATG, the primary production throughout the water column varied from 240 to 380 mg C/m2 30° per day. This level of productivity at stations with low values of C chl (photosynthesis based on in situ measurements point to the high efficiency of utilizing the penetrating solar radiation by phytoplankton on cloudy days.

  6. Simulation and Interpretation of the Genesis of Tropical Storm Gert (2005) as Part of the NASA Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Scott A.; Montgomery, Michael T.; Mallen, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Several hypotheses have been put forward for the how tropical cyclones (tropical storms and hurricanes in the Atlantic) first develop circulation at the surface, a key event that needs to occur before a storm can begin to draw energy from the warm ocean. One hypothesis suggests that the surface circulation forms from a "top-down" approach in which a storm s rotating circulation begins at middle levels of the atmosphere and builds down to the surface through processes related to light "stratiform" (horizontally extensive) precipitation. Another hypothesis suggests a bottom-up approach in which deep thunderstorm towers (convection) play the major role in spinning up the flow at the surface. These "hot towers" form in the area of the mid-level circulation and strongly concentrate this rotation at low levels within their updrafts. Merger of several of these hot towers then intensifies the surface circulation to the point in which a storm forms. This paper examines computer simulations of Tropical Storm Gert (2005), which formed in the Gulf of Mexico during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) Experiment, to investigate the development of low-level circulation and, in particular, whether stratiform or hot tower processes were responsible for the storm s formation. Data from NASA satellites and from aircraft were used to show that the model did a good job of reproducing the formation and evolution of Gert. The simulation shows that a mix of both stratiform and convective rainfall occurred within Gert. While the stratiform rainfall clearly acted to increase rotation at middle levels, the diverging outflow beneath the stratiform rain worked against spinning up the low-level winds. The hot towers appeared to dominate the low-level flow, producing intense rotation within their cores and often being associated with significant pressure falls at the surface. Over time, many of these hot towers merged, with each

  7. Radical production in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Akabani, G.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes our effort to develop a metric for radiation exposure that is more fundamental than adsorbed dose and upon which a metric for exposure to chemicals could be based. This metric is based on the production of radicals by the two agents. Radicals produced by radiation in biological systems commonly assumed to be the same as those produced in water despite the presence of a variety of complex molecules. This may explain why the extensive efforts to describe the relationship between energy deposition (track structure) and molecular damage to DNA, based on the spectrum of radicals produced, have not been successful in explaining simple biological effects such as cell killing. Current models assume that DNA and its basic elements are immersed in water-like media and only model the production and diffusion of water-based radicals and their interaction with DNA structures; these models lack the cross sections associated with each macro-component of DNA and only treat water-based radicals. It has been found that such models are not realistic because DNA is not immersed in pure water. A computer code capable of simulating electron tracks, low-energy electrons, energy deposition in small molecules, and radical production and diffusion in water like media has been developed. This code is still in at a primitive stage and development is continuing. It is being used to study radical production by radiation, and radical diffusion and interactions in simple molecular systems following their production. We are extending the code to radical production by chemicals to complement our PBPK modeling efforts. It therefore has been developed primarily for use with radionuclides that are in biological materials, and not for radiation fields

  8. Dairy goat production systems: status quo, perspectives and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escareño, Luis; Salinas-Gonzalez, Homero; Wurzinger, Maria; Iñiguez, Luiz; Sölkner, Johann; Meza-Herrera, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Goat production concentrated in developing countries (tropics, dry areas), contributes largely to the livelihoods of low and medium income farmers. Farming systems in these areas have evolved to cope with the formidable constraints imposed by harsh natural and economic conditions by adapting integrated crop/livestock production strategies. In Asia, Africa and Latin America, due to its almost exclusive extensive nature, goat production relies mainly on grazing on communal lands that hardly provide the minimum nutrient requirements due to overstocking and degradation. While some of these production systems are becoming semi-intensive, appropriate breeding strategies should be designed to promote conservation and improvement of their unique attributes, such as adaptability, water use efficiency and suitability under harsh climatic conditions. In Europe, dairy goat production is more common around the Mediterranean basin, where it is important from an economic, environmental and sociological perspective to the Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy and Greece. Europe owns only 5.1 % of the world's dairy goat herds, but produces 15.6 % of the world's goat milk; this is the only continent where goat milk has such an economic importance and organization. In developing countries the dairy goat sector requires a systemic approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, know-how, inputs and technologies must be assembled. This would allow the optimization of natural and local resources and would promote the transition from a risk reduction strategy towards an increased productivity strategy. Such an increase would privilege production efficiency based on clean, green and ethical practices for responsible innovation.

  9. Modeling the dynamics of radionuclide concentration in animal derived products after an accident in tropical areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinhas, Denise M.; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Wasserman, Maria A.V.; Conti, Luiz F.C.

    2005-01-01

    Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere with the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed to estimate radiological consequences and optimize decisions to the protection of the public. The German model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM - Integrated Emergency System, developed by IRD/CNEN to assess the doses to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The use the model demands a considerable effort in adapting scenarios to fit the specific conditions of a location, considering the differences related to climate, environmental characteristics, agricultural calendar and practices, along with population diet. The area selected to start this adaptation considers the characteristics of the 50 km radius area surrounding the nuclear power plants at Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro. At a first stage, the concentration on vegetal food products has been studied. This work describes the methodology used to select scenarios and presents results of the dynamics of the predicted concentration of radionuclides in different kinds of animal derived food products. The work provides guidance to the need of radioecological research needed to improve the adequacy of the estimates to actual Brazilian scenarios. (author)

  10. Drivers of aboveground wood production in a lowland tropical forest of West Africa: teasing apart the roles of tree density, tree diversity, soil phosphorus, and historical logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucker, Tommaso; Sanchez, Aida Cuni; Lindsell, Jeremy A; Allen, Harriet D; Amable, Gabriel S; Coomes, David A

    2016-06-01

    Tropical forests currently play a key role in regulating the terrestrial carbon cycle and abating climate change by storing carbon in wood. However, there remains considerable uncertainty as to whether tropical forests will continue to act as carbon sinks in the face of increased pressure from expanding human activities. Consequently, understanding what drives productivity in tropical forests is critical. We used permanent forest plot data from the Gola Rainforest National Park (Sierra Leone) - one of the largest tracts of intact tropical moist forest in West Africa - to explore how (1) stand basal area and tree diversity, (2) past disturbance associated with past logging, and (3) underlying soil nutrient gradients interact to determine rates of aboveground wood production (AWP). We started by statistically modeling the diameter growth of individual trees and used these models to estimate AWP for 142 permanent forest plots. We then used structural equation modeling to explore the direct and indirect pathways which shape rates of AWP. Across the plot network, stand basal area emerged as the strongest determinant of AWP, with densely packed stands exhibiting the fastest rates of AWP. In addition to stand packing density, both tree diversity and soil phosphorus content were also positively related to productivity. By contrast, historical logging activities negatively impacted AWP through the removal of large trees, which contributed disproportionately to productivity. Understanding what determines variation in wood production across tropical forest landscapes requires accounting for multiple interacting drivers - with stand structure, tree diversity, and soil nutrients all playing a key role. Importantly, our results also indicate that logging activities can have a long-lasting impact on a forest's ability to sequester and store carbon, emphasizing the importance of safeguarding old-growth tropical forests.

  11. The potential of intercropping food crops and energy crop to improve productivity of a degraded agriculture land in arid tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K.D. Jaya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Degraded agricultural lands in the arid tropics have low soil organic carbon (SOC and hence low productivity. Poor farmers that their livelihoods depend highly on these types of lands are suffering. Cropping strategies that are able to improve the soil productivity are needed. In the present study, some intercropping models of food crops with bio-energy crop of castor (Ricinus communis L. were tested to assess their potential to improve the degraded land productivity. The intercropping models were: (1 castor - hybrid maize, (2 castor – short season maize, (3 castor – mungbean, and (4 castor –short season maize – mungbean. The results show that yields of the component crops in monoculture were relatively the same as in intercropping, resulted in a high Land Equivalent Ratio (LER. The highest LER (3.07 was calculated from intercropping castor plants with short season maize crops followed by mungbean with intercropping productivity of IDR 15,097,600.00 ha-1. Intercropping has a great potential to improve degraded agriculture land productivity and castor is a promising plant to improve biodiversity and area coverage on the land.

  12. Solar based hydrogen production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of various solar based hydrogen production systems. The book covers first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provides a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book gives a clear understanding of the sustainability and environmental impact analysis of the above systems. The book will be particularly useful for a clear understanding

  13. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and

  14. Electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution and plant density in aeroponic production of seed potato under tropical conditions (winter/spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Humberto Calori

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The recent introduction in Brazil of production of quality seed potatoes in hydroponic systems, such as aeroponics, demands studies on the nutritional and crop management. Thus, this study evaluated the influence of electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution and plant density on the seed potato minitubers production in aeroponics system. The Agata and Asterix cultivars were produced in a greenhouse under tropical conditions (winter/spring. The experimental design was a randomized block in a split-split plot design. The plot consisted of 4 electrical conductivities of the nutrient solution (1.0; 2.0; 3.0; and 4.0 dS∙m−1; the subplot, of 4 plant densities (25; 44; 66; and 100 plants∙m−2; and the subsubplot, of the 2 potato cultivars (Ágata and Asterix, totaling 4 blocks. The 2.2 and 2.1 dS∙m−1 electrical conductivities yielded the highest productivity of seed potato minitubers, for Ágata and Asterix cultivars, respectively, regardless of plant density. For both cultivars, the highest yield was observed for the 100 plants∙m−2 density.

  15. Design method for photovoltaics-battery storage systems under tropical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salem, A I.E.; Bassyouni, A H; Al-Motawakel, M K

    1989-01-01

    A very limited number of the available design methods can be used with confidence in sizing and costing the stand-alone photovoltaic-battery storage systems operating under the weather conditions of the tropical countries located between 0 and 30/sup 0/N. For this reason we investigated the performance and economics of various photovoltaic-battery storage system configurations. The aim was to prepare a number of sizing and costing design diagrams which detail the effect of climatic, social, and economics parameters on the choice of the stand-alone photovoltaic-battery storage systems. Our strategy was to guide designers, particularly those trying to utilize the stand-alone photovoltaic-battery storage systems in Sana'a (15/sup 0/N) and Cairo (30/sup 0/N), to the logic for selecting a system that physically and economically matches the site potential and the user's electrical needs. Considered here are the relatively small stand-alone photovoltaic-battery storage systems that can be purchased by individuals or commercial and governmental firms to supply all or part of the electrical needs consumed in residence, farms, remote rural communities, or small factories.

  16. Design and performance of a novel innovative roofing system for tropical landed houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Obaidi, Karam M.; Ismail, Mazran; Abdul Rahman, Abdul Malek

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Constructing a new design of sustainable roofing systems. • An innovative roofing system (IRS) for tropical landed houses is proposed. • Separate solar heat from useful natural light by physical form. • The IRS can maintain an illuminance level of approximately 86–100% below 2000 lux. • The IRS can reduce the attic air temperature by 5.4 °C and the indoor air temperature by 2.1 °C. - Abstract: An innovative roofing system (IRS) is designed to deliver an abundant and uniform amount of cool natural light from the roof with reduced heat gain effect for tropical residential buildings (3 m height) in Malaysia. Studies revealed that several passive and active solar techniques can be integrated to form a roofing system to separate solar heat from useful natural light at the attic zone before heat reaches the occupied space. The IRS design is specified and proposed by using glazing technology (polycarbonate), pigment technique (reflective and radiative), as well as ventilation process (hybrid turbine ventilator) applied at the attic zone to represent a new model of sustainable roofing design. The aim of this research is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the design concept without the need for any chemical, complex, or expensive solar design techniques. The methodology was conducted on a series of field studies in a standard room model at Universiti Sains Malaysia. Three different roofing systems are investigated to identify the IRS performance in both dark and daylight conditions to determine the effect of natural light on the indoor environment. The outcomes of the design show that the IRS was able to reduce the indoor air temperature compared with conventional roofing system by approximately 2.1 °C under daylight condition. Results showed that the difference in the IRS (daylight–dark) condition was 0.31 °C compared to that in the conventional roofing system at 0.8 °C. Furthermore, the level of mean radiant temperature compared with

  17. Management systems in production operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, K.B.; Henderson, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Cullen Enquiry into the Piper Alpha disaster in the U.K. North Sea recommended that an operator should formally present it's company Management System and demonstrate how safety is achieved throughout the life cycle of a platform, from design through operation to abandonment. Brunei Shell Petroleum has prepared a corporate level Safety Management System. As part of Safety Case work, the corporate system is being extended to include the development of specific Management Systems with particular emphasis on offshore production operations involving integrated oil and gas facilities. This paper will describe the development of Management Systems, which includes an intensive Business Process Analysis and will comment upon it's applicability and relationship to ISO 9000. The paper will further describe the applicability and benefits of Management Systems and offer guidance on required effort. The paper will conclude that development of structured Management Systems for safety critical business processes is worthwhile but prioritization of effort will be necessary. As such the full adoption of Management Systems will be directional in nature

  18. Detailed design of product oriented manufacturing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Sílvio Carmo; Alves, Anabela Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for the detailed design and redesign of manufacturing systems within a framework of constantly fitting production system configuration to the varying production needs of products. With such an approach is achieved the design of Product Oriented Manufacturing Systems – POMS. This approach is in opposition to the fitting, before hand, of a production system to all products within a company. In this case is usual to adopt a Function Oriented Manufactur...

  19. Spatial patterns of primary productivity derived from the Dynamic Habitat Indices predict patterns of species richness and distributions in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttidate, Naparat

    Humans are changing the Earth's ecosystems, which has profound consequences for biodiversity. To understand how species respond to these changes, biodiversity science requires accurate assessments of biodiversity. However, biodiversity assessments are still limited in tropical regions. The Dynamic Habitat Indices (DHIs), derived from satellite data, summarize dynamic patterns of annual primary productivity: (a) cumulative annual productivity, (b) minimum annual productivity, and (c) seasonal variation in productivity. The DHIs have been successfully used in temperate regions, but not yet in the tropics. My goal was to evaluate the importance of primary productivity measured via the DHIs for assessing patterns of species richness and distributions in Thailand. First, I assessed the relationships between the DHIs and tropical bird species richness. I also evaluated the complementarity of the DHIs and topography, climate, latitudinal gradients, habitat heterogeneity, and habitat area in explaining bird species richness. I found that among three DHIs, cumulative annual productivity was the most important factor in explaining bird species richness and that the DHIs outperformed other environmental variables. Second, I developed texture measures derive from DHI cumulative annual productivity, and compared them to habitat composition and fragmentation as predictors of tropical forest bird distributions. I found that adding texture measures to habitat composition and fragmentation models improved the prediction of tropical bird distributions, especially area- and edge-sensitive tropical forest bird species. Third, I predicted the effects of trophic interactions between primary productivity, prey, and predators in relation to habitat connectivity for Indochinese tigers (Panthera tigris). I found that including trophic interactions improved habitat suitability models for tigers. However, tiger habitat is highly fragmented with few dispersal corridors. I also identified

  20. EVALUATING THE ECOLOGICAL RESILIENT DRIVEN PERFORMANCE OF A TROPICAL WASTE STABILIZATION POND SYSTEM USING ECOLOGICAL SIGNATURE OF BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Lahiri Ganguly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using ecological signature of biological integrity as a measure of performance, the reclamation efficiency of waste stabilization ponds was evaluated over a period of four years in a tropical sewage treatment plant – cum fish culture consisting of two anaerobic, two facultative and four maturation ponds located serially across the sewage effluent gradient. The four maturation ponds were used for batch culture of fish. Samples of surface and bottom water as well as surface sediment were collected twice a month from different ponds of the system and examined for some nutrient cycling bacteria, primary production, chlorophyll content of micro-algae, phytoplankton, zooplankton abundance, fish growth and water quality parameters. Computation of ecological signature using aerobic mineralization index for heterotrophic and ammonifying bacteria revealed steady increase across the sewage effluent gradient. The heterotrophic and ammonifying bacterial populations appeared to have a direct function with the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand of water. The sum of total scores for different optimal conditions for fish growth increased as a function of the distance from the source of effluent implying that ecological resilience of the waste stabilization ponds has been accomplished by the sedimentation, chelation, and biological functional attributes mediated through redundancy of different subsystems, self- purification capacity of the system as a whole.

  1. Relevance of Indian Summer Monsoon and its Tropical Indo-Pacific Climate Drivers for the Kharif Crop Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Hemadri Bhusan; Karumuri, Ashok

    2017-12-01

    While the Indian agriculture has earlier been dependent on the Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR), a multifold increase in irrigation and storage facilities raise a question whether the ISMR is still as relevant. We revisit this question using the latest observational climate datasets as well as the crop production data and find that the ISMR is still relevant for the Kharif crop production (KCP). In addition, in the recent changes in the tropical Indo-Pacific driver evolutions and frequency, particularly more frequent occurrence of the ENSO Modokis in place of the canonical ENSOs, we carry out a correlation analysis to estimate the impact of the various Indo-Pacific climate drivers on the rainfall of individual Indian states for the period 1998-2013, for which crop production data for the most productive Indian states, namely West Bengal, Odisha, United Andhra Pradesh (UAP), Haryana, Punjab, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh are available. The results suggest that the KCP of the respective states are significantly correlated with the summer monsoon rainfall at the 95-99% confidence levels. Importantly, we find that the NINO 3.4 and ENSO Modoki indices have a statistically significant correlation with the KCP of most of the Indian states, particularly in states such as UAP and Karnataka, through induction of anomalous local convergence/divergence, well beyond the equatorial Indian Ocean. The KCP of districts in UAP also has a significant response to all the climate drivers, having implication for prediction of local crop yield.

  2. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken L. Smith; Marc E. Leveque

    2005-05-31

    The report herein is a summary of the work performed on three projects to demonstrate hydrocarbon drilling and production methods applicable to deep and ultra deepwater field developments in the Gulf of Mexico and other like applications around the world. This work advances technology that could lead to more economic development and exploitation of reserves in ultra-deep water or remote areas. The first project is Subsea Processing. Its scope includes a review of the ''state of the art'' in subsea components to enable primary production process functions such as first stage liquids and gas separation, flow boosting, chemical treatment, flow metering, etc. These components are then combined to allow for the elimination of costly surface production facilities at the well site. A number of studies were then performed on proposed field development projects to validate the economic potential of this technology. The second project involved the design and testing of a light weight production riser made of composite material. The proposed design was to meet an actual Gulf of Mexico deepwater development project. The various engineering and testing work is reviewed, including test results. The third project described in this report encompasses the development and testing of a close tolerance liner drilling system, a new technology aimed at reducing deepwater drilling costs. The design and prototype testing in a test well are described in detail.

  3. Using molt cycles to categorize the age of tropical birds: an integrative new system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared D. Wolfe; Thomas B. Ryder; Peter Pyle

    2010-01-01

    Accurately differentiating age classes is essential for the long-term monitoring of resident New World tropical bird species. Molt and plumage criteria have long been used to accurately age temperate birds, but application of temperate age-classification models to the Neotropics has been hindered because annual life-cycle events of tropical birds do not always...

  4. Sterile Product Packaging and Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Both conventional and more advanced product container and delivery systems are the focus of this brief article. Six different product container systems will be discussed, plus advances in primary packaging for special delivery systems and needle technology.

  5. The limited contribution of large trees to annual biomass production in an old-growth tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligot, Gauthier; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Ouédraogo, Dakis-Yaoba; Morin, Xavier; Bauwens, Sébastien; Baya, Fidele; Brostaux, Yves; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Fayolle, Adeline

    2018-04-16

    Although the importance of large trees regarding biodiversity and carbon stock in old-growth forests is undeniable, their annual contribution to biomass production and carbon uptake remains poorly studied at the stand level. To clarify the role of large trees in biomass production, we used data of tree growth, mortality, and recruitment monitored during 20 yr in 10 4-ha plots in a species-rich tropical forest (Central African Republic). Using a random block design, three different silvicultural treatments, control, logged, and logged + thinned, were applied in the 10 plots. Annual biomass gains and losses were analyzed in relation to the relative biomass abundance of large trees and by tree size classes using a spatial bootstrap procedure. Although large trees had high individual growth rates and constituted a substantial amount of biomass, stand-level biomass production decreased with the abundance of large trees in all treatments and plots. The contribution of large trees to annual stand-level biomass production appeared limited in comparison to that of small trees. This pattern did not only originate from differences in abundance of small vs. large trees or differences in initial biomass stocks among tree size classes, but also from a reduced relative growth rate of large trees and a relatively constant mortality rate among tree size classes. In a context in which large trees are increasingly gaining attention as being a valuable and a key structural characteristic of natural forests, the present study brought key insights to better gauge the relatively limited role of large trees in annual stand-level biomass production. In terms of carbon uptake, these results suggest, as already demonstrated, a low net carbon uptake of old-growth forests in comparison to that of logged forests. Tropical forests that reach a successional stage with relatively high density of large trees progressively cease to be carbon sinks as large trees contribute sparsely or even

  6. Tropical Wetlands as Carbon Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. B.; Saunders, M.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation focuses on the tropical wetlands of sub-Saharan Africa. These are an understudied ecosystem in which large emergent grasses and sedges normally dominate and which have the potential to sequester significant amounts of carbon. Measurements of Net Primary Production of these wetlands show that they are some of the highest values recorded for any ecosystem. We have used eddy covariance to measure Net Ecosystem Exchange of pristine and disturbed wetlands and show that pristine systems can have sink strengths as strong as tropical forests while disturbed systems that have been reclaimed for agricultural purposes have a very much reduced carbon sink activity and may be net carbon sources. The management issues surrounding the use of these wetlands illustrate a direct conflict between the production of food crops for the local population and the maintenance of carbon sequestration as an ecosystem service.

  7. Performance of a 34 kWp grid-connected PV system in Indonesia - A comparison of tropical and European PV systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, A.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    We analysed a monitored grid-connected PV system of 34 kWp in Indonesia to investigate the performance of PV systems in tropical climates. The PV system has been installed in Jayapura, the capital of the Province of Papua, Indonesia, by the beginning of 2012. Due to the aged gensets and frequent

  8. Sorption and biodegradation characteristics of the selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products onto tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolad, Mahsa; Hu, Jiangyong; Tran, Ngoc Han; Ong, Say Leong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the sorption and biodegradation characteristics of five pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), including acetaminophen (ACT), carbamazepine (CBZ), crotamiton (CTMT), diethyltoluamide (DEET) and salicylic acid (SA), were studied in laboratory-batch experiments. Sorption kinetics experimental data showed that sorption systems under this study were more appropriately described by the pseudo second-order kinetics with a correlation coefficient (R2)>0.98. Sorption equilibrium data of almost all target compounds onto soil could be better described by the Freundlich sorption isotherm model. The adsorption results showed higher soil affinity for SA, following by ACT. Results also indicated a slight effect of pH on PPCP adsorption with lower pH causing lower adsorption of compounds onto the soil except for SA at pH 12. Moreover, adsorption of PPCPs onto the soil was influenced by natural organic matter (NOM) since the higher amount of NOM caused lower adsorption to the soil. Biodegradation studies of selected PPCPs by indigenous microbial community present in soil appeared that the removal rates of ACT, SA and DEET increased with time while no effect had been observed for the rest. This study suggests that the CBZ and CTMT can be considered as suitable chemical sewage indicators based on their low sorption affinity and high resistance to biodegradation.

  9. The productivity and work load in flexible production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhijn, J.W. van; Looze, M.P. de; Schoenmaker, N.; Bosch, T.; Deursen, J. van

    2006-01-01

    A negative aspect of serial flow production systems is its lack of flexibility. Other production systems like the flexing flow and the shopping system are more flexible as the number of workers can be easily adjusted to temporal demands. But how efficient are these flexible systems? In a laboratory

  10. Greenhouse production systems for people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, G.A.; Sase, S.; Cramer, R.; Hoogeboom, J.; McKenzie, A.; Parbst, K.; Sacrascia-Mugnozza, G.; Selina, P.; Sharp, D.A.; Voogt, J.O.; Weel, van P.A.; Mears, D.

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally sound greenhouse production requires that: demand for market products is understood; greenhouse design addresses the climate circum-stances; input resources are available and consumed efficiently, and; there must be a reasonable balance of production products to the environmental

  11. Limnological evaluation of the fisheries potentials and productivity of a small shallow tropical African reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Moshood K

    2009-12-01

    Morphometrics and physico-chemical parameters of Oyun reservoir, Offa, Nigeria (a small shallow tropical African Reservoir) were used to estimate the potential fish yield of the reservoir according to the morpho-edaphic index (MEI). Physico-chemical characteristics of the water body were sampled monthly from three stations between January 2002 and December 2003 with standard methods. Estimates of the potential fish yield were obtained using the physico-chemical characteristics of the reservoir and the relationship Y = 23.281 MEI(0.447), where Y is the potential fish yield in kg/ha, MEI is the morpho-edaphic index (given in microS/cm and estimated by dividing the mean conductivity by the mean depth). The reservoir mean depth and conductivity values were 2.6m and 113.10 microS/cm respectively, while its potential fish yield was estimated at 125.72 kg/ha. This estimate was higher than other small shallower and larger African reservoirs. The reservoir high ionic content, high nutrient and dissolved oxygen levels, good pH, low level of pollution and shallow depth were responsible for the high estimate of the fish yield. In order to realize this high potential fish yield and sustainable exploration of the fisheries, effective management of the reservoir to curb eutrophication should be adopted, while other management practices such as stocking and conservation of desirable and indigenous fish species, implementation of fishing regulations and adoption of best management practices should be implemented.

  12. [Development of APSIM (agricultural production systems simulator) and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuying; Nan, Zhibiao; Bellotti, Bill; Robertson, Michael; Chen, Wen; Shao, Xinqing

    2002-08-01

    Soil-crop simulator model is an effective tool for providing decision on agricultural management. APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems Simulator) was developed to simulate the biophysical process in farming system, and particularly in the economic and ecological features of the systems under climatic risk. The current literatures revealed that APSIM could be applied in wide zone, including temperate continental, temperate maritime, sub-tropic and arid climate, and Mediterranean climates, with the soil type of clay, duplex soil, vertisol, silt sandy, silt loam and silt clay loam. More than 20 crops have been simulated well. APSIM is powerful on describing crop structure, crop sequence, yield prediction, and quality control as well as erosion estimation under different planting pattern.

  13. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Smith; M. E. Leveque

    2004-09-30

    This report includes technical progress made during the period October, 2003 through September, 2004. At the end of the last technical progress report, the subsea processing aspects of the work program had been dropped due to the lack of commercial opportunity within ConocoPhillips, and the program had been redirected towards two other promising deepwater technologies: the development and demonstration of a composite production riser, and the development and testing of a close-tolerance liner drilling system. This report focuses on these two technologies.

  14. Determinants of scientific output: an in-depth view of the productivity of tropical botanist and conservationist, Luis Diego Gómez Pignataro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Monge-Nájera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric studies have found that male researchers have their greatest productivity around the age of 40, that female researchers produce less than their male colleagues, that incentives for collaboration are slow to affect productivity and that, just like humans, research institutes become larger, less productive, more expensive to maintain and less able to raise money as they grow old. Almost invariably, these conclusions come from statistical studies of large numbers of European and American scientists, and there are practically no studies about tropical researchers. We present an in-depth analysis of the productivity of an internationally recognized tropical botanist and conservationist, Luis Diego Gómez Pignataro, based on the totality of his published work and on our own knowledge, as co-workers and friends, of the life frame in which that scientific output was produced. His life output departs from the expected pattern in that he had the highest productivity before reaching the expected peak productivity age, and that when he reached it his productivity fell and never recovered. Furthermore, marriage did not produce the expected fall in productivity. A close analysis of his life indicates that in the middle of his career he switched to intense teaching and conservation activities, and this better explains why his output of scientific research articles was low afterwards. This switch may occur in other tropical scientists. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1093-1114. Epub 2010 December 01.

  15. A Classification Scheme for Production System Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Daniel Grud Hellerup; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2018-01-01

    Manufacturing companies often have difficulties developing production platforms, partly due to the complexity of many production systems and difficulty determining which processes constitute a platform. Understanding production processes is an important step to identifying candidate processes...... for a production platform based on existing production systems. Reviewing a number of existing classifications and taxonomies, a consolidated classification scheme for processes in production of discrete products has been outlined. The classification scheme helps ensure consistency during mapping of existing...

  16. Photochemical ozone production in tropical squall line convection during NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne; Scala, John R.

    1991-01-01

    The role of convection was examined in trace gas transport and ozone production in a tropical dry season squall line sampled on August 3, 1985, during NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A (NASA GTE/ABLE 2A) in Amazonia, Brazil. Two types of analyses were performed. Transient effects within the cloud are examined with a combination of two-dimensional cloud and one-dimensional photochemical modeling. Tracer analyses using the cloud model wind fields yield a series of cross sections of NO(x), CO, and O3 distribution during the lifetime of the cloud; these fields are used in the photochemical model to compute the net rate of O3 production. At noon, when the cloud was mature, the instantaneous ozone production potential in the cloud is between 50 and 60 percent less than in no-cloud conditions due to reduced photolysis and cloud scavenging of radicals. Analysis of cloud inflows and outflows is used to differentiate between air that is undisturbed and air that has been modified by the storm. These profiles are used in the photochemical model to examine the aftereffects of convective redistribution in the 24-hour period following the storm. Total tropospheric column O3 production changed little due to convection because so little NO(x) was available in the lower troposphere. However, the integrated O3 production potential in the 5- to 13-km layer changed from net destruction to net production as a result of the convection. The conditions of the August 3, 1985, event may be typical of the early part of the dry season in Amazonia, when only minimal amounts of pollution from biomass burning have been transported into the region.

  17. A fully automated FTIR system for remote sensing of greenhouse gases in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geibel, M. C.; Gerbig, C.; Feist, D. G.

    2010-07-01

    This article introduces a new fully automated FTIR system that is part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network. It will provide continuous ground-based measurements of column-averaged volume mixing ratio for CO2, CH4 and several other greenhouse gases in the tropics. Housed in a 20-foot shipping container it was developed as a transportable system that could be deployed almost anywhere in the world. We describe the automation concept which relies on three autonomous subsystems and their interaction. Crucial components like a sturdy and reliable solar tracker dome are described in detail. First results of total column measurements at Jena, Germany show that the instrument works well and can provide diurnal as well as seasonal cycle for CO2. Instrument line shape measurements with an HCl cell suggest that the instrument stays well-aligned over several months. After a short test campaign for side by side intercomaprison with an existing TCCON instrument in Australia, the system will be transported to its final destination Ascension Island.

  18. Optimum Temperatures for Net Primary Productivity of Three Tropical Seagrass Species

    OpenAIRE

    Collier, Catherine J.; Ow, Yan X.; Langlois, Lucas; Uthicke, Sven; Johansson, Charlotte L.; O'Brien, Katherine R.; Hrebien, Victoria; Adams, Matthew P.

    2017-01-01

    Rising sea water temperature will play a significant role in responses of the world's seagrass meadows to climate change. In this study, we investigated seasonal and latitudinal variation (spanning more than 1,500 km) in seagrass productivity, and the optimum temperatures at which maximum photosynthesis and net productivity (for the leaf and the whole plant) occurs, for three seagrass species (Cymodocea serrulata, Halodule uninervis, and Zostera muelleri). To obtain whole plant net production...

  19. Development of an Adaptable Display and Diagnostic System for the Evaluation of Tropical Cyclone Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, P. A.; Burek, T.; Halley-Gotway, J.

    2015-12-01

    NCAR's Joint Numerical Testbed Program (JNTP) focuses on the evaluation of experimental forecasts of tropical cyclones (TCs) with the goal of developing new research tools and diagnostic evaluation methods that can be transitioned to operations. Recent activities include the development of new TC forecast verification methods and the development of an adaptable TC display and diagnostic system. The next generation display and diagnostic system is being developed to support evaluation needs of the U.S. National Hurricane Center (NHC) and broader TC research community. The new hurricane display and diagnostic capabilities allow forecasters and research scientists to more deeply examine the performance of operational and experimental models. The system is built upon modern and flexible technology that includes OpenLayers Mapping tools that are platform independent. The forecast track and intensity along with associated observed track information are stored in an efficient MySQL database. The system provides easy-to-use interactive display system, and provides diagnostic tools to examine forecast track stratified by intensity. Consensus forecasts can be computed and displayed interactively. The system is designed to display information for both real-time and for historical TC cyclones. The display configurations are easily adaptable to meet the needs of the end-user preferences. Ongoing enhancements include improving capabilities for stratification and evaluation of historical best tracks, development and implementation of additional methods to stratify and compute consensus hurricane track and intensity forecasts, and improved graphical display tools. The display is also being enhanced to incorporate gridded forecast, satellite, and sea surface temperature fields. The presentation will provide an overview of the display and diagnostic system development and demonstration of the current capabilities.

  20. Annual egg production rates of calanoid copepod species on the continental shelf of the Eastern Tropical Pacific off Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Eva R.; Franco-Gordo, Carmen; Palomares-García, Ricardo; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    We provide the first estimations of calanoid copepod egg production rates (EPR) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific over an annual cycle (January-December 2011). Gravid females were collected twice monthly and incubated for 12 h without food to estimate EPR, weight-specific fecundity (Gf), spawning success (SS, percentage of females to spawn out of the total species incubated per month and season) and egg hatching success (EHS). This study reports the average EPR of 10 species and the monthly EPR and Gf of four planktonic calanoid copepods (Centropages furcatus, Temora discaudata, Pontellina sobrina, and Nannocalanus minor) that spawned with enough frequency to infer their seasonal reproductive patterns. These species showed distinct seasonal reproductive strategies. Most copepod species spawned sporadically with large EPR variability, while three copepod species reproduced throughout the year (C. furcatus, T. discaudata and P. sobrina) and N. minor spawned only during the mixed period (Feb-May). The four species had relatively similar average EPR (C. furcatus 16, T. discaudata 18, P. sobrina 13, and N. minor 12 eggs fem-1 day-1). These are the first EPR estimations of P. sobrina and its previously known reproductive period is expanded. A Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to analyze EPR and species abundance of all calanoid copepods (40 spp.) collected throughout the time series in relation to temperature, salinity, mixed layer depth (MLD), dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentrations to identify the variables that best explained the copepod abundance variability. Temperature, Chl-a, and salinity had the strongest effect on the biological variables, linked to seasonal and episodic upwelling-downwelling processes in the surveyed area. As a result of moderate upwelling events and seasonal variation of environmental conditions, it appears relatively few species are capable of maintaining continuous reproduction under the relatively higher

  1. Potential of Tropical Fruit Waste Biomass for Production of Bio-Briquette Fuel: Using Indonesia as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brunerová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Within developing countries, there is an appeal to use waste biomass for energy generation in the form of bio-briquettes. This study investigated the potential use of bio-briquettes that are produced from the waste biomass of the following tropical fruits: durian (Durio zibethinus, coconut (Cocos nucifera, coffee (Coffea arabica, cacao (Theobroma cacao, banana (Musa acuminata and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum. All fruit waste biomass samples exhibited an extremely high level of initial moisture content (78.22% in average. Fruit samples with the highest proportion of fruit waste biomass (of total unprocessed fruit mass were represented by cacao (83.82%, durian (62.56% and coconut (56.83%. Highest energy potentials (calorific value of fruit waste biomass were observed in case of coconut (18.22 MJ∙kg−1, banana (17.79 MJ∙kg−1 and durian (17.60 MJ∙kg−1 fruit samples, whereas fruit waste biomass with the lowest level of ash content originated from the rambutan (3.67%, coconut (4.52%, and durian (5.05% fruit samples. When investigating the energy demands to produce bio-briquettes from such feedstock materials, the best results (lowest amount of required deformation energy in combination with highest level of bio-briquette bulk density were achieved by the rambutan, durian and banana fruit waste biomass samples. Finally, all investigated bio-briquette samples presented satisfactory levels of bulk density (>1050 kg∙m−3. In conclusion, our results indicated the practicability and viability of such bio-briquette fuel production, as well as supporting the fact that bio-briquettes from tropical fruit waste biomass can offer a potentially attractive energy source with many benefits, especially in rural areas.

  2. Using Enabling Technologies to Advance Data Intensive Analysis Tools in the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knosp, B.; Gangl, M. E.; Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Kim, R. M.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P.; Niamsuwan, N.; Shen, T. P. J.; Turk, F. J.; Vu, Q. A.

    2014-12-01

    The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) brings together satellite, aircraft, and model forecast data from several NASA, NOAA, and other data centers to assist researchers in comparing and analyzing data related to tropical cyclones. The TCIS has been supporting specific science field campaigns, such as the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign and the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) campaign, by creating near real-time (NRT) data visualization portals. These portals are intended to assist in mission planning, enhance the understanding of current physical processes, and improve model data by comparing it to satellite and aircraft observations. The TCIS NRT portals allow the user to view plots on a Google Earth interface. To compliment these visualizations, the team has been working on developing data analysis tools to let the user actively interrogate areas of Level 2 swath and two-dimensional plots they see on their screen. As expected, these observation and model data are quite voluminous and bottlenecks in the system architecture can occur when the databases try to run geospatial searches for data files that need to be read by the tools. To improve the responsiveness of the data analysis tools, the TCIS team has been conducting studies on how to best store Level 2 swath footprints and run sub-second geospatial searches to discover data. The first objective was to improve the sampling accuracy of the footprints being stored in the TCIS database by comparing the Java-based NASA PO.DAAC Level 2 Swath Generator with a TCIS Python swath generator. The second objective was to compare the performance of four database implementations - MySQL, MySQL+Solr, MongoDB, and PostgreSQL - to see which database management system would yield the best geospatial query and storage performance. The final objective was to integrate our chosen technologies with our Joint Probability Density Function (Joint PDF), Wave Number Analysis, and

  3. Land-use poverty traps identified in shifting cultivation systems shape long-term tropical forest cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomes, Oliver T.; Takasaki, Yoshito; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we illustrate how fine-grained longitudinal analyses of land holding and land use among forest peasant households in an Amazonian village can enrich our understanding of the poverty/land cover nexus. We examine the dynamic links in shifting cultivation systems among asset poverty, land use, and land cover in a community where poverty is persistent and primary forests have been replaced over time—with community enclosure—by secondary forests (i.e., fallows), orchards, and crop land. Land cover change is assessed using aerial photographs/satellite imagery from 1965 to 2007. Household and plot level data are used to track land holding, portfolios, and use as well as land cover over the past 30 y, with particular attention to forest status (type and age). Our analyses find evidence for two important types of “land-use” poverty traps—a “subsistence crop” trap and a “short fallow” trap—and indicate that the initial conditions of land holding by forest peasants have long-term effects on future forest cover and household welfare. These findings suggest a new mechanism driving poverty traps: insufficient initial land holdings induce land use patterns that trap households in low agricultural productivity. Path dependency in the evolution of household land portfolios and land use strategies strongly influences not only the wellbeing of forest people but also the dynamics of tropical deforestation and secondary forest regrowth. PMID:21873179

  4. Contribution of transformation products towards the total herbicide toxicity to tropical marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Eaglesham, Geoff; Parks, Stephen; Kenway, Matt; Beltran, Victor; Flores, Florita; Mueller, Jochen F; Negri, Andrew P

    2018-03-19

    The toxicity of herbicide degradation (transformation) products is rarely taken into account, even though these are commonly detected in the marine environment, sometimes at concentrations higher than the parent compounds. Here we assessed the potential contribution of toxicity by transformation products of five photosystem II herbicides to coral symbionts (Symbiodinium sp.), the green algae Dunaliella sp., and prawn (Penaeus monodon) larvae. Concentration-dependent inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency (∆F/F m ') was observed for all herbicides in both microalgal species. The toxicity of solutions of aged diuron solutions containing transformation products to Symbiodinium sp. and Dunaliella sp. was greater than could be explained by the concentrations of diuron measured, indicating transformation products contributed to the inhibition of ∆F/F m '. However, the toxicity of aged atrazine, simazine, hexazinone, and ametryn solutions could be explained by the concentration of parent herbicide, indicating no contribution by transformation products. Prawn larval metamorphosis was not sensitive to the herbicides, but preliminary results indicated some toxicity of the transformation products of atrazine and diuron. Risk assessments should take into account the contribution of herbicide transformation products; however, further studies are clearly needed to test the toxicity of a far wider range of transformation products to a representative diversity of relevant taxa.

  5. Tropical Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigh, Ronald B.; Nations, James D.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a summary of scientific knowledge about the rainforest environment, a tropical ecosystem in danger of extermination. Topics include the current state of tropical rainforests, the causes of rainforest destruction, and alternatives of rainforest destruction. (BT)

  6. Management of organic matter in the tropics: Translating theory into practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palm, C.A.; Giller, K.E.; Mafongoya, P.L.; Swift, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Inputs of organic materials play a central role in the productivity of many tropical farming systems by providing nutrients through decomposition and substrate for synthesis of soil organic matter (SOM). The organic inputs in many tropical farming systems such as crop residues, manures, and natural

  7. Tritium behavior pattern in some soil-plant systems in a tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soman, S.D.; Iyengar, T.S.; Sadarangani, S.H.; Vaze, P.K.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the distribution pattern of tritium in the soil/plant environment gives valuable ecological information on the natural water balance. The results of such a study for the conditions obtaining in India are given in this paper. Field studies are carried out by injection of tritium into some soil/plant systems and following the transfer pathways. The method of extraction for tissue-free-water-tritium (TFWT) is based on the vacuum freeze-drying technique while the tissue-bound-tritium (TBT) is estimated by a modified version of the Shoniger method. The determination of residence time of tritium in aqueous and organic phase in a number of tropical trees has been carried out both for stem-injection as well as intake from the soil. From the results of this study the tree biomass and transpiration rates have been determined. The tritium profile over time, for an acute exposure in certain trees such as Morinda Tinetoria, Achras Sapota etc. shows significantly different patterns compared to the normal pattern shown by Mangifera Indica, Terminalia Catappa, Ficus Glomerata etc. The period of investigation in each case varied from 400 to 1000 h. In most of the cases, the TBT fractions were very low compared to TFWT fractions in the initial stages. The tritium behavior in the tree reflects significant characteristics of the tritium behavior in the soil system. The authors have found that the leaf sampling can be used as an indicator of total environmental tritium behavior. (author)

  8. Biodiversity hanging by a thread: the importance of fungal litter-trapping systems in tropical rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snaddon, Jake L.; Turner, Edgar C.; Fayle, Tom M.; Khen, Chey V.; Eggleton, Paul; Foster, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The exceptionally high species richness of arthropods in tropical rainforests hinges on the complexity of the forest itself: that is, on features such as the high plant diversity, the layered nature of the canopy and the abundance and the diversity of epiphytes and litter. We here report on one important, but almost completely neglected, piece of this complex jigsaw—the intricate network of rhizomorph-forming fungi that ramify through the vegetation of the lower canopy and intercept falling leaf litter. We show that this litter-trapping network is abundant and intercepts substantial amounts of litter (257.3 kg ha−1): this exceeds the amount of material recorded in any other rainforest litter-trapping system. Experimental removal of this fungal network resulted in a dramatic reduction in both the abundance (decreased by 70.2 ± 4.1%) and morphospecies richness (decreased by 57.4 ± 5.1%) of arthropods. Since the lower canopy levels can contain the highest densities of arthropods, the proportion of the rainforest fauna dependent on the fungal networks is likely to be substantial. Fungal litter-trapping systems are therefore a crucial component of habitat complexity, providing a vital resource that contributes significantly to rainforest biodiversity. PMID:22188674

  9. Introduction to tropical geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maclagan, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Tropical geometry is a combinatorial shadow of algebraic geometry, offering new polyhedral tools to compute invariants of algebraic varieties. It is based on tropical algebra, where the sum of two numbers is their minimum and the product is their sum. This turns polynomials into piecewise-linear functions, and their zero sets into polyhedral complexes. These tropical varieties retain a surprising amount of information about their classical counterparts. Tropical geometry is a young subject that has undergone a rapid development since the beginning of the 21st century. While establishing itself as an area in its own right, deep connections have been made to many branches of pure and applied mathematics. This book offers a self-contained introduction to tropical geometry, suitable as a course text for beginning graduate students. Proofs are provided for the main results, such as the Fundamental Theorem and the Structure Theorem. Numerous examples and explicit computations illustrate the main concepts. Each of t...

  10. Denitrification: An important pathway for nitrous oxide production in tropical mangrove sediments (Goa, India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Bonin, P.C.; Michotey, V.D.

    Net nitrous oxide production and denitrification activity were measured in two mangrove ecosystems of Goa, India. The relatively pristine site Tuvem was compared to Divar, which is prone to high nutrient input. Stratified sampling at 2-cm intervals...

  11. Seasonal patterns of phytoplankton biomass and productivity in a tropical estuarine complex (west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devassy, V.P.; Goes, J.I.

    Phytoplankton cell numbers and chlorophyll a determinations were made during the premonsoon, monsoon and postmonsoon periods in the Mandovi-Zuari estuarine complex (west coast of India). Primary productivity estimates agreed well with chlorophyll a...

  12. On the role of ice-nucleating aerosol in the formation of ice particles in tropical mesoscale convective systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, Luis A.; Korolev, Alexei; Heckman, Ivan; Wolde, Mengistu; Fridlind, Ann M.; Ackerman, Andrew S.

    2018-01-01

    Over decades, the cloud physics community has debated the nature and role of aerosol particles in ice initiation. The present study shows that the measured concentration of ice crystals in tropical mesoscale convective systems exceeds the concentration of ice nucleating particles (INPs) by several orders of magnitude. The concentration of INPs was assessed from the measured aerosol particles concentration in the size range of 0.5 to 1 µm. The observations from this study suggest that primary ice crystals formed on INPs make only a minor contribution to the total concentration of ice crystals in tropical mesoscale convective systems. This is found by comparing the predicted INP number concentrations with in-situ ice particle number concentrations. The obtained measurements suggest that ice multiplication is the likely explanation for the observed high concentrations of ice crystals in this type of convective system. PMID:29551842

  13. Absorption of gamma-emitting fission products and activation products by rice under flooded and unflooded conditions from two tropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    The absorption of gamma-emitting fission products 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 137 Cs and 144 Ce and activation products 59 Fe, 58 Co, 54 Mn and 65 Zn by rice plants grown on two contrasting tropical soils, namely, a blak soil (pellustert) and a laterite (oxisol), and the effects of flooding were studied under controlled conditions. Results indicated greater uptake of 106 Ru and 125 Sb from the black soil than from the laterite. In contrast, the uptake of 144 Ce and 137 Cs was greater in the laterite than in the black soil. Flooding treatment enhanced the uptake of all these fission products by rice plants in the laterite soil whereas this effect was observed only for 125 Sb and 137 Cs in the black soil. The plant uptake of activation products from the two soil types showed maximum accumulation of 65 Zn followed by 54 Mn, 59 Fe and 58 Co in both soil types. Besides, uptake of these nuclides was greater from the laterite soil than from the black soil. Flooding treatment for rice while showing a reduction of 59 Fe uptake showed an increase in plant uptake of 58 Co, 54 Mn and 65 Zn in both soil types. (orig.)

  14. Absorption of gamma-emitting fission products and activation products by rice under flooded and unflooded conditions from two tropical soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Souza, T J; Mistry, K B [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biology and Agriculture Div.

    1980-01-01

    The absorption of gamma-emitting fission products /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 144/Ce and activation products /sup 59/Fe, /sup 58/Co, /sup 54/Mn and /sup 65/Zn by rice plants grown on two contrasting tropical soils, namely, a blak soil (pellustert) and a laterite (oxisol), and the effects of flooding were studied under controlled conditions. Results indicated greater uptake of /sup 106/Ru and /sup 125/Sb from the black soil than from the laterite. In contrast, the uptake of /sup 144/Ce and /sup 137/Cs was greater in the laterite than in the black soil. Flooding treatment enhanced the uptake of all these fission products by rice plants in the laterite soil whereas this effect was observed only for /sup 125/Sb and /sup 137/Cs in the black soil. The plant uptake of activation products from the two soil types showed maximum accumulation of /sup 65/Zn followed by /sup 54/Mn, /sup 59/Fe and /sup 58/Co in both soil types. Besides, uptake of these nuclides was greater from the laterite soil than from the black soil. Flooding treatment for rice while showing a reduction of /sup 59/Fe uptake showed an increase in plant uptake of /sup 58/Co, /sup 54/Mn and /sup 65/Zn in both soil types.

  15. The influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on charcoal alteration in a tropical biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Philippa; Bird, Michael; Meredith, Will; Large, David; Snape, Colin; Manion, Corinne

    2014-05-01

    Natural and anthropogenic burning events are a key link in the global carbon cycle, substantially influencing atmospheric CO2 levels, and consuming c.8700 teragrams yr-1 of dry biomass [1,2,3]. An important result of this process is charcoal, when lignocellulosic structures in biomass (e.g. wood) are converted to aromatic domains with high chemical stability. Charcoal is therefore not readily re-oxidized to CO2, with estimates of 5-7 ky for the half-life of charcoal carbon in soils [3,4]. Charcoal's high carbon content coupled with high environmental resistance has led to the concept of biochar as a valuable means of global carbon sequestration, capable of carbon offsets comparable to annual anthropogenic fuel emissions [5,6,7]. Charcoal is not, however, an environmentally inert substance, and at least some components of charcoal are susceptible to alteration in depositional environments. Despite the importance of charcoal in global carbon cycling, the mechanisms by which charcoal is altered in the environment remain, as yet, poorly understood. This fact limits our ability to properly incorporate both natural environmental charcoal and biochar into global carbon budgets. This study aimed to improve understanding of charcoal alteration in the environment by examining the influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on the physical and chemical characteristics of charcoal at a field site in the Daintree rainforest. These factors have been identified as critical in determining the dynamics of charcoal in depositional environments [8,9] and climatic conditions at the field site (in Tropical Queensland, Australia) are likely to result in extensive alteration of charcoal. Charcoal from wood (Nothofagus spp.), algae (Enteromorpha spp.), and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) biomass was produced at temperatures over 300-500°C and exposed to conditions of varying pH and vegetation cover. The effect of these variables on charcoal chemistry

  16. Dynamics and controls of heterotrophic prokaryotic production in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean: links with diazotrophic and photosynthetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wambeke, France; Gimenez, Audrey; Duhamel, Solange; Dupouy, Cécile; Lefevre, Dominique; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Moutin, Thierry

    2018-05-01

    Heterotrophic prokaryotic production (BP) was studied in the western tropical South Pacific (WTSP) using the leucine technique, revealing spatial and temporal variability within the region. Integrated over the euphotic zone, BP ranged from 58 to 120 mg C m-2 d-1 within the Melanesian Archipelago, and from 31 to 50 mg C m-2 d-1 within the western subtropical gyre. The collapse of a bloom was followed during 6 days in the south of Vanuatu using a Lagrangian sampling strategy. During this period, rapid evolution was observed in the three main parameters influencing the metabolic state: BP, primary production (PP) and bacterial growth efficiency. With N2 fixation being one of the most important fluxes fueling new production, we explored relationships between BP, PP and N2 fixation rates over the WTSP. The contribution of N2 fixation rates to bacterial nitrogen demand ranged from 3 to 81 %. BP variability was better explained by the variability of N2 fixation rates than by that of PP in surface waters of the Melanesian Archipelago, which were characterized by N-depleted layers and low DIP turnover times (TDIP 100 h), deeper in the Melanesian Archipelago, or within the entire euphotic zone in the subtropical gyre. The bacterial carbon demand to gross primary production ratio ranged from 0.75 to 3.1. These values are discussed in the framework of various assumptions and conversion factors used to estimate this ratio, including the methodological errors, the daily variability of BP, the bacterial growth efficiency and one bias so far not considered: the ability for Prochlorococcus to assimilate leucine in the dark.

  17. Isolations of biogas products and effective utilization of biomass in a tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dioha, I.J.; Nwagbo, E.E.; Gulma, M.A.

    1990-12-01

    This paper has compared two types (Indian and Chinese) of biogas producing facilities designed and built in Birnin-Kebbi, Nigeria. Available local input for the plants are identified and the isolations of the resultant output (products) and their economic viabilities are emphasized. The importance and the uses of the secondary products are highlighted. Ways of maintaining the PH in the digester for optimum gas yield are reported. The difficulties encountered in on the site operation of the two models are stated. On the whole the Chinese model is considered most responsive to the environmental conditions of the study location. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs

  18. Exploring Dust Impacts on Tropical Systems from the NASA HS-3 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowottnick, Ed; Colarco, Pete; da Silva, Arlindo; Barahona, Donifan; Hlavka, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    One of the overall scientific goals of the NASA Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS-3) field campaign is to better understand the role of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) in tropical storm development. During the 2012 HS-3 deployment, the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) observed dust within SAL air in close proximity to a developing Nadine (September 11, 2012). Throughout the mission, the NASA GEOS-5 modeling system supported HS-3 by providing 0.25 degrees resolution 5-day global forecasts of aerosols, which were used to support mission planning. The aerosol module was radiatively interactive within the GEOS-5 model, but aerosols were not directly coupled to cloud and precipitation processes. In this study we revisit the aerosol forecasts with an updated version of the GEOS-5 model. For the duration of Hurricane Nadine, we run multiday climate simulations leading up to each respective Global Hawk flight with and without aerosol direct interaction. For each set of simulations, we compare simulated dust mass fluxes to identify differences in SAL entrainment related to the interaction between dust aerosols and the atmosphere. We find that the direct effects of dust induce a low level anticyclonic circulation that temporarily shields Nadine from the intrusion of dry air, leading to a more intense storm.

  19. Tidal mixing in the Indonesian Seas and its effect on the tropical climate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch-Larrouy, Ariane; Lengaigne, Matthieu; Terray, Pascal; Masson, Sebastien [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (CNRS/IRD/UPMC/MNHN), Paris (France); Madec, Gurvan [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (CNRS/IRD/UPMC/MNHN), Paris (France); National Oceanographic Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    The sensitivity of the tropical climate to tidal mixing in the Indonesian Archipelago (IA) is investigated using a coupled general circulation model. It is shown that the introduction of tidal mixing considerably improves water masses properties in the IA, generating fresh and cold anomalies in the thermocline and salty and cold anomalies at the surface. The subsurface fresh anomalies are advected in the Indian Ocean thermocline and ultimately surface to freshen the western part of the basin whereas surface salty anomalies are advected in the Leuwin current to salt waters along the Australian coast. The {proportional_to}0.5 C surface cooling in the IA reduces by 20% the overlying deep convection. This improves both the amount and structure of the rainfall and weakens the wind convergence over the IA, relaxes the equatorial Pacific trade winds and strengthens the winds along Java coast. These wind changes causes the thermocline to be deeper in the eastern equatorial Pacific and shallower in the eastern Indian Ocean. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) amplitude is therefore slightly reduced while the Indian Ocean Dipole/Zonal Mode (IODZM) variability increases. IODZM precursors, related to ENSO events the preceding winter in this model, are also shown to be more efficient in promoting an IODZM thanks to an enhanced wind/thermocline coupling. Changes in the coupled system in response tidal mixing are as large as those found when closing the Indonesian Throughflow, emphasizing the key role of IA on the Indo-Pacific climate. (orig.)

  20. Carbon and water fluxes and footprints in tropical agricultural systems under rainfed and irrigated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. S.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Morillas, L.; Dalmagro, H. J.; D'Acunha, B.; Kim, Y.; Suarez, A.; Couto, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    In this talk, we will summarize results obtained using three tropical agricultural water observatories in Guanacaste, Costa Rica and Mato Grosso, Brazil. These flux towers and associated sensors enable detailed assessments of carbon use and water use efficiencies for crops under rain-fed and irrigated conditions. In addition to directly assessing water consumption from crops via eddy covariance, determination of water footprints and water use efficiencies using sensors and integrating it with remotely sensed data make it possible to (i) evaluate and compare different irrigation systems used in the study regions (drip, pivot and flood irrigation), (ii) assess the effect of irrigation over the local water balance to identify vulnerabilities associated with intensive water extraction for irrigation, and (iii) study the effect of inter-annual water availability fluctuations on crop water use. We conclude by comparing volumetric water footprints for crops, their carbon footprints, and water and carbon use efficiencies of crops produced under business-as-usual and alternative soil and water management scenarios.

  1. An expert system model for mapping tropical wetlands and peatlands reveals South America as the largest contributor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbricht, Thomas; Roman-Cuesta, Rosa Maria; Verchot, Louis; Herold, Martin; Wittmann, Florian; Householder, Ethan; Herold, Nadine; Murdiyarso, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Wetlands are important providers of ecosystem services and key regulators of climate change. They positively contribute to global warming through their greenhouse gas emissions, and negatively through the accumulation of organic material in histosols, particularly in peatlands. Our understanding of wetlands' services is currently constrained by limited knowledge on their distribution, extent, volume, interannual flood variability and disturbance levels. We present an expert system approach to estimate wetland and peatland areas, depths and volumes, which relies on three biophysical indices related to wetland and peat formation: (1) long-term water supply exceeding atmospheric water demand; (2) annually or seasonally water-logged soils; and (3) a geomorphological position where water is supplied and retained. Tropical and subtropical wetlands estimates reach 4.7 million km 2 (Mkm 2 ). In line with current understanding, the American continent is the major contributor (45%), and Brazil, with its Amazonian interfluvial region, contains the largest tropical wetland area (800,720 km 2 ). Our model suggests, however, unprecedented extents and volumes of peatland in the tropics (1.7 Mkm 2 and 7,268 (6,076-7,368) km 3 ), which more than threefold current estimates. Unlike current understanding, our estimates suggest that South America and not Asia contributes the most to tropical peatland area and volume (ca. 44% for both) partly related to some yet unaccounted extended deep deposits but mainly to extended but shallow peat in the Amazon Basin. Brazil leads the peatland area and volume contribution. Asia hosts 38% of both tropical peat area and volume with Indonesia as the main regional contributor and still the holder of the deepest and most extended peat areas in the tropics. Africa hosts more peat than previously reported but climatic and topographic contexts leave it as the least peat-forming continent. Our results suggest large biases in our current understanding of

  2. Water quality under intensive banana production and extensive pastureland in tropical Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arya, D.R.; Geissen, V.; Ponce-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Reyes, R.; Becker, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of intensive banana production with high mineral-fertilizer application and of extensive pastures were compared regarding water quality in a lowland region of SE Mexico. We monitored NO, NO, and PO43– concentrations in groundwater (80 m depth), subsurface water (5 m depth), and surface

  3. CDOM fluorescence as a proxy of DOC concentration in natural waters: a comparison of four contrasting tropical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle-Newall, E; Hulot, F D; Janeau, J L; Merroune, A

    2014-01-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence or absorption is often proposed as a rapid alternative to chemical methods for the estimation of bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in natural waters. However, the robustness of this method across a wide range of systems remains to be shown. We measured CDOM fluorescence and DOC concentration in four tropical freshwater and coastal environments (estuary and coastal, tropical shallow lakes, water from the freshwater lens of two small islands, and soil leachates). We found that although this method can provide an estimation of DOC concentration in sites with low variability in DOC and CDOM sources in systems where the variability of DOC and CDOM sources are high, this method should not be used as it will lead to errors in the estimation of the bulk DOC concentration.

  4. Description, Modelling and Design of Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter; Rudolph, Carsten

    1997-01-01

    Design of production systems are rarely an activity in which decision makers in most production companies have much experience. In future, this activity is to be more recurrent due to more and more frequent changes in the production task. Consequently, the decision makers are in need of better...... management tools and methods for description and modelling of production systems supporting the decisions. In this article a structural framework to describe and model production systems will be introduced, and it is shown how the production system of a minor Danish manufacturer of electromechanical...

  5. Tropical Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Andrew

    The term "tropical glacier" calls to mind balmy nights and palm trees on one hand and cold, blue ice on the other. Certainly author Gabriel Garcia Marqez exploited this contrast in One Hundred Years of Solitude. We know that tropical fish live in warm, Sun-kissed waters and tropical plants provide lush, dense foliage populated by colorful tropical birds. So how do tropical glaciers fit into this scene? Like glaciers everywhere, tropical glaciers form where mass accumulation—usually winter snow—exceeds mass loss, which is generally summer melt. Thus, tropical glaciers exist at high elevations where precipitation can occur as snowfall exceeds melt and sublimation losses, such as the Rwenzori Mountains in east Africa and the Maoke Range of Irian Jaya.

  6. Product Configuration Systems - Implications for Product Innovation and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2004-01-01

    configurations. However, costs are but one parameter on which firms compete and firms must continually innovate new and develop existing products. This paper presents original empirical insights on implementation and use of product configuration systems in a number of Danish industrial firms. The paper discusses...... the organisational changes associated with PCS and how this affects product innovation and development. The paper begins by introducing product configuration systems, which are then placed in context to the firm as a process technology which coordinate different processes: product development, order acquisition......Product Configuration Systems (PCS) is a step in the direction of mass customization in the sense that PCS allows a firm to significantly lower the unit cost of configuration. Thus PCS is a valuable technology for lowering operating costs while retaining a high number of possible product...

  7. A real-time ocean reanalyses intercomparison project in the context of tropical pacific observing system and ENSO monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan; Wen, C.; Kumar, A.; Balmaseda, M.; Fujii, Y.; Alves, O.; Martin, M.; Yang, X.; Vernieres, G.; Desportes, C.; Lee, T.; Ascione, I.; Gudgel, R.; Ishikawa, I.

    2017-12-01

    An ensemble of nine operational ocean reanalyses (ORAs) is now routinely collected, and is used to monitor the consistency across the tropical Pacific temperature analyses in real-time in support of ENSO monitoring, diagnostics, and prediction. The ensemble approach allows a more reliable estimate of the signal as well as an estimation of the noise among analyses. The real-time estimation of signal-to-noise ratio assists the prediction of ENSO. The ensemble approach also enables us to estimate the impact of the Tropical Pacific Observing System (TPOS) on the estimation of ENSO-related oceanic indicators. The ensemble mean is shown to have a better accuracy than individual ORAs, suggesting the ensemble approach is an effective tool to reduce uncertainties in temperature analysis for ENSO. The ensemble spread, as a measure of uncertainties in ORAs, is shown to be partially linked to the data counts of in situ observations. Despite the constraints by TPOS data, uncertainties in ORAs are still large in the northwestern tropical Pacific, in the SPCZ region, as well as in the central and northeastern tropical Pacific. The uncertainties in total temperature reduced significantly in 2015 due to the recovery of the TAO/TRITON array to approach the value before the TAO crisis in 2012. However, the uncertainties in anomalous temperature remained much higher than the pre-2012 value, probably due to uncertainties in the reference climatology. This highlights the importance of the long-term stability of the observing system for anomaly monitoring. The current data assimilation systems tend to constrain the solution very locally near the buoy sites, potentially damaging the larger-scale dynamical consistency. So there is an urgent need to improve data assimilation systems so that they can optimize the observation information from TPOS and contribute to improved ENSO prediction.

  8. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PPIS includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pesticidal type, formulation code, and registration status for all products registered in the U.S.

  9. Living Mulch Performance in a Tropical Cotton System and Impact on Yield and Weed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Bhaskar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. is a major crop in the Vidarbha region of central India. The vertisol soils on which much of the cotton is grown have been severely degraded by the tropical climate, excessive tillage and depletion of organic matter. Living mulches have the ability to mitigate these problems but they can cause crop losses through direct competition with the cotton crop and unreliable weed control. Field experiments were conducted in 2012 and 2013 at four locations in Vidarbha to study the potential for growing living mulches in mono-cropped cotton. Living mulch species evaluated included gliricidia [Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp.], sesbania [Sesbania sesban (L. Merr.], sorghum sudan grass [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench × Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench ssp. Drummondii (Nees ex Steud. de Wet & Harlan] and sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L.. Living mulch height was controlled through mowing and herbicides were not used. Living mulches generated 1 to 13 tons ha−1 of dry matter across sites and years. Weed cover was negatively correlated with both living mulch biomass and cover. Where living mulches were vigorous and established quickly, weed cover was as low as 7%, without the use of herbicides, or inter-row tillage. In a dry year, living mulch growth had a negative impact on cotton yield; however, in a year when soil moisture was not limiting, there was a positive relationship between cotton yield and living mulch biomass. Use of living mulches in cotton production in the Vidarbha region of India is feasible and can lead to both effective weed suppression and acceptable cotton yields.

  10. Benthic invertebrate density, biomass, and instantaneous secondary production along a fifth-order human-impacted tropical river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Anna Carolina Fornero; Gücker, Björn; Brauns, Mario; Hille, Sandra; Boëchat, Iola Gonçalves

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess land use effects on the density, biomass, and instantaneous secondary production (IP) of benthic invertebrates in a fifth-order tropical river. Invertebrates were sampled at 11 stations along the Rio das Mortes (upper Rio Grande, Southeast Brazil) in the dry and the rainy season 2010/2011. Invertebrates were counted, determined, and measured to estimate their density, biomass, and IP. Water chemical characteristics, sediment heterogeneity, and habitat structural integrity were assessed in parallel. Total invertebrate density, biomass, and IP were higher in the dry season than those in the rainy season, but did not differ significantly among sampling stations along the river. However, taxon-specific density, biomass, and IP differed similarly among sampling stations along the river and between seasons, suggesting that these metrics had the same bioindication potential. Variability in density, biomass, and IP was mainly explained by seasonality and the percentage of sandy sediment in the riverbed, and not directly by urban or agricultural land use. Our results suggest that the consistently high degradation status of the river, observed from its headwaters to mouth, weakened the response of the invertebrate community to specific land use impacts, so that only local habitat characteristics and seasonality exerted effects.

  11. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as a renewable energy source. Third quarterly report, December 1, 1979-February 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, A G; Allison, W; Garcia, M; Ramirez, G; Chu, T L; Velez-Santiago, J; Smith, L

    1980-01-01

    Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Both complete and incomplete data from the first three quarters of year 3 were reviewed. Candidate screening (for short-rotation grasses) was expanded to include six sorghum x Sudan grass hybrids developed by the Dekalb Company. Incomplete data indicate that two of the new grasses might be comparable to the NK hybrids in total biomass production and drought tolerance. Sugarcane and napier grass yield trends in year 3 includes: (a) Increased yields with delay of harvest frequency; (b) lxck of response to close spacing; (c) a superiority of napier grass over sugarcane when harvested at intervals of six months or less; and (d), a general superiority of the sugarcane variety NCo 310 over varieties PR 980 and PR 64-1791. Delayed tasseling of a wild, early-flowering S. spontaneous hybrid enabled three crosses to be made in December using commercial hybrids as female parents. Approximately 1000 seedlings were produced.

  12. Interactions between sire family and production environment (temperate vs. tropical) on performance and thermoregulation responses in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosé, R; Gilbert, H; Loyau, T; Giorgi, M; Billon, Y; Riquet, J; Renaudeau, D; Gourdine, J-L

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2 climatic environments (temperate [TEMP] vs. tropical humid [TROP]) on production and thermoregulation traits in growing pigs. A backcross design involving Large White (LW; heat sensitive) and Creole (CR; heat tolerant) pigs was studied. The same 10 F LW × CR boars were mated with related LW sows in each environment. A total of 1,298 backcross pigs ( = 634 pigs from 11 batches for the TEMP environment and = 664 pigs from 12 batches for the TROP environment) were phenotyped on BW (every 15 d from wk 11 to 23 of age), voluntary feed intake (ADFI, from wk 11 to 23), backfat thickness (BFT; at wk 19 and 23), skin temperature (ST; at wk 19 and 23), and rectal temperature (RT; at wk 19, 21, and 23). The feed conversion ratio was computed for the whole test period (11 to 23 wk). The calculation of the temperature-humidity index showed an average difference of 2.4°C between the TEMP and TROP environments. The ADG and ADFI were higher in the TEMP environment than in the TROP environment (834 vs. 754 g/d and 2.20 vs. 1.80 kg/d, respectively; environment than in the TEMP environment (35.9 vs. 34.8°C for ST and 39.5 vs. 39.3°C for RT, respectively; environment interactions ( environment interaction and to detect QTL related to heat tolerance.

  13. Seasonal changes in optical properties of two contrasting tropical freshwater systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana P.M. Brandão

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how allochthonous and autochthonous sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM affected the optical conditions and chemical characteristics of two contrasting tropical freshwater systems (Dom Helvécio-DH and Pampulha reservoir in a dry and rainy period in 2013. We analyzed PAR (photosynthetically active radiation and UV (ultraviolet attenuation coefficients, nutrients, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, dissolved organic matter (DOC and spectral characteristics of CDOM (colored dissolved organic matter. Significant differences in CDOM sources and quantity were observed, with a dominantly terrestrial input in DH during the rainy period with approximately 50% higher DOC and Chl-a levels, and a doubling in total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP compared to the dry winter period. The eutrophic Pampulha had several fold higher levels of DOC, Chl-a, TN and TP, with organic matter of mostly originating from phytoplankton in both seasons. Differences in source and quantity had strong implications on water transparency, DOC concentrations, CDOM quality and its susceptibility to photo- and biodegradation. DH was several fold clearer in both the UV and PAR spectrum. In DH transparency to both UV and PAR radiation was highest during the summer, suggesting elevated photo- and biodegradation during stratification. Pampulha was most transparent in the dry period even during period of algal bloom. In both systems we observed seasonal variations in concentrations of nutrients and Chl-a, and in DH differences were also found in DOC concentrations as well as the specific UV absorbance (SUVA254 and molecular size (M. Our results documents that different sources of DOM and seasonal inputs reflect in the seasonality of apparent and inherent optical properties and nutrients availability with implications for water quality and aquatic community. 

  14. Ant-plant mutualism: a dietary by-product of a tropical ant's macronutrient requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcila Hernández, Lina M; Sanders, Jon G; Miller, Gabriel A; Ravenscraft, Alison; Frederickson, Megan E

    2017-12-01

    Many arboreal ants depend on myrmecophytic plants for both food and shelter; in return, these ants defend their host plants against herbivores, which are often insects. Ant-plant and other mutualisms do not necessarily involve the exchange of costly rewards or services; they may instead result from by-product benefits, or positive outcomes that do not entail a cost for one or both partners. Here, we examined whether the plant-ant Allomerus octoarticulatus pays a short-term cost to defend their host plants against herbivores, or whether plant defense is a by-product benefit of ant foraging for insect prey. Because the food offered by ant-plants is usually nitrogen-poor, arboreal ants may balance their diets by consuming insect prey or associating with microbial symbionts to acquire nitrogen, potentially shifting the costs and benefits of plant defense for the ant partner. To determine the effect of ant diet on an ant-plant mutualism, we compared the behavior, morphology, fitness, stable isotope signatures, and gaster microbiomes of A. octoarticulatus ants nesting in Cordia nodosa trees maintained for nearly a year with or without insect herbivores. At the end of the experiment, ants from herbivore exclosures preferred protein-rich baits more than ants in the control (i.e., herbivores present) treatment. Furthermore, workers in the control treatment were heavier than in the herbivore-exclusion treatment, and worker mass predicted reproductive output, suggesting that foraging for insect prey directly increased ant colony fitness. The gaster microbiome of ants was not significantly affected by the herbivore exclusion treatment. We conclude that the defensive behavior of some phytoecious ants is a by-product of their need for external protein sources; thus, the consumption of insect herbivores by ants benefits both the ant colony and the host plant. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Impact of salinity and pH on phytoplankton communities in a tropical freshwater system: An investigation with pigment analysis by HPLC

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Acharyya, T.; Babu, P.V.R.; Bandyopadhyay, D.

    towards the fluctuating pH. These findings are environmentally relevant to understand the likely impact of salt water intrusion and pH variation on phytoplankton communities in a tropical freshwater system....

  16. Role of Biotechnology in Animal Production Systems in Hot Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Hansen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Developments in the biological sciences in the last three decades have revolutionized mankind's ability to manipulate the genetics, cell biology and physiology of biological organisms. These techniques, collectively termed biotechnology, create the opportunity for modifying domestic animals in ways that markedly increase the efficiency of production. Among the procedures being developed for animal production systems are marker-assisted selection of specific alleles of a gene that are associated with high production, production of transgenic animals , super ovulation and embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, embryo sexing and cloning, production of large amounts of previously-rare proteins through use of genetically -engineered bacteria or other cells, and identification of new biologically-active molecules as potential regulators of animal function. To date, most uses of biotechnology have concentrated on problems of general relevance to animal agriculture rather than specific problems related to livestock production in hot climates. However, it is likely that biotechnology will be used for this latter purpose also. Strategies to increase disease resistance using marker-assisted selection, production of transgenic animals expressing viral proteins, and recombinant cytokines to enhance immune function should prove useful to reducing the incidence and seventy of various tropical diseases. Additionally, there are methods to reduce effects of heat stress on oestrus detection and establishment of pregnancy. These include remote sensing of oestrus, ovulation synchronization systems and embryo transfer. More research regarding the physiological processes determining heat tolerance and of the pathways through which heat stress alters physiological function will be required before molecular biology techniques can be used to reduce the adverse effects of heat stress on animal production.

  17. Production System Design for Multiple Brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer; Christensen, Irene

    Production systems enabling both cost efficiency and flexibility in terms of high product variation are explored. The study follows an explorative longitudinal field study approach. The database consists of three large global corporations, each consisting of several companies producing household ......-outs, worker skills, integration of distribution channels, after sales service and degree of servitization. Three production system design principles called VXY emerge....

  18. Design of Agricultural Cleaner Production Technology System

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jun-mei; Wang, Xin-jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of agricultural cleaner production, technology system design of planting cleaner production is discussed from five aspects of water-saving irrigation technology, fertilization technology, diseases and insects control technology, straw comprehensive utilization technology and plastic film pollution control technology. Cleaner production technology system of livestock and poultry raise is constructed from the aspects of source control technology, reduction technique in...

  19. Forestry and fiber crop production in the higher rainfall areas of tropical Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, I.M.; Volck, H.E.; Cameron, D.M.; Thomson, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of the nearly 1 million square km of higher rainfall area shows that less than 4% has potential for arable agriculture or commercial forestry. Except for rain forest on the eastern Queensland coast (now largely protected), native forest has little potential for timber or pulp. Plantations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis offer the best potential for forest production in Queensland and Northern Territory. The most promising agricultural fiber crops for paper pulp are bagasse, which could be upgraded by mixing with pine mill wastes, and kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus). The freight costs involved in a forestry and fiber project in northern Australia are analyzed and the possibility of some local processing is considered. (Refs. 33).

  20. Product/Service-System Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Timothy Charles; Gall, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Product/service-systems’ (PSS) are innovation strategies where instead of focusing on the value of selling physical products, one focuses on the value of the utility of products and services throughout the product’s life period. This approach enables companies to provide customers with offerings...... that continuously deliver value and create a strong competitive advantage. PSS attempts to transcend the old industrial credo that value is embedded in products and the consideration of ‘cost-quality-time’ relates to the physical artefact. While there is increasing interest in PSS, limited research has been done...

  1. Estimating primary productivity of tropical oil palm in Malaysia using remote sensing technique and ancillary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Tan, K. P.; Cracknell, A. P.

    2014-10-01

    The amount of carbon sequestration by vegetation can be estimated using vegetation productivity. At present, there is a knowledge gap in oil palm net primary productivity (NPP) at a regional scale. Therefore, in this study NPP of oil palm trees in Peninsular Malaysia was estimated using remote sensing based light use efficiency (LUE) model with inputs from local meteorological data, upscaled leaf area index/fractional photosynthetically active radiation (LAI/fPAR) derived using UK-DMC 2 satellite data and a constant maximum LUE value from the literature. NPP values estimated from the model was then compared and validated with NPP estimated using allometric equations developed by Corley and Tinker (2003), Henson (2003) and Syahrinudin (2005) with diameter at breast height, age and the height of the oil palm trees collected from three estates in Peninsular Malaysia. Results of this study show that oil palm NPP derived using a light use efficiency model increases with respect to the age of oil palm trees, and it stabilises after ten years old. The mean value of oil palm NPP at 118 plots as derived using the LUE model is 968.72 g C m-2 year-1 and this is 188% - 273% higher than the NPP derived from the allometric equations. The estimated oil palm NPP of young oil palm trees is lower compared to mature oil palm trees (oil palm trees contribute to lower oil palm LAI and therefore fPAR, which is an important variable in the LUE model. In contrast, it is noted that oil palm NPP decreases with respect to the age of oil palm trees as estimated using the allomeric equations. It was found in this study that LUE models could not capture NPP variation of oil palm trees if LAI/fPAR is used. On the other hand, tree height and DBH are found to be important variables that can capture changes in oil palm NPP as a function of age.

  2. Rethinking plant functional types in Earth System Models: pan-tropical analysis of tree survival across environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. J.; Needham, J.; Xu, C.; Davies, S. J.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Giardina, C. P.; Condit, R.; Cordell, S.; Litton, C. M.; Hubbell, S.; Kassim, A. R. B.; Shawn, L. K. Y.; Nasardin, M. B.; Ong, P.; Ostertag, R.; Sack, L.; Tan, S. K. S.; Yap, S.; McDowell, N. G.; McMahon, S.

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon cycling is a function of the growth and survival of trees. Current model representations of tree growth and survival at a global scale rely on coarse plant functional traits that are parameterized very generally. In view of the large biodiversity in the tropical forests, it is important that we account for the functional diversity in order to better predict tropical forest responses to future climate changes. Several next generation Earth System Models are moving towards a size-structured, trait-based approach to modelling vegetation globally, but the challenge of which and how many traits are necessary to capture forest complexity remains. Additionally, the challenge of collecting sufficient trait data to describe the vast species richness of tropical forests is enormous. We propose a more fundamental approach to these problems by characterizing forests by their patterns of survival. We expect our approach to distill real-world tree survival into a reasonable number of functional types. Using 10 large-area tropical forest plots that span geographic, edaphic and climatic gradients, we model tree survival as a function of tree size for hundreds of species. We found surprisingly few categories of size-survival functions emerge. This indicates some fundamental strategies at play across diverse forests to constrain the range of possible size-survival functions. Initial cluster analysis indicates that four to eight functional forms are necessary to describe variation in size-survival relations. Temporal variation in size-survival functions can be related to local environmental variation, allowing us to parameterize how demographically similar groups of species respond to perturbations in the ecosystem. We believe this methodology will yield a synthetic approach to classifying forest systems that will greatly reduce uncertainty and complexity in global vegetation models.

  3. An eddy-permitting, dynamically consistent adjoint-based assimilation system for the tropical Pacific: Hindcast experiments in 2000

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2010-03-02

    An eddy-permitting adjoint-based assimilation system has been implemented to estimate the state of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The system uses the Massachusetts Institute of Technology\\'s general circulation model and its adjoint. The adjoint method is used to adjust the model to observations by controlling the initial temperature and salinity; temperature, salinity, and horizontal velocities at the open boundaries; and surface fluxes of momentum, heat, and freshwater. The model is constrained with most of the available data sets in the tropical Pacific, including Tropical Atmosphere and Ocean, ARGO, expendable bathythermograph, and satellite SST and sea surface height data, and climatologies. Results of hindcast experiments in 2000 suggest that the iterated adjoint-based descent is able to significantly improve the model consistency with the multivariate data sets, providing a dynamically consistent realization of the tropical Pacific circulation that generally matches the observations to within specified errors. The estimated model state is evaluated both by comparisons with observations and by checking the controls, the momentum balances, and the representation of small-scale features that were not well sampled by the observations used in the assimilation. As part of these checks, the estimated controls are smoothed and applied in independent model runs to check that small changes in the controls do not greatly change the model hindcast. This is a simple ensemble-based uncertainty analysis. In addition, the original and smoothed controls are applied to a version of the model with doubled horizontal resolution resulting in a broadly similar “downscaled” hindcast, showing that the adjustments are not tuned to a single configuration (meaning resolution, topography, and parameter settings). The time-evolving model state and the adjusted controls should be useful for analysis or to supply the forcing, initial, and boundary conditions for runs of other models.

  4. Floristic indicators of tropical landuse systems: Evidence from mining areas in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehinde Akinbiola

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Most forests in the tropics have not only been reduced in size but have also experienced forest degradation. The delicate balance of the components of the forest ecosystem has been altered largely by the landuse systems which have resulted in the disappearance of some species and the introduction of new ones. In order to understand the influence of human disturbance caused by artisanal mining on plant biodiversity and the physical environment, this study assessed changes in vegetation characteristics using plant functional groups, such as invasive, pioneer and understory species. The study was conducted at two sites in two Southwestern states of Nigeria, Itagunmodi in Atakumosa West Local Government Area of Osun State and Olode in Oluyole Local Government Area of Oyo State. Complete enumerations of woody, non-woody and herbaceous plant species were carried out in 20 m by 20 m plots selected using stratified random sampling as representative of landuse classes: freshly mined (6 months and a control plot (secondary forest. The results showed that the control plot in Itagunmodi had undergone degradation as indicated by the presence of Alchornea laxiflora, Geophilia obvallata, Musa sapientum,Elaeis guineensis and Keetia hispida. However, if left undisturbed, it has the potential of regeneration back to its original state because of its woody tree species composition and lianas (Triclisia gilletii. In addition the forest soils in the mines had been exposed to direct insolation for a long period, and the soil structure and texture have been affected, consequently altering the viability of the seed bank. Poaceae and Papilionoideae were the most common in the freshly mined plots while invasive species were the most common in abandoned mined plots. In conclusion, the floristic composition in the mining sites has been altered and there was no clear evidence that regrowth would bring restoration of the lost ecosystem services.

  5. Hygienic effects and gas production of plastic bio-digesters under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen-Phi, Vo Thi; Clemens, Joachim; Rechenburg, Andrea; Vinneras, Björn; Lenssen, Christina; Kistemann, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Plastic plug-flow bio-digesters have been promoted as a good option for improved treatment of manure and wastewater in developing countries although minimal information has been published on their hygienic status. This bench-scale study replicates bio-digester conditions to evaluate the reduction of pathogen and indicator microorganisms at three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) in the anaerobic treatment of pig manures at 30 degrees C for 50 days. Results showed that physicochemical values differed between HRTs. Gas production efficiency was better for longer HRTS. The accumulated sludge at the reactor's base increased with longer HRT. Phages and bacteria examined were reduced, but none was completely eliminated. Log10 reduction of bacteria ranged from 0.54 to 2.47. Phages ranged from 1.60 to 3.42. The reduction of organisms at HRT = 30 days was about one log10 unit higher than HRT = 15 days and about two log10 units higher than HRT = 3 days. The results indicate that the reduction of tested organisms increases with HRT. However the hygienic quality of the liquid effluent does not meet required quality values for surface and irrigation water. Longer HRTs are recommended to increase gas yield and achieve higher pathogen reduction. More barriers should be applied while handling bio-digester outputs to minimise risks to environmental and human health.

  6. Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web page describes the continuing effort to modernize the federal regulatory system for biotechnology products as well as clarify various roles of EPA, FDA and USDA in evaluating new biotechnology products.

  7. A reduction in marine primary productivity driven by rapid warming over the tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Roxy, M.K.; Modi, A.; Murtugudde, R; Valsala, V.; Panickal, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Ravichandran, M.; Vichi, M.; Levy, M.

    . Yoshimura, and M. Hirabara (2013), Basic performance of a new earth system model of the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI-ESM1), Papers in Meteorology and Geophysics, 64, 1-19. Beaulieu, C., S. A. Henson, J. L. Sarmiento, J. P. Dunne, S. C. Doney, R...-755. Brewin, R. J., D. E. Raitsos, G. Dall'Olmo, N. Zarokanellos, T. Jackson, M.-F. Racault, E. S. Boss, S. Sathyendranath, B. H. Jones, and I. Hoteit (2015), Regional ocean-colour chlorophyll algorithms for the Red Sea, Remote Sensing of Environment, 165...

  8. Wireless sensing on surface hydrocarbon production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, D; McStay, D; Mulholland, J; Costello, L

    2009-01-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks for monitoring and optimising the performance of surface hydrocarbon production systems is reported. Wireless sensor networks are shown to be able to produce comprehensively instrumented XTs and other equipment that generate the data required by Intelligent Oilfield systems. The information produced by such systems information can be used for real-time operational control, production optimization and troubleshooting.

  9. Automation System Products and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rintala, Mikko; Sormunen, Jussi; Kuisma, Petri; Rahkala, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Automation systems are used in most buildings nowadays. In the past they were mainly used in industry to control and monitor critical systems. During the past few decades the automation systems have become more common and are used today from big industrial solutions to homes of private customers. With the growing need for ecologic and cost-efficient management systems, home and building automation systems are becoming a standard way of controlling lighting, ventilation, heating etc. Auto...

  10. Tropical forest harvesting and taxation: a dynamic model of harvesting behavior under selective extraction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Conrad; Malcolm Gillis; D. Evan Mercer

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic model of selective harvesting in multi-species,multi-age tropical forests is developed. Forests are predicted to exhibit different optimal harvesting profiles depending on the nature of their joint cost functions and own or cross-species stock effects. The model is applied to the controversy about incentives produced by various taxes. The impacts of specific...

  11. Demonstration of anaerobic stabilization of black water in accumulation systems under tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.J.; Sanders, W.; Lettinga, G.

    2007-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of "human waste" was studied at Mlalakuwa residential settlement in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania at ambient tropical temperatures (24-31 degrees C). This settlement experiences a high water table with flooding during the rainy season, resulting in a very costly emptying of the

  12. Emerging synthesis themes from the study of social-ecological systems of a tropical city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischa A. Munoz; A.E. Lugo; B. Quintero

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of the contributions in this special issue about the tropical city of San Juan has resulted in five themes. First, the city is subject to multiple vulnerabilities, but socioeconomic factors and education level affect the perception of citizens to those vulnerabilities, even in the face of imminent threat. Second, in light of the social-ecological...

  13. NOAA Soil Moisture Products System (SMOPS) Daily Blended Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Soil Moisture Operational Products System (SMOPS) combines soil moisture retrievals from multiple satellite sensors to provide a global soil moisture map with...

  14. Impact of Moist Physics Complexity on Tropical Cyclone Simulations from the Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalina, E. A.; Biswas, M.; Newman, K.; Grell, E. D.; Bernardet, L.; Frimel, J.; Carson, L.

    2017-12-01

    The parameterization of moist physics in numerical weather prediction models plays an important role in modulating tropical cyclone structure, intensity, and evolution. The Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast system (HWRF), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's operational model for tropical cyclone prediction, uses the Scale-Aware Simplified Arakawa-Schubert (SASAS) cumulus scheme and a modified version of the Ferrier-Aligo (FA) microphysics scheme to parameterize moist physics. The FA scheme contains a number of simplifications that allow it to run efficiently in an operational setting, which includes prescribing values for hydrometeor number concentrations (i.e., single-moment microphysics) and advecting the total condensate rather than the individual hydrometeor species. To investigate the impact of these simplifying assumptions on the HWRF forecast, the FA scheme was replaced with the more complex double-moment Thompson microphysics scheme, which individually advects cloud ice, cloud water, rain, snow, and graupel. Retrospective HWRF forecasts of tropical cyclones that occurred in the Atlantic and eastern Pacific ocean basins from 2015-2017 were then simulated and compared to those produced by the operational HWRF configuration. Both traditional model verification metrics (i.e., tropical cyclone track and intensity) and process-oriented metrics (e.g., storm size, precipitation structure, and heating rates from the microphysics scheme) will be presented and compared. The sensitivity of these results to the cumulus scheme used (i.e., the operational SASAS versus the Grell-Freitas scheme) also will be examined. Finally, the merits of replacing the moist physics schemes that are used operationally with the alternatives tested here will be discussed from a standpoint of forecast accuracy versus computational resources.

  15. Influences of tropical-extratropical interaction on the multidecadal AMOC variability in the NCEP climate forecast system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Bohua; Schneider, Edwin K.; Klinger, Barry [Gorge Mason University, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Earth Sciences, College of Science, Fairfax, VA (United States); Institute of Global Environment and Society, Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Xue, Yan [National Centers for Environmental Prediction/NOAA, Climate Prediction Center, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Wu, Zhaohua [Florida State University, Department of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Science, Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2012-08-15

    We have examined the mechanisms of a multidecadal oscillation of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in a 335-year simulation of the Climate Forecast System (CFS), the climate prediction model developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Both the mean and seasonal cycle of the AMOC in the CFS are generally consistent with observation-based estimates with a maximum northward volume transport of 16 Sv (10{sup 6} m{sup 3}/s) near 35 N at 1.2 km. The annual mean AMOC shows an intermittent quasi 30-year oscillation. Its dominant structure includes a deep anomalous overturning cell (referred to as the anomalous AMOC) with amplitude of 0.6 Sv near 35 N and an anomalous subtropical cell (STC) of shallow overturning spanning across the equator. The mechanism for the oscillation includes a positive feedback between the anomalous AMOC and surface wind stress anomalies in mid-latitudes and a negative feedback between the anomalous STC and AMOC. A strong AMOC is associated with warm sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) centered near 45 N, which generates an anticyclonic easterly surface wind anomaly. This anticyclonic wind anomaly enhances the regional downwelling and reinforces the anomalous AMOC. In the mean time, a wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback extends the warm SSTA to the tropics and induces a cyclonic wind stress anomaly there, which drives a tropical upwelling and weakens the STC north of the equator. The STC anomaly, in turn, drives a cold upper ocean heat content anomaly (HCA) in the northern tropical Atlantic and weakens the meridional heat transport from the tropics to the mid-latitude through an anomalous southward western boundary current. The anomalous STC transports cold HCA from the subtropics to the mid-latitudes, weakening the mid-latitude deep overturning. (orig.)

  16. Milk yield and blood urea nitrogen in crossbred cows grazing Leucaena leucocephala in a silvopastoral system in the Mexican tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B. Bottini-Luzardo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess milk yields, estimate the intake of crude protein (CP and determine the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN in early post-partum crossbred cows grazing irrigated Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena in a silvopastoral system relative to those in an irrigated grass monoculture.  Twenty-four multiparous cows were randomly allotted at calving on the basis of previous milk yields to 2 grazing treatments: grass monoculture system (MS of Cynodon nlemfuensis (n=12; and an intensive silvopastoral system (ISS composed of leucaena and C. nlemfuensis (n=12.  Cows were supplemented with sorghum grain (ISS or a conventional concentrate (MS during milking to ensure availability of metabolizable energy (ME and CP required for milk production.  Mean estimated intake of leucaena was 5.1±1.3 kg DM/d and estimated CP intakes were 1,479±3.3 and 1,258±3.3 g/d for ISS and MS, respectively (P>0.05, while estimated intakes of ME were 161±1.3 and 131±1.4 MJ/d for ISS and MS, respectively (P<0.05.  Milk yields were 13.5 and 14.5 kg/cow/d for cows on ISS and MS, respectively (P>0.05.  Concentrations of BUN were 19.1 mg/dL for cows in ISS and 15.3 mg/dL for cows in MS (P<0.05.  We conclude that intake of leucaena and sorghum grain in an irrigated silvopastoral system was sufficient to substitute for expensive concentrate in the diets of lactating cows grazing irrigated grass monoculture.  However, the higher levels of BUN found in ISS suggest a lower efficiency of N utilization in this treatment.  Restricting consumption of leucaena might be a means of improving efficiency of its use and this warrants investigation. Keywords: Cattle, crude protein, Cynodon nlemfuensis, leucaena, tropical pasturesDOI: 10.17138/TGFT(4159-167

  17. Robust Medical Isotope Production System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimpland, Robert Herbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The success of this theoretical undertaking provided confidence that the behavior of new and evolving designs of fissile solution systems may be accurately estimated. Scaled up versions of SUPO, subcritical acceleratordriven systems, and other evolutionary designs have been examined.

  18. The Improved NRL Tropical Cyclone Monitoring System with a Unified Microwave Brightness Temperature Calibration Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The near real-time NRL global tropical cyclone (TC monitoring system based on multiple satellite passive microwave (PMW sensors is improved with a new inter-sensor calibration scheme to correct the biases caused by differences in these sensor’s high frequency channels. Since the PMW sensor 89 GHz channel is used in multiple current and near future operational and research satellites, a unified scheme to calibrate all satellite PMW sensor’s ice scattering channels to a common 89 GHz is created so that their brightness temperatures (TBs will be consistent and permit more accurate manual and automated analyses. In order to develop a physically consistent calibration scheme, cloud resolving model simulations of a squall line system over the west Pacific coast and hurricane Bonnie in the Atlantic Ocean are applied to simulate the views from different PMW sensors. To clarify the complicated TB biases due to the competing nature of scattering and emission effects, a four-cloud based calibration scheme is developed (rain, non-rain, light rain, and cloudy. This new physically consistent inter-sensor calibration scheme is then evaluated with the synthetic TBs of hurricane Bonnie and a squall line as well as observed TCs. Results demonstrate the large TB biases up to 13 K for heavy rain situations before calibration between TMI and AMSR-E are reduced to less than 3 K after calibration. The comparison stats show that the overall bias and RMSE are reduced by 74% and 66% for hurricane Bonnie, and 98% and 85% for squall lines, respectively. For the observed hurricane Igor, the bias and RMSE decrease 41% and 25% respectively. This study demonstrates the importance of TB calibrations between PMW sensors in order to systematically monitor the global TC life cycles in terms of intensity, inner core structure and convective organization. A physics-based calibration scheme on TC’s TB corrections developed in this study is able to significantly reduce the

  19. Product Configuration Systems and Consequences for Productivity and Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    with informations about expected and realised costs and benefits in implemented PCS's we have the following results: the three highest aggregated scoring expected benefits are: 1)improved quality in specifications, 2)lower turnaround time, and 3)using less resources.The results achieved are in accordance......Product Configuration Systems (PCS) are systems to produce quotations to potential buyers of the products an enterprise produces. Typically the products are complex and will first be produced according to specific needs from the customers. From twelve case studies in Danish industry...

  20. Bacterial domination over Archaea in ammonia oxidation in a monsoon-driven tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vipindas, P.V.; Anas, A.; Jasmin, C.; Lallu, K.R.; Fausia, K.H.; Balachandran, K.K.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Nair, S.

    Autotrophic ammonia oxidizing microorganisms,which are responsible for the rate-limiting step of nitrification in most aquatic systems, have not been studied in tropical estuaries. Cochin estuary (CE) is one of the largest, productive, and monsoon...

  1. Assessing product service systems (PSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; McAloone, Tim C.; Neugebauer, Line

    We apply a management tool to classify different integrated PSS within the context of Danish maritime industry. We investigate how a firm should organize its operations to manage the transition from being a manufacturing to a servitizing company, and to provide a guideline for strategic positioni...... and planning of the balance between product sales and service activities....

  2. Alert Systems for production Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2005-01-01

    We present a new methodology for detecting faults and abnormal behavior in production plants. The methodology stems from a joint project with a Danish energy consortium. During the course of the project we encountered several problems that we believe are common for projects of this type. Most...

  3. Variability of mass-size relationships in tropical Mesoscale Convective Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Emmanuel; Leroy, Delphine; Delanoë, Julien; Dupuy, Régis; Lilie, Lyle; Strapp, Walter; Protat, Alain; Schwarzenböeck, Alfons

    2015-04-01

    The mass of individual ice hydrometeors in Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS) has been investigated in the past using different methods in order to retrieve power law type mass-size relationships m(D) with m = α D^β. This study focuses on the variability of mass-size relationships in different types of MCS. Three types of tropical MCS were sampled during different airborne campaigns: (i) continental MCS during the West African monsoon (Megha-Tropique 2010), (ii) oceanic MCS over the Indian Ocean (Megha-Tropique 2011), and (iii) coastal MCS during the North-Australian monsoon (HAIC-HIWC). Mass-size relationships of ice hydrometeors are derived from a combined analysis of particle images from 2D-array probes and associated reflectivity factors measured with a Doppler cloud radar (94GHz) on the same research aircraft. A theoretical study of numerous hydrometeor shapes simulated in 3D and arbitrarily projected on a 2D plan allowed to constrain the exponent β of the m(D) relationship as a function of the derived surface-diameter relationship S(D), which is likewise written as a power law. Since S(D) always can be determined for real data from 2D optical array probes or other particle imagers, the evolution of the m(D) exponent β can be calculated along the flight trajectory. Then the pre-factor α of m(D) is constrained from theoretical simulations of the radar reflectivity factor matching the measured reflectivity factor along the aircraft trajectory. Finally, the Condensed Water Content (CWC) is deduced from measured particle size distributions (PSD) and retrieved m(D) relationships along the flight trajectory. Solely for the HAIC-HIWC campaign (North Australian Monsoon) a bulk reference measurement (IKP instrument) of high CWC could be performed in order to compare with the above described CWC deduced from ice hydrometeor images and reflectivity factors. Both CWC are coherent. Mean profiles of m(D) coefficients, PSD, and CWC are calculated as a function of the

  4. Maintenance of Austral Summertime Upper-Tropospheric Circulation over Tropical South America: The Bolivian High-Nordeste Low System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsing-Chang; Weng, Shu-Ping; Schubert, Siegfried

    1999-07-01

    Using the NASA/GEOS reanalysis data for 1980-95, the austral-summer stationary eddies in the tropical-subtropical Southern Hemisphere are examined in two wave regimes: long and short wave (wave 1 and waves 2-6, respectively). The basic structure of the Bolivian high-Nordeste low (BH-NL) system is formed by a short-wave train across South America but modulated by the long-wave regime. The short-wave train exhibits a monsoonlike vertical phase reversal in the midtroposphere and a quarter-wave phase shift relative to the divergent circulation. As inferred from (a) the spatial relationship between the streamfunction and velocity potential and (b) the structure of the divergent circulation, the short-wave train forming the BH-NL system is maintained by South American local heating and remote African heating, while the long-wave regime is maintained by western tropical Pacific heating.The maintenance of the stationary waves in the two wave regimes is further illustrated by a simple diagnostic scheme that includes the velocity-potential maintenance equation (which links velocity potential and diabatic heating) and the streamfunction budget (which is the inverse Laplacian transform of the vorticity equation). Some simple relationships between streamfunction and velocity potential for both wave regimes are established to substantiate the links between diabatic heating and streamfunction; of particular interest is a Sverdrup balance in the short-wave regime. This simplified vorticity equation explains the vertical structure of the short-wave train associated with the BH-NL system and its spatial relationship with the divergent circulation.Based upon the diagnostic analysis of its maintenance a simple forced barotropic model is adopted to simulate the BH-NL system with idealized forcings, which imitates the real 200-mb divergence centers over South America, Africa, and the tropical Pacific. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the formation of the BH-NL system is affected

  5. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites

  6. Expected energy production evaluation for photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Peng, Wang

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system consists of many solar panels, which are connected in series, parallel or a combination of both. Energy production for the PV system with various configurations is different. In this paper, a methodology is developed to evaluate and analyze the expected energy production...

  7. BubbleZERO—Design, Construction and Operation of a Transportable Research Laboratory for Low Exergy Building System Evaluation in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Schlueter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the design, construction and operation of a novel building systems laboratory, the BubbleZERO—Zero Emission Research Operation. Our objective was to design a space to evaluate the performance of Swiss-developed low exergy building systems in the tropical climate of Singapore using an integrated design approach. The method we employed for evaluation in the tropics was to design and build a test bed out of the shipping containers that transported the prototype low exergy systems from Switzerland to Singapore. This approach resulted in a novel laboratory environment containing radiant cooling panels and decentralized air supply, along with a self-shading, inflated “bubble” skin, experimental low emissivity (LowE glazing, LED lighting, wireless sensors and distributed control. The laboratory evaluates and demonstrates for the first time in Singapore an integrated high-temperature cooling system with separate demand-controlled ventilation adapted for the tropics. It is a functional lab testing system in real tropical conditions. As such, the results showing the ability to mitigate the risk of condensation by maintaining a dew point below 18 °C by the separate decentralized ventilation are significant and necessary for potential future implementation in buildings. In addition, the control system provides new proof of concept for distributed wireless sensors and control for reliable automation of the systems. These key results are presented along with the integrated design process and real-life tropical operation of the laboratory.

  8. NDSI products system based on Hadoop platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Jiang, He; Yang, Xiaoxia; Geng, Erhui

    2015-12-01

    Snow is solid state of water resources on earth, and plays an important role in human life. Satellite remote sensing is significant in snow extraction with the advantages of cyclical, macro, comprehensiveness, objectivity, timeliness. With the continuous development of remote sensing technology, remote sensing data access to the trend of multiple platforms, multiple sensors and multiple perspectives. At the same time, in view of the remote sensing data of compute-intensive applications demand increase gradually. However, current the producing system of remote sensing products is in a serial mode, and this kind of production system is used for professional remote sensing researchers mostly, and production systems achieving automatic or semi-automatic production are relatively less. Facing massive remote sensing data, the traditional serial mode producing system with its low efficiency has been difficult to meet the requirements of mass data timely and efficient processing. In order to effectively improve the production efficiency of NDSI products, meet the demand of large-scale remote sensing data processed timely and efficiently, this paper build NDSI products production system based on Hadoop platform, and the system mainly includes the remote sensing image management module, NDSI production module, and system service module. Main research contents and results including: (1)The remote sensing image management module: includes image import and image metadata management two parts. Import mass basis IRS images and NDSI product images (the system performing the production task output) into HDFS file system; At the same time, read the corresponding orbit ranks number, maximum/minimum longitude and latitude, product date, HDFS storage path, Hadoop task ID (NDSI products), and other metadata information, and then create thumbnails, and unique ID number for each record distribution, import it into base/product image metadata database. (2)NDSI production module: includes

  9. Ocean Response to Tropical Storms as Observed by a Moored Ocean Observing System in the Deep Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropeza, F.; Jaramillo, S.; Fan, S.

    2013-05-01

    As part of the support activities for a deepwater development in the Gulf of Mexico, a moored ocean observing system (OOS) was deployed in a water depth of approximately 2500m, 300km south of the Louisiana Coast. From June 2007 to May 2009, the system comprised seven single point Aanderaa Recording Current Meters (RCM), deployed at 450m, 700m, 1,100m, 1,500m, 2,000m, 2,400m and 2,490m below surface, and an RDI 75kHz Longranger Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP), deployed between 249 and 373m below surface in upward-looking mode. Since May 2009, the OOS was upgraded to a Wavescan Buoy based moored system including meteorological sensors for: atmospheric pressure, air temperature, wind speed and direction; directional waves sensor; a Doppler Current Sensor (DCS) at 1.5 m depth for surface currents; and two downward-looking ADCP's covering the upper 1,000m of the water column. This OOS has been operating without interruptions from 2007 to the present and has registered data associated with nine tropical storms, including the direct passage of Hurricane Ike, in September of 2008, and loop current events with speeds of up to 4 knots. It has provided one of the most comprehensive set of velocity observations in the Gulf of Mexico, especially, the near surface currents, during pre-storm conditions, response, and ocean relaxation following hurricanes/tropical storms. Based on these observations the upper ocean responses to the energy input from tropical storms are characterized in terms of the associated mixing processes and momentum balances.

  10. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Smith; M. E. Leveque

    2003-09-30

    This report includes technical progress made during the period October, 2002 through September, 2003. At the end of the second technical progress report, the ConocoPhillips opportunities to apply subsea processing in the Gulf of Mexico had been exhausted, and an alternative site was identified in Norway. This was a non-ConocoPhillips operated field, and the subsea processing was proposed as a phased development approach with 2-phase separation at the field, and then gas and liquids exported via pipeline to remote platform locations for processing. Although the unrisked economics were quite favorable, the risked economic evaluation compelled the operator to develop the field with the more conventional and proven Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) option. Work on the subsea processing was suspended at this time. Discussions with DOE regarding two other step-change deepwater technologies ensued. One was an effort to develop a light-weight, high pressure composite production riser. A field demonstration of the design would then be performed by deploying a limited number of composite joints in a Gulf of Mexico deepwater development. The other was to begin the process of taking drilling with casing technology to the deepwater. This is called, ''close-tolerance liner drilling''. It was agreed that both technologies should be pursued, and the work began. During this reporting period, the initial production riser design had been completed and preliminary test sample components were being fabricated. Regarding the liner drilling, the sub-contractors were selected, the design basis was agreed and designs progressed towards meeting a projected first quarter, 2004 onshore test program.

  11. Tropical Peatland Geomorphology and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, A.; Harvey, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical peatlands cover many low-lying areas in the tropics. In tropical peatlands, a feedback between hydrology, landscape morphology, and carbon storage causes waterlogged organic matter to accumulate into gently mounded land forms called peat domes over thousands of years. Peat domes have a stable morphology in which peat production is balanced by loss and net precipitation is balanced by lateral flow, creating a link between peatland morphology, rainfall patterns and drainage networks. We show how landscape morphology can be used to make inferences about hydrologic processes in tropical peatlands. In particular, we show that approaches using simple storage-discharge relationships for catchments are especially well suited to tropical peatlands, allowing river forecasting based on peatland morphology in catchments with tropical peatland subcatchments.

  12. Mycorrhizas and tropical soil fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Major factors that constrain tropical soil fertility and sustainable agriculture are low nutrient capital, moisture stress, erosion, high P fixation, high acidity with aluminium toxicity, and low soil biodiversity. The fragility of many tropical soils limits food production in annual cropping

  13. Integrated Monitoring System of Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oborski Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated monitoring system for discrete manufacturing processes is presented in the paper. The multilayer hardware and software reference model was developed. Original research are an answer for industry needs of the integration of information flow in production process. Reference model corresponds with proposed data model based on multilayer data tree allowing to describe orders, products, processes and save monitoring data. Elaborated models were implemented in the integrated monitoring system demonstrator developed in the project. It was built on the base of multiagent technology to assure high flexibility and openness on applying intelligent algorithms for data processing. Currently on the base of achieved experience an application integrated monitoring system for real production system is developed. In the article the main problems of monitoring integration are presented, including specificity of discrete production, data processing and future application of Cyber-Physical-Systems. Development of manufacturing systems is based more and more on taking an advantage of applying intelligent solutions into machine and production process control and monitoring. Connection of technical systems, machine tools and manufacturing processes monitoring with advanced information processing seems to be one of the most important areas of near future development. It will play important role in efficient operation and competitiveness of the whole production system. It is also important area of applying in the future Cyber-Physical-Systems that can radically improve functionally of monitoring systems and reduce the cost of its implementation.

  14. Extent of Integration of Priority Interventions into General Health Systems: A Case Study of Neglected Tropical Diseases Programme in the Western Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Ernest O; Aikins, Moses K; Gyapong, Margaret; Anto, Francis; Bockarie, Moses J; Gyapong, John O

    2016-05-01

    The global health system has a large arsenal of interventions, medical products and technologies to address current global health challenges. However, identifying the most effective and efficient strategies to deliver these resources to where they are most needed has been a challenge. Targeted and integrated interventions have been the main delivery strategies. However, the health system discourse increasingly favours integrated strategies in the context of functionally merging targeted interventions with multifunctional health care delivery systems with a focus on strengthening country health systems to deliver needed interventions. Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) have been identified to promote and perpetuate poverty hence there has been global effort to combat these diseases. The Neglected Tropical Diseases Programme (NTDP) in Ghana has a national programme team and office, however, it depends on the multifunctional health delivery system at the regional and district level to implement interventions. The NTDP seeks further health system integration to accelerate achievement of coverage targets. The study estimated the extent of integration of the NTDP at the national, regional and district levels to provide evidence to guide further integration. The research design was a descriptive case study that interviewed key persons involved in the programme at the three levels of the health system as well as extensive document review. Integration was assessed on two planes-across health system functions-stewardship and governance, financing, planning, service delivery, monitoring and evaluation and demand generation; and across three administrative levels of the health system-national, regional and district. A composite measure of integration designated Cumulative Integration Index (CII) with a range of 0.00-1.00 was used to estimate extent of integration at the three levels of the health system. Service delivery was most integrated while financing and planning were

  15. C-11 cyanide production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyun; Alexoff, David; Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob M.; Ferrieri, Richard A.

    2017-11-21

    A method for providing .sup.11C-labeled cyanides from .sup.11C labeled oxides in a target gas stream retrieved from an irradiated high pressure gaseous target containing O.sub.2, wherein .sup.11C labeled oxides are reduced with H.sub.2 in the presence of a nickel catalyst under a pressure and a temperature sufficient to form a product stream comprising at least about 95% .sup.11CH.sub.4, the .sup.11CH.sub.4 is then combined with an excess of NH.sub.3 in a carrier/reaction stream flowing at an accelerated velocity and the combined .sup.11CH4 carrier/reaction stream is then contacted with a platinum (Pt) catalyst particulate supported on a substantially-chemically-nonreactive heat-stable support at a temperature of at least about 900.degree. C., whereby a product stream comprising at least about 60% H.sup.11CN is provided in less than 10 minutes from retrieval of the .sup.11C labeled oxide.

  16. Soil fertility and species traits, but not diversity, drive productivity and biomass stocks in a Guyanese tropical rainforest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sande, van der M.T.; Arets, E.J.M.M.; Pena Claros, M.; Hoosbeek, M.R.; Caceres-Siani, Yasmani; Hout, van de P.; Poorter, L.

    2018-01-01

    1.Tropical forests store and sequester large amounts of carbon in above- and below-ground plant biomass and soil organic matter (SOM), but how these are driven by abiotic and biotic factors remains poorly understood.
    2.Here, we test the effects of abiotic factors (light variation, caused by

  17. Consumer attitudes to different pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2013-01-01

    In many Western countries, consumers have shown an increasing interest to the way in which food products are being produced. This study investigates Chinese consumers' attitudes towards different pig production systems by means of a conjoint analysis. While there has been a range of studies...... on Western consumers' attitudes to various forms of food production, little is known about the level of Chinese consumers' attitudes. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 472 participants in six Chinese cities. Results indicate that Chinese consumers prefer industrial pig production systems, where...... from Cluster 1 focus almost exclusively on the food safety aspect (food safety focused). Consumers from cluster 2 (indifferent) show generally weak attitudes to pig production systems in general. Cluster 3 (industrial production oriented) stands out by being very positive about industrial, large size...

  18. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE EFFECT OF NATURAL TROPICAL WEATHER ON INTERFACIAL BONDING PERFORMANCE OF CFRP-CONCRETE BONDING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHD H. MOHD HASHIM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The existing reinforced concrete structures may require rehabilitation and strengthening to overcome deficiencies due to defect and environmental deterioration. Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP-concrete bonding systems can provide solution for the deficiencies, but the durability of the bonded joint needs to be investigated for reliable structural performance. In this research the interfacial bonding behaviour of CFRP-concrete system under tropical climate exposure is main interest. A 300 mm concrete prism was bonded with CFRP plate on its two sides and exposed for 3, 6, and 9 months to laboratory environment, continuous natural weather, and wet-dry exposure in 3.5% saltwater solution at room and 40 °C temperature. The prisms were subjected to tension and compression load under bonding test to measure the strain and determine stress distribution and shear stress transfer behaviour. The results of the bonding test showed that load transfer was fairly linear and uniform at lower load level and changed to non-linear and non- uniform at higher load level. The force transfers causes the shear stress distribution being shifted along the bonded length. The combination of climate effects may have provided better curing of the bonded joints, but longer duration of exposure may be required to weaken the bond strength. Nevertheless, CFRP-concrete bonding system was only minimally affected under the tropical climate and salt solution.

  19. Toyota production system beyond large-scale production

    CERN Document Server

    Ohno, Taiichi

    1998-01-01

    In this classic text, Taiichi Ohno--inventor of the Toyota Production System and Lean manufacturing--shares the genius that sets him apart as one of the most disciplined and creative thinkers of our time. Combining his candid insights with a rigorous analysis of Toyota's attempts at Lean production, Ohno's book explains how Lean principles can improve any production endeavor. A historical and philosophical description of just-in-time and Lean manufacturing, this work is a must read for all students of human progress. On a more practical level, it continues to provide inspiration and instruction for those seeking to improve efficiency through the elimination of waste.

  20. Improvement of Artistic Cast Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysiak R.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the technology and organization of the artistic cast production. On the basis of the actual cast production system, the manufacturing process was shown, in particular sand–piece moulding, which is a very important process and a time-consuming part of the entire manufacture of the casts. The current state of the production process as well as the organization of the work and production technology were analysed with the use of methods and techniques of production improvement, the Lean Manufacturing concept and computer systems. The results of the analysis and studies were shown with use of schemes and graphs of the layout of the production resources, a flow chart of the production process, value stream mapping, and a costs table for the production and modernization of the moulding stage. The work has shown that there are possibilities to improve the artistic cast production system. This improvement leads to increased productivity, lower production costs of artistic casts and increased competitiveness of the foundry.

  1. Mars oxygen production system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

  2. Animal production systems in the industrialised world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, J T; Edwards, S; Noordhuizen, J; Gunnarsson, S

    2006-08-01

    The production of food from animal origin is relatively stable in the industrialised world. However, animal production systems are changing dramatically with respect to location, herd size and specialisation. Increased pressure from a critical public is moving animal-based production towards systems such as organic production and loose-housing systems which allow the animals to better express normal behaviour. The focus on food safety promotes systems with a high degree of biosecurity, often associated with an increase in herd size and self-containment. The globalisation of agricultural trade and increased competition also favours an increase in herd size and specialisation. These trends also lead to regions with livestock-dense areas, giving rise to environmental concerns. Therefore, good farming practice regulations and systems to provide a higher level of transparency, such as quality risk management programmes, are being developed.

  3. Observed benefits from product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of the benefits obtained from applying product configuration systems based on a case study in four industry companies. The impacts are described according to main objectives in literature for imple-menting product configuration systems: lead time in the specification...... affected by the use of product configu-ration systems e.g. increased sales, decrease in the number of SKU's, improved ability to introduce new products, and cost reductions.......This article presents a study of the benefits obtained from applying product configuration systems based on a case study in four industry companies. The impacts are described according to main objectives in literature for imple-menting product configuration systems: lead time in the specification...... processes, on-time delivery of the specifica-tions, and resource consumption for making specifications, quality of specifications, optimization of products and services, and other observations. The purpose of the study is partly to identify specific impacts observed from implementing product configuration...

  4. Systems Thinking, Lean Production and Action Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, John; Caulkin, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Systems thinking underpins "lean" management and is best understood through action-learning as the ideas are counter-intuitive. The Toyota Production System is just that--a system; the failure to appreciate that starting-place and the advocacy of "tools" leads many to fail to grasp what is, without doubt, a significant…

  5. Platform strategy for complex products and systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alblas, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The thesis of Alex Alblas presents a design reuse strategy for firms producing complex products and systems (CoPS). Examples of CoPS include industrial machinery, oil-rigs, electrical power distribution systems, integrated mail processing systems and printing press machinery. CoPS firms are

  6. Comparative study of enteric viruses, coliphages and indicator bacteria for evaluating water quality in a tropical high-altitude system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Ana C; Arias, Carlos F; Sánchez-Colón, Salvador; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa

    2009-10-27

    Bacteria used as indicators for pathogenic microorganisms in water are not considered adequate as enteric virus indicators. Surface water from a tropical high-altitude system located in Mexico City that receives rainwater, treated and non-treated wastewater used for irrigation, and groundwater used for drinking, was studied. The presence of enterovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, coliphage, coliform bacteria, and enterococci was determined during annual cycles in 2001 and 2002. Enteric viruses in concentrated water samples were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Coliphages were detected using the double agar layer method. Bacteria analyses of the water samples were carried out by membrane filtration. The presence of viruses and bacteria in the water used for irrigation showed no relationship between current bacterial indicator detection and viral presence. Coliphages showed strong association with indicator bacteria and enterovirus, but weak association with other enteric viruses. Enterovirus and rotavirus showed significant seasonal differences in water used for irrigation, although this was not clear for astrovirus. Coliphages proved to be adequate faecal pollution indicators for the irrigation water studied. Viral presence in this tropical high-altitude system showed a similar trend to data previously reported for temperate zones.

  7. Comparative study of enteric viruses, coliphages and indicator bacteria for evaluating water quality in a tropical high-altitude system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazari-Hiriart Marisa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria used as indicators for pathogenic microorganisms in water are not considered adequate as enteric virus indicators. Surface water from a tropical high-altitude system located in Mexico City that receives rainwater, treated and non-treated wastewater used for irrigation, and groundwater used for drinking, was studied. Methods The presence of enterovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, coliphage, coliform bacteria, and enterococci was determined during annual cycles in 2001 and 2002. Enteric viruses in concentrated water samples were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Coliphages were detected using the double agar layer method. Bacteria analyses of the water samples were carried out by membrane filtration. Results The presence of viruses and bacteria in the water used for irrigation showed no relationship between current bacterial indicator detection and viral presence. Coliphages showed strong association with indicator bacteria and enterovirus, but weak association with other enteric viruses. Enterovirus and rotavirus showed significant seasonal differences in water used for irrigation, although this was not clear for astrovirus. Conclusion Coliphages proved to be adequate faecal pollution indicators for the irrigation water studied. Viral presence in this tropical high-altitude system showed a similar trend to data previously reported for temperate zones.

  8. Efficiency of a bagasse substrate in a biological bed system for the degradation of glyphosate, malathion and lambda-cyhalothrin under tropical climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roffignac, Laure; Cattan, Philippe; Mailloux, Julie; Herzog, David; Le Bellec, Fabrice

    2008-12-01

    After the rinsing of spray equipment, the rinsing water contains polluting products. One way to avoid pollution is to bring the rinsing water over a purification system, a biological bed. The system consists of an impermeable tub filled with a biomix substrate that facilitates biodegradation of pesticides. Usually, straw is one component of the biomix. The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of an unusual substrate, bagasse, a residue of sugar cane, for the degradation of three pesticides, glyphosate, malathion and lambda-cyhalothrin. Results showed that more than 99% of malathion and glyphosate were degraded in 6 months. In the biological bed, the DT(50) value for malathion was 17 days, for glyphosate 33 days and for lambda-cyhalothrin 43 days. The degradation rate of aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) residues from the degradation of glyphosate was slower than that of the other pesticides (DT(50) 69 days). Finally, the innocuousness of the biomix after 6 months of degradation was confirmed by biological tests. Although the degradation rates of the three pesticides in the present bagasse-based system were similar to those under temperate conditions, the degradation conditions were improved by comparison with those in soil under the given tropical conditions. Further benefits of this system are pesticide confinement, to avoid their dispersion in the environment by liquids or solids, and a lower overall cost. Finally, possibilities for optimising the bagasse-based system (e.g. management of the water content and nature of the biomix) are discussed.

  9. AIRS Impact on the Analysis and Forecast Track of Tropical Cyclone Nargis in a Global Data Assimilation and Forecasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, O.; Lau, W.K.; Susskind, J.; Brin, E.; Liu, E.; Riishojgaard, L. P.; Rosenburg, R.; Fuentes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Tropical cyclones in the northern Indian Ocean pose serious challenges to operational weather forecasting systems, partly due to their shorter lifespan and more erratic track, compared to those in the Atlantic and the Pacific. Moreover, the automated analyses of cyclones over the northern Indian Ocean, produced by operational global data assimilation systems (DASs), are generally of inferior quality than in other basins. In this work it is shown that the assimilation of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) temperature retrievals under partial cloudy conditions can significantly impact the representation of the cyclone Nargis (which caused devastating loss of life in Myanmar in May 2008) in a global DAS. Forecasts produced from these improved analyses by a global model produce substantially smaller track errors. The impact of the assimilation of clear-sky radiances on the same DAS and forecasting system is positive, but smaller than the one obtained by ingestion of AIRS retrievals, possibly due to poorer coverage.

  10. Exclusion of soil macrofauna did not affect soil quality but increases crop yields in a sub-humid tropical maize-based system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, B.K.; Vanlauwe, B.; Hoogmoed, M.; Hurisso, T.T.; Ndabamenye, T.; Terano, Y.; Ayuke, F.O.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Soil macrofauna such as earthworms and termites are involved in key ecosystem functions and thus considered important for sustainable intensification of crop production. However, their contribution to tropical soil and crop performance, as well as relations with agricultural management (e.g.

  11. Bathypelagic particle flux signatures from a suboxic eddy in the oligotrophic tropical North Atlantic: production, sedimentation and preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, G.; Karstensen, J.; Romero, O.; Baumann, K.-H.; Donner, B.; Hefter, J.; Mollenhauer, G.; Iversen, M.; Fiedler, B.; Monteiro, I.; Körtzinger, A.

    2015-11-01

    Particle fluxes at the Cape Verde Ocean Observatory (CVOO) in the eastern tropical North Atlantic for the period December 2009 until May 2011 are discussed based on bathypelagic sediment trap time series data collected at 1290 and 3439 m water depth. The typically oligotrophic particle flux pattern with weak seasonality is modified by the appearance of a highly productive and low oxygen anticyclonic modewater eddy (ACME) in winter 2010. The eddy passage was accompanied by unusually high mass fluxes, lasting from December 2009 to May 2010. Distinct biogenic silica (BSi) and organic carbon flux peaks were observed in February-March 2010 when the eddy approached CVOO. The flux of the lithogenic component, mostly mineral dust, was well correlated to that of organic carbon in particular in the deep trap samples, suggesting a close coupling. The lithogenic ballasting obviously resulted in high particle settling rates and, thus, a fast transfer of epi-/mesopelagic signatures to the bathypelagic traps. Molar C : N ratios of organic matter during the ACME passage were around 18 and 25 for the upper and lower trap samples, respectively. This suggests that some production under nutrient (nitrate) limitation in the upper few tens of meters above the zone of suboxia might have occurred in the beginning of 2010. The δ15N record showed a decrease from January to March 2010 while the organic carbon and N fluxes increased. The causes of enhanced sedimentation from the eddy in February/March 2010 remain elusive but nutrient depletion and/or a high availability of dust as ballast mineral for organic-rich aggregates might have contributed to the elevated fluxes during the eddy passage. Remineralization of sinking organic-rich particles could have contributed to the formation of a suboxic zone at shallow depth. Although the eddy has been formed in the African coastal area in summer 2009, no indication of coastal flux signatures were found in the sediment traps, suggesting an

  12. Nitrogen performance indicators for dairy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, De Cecile A.M.; Monaghan, Ross M.; Alfaro, Marta A.; Gourley, Cameron J.P.; Oenema, Oene; Mark Powell, J.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is invaluable for maintaining agricultural production, but its use, and particularly inefficient use, can lead to environmental losses. This paper reviews N use efficiency (NUE) and N surplus indicators for dairy production systems to assess their utility for optimising N use outcomes

  13. Bioelectrochemical Systems for Indirect Biohydrogen Production

    KAUST Repository

    Regan, John M.; Yan, Hengjing

    2014-01-01

    by exoelectrogens at the anode. As an indirect approach to biohydrogen production, these systems are not subject to the hydrogen yield constraints of fermentative processes and have been proven to work with virtually any biodegradable organic substrate

  14. High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS) provides access to select health and environmental effect information on chemicals that are manufactured in...

  15. REVIEW OF AQUACULTURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM MODELS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    models of aquacultural production systems with the aim of adopting a suitable one for ... of predicting the environmental condition, so as to determine point of diminishing returns and optimize yield in an ..... sale of fish are also tracked.

  16. Heavy metals in vegetables collected from production and market sites of a tropical urban area of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh Kumar; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Marshall, Fiona M

    2009-03-01

    Vegetables (Beta vulgaris L., Abelmoschus esculentus L. and Brassica oleracea L.) from the production and market sites of India were tested for Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb. At market sites, the mean concentration of Cu in cauliflower, and of Zn and Cd in both palak and cauliflower had exceeded the PFA standard. Zn at the production sites also exceeded the PFA standard in cauliflower. Cd concentration in vegetables tested from both production and market sites was many folds higher than the EU standard. In contrast, Pb in vegetables tested from both production and market sites was below the PFA limit, but was considerably higher than the current EU and WHO standards. Heavy metals accumulation in vegetables tested are higher at market sites than those at the crop production sites. The contributions of these vegetables to dietary intake of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were 13%, 1%, 47% and 9% of provisional tolerable daily intake, respectively. The study concludes that the transportation and marketing systems of vegetables play a significant role in elevating the contaminant levels of heavy metals which may pose a threat to the quality of the vegetables with consequences for the health of the consumers of locally produced foodstuffs.

  17. Vegetation-climate feedback causes reduced precipitation and tropical rainforest cover in CMIP5 regional Earth system model simulation over Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M.; Smith, B.; Samuelsson, P.; Rummukainen, M.; Schurgers, G.

    2012-12-01

    We applied a coupled regional climate-vegetation model, RCA-GUESS (Smith et al. 2011), over the CORDEX Africa domain, forced by boundary conditions from a CanESM2 CMIP5 simulation under the RCP8.5 future climate scenario. The simulations were from 1961 to 2100 and covered the African continent at a horizontal grid spacing of 0.44°. RCA-GUESS simulates changes in the phenology, productivity, relative cover and population structure of up to eight plant function types (PFTs) in response to forcing from the climate part of the model. These vegetation changes feed back to simulated climate through dynamic adjustments in surface energy fluxes and surface properties. Changes in the net ecosystem-atmosphere carbon flux and its components net primary production (NPP), heterotrophic respiration and emissions from biomass burning were also simulated but do not feed back to climate in our model. Constant land cover was assumed. We compared simulations with and without vegetation feedback switched "on" to assess the influence of vegetation-climate feedback on simulated climate, vegetation and ecosystem carbon cycling. Both positive and negative warming feedbacks were identified in different parts of Africa. In the Sahel savannah zone near 15°N, reduced vegetation cover and productivity, and mortality caused by a deterioration of soil water conditions led to a positive warming feedback mediated by decreased evapotranspiration and increased sensible heat flux between vegetation and the atmosphere. In the equatorial rainforest stronghold region of central Africa, a feedback syndrome characterised by reduced plant production and LAI, a dominance shift from tropical trees to grasses, reduced soil water and reduced rainfall was identified. The likely underlying mechanism was a decline in evaporative water recycling associated with sparser vegetation cover, reminiscent of Earth system model studies in which a similar feedback mechanism was simulated to force dieback of tropical

  18. Ingestive behavior, performance and forage intake by beef heifers on tropical pasture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Alves de Oliveira Neto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate forage intake, performance and ingestive behavior of beef heifers. Productive, structural and chemical characteristics of the pasture were also evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three pasture systems (Alexandergrass [Urochloa plantaginea Link.] with and without supplement to heifers and Coastcross [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.] and two phenological stages: vegetative and flowering. The grazing method was put-and-take stocking. Grazing, ruminating and idle activities, feeding stations, displacement patterns, bite mass and bite rate were evaluated. The forage intake was estimated using chromic oxide as an indicator of fecal output. The heifers modified the use of feeding stations and displacement patterns between phenological stages and pasture systems. Heifers consumed more forage in the vegetative stage (2.81% of body weight in dry matter than in the flowering stage (1.92% of body weight in dry matter. Average daily gain, body condition and stocking rate were similar for heifers in the evaluated systems. Beef heifers receiving protein supplement on Alexandergrass pasture consumed more forage than heifers fed Coastcross exclusively. Regardless of the species, no difference was observed when the heifers were exclusively on pasture. Pasture systems on Alexandergrass or Coastcross provide suitable nutrient intake for heifers to be mated at 18 months of age.

  19. A systems perspective on nursing productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Nicola; Hughes, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Recent New Zealand reports have identified the nursing workforce for its potential to make a significant contribution to increased productivity in health services. The purpose of this paper is to review critically the recent and current labour approaches to improve nursing productivity in New Zealand, in a context of international research and experience. An examination of government documents regarding productivity, and a review of New Zealand and international literature and research on nursing productivity and its measurement form the basis of the paper. It is found that productivity improvement strategies are influenced by theories of labour economics and scientific management that conceptualise a nurse as a labour unit and a cost to the organisation. Nursing productivity rose significantly with the health reforms of the 1990s that reduced nursing input costs but impacts on patient safety and nurses were negative. Current approaches to increasing nursing productivity, including the "productive ward" and reconfiguration of nursing teams, also draw on manufacturing innovations. Emerging thinking considers productivity in the context of the work environment and changing professional roles, and proposes reconceptualising the nurse as an intellectual asset to knowledge-intensive health organisations. Strategies that take a systems approach to nursing productivity, that view nursing as a capital asset, that focus on the interface between nurse and working environment and measure patient and nurse outcomes are advocated. The paper shows that reframing nursing productivity brings into focus management strategies to raise productivity while protecting nursing and patient outcomes.

  20. Differential impact of lytic viruses on prokaryotic morphopopulations in a tropical estuarine system (Cochin estuary, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasna, Vijayan; Pradeep Ram, Angia Sriram; Parvathi, Ammini; Sime-Ngando, Telesphore

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding on the importance of viral lysis in the functioning of tropical estuarine ecosystem is limited. This study examines viral infection of prokaryotes and subsequent lysis of cells belonging to different morphotypes across a salinity gradient in monsoon driven estuarine ecosystem (Cochin estuary, India). High standing stock of viruses and prokaryotes accompanied by lytic infection rates in the euryhaline/mesohaline region of the estuary suggests salinity to have an influential role in driving interactions between prokaryotes and viruses. High prokaryotic mortality rates, up to 42% of prokaryote population in the pre-monsoon season is further substantiated by a high virus to prokaryote ratio (VPR), suggesting that maintenance of a high number of viruses is dependent on the most active fraction of bacterioplankton. Although myoviruses were the dominant viral morphotype (mean = 43%) throughout the study period, there was significant variation among prokaryotic morphotypes susceptible to viral infection. Among them, the viral infected short rod prokaryote morphotype with lower burst estimates (mean = 18 viruses prokaryote-1) was dominant (35%) in the dry seasons whereas a substantial increase in cocci forms (30%) infected by viruses with high burst size (mean = 31 viruses prokaryote-1) was evident during the monsoon season. Such preferential infections of prokaryotic morphopopulations with respect to seasons can have a strong and variable impact on the carbon and energy flow in this tropical ecosystem.

  1. Light-Absorbing Aerosol during NASA GRIP: Overview of Observations in the Free Troposphere and Associated with Tropical Storm Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Chen, G.; Corr, C. A.; Craig, L.; Dhaniyala, S.; Dibb, J. E.; Hudgins, C. H.; Ismail, S.; Latham, T.; Nenes, A.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosols play a significant role in regulating Earth’s climate. Absorbing aerosols typically constitute a small fraction of ambient particle mass but can contribute significantly to direct and indirect climate forcing depending on size, mixing state, concentration, chemical composition, and vertical and spatial distribution. Aerosols may also significantly affect tropical storm/hurricane dynamics through direct light absorption and activation as cloud nuclei. An extensive suite of instrumentation measuring aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties was deployed aboard the NASA DC-8 to characterize aerosol during the NASA GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes; August-September 2010) mission. The majority of flight time was spent at high altitude (greater than 9 km) and thus much of the sampling was done in the free troposphere, including extensive sampling in the vicinity of tropical storm systems and more diffuse cirrus clouds. With operations based in Fort Lauderdale, FL and St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, a large geographic region was sampled including much of the Gulf of Mexico and tropical Atlantic Ocean. Observations are reported for light-absorbing carbon aerosol (mainly black carbon, BC) primarily using a single particle soot photometer (SP2). The SP2 employs single-particle laser-induced incandescence to provide a mass-specific measurement not subject to scattering interference that is optimal for the low concentration environments like those encountered during GRIP. BC mass concentrations, 100-500 nm size distributions, and mixing state (i.e. coating thickness of scattering material) are presented. Total and sub-micron aerosol absorption coefficients (principally from BC and dust aerosol) are reported using a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) along with comparisons with calculated absorption coefficients derived from SP2 observations in various conditions. In addition, dust aerosol is specifically identified using optical and

  2. Long-term CO2 fertilization increases vegetation productivity and has little effect on hydrological partitioning in tropical rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Donohue, Randall J.; McVicar, Tim R.; Roderick, Michael L.; Beck, Hylke E.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how tropical rainforests respond to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCO2) is essential for predicting Earth's carbon, water, and energy budgets under future climate change. Here we use long-term (1982-2010) precipitation (P) and runoff (Q) measurements to infer runoff coefficient (Q/P) and evapotranspiration (E) trends across 18 unimpaired tropical rainforest catchments. We complement that analysis by using satellite observations coupled with ecosystem process modeling (using both "top-down" and "bottom-up" perspectives) to examine trends in carbon uptake and relate that to the observed changes in Q/P and E. Our results show there have been only minor changes in the satellite-observed canopy leaf area over 1982-2010, suggesting that eCO2 has not increased vegetation leaf area in tropical rainforests and therefore any plant response to eCO2 occurs at the leaf level. Meanwhile, observed Q/P and E also remained relatively constant in the 18 catchments, implying an unchanged hydrological partitioning and thus approximately conserved transpiration under eCO2. For the same period, using a top-down model based on gas exchange theory, we predict increases in plant assimilation (A) and light use efficiency (ɛ) at the leaf level under eCO2, the magnitude of which is essentially that of eCO2 (i.e., 12% over 1982-2010). Simulations from 10 state-of-the-art bottom-up ecosystem models over the same catchments also show that the direct effect of eCO2 is to mostly increase A and ɛ with little impact on E. Our findings add to the current limited pool of knowledge regarding the long-term eCO2 impacts in tropical rainforests.

  3. An assessment of the ECMWF tropical cyclone ensemble forecasting system and its use for insurance loss predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aemisegger, F.; Martius, O.; Wüest, M.

    2010-09-01

    Tropical cyclones (TC) are amongst the most impressive and destructive weather systems of Earth's atmosphere. The costs related to such intense natural disasters have been rising in recent years and may potentially continue to increase in the near future due to changes in magnitude, timing, duration or location of tropical storms. This is a challenging situation for numerical weather prediction, which should provide a decision basis for short term protective measures through high quality medium range forecasts on the one hand. On the other hand, the insurance system bears great responsibility in elaborating proactive plans in order to face these extreme events that individuals cannot manage independently. Real-time prediction and early warning systems are needed in the insurance sector in order to face an imminent hazard and minimise losses. Early loss estimates are important in order to allocate capital and to communicate to investors. The ECMWF TC identification algorithm delivers information on the track and intensity of storms based on the ensemble forecasting system. This provides a physically based framework to assess the uncertainty in the forecast of a specific event. The performance of the ECMWF TC ensemble forecasts is evaluated in terms of cyclone intensity and location in this study and the value of such a physically-based quantification of uncertainty in the meteorological forecast for the estimation of insurance losses is assessed. An evaluation of track and intensity forecasts of hurricanes in the North Atlantic during the years 2005 to 2009 is carried out. Various effects are studied like the differences in forecasts over land or sea, as well as links between storm intensity and forecast error statistics. The value of the ECMWF TC forecasting system for the global re-insurer Swiss Re was assessed by performing insurance loss predictions using their in-house loss model for several case studies of particularly devastating events. The generally known

  4. Sustainable landscapes in a world of change: tropical forests, land use and implementation of REDD+: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Birdsey; Yude Pan; Richard Houghton

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests play a critical role in the Earth system; however, tropical landscapes have changed greatly in recent decades because of increasing demand for land to support agriculture and timber production, fuel wood, and other pressures of population and human economics. The observable results are a legacy of persistent deforestation, forest degradation, increased...

  5. Tropical rainforest response to marine sky brightening climate engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muri, Helene; Niemeier, Ulrike; Kristjánsson, Jón Egill

    2015-04-01

    Tropical forests represent a major atmospheric carbon dioxide sink. Here the gross primary productivity (GPP) response of tropical rainforests to climate engineering via marine sky brightening under a future scenario is investigated in three Earth system models. The model response is diverse, and in two of the three models, the tropical GPP shows a decrease from the marine sky brightening climate engineering. Partial correlation analysis indicates precipitation to be important in one of those models, while precipitation and temperature are limiting factors in the other. One model experiences a reversal of its Amazon dieback under marine sky brightening. There, the strongest partial correlation of GPP is to temperature and incoming solar radiation at the surface. Carbon fertilization provides a higher future tropical rainforest GPP overall, both with and without climate engineering. Salt damage to plants and soils could be an important aspect of marine sky brightening.

  6. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyushu to Taiwan, are at the northern limits for tropical fruit production without artificial heating. In this review, we describe the current status of tropical fruit breeding, genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of three main tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, and papaya) that are cultivated and consumed in Japan. More than ten new elite cultivars of pineapple have been released with improved fruit quality and suitability for consumption as fresh fruit. New challenges and perspectives for obtaining high fruit quality are discussed in the context of breeding programs for pineapple. PMID:27069392

  7. Tropical Cyclones in the 7km NASA Global Nature Run for use in Observing System Simulation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Oreste; Achuthavarier, Deepthi; Fuentes, Marangelly; Putman, William M.; Partyka, Gary

    2018-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Nature Run (NR), released for use in Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs), is a 2-year long global non-hydrostatic free-running simulation at a horizontal resolution of 7 km, forced by observed sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea ice, and inclusive of interactive aerosols and trace gases. This article evaluates the NR with respect to tropical cyclone (TC) activity. It is emphasized that to serve as a NR, a long-term simulation must be able to produce realistic TCs, which arise out of realistic large-scale forcings. The presence in the NR of the realistic, relevant dynamical features over the African Monsoon region and the tropical Atlantic is confirmed, along with realistic African Easterly Wave activity. The NR Atlantic TC seasons, produced with 2005 and 2006 SSTs, show interannual variability consistent with observations, with much stronger activity in 2005. An investigation of TC activity over all the other basins (eastern and western North Pacific, North and South Indian Ocean, and Australian region), together with relevant elements of the atmospheric circulation, such as, for example, the Somali Jet and westerly bursts, reveals that the model captures the fundamental aspects of TC seasons in every basin, producing realistic number of TCs with realistic tracks, life spans and structures. This confirms that the NASA NR is a very suitable tool for OSSEs targeting TCs and represents an improvement with respect to previous long simulations that have served the global atmospheric OSSE community. PMID:29674806

  8. Modelling Product Families for Product Configuration Systems with Product Variant Master

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an evaluation of applying a suggested method for modelling product families for product configuration based on theory for modelling mechanical products,systems theory and object-oriented modelling. The modelling technique includes a so-called product variant master and CRC-cards...... the three views. Modelling of characteristics of the product variants in a product family Modelling of constraints between parts in the product family Visualisation of the entire product family on a poster e.g. 1x2 meters The product variant master and CRC-cards are means to bridge the gap between domain...... experts and IT-developers, thus making it possible for the domain experts (e.g. engineers from product development) to express their knowledge in a form that is understandable both for the domain experts and the IT-developers. The product variant master and CRC-cards have currently been tested and further...

  9. Tropical cyanobacterial blooms: a review of prevalence, problem taxa, toxins and influencing environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine A.D. Mowe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are a major issue in freshwater systems in many countries. The potentially toxic species and their ecological causes are likely to be different in tropical zones from those in temperate water bodies; however, studies on tropical toxic cyanobacterial blooms are sporadic and currently there is no global synthesis. In this review, we examined published information on tropical cyanobacterial bloom occurrence and toxin production to investigate patterns in their growth and distribution. Microcystis was the most frequently occurring bloom genus throughout tropical Asia, Africa and Central America, while Cylindrospermopsis and Anabaena blooms occurred in various locations in tropical Australia, America and Africa. Microcystis blooms were more prevalent during the wet season while Cylindrospermopsis blooms were more prevalent during the dry period. Microcystin was the most encountered toxin throughout the tropics. A meta-analysis of tropical cyanobacterial blooms showed that Microcystis blooms were more associated with higher total nitrogen concentrations, while Cylindrospermopsis blooms were more associated with higher maximum temperatures. Meta-analysis also showed a positive linear relationship between levels of microcystin and N:P (nitrate:phosphate ratio. Tropical African Microcystis blooms were found to have the lowest microcystin levels in relation to biomass and N:P (nitrate:phosphate compared to tropical Asian, Australian and American blooms. There was also no significant correlation between microcystin concentration and cell concentration for tropical African blooms as opposed to tropical Asian and American blooms. Our review illustrates that some cyanobacteria and toxins are more prevalent in tropical areas. While some tropical countries have considerable information regarding toxic blooms, others have few or no reported studies. 

  10. Conceptual Modelling for Product Configuration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara

    Individual customization of goods and processes in different industries leads to complexity due to a growing mix of products both regarding characteristics of products and support services. In order to eliminate complexity and challenges in product/process customizing, smart IT systems called...... Product Configuration Systems (PCS), have been proposed as the solution both by researchers and practitioners and various benefits are mentioned from utilizing PCSs. Based on the latest literature, there are challenges reported in all phases of PCS projects including planning, development......, and documentation. Moreover, the challenges become more serious when it involves complicated products/processes in engineer-to-order (ETO) companies. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the existing knowledge of managing PCS projects by proposing frameworks and tools to address some of the main...

  11. Tropical Agro-Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Tropical Agro-Sciences Division has two functions: conduct research on the impact of air pollution on tropical agricultural and to provide training to UPR graduate students and visiting scientists. Since the reorientation of the Center's interests under ERDA, the Division has directed its research activities, with particular emphasis on the effects of atmospheric pollution on tropical agriculture in the Guayanilla-Penuelas region, which has a fossil-fuel power plant, petroleum refineries, and associated industries. This new area of research is important to ERDA because the knowledge gained regarding the effects of air pollution related to energy technology on the agricultural environment and productivity will be useful in planning future energy developments. Information about the potential harm of air pollutants to man through the food chain and about ways of alleviating their impact on agriculture are of practical importance. Studies of the mechanisms involved in pollution injury, protection, and tolerance are of basic significance

  12. Complex Networks Dynamics Based on Events-Phase Synchronization and Intensity Correlation Applied to The Anomaly Patterns and Extremes in The Tropical African Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluoch, K.; Marwan, N.; Trauth, M.; Loew, A.; Kurths, J.

    2012-04-01

    The African continent lie almost entirely within the tropics and as such its (tropical) climate systems are predominantly governed by the heterogeneous, spatial and temporal variability of the Hadley and Walker circulations. The variabilities in these meridional and zonal circulations lead to intensification or suppression of the intensities, durations and frequencies of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ICTZ) migration, trade winds and subtropical high-pressure regions and the continental monsoons. The above features play a central role in determining the African rainfall spatial and temporal variability patterns. The current understanding of these climate features and their influence on the rainfall patterns is not sufficiently understood. Like many real-world systems, atmospheric-oceanic processes exhibit non-linear properties that can be better explored using non-linear (NL) methods of time-series analysis. Over the recent years, the complex network approach has evolved as a powerful new player in understanding spatio-temporal dynamics and evolution of complex systems. Together with NL techniques, it is continuing to find new applications in many areas of science and technology including climate research. We would like to use these two powerful methods to understand the spatial structure and dynamics of African rainfall anomaly patterns and extremes. The method of event synchronization (ES) developed by Quiroga et al., 2002 and first applied to climate networks by Malik et al., 2011 looks at correlations with a dynamic time lag and as such, it is a more intuitive way to correlate a complex and heterogeneous system like climate networks than a fixed time delay most commonly used. On the other hand, the short comings of ES is its lack of vigorous test statistics for the significance level of the correlations, and the fact that only the events' time indices are synchronized while all information about how the relative intensities propagate within network

  13. PLM system support for modular product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Harlou, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    A modular design strategy both enables, but also demands, parallelism in design activities and collaboration between a diversity of disciplines in companies, which often involves supporting computer-based tools for enhancing interaction, design management, and communication. Product data management...... (PDM) and product lifecycle management (PLM) systems offer support by automating and managing some of the operational complexity of modular design activities. PLM system tools are used for handling a variety of product definitions, to manage workflow of development activities, and to measure relational...... properties such as cost and performance. Companies often use a PLM tool for management of CAD files, documents, and drawings, but they do not take advantage of the full potential of the PLM system to support the development activities of modular product designs. The key result of this paper...

  14. Production Flexibility in Extensive Beef Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astigarraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the flexibility of production allowed by extensive production conditions faced with variations in the environment, i.e., market variations and climatic fluctuations, of Limousin beef systems. The study used a case-based methodology in which seven beef farms with less than 1 LU/ha were chosen. Data collection was based on three interviews using a semistructured questionnaire and on the analysis of productive and economic results over a 15-year period (1991-2005. The main evolution of these farms is related to a rise in work productivity associated with an increase in herd size. Herd increase was made possible by enlarging the area, the margin of intensification being limited in these regions. To take advantage of the enlarged land area, females were reared for fattening or for reproduction instead of selling them at weaning. The Limousin female provides a wide product mix because of its plasticity, as has been studied by several researchers. This mix flexibility is achieved by delaying product differentiation, a form of production flexibility that can reduce the risk of under-producing or over-producing varied product configurations. On the other hand, calves sold to the Italian market after weaning are generic products, associated with a flexible production process to overcome fluctuations in forage availability due to climatic variations. The introduction of maize silage for feeding acts as an alternative route, actual and potential, through the system to overcome unexpected forage shortage from natural grasslands as a result of droughts. The study shows that extensive farming systems have developed types of flexibility to match different factors of uncertainty from the environment. Finally, the issue of farm system performance is thus not so much a question of whether a farm is fit at a specific moment in time, but whether it transforms into a less or more sustainable orientation.

  15. Ventilation system for 99Mo production apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Mishiroku; Okane, Shougo; Sorita, Takami; Aoyama, Saburou

    1978-04-01

    In production of 20 Ci 99 Mo from 235 U fission, about 120 Ci of radioiodine ( 131 I, 132 I, and 133 I) is involved. To remove airborne radioiodine from the exhaust air from production apparatus and minimize radioiodine release to the atmosphere, the ventilation system is equipped with 2 units of Model-FD charcoal filter (KI 3 -Impregnated charcoal 2 inch thick of Barnebey-Cheney Co.). From September 1976 to December 1977, 21 runs of 99 Mo production involving airborne radioiodine were carried out. The ventilation system was operated continuously for the whole 15 months period; variation in removal efficiency of airborne radioiodine from the exhaust air stream was observed. In the runs valuable experiences were gained in operation and maintenance of the ventilation system including activated charcoal filter and health-physics management of such facility. Following are the results: (1) Airborne radioiodine from 99 Mo production apparatus is reduced to 10 -3 % of the original quantity. (2) When the ventilation system is operated at a maximum air flow rate through the filter, the average efficiency during 15 months is over 98%. (3) Airborne radioiodine released from 99 Mo production apparatus to the ventilation system is less than 5% particulate iodine and alkyl iodines and more than 95% inorganic iodine. (4) Airborne radioiodine released from the stack is less than 28 μCi/run, which is below the limit in regulations on Radioisotope Production Laboratory. (auth.)

  16. The seasonal and ovarian status effects on in vitro production of domestic cat embryos between Equator and Tropic of Capricorn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian R. Martins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available From the Tropic of Capricorn to Equator, the seasonality of domestic cat is known to be absent, i.e., these animals are considered non-seasonal breeders at these regions. We hypothesized that this particularity might have some influence on in vitro embryo production. The aim of this experiment was to determine the percentage of cleavage and morulae and blastocyst formation produced from oocytes recovered from queen ovaries of three distinct status - follicular, luteal or inactive - during two different reproductive seasons experienced by cats in southeast of Brazil (22°53'09" S and 48°26'42" W - non breeding season (NBS, comprehending January to March; and breeding season (BS, August to October. Thirty queens were neutered. Ovaries were classified according to their status and were sliced in PBS for cumulus oocyte complex (COC releasing. Grade I COC were washed three times in H-MEM supplemented with BSA, glutamine, sodium pyruvate, cysteine, streptomycin and penicillin. Oocytes were incubated in groups of 20-30 in 400µL of DMEM supplemented with FSH, LH, estradiol, IGF-I and basic fibroblast growth factor under mineral oil for 30 or 36 hours at 38°C in humidified environment of 5% de O2, 5% CO2 and 90% N2. COC were fertilized in Ham's F-10 medium supplemented with BSA, cysteine, pyruvate and streptomycin/penicillin (culture medium with fresh semen selected through swim up technique. Eighteen hours later, the presumptive zygotes were denuded, the percentage of cleavage was determined and every 10 zygotes were transferred to 100mL drops of culture medium for culture during three days. After 72 hours of culture the percentage of morulae formation was evaluated and these structures were transferred to drops of the same culture medium. At the eighth day of culture blastocyst formation was analyzed. During NBS, from a total of 272 (inactive, 162 (luteal and 134 (follicular fertilized oocytes, the percentage of cleaved zygotes, morulae and

  17. Copepod grazing and their impact on phytoplankton standing stock and production in a tropical coastal water during the different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesan, L; Jyothibabu, R; Arunpandi, N; Parthasarathi, S

    2017-03-01

    of the seasons, dominant calanoid copepods showed a negative selection of pico-phytoplankton fraction. The cyclopoid O. similis and Poecilostomatoid Corycaeus danae showed a positive selection of nano- and pico-phytoplankton fractions rather than micro-fraction. The grazing pressure of copepod community ingestion on micro-fraction was less (0.56% of the phytoplankton biomass and 1.06% of the phytoplankton production) during the PKSWM. This study provides, for the first time, clear findings on the seasonal variation in the top-down control of phytoplankton by copepods in a tropical coastal water ecosystem and discusses its implications on phytoplankton blooming, plankton food web, and biogeochemistry.

  18. A Look Under the Hood: How the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System Uses Database Technologies to Present Big Data to Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knosp, B.; Gangl, M.; Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Kim, R. M.; Li, P.; Turk, J.; Vu, Q. A.

    2015-12-01

    The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) brings together satellite, aircraft, and model forecast data from several NASA, NOAA, and other data centers to assist researchers in comparing and analyzing data and model forecast related to tropical cyclones. The TCIS has been running a near-real time (NRT) data portal during North Atlantic hurricane season that typically runs from June through October each year, since 2010. Data collected by the TCIS varies by type, format, contents, and frequency and is served to the user in two ways: (1) as image overlays on a virtual globe and (2) as derived output from a suite of analysis tools. In order to support these two functions, the data must be collected and then made searchable by criteria such as date, mission, product, pressure level, and geospatial region. Creating a database architecture that is flexible enough to manage, intelligently interrogate, and ultimately present this disparate data to the user in a meaningful way has been the primary challenge. The database solution for the TCIS has been to use a hybrid MySQL + Solr implementation. After testing other relational database and NoSQL solutions, such as PostgreSQL and MongoDB respectively, this solution has given the TCIS the best offerings in terms of query speed and result reliability. This database solution also supports the challenging (and memory overwhelming) geospatial queries that are necessary to support analysis tools requested by users. Though hardly new technologies on their own, our implementation of MySQL + Solr had to be customized and tuned to be able to accurately store, index, and search the TCIS data holdings. In this presentation, we will discuss how we arrived on our MySQL + Solr database architecture, why it offers us the most consistent fast and reliable results, and how it supports our front end so that we can offer users a look into our "big data" holdings.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions and global warming potential of traditional and diversified tropical rice rotation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Sebastian; Janz, Baldur; Jörg, Lena; Kraus, David; Racela, Heathcliff S U; Wassmann, Reiner; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Global rice agriculture will be increasingly challenged by water scarcity, while at the same time changes in demand (e.g. changes in diets or increasing demand for biofuels) will feed back on agricultural practices. These factors are changing traditional cropping patterns from double-rice cropping to the introduction of upland crops in the dry season. For a comprehensive assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, we measured methane (CH4 )/nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions and agronomic parameters over 2.5 years in double-rice cropping (R-R) and paddy rice rotations diversified with either maize (R-M) or aerobic rice (R-A) in upland cultivation. Introduction of upland crops in the dry season reduced irrigation water use and CH4 emissions by 66-81% and 95-99%, respectively. Moreover, for practices including upland crops, CH4 emissions in the subsequent wet season with paddy rice were reduced by 54-60%. Although annual N2 O emissions increased two- to threefold in the diversified systems, the strong reduction in CH4 led to a significantly lower (P < 0.05) annual GWP (CH4  + N2 O) as compared to the traditional double-rice cropping system. Measurements of soil organic carbon (SOC) contents before and 3 years after the introduction of upland crop rotations indicated a SOC loss for the R-M system, while for the other systems SOC stocks were unaffected. This trend for R-M systems needs to be followed as it has significant consequences not only for the GWP balance but also with regard to soil fertility. Economic assessment showed a similar gross profit span for R-M and R-R, while gross profits for R-A were reduced as a consequence of lower productivity. Nevertheless, regarding a future increase in water scarcity, it can be expected that mixed lowland-upland systems will expand in SE Asia as water requirements were cut by more than half in both rotation systems with upland crops. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Modal structure of variations in the tropical climate system. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, T.P.; Graham, N.

    1992-01-01

    Simulations with ocean and atmospheric general circulation models and a hybrid coupled model reproduce well the observed features of variability in the low frequency (LF) mode described in Part I. The model results show the origins of the LF to be in the ocean and suggest this phenomenon is a natural mode of the tropical Pacific Basin. Air-sea interactions amplify the ocean mode by a factor of 5-6 so it obtains climatological importance. These same interactions introduce the LF to the atmosphere. The physical processes responsible for these results are presented. The LF mode of interannual variability is not directly driven by the annual cycle. But it does depend importantly on the fact that the ocean-atmosphere coupling strength vary with respect to the annual cycle. The LF mode appears to be rather sharply peaked in wave number space but broadbanded in frequency space. (orig.)

  1. USE OF GUACIMO (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. AS A FORAGE SOURCE FOR EXTENSIVE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN A TROPICAL AREA OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena Nava-Tablada

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the traditional uses of guacimo (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam, compared to other local forage resources for livestock. The expectative of farmers on the use of trees as alternative sources of forage in Angostillo, Paso de Ovejas, Veracruz, Mexico was also investigated. Data was collected through interviews and direct observation. All farmers practice ranching and 85% combine animal production with crop cultivation; allocating 40% of their land to corn and 60% to dual purpose cattle production. The principal uses of guacimo are as forage, firewood, timber, shade, and living fence posts. Guacimo has the highest value as forage compared to other local fodder trees such as guaje de indio (Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson, espino (Acacia cavenia Mol. and huizache (A. farnesiana Willd.. Farmers showed interest in establishing silvopastoral systems including forage banks using guacimo. However, they foresaw limitations due to a lack of consulting, agronomic training and financial support to establish the crops.

  2. The use of the United States FDA programs as a strategy to advance the development of drug products for neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs-Barrable, Kristina; Conway, Jocelyn; Gershkovich, Pavel; Ibrahim, Fady; Wasan, Kishor M

    2014-11-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are infections which are endemic in poor populations in lower- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Approximately one billion people have now or are at risk of getting an NTD and yet less than 5% of research dollars are focused on providing treatments and prevention of these highly debilitating and deadly conditions. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Orphan Drug Designation program (ODDP) provides orphan status to drugs and biologics, defined as those intended for the safe and effective treatment, diagnosis or prevention of rare diseases and/or disorders that affect fewer than 200 000 people in the United States, or that affect more than 200 000 persons but are not expected to recover the costs of developing and marketing a treatment drug. These regulations have led to the translation of rare disease knowledge into innovative rare disease therapies. The FDA Guidance for Industry on developing drugs for the treatment and prevention of NTDs describes the following regulatory strategies: Orphan Product Designation, Fast Track Designation, Priority Review Designation, Accelerated Approval and Tropical Disease Priority Review Voucher. This paper will discuss how these regulations and especially the ODDP can improve the clinical development and accessibility of drug products for NTDs.

  3. Managing complexity of product mix and production flow in configure-to-order production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrodia, Anna; Bonev, Martin; Hvam, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In designing configure-to-order production systems for a growing product variety, companies are challenged with an increased complexity for obtaining high productivity levels and cost-effectiveness. In academia several optimization methods and conceptual frameworks for substituting components, or...

  4. Expert system for estimating LWR plutonium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    An Artificial Intelligence-Expert System called APES (Analysis of Proliferation by Expert System) has been developed and tested to permit a non proliferation expert to evaluate the capability and capacity of a specified LWR reactor and PUREX reprocessing system for producing and separating plutonium even when system information may be limited and uncertain. APES employs an expert system coded in LISP and based upon an HP-RL (Hewlett Packard-Representational Language) Expert System Shell. The user I/O interface communicates with a blackboard and the knowledge base which contains the quantitative models required to describe the reactor, selected fission product production and radioactive decay processes, Purex reprocessing and ancillary knowledge

  5. Desempenho animal e produtividade de pastagens tropicais no noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul Animal performance and productivity of tropical pasture in Northwest of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Maixner

    2009-08-01

    dwarf elephantgrass. Comparing the second to the first years, tifton 85 maintained 88% of stocking rate and 80% of production per area, while dwarf elephantgrass only 46% and 56%, respectively. Average individual production of 17kg of milk/cow/day indicates an unexplored potential of tropical grasses in dairy production systems, especially in the South of Brazil.

  6. Banana production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 banana producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National Banana Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale banana producers' practices, but two other banana production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-banana intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides.

  7. Design, product structuring and modelling of mechatronic products and systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Sørensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    Information Technology offers software and hardware for improvement of the engineering design, structuring and control systems, and industrial applications. The latest progress in IT makes integration of an overall design and manufacturing IT- concept feasible and commercially attractive. An IT......-tool concept for modelling, simulation and design of mechatronic products and systems is proposed in this paper. It built on results from a Danish mechatronic research program on intelligent motion control as well as from the Esprit project SWING on IT-tools for rapid prototyping of fluid power components...

  8. The impact of suspended oyster farming on nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide production in a sub-tropical Australian estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Dirk V.; Welsh, David T.; Bennet, William W.; Meziane, Tarik; Hubas, Cédric; Nizzoli, Daniele; Ferguson, Angus J. P.

    2017-06-01

    In this study we quantified nitrate (NO3-) reduction (denitrification, anammox and DNRA) and N2O production in sediments and epibiont communities associated with Sydney Rock Oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) farming. In sediments beneath an active suspended oyster farm, DNRA accounted for 98% of NO3- reduction with rates of up to 169 ± 45 μmol N m-2 h-1. Much of this DNRA was fuelled by NO3- derived from nitrification. Reference sediments had significantly lower DNRA rates of 83.8 ± 28.2 μmol N m-2 h-1, however this constituted 96% of the sites total NO3- reduction. Fatty acid analysis showed that sediment organic matter was more labile in the oyster impacted sediments, facilitating subtle shifts in sediment oxygen demand which increased the Fe2+ availability with respect to the reference sediments. The difference in DNRA rate between the sites was attributed to autotrophic oxidation of soluble Fe2+ in sediments underlying the oyster cultures. DNRA was absent in the oyster shell epibiont communities and rates of anammox and denitrification were lower than in the sediments. Production of NH4+ from the oysters and their associated epibionts was larger than DNRA and reached a rate of 206.2 μmol N m-2 h-1. Nitrous oxide production rates were generally low compared to other aquaculture systems and the net flux of N2O for the combined oyster cultivation system (i.e. sediments plus epibionts) was negative, i.e. there was N2O consumption in the sediments beneath the oysters. Overall, subtropical suspended oyster farming systems favour inorganic N retention over N loss.

  9. Fitting maize into sustainable cropping systems on acid soils of the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    One of the key elements of sustainable cropping systems is the integration of crops and/or crop cultivars with high tolerance of soil acidity and which make most efficient use of the nutrients supplied by soil and fertilizer. This paper is based mainly on on-going work within an EU-funded project combining basic research on plant adaptation mechanisms by plant physiologists, and field experimentation on acid soils in Brazil, Cameroon, Colombia and Guadeloupe by breeders, soil scientists and a agronomists. The results suggest that large genetic variability exists in adaptation of plants to acid soils. A range of morphological and physiological plant characteristics contribute to tolerance of acid soils, elucidation of which has contributed to the development of rapid techniques for screening for tolerance. Incorporation of acid-soil-tolerant species and cultivars into cropping systems contributes to improved nutrient efficiency overall, and thus reduces fertilizer needs. This may help to minimize maintenance applications of fertiliser through various pathways: (i) deeper root growth resulting in more-efficient uptake of nutrients from the sub-soil and less leaching, (ii) more biomass production resulting in less seepage and less leaching, with more intensive nutrient cycling, maintenance of higher soil organic-matter content, and, consequently, less erosion owing to better soil protection by vegetation and mulch. (author)

  10. Energy condensed packaged systems. Composition, production, properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor L. Kovalenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is presented the substantiation of choice of fuel phase composition and optimal technology of emulsion production on the basis of binary solution of ammonium and calcium nitrates, which provide the obtaining of energy condensed packaged systems with specified properties. The thermal decomposition of energy condensed systems on the basis of ammonium nitrate is investigated. It is shown that the fuel phase of emulsion systems should be based on esters of polyunsaturated acids or on combinations thereof with petroleum products. And ceresin or petroleum wax can be used as the structuring additive. The influence of the technology of energy condensed systems production on the physicochemical and detonation parameters of emulsion explosives is considered. It is shown the possibility of obtaining of emulsion systems with dispersion of 1.3...1.8 microns and viscosity higher than 103 Pa∙s in the apparatus of original design. The sensitizing effect of chlorinated paraffin CP-470 on the thermolysis of energy condensed emulsion system is shown. The composition and production technology of energy condensed packaged emulsion systems of mark Ukrainit-P for underground mining in mines not dangerous on gas and dust are developed.

  11. Urgent need for warming experiments in tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaveri, Molly A.; Reed, Sasha C.; Smith, W. Kolby; Wood, Tana E.

    2015-01-01

    Although tropical forests account for only a fraction of the planet's terrestrial surface, they exchange more carbon dioxide with the atmosphere than any other biome on Earth, and thus play a disproportionate role in the global climate. In the next 20 years, the tropics will experience unprecedented warming, yet there is exceedingly high uncertainty about their potential responses to this imminent climatic change. Here, we prioritize research approaches given both funding and logistical constraints in order to resolve major uncertainties about how tropical forests function and also to improve predictive capacity of earth system models. We investigate overall model uncertainty of tropical latitudes and explore the scientific benefits and inevitable trade-offs inherent in large-scale manipulative field experiments. With a Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 analysis, we found that model variability in projected net ecosystem production was nearly 3 times greater in the tropics than for any other latitude. Through a review of the most current literature, we concluded that manipulative warming experiments are vital to accurately predict future tropical forest carbon balance, and we further recommend the establishment of a network of comparable studies spanning gradients of precipitation, edaphic qualities, plant types, and/or land use change. We provide arguments for long-term, single-factor warming experiments that incorporate warming of the most biogeochemically active ecosystem components (i.e. leaves, roots, soil microbes). Hypothesis testing of underlying mechanisms should be a priority, along with improving model parameterization and constraints. No single tropical forest is representative of all tropical forests; therefore logistical feasibility should be the most important consideration for locating large-scale manipulative experiments. Above all, we advocate for multi-faceted research programs, and we offer arguments for what we consider the most

  12. PLACE OF PRODUCTION COSTS SYSTEM ANALYSIS IN SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia CHEREDNYCHENKO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current economic conditions require the development and implementation of an adequate system of production costs, which would ensure a steady profit growth and production volumes in a highly competitive, constantly increasing input prices and tariffs. This management system must be based on an integrated production costs system analysis (PCSA, which would provide all operating costs management subsystems necessary information to design and make better management decisions. It provides a systematic analysis of more opportunities in knowledge, creating conditions of integrity mechanism knowledge object consisting of elements that show intersystem connections, each of which has its own defined and limited objectives, relationship with the environment.

  13. Short-term variability of water quality and its implications on phytoplankton production in a tropical estuary (Cochin backwaters - India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhu, N.V.; Balachandran, K.K.; Martin, G.D.; Jyothibabu, R; Thottathil, S.D.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.; Kusum, K.K.

    , C.A., Martin, G.D & Nair, K.K.C., (2006). Impact of fresh water influx on microzooplankton mediated food web in a tropical estuary (Cochin backwaters - India). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 69, 505 - 518. Madhu. N.V., Jyothibabu, R..., Y., Wetzel, R.L., Anderson, I.C., 1999. Spatial and temporal characteristics of nutrient and phytoplankton dynamics in the York River Estuary, Virginia: analyses of long-term data. Estuaries 22, 260-275. Srinivas. K, Revichandran, C., Maheswaran...

  14. Atlantic Tropical Cyclogenetic Processes During SOP-3 NAMMA in the GEOS-5 Global Data Assimilation and Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Oreste; Lau, William K.; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Brin, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Saharan air layer (SAL) in tropical cyclogenetic processes associated with a nondeveloping and a developing African easterly wave observed during the Special Observation Period (SOP-3) phase of the 2006 NASA African. Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA). The two waves are chosen because they both interact heavily with Saharan air. A glottal data assimilation and forecast system, the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System. version 5 (GEOS-5), is being run to produce a set of high-9 uality global analyses, inclusive of all observations used operationally but with additional satellite information. In particular, following previous works by the same authors, the duality-controlled data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) used to produce these analyses have a better coverage than the one adopted by operational centers. From these improved analyses, two sets of 31 five-day high-resolution forecasts, at horizontal resolutions of both half and quarter degrees, are produced. Results indicate that very steep moisture gradients are associated with the SAL in forecasts and analyses, even at great distances from their source over the Sahara. In addition, a thermal dipole in the vertiieat (warm above, cool below) is present in the nondeveloping case. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spoctroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites shows that aerosol optical thickness, indicative of more dust as opposed to other factors, is higher in the nondeveloping case. Altogether, results suggest that the radiative effect of dust may play some role in producing a thermal structure less favorable to cyclogenesis. Results also indicate that only global horizontal resolutions on the order of 20-30 km can capture the large-scale transport and the tine thermal structure of the SAL, inclusive of the sharp moisture gradients, reproducing the effect of tropical cyclone suppression that has been hypothesized by previous authors

  15. Determinants of scientific output: an in-depth view of the productivity of tropical botanist and conservationist, Luis Diego Gómez Pignataro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Monge-Nájera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric studies have found that male researchers have their greatest productivity around the age of 40, that female researchers produce less than their male colleagues, that incentives for collaboration are slow to affect productivity and that, just like humans, research institutes become larger, less productive, more expensive to maintain and less able to raise money as they grow old. Almost invariably, these conclusions come from statistical studies of large numbers of European and American scientists, and there are practically no studies about tropical researchers. We present an in-depth analysis of the productivity of an internationally recognized tropical botanist and conservationist, Luis Diego Gómez Pignataro, based on the totality of his published work and on our own knowledge, as co-workers and friends, of the life frame in which that scientific output was produced. His life output departs from the expected pattern in that he had the highest productivity before reaching the expected peak productivity age, and that when he reached it his productivity fell and never recovered. Furthermore, marriage did not produce the expected fall in productivity. A close analysis of his life indicates that in the middle of his career he switched to intense teaching and conservation activities, and this better explains why his output of scientific research articles was low afterwards. This switch may occur in other tropical scientists. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1093-1114. Epub 2010 December 01.Los estudios bibliométricos han encontrado que los investigadores de sexo masculino tienen su mayor productividad aproximadamente a los 40 años; que las investigadoras producen menos que sus colegas masculinos, que los incentivos para la colaboración tardan en aumentar la productividad y que, al igual que los seres humanos, los institutos de investigación se hacen más grandes, menos productivos, más costosos y menos capaces de recaudar dinero a medida que

  16. Development of a site specific dynamical tropical cyclone and other extreme weather early warning system for Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna, S.S.V.S.; Bhaskar Rao, D.V.; Venkata Srinivas, C.; Venkatesan, R.; Srivastav, Rupa

    2014-01-01

    The project was to study the tropical cyclones over Bay of Bengal for the south east coast region in the neighbourhood of Kalpakkam, with the main objectives of developing a methodology for providing early warning of developing storms for Kalpakkam site region based on numerical methods. The main objectives of the project are to develop a numerical modeling system for the forecasting of cyclonic storms that form in the Bay of Bengal and cross the east coast of Kalpakkam. the model performance with respect to the intensity (extreme winds), rainfall and the movement of the storm will be assessed for a number of past cyclonic storms in the region and simulations will focus on the identification of proper model configuration in terms of horizontal/vertical resolutions and physics parameterizations for deriving best predictions and to implement the same for operations forecasting for the Kalpakkam site in Tamil Nadu

  17. Analysis of different atmospheric physical parameterizations in COAWST modeling system for the Tropical Storm Nock-ten application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Danqin; Du, Jianting; Hua, Feng

    2016-01-01

    the storm center area. As a result, using Kain–Fritsch cumulus scheme, Goddard shortwave radiation scheme and RRTM longwave radiation scheme in WRF may lead to much larger wind intensity, significant wave height, current intensity, as well as lower SST and sea surface pressure. Thus......A coupled ocean–atmosphere–wave–sediment transport modeling system was applied to study the atmosphere and ocean dynamics during Tropical Storm Nock-ten. Different atmospheric physical parameterizations in WRF model were investigated through ten groups of numerical experiments. Results...... of atmosphere, ocean wave and current features were compared with storm observations, ERA-Interim data, NOAA sea surface temperature data, AVISO current data and HYCOM data, respectively. It was found that the storm track and intensity are sensitive to the cumulus and radiation schemes in WRF, especially around...

  18. Modular Product Families and Assembly Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    This research centres on assembly systems designed for utilizing product modularization. Altogether, the task for companies has become an issue of managing the overall trade-off between the external market’s desire for variety and the internal efficiency and effectiveness. Product modularization...... a number of theoretical and managerial implications are identified. From a management point of view, the most im-portant finding is that modularization needs to be configured for the two competitive situations, i.e. 1) the volume flexible configuration focusing on generational product variety and 2......) the mix flexible con-figuration focusing on the simultaneous product variety. These two views are in particular different in respect to the understanding of product modularization. All in all, modularization needs to be, and can be, configured in regard to the specific task, which is believed constituting...

  19. Business cases for product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara; Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Hvam, Lars

    In the recent years, product configuration systems (PCSs) have received greater attention from industries providing customized products as a response to increased demand to fulfil diverse customers’ needs for customized products. Before developing a PCS, a well-established business case has...... to be made in order to secure the success and delivery of the project as it will increase the commitment from the business side. This paper presents a framework for supporting the development of business cases for PCSs and discusses the experiences from multiple case studies benefiting from the suggested...

  20. The effect of temperate or tropical pasture grazing state and grain-based concentrate allocation on dairy cattle production and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E F; Kaur, R; Millapan, L O; Golder, H M; Thomson, P C; Horadagoda, A; Islam, M R; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C

    2018-06-01

    Grain-based concentrate (GBC) supplement is of high cost to dairy farmers as a feed source as opposed to grazed pasture. Milk production response to GBC is affected by the composition and nutritive value of the remainder of the diet, animal factors, and interactions between forage type and level of GBC. In grazing systems, dairy cattle encounter contrasting pasture states, primarily because the social structure of the herd affects the timing of when each animal accesses a paddock after milking as a result of a relatively consistent cow milking order. However, the effect of feed management, namely pasture state and GBC allocation, on dairy cattle production and behavior is unknown. We examined the effect of varying GBC allocation for dairy cattle grazing differing states of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum, a tropical pasture species; experiment 1) and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L., a temperate pasture species; experiment 2) on dry matter intake, milk production and composition, and grazing behavior. For each experiment, 90 lactating dairy cattle were randomly allocated to 2 consistent (fresh-fresh and depleted-depleted) and 2 inconsistent (fresh-depleted and depleted-fresh pasture state treatments (defined as sequences of pasture state allocation for the morning and afternoon grazing events) and 3 GBC treatments [2.7, 5.4, and 8.1 kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day], giving 12 treatment combinations for each experiment. The duration of each experiment was 14 d, with the first 7 d used as adaptation to treatment. In each experiment, 3 cattle were selected from each of the 12 pasture type × GBC treatment groups within the experimental herd to determine herbage intake and total DM digestibility using the n-alkanes method (n = 36). There was no interaction between kikuyu grass or ryegrass pasture state and GBC level for intake, digestibility, or milk yield or components. Dairy cattle offered fresh-fresh and depleted-fresh ryegrass produced 9% more milk

  1. Forests to fields. Restoring tropical lands to agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D

    1993-04-01

    In discussing land use in tropical forest regions, there is an emphasis on the following topics: the need for the expansion of cropping areas, the precedent for use of the tropical forest for cropping based on past use patterns, the pressure from conservationists against cropping, debunking the mythology that forests are "natural" and refuting the claims that forest clearance is not reversible, the archeological evidence of past forest use for agricultural purposes, abandonment of tropical land to forest, and rotation of forest and field. The assumption is that the way to stop food importation is to increase crop production in the tropics. Crop production can be increased through 1) land intensification or clearing new land, 2) output per unit of land increases, or 3) reallocation to agriculture land previously cleared and overgrown with tropical forest. "Temporary" reuse of land, which reverted back to tropical forest, is recommended. This reuse would ease population pressure, and benefit bioconservation, while populations stabilize and further progress is made in international plant breeding. The land would eventually be returned to a forest state. Conservation of tropical forest areas should be accomplished, after an assessment has been made of its former uses. Primary forests need to identified and conversion to farming ceased. Research needs to be directed to understanding the process of past forest regeneration, and to devising cropping systems with longterm viability. The green revolution is unsuitable for traditional cropping systems, is contrary to demands of international funding agencies for sustainability, and is not affordable by most poor farmers. Only .48 million sq. km of closed forest loss was in tropical rainforests; 6.53 million sq. km was lost from temperate forests cleared for intensive small-scale peasant farming. The use of tropical forest land for farming has some benefits; crops in the wetter tropics are perennial, which would "reduce

  2. Corrosion products in power generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, D.H.

    1980-06-01

    The important mechanisms of corrosion and corrosion product movement and fouling in the heat transport systems of thermal electric generating stations are reviewed. Oil- and coal-fired boilers are considered, along with nuclear power systems - both direct and indirect cycle. Thus, the fireside and waterside in conventional plants, and the primary coolant and steam-raising circuits in water-cooled reactors, are discussed. Corrosion products in organic- and liquid-metal-cooled reactors also are shown to cause problems if not controlled, while their beneficial effects on the cooling water side of condensers are described. (auth)

  3. Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Peter H.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the deforestation problem and some efforts for solving the problem. Considers the impact of population growth, poverty, and ignorance. Includes a discussion of the current rapid decline in tropical forests, the consequences of destruction, and an outlook for the future. (YP)

  4. [Pesticides in the tropical agricultural economy systems: Evaluation of present knowledge of the problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A R

    1976-06-01

    Man is an integral part of the ecosystem and any action of his against the environment has an effect against man himself. An Agro-ecosystem is a unit composed of the total complex of organisms in an area under cultivation, plus the totality of the physical environmental conditions and the modifications introduced by man, who manages the agro-ecosystem for his own benefit. The use of pesticides has been necessary for the agricultural development of some tropical areas. Unfortunately, the inadequate use of this input has caused many problems for himself. These include destruction of natural resources; intoxications; pesticide residues in water and foods; secondary pest outbreaks; increase in illnesses transmitted by certain arthropods; loss of foreign exchange; unemployment; malnutrition; disability; high infant mortality and poverty. A better use of agro-ecosystem management techniques can lead to a rational sustained utilization of land resources. Chemical pesticides can be considered as one of the factors in pest management, and not necessarily the only one available.

  5. Zooplankton resting egg banks in permanent and temporary tropical aquatic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rabelo Araújo

    Full Text Available AIM: We evaluated zooplankton resting egg banks and active communities in five coastal lagoons and in five temporary pools, aiming to compare the active and the dormant communities in such environments. As they differ in hydroperiod, we expected that pools present richer resting egg banks in comparison to those found in lagoons. METHODS: Zooplankton community was sampled twice in 2006 (lagoons and in 2010 (pools and resting egg banks were sampled once in December 2007 (lagoons and in May 2010 (pools. Resting eggs were isolated from the sediment by applying the sugar flotation method. RESULTS: In opposition to our expectation, species richness in the resting egg banks of pools did not differ from those of lagoons. Additionally, no difference was found between the active and the dormant zooplankton communities in each water body for both temporary and permanent environments. However, similarity between active and dormant communities was greater in permanent environments than it was in temporary environments. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that the diapause strategy observed in certain tropical zooplankton populations cannot be predicted based on the awareness of the environment type (permanent or temporary, since hatching cues may be species-specific.

  6. Pollution Impacts on Bacterioplankton Diversity in a Tropical Urban Coastal Lagoon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloto, Gigliola R. B.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Pinto, Leonardo H.; Vieira, Ricardo P.; Chaia, Catia; Lima, Joyce L.; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Martins, Orlando B.; Clementino, Maysa M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a great number of published studies addressing estuarine, freshwater and marine bacterial diversity, few have examined urban coastal lagoons in tropical habitats. There is an increasing interest in monitoring opportunistic pathogens as well as indigenous microbial community members in these water bodies by current molecular and microbiological approaches. In this work, bacterial isolates were obtained through selective plate dilution methods to evaluate antibiotic resistances. In addition, 16S rRNA gene libraries were prepared from environmental waters and mixed cultures grown in BHI medium inoculated with Jacarepaguá lagoon waters. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses showed distinct community profiles between environmental communities from each studied site and their cultured counterparts. A total of 497 bacterial sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 245 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% similarity. CCA diagrams showcased how several environmental variables affect the distribution of 18 bacterial orders throughout the three distinct habitats. UniFrac metrics and Venn diagrams revealed that bacterial communities retrieved through each experimental approach were significantly different and that only one OTU, closely related to Vibrio cholerae, was shared between them. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were isolated from most sampled environments, fifty percent of which showed antibiotic resistance. PMID:23226484

  7. Impacts of gold mine waste disposal on deepwater fish in a pristine tropical marine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, D.T.; Milton, D.A.; Fry, G.C.; Dennis, D.M.; Heales, D.S.; Venables, W.N.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the impacts of mine waste disposal, including deep-sea tailings, on tropical marine environments and this study presents the first account of this impact on deepwater fish communities. The Lihir gold mine in Papua New Guinea has deposited both excavated overburden and processed tailings slurry into the coastal environment since 1997. The abundances of fish species and trace metal concentrations in their tissues were compared between sites adjacent to and away from the mine. In this study (1999-2002), 975 fish of 98 species were caught. Significantly fewer fish were caught close to the mine than in neighbouring regions; the highest numbers were in regions distant from the mine. The catch rates of nine of the 17 most abundant species were lowest, and in three species were highest, close to the mine. There appears to be limited contamination in fish tissues caused by trace metals disposed as mine waste. Although arsenic (several species) and mercury (one species) were found in concentrations above Australian food standards. However, as in the baseline (pre-mine) sampling, it appears they are accumulating these metals mostly from naturally-occurring sources rather than the mine waste

  8. Pollution impacts on bacterioplankton diversity in a tropical urban coastal lagoon system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigliola R B Salloto

    Full Text Available Despite a great number of published studies addressing estuarine, freshwater and marine bacterial diversity, few have examined urban coastal lagoons in tropical habitats. There is an increasing interest in monitoring opportunistic pathogens as well as indigenous microbial community members in these water bodies by current molecular and microbiological approaches. In this work, bacterial isolates were obtained through selective plate dilution methods to evaluate antibiotic resistances. In addition, 16S rRNA gene libraries were prepared from environmental waters and mixed cultures grown in BHI medium inoculated with Jacarepaguá lagoon waters. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analyses showed distinct community profiles between environmental communities from each studied site and their cultured counterparts. A total of 497 bacterial sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 245 operational taxonomic units (OTUs grouped at 97% similarity. CCA diagrams showcased how several environmental variables affect the distribution of 18 bacterial orders throughout the three distinct habitats. UniFrac metrics and Venn diagrams revealed that bacterial communities retrieved through each experimental approach were significantly different and that only one OTU, closely related to Vibrio cholerae, was shared between them. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were isolated from most sampled environments, fifty percent of which showed antibiotic resistance.

  9. Soil to plant transfer values of 137 Cs in soils of tropical agro-ecological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, Maria Angelica; Ferreira, Ana Cristina Melo; Conti, Claudio Carvalho; Rochedo, Elaine Rua Rodriguez; Bartoly, Flavia; Viana, Aline Gonzalez; Moura, Glaucio Pereira; Poquet, Isabel; Perez, Daniel Vidal

    2002-01-01

    Recent radioecological studies have showed that some ecosystems present more suitable conditions for soil to plant transfer of some radionuclides, while others present lower transfer when compared with average values. Due to the difficulty to generate, experimentally, soil to plant transfer factors enough to cover the totality of existing soil and vegetation types, an alternative way has been the use of soil to reference plant transfer factor determined in various ecosystems. Trough the use of conversion factors, the reference transfer factor can be converted in values of transfer factor specific for a specific type of crop. These values can be used regionally to improve dose calculation and models for radiological risk assessments. This work presents experimental data for 137 Cs for reference crops grown up in Oxisol, Ultisol and Alfisol. These results allow the assessment of sensibility of main Brazilian soils regarding a radiological contamination with 137 Cs and provide regional parameters values. The results obtained in soils of tropical climate validate the international methodology aiming to derive generic transfer factor values for 137 Cs in reference crops based on a few soil properties such as fertility, pH and organic matter content. (author)

  10. An integrated production, inventory and preventive maintenance model for a multi-product production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuejuan; Wang, Wenbin; Peng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a production system that can produce multiple products alternately. Products go through the system in a sequence and a complete run of all products forms a production cycle. An integrated production, inventory and preventive maintenance model is constructed, which is characterized by the delay-time concept. Two different situations are studied based on whether the unqualified products and downtime caused by the failures of the system, set-up and preventive maintenance can be ignored or not. Three cases are considered for each situation, depending on the position of the preventive maintenance epochs: the first case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at the end of each production cycle; the second case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at each set-up time of the products; and the third case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at some set-up times only, since it may not always be optimal to carry out preventive maintenance at the end of the production cycle or at each set-up time. The modeling objectives are to find the optimal number of production cycles per year and the optimal position of preventive maintenance that will maximize the expected profit per unit time. Numerical examples, using real data, are presented to illustrate the model. - Highlights: • We propose an integrated economic production quantity and preventive maintenance model. • The situation that multiple products are produced on the same system alternately is studied. • Two situations are studied based on whether the downtime and the product quality can be ignored or not. • We use enumeration method and analytical method to select the optimal preventive maintenance policy, respectively. • We use the delay-time concept to model the preventive maintenance policy

  11. Development of Souvenir Production Transaction Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumambi, H.; Kaparang, R.; Lintong, J.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to design a souvenir production transaction processing system for the craftsmen in North Sulawesi. The craftsmen make very simple recordings about souvenir production transactions and use documents that are not in accordance with the generally accepted accounting practices. This research uses qualitative method. The data is collected through interviews, observations, documents and literatures studies. The research stages are conducted in preliminary studies, data collection, data analyzed and system design. The design of system is built from chart of account, accounting cycle and documents as input and get processed in accounting recording. The outputs are financial statements. The system design provides benefits for the craftsmen in assessing the financial performance and getting financing from bank.

  12. The Next Generation ATLAS Production System

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration; Golubkov, Dmitry; Klimentov, Alexei; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Vaniachine, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at LHC data processing and simulation grows continuously, as more data and more use cases emerge. For data processing the ATLAS experiment adopted the data transformation approach, where software applications transform the input data into outputs. In the ATLAS production system, each data transformation is represented by a task, a collection of many jobs, dynamically submitted by the ATLAS workload management system (PanDA/JEDI) and executed on the Grid, clouds and supercomputers. Patterns in ATLAS data transformation workflows composed of many tasks provided a scalable production system framework for template definitions of the many-tasks workflows. User interface and system logic of these workflows are being implemented in the Database Engine for Tasks (DEFT). Such development required using modern computing technologies and approaches. We report technical details of this development: database implementation, server logic and Web user interface technologies.

  13. An anaerobic bioreactor system for biobutanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paekkilae, J.; Hillukkala, T.; Myllykoski, L.; Keiski, R.L. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)). email: johanna.pakkila@oulu.fi

    2009-07-01

    evaporation, perstraction, pervaporation and reverse osmosis with high selectivity are the most promising product recovery techniques despite of the tendency for clogging and fouling. Process development to achieve an economical and efficient production process have been done also by genetic strain manipulation, regulation of substrate utilization and butanol production, by using cell immobilization or cell recycling, and by using different kinds of product recovery techniques. The aim of this research was to design and build a system for the anaerobic bacteria cultivation. The purpose was to discover suitable cultivation conditions for strict anaerobic clostridia bacteria

  14. TAXATION SYSTEM AT INTRA PRODUCTION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Podderegina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the analysis concerning taxation in the country at the level of an enteфrise and its structural sub-divisions in the period of transforming economy.Recommendations are given on the following aspects: modernization of income taxation system for natural persons; tax payment in case of wage computation; exclusion of tax payments and assignments fi-om production cost value which are not connected with the production process; tax computation for real property; evaluation of enterprise taxation level.The paper shows the possible cases concerning formation of tax payments and assignments of an enterprise and its structural sub-divisions.Taxation system is shown at the level of enterprise structural sub-divisions (shop, department, at the level of shop structural sub-divisions (section, team, for works to be executed by an individual person of the production process (operation, product, works, services. This system promotes to efficient functioning of intra-production economical relations.The paper provides possible variants of formation of taxation payments and assignments for an enterprise and its structural sub-divisions.

  15. Variation in leaf litter production and resorption of nutrients in abundant tree species in Nyungwe tropical montane rainforest in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirambangutse, Brigitte; Mirindi Dusenge, Eric; Nsabimana, Donat; Bizuru, Elias; Pleijel, Håkan; Uddling, Johan; Wallin, Göran

    2014-05-01

    African tropical rainforests play many roles from local to global scale as providers of resources and ecosystem services. Although covering 30% of the global rainforest, only few studies aiming to better understand the storage and fluxes of carbon and nutrients in these forests have been conducted. To answer questions related to these issues, we have established 15 permanent 0.5 ha plots where we compare carbon and nutrient fluxes of primary and secondary forest tree communities in a tropical montane forest in central Africa. The studies are conducted in Nyungwe montane tropical rain forest gazetted as a National Park to protect its extensive floral and faunal diversity covering an area of 970 km2. Nyungwe is located in Southwest Rwanda (2o17'-2o50'S, 29o07'-29o26A'E). The forest is ranging between 1600-2950 m.a.s.l. and is one of the most biologically important rainforest in Albertine Rift region in terms of Biodiversity. Nyungwe consists of a mixture of primary and secondary forest communities supporting a richness of plant and animal life. More than 260 species of trees and shrubs have been found in Nyungwe, including species endemic to the Albertine Rift. The forest has a climate with a mean annual temperature of 15.5oC and annual rainfall of ca 1850 mm yr-1, with July and August being the only months when rainfall drops. A part of this study is focusing on the dynamics of nutrients through leaf turnover. This turnover of leaves is regulated to maximize the carbon gain through canopy photosynthesis and resource-use efficiency of the plant. It is known that about half of leaf nitrogen is invested in photosynthetic apparatus and that there normally is a strong correlation between the photosynthetic capacity and leaf nitrogen per unit area. Hence leaf nitrogen is an important factor for canopy photosynthesis. However, leaves are produced, senesce and fall. Some nitrogen in the leaf is lost when leaves senesce but other is resorbed. The resorption of nitrogen

  16. Structural Materials for Efficient Energy Production Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Briceno, D.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the efficiency of electric power production systems implies increasing the operating temperature above those of systems currently in operation. The viability of new systems depends completely on the availability of structural materials that withstand the operating conditions specified in the design: adequate features under mechanical stress at high temperatures and compatibility with the medium. In the case of nuclear systems (fission, fusion), an important requirement is their response to irradiation induced damage. In spite of the significant differences that exist in the design of nuclear power plants, fusion reactors, innovative fission systems, supercritical fossil plants, biomass plants, solar concentration thermal plants, etc., all of them have as a common characteristic the use of resistant materials at high temperatures. The qualification of existing materials for the new and more demanding operating conditions and the development of new materials is one of the challenges faced by the electric power production industry. The science of materials and the understanding of the basic processes that take place in structural materials on exposure to the operating conditions of energy production systems are the tools that are available to obtain safe and economically viable solutions. (Authors) 4 refs.

  17. Potential and Limitations of Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Systems for Monitoring Altitudinal Vegetation Phenology in the Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T. S. F.; Torres, R. S.; Morellato, P.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation phenology is a key component of ecosystem function and biogeochemical cycling, and highly susceptible to climatic change. Phenological knowledge in the tropics is limited by lack of monitoring, traditionally done by laborious direct observation. Ground-based digital cameras can automate daily observations, but also offer limited spatial coverage. Imaging by low-cost Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) combines the fine resolution of ground-based methods with and unprecedented capability for spatial coverage, but challenges remain in producing color-consistent multitemporal images. We evaluated the applicability of multitemporal UAS imaging to monitor phenology in tropical altitudinal grasslands and forests, answering: 1) Can very-high resolution aerial photography from conventional digital cameras be used to reliably monitor vegetative and reproductive phenology? 2) How is UAS monitoring affected by changes in illumination and by sensor physical limitations? We flew imaging missions monthly from Feb-16 to Feb-17, using a UAS equipped with an RGB Canon SX260 camera. Flights were carried between 10am and 4pm, at 120-150m a.g.l., yielding 5-10cm spatial resolution. To compensate illumination changes caused by time of day, season and cloud cover, calibration was attempted using reference targets and empirical models, as well as color space transformations. For vegetative phenological monitoring, multitemporal response was severely affected by changes in illumination conditions, strongly confounding the phenological signal. These variations could not be adequately corrected through calibration due to sensor limitations. For reproductive phenology, the very-high resolution of the acquired imagery allowed discrimination of individual reproductive structures for some species, and its stark colorimetric differences to vegetative structures allowed detection of the reproductive timing on the HSV color space, despite illumination effects. We conclude that reliable

  18. Reply [to: Atlantic Tropical Cyclogenetic Processes during SOP-3 NAMMA in the GEOS-5 Global Data Assimilation and Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Oreste; Lau, William K.

    2010-01-01

    This article is a Reply to a Comment by Scott Braun on a previously published article by O. Reale, K.-M. Lau, and E. Brin: "Atlantic tropical cyclogenetic processes during SOP-3 NAMMA in the GEOS-5 global data assimilation and forecast system", by Reale, Lau and Brin, hereafter referred to as RA09. RA09 investigated the role of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) in tropical cyclogenetic processes associated with a non-developing easterly wave observed during the Special Observation Period (SOP-3) phase of the 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (MAMMA). The wave was chosen because both interact heavily with Saharan air. Results showed: a) very steep moisture gradients are associated with the SAL in forecasts and analyses even at great distance from the Sahara; b) a thermal dipole (warm above, cool below) in the non-developing case. RA09A suggested that radiative effect of dust may play some role in producing a thermal structure less favorable to cyclogenesis, and also indicated that only global horizontal resolutions on the order of 20-30 kilometers can capture the large-scale transport and the fine thermal structure of the SAL Braun (2010) questions those results attributing the wave dissipation to midlatitude air. The core discussion is on a dry filament preceding the wave, on the presence of dust, and on the origin of the air contained in this dry filament. In the 'Reply', higher resolution analyses than the ones used by Braun, taken at almost coincident times with Aqua and Terra passes, are shown, to emphasize how the channel of dry air associated with W1 is indeed rich in dust. Backtrajectories on a higher resolution grid are also performed, leading to results drastically different from Braun (2010), and in particularly showing that there is a clear contribution of Saharan air. Finally, the 'Reply' presents evidence on that analyses at a horizontal resolution of one degree are inadequate to investigate such feature.

  19. Multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schönemann, Malte

    2017-01-01

    Addressing the challenge of improving battery quality while reducing high costs and environmental impacts of the production, this book presents a multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems along with a software environment and an application procedure. Battery systems are among the most important technologies of the 21st century since they are enablers for the market success of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage solutions. However, the performance of batteries so far has limited possible applications. Addressing this challenge requires an interdisciplinary understanding of dynamic cause-effect relationships between processes, equipment, materials, and environmental conditions. The approach in this book supports the integrated evaluation of improvement measures and is usable for different planning horizons. It is applied to an exemplary battery cell production and module assembly in order to demonstrate the effectiveness and potential benefits of the simulation.

  20. DEA Sensitivity Analysis for Parallel Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gerami

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce systems consisting of several production units, each of which include several subunits working in parallel. Meanwhile, each subunit is working independently. The input and output of each production unit are the sums of the inputs and outputs of its subunits, respectively. We consider each of these subunits as an independent decision making unit(DMU and create the production possibility set(PPS produced by these DMUs, in which the frontier points are considered as efficient DMUs. Then we introduce models for obtaining the efficiency of the production subunits. Using super-efficiency models, we categorize all efficient subunits into different efficiency classes. Then we follow by presenting the sensitivity analysis and stability problem for efficient subunits, including extreme efficient and non-extreme efficient subunits, assuming simultaneous perturbations in all inputs and outputs of subunits such that the efficiency of the subunit under evaluation declines while the efficiencies of other subunits improve.

  1. Entanglement production in quantized chaotic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Quantum chaos is a subject whose major goal is to identify and to investigate different quantum signatures of classical chaos. Here we study entanglement production in coupled chaotic systems as a possible quantum indicator of classical chaos. We use coupled kicked tops as a model for our extensive numerical ...

  2. Entanglement production in quantized chaotic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum chaos is a subject whose major goal is to identify and to investigate different quantum signatures of classical chaos. Here we study entanglement production in coupled chaotic systems as a possible quantum indicator of classical chaos. We use coupled kicked tops as a model for our extensive numerical studies.

  3. Air pollution restrictions in electrical production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallizioli, G.

    1993-01-01

    A description of the principal characteristics regarding the Italian electrical power system and the evolution of standardization in air pollution control is given. Afterwards, ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) actions in the environmental protection field (with particular respect to thermo-electrical production) are presented. Finally, principal ENEL research programs on new air pollution control technologies are discussed

  4. Dinâmica sazonal da produção e decomposição de serrapilheira em floresta tropical de transição Seasonal dynamics of the litterfall production and decomposition in tropical transitional forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Sanches

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Em função de se analisar a produção, dinâmica e decomposição de serrapilheira em busca da sazonalidade do microclima em uma floresta tropical de transição Amazônia Cerrado, propõe-se estimar a produção de serrapilheira, por meio de caixas de coleta de 1 m² e o acúmulo de serrapilheira sobre o solo por meio de quadrantes de 25 x 25 cm, distribuídos aleatoriamente. Determinaram-se a constante de decaimento (K, o coeficiente de retorno de serrapilheira (K L e a constante de decomposição (K'. Com o emprego de bolsas de nylon preenchidas com folhas de espécies de relevância na floresta (Tovomita schomburgkki e Brosimium lactescens estudou-se a decomposição de folhas e se monitaram os fatores ambientais por meio de equipamentos instalados em uma torre micrometeorológica. A produção de serrapilheira não só se apresentou de forma sazonal, com significativa influência da umidade relativa do ar e da precipitação, em uma floresta de transição, mas foi majoritariamente composta de folhas seguidas de galhos e miscelânea (flores e frutos. A decomposição de folhas em florestas tropicais foi acelerada em ambas as estações, seca-úmida e úmida-seca, sendo a velocidade de decomposição das folhas maior na estação úmida-seca.The objective of this study was to analyze the production, dynamics and litter decomposition as a function of the seasonality of the microclimate in a transitional tropical forest of Amazonia Cerrado. Estimate of litterfall was carried out with collection boxes of 1 m² and floor forest mass with quadrants of 25 x 25 cm distributed randomly. The decline constant (K, litter turnover rate (K L and litter decomposition rate (K' were determined by estimation of litterfall and forest floor litter mass. Leaf decomposition was studied by litter bags with leaves of species of relevance (Tovomita schomburgkki and Brosimium lactescens in the forest. The analysis of the environmental factors was measured through

  5. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as a renewable energy source. Third quarterly report, December 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Greenhouse-level screening for short- and intermediate-rotation grasses included further trials with legume species as potential nitrogen sources for the tropical grasses. Yields from four indigenous legumes were appreciably higher when planted in spring (May) than when planted in autumn (November). Initial data were recorded from second generation energy cane studies established during 1980. Controlled variables include varieties, harvest interval, and nitrogen input. Yield data at 6 months indicate high but essentially equal growth rates among all varieties and N-variables. This is attributed to the use of a land rotavator during seedbed preparation - the first such application of this implement on Lajas Valley soils. Total green weights were in the order of 50 to 60 tons/acre, and millable stem weights ranged from 33 to 37 tons/acre, at the 6-months harvest. Dry matter yields ranged from 8 to 11 tons/acre. Juice quality values indicated a minimal sugar content at this stage of maturity. Fiber values ranged from 7 to 14%. Field-scale studies were continued at the Hatillo demonstration site on the humid north coast and in the semi-arid Lajas Valley. For the 6-months harvest at Hatillo, total green weights for all treatments averaged 38.4 tons/acre. Variety US 67-22-2 produced 50.2 tons/acre. Millable cane yields averaged 25.3 tons/acre for all treatments and 34.7 tons/acre for variety US 67-22.2.

  6. Determination design criteria for UASB reactors as a wastewater pretreatment system in tropical small communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi, A.A.; Zamanzadeh, M.

    2004-01-01

    A pilot scale study was set up to investigated the principle design parameters of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors for treating wastewater of small communities in the tropical regions of Iran. A steel pipe with a diameter of 600 mm and a height of 3.6 m was used as the reactor in which a digestion and a 3-phase separator element had a volume of 0.848 and 0.17 m 3 respectively. During this study, which lasted for 203 days, two distinct phase were carried out according two the ambient temperature. The temperature of waste water entering the reactor was naturally ranged from 22 to 26 d ig c C and no heat exchanger was used. The hydraulic retention times including 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 hours with various loading rates of 0.95 to 5.70 kg COD/m 3 / day for colder period and from 1.35 to 6.40 kg COD/m 3 /day for warmer period were examined. On the basis of the results the optimal hydraulic retention time for warmer period with a 2.20 kg COD/m 3 /day organic loading rate was 6 hours which BOD5, COD and TSS removal efficiency were 71, 63 and 65 percent respectively. During the colder period the removal ratio of BOD5, COD and TSS with an optimal hydraulic retention time of 8 hours and organic loading rate of 1.22 kg COD/m 3 /day were 54,46 and 53 percent respectively

  7. Production planning and control of less emitting production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasis, H.D. [Bremen Univ. (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The concept of integral environmental protection has been growing in importance within Western Europe in recent years. Increasingly, it has come to be recognized that no one part of the environment is separate from any other, it functions as a whole. Yet, pollution control was until recently, usually based on an approach which considers emissions to air, water, and land separately. That has begun to change, particularly since the 1987 report by the World Commission on Environment and Development. This can be recognized, for example, within the proposal for a Directive of the Council of the European Union on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control. By this, the environmental media are placed on an equal legislative footing so that the final result will be that the way in which an installation is operated will be better for the whole environment. In other words, less emission production systems are obtained. Realization of an integral concept or of less emission production systems initially requires technical measures for the avoidance and the minimization of emissions, as well as recovery and recycling of materials and substances

  8. Production planning and control of less emitting production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasis, H D [Bremen Univ. (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The concept of integral environmental protection has been growing in importance within Western Europe in recent years. Increasingly, it has come to be recognized that no one part of the environment is separate from any other, it functions as a whole. Yet, pollution control was until recently, usually based on an approach which considers emissions to air, water, and land separately. That has begun to change, particularly since the 1987 report by the World Commission on Environment and Development. This can be recognized, for example, within the proposal for a Directive of the Council of the European Union on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control. By this, the environmental media are placed on an equal legislative footing so that the final result will be that the way in which an installation is operated will be better for the whole environment. In other words, less emission production systems are obtained. Realization of an integral concept or of less emission production systems initially requires technical measures for the avoidance and the minimization of emissions, as well as recovery and recycling of materials and substances

  9. Production Management System for AMS Computing Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choutko, V.; Demakov, O.; Egorov, A.; Eline, A.; Shan, B. S.; Shi, R.

    2017-10-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer [1] (AMS) has collected over 95 billion cosmic ray events since it was installed on the International Space Station (ISS) on May 19, 2011. To cope with enormous flux of events, AMS uses 12 computing centers in Europe, Asia and North America, which have different hardware and software configurations. The centers are participating in data reconstruction, Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation [2]/Data and MC production/as well as in physics analysis. Data production management system has been developed to facilitate data and MC production tasks in AMS computing centers, including job acquiring, submitting, monitoring, transferring, and accounting. It was designed to be modularized, light-weighted, and easy-to-be-deployed. The system is based on Deterministic Finite Automaton [3] model, and implemented by script languages, Python and Perl, and the built-in sqlite3 database on Linux operating systems. Different batch management systems, file system storage, and transferring protocols are supported. The details of the integration with Open Science Grid are presented as well.

  10. Evolution of tsunami warning systems and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Eddie; Titov, Vasily

    2015-10-28

    Each year, about 60 000 people and $4 billion (US$) in assets are exposed to the global tsunami hazard. Accurate and reliable tsunami warning systems have been shown to provide a significant defence for this flooding hazard. However, the evolution of warning systems has been influenced by two processes: deadly tsunamis and available technology. In this paper, we explore the evolution of science and technology used in tsunami warning systems, the evolution of their products using warning technologies, and offer suggestions for a new generation of warning products, aimed at the flooding nature of the hazard, to reduce future tsunami impacts on society. We conclude that coastal communities would be well served by receiving three standardized, accurate, real-time tsunami warning products, namely (i) tsunami energy estimate, (ii) flooding maps and (iii) tsunami-induced harbour current maps to minimize the impact of tsunamis. Such information would arm communities with vital flooding guidance for evacuations and port operations. The advantage of global standardized flooding products delivered in a common format is efficiency and accuracy, which leads to effectiveness in promoting tsunami resilience at the community level. © 2015 The Authors.

  11. MILK PRODUCTION IN INTEGRATED SYSTEMS: REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Z. Biavatti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The pasture degradation and thermic stress are in economic trouble for milk producers. The use of silvopastoral system (SSP is an important tool to minimize this loss, since it combines the production and conservation of natural resources, furthermore, provides the producer the potential to diversify the source of income of rural property, it is possible sale or own use of the products generated by the trees as timber, firewood and fruit. With the implementation of the SSP is possible to attenuate the effects of high temperatures caused by direct solar incidence on the animals, providing an ideal thermal comfort zone, resulting in increased production, it will expend less energy so that the animals are able to be as close as possible the necessary thermal comfort. Besides, with the adoption of this system, occurs a minor pasture degradation by promoting the formation of a microclimate favoring their establishment and maintenance, in addition to stabilizing soils, unpacked action of roots and preventing erosion. The purpose of this work was study the main aspects that affect the production of milk, proposing the use of integrated systems to minimize losses from thermal stress and degradation of pastures.

  12. Evolution of tsunami warning systems and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Eddie; Titov, Vasily

    2015-01-01

    Each year, about 60 000 people and $4 billion (US$) in assets are exposed to the global tsunami hazard. Accurate and reliable tsunami warning systems have been shown to provide a significant defence for this flooding hazard. However, the evolution of warning systems has been influenced by two processes: deadly tsunamis and available technology. In this paper, we explore the evolution of science and technology used in tsunami warning systems, the evolution of their products using warning technologies, and offer suggestions for a new generation of warning products, aimed at the flooding nature of the hazard, to reduce future tsunami impacts on society. We conclude that coastal communities would be well served by receiving three standardized, accurate, real-time tsunami warning products, namely (i) tsunami energy estimate, (ii) flooding maps and (iii) tsunami-induced harbour current maps to minimize the impact of tsunamis. Such information would arm communities with vital flooding guidance for evacuations and port operations. The advantage of global standardized flooding products delivered in a common format is efficiency and accuracy, which leads to effectiveness in promoting tsunami resilience at the community level. PMID:26392620

  13. Hydrogen production from biomass by biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifan, H.R.; Qader, S.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen gas is seen as a future energy carrier, not involved in 'greenhouse' gas and its released energy in combustion can be converted to electric power. Biological system with low energy can produce hydrogen compared to electrochemical hydrogen production via solar battery-based water splitting which requires the use of solar batteries with high energy requirements. The biological hydrogen production occurs in microalgae and cyanobacteria by photosynthesis. They consume biochemical energy to produce molecular hydrogen. Hydrogen in some algae is an anaerobic production in the absence of light. In cyanobacteria the hydrogen production simultaneously happens with nitrogen fixation, and also catalyzed by nitrogenase as a side reaction. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic bacteria is mediated by nitrogenase activity, although hydrogenases may be active for both hydrogen production and hydrogen uptake under some conditions. Genetic studies on photosynthetic microorganisms have markedly increased in recent times, relatively few genetic engineering studies have focused on altering the characteristics of these microorganisms, particularly with respect to enhancing the hydrogen-producing capabilities of photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria. (author)

  14. Auditing Information System : Delivery Product Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwoko Purwoko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the research is to ensure the securities of information system asset and to ensure if informa-tion system support the operational and data collected was valid. Research method that used in this research were library studies and field studies. Field studies such an observation, questioner, and inter-view. the expected result are founding the weakness of security management control, operational man-agement control, input control, and output control of risk happened in the company. Conclusion of this research are the system on the company work good and there’s no potential risk happened and make an impact to the delivery process of information system.Index Terms - Auditing Information system, Delivery product process.

  15. Toyota production system - one example to shipbuilding industry

    OpenAIRE

    Delmo Alves de Moura; Rui Carlos Botter

    2017-01-01

    The shipbuilding system can use the techniques used in the Toyota Production System as an example for its production process. Production should be lean, minimize defects, stop production and reduce or eliminate inventories. Lean production is regarded by many as simply an enhancement of mass production methods, whereas agility implies breaking out of the mass production mould and producing much more highly customized products - where the customer wants them in any quantity. In a product line ...

  16. Production grid systems and their programming

    CERN Document Server

    Kacsuk, P; Stefan, P

    2004-01-01

    Summary form only given. There are a large variety of grid test-beds that can be used for experimental purposes by a small community. However, the number of production grid systems that can be used as a service for a large community is very limited. The current tutorial provides introduction to three of these very few production grid systems. They represent different models and policies of using grid resources and hence understanding and comparing them is an extremely useful exercise to everyone interested in grid technology. The Hungarian ClusterGrid infrastructure connects clusters during the nights and weekends. These clusters are used during the day for educational purposes at the Hungarian universities and polytechnics. Therefore, a unique feature of this grid is the switching mechanism by which the day time and night time working modes are loaded to the computers. In order to manage the system as a production, one, the system is homogeneous, all the machines should install the same grid software package...

  17. Bioelectrochemical Systems for Indirect Biohydrogen Production

    KAUST Repository

    Regan, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems involve the use of exoelectrogenic (i.e., anode-reducing) microbes to produce current in conjunction with the oxidation of reduced compounds. This current can be used directly for power in a microbial fuel cell, but there are alternate uses of this current. One such alternative is the production of hydrogen in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), which accomplishes cathodic proton reduction with a slight applied potential by exploiting the low redox potential produced by exoelectrogens at the anode. As an indirect approach to biohydrogen production, these systems are not subject to the hydrogen yield constraints of fermentative processes and have been proven to work with virtually any biodegradable organic substrate. With continued advancements in reactor design to reduce the system internal resistance, increase the specific surface area for anode biofilm development, and decrease the material costs, MECs may emerge as a viable alternative technology for biohydrogen production. Moreover, these systems can also incorporate other value-added functionalities for applications in waste treatment, desalination, and bioremediation.

  18. Shade tree diversity enhances coffee production and quality in agroforestry systems in the Western Ghats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesper, Maike; Kueffer, Christoph; Krishnan, Smitha; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G.; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2017-01-01

    Intensification of multispecies coffee agroforests reduces shade tree diversity with implications for tropical biodiversity. We investigated how tree biodiversity and its effects on coffee production and quality changes along a gradient of intensification (from diverse multispecies to Grevillea

  19. Comments on "Atlantic Tropical Cyclogenetic Processes during SOP-3 NAMMA in the GEOS-5 Global Data Assimilation and Forecast System"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Considerable attention has been given to the potential negative impacts of the Saharan air layer (SAL) in recent years. Researchers recently raised questions about the negative impacts of Dunion and Velden and other studies in terms of storms that reached at least tropical storm strength and suggested that the SAL was an intrinsic part of the tropical cyclone environment for both storms that weaken after formation and those that intensify. Braun also suggested that several incorrect assumptions underlie many of the studies on the negative impacts of the SAL, including assumptions that most low-to-midlevel dry tropical air is SAL air, that the SAL is dry throughout its depth, and that the proximity of the SAL to storms struggling to intensify implies some role in that struggle. The recent paper by Reale et al.(RL1) is an example of the problems inherent in some of these assumptions. In their paper, RL1 analyze a simulation from the Global Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) global model and describe an extensive tongue of warm, dry air that stretches southward from at least 30 deg N (the northern limit of their plots) and wraps into a low pressure system during the period 26-29 August 2006, suppressing convection and possibly development of the African easterly wave associated with that low pressure system. They attributed the warm, dry tongue to the SAL (i.e., heating of the air mass during passage over the Sahara and radiative warming of the dust layer). Whether it was their intention, the implication is that this entire feature is due solely to the SAL and not to other possible sources of dry air or warmth. In addition, they suggested that a cool tongue of air in the boundary layer located directly beneath the elevated warm, dry tongue (forming a thermal dipole) was possibly the result of reduced solar radiation caused by an overlying dust layer. They stated that "the cool anomaly in the lower levels does not have any plausible explanation relying only on transport

  20. Systems biology of microbial exopolysaccharides production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem eAtes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides (EPS produced by diverse group of microbial systems are rapidly emerging as new and industrially important biomaterials. Due to their unique and complex chemical structures and many interesting physicochemical and rheological properties with novel functionality, the microbial EPSs find wide range of commercial applications in various fields of the economy such as food, feed, packaging, chemical, textile, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, agriculture and medicine. EPSs are mainly associated with high-value applications and they have received considerable research attention over recent decades with their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and both environmental and human compatibility. However only a few microbial EPSs have achieved to be used commercially due to their high production costs. The emerging need to overcome economic hurdles and the increasing significance of microbial EPSs in industrial and medical biotechnology call for the elucidation of the interrelations between metabolic pathways and EPS biosynthesis mechanism in order to control and hence enhance its microbial productivity. Moreover a better understanding of biosynthesis mechanism is a significant issue for improvement of product quality and properties and also for the design of novel strains. Therefore a systems-based approach constitutes an important step towards understanding the interplay between metabolism and EPS biosynthesis and further enhances its metabolic performance for industrial application. In this review, primarily the microbial EPSs, their biosynthesis mechanism and important factors for their production will be discussed. After this brief introduction, recent literature on the application of omics technologies and systems biology tools for the improvement of production yields will be critically evaluated. Special focus will be given to EPSs with high market value such as xanthan, levan, pullulan and dextran.

  1. Systems Biology of Microbial Exopolysaccharides Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by diverse group of microbial systems are rapidly emerging as new and industrially important biomaterials. Due to their unique and complex chemical structures and many interesting physicochemical and rheological properties with novel functionality, the microbial EPSs find wide range of commercial applications in various fields of the economy such as food, feed, packaging, chemical, textile, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, agriculture, and medicine. EPSs are mainly associated with high-value applications, and they have received considerable research attention over recent decades with their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and both environmental and human compatibility. However, only a few microbial EPSs have achieved to be used commercially due to their high production costs. The emerging need to overcome economic hurdles and the increasing significance of microbial EPSs in industrial and medical biotechnology call for the elucidation of the interrelations between metabolic pathways and EPS biosynthesis mechanism in order to control and hence enhance its microbial productivity. Moreover, a better understanding of biosynthesis mechanism is a significant issue for improvement of product quality and properties and also for the design of novel strains. Therefore, a systems-based approach constitutes an important step toward understanding the interplay between metabolism and EPS biosynthesis and further enhances its metabolic performance for industrial application. In this review, primarily the microbial EPSs, their biosynthesis mechanism, and important factors for their production will be discussed. After this brief introduction, recent literature on the application of omics technologies and systems biology tools for the improvement of production yields will be critically evaluated. Special focus will be given to EPSs with high market value such as xanthan, levan, pullulan, and dextran.

  2. O pessegueiro no sistema de pomar compacto: IV. Intensidade e época de raleio dos frutos dos cultivares Tropical e Aurora-1 The peach meadow orchard system: IV. Intensity and time of hand fruit thinning of Tropical and Aurora-1 cultivars

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    Wilson Barbosa

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A intensidade e a época do raleio dos frutos do pessegueiro podem influenciar diretamente a qualidade do produto, razão pela qual foram pesquisadas em um pomar compacto (4.167 plantas por hectare, sob poda drástica anual de renovação da copa. O experimento foi executado na Estação Experimental de Jundiaí (23°08'S e 46°55'W, do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, sob clima do tipo Cwa, mesotérmico úmido, também denominado de tropical de altitude, com cerca de 80 horas anuais de frio abaixo de 7°C. Utílizaram-se os cultivares Tropical, de maturação bem precoce (fins de setembro, e Aurora-1, de maturação precoce (meados de outubro. Efetuou-se o raleio com 30, 40 e 50 dias pós-antese (DPA, deixando-se 30, 60 e 90 frutos por planta. Os melhores resultados, reunindo fatores qualitativos e quantitativos, foram obtidos no raleio aos 30 DPA, mantendo-se 60 frutos por planta. Neste tratamento, o 'Tropical' apresentou frutos com peso médio de 60,9 gramas, o que equivale à produção de 3,654kg/planta (15,2t/ha; com o 'Aurora-1', o peso médio dos frutos foi de 72,0 gramas, correspondendo à produção de 4,320kg/planta (18,0t/ha. Aqualidade final do produto diminuiu à medida que se atrasou a época do raleio e, principalmente, quando se manteve maior quantidade de frutos por planta. O 'Tropical' adaptou-se melhor ao sistema de pomar compacto: floresceu no 9° mês e seus frutos amadureceram no 12ª mês após a poda drástica da copa.The effect of intensity and time of hand thinning on the mean fruit weight and productivity was studied on 'Tropical' and 'Aurora-V peaches. The trees were cultivated under the meadow orchard system, 4,167 plants per hectare, with drastic pruning. The experimental plot was located at the Estação Experimental of Jundiaí (23°08'S and 46°55W of the Instituto Agronômico of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, with 80 tours per year of temperature below 7°C. The time of hand thinning was 30, 40 and 50 days

  3. Development of an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA system for tropical marine species in southern cebu, Central Philippines

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    Danilo B. Largo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the establishment of an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA system in the tropical open waters of southern Cebu, Philippines using a combination of locally available species, namely donkey’s ear abalone (Haliotis asinina as fed species and seaweeds (Gracilaria heteroclada and Eucheuma denticulatum as inorganic extractive species. The culture of Caulerpa lentillifera as a biofilter did not work in the open sea cultivation system using baskets. Monthly measurements of shell length, width and body weight of the cultured abalones, together with in situ measurements of physicochemical parameters to assess any changes in water quality, mainly nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and phosphate, were conducted over a year period from February 2013 to January 2014 in three designated stations (Abalone, Seaweed and Control Stations at three different depths (surface, middle and bottom.Cage culture of abalone side by side with seaweeds in the open sea did not result in any significant water quality disturbance in the area—at least not in the current volume of caged abalones being used. Of the four inorganic compounds monitored in the field, nitrate and ammonia in the Seaweed Station were shown to have relatively lower year-round average values when compared with the Abalone Station, although in the case of nitrate, it was higher in the Control Station compared with the abalone and Seaweed Stations. Although this difference was not significant, it shows the red seaweeds, G. heteroclada and E. denticulatum, to be functioning as a natural filter for these two nutrients. In contrast, nitrite, and phosphate concentrations were not reduced indicating that the seaweeds were not effective biofilter for these two nutrients.The two-month old hatchery-bred donkey’s ear abalones can grow to a size of 53.8 × 28.2 mm (L × W and body weight of 37.8 g after a period of 12 months. Any expansion of the farm into a much larger commercial

  4. Fully automatic CNC machining production system

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    Lee Jeng-Dao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Customized manufacturing is increasing years by years. The consumption habits change has been cause the shorter of product life cycle. Therefore, many countries view industry 4.0 as a target to achieve more efficient and more flexible automated production. To develop an automatic loading and unloading CNC machining system via vision inspection is the first step in industrial upgrading. CNC controller is adopted as the main controller to command to the robot, conveyor, and other equipment in this study. Moreover, machine vision systems are used to detect position of material on the conveyor and the edge of the machining material. In addition, Open CNC and SCADA software will be utilized to make real-time monitor, remote system of control, alarm email notification, and parameters collection. Furthermore, RFID has been added to employee classification and management. The machine handshaking has been successfully proposed to achieve automatic vision detect, edge tracing measurement, machining and system parameters collection for data analysis to accomplish industrial automation system integration with real-time monitor.

  5. Modeling methane emissions by cattle production systems in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelan-Ortega, O. A.; Ku Vera, J.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-12-01

    Methane emissions from livestock is one of the largest sources of methane in Mexico. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a realistic estimate of the national inventory of methane produced by the enteric fermentation of cattle, based on an integrated simulation model, and to provide estimates of CH4 produced by cattle fed typical diets from the tropical and temperate climates of Mexico. The Mexican cattle population of 23.3 million heads was divided in two groups. The first group (7.8 million heads), represents cattle of the tropical climate regions. The second group (15.5 million heads), are the cattle in the temperate climate regions. This approach allows incorporating the effect of diet on CH4 production into the analysis because the quality of forages is lower in the tropics than in temperate regions. Cattle population in every group was subdivided into two categories: cows (COW) and other type of cattle (OTHE), which included calves, heifers, steers and bulls. The daily CH4 production by each category of animal along an average production cycle of 365 days was simulated, instead of using a default emission factor as in Tier 1 approach. Daily milk yield, live weight changes associated with the lactation, and dry matter intake, were simulated for the entire production cycle. The Moe and Tyrrell (1979) model was used to simulate CH4 production for the COW category, the linear model of Mills et al. (2003) for the OTHE category in temperate regions and the Kurihara et al. (1999) model for the OTHE category in the tropical regions as it has been developed for cattle fed tropical diets. All models were integrated with a cow submodel to form an Integrated Simulation Model (ISM). The AFRC (1993) equations and the lactation curve model of Morant and Gnanasakthy (1989) were used to construct the cow submodel. The ISM simulates on a daily basis the CH4 production, milk yield, live weight changes associated with lactation and dry matter intake. The total daily CH

  6. Evaluation of the Tropical Pacific Observing System from the Data Assimilation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    hereafter, SIDA systems) have the capacity to assimilate salinity profiles imposing a multivariate (mainly T-S) balance relationship (summarized in...Fujii et al., 2011). Current SIDA systems in operational centers generally use Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCM) with resolution typically 1...long-term (typically 20-30 years) ocean DA runs are often performed with SIDA systems in operational centers for validation and calibration of SI

  7. Interactions between Global Health Initiatives and country health systems: the case of a neglected tropical diseases control program in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Anna; Bamba, Sory I; Traore, Mamadou N; Boelaert, Marleen; Coulibaly, Youssouf; Polman, Katja; Pirard, Marjan; Van Dormael, Monique

    2010-08-17

    Recently, a number of Global Health Initiatives (GHI) have been created to address single disease issues in low-income countries, such as poliomyelitis, trachoma, neonatal tetanus, etc.. Empirical evidence on the effects of such GHIs on local health systems remains scarce. This paper explores positive and negative effects of the Integrated Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) Control Initiative, consisting in mass preventive chemotherapy for five targeted NTDs, on Mali's health system where it was first implemented in 2007. Campaign processes and interactions with the health system were assessed through participant observation in two rural districts (8 health centres each). Information was complemented by interviews with key informants, website search and literature review. Preliminary results were validated during feedback sessions with Malian authorities from national, regional and district levels. We present positive and negative effects of the NTD campaign on the health system using the WHO framework of analysis based on six interrelated elements: health service delivery, health workforce, health information system, drug procurement system, financing and governance. At point of delivery, campaign-related workload severely interfered with routine care delivery which was cut down or totally interrupted during the campaign, as nurses were absent from their health centre for campaign-related activities. Only 2 of the 16 health centres, characterized by a qualified, stable and motivated workforce, were able to keep routine services running and to use the campaign as an opportunity for quality improvement. Increased workload was compensated by allowances, which significantly improved staff income, but also contributed to divert attention away from core routine activities. While the campaign increased the availability of NTD drugs at country level, parallel systems for drug supply and evaluation requested extra efforts burdening local health systems. The campaign budget

  8. Interactions between Global Health Initiatives and country health systems: the case of a neglected tropical diseases control program in Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cavalli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, a number of Global Health Initiatives (GHI have been created to address single disease issues in low-income countries, such as poliomyelitis, trachoma, neonatal tetanus, etc.. Empirical evidence on the effects of such GHIs on local health systems remains scarce. This paper explores positive and negative effects of the Integrated Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD Control Initiative, consisting in mass preventive chemotherapy for five targeted NTDs, on Mali's health system where it was first implemented in 2007. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Campaign processes and interactions with the health system were assessed through participant observation in two rural districts (8 health centres each. Information was complemented by interviews with key informants, website search and literature review. Preliminary results were validated during feedback sessions with Malian authorities from national, regional and district levels. We present positive and negative effects of the NTD campaign on the health system using the WHO framework of analysis based on six interrelated elements: health service delivery, health workforce, health information system, drug procurement system, financing and governance. At point of delivery, campaign-related workload severely interfered with routine care delivery which was cut down or totally interrupted during the campaign, as nurses were absent from their health centre for campaign-related activities. Only 2 of the 16 health centres, characterized by a qualified, stable and motivated workforce, were able to keep routine services running and to use the campaign as an opportunity for quality improvement. Increased workload was compensated by allowances, which significantly improved staff income, but also contributed to divert attention away from core routine activities. While the campaign increased the availability of NTD drugs at country level, parallel systems for drug supply and evaluation requested extra efforts

  9. Simulation of Transcritical CO2 Refrigeration System with Booster Hot Gas Bypass in Tropical Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, I. D. M. C.; Sudirman; Waisnawa, IGNS; Sunu, PW; Temaja, IW

    2018-01-01

    A Simulation computer becomes significant important for performance analysis since there is high cost and time allocation to build an experimental rig, especially for CO2 refrigeration system. Besides, to modify the rig also need additional cos and time. One of computer program simulation that is very eligible to refrigeration system is Engineering Equation System (EES). In term of CO2 refrigeration system, environmental issues becomes priority on the refrigeration system development since the Carbon dioxide (CO2) is natural and clean refrigerant. This study aims is to analysis the EES simulation effectiveness to perform CO2 transcritical refrigeration system with booster hot gas bypass in high outdoor temperature. The research was carried out by theoretical study and numerical analysis of the refrigeration system using the EES program. Data input and simulation validation were obtained from experimental and secondary data. The result showed that the coefficient of performance (COP) decreased gradually with the outdoor temperature variation increasing. The results show the program can calculate the performance of the refrigeration system with quick running time and accurate. So, it will be significant important for the preliminary reference to improve the CO2 refrigeration system design for the hot climate temperature.

  10. High-throughput screening platform for natural product-based drug discovery against 3 neglected tropical diseases: human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annang, F; Pérez-Moreno, G; García-Hernández, R; Cordon-Obras, C; Martín, J; Tormo, J R; Rodríguez, L; de Pedro, N; Gómez-Pérez, V; Valente, M; Reyes, F; Genilloud, O; Vicente, F; Castanys, S; Ruiz-Pérez, L M; Navarro, M; Gamarro, F; González-Pacanowska, D

    2015-01-01

    African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease are 3 neglected tropical diseases for which current therapeutic interventions are inadequate or toxic. There is an urgent need to find new lead compounds against these diseases. Most drug discovery strategies rely on high-throughput screening (HTS) of synthetic chemical libraries using phenotypic and target-based approaches. Combinatorial chemistry libraries contain hundreds of thousands of compounds; however, they lack the structural diversity required to find entirely novel chemotypes. Natural products, in contrast, are a highly underexplored pool of unique chemical diversity that can serve as excellent templates for the synthesis of novel, biologically active molecules. We report here a validated HTS platform for the screening of microbial extracts against the 3 diseases. We have used this platform in a pilot project to screen a subset (5976) of microbial extracts from the MEDINA Natural Products library. Tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that 48 extracts contain potentially new compounds that are currently undergoing de-replication for future isolation and characterization. Known active components included actinomycin D, bafilomycin B1, chromomycin A3, echinomycin, hygrolidin, and nonactins, among others. The report here is, to our knowledge, the first HTS of microbial natural product extracts against the above-mentioned kinetoplastid parasites. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  11. EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS AND ADDITION OF ARBUSCULA MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI (AMF ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF TROPICAL GRASSES (Chloris gayana, Paspalum dilatatum, and Paspalum notatum

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    Pebriansyah A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Grasses productivity is affected by soil water availability. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF was innoculated to support plant to overcome drought stress during its growth. The aim of this study was to understand the role of  Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF to support growth and the production of grasses in drought stress condition. Three species of tropical grasses : Chloris    gayana,    Paspalum    notatum,    and  Paspalum dilatatum were used. The research used completely randomized design with 4 treatments consisting of M0S0 = without AMF and daily watering, M0S1 = without AMF and without watering; M1S0 = with mycorrhiza and daily watering; M1S1 = with AMF and without watering. and 5 replications. The four treatments research were as follows; Each type of grasses were obsereved in a separate study. The result showed that AMF played significant role in improving growth and root dry weight biomass of Chloris    gayana in drought condition. Paspalum notatum is the most adaptive grass in the drought condition. Chloris gayana has the growth and a better production than Paspalum dilatatum.

  12. Volatile sulfur compounds in tropical fruits

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    Robert J. Cannon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Global production and demand for tropical fruits continues to grow each year as consumers are enticed by the exotic flavors and potential health benefits that these fruits possess. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs are often responsible for the juicy, fresh aroma of tropical fruits. This poses a challenge for analytical chemists to identify these compounds as most often VSCs are found at low concentrations in most tropical fruits. The aim of this review is to discuss the extraction methods, enrichment techniques, and instrumentation utilized to identify and quantify VSCs in natural products. This will be followed by a discussion of the VSCs reported in tropical and subtropical fruits, with particular attention to the odor and taste attributes of each compound. Finally, the biogenesis and enzymatic formation of specific VSCs in tropical fruits will be highlighted along with the contribution each possesses to the aroma of their respective fruit. Keywords: Tropical fruits, Volatile sulfur compounds, Extraction methods

  13. Tropical wetlands: A missing link in the global carbon cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögersten, Sofie; Black, Colin R; Evers, Stephanie; Hoyos-Santillan, Jorge; Wright, Emma L; Turner, Benjamin L

    2014-01-01

    Tropical wetlands are not included in Earth system models, despite being an important source of methane (CH4) and contributing a large fraction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from land use, land use change, and forestry in the tropics. This review identifies a remarkable lack of data on the carbon balance and gas fluxes from undisturbed tropical wetlands, which limits the ability of global change models to make accurate predictions about future climate. We show that the available data on in situ carbon gas fluxes in undisturbed forested tropical wetlands indicate marked spatial and temporal variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions, with exceptionally large fluxes in Southeast Asia and the Neotropics. By upscaling short-term measurements, we calculate that approximately 90 ± 77 Tg CH4 year−1 and 4540 ± 1480 Tg CO2 year−1 are released from tropical wetlands globally. CH4 fluxes are greater from mineral than organic soils, whereas CO2 fluxes do not differ between soil types. The high CO2 and CH4 emissions are mirrored by high rates of net primary productivity and litter decay. Net ecosystem productivity was estimated to be greater in peat-forming wetlands than on mineral soils, but the available data are insufficient to construct reliable carbon balances or estimate gas fluxes at regional scales. We conclude that there is an urgent need for systematic data on carbon dynamics in tropical wetlands to provide a robust understanding of how they differ from well-studied northern wetlands and allow incorporation of tropical wetlands into global climate change models. PMID:26074666

  14. Systemic representation of a production system: the Sagace method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkhannouche, S.; Penalva, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The systemic approach used in this study is devoted at a high level radioactive waste vitrification pilot. The Sagace method permits to realize a global view of this pilot plant taking in account the process, the production subsystems and the control process subsystems. 4 figs., 4 refs

  15. Evaluation of feeds from tropical origin for in vitro methane production potential and rumen fermentation in vitro

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    Kaushik Pal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteric methane arising due to fermentation of feeds in the rumen contributes substantially to the greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, like evaluation of chemical composition and nutritive values of feeds, methane production potential of each feed should be determined. This experiment was conducted to evaluate several feeds for methane production potential and rumen fermentation using in vitro gas production technique so that low methane producing feeds could be utilized to feed ruminants. Protein- and energy-rich concentrates (n=11, cereal and grass forages (n=11, and different straws and shrubs (n=12, which are commonly fed to ruminants i