Smith, Peter D
2003-01-01
Albert Einstein re-wrote the textbooks of science in 1905: physics since has been little more than a series of footnotes to the theories of a 26-year-old patent-office clerk. Einstein's science and emotional life come together in this vivid portrait of a rebellious and contradictory figure, a pacifist whose legendary equation E=mc2 opened scientists' eyes to the terrible power within every atom. 'To punish me for my contempt for authority,' he lamented, 'Fate has made me an authority myself.'
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Albert Einstein. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 5 Issue 3 March 2000 pp 105-108 Classics. The Cause of the Formation of Meanders in the Courses of Rivers and of the So-Called Baer's Law · Albert Einstein · More Details ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parker, B.
1986-01-01
This book discusses the following topics: the search for meaning; Einstein's dream; curved space; Einstein and warped space-time and extreme wraping; early unified field theories; star death; beyond the white dwarf; the early universe; the hadron, Lepton, and Radiation eras; the redshift controversy; other universes; the final fate of the universe; the missing mass; bounce; fate of the open universe; the world of particles and fields; Dirac's equation; Yukawa; gauge theory; quantum chromodynamics; supergravity and superstrings; twistors and heaven; and the new Einstein
Shapiro Key, Joey; Yunes, Nicolas
2013-04-01
The Gravity Group at Montana State University (MSU) hosted Celebrating Einstein, a free public arts and multimedia event celebrating Einstein and his ideas in Bozeman, Montana April 2-6, 2013. The products of our efforts are now available to any party interested in hosting a similar event. Celebrating Einstein is a truly interdisciplinary effort including art, film, dance, music, physics, history, and education. Events included a black hole immersive art installation, a series of public talks by physicists, and Einstein lessons in the public schools leading up to a live free public multimedia performance including a professional dance company, a live interview with a renowned physicist, and an original score composed for the MSU student symphony to be performed with an original film produced by the Science and Natural History film program at MSU. This project is funded by the Montana Space Grant Consortium, Montana State University, and the National Science Foundation.
Carlson, Eric; Wald, Robert
1979-01-01
Presents a guide to be used by students and teachers in conjunction with a television program about Einstein. Provides general information about special and general relativity, and the universe. Includes questions for discussion after each section and a bibliography. (MA)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Work) + Y (Play) + Z ... When asked about his own motivation, Einstein said: In theoretical science the external .... could presumably have done! What motivated him in attempting to solve what he considered the really important questions?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winterflood, A.H.
1980-01-01
In discussing Einstein's Special Relativity theory it is claimed that it violates the principle of relativity itself and that an anomalous sign in the mathematics is found in the factor which transforms one inertial observer's measurements into those of another inertial observer. The apparent source of this error is discussed. Having corrected the error a new theory, called Observational Kinematics, is introduced to replace Einstein's Special Relativity. (U.K.)
Gordon, Fernando
2016-01-01
Scientists can change the world! Albert Einstein's theories helped us understand how light works. This title introduces budding scientists and engineers to Albert Einstein whose discoveries changed the course of science. Photos and illustrations bring the stories of this great mind to life, and a quiz lets readers test their newfound knowledge. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Applied to STEM Concepts of Learning Principles. Super Sandcastle is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.
Lomnitz, C.
2007-05-01
What does Einstein have to do with subduction? Good question. Peaceful Lake Budi, lying at the heart of an Indian reservation in the Deep South of Chile, had subsided by two meters in the 1960 mega-thrust earthquake. This unique South American salt lake was hiding an awful secret: it was actually an oxbow, not a lake. But Einstein had realized in 1926 that meanders are natural freaks. Rivers will not flow uphill, yet - he claimed - they don't flow down the path of steepest descent either. This anomaly was put at the doorstep of a weak Coriolis Force. Thus Einstein problematized the dilemma of the earth sciences. How can a non-force produce margin-parallel compression in a convergent margin where extension is expected? In fact, where does the energy for meander formation come from? Good question . . . Even Wikipedia knows that Coriolis is not a “force” but an “effect”. So is the obliquity of plate convergence in subduction. Where did Einstein err, and where was he a pioneer? Coastal ablation plus alternating subsidence and emergence in giant earthquakes may yield an answer. Einstein, A. (1926). Die Ursache der Maeanderbildung der Flusslaeufe und das sogenannte Baersche Gesetz, Naturwissenschaften, 14, fascicle II.
Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Skeparovski, Aleksandar
2008-01-01
Reflection of light from a plane mirror in uniform rectilinear motion is a century-old problem, intimately related to the foundations of special relativity. The problem was first investigated by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper by using the Lorentz transformations to switch from the mirror's rest frame to the frame where the mirror moves at a…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broda, E.
1979-01-01
This text was written by Engelbert Broda in 1979 and is about Albert Einstein and his relation to Austria. This text is split in different sections which are amongst others: Einstein und Mach; Einstein und Boltzmann; Positivism, Atoms and Relativity; Einstein as an Austrian professor; Einstein’s visits to Austria; Einstein and Viennese friends; Einstein and Friedrich Adler; Einstein and the Austrian mentality; (nowak)
Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Skeparovski, Aleksandar
2008-10-01
Reflection of light from a plane mirror in uniform rectilinear motion is a century-old problem, intimately related to the foundations of special relativity.1-4 The problem was first investigated by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper by using the Lorentz transformations to switch from the mirror's rest frame to the frame where the mirror moves at a constant velocity.5 Einstein showed an intriguing fact that the usual law of reflection would not hold in the case of a uniformly moving mirror, that is, the angles of incidence and reflection of the light would not equal each other. Later on, it has been shown that the law of reflection at a moving mirror can be obtained in various alternative ways,6-10 but none of them seems suitable for bringing this interesting subject into the high school classroom.
Hertz, P.
2003-03-01
The Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) theme within NASA's Office of Space Science seeks to explore and understand the dynamic transformations of energy in the Universe - the entire web of biological and physical interactions that determine the evolution of our cosmic habitat. This search for understanding will enrich the human spirit and inspire a new generation of explorers, scientists, and engineers. To that end, NASA's strategic planning process has generated a new Roadmap to enable those goals. Called "Beyond Einstein", this Roadmap identifies three science objectives for the SEU theme: (1) Find out what powered the Big Bang; (2) Observe how black holes manipulate space, time, and matter; and (3) Identify the mysterious dark energy pullingthe Universe apart. These objectives can be realized through a combination of large observatories (Constellation-X, LISA), moderate sized, PI-led missions (the Einstein Probes), and a contuinuing program of technology development, research and analysis, and education/public outreach. In this presentation, NASA's proposed Beyond Einstein Program will be described. The full Roadmap is available at http://universe.nasa.gov/.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Einstein. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 5 Issue 4 April 2000 pp 111-120 Reflections. Albert Einstein: A Biographical Sketch · Maja Winteler-Einstein · More Details Fulltext PDF ...
Miller, Arthur I.
2004-11-01
How the 20th century’s most important scientist—Albert Einstein—and its most important artist—Pablo Picasso—made their greatest discoveries at almost the same time is a remarkable story: Einstein's relativity theory in 1905 and Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon two years later. A scientist and an artist confronted the same problem—the nature of time and simultaneity—and resolved it after realizing a new aesthetic. At the nascent moment of creativity boundaries dissolve between disciplines. This article explores the similarities in the early work of two of the greatest icons of Art and Science of the last century.
Petrov, Aleksej Z
1969-01-01
Einstein Spaces presents the mathematical basis of the theory of gravitation and discusses the various spaces that form the basis of the theory of relativity. This book examines the contemporary development of the theory of relativity, leading to the study of such problems as gravitational radiation, the interaction of fields, and the behavior of elementary particles in a gravitational field. Organized into nine chapters, this book starts with an overview of the principles of the special theory of relativity, with emphasis on the mathematical aspects. This text then discusses the need for a ge
Einstein's Phobia of Philosophy
Martinez, Alberto
The famous philosopher Henri Bergson criticized Einstein's special theory of relativity by imagining giants, microbes, two-dimensional beings, and a ''supreme consciousness.'' He argued that Einstein had arbitrarily made a sharp distinction between local and distant events and that Einstein confused time itself with mere clock measurements. I will discuss why Einstein dodged Bergson's pushy efforts to inject more subjectivity into relativity theory by explaining how Einstein, as a lonely young man, developed his critical views on philosophy. This talk is part of the invited FHP session on The Physicist and the Philosopher: Einstein, Bergson and the Debate that Changed Our Understanding of Time.
Einstein's philosophy of physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seeger, R.J.
1979-01-01
Sources of Einstein's philosophical ideas are discussed. Einstein was indebted to Mach and Poincare, and espoused more or less a logical empiricism. He looked upon Nature as real, rational, and understandable, at least to an extent
Thermodynamics in Einstein's thought
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, M.J.
1983-01-01
The role of the thermodynamical approach in the Einstein's scientific work is analyzed. The Einstein's development of a notion about statistical fluctuations of thermodynamical systems that leads him to discovery of corpuscular-wave dualism is retraced
Hess, Karl
2014-01-01
All modern books on Einstein emphasize the genius of his relativity theory and the corresponding corrections and extensions of the ancient space-time concept. However, Einstein's opposition to the use of probability in the laws of nature and particularly in the laws of quantum mechanics is criticized and often portrayed as outdated. The author of Einstein Was Right! takes a unique view and shows that Einstein created a ""Trojan horse"" ready to unleash forces against the use of probability as a basis for the laws of nature. Einstein warned that the use of probability would, in the final analys
Einstein solvmanifolds and the pre-Einstein derivation
Nikolayevsky, Y.
2008-01-01
An Einstein nilradical is a nilpotent Lie algebra, which can be the nilradical of a metric Einstein solvable Lie algebra. The classification of Riemannian Einstein solvmanifolds (possibly, of all noncompact homogeneous Einstein spaces) can be reduced to determining, which nilpotent Lie algebras are Einstein nilradicals and to finding, for every Einstein nilradical, its Einstein metric solvable extension. For every nilpotent Lie algebra, we construct an (essentially unique) derivation, the pre...
Neuromythology of Einstein's brain.
Hines, Terence
2014-07-01
The idea that the brain of the great physicist Albert Einstein is different from "average" brains in both cellular structure and external shape is widespread. This belief is based on several studies examining Einstein's brain both histologically and morphologically. This paper reviews these studies and finds them wanting. Their results do not, in fact, provide support for the claim that the structure of Einstein's brain reflects his intellectual abilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The ultimate quotable Einstein
2011-01-01
Here is the definitive new edition of the hugely popular collection of Einstein quotations that has sold tens of thousands of copies worldwide and been translated into twenty-five languages. The Ultimate Quotable Einstein features 400 additional quotes, bringing the total to roughly 1,600 in all. This ultimate edition includes new sections--"On and to Children," "On Race and Prejudice," and "Einstein's Verses: A Small Selection"--as well as a chronology of Einstein's life and accomplishments, Freeman Dyson's authoritative foreword, and new commentary by Alice Calaprice.
Dieks, D.G.B.J.
In het jaar 1905 publiceerde Albert Einstein een reeks artikelen die een omwenteling voor de wetenschap betekende. En toch bleef Einstein een kind van zijn tijd, van een eeuw die in het teken stond van dynamo’s, raderen en stoommachines.
Lisle, John
2016-01-01
Albert Einstein's biographers have not explained why he developed the abdominal aortic aneurysm that led to his death. Early conjectures proposed that it was caused by syphilis, without accurate evidence. The present article gives evidence to the contrary, and argues that the principal cause of Einstein's death was smoking.
Science Scope, 2006
2006-01-01
This article deals with a pale blue sculpture entitled "A New World View", as an homage to the most famous scientist in modern history, Albert Einstein. It has 32 bas-relief squares composed of glass and steel that represent one aspect of the life and legacy of Albert Einstein. Images of children's faces peer out from behind the glass squares,…
Fox, Karen C
2004-01-01
Einstein was the twentieth century's most celebrated scientist - a man who developed the theory of relativity, revolutionised physics and became an iconic genius in the popular imagination. Essays range from the reasonably scientific including the theory of relativity, to the odd and engaging, such as Einstein's brain, his favourite jokes and films.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dirk van Delft
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Einstein’s Holland Circle. Introduction.While he was formulating his General Theory of Relativity and working out its implications, Einstein liked to test his ideas against the accumulated experience of Dutch colleagues. As an offspring of the exhibition ‘Einstein & Friends’ in Museum Boerhaave, we present a collection of essays about Einstein’s contacts in the Netherlands.
Fölsing, Albrecht
1997-01-01
Albert Einstein's achievements are not just milestones in the history of science; decades ago they became an integral part of the twentieth-century world in which we live. Like no other modern physicist he altered and expanded our understanding of nature. Like few other scholars, he stood fully in the public eye. In a world changing with dramatic rapidity, he embodied the role of the scientist by personal example. Albrecht Folsing, relying on previously unknown sources and letters, brings Einstein's "genius" into focus. Whereas former biographies, written in the tradition of the history of science, seem to describe a heroic Einstein who fell to earth from heaven, Folsing attempts to reconstruct Einstein's thought in the context of the state of research at the turn of the century. Thus, perhaps for the first time, Einstein's surroundings come to light.
Heilbron, John
2005-03-01
As an editor of the Annalen der Physik, Max Planck published Einstein's early papers on thermodynamics and on special relativity, which Planck probably was the first major physicist to appreciate. They respected one another not only as physicists but also, for their inspired creation of world pictures, as artists. Planck helped to establish Einstein in a sinecure at the center of German physics, Berlin. Despite their differences in scientific style, social life, politics, and religion, they became fast friends. Their mutual admiration survived World War I, during which Einstein advocated pacifism and Planck signed the infamous Manifesto of the 93 Intellectuals supporting the German invasion of Belgium. It also survived the Weimar Republic, which Einstein favored and Planck disliked. Physics drew them together, as both opposed the Copenhagen Interpretation; so did common decency, as Planck helped to protect Einstein from anti-semitic attacks. Their friendship did not survive the Nazis. As a standing secretary of the Berlin Academy, Planck had to advise Einstein to resign from it before his colleagues, outraged at his criticism of the new Germany from the safety of California, expelled him. Einstein never forgave his old friend and former fellow artist for not protesting publicly against his expulsion and denigration, and other enormities of National Socialism. .
Einstein: A Historical Perspective
Kormos-Buchwald, Diana
2015-04-01
In late 1915, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) completed as series of papers on a generalized theory of gravitation that were to constitute a major conceptual change in the history of modern physics and the crowning achievement of his scientific career. But this accomplishment came after a decade of intense intellectual struggle and was received with muted enthusiasm. Einstein's previously unpublished writings and massive correspondence, edited by the Einstein Papers Project, provide vivid insights into the historical, personal, and scientific context of the formulation, completion, and reception of GR during the first decades of the 20th century.
Herwig Schopper Einstein's Legacy
Schneegans, Susan
2005-01-01
"Last June, the United Nations declared 2005 the International Year of Physics and invited UNESCO to take the lead in celebrating the hundreth anniversary of Albert Einstein's legandary articles on relativisty, quantum theory and Brownian motion" (3 pages)
Calaprice, Alice; Schulmann, Robert
2015-01-01
This is the single most complete guide to Albert Einstein’s life and work for students, researchers, and browsers alike. Written by three leading Einstein scholars who draw on their combined wealth of expertise gained during their work on the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, this authoritative and accessible reference features more than one hundred entries and is divided into three parts covering the personal, scientific, and public spheres of Einstein’s life. An Einstein Encyclopedia contains entries on Einstein’s birth and death, family and romantic relationships, honors and awards, educational institutions where he studied and worked, citizenships and immigration to America, hobbies and travels, plus the people he befriended and the history of his archives and the Einstein Papers Project. Entries on Einstein’s scientific theories provide useful background and context, along with details about his assistants, collaborators, and rivals, as well as physics concepts related to his work. Coverage o...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozameh, C.N.; Newman, E.T.; Tod, K.P.
1985-01-01
Conformal transformations in four-dimensional. In particular, a new set of two necessary and sufficient conditions for a space to be conformal to an Einstein space is presented. The first condition defines the class of spaces conformal to C spaces, whereas the last one (the vanishing of the Bach tensor) gives the particular subclass of C spaces which are conformally related to Einstein spaces. (author)
2010-02-01
NASA has announced the selection of the 2010 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2010. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Simona Giacintucci (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Boaz Katz (Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton, N.J.) * Matthew Kerr (Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif.) * Matthew Kistler (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Emily Levesque (University of Colorado, Boulder) * Xin Liu (Harvard, Cambridge, Mass.) * Tony Mroczkowski (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia) * Ryan O'Leary (University of California at Berkeley) * Dov Poznanski (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Berkeley, Calif.) * Nicolas Yunes (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) The Einstein Fellowships are administered for NASA by the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Along with the Hubble and Sagan Fellowships, the Einstein Fellowships are made possible by the Astrophysics Division within NASA's Science Mission Directorate. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at: http://cxc.harvard.edu/fellows/CfPfellow.2009.html
Einstein's revolutionary paper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rigden, John S.
2005-01-01
Although Einstein wrote five fundamental papers in 1905, only one - the article showing that light consists of discrete quantum particles - was truly revolutionary, argues John S. Rigden. Einstein's annus mirabilis of 1905 is rightly a cause for celebration. In less than seven months, Einstein wrote five history-making papers. He proposed the particle theory of light, developed a method to measure molecular dimensions, explained the long-puzzling Brownian motion, developed the theory of special relativity, and he finished his intellectual sprint by producing the world's most famous equation, E = mc 2 . The creative outpouring that Einstein exhibited in 1905 stands alone in the history of physics. After 100 years of sweeping advances in the subject since then, the content of these papers remains at the bedrock of our discipline. But although all of Einstein's 1905 papers were fundamental, only one paper was truly revolutionary. What makes a physics paper revolutionary? Perhaps the most important requirement is that it contains a 'big idea'. Next, the big idea must contradict the accepted wisdom of its time. Third, physicists capable of judging the intrinsic merit of the big idea typically reject it until they are forced to accept it. Finally, the big idea must survive and eventually become part of the woodwork of physics. Only Einstein's March paper 'On a heuristic point of view concerning the production and transformation of light' (Ann. Phys., Lpz 17 132-148) meets these criteria. (U.K.)
Calaprice, Alice
2005-01-01
Albert Einstein was an exceptional human being. Perhaps nothing reflects the breadth and scope of his brilliance, his interests, and his influence better than his publications -- more than six hundred scientific papers, books, essays, reviews, and opinion pieces. Einstein began publishing in March 1901 with a scientific work that appeared in the German journal Annalen der Physik when he was twenty-two; the last publication was an editorial in the journal Common Cause which appeared a few months before his death in 1955. In the fifty-four-year interval, his published work ranged widely over relativity theory and quantum physics, nationalism, Judaism, war, peace, and education. Indeed, Einstein's literary output was so abundant that even many of his most informed admirers are not familiar with all of it. The Einstein Almanac takes a look at Einstein's year-by-year output, explaining his three-hundred most important publications and setting them into the context of his life, science, and world history. Concentr...
Albert Einstein memorial lectures
Mechoulam, Raphael; The Israel Academy for Sciences and Humanities
2012-01-01
This volume consists of a selection of the Albert Einstein Memorial Lectures presented annually at the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Delivered by eminent scientists and scholars, including Nobel laureates, they cover a broad spectrum of subjects in physics, chemistry, life science, mathematics, historiography and social issues. This distinguished memorial lecture series was inaugurated by the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities following an international symposium held in Jerusalem in March 1979 to commemorate the centenary of Albert Einstein's birth. Considering that Einstein's interests, activities and influence were not restricted to theoretical physics but spanned broad fields affecting society and the welfare of humankind, it was felt that these memorial lectures should be addressed to scientists, scholars and erudite laypersons rather than to physicists alone.
Conversations With Albert Einstein. II
Shankland, R. S.
1973-01-01
Discusses Einstein's views on the role of Michelson-Morley, Fizeau, and Miller experiments in the development of relativity and his attitude toward the theories of new quantum mechanics. Indicates that Einstein's opposition to quantum mechanics is beyond dispute. (CC)
Einstein, Albert
2009-01-01
His name is synonymous with ""genius,"" but these essays by the renowned physicist and scholar are accessible to any reader. In addition to outlining the core of relativity theory in everyday language, Albert Einstein presents fascinating discussions of other scientific fields to which he made significant contributions. The Nobel Laureate also profiles some of history's most influential physicists, upon whose studies his own work was based.Assembled during Einstein's lifetime from his speeches and essays, this book marks the first presentation to the wider world of the scientist's accomplishme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stabell, R.
1979-01-01
Einstein applied his gravitation theory to a universe model with positively curved space in 1917. In order to maintain a static universe he introduced the cosmological constant, which in the light of later nonstatic universe models, he described as his life's greatest mistake. The best known such model is the Einstein-de Sitter model, which is here discussed in some detail. The 'big bang' theory is also discussed leading to the cosmic background radiation. The early phase of the 'big bang' cosmology, the first ten seconds, and the first minutes are discussed, leading to the transparent stage. (JIW)
Ceremony marking Einstein Year
2005-01-01
Sunday 13th November at 10:00amat Geneva's St. Peter's Cathedral To mark Einstein Year and the importance of the intercultural dialogue of which it forms a part, a religious service will take place on Sunday 13 November at 10 a.m. in St. Peter's Cathedral, to which CERN members and colleagues are warmly welcomed. Pastor Henry Babel, senior minister at the Cathedral, will speak on the theme: 'God in Einstein's Universe'. Diether Blechschmidt will convey a message on behalf of the scientific community.
2003-01-01
For the first time scientists have succeeded in measuring the speed of gravity. They took advantage of a rare alignment of Jupiter against a far-off quasar to measure the fundamental constant described by Albert Einstein in his general theory of relativity (2 pages).
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
have quoted, London noted that at the density of liquid helium, the temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal gas would be about three degrees above absolute zero.4 Liquid helium shows new properties below 2.1 degrees Kelvin [3]. London boldly suggested that these new properties were a consequence of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 12. Bose-Einstein Condensation - Birds of a Feather Flock Together. Rajaram Nityananda. Volume 10 Issue 12 December 2005 pp 142-147. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 4. Bose–Einstein Condensation - Birds of a Feather Flock Together. Rajaram Nityananda. General Article Volume 5 Issue 4 April 2000 pp 46-51. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Bose-Einstein Condensation. Vasant Natarajan is at the. Department of Physics,. Indian Institute of. Science. His current research involves trapping of atoms to carry out high precision tests of fundamental physics. He has earlier worked on high precision mass spectrom- etry and on the focussing of atomic beams by laser.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
travel, music, and food are optimally satisfied by listening to Hindi film music half as old as he is while eating potato chips in a sleeper coach. R Nityananda. In 1924 Bose introduced a counting rule for the states of a gas of photons which explained Planck's law for thermal radiation at one stroke. Einstein not only recognised ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
But here is Einstein's own expression of his struggle for comprehension, from a letter to Besso as late as December 1951: "All the fifty years of conscious brooding .... "It is my opinion that the next phase in the development of theoretical physics will bring us a theory of light that can be interpreted as a kind of fusion of the ...
Examining the Enigmatic Einstein
Khoon, Koh Aik
2007-01-01
Albert Einstein is the icon of scientific genius. His is one the most recognizable faces in the history of mankind. This paper takes a cursory look at the man who is commonly perceived to be the epitome of eccentricity. We manage to sum up his salient traits which are associated with his name. The traits are based on anecdotal evidence. This…
Atkinson, David
2005-01-01
The Michelson-Morley experiment suggests the hypothesis that the two-way speed of light is constant,and this is consistent with a more general in variance than that of Lorentz. On adding the requirement that physical laws have the same form in all inertial frames, as Einstein did, the transformation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
with (i) the 'light-quantum' or the photon concept and an explanation of the photoelectric effect, (ii) the theory and explanation of Brownian motion, and (iii) the Spe- cial Theory of Relativity, a radically new view of space and time. Einstein himself regarded the first as truly revolutionary; it was the second major step in the de-.
Breithaupt, Jim
2000-01-01
This guide contains the essential facts and concepts of the life and work of Albert Einstein. It examines his background and the scientific method of the day, and explains his theories in simple terms. Central themes are presented in jargon-free language and key terms are highlighted and explained.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1936 Honorary. Einstein, Prof. Albert Nobel Laureate (Physics) - 1921. Date of birth: 14 March 1879. Date of death: 18 April 1955. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science ...
2011-03-01
ASA has announced the selection of the 2011 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2011. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Akos Bogdan (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Samuel Gralla (University of Maryland, College Park, Md.) * Philip Hopkins (University of California at Berkeley) * Matthew Kunz (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.) * Laura Lopez (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) * Amy Reines (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Virg.) * Rubens Reis (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) * Ken Shen (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.) * Jennifer Siegal-Gaskins (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Lorenzo Sironi (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.) NASA has two other astrophysics theme-based fellowship programs: the Sagan Fellowship Program, which supports research into exoplanet exploration, and the Hubble Fellowship Program, which supports research into cosmic origins. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at: http://cxc.harvard.edu/fellows/
Weisskopf, Victor Frederick; CERN. Geneva
1979-01-01
A socially engaged scientist by V. F. WEISSKOPF. On the origin of the Einstein-Russell statement on nuclear weapon by H. S. BURHOP. This week, we pay homage to Albert Einstein, the giant of twentieth-century physics born exactly 100 years ago on 14 March 1879 in Ulm, Germany. At the height of his career, Einstein made a whole series of monumental contributions to physics, including the elaborate theories of special and general relativity which revolutionized human thought and marked a major breakthrough in our understanding to the Universe. Along with quantum mechanics, relativity is one of the twin pillars of understanding which allow us here at CERN to study the behaviour of the tiniest components of matter. The development of quantum mechanics took the combined efforts of some of the greatest scientists the world has known, while relativity was developed almost single-handed by Einstein. The centenary of his birth is being commemorated all over the world. Exhibitions and symposia are being organized, books...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giannetto, E
2007-01-01
Thibault Damour is a theoretical physicist, and a member of the French Academy of Sciences. This book is the translation, by Eric Novak, of the original French Si Einstein m'etait conte (Le Cherche Midi, 2005). It is neither a book of theoretical physics nor a biography of Einstein. It is not a book of history nor philosophy of science. In Damour's words it was written to encourage the reader to share with Einstein 'those times when he understood some part of the hidden order of the universe'. It is a relatively short book, written in a very fluent style, but it deals with all the major problems and achievements of Einstein's works. Starting from special relativity, it continues with general relativity, quantum theories, unified field theory and a brief overview of the actual research related to Einstein's legacy. It is essentially a popular science book with some related exploration in history and philosophy to interpret physical theories. The most important problem discussed by Damour is the nature of time. On this subject, there is a very interesting short paragraph (pp 33--35) dedicated to the reception of the relativity idea by the great writer Marcel Proust and its counterpart within A la Recherche du Temps Perdu. A correct discussion of the implications of a relativistic time should imply the distinction of the different possible interpretations of this concept. Damour seems to conclude that only one interpretation is possible: 'time does not exist', flowing of time is an illusion. One has to know that Einstein's ideas on time were related to Spinoza's perspective of a knowledge sub specie aeternitatis. However, other interpretations are possible and are related to the idea of time as an actuality. Damour speaks about the controversy between Einstein and Bergson, but Bergson is considered as a philosopher who did not understand relativity. This philosophical problem of relativistic time is indeed related to a historical problem briefly discussed by Damour
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giannetto, E [Dipartimento di Fisica ' A Volta' , via A Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)
2007-07-20
Thibault Damour is a theoretical physicist, and a member of the French Academy of Sciences. This book is the translation, by Eric Novak, of the original French Si Einstein m'etait conte (Le Cherche Midi, 2005). It is neither a book of theoretical physics nor a biography of Einstein. It is not a book of history nor philosophy of science. In Damour's words it was written to encourage the reader to share with Einstein 'those times when he understood some part of the hidden order of the universe'. It is a relatively short book, written in a very fluent style, but it deals with all the major problems and achievements of Einstein's works. Starting from special relativity, it continues with general relativity, quantum theories, unified field theory and a brief overview of the actual research related to Einstein's legacy. It is essentially a popular science book with some related exploration in history and philosophy to interpret physical theories. The most important problem discussed by Damour is the nature of time. On this subject, there is a very interesting short paragraph (pp 33--35) dedicated to the reception of the relativity idea by the great writer Marcel Proust and its counterpart within A la Recherche du Temps Perdu. A correct discussion of the implications of a relativistic time should imply the distinction of the different possible interpretations of this concept. Damour seems to conclude that only one interpretation is possible: 'time does not exist', flowing of time is an illusion. One has to know that Einstein's ideas on time were related to Spinoza's perspective of a knowledge sub specie aeternitatis. However, other interpretations are possible and are related to the idea of time as an actuality. Damour speaks about the controversy between Einstein and Bergson, but Bergson is considered as a philosopher who did not understand relativity. This philosophical problem of relativistic time is indeed related to a
Albert einstein - Illustrated biography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugimoto, K.
1990-01-01
A genius of science, but also a great-hearted man who fought his convictions all his life long. That is the Albert Einstein s portrait what draw the documents collected in this book: photographies, talks, letters and narrations, sometimes unpublished. With evidences and anecdotes is drawn a surprising personality of a man full of humor and originality who made his mark, as nobody else, in this tumultuous century. (N.C.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jou, David
2007-12-01
Full Text Available We study Einstein’s contributions to thermodynamics and statistical physics and their influence on some fields of physics which have led to current studies on complexity. We focus our attention on the use of fluctuations and entropy as a common framework for light and matter, whcich leds him to some of his fundamental contributions (phtoelectric effect, Brownian motion, specific heat of solids, stimulated light emission, Bose-Einstein condensation. We underline some aspects of Einstein’s research style: extrapolations, analogies, simplifications. We underline the relationship between light and matter as a common link of his researches in statistical physics.Presentamos las contribuciones de Einstein a la termodinámica y la mecánica estadística y su resonancia en ramas de la física que han conducido hasta la consideración actual de lo complejo. Nos referimos especialmente al uso de las fluctuaciones y de la entropía como marco común y nexo de unión entre luz y materia, que le conducen a algunas de sus aportaciones fundamentales (efecto fotoeléctrico, movimiento browniano, calor específico de los sólidos, emisión estimulada de la luz, condensación de Bose-Einstein. Consideramos también algunas facetas del estilo de investigación de Einstein, que se manifiestan con especial claridad en este campo: extrapolaciones, analogías, simplificaciones. Destacamos especialmente la importancia de la relación entre luz y materia en sus investigaciones.
Einstein the searcher his work explained from dialogues with Einstein
Moszkowski, Alexander
2014-01-01
This volume, first published in 1921, presents a series of portraits of Einstein, thus offering glimpses in the character and private reflections of the man who changed the course of modern science. Intended neither as a biography, nor as a résumé of Einsteinian physics, Einstein: The Searcher instead focusses on Einstein's relationship with the scientific project as he himself conceived it, and so is still of contemporary significance for those puzzled by the spirit of scientific enquiry.
Albert Einstein, Analogizer Extraordinaire
CERN. Geneva
2007-01-01
Where does deep insight in physics come from? It is tempting to think that it comes from the purest and most precise of reasoning, following ironclad laws of thought that compel the clear mind completely rigidly. And yet the truth is quite otherwise. One finds, when one looks closely at any major discovery, that the greatest of physicists are, in some sense, the most crazily daring and irrational of all physicists. Albert Einstein exemplifies this thesis in spades. In this talk I will describe the key role, throughout Albert Einstein's fabulously creative life, played by wild guesses made by analogy lacking any basis whatsoever in pure reasoning. In particular, in this year of 2007, the centenary of 1907, I will describe how over the course of two years (1905 through 1907) of pondering, Einstein slowly came, via analogy, to understand the full, radical consequences of the equation that he had first discovered and published in 1905, arguably the most famous equation of all time: E = mc2.
Amati, Daniele; Weisskopf, Victor Frederick; CERN. Geneva
1979-01-01
The scientist and his work by D. AMATI and S. FUBINI. A socially engaged scientist by V. F. WEISSKOPF. This week, we pay homage to Albert Einstein, the giant of twentieth-century physics born exactly 100 years ago on 14 March 1879 in Ulm, Germany. At the height of his career, Einstein made a whole series of monumental contributions to physics, including the elaborate theories of special and general relativity which revolutionized human thought and marked a major breakthrough in our understanding to the Universe. Along with quantum mechanics, relativity is one of the twin pillars of understanding which allow us here at CERN to study the behaviour of the tiniest components of matter. The development of quantum mechanics took the combined efforts of some of the greatest scientists the world has known, while relativity was developed almost single-handed by Einstein. The centenary of his birth is being commemorated all over the world. Exhibitions and symposia are being organized, books published, postage stamps is...
Einstein algebras and general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heller, M.
1992-01-01
A purely algebraic structure called an Einstein algebra is defined in such a way that every spacetime satisfying Einstein's equations is an Einstein algebra but not vice versa. The Gelfand representation of Einstein algebras is defined, and two of its subrepresentations are discussed. One of them is equivalent to the global formulation of the standard theory of general relativity; the other one leads to a more general theory of gravitation which, in particular, includes so-called regular singularities. In order to include other types of singularities one must change to sheaves of Einstein algebras. They are defined and briefly discussed. As a test of the proposed method, the sheaf of Einstein algebras corresponding to the space-time of a straight cosmic string with quasiregular singularity is constructed. 22 refs
Bellac, Michel Le
2014-11-01
The final form of quantum physics, in the particular case of wave mechanics, was established in the years 1925-1927 by Heisenberg, Schrödinger, Born and others, but the synthesis was the work of Bohr who gave an epistemological interpretation of all the technicalities built up over those years; this interpretation will be examined briefly in Chapter 10. Although Einstein acknowledged the success of quantum mechanics in atomic, molecular and solid state physics, he disagreed deeply with Bohr's interpretation. For many years, he tried to find flaws in the formulation of quantum theory as it had been more or less accepted by a large majority of physicists, but his objections were brushed away by Bohr. However, in an article published in 1935 with Podolsky and Rosen, universally known under the acronym EPR, Einstein thought he had identified a difficulty in the by then standard interpretation. Bohr's obscure, and in part beyond the point, answer showed that Einstein had hit a sensitive target. Nevertheless, until 1964, the so-called Bohr-Einstein debate stayed uniquely on a philosophical level, and it was actually forgotten by most physicists, as the few of them aware of it thought it had no practical implication. In 1964, the Northern Irish physicist John Bell realized that the assumptions contained in the EPR article could be tested experimentally. These assumptions led to inequalities, the Bell inequalities, which were in contradiction with quantum mechanical predictions: as we shall see later on, it is extremely likely that the assumptions of the EPR article are not consistent with experiment, which, on the contrary, vindicates the predictions of quantum physics. In Section 3.2, the origin of Bell's inequalities will be explained with an intuitive example, then they will be compared with the predictions of quantum theory in Section 3.3, and finally their experimental status will be reviewed in Section 3.4. The debate between Bohr and Einstein goes much beyond a
Grundmann, Siegfried
2004-01-01
In 1919 the Prussian Ministry of Science, Arts and Culture opened a dossier on "Einstein's Theory of Relativity." It was rediscovered by the author in 1961 and is used in conjunction with numerous other subsequently identified 'Einstein' files as the basis of this fascinating book. In particular, the author carefully scrutinizes Einstein's FBI file from 1950-55 against mostly unpublished material from European including Soviet sources and presents hitherto unknown documentation on Einstein's alleged contacts with the German Communist Party and the Comintern. Siegfried Grundmann's thorough study of Einstein's participation on a committee of the League of Nations, based on archival research in Geneva, is also new. This book outlines Einstein's image in politics and German science policy. It covers the period from his appointment as a researcher in Berlin to his fight abroad against the "boycott of German science" after World War I and his struggle at home against attacks on "Jewish physics" of which he was made...
Physics Today, 1979
1979-01-01
Celebrates the centennial of Einstein's birth with an eight-page pictorial biography and two special articles: (1) Einstein the catalyst; and (2) Unitary field theories. His special and general theories of relativity and his contributions to quantum physics and other topics are also presented. (HM)
Einstein and the "Crucial" Experiment
Holton, Gerald
1969-01-01
Examines the widespread view that it was the crucial Michelson-Morley experiment that led Einstein to formulate the special relativity theory. From Einstein's writings, evidence is presented that no such direct genetic connection exists. The author suggests that the historian of science must resist the experimenticist's fallacy of imposing a…
Stachel, John
2002-01-01
John Stachel, the author of this collection of 37 published and unpublished articles on Albert Einstein, has written about Einstein and his work for over 40 years. Trained as a theoretical physicist specializing in the theory of relativity, he was chosen as the founding editor of The Collected papers of Albert Einstein 25 years ago, and is currently Director of the Boston University Center for Einstein Studies. Based on a detailed study of documentary evidence, much of which was newly discovered in the course of his work, Stachel debunks many of the old (and some new) myths about Einstein and offers novel insight into his life and work. Throughout the volume, a new, more human picture of Einstein is offered to replace the plaster saint of popular legend. In particular, a youthful Einstein emerges from the obscurity that previously shrouded his early years, and much new light is shed on the origins of the special and general theories of relativity. Also discussed in some detail are Einstein's troubled relatio...
Albert Einstein: A Biographical Sketch
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 4. Albert Einstein: A Biographical Sketch. Maja Winteler-Einstein. Reflections Volume 5 Issue 4 April 2000 pp 111-120. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/04/0111-0120 ...
Warped products and Einstein metrics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Seongtag [Department of Mathematics Education, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)
2006-05-19
Warped product construction is an important method to produce a new metric with a base manifold and a fibre. We construct compact base manifolds with a positive scalar curvature which do not admit any non-trivial Einstein warped product, and noncompact complete base manifolds which do not admit any non-trivial Ricci-flat Einstein warped product. (letter to the editor)
Albert Einstein: A Biographical Sketch
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 4. Albert Einstein: A Biographical Sketch. Maja Winteler-Einstein. Reflections Volume 5 Issue 4 April 2000 pp 111-120. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/04/0111-0120 ...
Einstein Inflationary Probe (EIP)
Hinshaw, Gary
2004-01-01
I will discuss plans to develop a concept for the Einstein Inflation Probe: a mission to detect gravity waves from inflation via the unique signature they impart to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. A sensitive CMB polarization satellite may be the only way to probe physics at the grand-unified theory (GUT) scale, exceeding by 12 orders of magnitude the energies studied at the Large Hadron Collider. A detection of gravity waves would represent a remarkable confirmation of the inflationary paradigm and set the energy scale at which inflation occurred when the universe was a fraction of a second old. Even a strong upper limit to the gravity wave amplitude would be significant, ruling out many common models of inflation, and pointing to inflation occurring at much lower energy, if at all. Measuring gravity waves via the CMB polarization will be challenging. We will undertake a comprehensive study to identify the critical scientific requirements for the mission and their derived instrumental performance requirements. At the core of the study will be an assessment of what is scientifically and experimentally optimal within the scope and purpose of the Einstein Inflation Probe.
Correct Linearization of Einstein's Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rabounski D.
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Regularly Einstein's equations can be reduced to a wave form (linearly dependent from the second derivatives of the space metric in the absence of gravitation, the space rotation and Christoffel's symbols. As shown here, the origin of the problem is that one uses the general covariant theory of measurement. Here the wave form of Einstein's equations is obtained in the terms of Zelmanov's chronometric invariants (physically observable projections on the observer's time line and spatial section. The obtained equations depend on solely the second derivatives even if gravitation, the space rotation and Christoffel's symbols. The correct linearization proves: the Einstein equations are completely compatible with weak waves of the metric.
Einstein: The Gourmet of Creativity.
Greenberg, Joel
1979-01-01
Reports a psychiatrist's analysis of Einstein's personal account of how he developed the theory of relativity. The psychiatrist cites Janusian thinking, actively conceiving two or more opposite concepts simultaneously, as a characteristic of much creative thought in general. (MA)
Physics before and after Einstein
Capria, M Mamone
2005-01-01
It is now a century ago that one of the icons of modern physics published some of the most influential scientific papers of all times. With his work on relativity and quantum theory, Albert Einstein has altered the field of physics forever. It should not come as a surprise that looking back at Einstein''s work, one needs to rethink the whole scope of physics, before and after his time. This books aims to provide a perspective on the history of modern physics, spanning from the late 19th century up to today. It is not an encyclopaedic work, but it presents the groundbreaking and sometimes provocative main contributions by Einstein as marking the line between ''old'' and ''new'' physics, and expands on some of the developments and open issues to which they gave rise.
Record bid for Einstein letter
Jeandron, Michelle
2008-06-01
A letter written by Albert Einstein the year before his death has sold for the staggering amount of £170 000 at an auction in London last month. The previously unrecorded letter, which has spent the past 50 years in a private collection, includes a discussion of Einstein's views on religion, bringing new material to the debate about whether or not he believed in God. The lot had been expected to fetch between £6000-£8000.
The NASA Beyond Einstein Program
White, Nicholas E.
2006-01-01
Einstein's legacy is incomplete, his theory of General relativity raises -- but cannot answer --three profound questions: What powered the big bang? What happens to space, time, and matter at the edge of a black hole? and What is the mysterious dark energy pulling the Universe apart? The Beyond Einstein program within NASA's Office of Space Science aims to answer these questions, employing a series of missions linked by powerful new technologies and complementary approaches towards shared science goals. The Beyond Einstein program has three linked elements which advance science and technology towards two visions; to detect directly gravitational wave signals from the earliest possible moments of the BIg Bang, and to image the event horizon of a black hole. The central element is a pair of Einstein Great Observatories, Constellation-X and LISA. Constellation-X is a powerful new X-ray observatory dedicated to X-Ray Spectroscopy. LISA is the first spaced based gravitational wave detector. These powerful facilities will blaze new paths to the questions about black holes, the Big Bang and dark energy. The second element is a series of competitively selected Einstein Probes, each focused on one of the science questions and includes a mission dedicated resolving the Dark Energy mystery. The third element is a program of technology development, theoretical studies and education. The Beyond Einstein program is a new element in the proposed NASA budget for 2004. This talk will give an overview of the program and the missions contained within it.
Afanassjewa en Einstein. Wederzijdse waardering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Margriet van der Heijden
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Afanassjewa and EinsteinIn 1912 Tatiana Afanassjewa (1876–1964, a Russian mathematician, arrived in Leiden. The university in this city had an amazingly flourishing physics department. Afanassjewa accompanied her husband Paul Ehrenfest (1880–1933, a theoretical physicist from Vienna, who was to become successor to the famous professor Hendrik Antoon Lorentz. Soon the couple’s house became a regular meeting place for Dutch mathematicians and physicists, and a temporary home for many learned guests from all over the world. Among them was Albert Einstein, a close friend of Ehrenfest, with whom he shared a passion for physics and music. This paper recapitulates their friendship and includes new details about Afanassjewa, who was to initiate a fierce debate on the didactics of mathematics in The Netherlands and whose sharp and analytical mind made an impression on Einstein. Both the Ehrenfest-Afanassjewa couple and Einstein had a vivid interest in international relations and, the role of science therein. Afanassjewa and Einstein stayed in touch through letters and cards after Ehrenfest’s untimely death in 1933, the year when Hitler rose to power in Germany and Einstein moved to the United States.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaksch, D
2003-01-01
The Gross-Pitaevskii equation, named after one of the authors of the book, and its large number of applications for describing the properties of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in trapped weakly interacting atomic gases, is the main topic of this book. In total the monograph comprises 18 chapters and is divided into two parts. Part I introduces the notion of BEC and superfluidity in general terms. The most important properties of the ideal and the weakly interacting Bose gas are described and the effects of nonuniformity due to an external potential at zero temperature are studied. The first part is then concluded with a summary of the properties of superfluid He. In Part II the authors describe the theoretical aspects of BEC in harmonically trapped weakly interacting atomic gases. A short and rather rudimentary chapter on collisions and trapping of atomic gases which seems to be included for completeness only is followed by a detailed analysis of the ground state, collective excitations, thermodynamics, and vortices as well as mixtures of BECs and the Josephson effect in BEC. Finally, the last three chapters deal with topics of more recent interest like BEC in optical lattices, low dimensional systems, and cold Fermi gases. The book is well written and in fact it provides numerous useful and important relations between the different properties of a BEC and covers most of the aspects of ultracold weakly interacting atomic gases from the point of view of condensed matter physics. The book contains a comprehensive introduction to BEC for physicists new to the field as well as a lot of detail and insight for those already familiar with this area. I therefore recommend it to everyone who is interested in BEC. Very clearly however, the intention of the book is not to provide prospects for applications of BEC in atomic physics, quantum optics or quantum state engineering and therefore the more practically oriented reader might sometimes wonder why exactly an equation is
CERN physicist receives Einstein Medal
2006-01-01
On 29 June the CERN theorist Gabriele Veneziano was awarded the prestigious Albert Einstein Medal for significant contributions to the understanding of string theory. This award is given by the Albert Einstein Society in Bern to individuals whose scientific contributions relate to the work of Einstein. Former recipients include exceptional physicists such as Murray Gell-Mann last year, but also Stephen Hawking and Victor Weisskopf. Gabriele Veneziano, a member of the integrated CERN Theory Team since 1977, led the Theory Division from 1994 to 1997 and has already received many prestigious prizes for his outstanding work, including the Enrico Fermi Prize (see CERN Courier, November 2005), the Dannie Heineman Prize for mathematical physics of the American Physical Society in 2004 (see Bulletin No. 47/2003), and the I. Ya. Pomeranchuk Prize of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow) in 1999.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, S.M.W.
1990-09-01
''The life of Albert Einstein has a dramatic quality that does not rest exclusively on his theory of relativity. The extravagant timing of history linked him with three shattering developments of the twentieth century: the rise and fall of Nazi Germany, the birth of nuclear weapons, and the birth of zionism (and Israel). Their impact on Einstein's genius combined to drive him into a contact with the affairs of the world for which Einstein had little taste''. This article is the result of my lecture delivered at ICTP on 17 August, 1990 before a knowledgable audience that included scientists from many countries including the third world countries. This one and half hour lecture was organised by Dr. A.M. Hamende and Dr. H.R. Dalafi. 10 refs
Einstein metrics on tangent bundles of spheres
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dancer, Andrew S [Jesus College, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3DW (United Kingdom); Strachan, Ian A B [Department of Mathematics, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom)
2002-09-21
We give an elementary treatment of the existence of complete Kaehler-Einstein metrics with nonpositive Einstein constant and underlying manifold diffeomorphic to the tangent bundle of the (n+1)-sphere.
Schwinger's Approach to Einstein's Gravity
Milton, Kim
2012-05-01
Albert Einstein was one of Julian Schwinger's heroes, and Schwinger was greatly honored when he received the first Einstein Prize (together with Kurt Godel) for his work on quantum electrodynamics. Schwinger contributed greatly to the development of a quantum version of gravitational theory, and his work led directly to the important work of (his students) Arnowitt, Deser, and DeWitt on the subject. Later in the 1960's and 1970's Schwinger developed a new formulation of quantum field theory, which he dubbed Source Theory, in an attempt to get closer contact to phenomena. In this formulation, he revisited gravity, and in books and papers showed how Einstein's theory of General Relativity emerged naturally from one physical assumption: that the carrier of the gravitational force is a massless, helicity-2 particle, the graviton. (There has been a minor dispute whether gravitational theory can be considered as the massless limit of a massive spin-2 theory; Schwinger believed that was the case, while Van Dam and Veltman concluded the opposite.) In the process, he showed how all of the tests of General Relativity could be explained simply, without using the full machinery of the theory and without the extraneous concept of curved space, including such effects as geodetic precession and the Lense-Thirring effect. (These effects have now been verified by the Gravity Probe B experiment.) This did not mean that he did not accept Einstein's equations, and in his book and full article on the subject, he showed how those emerge essentially uniquely from the assumption of the graviton. So to speak of Schwinger versus Einstein is misleading, although it is true that Schwinger saw no necessity to talk of curved spacetime. In this talk I will lay out Schwinger's approach, and the connection to Einstein's theory.
Einstein Equations from Varying Complexity
Czech, Bartłomiej
2018-01-01
A recent proposal equates the circuit complexity of a quantum gravity state with the gravitational action of a certain patch of spacetime. Since Einstein's equations follow from varying the action, it should be possible to derive them by varying complexity. I present such a derivation for vacuum solutions of pure Einstein gravity in three-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. The argument relies on known facts about holography and on properties of tensor network renormalization, an algorithm for coarse-graining (and optimizing) tensor networks.
Einstein for Schools and the General Public
Johansson, K. E.; Kozma, C; Nilsson, Ch
2006-01-01
In April 2005 the World Year of Physics (Einstein Year in the UK and Ireland) was celebrated with an Einstein week in Stockholm House of Science. Seven experiments illustrated Einstein's remarkable work in 1905 on Brownian motion, the photoelectric effect and special relativity. Thirteen school classes with 260 pupils, 30 teachers and 25 members…
Series expansion of the modified Einstein Procedure
Seema Chandrakant Shah-Fairbank
2009-01-01
This study examines calculating total sediment discharge based on the Modified Einstein Procedure (MEP). A new procedure based on the Series Expansion of the Modified Einstein Procedure (SEMEP) has been developed. This procedure contains four main modifications to MEP. First, SEMEP solves the Einstein integrals quickly and accurately based on a series expansion. Next,...
Dutch museum marks Einstein anniversary
van Calmthout, Matijn
2016-01-01
A new painting of Albert Einstein's field equation from his 1915 general theory of relativity was unveiled in a ceremony in November 2015 by the Dutch physicist Robbert Dijkgraaf, who is director of the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study in the US.
On the Einstein equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gabriel, M.D.
1989-01-01
The Einstein equivalence principle, the cornerstone of our present day understanding of gravity, is used to explore a deeper connection between the deflection of starlight by a spinning object and the Lense-Thirring dragging of inertial frames. It is also noted that experiment has not established that the gravitomagnetic coupling to currents of particle rest-mass energy, to currents of electromagnetic energy, and to currents of all other types of energy are identical as predicted by the Einstein equivalence principle. The detailed analysis of how atomic physics experiments originated by Hughes and by Drever can constrain such possible violations of the Einstein equivalence principle is given. Atomic clocks are also important tools used to test local Lorentz invariance and hence one important aspect of Einstein equivalence principle. The sensitivity of atomic clocks to preferred-frame effects is studied here for the first time, and the behavior of the hydrogen-maser clocks of the Gravity Probe A experiment is analyzed to illustrate use of the techniques involved
Einstein's steady-state cosmology
O Raifeartaigh, Cormac
2014-01-01
Last year, a team of Irish scientists discovered an unpublished manuscript by Einstein in which he attempted to construct a “steady-state” model of the universe. Cormac O’Raifeartaigh describes the excitement of finding this previously unknown work
Einstein's Legacy, at the Globe
2005-01-01
One-hundred years on, Albert Einstein's theories continue to fuel the daily work of physicists. From research into gravity waves to the quest for grand unification in physics, today's researchers have not finished with the legacy of the most famous and iconic physicist of the 20th Century.
Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation
Ferrari, Loris
2011-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…
BOOK REVIEW: Once Upon Einstein
Giannetto, E.
2007-07-01
Thibault Damour is a theoretical physicist, and a member of the French Academy of Sciences. This book is the translation, by Eric Novak, of the original French Si Einstein m'etait conté (Le Cherche Midi, 2005). It is neither a book of theoretical physics nor a biography of Einstein. It is not a book of history nor philosophy of science. In Damour's words it was written to encourage the reader to share with Einstein `those times when he understood some part of the hidden order of the universe'. It is a relatively short book, written in a very fluent style, but it deals with all the major problems and achievements of Einstein's works. Starting from special relativity, it continues with general relativity, quantum theories, unified field theory and a brief overview of the actual research related to Einstein's legacy. It is essentially a popular science book with some related exploration in history and philosophy to interpret physical theories. The most important problem discussed by Damour is the nature of time. On this subject, there is a very interesting short paragraph (pp 33--35) dedicated to the reception of the relativity idea by the great writer Marcel Proust and its counterpart within À la Recherche du Temps Perdu. A correct discussion of the implications of a relativistic time should imply the distinction of the different possible interpretations of this concept. Damour seems to conclude that only one interpretation is possible: `time does not exist', flowing of time is an illusion. One has to know that Einstein's ideas on time were related to Spinoza's perspective of a knowledge sub specie aeternitatis. However, other interpretations are possible and are related to the idea of time as an actuality. Damour speaks about the controversy between Einstein and Bergson, but Bergson is considered as a philosopher who did not understand relativity. This philosophical problem of relativistic time is indeed related to a historical problem briefly discussed by Damour
Albert Einstein, Cosmos and Religion
Djokovic, V.; Grujic, P.
2007-06-01
We consider Einstein's attitude regarding religious as such, from both cosmological and epistemological points of view. An attempt to put it into a wider socio-historical perspective was made, with the emphasis on ethnic and religious background. It turns out that the great scientist was neither atheist nor believer in the orthodox sense and the closest labels one might stick to him in this respect would be pantheism/cosmism (ontological aspect) and agnosticism (epistemological aspect). His ideas on divine could be considered as a continuation of line traced by Philo of Alexandria, who himself followed Greek Stoics and (Neo-) Platonists and especially Baruch Spinoza. It turns out that Einstein's both scientific (rational aspects) and religious (intuitive aspects) thinking were deeply rooted in the Hellenic culture. His striving to unravel the secrets of the universe and the roots of cosmological order resembles much the ancient ideas of the role of knowledge in fathoming the divine as such, as ascribed to Gnostics.
Hyperbolic Methods for Einstein's Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reula Oscar
1998-01-01
Full Text Available I review evolutionary aspects of general relativity, in particular those related to the hyperbolic character of the field equations and to the applications or consequences that this property entails. I look at several approaches to obtaining symmetric hyperbolic systems of equations out of Einstein's equations by either removing some gauge freedoms from them, or by considering certain linear combinations of a subset of them.
Self Completeness of Einstein Gravity
Dvali, Gia
2010-01-01
We argue, that in Einsteinian gravity the Planck length is the shortest length of nature, and any attempt of resolving trans-Planckian physics bounces back to macroscopic distances due to black hole formation. In Einstein gravity trans-Planckian propagating quantum degrees of freedom cannot exist, instead they are equivalent to the classical black holes that are fully described by lighter infra-red degrees of freedom and give exponentially-soft contribution into the virtual processes. Based on this property we argue that pure-Einstein (super)gravity and its high-dimensional generalizations are self-complete in deep-UV, but not in standard Wilsonian sense. We suggest that certain strong-coupling limit of string theory is built-in in pure Einstein gravity, whereas the role of weakly-coupled string theory limit is to consistently couple gravity to other particle species, with their number being set by the inverse string coupling. We also discuss some speculative ideas generalizing the notion of non-Wilsonian sel...
Mach-Einstein doctrine and general relativity
von Borzeszkowski, H.-H.; Treder, H.-J.
1996-07-01
It is argued that, under the assumption that the strong principle of equivalence holds, the theoretical realization of the Mach principle (in the version of the Mach-Einstein doctrine) and of the principle of general relativity are alternative programs. That means only the former or the latter can be realized—at least as long as only field equations of second order are considered. To demonstrate this we discuss two sufficiently wide classes of theories (Einstein-Grossmann and Einstein-Mayer theories, respectively) both embracing Einstein's theory of general relativity (GRT). GRT is shown to be just that “degenerate case” of the two classes which satisfies the principle of general relativity but not the Mach-Einstein doctrine; in all the other cases one finds an opposite situation. These considerations lead to an interesting “complementarity” between general relativity and Mach-Einstein doctine. In GRT, via Einstein's equations, the covariant and Lorentz-invariant Riemann-Einstein structure of the space-time defines the dynamics of matter: The symmetric matter tensor Ttk is given by variation of the Lorentz-invariant scalar density L mat, and the dynamical equations satisfied by Tik result as a consequence of the Bianchi identities valid for the left-hand side of Einstein's equations. Otherwise, in all other cases, i.e., for the “Mach-Einstein theories” here under consideration, the matter determines the coordinate or reference systems via gravity. In Einstein-Grossmann theories using a holonomic representation of the space-time structure, the coordinates are determined up to affine (i.e. linear) transformations, and in Einstein-Mayer theories based on an anholonomic representation the reference systems (the tetrads) are specified up to global Lorentz transformations. The corresponding conditions on the coordinate and reference systems result from the postulate that the gravitational field is compatible with the strong equivalence of inertial and
Astrophysical Observations: Lensing and Eclipsing Einstein's Theories
Bennett, Charles L.
2005-01-01
Albert Einstein postulated the equivalence of energy and mass, developed the theory of special relativity, explained the photoelectric effect, and described Brownian motion in five papers, all published in 1905, 100 years ago. With these papers, Einstein provided the framework for understanding modern astrophysical phenomena. Conversely, astrophysical observations provide one of the most effective means for testing Einstein's theories. Here, I review astrophysical advances precipitated by Ein...
The Routledge guidebook to Einstein's relativity
Trefil, James
2015-01-01
Albert Einstein, one of the most prolific scientists of the twentieth century, developed the theory of relativity which was crucial for the advancement of modern physics. Young Einstein identified a paradox between Newtonian Mechanics and Maxwell's equations which pointed to a flawed understanding of space and time by the scientists of the day. In Relativity, Einstein presents his findings using a minimal amount of mathematical language, but the text can still be challenging for readers who lack an extensive scientific background.The Routledge Guidebook to Einstein's Relativity expands on and
Einstein's Jury The Race to Test Relativity
Crelinsten, Jeffrey
2006-01-01
Einstein's Jury is the dramatic story of how astronomers in Germany, England, and America competed to test Einstein's developing theory of relativity. Weaving a rich narrative based on extensive archival research, Jeffrey Crelinsten shows how these early scientific debates shaped cultural attitudes we hold today. The book examines Einstein's theory of general relativity through the eyes of astronomers, many of whom were not convinced of the legitimacy of Einstein's startling breakthrough. These were individuals with international reputations to uphold and benefactors and shareholders to p
Einstein and the quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pais, A.
1979-01-01
The following topics are discussed: The light-quantum hypothesis and its gradual evolution into the photon concept. Early history of the photoelectric effect. The theoretical and experimental reasons why the resistance to the photon was stronger and more protracted than for any other particle proposed to date. Einstein's position regarding the Bohr--Kramers--Slater suggestion, the last bastion of resistance to the photon. Einstein's analysis of fluctuations around thermal equilibrium and his proposal of a duality between particles and waves, in 1909 for electromagnetic radiation (the first time this duality was ever stated) and in January 1925 for matter (prior to quantum mechanics and for reasons independent of those given earlier by de Broglie). His demonstration that long-known specific heat anomalies are quantum effects. His role in the evolution of the third law of thermodynamics. His new derivation of Planck's law in 1917 which also marks the beginning of his concern with the failure of classical causality. His role as one of the founders of quantum statistics and his discovery of the first example of a phase transition derived by using purely statistical methods. His position as a critic of quantum mechanics. Initial doubts on the consistency of quantum mechanics (1926--1930). His view maintained from 1930 until the end of his life: quantum mechanics is logically consistent and quite successful but it is incomplete. His attitude toward success. His criterion of objective reality. Differences in the roles relativity and quantum theory played in Einstein's life. His vision regarding quantum theory in the context of a unified field theory. His last autobiographical sketch, written a few months before his death, concluding with a statement about the quantum theory, a subject to which (by his own account) he had given more thought than even to general relativity
Albert Einstein:. Opportunity and Perception
Yang, Chen Ning
2013-05-01
The year 1905 has been called Albert Einstein's "Annus Mirabilis." It was during that year that he caused revolutionary changes in man's primordial concepts about the physical world: space, time, energy, light and matter. How could a 26-year-old clerk, previously unknown, cause such profound conceptual changes, and thereby open the door to the era of modern scientific technological world? No one, of course, can answer that question. But one can, perhaps, analyze some factors that were essential to his stepping into such a historic role...
Einstein-Cartan wormhole solutions
Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Ziaie, Amir Hadi
2017-03-01
In the present work, we investigate wormhole structures and the energy conditions supporting them in Einstein-Cartan theory. The matter content consists of a Weyssenhoff fluid along with an anisotropic matter which together generalize the anisotropic energy momentum tensor in general relativity (GR) to include spin effects. Assuming that the radial pressure and energy density obey a linear equation of state, we introduce exact asymptotically flat and anti-de-Sitter spacetimes that admit traversable wormholes and respect energy conditions. Such wormhole solutions are studied in detail for two specific forms for the redshift function, namely a constant redshift function and the one with power law dependency.
Jerome, Fred
2005-01-01
Nearly fifty years after his death, Albert Einstein remains one of America's foremost cultural icons. A thicket of materials, ranging from scholarly to popular, have been written, compiled, produced, and published about his life and his teachings. Among the ocean of Einsteinia-scientific monographs, biographies, anthologies, bibliographies, calendars, postcards, posters, and Hollywood films-however, there is a peculiar void when it comes to the connection that the brilliant scientist had with the African American community. Nowhere is there any mention of his close relationship with Pa
New details emerge from the Einstein files
Overbye, D
2002-01-01
For many years the FBI spied on Einstein. New details of this surveilance are emerging in "The Einstein File: J. Edgar Hoover's Secret War Against the World's Most Famous Scientist," by Fred Jerome, who sued the government with the help of the Public Citizen Litigation Group to obtain a less censored version of the file (1 page).
Albert Einstein and 20th century's physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zajac, R.
1979-01-01
Albert Einstein's teaching and his three fundamental works are discussed dealing with the molecular theory of heat applied to the motion of suspended particles in liquids at rest, the photoelectric effect, and the theory of relativity. Albert Einstein's impact on contemporary physics is evaluated. (J.P.)
Albert Einstein and the relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlickova, E.
1975-01-01
A bibliography is presented of Albert Einstein's works, listing his correspondence, biographical literature, articles on A. Einstein published in Czech journals, principal relativity theory monographs and popular, historical and philosophical publications. The bibliographical records are listed alphabetically. Most references give the abbreviations of libraries where the publications are available. (J.P.)
The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, S.M.
1980-01-01
The celebrated arguments of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen claiming that quantum mechanics cannot be a complete theory are reviewed. Recent research climaxed by Bell's theorem shows that Einstein's locality or ''no telepathy'' postulate conflicts with quantum theory. It adds a new dimension to the paradox by catapulting the problem from the domain of metaphysics into that of experimental physics. (auth.)
Einstein as a Missionary of Science
Renn, Jürgen
2013-01-01
The paper reviews Einstein's engagement as a mediator and popularizer of science. It discusses the formative role of popular scientific literature for the young Einstein, showing that not only his broad scientific outlook but also his internationalist political views were shaped by these readings. Then, on the basis of recent detailed…
Books on Einstein--Collectors' Delight
Khoon, Koh Aik; Jalal, Azman; Abd-Shukor, R.; Yatim, Baharudin; Talib, Ibrahim Abu; Daud, Abdul Razak; Samat, Supian
2009-01-01
A survey of thirteen books on Einstein is presented. Its gives an idea on how much is written about the man and how frequent are the publications. The year 2005 saw the most publications. It is the centenary for the Miraculous Year. Interestingly some books can just sustain their readers' interest with just words. Einstein comes alive with the…
Quantum Einstein's equations and constraints algebra
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper we shall address this problem: Is quantum gravity constraints algebra closed and what are the quantum Einstein's equations. We shall investigate this problem in the deBroglie–Bohm quantum theory framework. It is shown that the constraint algebra is weakly closed and the quantum Einstein's equations are ...
What Einstein Can Teach Us about Education
Hayes, Denis
2007-01-01
People are more likely to associate Einstein with complex scientific theories and mathematical calculations than with education theory. In fact, Einstein's own experiences of schooling and his reflections on the meaning of life and the significance of education are profound and oddly relevant to the situation that pertains in England today. It is…
Einstein in love a scientific romance
Overbye, Dennis
2000-01-01
At its height, Einstein's marriage to Mileva was an extraordinary one - a colleague and often fierce adversary, Mileva was brilliantly matched with the scientific genius. Dennis Overbye seeks to present this scientific romance in a vivid light, telling the private story of the young Einstein.
Albert Einstein, cosmos and religion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Doković V.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We consider Einstein's attitude regarding religious as such, from both cosmological and epistemological points of view. An attempt to put it into a wider socio-historical perspective was made, with the emphasis on ethnic and religious background. It turns out that the great scientist was neither atheist nor believer in the orthodox sense and the closest labels one might stick to him in this respect would be pantheism/cosmism (ontological aspect and agnosticism (epistemological aspect. His ideas on divine could be considered as a continuation of line traced by Philo of Alexandria, who himself followed Greek Stoics and (Neo- Platonists and especially Baruch Spinoza. It turns out that Einstein's both scientific (rational aspects and religious (intuitive aspects thinking were deeply rooted in the Hellenic culture. His striving to unravel the secrets of the universe and the roots of cosmological order resembles much the ancient ideas of the role of knowledge in fathoming the divine as such, as ascribed to Gnostics. .
Keel, William C
2006-01-01
The insights of relativity have illuminated a century of astronomical discovery, often going beyond the phenomena that Einstein lived to see. This book shows, in nonmathematical ways, how deeply these ways of viewing the Universe have informed our interpretations of it, and how many of the amazing discoveries of these decades have made sense only as part of Einstein's universe. The author brings together the ways in which we see the bizarre effects of relativity played out on a cosmic scale. None of this is particularly new to practicing astronomers, but much has yet to be seen outside technical journals. The presentation avoids mathematics (except for the most famous equation in all of physics!), and is designed to be accessible to the interested public. Gravitational lenses, the visible effects of light-travel delays, the search for black holes, the ways relativity in atomic nuclei makes stars shine, are all treated. In many cases, some of the principals are still alive and provided new commentary on the di...
Albert Einstein's Magic Mountain: An Aarau Education*
Hunziker, Herbert
2015-03-01
For economic reasons, the electrotechnical factory J. Einstein & Cie. (co-owned by Albert Einstein's father Hermann) had to be closed in the summer of 1894. While Albert's parents emigrated to Italy to build a new existence, he remained in Munich to complete his studies at the Gymnasium. Left behind, however, he had a difficult time with what he considered the rigid educational practices at the Munich Luitpold-Gymnasium and quit without a diploma. The present article discusses Einstein's richly winding path to the Aargau Cantonal School (Switzerland), especially its history and educational philosophy during the time of his stay in Aarau. There, Einstein met some outstanding teachers, who could serve him as models of scholars and human beings. In spite of Einstein's distinct independence of mind, these personalities may well have had a significant influence on the alignment of his inner compass.
Astrophysical observations: lensing and eclipsing Einstein's theories.
Bennett, Charles L
2005-02-11
Albert Einstein postulated the equivalence of energy and mass, developed the theory of special relativity, explained the photoelectric effect, and described Brownian motion in five papers, all published in 1905, 100 years ago. With these papers, Einstein provided the framework for understanding modern astrophysical phenomena. Conversely, astrophysical observations provide one of the most effective means for testing Einstein's theories. Here, I review astrophysical advances precipitated by Einstein's insights, including gravitational redshifts, gravitational lensing, gravitational waves, the Lense-Thirring effect, and modern cosmology. A complete understanding of cosmology, from the earliest moments to the ultimate fate of the universe, will require developments in physics beyond Einstein, to a unified theory of gravity and quantum physics.
Einstein a hundred years of relativity
Robinson, Andrew
2015-01-01
"The eternal mystery of the world is its comprehensibility … The fact that it is comprehensible is a miracle." --Albert Einstein, 1936 Albert Einstein's universal appeal is only partially explained by his brilliant work in physics, as Andrew Robinson demonstrates in this authoritative, accessible, and richly illustrated biography. The main narrative is enriched by twelve essays by well-known scientists, scholars, and artists, including three Nobel Laureates. The book presents clearly the beautiful simplicity at the heart of Einstein's greatest discoveries, and explains how his ideas have continued to influence scientific developments such as lasers, the theory of the big bang, and "theories of everything." Einstein's life and activities outside of science are also considered, including his encounters with famous contemporaries such as Chaplin, Roosevelt, and Tagore, his love of music, and his troubled family life. The book recognizes that Einstein's striking originality was expressed in many ways, from hi...
Einstein's daughter the search for Lieserl
Zackheim, Michele
1999-01-01
A thoroughly gripping and groundbreaking investigation into the mysterious fate of Albert Einstein's illegitimate daughter. Albert Einstein fell in love with Mileva Maric, the woman who would become his first wife, when they were students at the Zurich Polytechnic Institute. When Maric conceived a child out of wedlock, she went home to her family in Serbia to have the child. Lieserl Maric Einstein was born in 1902. Though Einstein and Maric married the following year, Lieserl was left in the care of her grandparents and never became a part of the Einstein family. In fact, her very existence was unknown until the recent discovery of a cache of letters between Einstein and Maric. The final reference to Lieserl comes in a September 1903 letter, when, at the age of approximately eighteen months, she simply disappears. What happened to Einstein's daughter is the most potent mystery to emerge from the mythology that surrounds one of the century's legendary figures, owing in large part to the careful and apparent...
Revisiting Einstein's brain in Brain Awareness Week.
Chen, Hao; Chen, Su; Zeng, Lidan; Zhou, Lin; Hou, Shengtao
2014-10-01
Albert Einstein's brain has long been an object of fascination to both neuroscience specialists and the general public. However, without records of advanced neuro-imaging of his brain, conclusions regarding Einstein's extraordinary cognitive capabilities can only be drawn based on the unique external features of his brain and through comparison of the external features with those of other human brain samples. The recent discovery of 14 previously unpublished photographs of Einstein's brain taken at unconventional angles by Dr. Thomas Stoltz Harvey, the pathologist, ignited a renewed frenzy about clues to explain Einstein's genius. Dr. Dean Falk and her colleagues, in their landmark paper published in Brain (2013; 136:1304-1327), described in such details about the unusual features of Einstein's brain, which shed new light on Einstein's intelligence. In this article, we ask what are the unique structures of his brain? What can we learn from this new information? Can we really explain his extraordinary cognitive capabilities based on these unique brain structures? We conclude that studying the brain of a remarkable person like Albert Einstein indeed provides us a better example to comprehensively appreciate the relationship between brain structures and advanced cognitive functions. However, caution must be exercised so as not to over-interpret his intelligence solely based on the understanding of the surface structures of his brain.
Entanglement Equilibrium and the Einstein Equation.
Jacobson, Ted
2016-05-20
A link between the semiclassical Einstein equation and a maximal vacuum entanglement hypothesis is established. The hypothesis asserts that entanglement entropy in small geodesic balls is maximized at fixed volume in a locally maximally symmetric vacuum state of geometry and quantum fields. A qualitative argument suggests that the Einstein equation implies the validity of the hypothesis. A more precise argument shows that, for first-order variations of the local vacuum state of conformal quantum fields, the vacuum entanglement is stationary if and only if the Einstein equation holds. For nonconformal fields, the same conclusion follows modulo a conjecture about the variation of entanglement entropy.
Einstein wrote back my life in physics
Moffat, John W
2012-01-01
John W. Moffat was a poor student of math and science. That is, until he read Einstein's famous paper on general relativity. Realizing instantly that he had an unusual and unexplained aptitude for understanding the complex physics described in the paper, Moffat wrote a letter to Einstein that would change the course of his life. Einstein Wrote Back tells the story of Moffat's unusual entry into the world of academia and documents his career at the frontlines of twentieth-century physics as he worked and associated with some of the greatest minds in scientific history, including Niels Bohr,
Oberheim, Eric
2016-06-01
Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend promote incommensurability as a central component of their conflicting accounts of the nature of science. This paper argues that in so doing, they both develop Albert Einstein's views, albeit in different directions. Einstein describes scientific revolutions as conceptual replacements, not mere revisions, endorsing 'Kant-on-wheels' metaphysics in light of 'world change'. Einstein emphasizes underdetermination of theory by evidence, rational disagreement in theory choice, and the non-neutrality of empirical evidence. Einstein even uses the term 'incommensurable' specifically to apply to challenges posed to comparatively evaluating scientific theories in 1949, more than a decade before Kuhn and Feyerabend. This analysis shows how Einstein anticipates substantial components of Kuhn and Feyerabend's views, and suggests that there are strong reasons to suspect that Kuhn and Feyerabend were directly inspired by Einstein's use of the term 'incommensurable', as well as his more general methodological and philosophical reflections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
How History Helped Einstein in Special Relativity
Martinez, Alberto
2013-04-01
I will discuss how the German intellectual movement known as ``critical history'' motivated several physicists in the late 1900s to radically analyze the fundamental principles of mechanics, leading eventually to Einstein's special theory of relativity. Eugen Karl Dühring, Johann Bernhard Stallo, Ludwig Lange, and Ernst Mach wrote critical histories of mechanics, some of which emphasized notions of relativity and observation, in opposition to old metaphysical concepts that seemed to infect the foundations of physics. This strand of critical history included the ``genetic method'' of analyzing how concepts develop over time, in our minds, by way of ordinary experiences, which by 1904 was young Albert Einstein's favorite approach for examining fundamental notions. Thus I will discuss how history contributed in Einstein's path to relativity, as well as comment more generally on Einstein's views on history.
Einstein and General Relativity: Historical Perspectives.
Chandrasekhar, S.
1979-01-01
This paper presented in the 1978 Oppenheimer Memorial Lecture at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories on August 17, 1978, discusses Einstein's contributions to physics, in particular, his discovery of the general theory of relativity. (HM)
Universal Themes of Bose-Einstein Condensation
Proukakis, Nick P.; Snoke, David W.; Littlewood, Peter B.
2017-04-01
Foreword; List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Universality and Bose-Einstein condensation: perspectives on recent work D. W. Snoke, N. P. Proukakis, T. Giamarchi and P. B. Littlewood; 2. A history of Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic hydrogen T. Greytak and D. Kleppner; 3. Twenty years of atomic quantum gases: 1995-2015 W. Ketterle; 4. Introduction to polariton condensation P. B. Littlewood and A. Edelman; Part II. General Topics: Editorial notes; 5. The question of spontaneous symmetry breaking in condensates D. W. Snoke and A. J. Daley; 6. Effects of interactions on Bose-Einstein condensation R. P. Smith; 7. Formation of Bose-Einstein condensates M. J. Davis, T. M. Wright, T. Gasenzer, S. A. Gardiner and N. P. Proukakis; 8. Quenches, relaxation and pre-thermalization in an isolated quantum system T. Langen and J. Schmiedmayer; 9. Ultracold gases with intrinsic scale invariance C. Chin; 10. Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase of a driven-dissipative condensate N. Y. Kim, W. H. Nitsche and Y. Yamamoto; 11. Superfluidity and phase correlations of driven dissipative condensates J. Keeling, L. M. Sieberer, E. Altman, L. Chen, S. Diehl and J. Toner; 12. BEC to BCS crossover from superconductors to polaritons A. Edelman and P. B. Littlewood; Part III. Condensates in Atomic Physics: Editorial notes; 13. Probing and controlling strongly correlated quantum many-body systems using ultracold quantum gases I. Bloch; 14. Preparing and probing chern bands with cold atoms N. Goldman, N. R. Cooper and J. Dalibard; 15. Bose-Einstein condensates in artificial gauge fields L. J. LeBlanc and I. B. Spielman; 16. Second sound in ultracold atomic gases L. Pitaevskii and S. Stringari; 17. Quantum turbulence in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates N. G. Parker, A. J. Allen, C. F. Barenghi and N. P. Proukakis; 18. Spinor-dipolar aspects of Bose-Einstein condensation M. Ueda; Part IV. Condensates in Condensed Matter Physics: Editorial notes; 19. Bose-Einstein
Boltzmann, Einstein, Natural Law and Evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broda, E.
1980-01-01
Like Boltzmann, Einstein was a protagonist of atomistics. As a physicist, he has been called Boltzmann's true successor. Also in epistemology, after overcoming the positivist influence of Mach, Einstein approached Boltzmann. Any difference between Boltzmann's realism, or even materialism, and Einstein's pantheism may be merely a matter of emphasis. Yet a real difference exists in another respect. Boltzmann explained man's power of thinking and feeling, his morality and his esthetic sense, on an evolutionary, Darwinian, basis. In contrast, evolution had no role in Einstein's thought, though Darwin was accepted by him. This lack of appreciation of the importance of evolution is now attributed to socio-political factors. (author)
Recent developments in Bose-Einstein condensation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalman, G.
1997-09-22
This paper contains viewgraphs on developments on Bose-Einstein condensation. Some topics covered are: strongly coupled coulomb systems; standard response functions of the first and second kind; dynamical mean field theory; quasi localized charge approximation; and the main equations.
Entropic Counterpart of Perturbative Einstein Equation
Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy; Takayanagi, Tadashi
2013-01-01
Entanglement entropy in a field theory, with a holographic dual, may be viewed as a quantity which encodes the diffeomorphism invariant bulk gravity dynamics. This, in particular, indicates that the bulk Einstein equations would imply some constraints for the boundary entanglement entropy. In this paper we focus on the change in entanglement entropy, for small but arbitrary fluctuations about a given state, and analyze the constraints imposed on it by the perturbative Einstein equations, line...
String Theory has Einstein's dream come true?
CERN. Geneva
2005-01-01
After having outlined the difficulties that Einstein and others have encountered in trying to unify our understanding of macroscopic/classical and microscopic /quantum physics, I will explain in simple terms how the latest particle theory revolution, string theory, may finally offer a surprisingly simple realization of these long-standing dreams. Einstein thought that his difficulties stemmed from a clash between the classical and the quantum. Yet, paradoxically, superstrings appear to realize his dream thanks to -and not against- quantum mechanics.
On the stability of the Einstein universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soares, I.D.
1983-01-01
It is shown sthat the Einstein Universe is stable by a large class of exact perturbations, which are made starting from a detailed exam of the topology of the model, and which include perturbations of the type considered by Lemaitre. The problem is reduced to the one-dimensional motion of a particle, in a potential well whose minimum corresponds to the configuration of the Einstein Universe. (Author) [pt
Einstein and solid-state physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aut, I.
1982-01-01
A connection between the development of solid-state physics and the works and activity of Albert Einstein is traced. A tremendous Einstein contribution to solid state physics is marked. A strict establishment of particle-wave dualism; a conclusion about the applicability of the Plank radiation law not only to black body radiation; finding out particles indistinguishability - all three discoveries have a principle significance for solid state physics too
Einstein before Israel Zionist icon or iconoclast?
Rosenkranz, Ze’ev
2011-01-01
Albert Einstein was initially skeptical and even disdainful of the Zionist movement, yet he affiliated himself with this controversial political ideology and today is widely seen as an outspoken advocate for a modern Jewish homeland in Palestine. What enticed this renowned scientist and humanitarian, who repeatedly condemned nationalism of all forms, to radically change his views? Was he in fact a Zionist? Einstein Before Israel traces Einstein's involvement with Zionism from his initial contacts with the movement at the end of World War I to his emigration from Germany in 1933 in the wake of Hitler's rise to power. Drawing on a wealth of rare archival evidence--much of it never before published--this book offers the most nuanced picture yet of Einstein's complex and sometimes stormy relationship with Jewish nationalism. Ze'ev Rosenkranz sheds new light on Einstein's encounters with prominent Zionist leaders, and reveals exactly what Einstein did and didn't like about Zionist beliefs, objectives, and methods...
The practical Einstein experiments, patents, inventions
Illy, József
2012-01-01
Albert Einstein may be best known as the wire-haired whacky physicist who gave us the theory of relativity, but that's just one facet of this genius' contribution to human knowledge and modern science. As Jozsef Illy expertly shows in this book, Einstein had an eminently practical side as well. As a youth, Einstein was an inveterate tinkerer in the electrical supply factory his father and uncle owned and operated. His first paid job was as a patent examiner. Later in life, Einstein contributed to many inventions, including refrigerators, microphones, and instruments for aviation. In published papers, Einstein often provided ways to test his theories and fundamental problems of the scientific community of his times. He delved deeply into a variety of technological innovations, most notably the gyrocompass, and consulted for industry in patent cases and on other legal matters. Einstein also provided explanations for common and mundane phenomena, such as the meandering of rivers. In these and other hands-on exam...
Sterken, C.; Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.
2006-12-01
This book collects about 15 papers (most of them by one single author) on Einstein and the history of general relativity (GR) and the foundations of relativistic cosmology. The matter not only deals with Einstein and his times, but also with pre-GR ideas, and with the interplay of Einstein and his colleagues (opposing as well as supporting personalities). As the title indicates, all papers are written in German, but they include comprehensive Abstracts both in German and English. The book is illustrated with quite a number classical - but also some far more original though not less beautiful - photographs and facsimiles of documents. The book is edited very well, though the style of references is not quite homogeneous. There is no Index. K. Hentschel covers Einstein's argumentation for the existence of graviational redshift, and the initial search for empirical support. The error analysis of observational evidence supporting relativistic light deflection is discussed in a paper by P. Brosche. In particular, H. Duerbeck and P. Flin - in their description of the life and work of Silberstein, who was quite sceptic on the significance of the observational verifications a la Eddington - include the transcription of two most revealing letters by Silberstein to Sommerfeld (1919) and to Einstein (1934). In the first letter, Silberstein clearly shows his scientific maturity and integrity by scrutinising the observational evidence supporting light deflection, presented at a joint meeting of the Royal Society and the Royal Astronomical Society. The second letter, which is more a personal letter, includes lots of political references and connotations. Some of Einstein's political views are also revealed by D.B. Herrmann on the basis of his own correspondence with E.G. Straus, a collaborator of Einstein's. In a consequent paper, S. Grundmann gives remarks on Herrmann's contribution and illustrates Einstein's attitude towards Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin. M. Schemmel discusses
Einstein's Theory Fights off Challengers
2010-04-01
Two new and independent studies have put Einstein's General Theory of Relativity to the test like never before. These results, made using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, show Einstein's theory is still the best game in town. Each team of scientists took advantage of extensive Chandra observations of galaxy clusters, the largest objects in the Universe bound together by gravity. One result undercuts a rival gravity model to General Relativity, while the other shows that Einstein's theory works over a vast range of times and distances across the cosmos. The first finding significantly weakens a competitor to General Relativity known as "f(R) gravity". "If General Relativity were the heavyweight boxing champion, this other theory was hoping to be the upstart contender," said Fabian Schmidt of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, who led the study. "Our work shows that the chances of its upsetting the champ are very slim." In recent years, physicists have turned their attention to competing theories to General Relativity as a possible explanation for the accelerated expansion of the universe. Currently, the most popular explanation for the acceleration is the so-called cosmological constant, which can be understood as energy that exists in empty space. This energy is referred to as dark energy to emphasize that it cannot be directly detected. In the f(R) theory, the cosmic acceleration comes not from an exotic form of energy but from a modification of the gravitational force. The modified force also affects the rate at which small enhancements of matter can grow over the eons to become massive clusters of galaxies, opening up the possibility of a sensitive test of the theory. Schmidt and colleagues used mass estimates of 49 galaxy clusters in the local universe from Chandra observations, and compared them with theoretical model predictions and studies of supernovas, the cosmic microwave background, and the large-scale distribution of galaxies. They
Zeeman en Einstein. Meeslepende metingen
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ad Maas
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Zeeman and EinsteinThis article discusses an early example of interferometric, experimental research related to Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity. This research concerned two series of experiments on the velocity of light in moving media, conducted between 1914 and 1921 by the Amsterdam physicist Pieter Zeeman. With the first of these series, on the velocity of light in moving water, Zeeman obtained an important result that validated the so called ‘dispersion term’ of the formula for the velocity of light in moving media. Less clear is the scientific objective of the second series, in which Zeeman measured the velocity of light in moving solid media. It seems that Zeeman’s interest in this second series was triggered mainly by the technical challenges posed by these experiments. In this way, they reveal the increasing tendency of Zeeman’s later research to be led by technical and experimental challenges, rather than by the actual scientific developments.
The Early life of Albert Einstein: Seeking the Mature Einstein in his ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 9. The Early Life of Albert Einstein: Seeking the Mature Einstein in his Youth. Kamal Datta. Reflections Volume 10 Issue 9 September 2005 pp 85-96. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Einstein's Revolutionary Light-Quantum Hypothesis
Stuewer, Roger H.
2005-05-01
The paper in which Albert Einstein proposed his light-quantum hypothesis was the only one of his great papers of 1905 that he himself termed ``revolutionary.'' Contrary to widespread belief, Einstein did not propose his light-quantum hypothesis ``to explain the photoelectric effect.'' Instead, he based his argument for light quanta on the statistical interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics, with the photoelectric effect being only one of three phenomena that he offered as possible experimental support for it. I will discuss Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis of 1905 and his introduction of the wave-particle duality in 1909 and then turn to the reception of his work on light quanta by his contemporaries. We will examine the reasons that prominent physicists advanced to reject Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis in succeeding years. Those physicists included Robert A. Millikan, even though he provided convincing experimental proof of the validity of Einstein's equation of the photoelectric effect in 1915. The turning point came after Arthur Holly Compton discovered the Compton effect in late 1922, but even then Compton's discovery was contested both on experimental and on theoretical grounds. Niels Bohr, in particular, had never accepted the reality of light quanta and now, in 1924, proposed a theory, the Bohr-Kramers-Slater theory, which assumed that energy and momentum were conserved only statistically in microscopic interactions. Only after that theory was disproved experimentally in 1925 was Einstein's revolutionary light-quantum hypothesis generally accepted by physicists---a full two decades after Einstein had proposed it.
Secrets of the old one Einstein, 1905
Bernstein, Jeremy
2006-01-01
In March 1905, at approximately eight week intervals, the Editor of the noted German physics journal, Annalen der Physik, received three hand-written manuscripts from a relatively unknown patent examiner in Bern, Switzerland. This patent examiner was the twenty-six year old Albert Einstein and the three papers would set the agenda for twentieth century physics. A fourth short paper was received in September 1905 and contained Einstein's derivation of the formula E=mc^2. These papers changed our lives in the twentieth century and beyond. While to a professional physicist the mathematics in these papers are quite straight forward, the ideas behind them are not. In fact, none of Einstein's contemporaries fully understood what he had done. In SECRETS OF THE OLD ONE: Einstein, 1905, renowned science writer Jeremy Bernstein makes these ideas accessible to a general reader with a limited background in mathematics. After reading this book, you will understand why 1905 is often designated as Einstein's miracle year.
The Chevreton tensor and Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes conformal to Einstein spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergqvist, Goeran; Eriksson, Ingemar
2007-01-01
In this paper, we characterize the source-free Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes which have a trace-free Chevreton tensor. We show that this is equivalent to the Chevreton tensor being of pure radiation type and that it restricts the spacetimes to Petrov type N or O. We prove that the trace of the Chevreton tensor is related to the Bach tensor and use this to find all Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes with a zero cosmological constant that have a vanishing Bach tensor. Among these spacetimes we then look for those which are conformal to Einstein spaces. We find that the electromagnetic field and the Weyl tensor must be aligned, and in the case that the electromagnetic field is null, the spacetime must be conformally Ricci-flat and all such solutions are known. In the non-null case, since the general solution is not known on a closed form, we settle by giving the integrability conditions in the general case, but we do give new explicit examples of Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes that are conformal to Einstein spaces, and we also find examples where the vanishing of the Bach tensor does not imply that the spacetime is conformal to a C-space. The non-aligned Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes with vanishing Bach tensor are conformally C-spaces, but none of them are conformal to Einstein spaces
De Sitter en Einstein. ‘Het lijkt mij dat Einstein hier een vergissing begaan heeft’
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Guichelaar
2016-10-01
Full Text Available De Sitter and EinsteinWillem de Sitter’s interest in gravity was based on his work on celestial mechanics, in particular on the four big moons of Jupiter. His work on cosmology was based on the general theory of relativity of Albert Einstein. De Sitter published in 1917, on request of Arthur Eddington to inform the English astronomers, a series of four articles in The Observatory and the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Einstein developed his own cosmological models, containing mass. De Sitter found a different solution and described a universe without mass. Einstein could not accept De Sitter’s model and they ‘fought out’ two controversies in their correspondence. In theend Einstein had to confess De Sitter was mainly right in his criticisms. In 1932 Einstein and De Sitter published an article on a new model, the so-called Einstein-De Sitter Model of the universe. So, De Sitter was able to do fundamental work in classical celestial mechanics as well as in the new cosmological theories.
Entropic counterpart of perturbative Einstein equation
Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy; Takayanagi, Tadashi
2013-10-01
Entanglement entropy in a field theory, with a holographic dual, may be viewed as a quantity which encodes the diffeomorphism invariant bulk gravity dynamics. This, in particular, indicates that the bulk Einstein equations would imply some constraints for the boundary entanglement entropy. In this paper we focus on the change in entanglement entropy, for small but arbitrary fluctuations about a given state, and analyze the constraints imposed on it by the perturbative Einstein equations, linearized about the corresponding bulk state. Specifically, we consider linear fluctuations about BTZ black hole in 3 dimension, pure AdS and AdS Schwarzschild black holes in 4 dimensions and obtain a diffeomorphism invariant reformulation of linearized Einstein equation in terms of holographic entanglement entropy. We will also show that entanglement entropy for boosted subsystems provides the information about all the components of the metric with a time index.
Partially massless graviton on beyond Einstein spacetimes
Bernard, Laura; Deffayet, Cédric; Hinterbichler, Kurt; von Strauss, Mikael
2017-06-01
We show that a partially massless graviton can propagate on a large set of spacetimes which are not Einstein spacetimes. Starting from a recently constructed theory for a massive graviton that propagates the correct number of degrees of freedom on an arbitrary spacetime, we first give the full explicit form of the scalar constraint responsible for the absence of a sixth degree of freedom. We then spell out generic conditions for the constraint to be identically satisfied, so that there is a scalar gauge symmetry which makes the graviton partially massless. These simplify if one assumes that spacetime is Ricci symmetric. Under this assumption, we find explicit non-Einstein spacetimes (some, but not all, with vanishing Bach tensors) allowing for the propagation of a partially massless graviton. These include in particular the Einstein static Universe.
Bose-Einstein condensation in microgravity.
van Zoest, T; Gaaloul, N; Singh, Y; Ahlers, H; Herr, W; Seidel, S T; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E; Eckart, M; Kajari, E; Arnold, S; Nandi, G; Schleich, W P; Walser, R; Vogel, A; Sengstock, K; Bongs, K; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Schiemangk, M; Schuldt, T; Peters, A; Könemann, T; Müntinga, H; Lämmerzahl, C; Dittus, H; Steinmetz, T; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J
2010-06-18
Albert Einstein's insight that it is impossible to distinguish a local experiment in a "freely falling elevator" from one in free space led to the development of the theory of general relativity. The wave nature of matter manifests itself in a striking way in Bose-Einstein condensates, where millions of atoms lose their identity and can be described by a single macroscopic wave function. We combine these two topics and report the preparation and observation of a Bose-Einstein condensate during free fall in a 146-meter-tall evacuated drop tower. During the expansion over 1 second, the atoms form a giant coherent matter wave that is delocalized on a millimeter scale, which represents a promising source for matter-wave interferometry to test the universality of free fall with quantum matter.
Classes of exact Einstein Maxwell solutions
Komathiraj, K.; Maharaj, S. D.
2007-12-01
We find new classes of exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell system of equations for a charged sphere with a particular choice of the electric field intensity and one of the gravitational potentials. The condition of pressure isotropy is reduced to a linear, second order differential equation which can be solved in general. Consequently we can find exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell field equations corresponding to a static spherically symmetric gravitational potential in terms of hypergeometric functions. It is possible to find exact solutions which can be written explicitly in terms of elementary functions, namely polynomials and product of polynomials and algebraic functions. Uncharged solutions are regainable with our choice of electric field intensity; in particular we generate the Einstein universe for particular parameter values.
Einstein and interpretation of quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashlyun, F.
1982-01-01
The main problems of the quantum theory, the basis of which was laid by Planck in 1900 as a result of the discovery of elementary quantum of action, are examined. The most important Einstein contributions to the quantum theory are enumerated. The Einstein work about the light quanta, proved wave-particle dualism, stated one of the most complicated problems to the physics. The work on the specific heat capacity of solids shows that the quantum theory should be beyond the limits of the narrow range of the problems on black radiation. The works on the equilibrium of radiation have convincingly demonstrates statistical character of the radiation processes and have marked the way to Heizenberg form of the quantum mechanics. Einstein generalized the idea of wave-particle dualism to the ordinary gas. It helped to prepare the Schroedinger form of quantum mechanics
Restricted gravity: Abelian projection of Einstein's theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Y.M.
2013-01-01
Treating Einstein's theory as a gauge theory of Lorentz group, we decompose the gravitational connection Γμ into the restricted connection made of the potential of the maximal Abelian subgroup H of Lorentz group G and the valence connection made of G/H part of the potential which transforms covariantly under Lorentz gauge transformation. With this we show that Einstein's theory can be decomposed into the restricted gravity made of the restricted connection which has the full Lorentz gauge invariance which has the valence connection as gravitational source. The decomposition shows the existence of a restricted theory of gravitation which has the full general invariance but is much simpler than Einstein's theory. Moreover, it tells that the restricted gravity can be written as an Abelian gauge theory,
Einstein, Ethics and the Atomic Bomb
Rife, Patricia
2005-03-01
Einstein voiced his ethical views against war as well as fascism via venues and alliances with a variety of organizations still debated today. In 1939, he signed a letter to President Roosevelt (drafted by younger colleagues Szilard, Wigner and others) warning the U.S.government about the danger of Nazi Germany gaining control of uranium in the Belgian-controlled Congo in order to develop atomic weapons, based on the discovery of fission by Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner. In 1945, he became a member of the Princeton-based ``Emergency Committee for Atomic Scientists'' organized by Bethe, Condon, Bacher, Urey, Szilard and Weisskopf. Rare Einstein slides will illustrate Dr.Rife's presentation on Albert Einstein's philosophic and ethical convictions about peace, and public stance against war (1914-1950).
Coherence, Abstraction, and Personal Involvement: Albert Einstein, Physicist and Humanist.
Ne'eman, Yuval
1979-01-01
Reviews Einstein's main contributions to physics, and analyzes the importance of a coherent body of theory. Einstein's involvement in nonscientific issues such as nuclear disarmament is also included. (HM)
Einstein's enigma or black holes in my bubble bath
Vishveshwara, C V
2006-01-01
A funny rendition of the story of gravitation theory from the early historic origins to the developments in astrophysics, focusing on Albert Einstein''s theory of general relativity and black-hole physics.
Theoretical Investigations of Trapped Interacting Bose-Einstein Condensates
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
You, Li
1999-01-01
.... Primary topics being addressed are: (1) To understand the properties of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, in particular, the low energy excitations, dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation, vortex states creation and detection. (2...
Stationary Cylindrically Symmetric Solution Approaching Einstein's Cosmological Solution
Iftime, M. D.
2001-01-01
Here we describe a stationary cylindrically symmetric solution of Einstein's equation with matter consisting of a positive cosmological and rotating dust term. The solution approaches Einstein static universe solution.
Generating solutions to the Einstein field equations
Contopoulos, I. G.; Esposito, F. P.; Kleidis, K.; Papadopoulos, D. B.; Witten, L.
2016-11-01
Exact solutions to the Einstein field equations may be generated from already existing ones (seed solutions), that admit at least one Killing vector. In this framework, a space of potentials is introduced. By the use of symmetries in this space, the set of potentials associated to a known solution is transformed into a new set, either by continuous transformations or by discrete transformations. In view of this method, and upon consideration of continuous transformations, we arrive at some exact, stationary axisymmetric solutions to the Einstein field equations in vacuum, that may be of geometrical or/and physical interest.
Beyond Einstein: Exploring the Extreme Universe
Barbier, Louis M.
2005-01-01
This paper will give an overview of the NASA Universe Division Beyond Einstein program. The Beyond Einstein program consists of a series of exploratory missions to investigate some of the most important and pressing problems in modern-day astrophysics - including searches for Dark Energy and studies of the earliest times in the universe, during the inflationary period after the Big Bang. A variety of new technologies are being developed both in the science instrumentation these missions will carry and in the spacecraft that will carry those instruments.
Einstein une biographie dessinée
Maier, Corinne
2015-01-01
« Je m'appelle Albert Einstein. En voulant comprendre l'univers, j'ai libéré des forces de destruction terrifiantes. Mais il faut continuer à chercher le grand secret du cosmos. » Albert Einstein (1879-1955) est un immense génie devenu, sans le vouloir, une star de la science. Avec ses théories de la relativité restreinte puis de la relativité générale, il a radicalement transformé nos vies. Voici le récit de son existence passionnée et de ses contributions fondamentales.
Bohr vs. Einstein: Fortolkning af kvantemekanikken
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Christian Kraglund; Wade, Andrew Christopher James
2013-01-01
Siden 1913, da Bohr fremlagde sin kvantemekaniske model for atomet, har fysikere diskuteret, hvordan kvan- temekanikken skal fortolkes. Specielt aktive i denne diskussion var Bohr og Einstein, som havde modstridende opfattelser af, hvordan kvantemekanikken skulle forstås. Kan katte være både...... levende og døde på samme tid? Kan vi teleportere partikler mellem Månen og Jorden? Disse spørgsmål, og mange flere, forsøgte Bohr og Einstein at besvare, og det vil vi ligeledes i denne artikel....
Actuality of the Einstein theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanenko, D.D.
1982-01-01
Problems of actuality of the Einstein theory of gravitation are lightened. The great Einstein theory of gravitation is shown to remain a reliable base of understanding of modern physical world pattern and its inevitable further inexhaustible precising. The main GRT difficulties are enumirated: determination of reference systems, presence of singularities in the theory, absence of consistent determination of the gravity energy, impossibility of accounting the relations between atomic, gravitational and cosmological characteristics. The attention is paid to gauge, twistor problems and to unified interaction theory. The great contribution of the soviet science in the theory of gravitation is stressed
Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates
2016-11-03
Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose- Einstein Condensates This ARO research proposal entitled "SPIN-ORBIT COUPLED BOSE- EINSTEIN CONDENSATES" (SOBECs) explored...Administration 3112 Lee Building 7809 Regents Drive College Park, MD 20742 -5141 ABSTRACT Final Report: Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose- Einstein Condensates...Report Title This ARO research proposal entitled "SPIN-ORBIT COUPLED BOSE- EINSTEIN CONDENSATES" (SOBECs) explored properties of the fundamentally new
Einstein and a century of time
Raine, D. J.
2005-09-01
In a world overabundant in information, a subject is defined by its iconography. Physics is the falling apple, the planetary atom, the laser, the mushroom cloud and the image of the later Einstein - images that represent, respectively, gravity, atomic theory, quantum theory, mass-energy and the scientist who had a hand in all four. It is therefore appropriate that World Year of Physics is called Einstein Year in the UK. Of course one can argue that progress in science depends on the contributions of many people; that there are other geniuses in physics, even some colourful personalities. Nevertheless there are fundamental reasons why Einstein's early achievements stand out even in their company. When at last the thought came to him that 'time itself was suspect', Einstein had found a new insight into the nature of the physical universe. It is this: that the universal properties of material objects tell us about the nature of space and time, and it is through these properties, not philosophical logic or common sense, that we discover the structure of spacetime. The later Einstein turned this successful formula on its head and sought to use the properties of spacetime to define those of material objects, thereby seeking to abolish matter entirely in favour of geometry. Before I introduce this special feature of European Journal of Physics I will say a few words about what is not here. Like all great geniuses Einstein can be seen as the climax of what went before him and the initiation of what was to follow. Looking back we can see the influence of Mach's positivism, according to which the role of science is to relate observations to other observations; hence only observations can tell us what is 'real'. But Einstein also grew up with the family electromechanical businesses, which testifies to the reality of the Maxwellian electromagnetic fields: thus only theory can tell us what is real! As is well known, Einstein himself refused to accept the full consequences of
Conceptual Development of Einstein's Mass-Energy Relationship
Wong, Chee Leong; Yap, Kueh Chin
2005-01-01
Einstein's special theory of relativity was published in 1905. It stands as one of the greatest intellectual achievements in the history of human thought. Einstein described the equivalence of mass and energy as "the most important upshot of the special theory of relativity" (Einstein, 1919). In this paper, we will discuss the evolution of the…
Die Leben Einsteins eine Reise durch die Geschichte der Physik
Fiami
2005-01-01
Jeder kennt die Namen Einstein, Newton oder Galilei. aber was weiss man über sie? Hier ein Porträt Einsteins anhand von sechs Meilensteinen aus der Geschichte der Physik. Einstein tritt auf als Protagonist in verschiedenen Epochen und bei verschiedenen Entdeckungen, die die Welt verändert haben.
Invariant Einstein metrics on Ledger-Obata spaces
Chen, Zhiqi; Nikonorov, Yuriĭ; Nikonorova, Yulia
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study invariant Einstein metrics on Ledger-Obata spaces $F^m/\\operatorname{diag}(F)$. In particular, we classify invariant Einstein metrics on $F^4/\\operatorname{diag}(F)$ and estimate the number of invariant Einstein metrics on general Ledger-Obata spaces $F^{m}/\\operatorname{diag}(F)$.
Einstein 1905-1955: His Approach to Physics
Damour, Thibault
We review Einstein's epistemological conceptions, and indicate their philosophical roots. The particular importance of the ideas of Hume, Kant, Mach, and Poincaré is highlighted. The specific characteristics of Einstein's approach to physics are underlined. Lastly, we consider the practical application of Einstein's methodological principles to the two theories of relativity, and to quantum theory. We emphasize a Kantian approach to quantum theory.
You err, Einstein.. Newton, Einstein, Heisenberg, and Feynman discuss quantum physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fritzsch, Harald
2008-01-01
Harald Fritzsch and his star physicists Einstein, Heisenberg, and Feynman explain the central concept of nowadays physics, quantum mechanics, without it nothing goes in modern world. And the great Isaac newton puts the questions, which all would put
Albert Einstein and the Quantum Riddle
Lande, Alfred
1974-01-01
Derives a systematic structure contributing to the solution of the quantum riddle in Einstein's sense by deducing quantum mechanics from the postulates of symmetry, correspondence, and covariance. Indicates that the systematic presentation is in agreement with quantum mechanics established by Schroedinger, Born, and Heisenberg. (CC)
New Information about Albert Einstein's Brain.
Falk, Dean
2009-01-01
In order to glean information about hominin (or other) brains that no longer exist, details of external neuroanatomy that are reproduced on endocranial casts (endocasts) from fossilized braincases may be described and interpreted. Despite being, of necessity, speculative, such studies can be very informative when conducted in light of the literature on comparative neuroanatomy, paleontology, and functional imaging studies. Albert Einstein's brain no longer exists in an intact state, but there are photographs of it in various views. Applying techniques developed from paleoanthropology, previously unrecognized details of external neuroanatomy are identified on these photographs. This information should be of interest to paleoneurologists, comparative neuroanatomists, historians of science, and cognitive neuroscientists. The new identifications of cortical features should also be archived for future scholars who will have access to additional information from improved functional imaging technology. Meanwhile, to the extent possible, Einstein's cerebral cortex is investigated in light of available data about variation in human sulcal patterns. Although much of his cortical surface was unremarkable, regions in and near Einstein's primary somatosensory and motor cortices were unusual. It is possible that these atypical aspects of Einstein's cerebral cortex were related to the difficulty with which he acquired language, his preference for thinking in sensory impressions including visual images rather than words, and his early training on the violin.
[Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm].
Cervantes Castro, Jorge
2011-01-01
The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist.
Albert Einstein, guide spirituel du CERN
Sandraz, Raphaël
2005-01-01
The year 2005, proclaimed "World year of Physics" by UNESCO, dedicates the 100th anniversary of the theory of relativity and the 50th anniversary of the death of his discoverer: Albert Einstein. The CERN in Geneva applies every day his theories (1 page)
On Einstein's opponents, and other crackpots
van Dongen, J.A.E.F.
2010-01-01
Einsteins Gegner: Die öffentliche Kontroverse um die Relativitätstheorie in den 1920er Jahren, Milena Wazeck. Campus Verlag, pp. 429, EUR 39.90. ISBN: 978-3593389141 “This world is a strange madhouse. Currently, every coachman and every waiter is debating whether relativity theory is correct. Belief
The Excellence of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation.
Dirac, P. A. M.
1979-01-01
This article is adapted from a presentation made in 1978 at the symposium on the Impact of Modern Scientific Ideas on Society organized by UNESCO in Ulm, West Germany. It discusses Einstein's theory of gravitation and how it started a new line of activity for physicists. (HM)
Einstein's lessons for energy accounting in LCA
Frischknccht, Rolf; Heijungs, Reinout; Hofstetter, Patrick
1998-01-01
The role and meaning of accounting for energy, including feedstock energy, is reviewed in connection to Einstein's special theory of relativity. It is argued that there is only one unambiguous interpretation of the term energy-content: The one that corresponds to mc2. The implications for life cycle
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 3. Einstein - The Life and Times. Bikram Phookun. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 3 March 2000 pp 98-101. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/03/0098-0101. Author Affiliations.
Pollen Grains, Random Walks and Einstein
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 3. Pollen Grains, Random Walks and Einstein. Sriram Ramaswamy. General Article Volume 5 Issue 3 March 2000 pp 16-34. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/03/0016-0034 ...
Pollen Grains, Random Walks and Einstein
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 12. Pollen Grains, Random Walks and Einstein. Sriram Ramaswamy. Volume 10 Issue 12 December 2005 pp 106-124. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/12/0106-0124 ...
Einstein and the Special Theory of Relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 12. Einstein and the Special Theory of Relativity. Supurna Sinha. Volume 10 Issue 12 December 2005 pp 96-105. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/12/0096-0105 ...
Einstein and the Special Theory of Relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
There are several consequences that follow from Einstein's two basic postulates. Some of these are: a. The Lorentz transformations which we have already dis- cussed. b. From the Lorentz transformations he was led to Fitzgerald-. Loren tz con traction of lengths and the dilation of time: r l = lo and t = r to where lo and to are, ...
Einstein and the Special Theory of Relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 3. Einstein and the Special Theory of Relativity. Supurna Sinha. General Article Volume 5 Issue 3 March 2000 pp 6-15. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/03/0006-0015 ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
his maniacal war-mongering make Einstein renounce his pacifism. His support for Zio- nism is at its strongest - he realizes that Jews, even if they don't feel particularly Jewish, must have a home. After World War II begins, he hears rumours that the Germans may be close to realizing the potential of his famous formula E = m ...
Soliton resonance in bose-einstein condensate
Zak, Michail; Kulikov, I.
2002-01-01
A new phenomenon in nonlinear dispersive systems, including a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), has been described. It is based upon a resonance between an externally induced soliton and 'eigen-solitons' of the homogeneous cubic Schrodinger equation. There have been shown that a moving source of positive /negative potential induces bright /dark solitons in an attractive / repulsive Bose condensate.
Albert Einstein the roads to pacifism
Anta, Claudio Giulio
2017-01-01
Albert Einstein (1879-1955) is universally known as the father of the theory of relativity; however, he was also one of the most eminent pacifists of the first half of the twentieth century. Through his active, pragmatic and nuanced breed of pacifism, he sought to confront the dilemmas and problems of his time.
Albert Einstein: Radical Pacifist and Democrat
Jayaraman, T.
We draw attention here to the radical political grounding of Einstein's pacifism. We also drescribe some less commonly known aspects of his commitment to civil liberties, particularly in the context of the anti-l hysteria and anti-racism current in the United States of the late 1940s and 1950s. We also examine briefly his views on socialism.
Traffic disruption route Einstein near building 170
A Lopez - TS/CE
2005-01-01
The TS/CE Group informs you that, for the duration of the work at Building 170, there may be some disruption to traffic on route Einstein in the vicinity of Building 170. The work is due to take place from the 14th to 18th February. For more information, please contact 165029. A. Lopez TS/CE
Einstein and the Special Theory of Relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ANew Point of View. Einstein formulated the special theory of relativity during his tenure at the Swiss Patent Office at Berne. In the words of. Martin Klein: "In his spare time during those years at Berne, the young patent examiner wrought a series of scientific miracles; no weaker word is adequate. He did nothing less than to ...
Einstein e il Rinnovamento delle Scienze (Einstein and the Renewal of Science)
Recami, Erasmo
2007-01-01
As it is well-known, the year 2005 has been the centenary of the "annus mirabilis" (1905) during which Albert Einstein published four fundamental papers of his. But already in 1979, for the centenary of Einstein's birth, the world celebrated his monumantal work. In Italy too, there appeared scientific books, and many semi-popularization (or popularization) articles. The present paper represents a talk delivered in Italian, at the invitation of the Nobel Foundation (Sanremo, IM; Italy), in tim...
Holmes, Virginia Iris
2005-03-01
Perhaps motivated by an admiration for Einstein and a desire to identify with him, combined with a majority world-view in opposition to pacifism, skeptics may often question whether Einstein was really a pacifist. They might point to the fact that his dramatic contributions to the field of physics at the beginning of the twentieth century made nuclear weapons possible, as well as his 1939 letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt urging him to develop such weapons before the Nazis would, as examples of at least an inconsistent stance on pacifism across time on Einstein's part. However, as this paper will show, Einstein's pacifism began early in his life, was a deep-seated conviction that he expressed repeatedly across the years, and was an independent pacifism that flowed from his own responses to events around him and contained some original and impressively forward-thinking elements. Moreover, in calling himself a pacifist, as Einstein did, he defined pacifism in his own terms, not according to the standards of others, and this self-defined pacifism included the flexibility to designate the Nazis as a special case that had to be opposed through the use of military violence, in his view. As early as during his childhood, Einstein already disliked competitive games, because of the necessity of winners and losers, and disliked military discipline. In his late thirties, living in Germany during the First World War with a prestigious academic position in Berlin, yet retaining his identity as a Swiss citizen, Einstein joined a small group of four intellectuals who signed the pacifist ``Appeal to the Europeans'' in response to the militarist ``Manifesto to the Civilized World'' signed by 93 German intellectuals. In private, throughout that War, Einstein repeatedly expressed his disgust and sense of alienation at the ``war-enthusiasm'' sentiment of the majority. In the aftermath of the War, Einstein was involved in a German private commission to investigate German war
A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janssen, Michel
2013-01-01
The core of this volume is formed by four chapters (2–5) with detailed reconstructions of the arguments and derivations in four of Einstein's most important papers, the three main papers of his annus mirabilis 1905 (on the light quantum, Brownian motion, and special relativity) and his first systematic exposition of general relativity of 1916. The derivations are given in sufficient detail and in sufficiently modernized notation (without any serious distortion of the originals) for an undergraduate physics major to read and understand them with far less effort than it would take him or her to understand (English translations of) Einstein's original papers. Each of these four papers is accompanied by a detailed introduction, which covers the conceptual development of the relevant field prior to Einstein's contribution to it and corrects some of the myths surrounding these papers that still have not been fully eradicated among physicists. (One quibble: though Kennedy correctly points out that the goal of the light quantum paper was not to explain the photoelectric effect, it is also not quite right to say that 'it was written to explain the Wien region of blackbody radiation' (p. xv). Einstein used this explanatory feat as the central argument for his light quantum hypothesis.) These four chapters then are the most valuable part of the volume. They could be used, independently of one another, but preferably in conjunction with Einstein's original texts, in courses on quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, electrodynamics, and general relativity, respectively, to add a historical component to such courses. As a historian of science embedded in a physics department who is regularly called upon to give guest lectures in such courses on the history of their subjects, I can highly recommend the volume for this purpose. However, I would not adopt this volume as (one of) the central text(s) for a course on the history of modern physics. For one thing, chapter 1, which
Generalization of Einstein's gravitational field equations
Moulin, Frédéric
2017-12-01
The Riemann tensor is the cornerstone of general relativity, but as is well known it does not appear explicitly in Einstein's equation of gravitation. This suggests that the latter may not be the most general equation. We propose here for the first time, following a rigorous mathematical treatment based on the variational principle, that there exists a generalized 4-index gravitational field equation containing the Riemann curvature tensor linearly, and thus the Weyl tensor as well. We show that this equation, written in n dimensions, contains the energy-momentum tensor for matter and that of the gravitational field itself. This new 4-index equation remains completely within the framework of general relativity and emerges as a natural generalization of the familiar 2-index Einstein equation. Due to the presence of the Weyl tensor, we show that this equation contains much more information, which fully justifies the use of a fourth-order theory.
Taming the nonlinearity of the Einstein equation.
Harte, Abraham I
2014-12-31
Many of the technical complications associated with the general theory of relativity ultimately stem from the nonlinearity of Einstein's equation. It is shown here that an appropriate choice of dynamical variables may be used to eliminate all such nonlinearities beyond a particular order: Both Landau-Lifshitz and tetrad formulations of Einstein's equation are obtained that involve only finite products of the unknowns and their derivatives. Considerable additional simplifications arise in physically interesting cases where metrics become approximately Kerr or, e.g., plane waves, suggesting that the variables described here can be used to efficiently reformulate perturbation theory in a variety of contexts. In all cases, these variables are shown to have simple geometrical interpretations that directly relate the local causal structure associated with the metric of interest to the causal structure associated with a prescribed background. A new method to search for exact solutions is outlined as well.
It's about time understanding Einstein's relativity
Mermin, N David
2005-01-01
In It's About Time, N. David Mermin asserts that relativity ought to be an important part of everyone's education--after all, it is largely about time, a subject with which all are familiar. The book reveals that some of our most intuitive notions about time are shockingly wrong, and that the real nature of time discovered by Einstein can be rigorously explained without advanced mathematics. This readable exposition of the nature of time as addressed in Einstein's theory of relativity is accessible to anyone who remembers a little high school algebra and elementary plane geometry. The book evolved as Mermin taught the subject to diverse groups of undergraduates at Cornell University, none of them science majors, over three and a half decades. Mermin's approach is imaginative, yet accurate and complete. Clear, lively, and informal, the book will appeal to intellectually curious readers of all kinds, including even professional physicists, who will be intrigued by its highly original approach.
Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anglin, J. R.; Ketterle, W.
2003-01-01
The early experiments on Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic gases accomplished three longstanding goals. First, cooling of neutral atoms into their motional state, thus subjecting them to ultimate control, limited only by Heisenberg uncertainty relation. Second, creation of a coherent sample of atoms, in which all occupy the same quantum states, and the realization of atom lasers - devices that output coherent matter waves. And third, creation of gaseous quantum fluid, with properties that are different from the quantum liquids helium-3 and helium-4. The field of Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases has continued to progress rapidly, driven by the combination of new experimental techniques and theoretical advances. The family of quantum degenerate gases has grown, and now includes metastable and fermionic atoms. condensates have become an ultralow-temperature laboratory for atom optics, collisional physics and many-body physics, encompassing phonons, superfluidity, quantized vortices, Josephson junctions and quantum phase transitions. (author)
Einstein's strugges with quantum theory a reappraisal
Home, Dipankar
2007-01-01
Einstein’s Struggles with Quantum Theory: A Reappraisal by Dipankar Home and Andrew Whitaker provides a detailed account of Albert Einstein’s thinking in regard to quantum physics. Until recently, most of Einstein’s views on quantum physics were dismissed and even ridiculed; some critics even suggested that Einstein was not able to grasp the complexities of the formalism of quantum theory and subtleties of the standard interpretation of this theory known as the Copenhagen interpretation put forward by Niels Bohr and his colleagues. But was that true? Modern scholarship argues otherwise, insist Drs. Home and Whitaker, who painstakingly explain the questions Einstein raised as well as offer a detailed discussion of Einstein’s position and major contributions to quantum theory, connecting them with contemporary studies on fundamental aspects of this theory. This unique book presents a mathematical as well as a non-mathematical route through the theories, controversies, and investigations, making the disc...
Einstein metrics and Brans-Dicke superfields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marques, S.
1988-01-01
It is obtained here a space conformal to the Einstein space-time, making the transition from an internal bosonic space, constructed with the Majorana constant spinors in the Majorana representation, to a bosonic ''superspace,'' through the use of Einstein vierbeins. These spaces are related to a Grassmann space constructed with the Majorana spinors referred to above, where the ''metric'' is a function of internal bosonic coordinates. The conformal function is a scale factor in the zone of gravitational radiation. A conformal function dependent on space-time coordinates can be constructed in that region when we introduce Majorana spinors which are functions of those coordinates. With this we obtain a scalar field of Brans-Dicke type. 11 refs
Ritz, Einstein, and the Emission Hypothesis
Martínez, Alberto A.
. Just as Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity was gaining acceptance around 1908, the young Swiss physicist Walter Ritz advanced a competing though preliminary emission theory that sought to explain the phenomena of electrodynamics on the assumption that the speed of light depends on the motion of its source. I survey Ritz's unfinished work in this area and review the reasons why Einstein and other physicists rejected Ritz's and other emission theories. Since Ritz's emission theory attracted renewed attention in the 1960s, I discuss how the earlier observational evidence was misconstrued as telling against it more conclusively than actually was the case. Finally, I contrast the role played by evidence against Ritz's theory with other factors that led to the early rejection of his approach.
Scattering amplitudes in N=2 Maxwell-Einstein and Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity
Chiodaroli, Marco; Johansson, Henrik; Roiban, Radu
2015-01-01
We expose a double-copy structure in the scattering amplitudes of the generic Jordan family of N=2 Maxwell-Einstein and Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity theories in four and five dimensions. The Maxwell-Einstein supergravity amplitudes are obtained through the color/kinematics duality as a product of two gauge-theory factors; one originating from pure N=2 super-Yang-Mills theory and the other from the dimensional reduction of a bosonic higher-dimensional pure Yang-Mills theory. We identify a specific symplectic frame in four dimensions for which the on-shell fields and amplitudes from the double-copy construction can be identified with the ones obtained from the supergravity Lagrangian and Feynman-rule computations. The Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity theories are obtained by gauging a compact subgroup of the isometry group of their Maxwell-Einstein counterparts. For the generic Jordan family this process is identified with the introduction of cubic scalar couplings on the bosonic gauge-theory side, which th...
Cosmic censorship in quantum Einstein gravity
Bonanno, A.; Koch, B.; Platania, A.
2017-05-01
We study the quantum gravity modification of the Kuroda-Papapetrou model induced by the running of the Newton’s constant at high energy in quantum Einstein gravity. We argue that although the antiscreening character of the gravitational interaction favours the formation of a naked singularity, quantum gravity effects turn the classical singularity into a ‘whimper’ singularity which remains naked for a finite amount of advanced time.
Physics of hollow Bose-Einstein condensates
Padavić, Karmela; Sun, Kuei; Lannert, Courtney; Vishveshwara, Smitha
2016-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensate shells, while occurring in ultracold systems of coexisting phases and potentially within neutron stars, have yet to be realized in isolation on Earth due to the experimental challenge of overcoming gravitational sag. Motivated by the expected realization of hollow condensates by the space-based Cold Atomic Laboratory in microgravity conditions, we study a spherical condensate undergoing a topological change from a filled sphere to a hollow shell. We argue that the col...
Casimir effect in the rainbow Einstein's universe
Bezerra, V. B.; Mota, H. F.; Muniz, C. R.
2017-10-01
In the present paper we investigate the effects caused by the modification of the dispersion relation obtained by solving the Klein-Gordon equation in the closed Einstein's universe in the context of rainbow's gravity models. Thus, we analyse how the quantum vacuum fluctuations of the scalar field are modified when compared with the results obtained in the usual General Relativity scenario. The regularization, and consequently the renormalization, of the vacuum energy is performed adopting the Epstein-Hurwitz and Riemann's zeta functions.
Sasaki-Einstein Manifolds and Volume Minimisation
Martelli, D; Yau, S T; Martelli, Dario; Sparks, James; Yau, Shing-Tung
2006-01-01
We study a variational problem whose critical point determines the Reeb vector field for a Sasaki-Einstein manifold. This extends our previous work on Sasakian geometry by lifting the condition that the manifolds are toric. We show that the Einstein-Hilbert action, restricted to a space of Sasakian metrics on a link L in a Calabi-Yau cone M, is the volume functional, which in fact is a function on the space of Reeb vector fields. We relate this function both to the Duistermaat-Heckman formula and also to a limit of a certain equivariant index on M that counts holomorphic functions. Both formulae may be evaluated by localisation. This leads to a general formula for the volume function in terms of topological fixed point data. As a result we prove that the volume of any Sasaki-Einstein manifold, relative to that of the round sphere, is always an algebraic number. In complex dimension n=3 these results provide, via AdS/CFT, the geometric counterpart of a-maximisation in four dimensional superconformal field theo...
Einstein and the history of general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howard, D.; Stachel, J.
1989-01-01
This book is a collection of essays by the authors and other people that deal with scientific opinions that led Einstein and his contemporaries to their views of general relativity. Some of the essays explore Einstein's passage from the special theory through a sequence of gravitational theories to the discovery of the field equations of the grand theory in November 1915. Two other essays discuss Einstein's public and private exchanges with Max Abraham and Tullio Levi-Civita in 1913 and 1914. A sympathetic picture of H.A. Lorentz's reaction to the general theory of relativity is included, and a careful and insightful essay on the early understanding of the Schwarzschild-Droste solution to the field equations of general relativity is presented. One paper presents a discussion on the state of the enterprise of general relativity between 1925 and 1928, and a short essay details the history of steps toward quantum gravitational through canonical quantization. A discussion of the history of derivations of the geodesic equation of motion from the field equation and conservation laws of the general theory is presented. The early history of geometrical unified field theories is included
Finding Horndeski theories with Einstein gravity limits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McManus, Ryan; Lombriser, Lucas; Peñarrubia, Jorge, E-mail: ryanm@roe.ac.uk, E-mail: llo@roe.ac.uk, E-mail: jorpega@roe.ac.uk [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)
2016-11-01
The Horndeski action is the most general scalar-tensor theory with at most second-order derivatives in the equations of motion, thus evading Ostrogradsky instabilities and making it of interest when modifying gravity at large scales. To pass local tests of gravity, these modifications predominantly rely on nonlinear screening mechanisms that recover Einstein's Theory of General Relativity in regions of high density. We derive a set of conditions on the four free functions of the Horndeski action that examine whether a specific model embedded in the action possesses an Einstein gravity limit or not. For this purpose, we develop a new and surprisingly simple scaling method that identifies dominant terms in the equations of motion by considering formal limits of the couplings that enter through the new terms in the modified action. This enables us to find regimes where nonlinear terms dominate and Einstein's field equations are recovered to leading order. Together with an efficient approximation of the scalar field profile, one can then further evaluate whether these limits can be attributed to a genuine screening effect. For illustration, we apply the analysis to both a cubic galileon and a chameleon model as well as to Brans-Dicke theory. Finally, we emphasise that the scaling method also provides a natural approach for performing post-Newtonian expansions in screened regimes.
New inhomogeneous Einstein metrics on sphere bundles over Einstein-Kahler manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lue, H.; Page, Don N.; Pope, C.N.
2004-01-01
We construct new complete, compact, inhomogeneous Einstein metrics on S m+2 sphere bundles over 2n-dimensional Einstein-Kahler spaces K 2n , for all n>=1 and all m>=1. We also obtain complete, compact, inhomogeneous Einstein metrics on warped products of S m with S 2 bundles over K 2n , for m>1. Additionally, we construct new complete, non-compact Ricci-flat metrics with topologies S m times R 2 bundles over K 2n that generalise the higher-dimensional Taub-BOLT metrics, and with topologies S m xR 2n+2 that generalise the higher-dimensional Taub-NUT metrics, again for m>1
Einstein's Materialism and Modern Tests of Quantum Mechanics
Vigier, J. P.
After a presentation of Einstein's and Bohr's antagonistic point of view on the interpretation of Quantum Mechanics an illustration of their conflicting positions in the particular case of Young's double slit experiment is presented. It is then shown that in their most recent form (i. e. time dependent neutron interferometry) these experiments suggest (if one accepts absolute energymomentum conservation in all individual microprocesses) that Einstein was right in the Bohr-Einstein controversy.Translated AbstractEinsteins Materialismus und heutige Tests der QuantenmechanikNach einer Darstellung von Einsteins und Bohrs antagonistischen Standpunkten in der Interpretation der Quantenmechanik werden ihre widersprüchlichen Positionen im speziellen Fall des Youngschen Doppelspaltexperiments dargestellt. Es wird dann gezeigt, daß diese Experimente in ihrer neuesten Form (d. h. zeitabhängige Neutroneninterferometrie) Einstein in der Bohr-Einsteinkontroverse recht gaben (wenn man absolute Energie-Impulserhaltung bei allen individuellen Mikroprozessen annimmt).
Einstein's Jury: The Race to Test Relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ehlers, Juergen
2007-01-01
'I know very well that my theory rests on a shaky foundation. What attracts me to it is that it leads to consequences that seem to be accessible to experiment, and it provides a starting point for the theoretical understanding of gravitation', wrote Einstein in 1911. Einstein's Jury by Jeffrey Crelinsten-well documented, well written, and fascinating to read-describes how, from 1909 on, Einstein's two theories of relativity became known to astronomers, and how the predictions made between 1907 and 1915 were received as challenges to observers. The author gives a non-technical account of the efforts made until 1930 to test these predictions; he focuses on two of the three classical tests, namely gravitational redshift and bending of light; the 'jury' consists mainly of American observers-Adams, Campbell, Curtis, Hale, Perrin, St John, Trumpler and others-working with newly built large telescopes, and the Britons Eddington and Evershed. The major steps which, after a long struggle, convinced the majority of astronomers that Einstein was right, are narrated chronologically in rather great detail, especially the work at Lick Observatory, before and after the famous British observation of 1919, on solar eclipses, and the work at Mount Wilson and the Indian Kodaikanal Observatories to extract the gravitational redshift from the complicated spectrum of the sun. The account of the eclipse work which was carried out between 1918 and 1923 by Lick astronomers corrects the impression suggested by many historical accounts that the British expedition alone settled the light-bending question. Apart from these main topics, the anomalous perihelion advance of Mercury and the ether problem are covered. By concentrating on astronomy rather than on physics this book complements the rich but repetitive literature on Einstein and relativity which appeared in connection with the commemoration of Einstein's annus mirabilis, 2005. The well told stories include curiosities such as the
Einstein's cosmos how Albert Einstein's vision transformed our understanding of space and time
Kaku, Michio
2004-01-01
Few figures loom as large as Albert Einstein in our contemporary culture. It is truly remarkable that a man from such humble beginnings, an unemployed dreamer without a future or a job, who was written off by his professors as a hopeless loser, could to dare to scale the heights he reached. In this enlightening book Michio Kaku reasseses Einstein's work by centering on his three great theories - special relativity, general relativity and the Unified Field Theory. The first yielded the equation E =mc which is now such a fixture in our culture that it is practically a ubiquitous slogan. But the subsequent theories led to the Big Bang theory and have changed irrevocably the way we perceive time and space. Michio Kaku gives a new, refreshing look at the pioneering work of Einstein, giving a more accurate portrayal of his enduring legacy than previous biographies. As today's advanced physicists continue their intense search to fulfill Einstein's most cherished dream, a 'theory of everything', he is recognised as a...
Vortex molecules in Bose-Einstein condensates
Nitta, Muneto; Eto, Minoru; Cipriani, Mattia
2013-01-01
Stable vortex dimers are known to exist in coherently coupled two component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). We construct stable vortex trimers in three component BECs and find that the shape can be controlled by changing the internal coherent (Rabi) couplings. Stable vortex N-omers are also constructed in coherently coupled N-component BECs. We classify all possible N-omers in terms of the mathematical graph theory. Next, we study effects of the Rabi coupling in vortex lattices in two-compo...
Bose-Einstein Condensation in Complex Networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bianconi, Ginestra; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo
2001-06-11
The evolution of many complex systems, including the World Wide Web, business, and citation networks, is encoded in the dynamic web describing the interactions between the system's constituents. Despite their irreversible and nonequilibrium nature these networks follow Bose statistics and can undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. Addressing the dynamical properties of these nonequilibrium systems within the framework of equilibrium quantum gases predicts that the {open_quotes}first-mover-advantage,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}fit-get-rich,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}winner-takes-all{close_quotes} phenomena observed in competitive systems are thermodynamically distinct phases of the underlying evolving networks.
Einstein and the Changing Worldviews of Physics
Lehner, Christoph; Schemmel, Matthias
2012-01-01
This volume reviews conceptual conflicts at the foundations of physics now and in the past century. The focus is on the conditions and consequences of Einstein's pathbreaking achievements that sealed the decline of the classical notions of space, time, radiation, and matter, and resulted in the theory of relativity. Particular attention is paid to the implications of conceptual conflicts for scientific views of the world at large, thus providing the basis for a comparison of the demise of the mechanical worldview at the turn of the 20th century with the challenges presented by cosmology at the
An exact solution in Einstein-Cartan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roque, W.L.
1982-01-01
The exact solution of the field equations of the Einstein-Cartan theory is obtained for an artificial dust of radially polarized spins, with spherical symmetry and static. For a best estimation of the effect due the spin, the energy-momentum metric tensor is considered null. The gravitational field dynamics is studied for several torsion strengths, through the massive and spinless test-particle moviment, in particular for null torsion Schwarzschild solutions is again obtained. It is observed that the gravitational effects related to the torsin (spin) sometimes are attractives sometimes are repulsives, depending of the torsion values and of the test-particle position and velocity. (L.C.) [pt
Einstein-Yang-Mills-Lorentz black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cembranos, Jose A.R.; Gigante Valcarcel, Jorge [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Madrid (Spain)
2017-12-15
Different black hole solutions of the coupled Einstein-Yang-Mills equations have been well known for a long time. They have attracted much attention from mathematicians and physicists since their discovery. In this work, we analyze black holes associated with the gauge Lorentz group. In particular, we study solutions which identify the gauge connection with the spin connection. This ansatz allows one to find exact solutions to the complete system of equations. By using this procedure, we show the equivalence between the Yang-Mills-Lorentz model in curved space-time and a particular set of extended gravitational theories. (orig.)
Wormholes in Einstein-Born-Infeld Gravity
Kim, Jin Young; Park, Mu-In
2018-01-01
We introduce a new approach to construct wormholes without introducing exotic matters in Einstein-Born-Infeld gravity with a cosmological constant. Contary to the conventional approach, the throat is located at the place where the solutions can be joined smoothly. The metric and its derivatives are continuous so that the exotic matters are not needed there. The exoticity of the energy-momentum tensor is not essential to sustain the wormhole. We also present a method to check the stability of wormholes in the new approach.
Wormholes in Einstein-Born-Infeld Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kim Jin Young
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a new approach to construct wormholes without introducing exotic matters in Einstein-Born-Infeld gravity with a cosmological constant. Contary to the conventional approach, the throat is located at the place where the solutions can be joined smoothly. The metric and its derivatives are continuous so that the exotic matters are not needed there. The exoticity of the energy-momentum tensor is not essential to sustain the wormhole. We also present a method to check the stability of wormholes in the new approach.
Tunneling problems between Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watabe, Shohei; Kato, Yusuke
2009-01-01
We investigate transmission and reflection of Bose-Einstein condensate excitations in the low-energy limit across a potential barrier separating two condensates with different densities. Bogoliubov excitation in the low-energy limit has an incident angle where perfect transmission occurs. This condition corresponds to the Brewster's law for the electromagnetic wave. There also exists the total internal reflection of the Bogoliubov excitation in the low-energy limit. In the case of the normal incidence, our result in the low-energy limit is consistent with a result for weakly interacting one-dimensional Bose gases treated as Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids.
Tunneling problems between Bose-Einstein condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watabe, Shohei [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Kato, Yusuke [Department of Basic Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 153-8902 (Japan)], E-mail: watabe@vortex.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp
2009-02-01
We investigate transmission and reflection of Bose-Einstein condensate excitations in the low-energy limit across a potential barrier separating two condensates with different densities. Bogoliubov excitation in the low-energy limit has an incident angle where perfect transmission occurs. This condition corresponds to the Brewster's law for the electromagnetic wave. There also exists the total internal reflection of the Bogoliubov excitation in the low-energy limit. In the case of the normal incidence, our result in the low-energy limit is consistent with a result for weakly interacting one-dimensional Bose gases treated as Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids.
Einstein equations and Fermion degrees of freedom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luetz, E.F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z.
2001-01-01
When Dirac derived the special relativistic quantum equation which brings his name, it became evident that the spin is a consequence of the space-time geometry. However, taking gravity into account (as for, instance, in the study of neutron stars), most authors do not take into account the relation between hyperbolic geometry and spin and derive an Einstein equation which implicitly takes into account only boson degrees of freedom. In this work we introduce a consistent quantum general relativistic formalism which allows us to study the effects of the existence of fermion degrees of freedom. (author)
Bose-Einstein Condensation in Complex Networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianconi, Ginestra; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo
2001-01-01
The evolution of many complex systems, including the World Wide Web, business, and citation networks, is encoded in the dynamic web describing the interactions between the system's constituents. Despite their irreversible and nonequilibrium nature these networks follow Bose statistics and can undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. Addressing the dynamical properties of these nonequilibrium systems within the framework of equilibrium quantum gases predicts that the 'first-mover-advantage,' 'fit-get-rich,' and 'winner-takes-all' phenomena observed in competitive systems are thermodynamically distinct phases of the underlying evolving networks
Quenching of Einstein-coefficients by photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aumayr, F.; Lee, W.; Skinner, C.H.; Suckewer, S.
1991-03-01
Experimental evidence is presented for the change of Einstein's A- coefficients for spontaneous transitions from the upper laser level of argon ion laser discharge due to the presence of the high- intensity laser flux. To demonstrate that this quenching effect cannot be attributed to a reduction in self-absorption of the strong spontaneous emission line, absorption and line profile measurements have been performed. Computer modelling of the reduction of self absorption due to Rabi splitting also indicated that this effect is too small to explain the observed quenching of spontaneous line emissions. 13 refs., 11 figs
Internal Einstein spaces and symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coquereaux, R.
1984-01-01
We first define a generalised gauge invariant Yang-Mills Lagrangian: the Killing metric -Ksub(αβ) on the group is replaced by a more general metric hsub(αβ)(x); the field hsub(αβ)(x) -a scalar from the space time point of view- is then covariantly coupled to the gauge field Asub(μ)sup(α) and is also self-coupled via a natural scalar potential (no parameters). Non trivial saddle points of this scalar potential, correspond to non standard Einstein metrics on the group C. the associated shifts lead to an entirely computable mass spectrum for the gauge field
The simplest group of Einstein supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogievetsky, V.I.; Sokatchev, E.S.
1979-01-01
The simplest supergroup of Einstein supergravity is considered. It is the complex supergroup of general coordinate transformations in left- and right-handed chiral conjugated superspaces restricted by the condition of left- and right- supervolume-preservation. The real part of the vector coordinate of the superspace is identified with the space-time coordinate xsup(m) and the imaginary one, with the axial gravitational superfield Hsup(m) (x, theta, anti theta). The transformations of the field components of Hsup(m) are studied in detail. The approach described is the geometrical basis of the so-called ''tensor calculus''
Vortices and hysteresis in a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate with anharmonic confinement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jackson, A.D.; Kavoulakis, G.M.
2004-01-01
Vortices; Bose-Einstein condensation; phase diagrams; phase transformation Udgivelsesdato: 4 August......Vortices; Bose-Einstein condensation; phase diagrams; phase transformation Udgivelsesdato: 4 August...
From the Classroom to Washington: Einsteins on Education Reform
Hughes, Kent H., Ed.; Byers, Elizabeth A., Ed.
2010-01-01
The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars was delighted to host a group of current and former Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellows as they celebrated the 20th anniversary of the fellowship program. Outstanding math and science teachers in America's K-12 schools, the Einstein Fellows spend a year (or sometimes two) working on…
[Photoeffects, Einstein's light quanta and the history of their acceptance].
Wiederkehr, Karl Heinrich
2006-01-01
It is generally supposed, that the discovery of the efficacy-quantum by Planck was the impetus to Einstein's hypothesis of lightquanta. With its help Einstein could explain the external light-electrical effect. But even years before Einstein had worked at the photoeffect and already made experiments on it. For that reason the article gives a short survey about the history of the lightelectric effects. Lenard's basical work about the release of the photoelectrons is dealt with in detail, without which Einstein would scarcely have found his lightquanta. Furthermore it is shown how difficult it was for the physicists to give up--at least partially--the traditional view of the undulation-nature of light, and how they searched to explain the great energies of the photoelectrons. On the other side it is set forth how Einstein's formula of lightquanta was gradually confirmed. The tragical development of Einstein's personal relations with Johannes Stark and Philipp Lenard are briefly described. Stark was one of the few who supported Einstein's ideas at the beginning. Only with the Compton-effect, which could only be quantitatively interpreted by means of lightquanta and the special theory of relativity 1923, the way was free for the general acceptance of the lightquanta. Einstein did not agree to the obtained dualism of undulation and corpuscle; he had a different solution in mind about the fusion of the two forms of appearance of light.
Albert Einstein's 1916 Review Article on General Relativity
Sauer, Tilman
2004-01-01
The first comprehensive overview of the final version of the general theory of relativity was published by Einstein in 1916 after several expositions of preliminary versions and latest revisions of the theory in November 1915. A historical account of this review paper is given, of its prehistory, including a discussion of Einstein's collaboration with Marcel Grossmann, and of its immediate reception.
Einstein's Unification: General Relativity and the Quest for Mathematical Naturalness
van Dongen, J.A.E.F.
2002-01-01
The aim of the thesis has been to understand Einstein's development and see the historical coherence in his later attitude in physics. The lesson we learned has been straightforward: the key that unlocks the later Einstein lies in the road by which he arrived at the field equations of general
Reflections The Early life of Albert Einstein: Seeking the Mature ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
1891 Einstein studied with an outstanding teacher of mathematics, AdolfSickenburger, a vocal supporter of school reform. He had authored a Textbook of Elementary Mathemat- ics. This book, which was published in parts, was used at Luitpold throughout Einstein's stay at the school. He based his book on twenty years of ...
Validity of the Einstein Relation in Disordered Organic Semiconductors
Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Koster, L. J. A.; Blom, P. W. M.
2011-01-01
It is controversial whether energetic disorder in semiconductors is already sufficient to violate the classical Einstein relation, even in the case of thermal equilibrium. We demonstrate that the Einstein relation is violated only under nonequilibrium conditions due to deeply trapped carriers, as in
A Demonstration of Einstein's Equivalence of Gravity and Acceleration
Newburgh, Ronald
2008-01-01
In 1907, Einstein described a "Gedankenexperiment" in which he showed that free fall in a gravitational field is indistinguishable from a body at rest in an elevator accelerated upwards in zero gravity. This paper describes an apparatus, which is simple to make and simple to operate, that acts as an observable footnote to Einstein's example. It…
Space and Time: From Antiquity to Einstein and Beyond
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Institute of Advanced Studies and Raman Research Institute,. Bangalore on 22 December. 2004. 1 Max Planck to Albert Einstein, on learning that Einstein was attempting to find a new theory of gravity to resolve the conflict between special relativity and. Newtonian gravity (1913). Keywords. Relativity, Big Bang, black holes,.
Einstein as Armchair Detective: The Case of Stimulated Radiation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Einstein's 1917 paper on the quan- tum theory of radiation is a classic example of this style that enabled him to predict the ex- istence of stimulated radiation starting from an analysis of thermodynamic equilibrium between matter and radiation. Einstein is rightly regarded as one of the greatest sci- entific geniuses of all time.
Extension of Einstein's Planetary Theory Based on Generalized ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this article, the generalized Einstein's radial equation of motion in the equatorial plane of the Sun is transformed to obtain additional correction terms to all order of C2 to Einstein's planetary equation of motion and hence to the planetary parameters. Keywords: Radial Equation; Planetary Equation; Planetary parameters ...
Reflections The Early life of Albert Einstein: Seeking the Mature ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
any comparative studies but merely to look at the early life of Einstein and to see, in howsoever imprecise a way ... In later life, Einstein had little to say about his childhood and much seems to have escaped his memory .... Untemch which was the leading pedagogical journal in mathematics in Germany at the time. He tried to ...
Particle solutions in variations of Einstein's unified field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huerta, R.H.
1981-01-01
A method is found which makes it possible to reduce the field equations for a class of nonsymmetric unified field theories to an ordinary integrodifferential equation in the case of a spherically symmetric, time independent metric. Numerical solutions for the Einstein-Bonnor and Einstein-Kursunoglu theories yield extended mass solutions with finite rest mass, corresponding to electrically charged particles
Ludwig Boltzmann, Albert Einstein and Franz Joseph
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broda, E.
1983-01-01
Under the Emperor Francis Joseph (1848-1916) the natural sciences were less weIl supported in Austria than in other countries of Europe. This is explained by the fact that the German speaking middle classes accepted the preeminence of the feudal forces with their antiscientific attitude. The reason for this readiness to subordination was that those middle classes feIt threatened in their relatively favourable situation by Slavs and Latins. Francis Joseph was the typical representative of the aristocracy. Personally, he did his duty conscientiously and was not corrupt, but progressive ideas and scientific thought were alien to him. From his desk he treated Boltzmann benevolently, but he had no wish to meet personally the greatest mind of the Empire or in any respect to ask his views. Another famous subject of the Emperor, Albert Einstein, was apparently ignored altogether. The structural weakness of Austria, due to the national problems, led to immobilism in her scientific life, but also, up to a point, to tolerance. The impression of Victor Adler on Einstein is considered in this historical context. (author) [de
A escrita atuante de Carl Einstein
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena O'Neill
Full Text Available RESUMO Poeta de vanguarda que se tornou historiador e teórico da arte, mediador cultural entre França e Alemanha, Carl Einstein colaborou com diversas publicações (entre as quais Die weißen Blätter, Die Aktion, Das Kunstblatt e Transition. Foi coeditor, com Georg Grosz, de Der blutige Ernst (1919 e, com Paul Westheim, de Europa-Almanach (1925, além de cofundador da revista Documents (1929 junto com Georges Bataille, Michel Leiris, Georges Wildenstein e Georges-Henri Rivière. Pertenceu ao círculo de Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler; conheceu Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Juan Gris e Fernand Léger. Este artigo se propõe a apresentar algumas das particularidades da escrita e do pensamento de Carl Einstein, sua coerência intelectual, assim como familiarizar o leitor com um âmbito intelectual excepcional, através da rede de diálogos, brechas e aberturas que seus escritos apresentam.
Gravity Before Einstein and Schwinger Before Gravity
Trimble, Virginia L.
2012-05-01
Julian Schwinger was a child prodigy, and Albert Einstein distinctly not; Schwinger had something like 73 graduate students, and Einstein very few. But both thought gravity was important. They were not, of course, the first, nor is the disagreement on how one should think about gravity that is being highlighted here the first such dispute. The talk will explore, first, several of the earlier dichotomies: was gravity capable of action at a distance (Newton), or was a transmitting ether required (many others). Did it act on everything or only on solids (an odd idea of the Herschels that fed into their ideas of solar structure and sunspots)? Did gravitational information require time for its transmission? Is the exponent of r precisely 2, or 2 plus a smidgeon (a suggestion by Simon Newcomb among others)? And so forth. Second, I will try to say something about Scwinger's lesser known early work and how it might have prefigured his "source theory," beginning with "On the Interaction of Several Electrons (the unpublished, 1934 "zeroth paper," whose title somewhat reminds one of "On the Dynamics of an Asteroid," through his days at Berkeley with Oppenheimer, Gerjuoy, and others, to his application of ideas from nuclear physics to radar and of radar engineering techniques to problems in nuclear physics. And folks who think good jobs are difficult to come by now might want to contemplate the couple of years Schwinger spent teaching elementary physics at Purdue before moving on to the MIT Rad Lab for war work.
Liver transplantation at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergio Mies
2005-09-01
Full Text Available Objective: To present patients and results of liver transplantationperformed by the Liver Unit team at the Hospital Israelita AlbertEinstein. Methods: The medical records of all patients transplantedby the team at the Liver Unit of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein,from January 2002 to June 2005, were analyzed. Results: Duringthis period, 328 transplants were performed and 64.3% were malerecipients; 64.9% were performed with cadaveric donor; 31.1%with living donors; and 4.3% were domino liver transplants. Thethree-year survival rate was 78% with cadaveric donors, 71.1%with living donor and 46.2% with domino liver transplant. The meanseverity index according to the Child-Pugh score was 8.7 (ChildB–9 and the median was 9 (Child B-9; the mean MELD score was17.6 and the median 18. Conclusion: The Liver Unit team has thelargest number of liver transplantation cases in Latin Americawith over 850 transplants performed and outcomes similar to theworld’s best centers.
On Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity
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Crothers S. J.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available There are a number of conceptual anomalies occurring in the Standard exposition of Einstein's Theory of Relativity. These anomalies relate to issues in both mathematics and in physics and penetrate to the very heart of Einstein's theory. This paper reveals and amplifies a few such anomalies, including the fact that Einstein's field equations for the so-called static vacuum configuration, $R_{mu u} = 0$, violates his Principle of Equivalence, and is therefore erroneous. This has a direct bearing on the usual concept of conservation of energy for the gravitational field and the conventional formulation for localisation of energy using Einstein's pseudo-tensor. Misconceptions as to the relationship between Minkowski spacetime and Special Relativity are also discussed, along with their relationships to the pseudo-Riemannian metric manifold of Einstein's gravitational field, and their fundamental geometric structures pertaining to spherical symmetry.
Auf den Schultern von Riesen und Zwergen Einsteins unvollendete Revolution
Renn, Jürgen
2006-01-01
Dies ist die Geschichte von Einsteins unvollendeter Revolution, einer tiefgreifenden Veränderung unserer Begriffe von Raum, Zeit, Materie und Strahlung. Diese Revolution begann in Einsteins Wunderjahr 1905, wurde durch seine allgemeine Relativitätstheorie aus dem Jahre 1915 fortgesetzt und wirkt in den heutigen Versuchen der Wissenschaft, die Entstehung und das Schicksal des Universums zu verstehen, weiter. Vor dem Hintergrund einer historischen Theorie des wissenschaftlichen Fortschritts wird Einsteins bis heute nicht abgeschlossene Revolution als das Ergebnis einer langfristigen Entwicklung des Wissens verständlich. Anhand der spannenden Geschichte von Einsteins Entdeckungen wird nachvollziehbar, warum große Denker wie Einstein weiter gesehen haben als ihre Vorgänger. Sie standen nicht nur auf den Schultern von Riesen, also den wissenschaftlichen Leistungen einzelner großer Vorgänger wie Newton, sondern auch auf den Schultern von "Zwergen", dem wissenschaftlichen Wissen, dem technischen Wissen, und d...
Einstein, cientista e filósofo?
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Michel Paty
1993-12-01
Full Text Available A física, como prática filosófica, designa a escolha de ângulo de abordagem sob o qual é possível perceber características fundamentais da física. Assumimos que os papéis do físico e do filósofo não são tão demarcados e que a tarefa do físico é inseparavelmente enunciar a significação dos conceitos, estabelecendo sua identificação lógico-matemática, e ligá-los à experiência. Nesta perspectiva, a análise da atividade de Einstein, especialmente o exame da gênese da teoria da Relatividade restrita e das significações nos conceitos e enunciados da Relatividade restrita e geral nos leva à afirmação da tese expressa no epíteto Einstein filósofo. Para este percurso foi necessário então a crítica da corrente filosófica - Círculo de Viena - aparentemente mais próxima da atividade einsteniana, mas que só o tomou como referência na condição de físico. Em especial é analisada, e recusada, a tese de Reichenbach da separação entre o contexto de justificativa - ao qual se aplica a análise filosófica - e o contexto de descoberta - relegado exclusivamente ao campo da psicologia. Para esta crítica buscamos, nos processos de descoberta, não uma rígida estrutura lógica mas a noção mais ampla de racionalidade.Physics as philosophical practice points out the option of an approach which enables us to perceive fundamental features of physics. We maintain that the physicist and the philosopher play roles not so disjuncted and that the physicist's task is as much to enunciate the meaning of the concepts, establishing its logical and mathematic identification, as to link them to experience. With this point of view we analyze Einstein's activity with emphasis on the rise of Special Relativity Theory and the meaning of the concepts of Special and General Relativity. This analysis carries us to the thesis expressed in the title Einstein, philosopher. To this way we have needed to criticize that philosophical movement
Janssen, Michel
2013-12-01
The core of this volume is formed by four chapters (2-5) with detailed reconstructions of the arguments and derivations in four of Einstein's most important papers, the three main papers of his annus mirabilis 1905 (on the light quantum, Brownian motion, and special relativity) and his first systematic exposition of general relativity of 1916. The derivations are given in sufficient detail and in sufficiently modernized notation (without any serious distortion of the originals) for an undergraduate physics major to read and understand them with far less effort than it would take him or her to understand (English translations of) Einstein's original papers. Each of these four papers is accompanied by a detailed introduction, which covers the conceptual development of the relevant field prior to Einstein's contribution to it and corrects some of the myths surrounding these papers that still have not been fully eradicated among physicists. (One quibble: though Kennedy correctly points out that the goal of the light quantum paper was not to explain the photoelectric effect, it is also not quite right to say that 'it was written to explain the Wien region of blackbody radiation' (p. xv). Einstein used this explanatory feat as the central argument for his light quantum hypothesis.) These four chapters then are the most valuable part of the volume. They could be used, independently of one another, but preferably in conjunction with Einstein's original texts, in courses on quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, electrodynamics, and general relativity, respectively, to add a historical component to such courses. As a historian of science embedded in a physics department who is regularly called upon to give guest lectures in such courses on the history of their subjects, I can highly recommend the volume for this purpose. However, I would not adopt this volume as (one of) the central text(s) for a course on the history of modern physics. For one thing, chapter 1, which in
Einstein's cosmology review of 1933: a new perspective on the Einstein-de Sitter model of the cosmos
O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; O'Keeffe, Michael; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon
2015-09-01
We present a first English translation and analysis of a little-known review of relativistic cosmology written by Albert Einstein in late 1932. The article, which was published in 1933 in a book of Einstein papers translated into French, contains a substantial review of static and dynamic relativistic models of the cosmos, culminating in a discussion of the Einstein-de Sitter model. The article offers a valuable contemporaneous insight into Einstein's cosmology in the early 1930s and confirms that his interest lay in the development of the simplest model of the cosmos that could account for observation. The article also confirms that Einstein did not believe that simplified relativistic models could give an accurate description of the early universe.
EINSTEIN EQUATIONS FOR TETRAD FIELDS ECUACIONES DE EINSTEIN PARA CAMPOS TETRADOS
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Héctor Torres-Silva
2008-11-01
Full Text Available Every metric tensor can be expressed by the inner product of tetrad fields. We prove that Einstein's equations for these fields have the same form as the stress-energy tensor of electromagnetism if the total external current . Using the Evans' unified field theory, we show that the true unification of gravity and electromagnetism is with source-free Maxwell equations.Todo tensor métrico puede ser expresado por el producto interno de campos tetrados. Se prueba que las ecuaciones de Einstein para esos campos tienen la misma forma que el tensor electromagnético de momento-energía si la corriente externa total es igual a cero. Usando la teoría de campo unificado de Evans se muestra que la verdadera unificación de la gravedad y el electromagnetismo es con las ecuaciones de Maxwell sin fuentes.
Vortex Molecules in Bose-Einstein Condensates
Nitta, Muneto; Eto, Minoru; Cipriani, Mattia
2014-04-01
Stable vortex dimers are known to exist in coherently coupled two component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). We construct stable vortex trimers in three component BECs and find that the shape can be controlled by changing the internal coherent (Rabi) couplings. Stable vortex N-omers are also constructed in coherently coupled N-component BECs. We classify all possible N-omers in terms of the mathematical graph theory. Next, we study effects of the Rabi coupling in vortex lattices in two-component BECs. We find how the vortex lattices without the Rabi coupling known before are connected to the Abrikosov lattice of integer vortices with increasing the Rabi coupling. In this process, vortex dimers change their partners in various ways at large couplings. We then find that the Abrikosov lattices are robust in three-component BECs.
Expansion of Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitude
Fu, Chih-Hao; Du, Yi-Jian; Huang, Rijun; Feng, Bo
2017-09-01
In this paper, we study from various perspectives the expansion of tree level single trace Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes into linear combination of color-ordered Yang-Mills amplitudes. By applying the gauge invariance principle, a programable recursive construction is devised to expand EYM amplitude with arbitrary number of gravitons into EYM amplitudes with fewer gravitons. Based on this recursive technique we write down the complete expansion of any single trace EYM amplitude in the basis of color-order Yang-Mills amplitude. As a byproduct, an algorithm for constructing a polynomial form of the BCJ numerator for Yang-Mills amplitudes is also outlined in this paper. In addition, by applying BCFW recursion relation we show how to arrive at the same EYM amplitude expansion from the on-shell perspective. And we examine the EYM expansion using KLT relations and show how to evaluate the expansion coefficients efficiently.
Fidelity of a Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Jie; Zhang Chuanwei; Niu Qian; Li Baowen
2006-01-01
We investigate fidelity for the quantum evolution of a Bose-Einstein condensate and reveal its general property with a simple model. We find the fidelity decay with time in various ways depending on the form of initial states as well as on mean-field dynamics. When the initial state is a coherent state, the fidelity decays with time in the ways of exponential, Gaussian, and power-law, having a close relation to the classical mean-field dynamics. With the initial state prepared as a maximally entangled state, we find the behavior of fidelity has no classical correspondence and observe a novel behavior of the fidelity: periodic revival, where the period is inversely proportional to the number of bosons and the perturbation strength. An experimental observation of the fidelity decay is suggested
Twistor theory and the Einstein equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Law, P.R.
1985-01-01
R. Penrose has argued that the goal of twistor theory with regard to the vacuum Einstein equations ought to consist of some kind of unification of twistor-theoretic description of anti-self-dual (a.s.d.) and self-dual (s.d.) space-times. S.d. space-times currently possess a description only in terms of dual twistor space, however, rather than twistor space. In this paper, suggestions due to Penrose for providing a purely twistor space description of s.d. space-times are investigated. It is shown how the points of certain s.d. space-times define mappings on twistor space and the geometry of these mappings is studied. The families of mappings for two particular s.d. space-times are presented explicitly. (author)
Faraday waves in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicolin, Alexandru I.; Carretero-Gonzalez, R.; Kevrekidis, P. G.
2007-01-01
Motivated by recent experiments on Faraday waves in Bose-Einstein condensates we investigate both analytically and numerically the dynamics of cigar-shaped Bose-condensed gases subject to periodic modulation of the strength of the transverse confinement. We offer a fully analytical explanation of the observed parametric resonance, based on a Mathieu-type analysis of the non-polynomial Schroedinger equation. The theoretical prediction for the pattern periodicity versus the driving frequency is directly compared to the experimental data, yielding good qualitative and quantitative agreement between the two. These results are corroborated by direct numerical simulations of both the one-dimensional non-polynomial Schroedinger equation and of the fully three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation
The Dark Universe Through Einstein's Lens
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bard, Deborah [SLAC; Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
2013-07-23
Bard's talk explains the phenomenon known as gravitational lensing and how astrophysicists use it to explore the 95 percent of the universe that remains unseen: dark matter and dark energy. One of the most surprising predictions made by Einstein's theory of relativity is that light doesn't travel through the universe in a straight line. The gravitational field of massive objects will deflect the path of light traveling past, giving some very dramatic effects. We see multiple images of quasars, galaxies smeared into arcs and circles and magnified images of the most distant objects in the universe. This explains how gravitational lensing was first observed and discusses how scientists use this phenomenon to study everything from exoplanets to dark matter to the structure of the universe and the mysterious dark energy.
Emergent cosmos in Einstein-Cartan theory
Hadi, H.; Heydarzade, Y.; Hashemi, M.; Darabi, F.
2018-01-01
Based on Padmanabhan's proposal, the accelerated expansion of the universe can be driven by the difference between the surface and bulk degrees of freedom in a region of space, described by the relation dV/dt = N_sur-N_bulk where N_sur and N_bulk= -N_em +N_de are the degrees of freedom assigned to the surface area and the matter-energy content inside the bulk such that the indices "em" and "de" represent energy-momentum and dark energy, respectively. In the present work, the dynamical effect of the Weyssenhoff perfect fluid with intrinsic spin and its corresponding spin degrees of freedom in the framework of Einstein-Cartan (EC) theory are investigated. Based on the modification of Friedmann equations due to the spin-spin interactions, a correction term for Padmanabhan's original relation dV /d t=N_sur+N_em -N_de including the number of degrees of freedom related with these spin interactions is obtained through the modification in N_bulk term as N_bulk= -N_em+N_spin +N_de leading to dV /d t=N_sur+N_em-N_spin -N_de in which N_spin is the corresponding degrees of freedom related with the intrinsic spin of the matter content of the universe. Moreover, the validity of the unified first law and the generalized second law of thermodynamics for the Einstein-Cartan cosmos are investigated. Finally, by considering the covariant entropy conjecture and the bound resulting from the emergent scenario, a total entropy bound is obtained. Using this bound, it is shown that the for the universe as an expanding thermodynamical system, the total effective Komar energy never exceeds the square of the expansion rate with a factor of 3/4π.
What about Albert Einstein? Using Biographies to Promote Students' Scientific Thinking
Fingon, Joan C.; Fingon, Shallon D.
2009-01-01
Who hasn't heard of Einstein? Science educators everywhere are familiar with Einstein's genius and general theory of relativity. Students easily recognize Einstein's image by his white flyaway hair and bushy mustache. It is well known that Einstein was a brilliant physicist and an abstract thinker who often used his creativity and imagination in…
Einstein at the beach. Relativity in a deck chair
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lachieze-Rey, Marc; Ligot, Ludovic; Marai, Rachid
2015-01-01
The author introduces the relativistic theory developed by Einstein. He describes how the need for a new theory emerged to solve some problems faced by conventional (or Newtonian) physics, and resulted in the special theory of relativity which then revealed a new geometry of the universe. He describes and comments the various tests performed to test the Einstein theory, outlines the differences between the Newton and Einstein frameworks to study and understand the cosmos. The author then describes the history of the Universe, comments the developments of cosmology and astrophysics, of the knowledge on light. In the last chapter, he describes cosmic manifestations of relativity
Einstein's Approach to Statistical Mechanics: The 1902-04 Papers
Peliti, Luca; Rechtman, Raúl
2017-05-01
We summarize the papers published by Einstein in the Annalen der Physik in the years 1902-1904 on the derivation of the properties of thermal equilibrium on the basis of the mechanical equations of motion and of the calculus of probabilities. We point out the line of thought that led Einstein to an especially economical foundation of the discipline, and to focus on fluctuations of the energy as a possible tool for establishing the validity of this foundation. We also sketch a comparison of Einstein's approach with that of Gibbs, suggesting that although they obtained similar results, they had different motivations and interpreted them in very different ways.
Einstein constraints in the Yang-Mills form
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashtekar, A.
1987-01-01
It is pointed out that constraints of Einstein's theory play a powerful role in both classical and quantum theory because they generate motions in spacetime, rather than in an internal space. New variables are then introduced on the Einstein phase space in terms of which constraints simplify considerably. In particular, the use of these variables enables one to imbed the constraint surface of Einstein's theory into that of Yang-Mills. The imbedding suggests new lines of attack to a number of problems in classical and quantum gravity and provides new concepts and tools to investigate the microscopic structure of space-time geometry
Two-dimensional Kaehler Einstein spaces and gravitational instantons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tseytlin, A.A.
1980-01-01
A new class of solutions of the euclidean Einstein equations with Λ-term ( A-class ) is found by solving the complex two-dimensional Kaehler Einstein equations with the following realization of complex metrics. The A-Class includes two gravitational instantons already known: the CP 2 and the Eguchi-Hanson metric, and allows a U(1)-generalized spin structure. It is shown that all Einstein euclidean two-axial Bianchi type IX metrics are exhausted by the Taub-NUT-de Sitter family and the A-class. (orig.)
Competition between Bose-Einstein Condensation and Spin Dynamics.
Naylor, B; Brewczyk, M; Gajda, M; Gorceix, O; Maréchal, E; Vernac, L; Laburthe-Tolra, B
2016-10-28
We study the impact of spin-exchange collisions on the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation by rapidly cooling a chromium multicomponent Bose gas. Despite relatively strong spin-dependent interactions, the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation is reached before the spin degrees of freedom fully thermalize. The increase in density due to Bose-Einstein condensation then triggers spin dynamics, hampering the formation of condensates in spin-excited states. Small metastable spinor condensates are, nevertheless, produced, and they manifest in strong spin fluctuations.
Reappraising Einstein's 1905 application of thermodynamics and statistics to radiation
Irons, F. E.
2004-03-01
Einstein's 1905 application of thermodynamics and statistics to radiation, which led to the hypothesis of the corpuscular light quantum, is rendered uncertain by a lack of information as to how radiation behaves when undergoing a statistical fluctuation of volume. The paper examines this issue and appraises the particular assumption made by Einstein. We find that Einstein assumed for radiation a type of behaviour normally reserved for a gas of particles, in which case a conclusion about radiation behaving thermodynamically as though it consisted of particles (of energy) is not surprising.
Einstein's pathway to the special theory of relativity
Weinstein, Galina
2015-01-01
This book pieces together the jigsaw puzzle of Einstein's journey to discovering the special theory of relativity. Between 1902 and 1905, Einstein sat in the Patent Office and may have made calculations on old pieces of paper that were once patent drafts. One can imagine Einstein trying to hide from his boss, writing notes on small sheets of paper, and, according to reports, seeing to it that the small sheets of paper on which he was writing would vanish into his desk-drawer as soon as he heard footsteps approaching his door. He probably discarded many pieces of papers and calculations and flu
Einstein's physics atoms, quanta, and relativity : derived, explained, and appraised
Cheng, Ta-Pei
2013-01-01
Many regard Albert Einstein as the greatest physicist since Newton. What exactly did he do that is so important in physics? We provide an introduction to his physics at a level accessible to an undergraduate physics student. All equations are worked out in detail from the beginning. Einstein's doctoral thesis and his Brownian motion paper were decisive contributions to our understanding of matter as composed of molecules and atoms. Einstein was one of the founding fathers of quantum theory: his photon proposal through the investigation of blackbody radiation, his quantum theory of photoelectri
An Einstein-Cartan Fine Structure Constant Definition
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Stone R. A. Jr.
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The fine structure constant definition given in Stone R.A. Jr. Progress in Physics, 2010, v.1, 11-13 is compared to an Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant definition. It is shown that the Einstein-Cartan definition produces the correct pure theory value, just not the measure value. To produce the measured value, the pure theory Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant requires only the new variables and spin coupling of the fine structure constant definition in [1].
Dadhich, Naresh; Pons, Josep M
We study static black hole solutions in Einstein and Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with the topology of the product of two spheres, [Formula: see text], in higher dimensions. There is an unusual new feature of the Gauss-Bonnet black hole: the avoidance of a non-central naked singularity prescribes a mass range for the black hole in terms of [Formula: see text]. For an Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet black hole a limited window of negative values for [Formula: see text] is also permitted. This topology encompasses black strings, branes, and generalized Nariai metrics. We also give new solutions with the product of two spheres of constant curvature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arms, J.M.; Marsden, J.E.; Moncrief, V.
1982-01-01
The space of solutions of Einstein's vacuum equations is shown to have conical singularities at each spacetime possessing a compact Cauchy surface of constant mean curvature and a nontrivial set of Killing fields. Similar results are shown for the coupled Einstein-Yang-Mills system. Combined with an appropriate slice theorem, the results show that the space of geometrically equivalent solutions is a stratified manifold with each stratum being a symplectic manifold characterized by the symmetry type of its members. Contents: Introduction 1. The Kuranishi map and its properties. 2. The momentum constraints. 3. The Hamiltonian constraints. 4. The Einstein-Yang-Mills system. 5. Discussion and examples
Albert Einstein and the problem of unification of fundamental interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arodz, H.
1986-01-01
Albert Einstein's attempts to construct a unified field theory of electromagnetic and gravitational interactions are presented and commented from the standpoint of the present day physics. 16 refs. (author)
Einstein's conversion from his static to an expanding universe
Nussbaumer, Harry
2014-02-01
In 1917 Einstein initiated modern cosmology by postulating, based on general relativity, a homogenous, static, spatially curved universe. To counteract gravitational contraction he introduced the cosmological constant. In 1922 Alexander Friedman showed that Albert Einstein's fundamental equations also allow dynamical worlds, and in 1927 Georges Lemaître, backed by observational evidence, concluded that our universe was expanding. Einstein impetuously rejected Friedman's as well as Lemaître's findings. However, in 1931 he retracted his former static model in favour of a dynamic solution. This investigation follows Einstein on his hesitating path from a static to the expanding universe. Contrary to an often advocated belief the primary motive for his switch was not observational evidence, but the realisation that his static model was unstable.
The Einstein-Vlasov System/Kinetic Theory.
Andréasson, Håkan
2011-01-01
The main purpose of this article is to provide a guide to theorems on global properties of solutions to the Einstein-Vlasov system. This system couples Einstein's equations to a kinetic matter model. Kinetic theory has been an important field of research during several decades in which the main focus has been on non-relativistic and special relativistic physics, i.e., to model the dynamics of neutral gases, plasmas, and Newtonian self-gravitating systems. In 1990, Rendall and Rein initiated a mathematical study of the Einstein-Vlasov system. Since then many theorems on global properties of solutions to this system have been established. This paper gives introductions to kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes and then the Einstein-Vlasov system is introduced. We believe that a good understanding of kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes is fundamental to a good comprehension of kinetic theory in general relativity.
Was Einstein wrong? Space station research may find out
2002-01-01
Experiments using ultra-precise clocks on the International Space Station will attempt to check if Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity is correct. Future experiments may also yield evidence of string theory (1 page).
Relativity and Gravitation : 100 Years After Einstein in Prague
Ledvinka, Tomáš; General Relativity, Cosmology and Astrophysics : Perspectives 100 Years After Einstein's Stay in Prague
2014-01-01
In early April 1911 Albert Einstein arrived in Prague to become full professor of theoretical physics at the German part of Charles University. It was there, for the first time, that he concentrated primarily on the problem of gravitation. Before he left Prague in July 1912 he had submitted the paper “Relativität und Gravitation: Erwiderung auf eine Bemerkung von M. Abraham” in which he remarkably anticipated what a future theory of gravity should look like. At the occasion of the Einstein-in-Prague centenary an international meeting was organized under a title inspired by Einstein's last paper from the Prague period: "Relativity and Gravitation, 100 Years after Einstein in Prague". The main topics of the conference included: classical relativity, numerical relativity, relativistic astrophysics and cosmology, quantum gravity, experimental aspects of gravitation, and conceptual and historical issues. The conference attracted over 200 scientists from 31 countries, among them a number of leading experts in ...
Exactly solvable models for multiatomic molecular Bose-Einstein condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, G, E-mail: gfilho@if.ufrgs.br, E-mail: gfilho@cbpf.br [Instituto de Fisica da UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Agronomia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)
2011-08-26
I introduce two families of exactly solvable models for multiatomic hetero-nuclear and homo-nuclear molecular Bose-Einstein condensates through the algebraic Bethe ansatz method. The conserved quantities of the respective models are also shown. (paper)
Einstein's equivalence principle instead of the inertia forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herreros Mateos, F.
1997-01-01
In this article I intend to show that Einstein's equivalence principle substitutes advantageously the inertia forces in the study and resolution of problems in which non-inertial systems appear. (Author) 13 refs
Reappraising Einstein's 1909 application of fluctuation theory to Planckian radiation
Irons, F. E.
2004-08-01
Einstein's 1909 application of fluctuation theory to Planckian radiation is challenged by the fact that radiation within a completely reflecting cavity is not in thermal equilibrium and therefore should not qualify as a candidate for analysis by Einstein's theory. We offer an alternative interpretation wherein Planck's function, to which Einstein applied his theory, represents the source function in the wall material surrounding a real, partially reflecting cavity. The source function experiences thermal fluctuations and radiation within the cavity (which originates in the wall material and has an intensity equal to the source function) fluctuates in concert. That is, blackbody radiation within a real cavity exhibits the thermal fluctuations predicted by Einstein, but the fluctuations have their origin in the wall material and are not intrinsic to radiation.
Academic Training: Einstein and beyond: Introduction to General relativity
Françoise Benz
2005-01-01
2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 October from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Einstein and beyond: Introduction to General relativity by N. Straumann / Institut fur theoretische physics, Univ. Zürich We review the enduring achievements of Einstein's papers of 1905 and their impact on the further developments in physics. Program : Lectures I and II:Einstein's Contributions to Statistical Mechanics and Quantum Theory Lecture III:Einstein's Thesis at the University of Zürich Lecture IV: From Special to General Relativity Lecture V: The History and the Mystery of the Cosmological Constant ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch
A comparative analysis of perspectives of Mileva Maric Einstein
Barnett, Carol C.
This dissertation examines the controversy surrounding Mileva Maric Einstein and the allegations subsequent to the publication of love letters during the time that Mileva Maric and Albert Einstein were students and during the early years of their marriage. It also examines the role of women in science from a historical perspective. Chapter One surveys the history of women in science from antiquity to the late nineteenth century and the patterns of gender related and restricting practices such as education, publication, the problem of mentoring and the issue of the lack of historical recognition. Chapter Two provides a comparative analyses between the lives of Mileva Maric Einstein and Marie Sklodowska Curie. Both had very similar social and educational backgrounds yet Marie Curie was able to work and publish jointly with her husband and received (although belatedly) international recognition for her work. On the other hand, Mileva Maric Einstein was never able to complete her degree and lived a life of obscurity and unfulfilled professional dreams. Both highly educated and intelligent women, but with drastically different outcomes in their professional and personal lives. Chapter Three examines the one book devoted to the life of Mileva Maric Einstein, Im Schatten Albert Einsteins: Das Tragische Leben der Mileva Einstein-Maric (In The Shadow of Albert Einstein: The Tragic Life of Mileva Maric), by Desanka Trbuhovic-Gjuric, Paul Haupt Publishers, 1985. It addresses the subjective as well as constructive and destructive criticisms of the various critical camps and provides examples of the statements made by the author which prompted a controversy within the academic and scientific communities. Appropriate responses are provided from various members of the scientific community to reflect the diversity of opinion and the intensity of the debate. Chapter Four addresses the problem of historicity and various interpretations of evidence which might suggest that the role
Higher order Bose-Einstein correlations in identical particle production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biyajima, M.
1990-01-01
A diagram technique to calculate the higher order Bose-Einstein correlations is formulated. This technique is applied to derive explicit expressions for the n-pion correlation functions for n = 2, 3, 4, and 5, and numerical predictions are given. In a comparison with the AFS and NA23 data on two-pion and three-pion Bose-Einstein correlations good agreement is obtained. 21 refs., 5 figs. (Authors)
Einstein and Rastall theories of gravitation in comparison
Darabi, F.; Moradpour, H.; Licata, I.; Heydarzade, Y.; Corda, C.
2018-01-01
We profit by a recent paper of Visser claiming that Rastall gravity is equivalent to Einstein gravity to compare the two gravitational theories in a general way. Our conclusions are different from Visser's ones. We indeed argue that these two theories are not equivalent. In fact, Rastall theory of gravity is an "open" theory when compared to Einstein general theory of relativity. Thus, it is ready to accept the challenges of observational cosmology and quantum gravity.
Possible Experiments to test Einstein's Special Relativity Theory
de Haan, Victor Otto
2011-01-01
All of the experiments supporting Einstein's Special Relativity Theory are also supportive of the Lorentz ether theory, or many other ether theories. However, a growing number of experiments show deviations from Einstein's Special Relativity Theory, but are supporting more extended theories. Some of these experiments are reviewed and analyzed. Unfortunately, many experiments are not of high quality, never repeated and mostly both. It is proposed that the most promising experiments should be r...
Kähler-Einstein metrics: Old and New
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angella Daniele
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We present classical and recent results on Kähler-Einstein metrics on compact complex manifolds, focusing on existence, obstructions and relations to algebraic geometric notions of stability (K-stability. These are the notes for the SMI course "Kähler-Einstein metrics" given by C.S. in Cortona (Italy, May 2017. The material is not intended to be original.
A complete public archive for the Einstein IPC
Helfand, David J.
1995-01-01
This report documents progress made in the period 24 Sept. 1993 - 23 Sept. 1995 on the project described in our proposal 'A Complete Public Archive for the Einstein IPC' which was approved under the Astrophysics Data Program in 1992. We have completed most of the principal objectives of the original proposal; a NFE was recently approved so that costs for publications in press can be covered and we can complete the public record for the Einstein IPC database.
Electronic Pumping of Quasiequilibrium Bose-Einstein-Condensed Magnons
Bender, Scott A.; Duine, Rembert A.; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav
2012-01-01
We theoretically investigate spin transfer between a system of quasiequilibrated Bose-Einstein-condensed magnons in an insulator in direct contact with a conductor. While charge transfer is prohibited across the interface, spin transport arises from the exchange coupling between insulator and conductor spins. In a normal insulator phase, spin transport is governed solely by the presence of thermal and spin-diffusive gradients; the presence of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), meanwhile, gives...
Ferroelectricity by Bose-Einstein condensation in a quantum magnet.
Kimura, S; Kakihata, K; Sawada, Y; Watanabe, K; Matsumoto, M; Hagiwara, M; Tanaka, H
2016-09-26
The Bose-Einstein condensation is a fascinating phenomenon, which results from quantum statistics for identical particles with an integer spin. Surprising properties, such as superfluidity, vortex quantization or Josephson effect, appear owing to the macroscopic quantum coherence, which spontaneously develops in Bose-Einstein condensates. Realization of Bose-Einstein condensation is not restricted in fluids like liquid helium, a superconducting phase of paired electrons in a metal and laser-cooled dilute alkali atoms. Bosonic quasi-particles like exciton-polariton and magnon in solids-state systems can also undergo Bose-Einstein condensation in certain conditions. Here, we report that the quantum coherence in Bose-Einstein condensate of the magnon quasi particles yields spontaneous electric polarization in the quantum magnet TlCuCl 3 , leading to remarkable magnetoelectric effect. Very soft ferroelectricity is realized as a consequence of the O(2) symmetry breaking by magnon Bose-Einstein condensation. The finding of this ferroelectricity will open a new window to explore multi-functionality of quantum magnets.
Einstein's 1917 static model of the universe: a centennial review
O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; O'Keeffe, Michael; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon
2017-08-01
We present a historical review of Einstein's 1917 paper ` Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity' to mark the centenary of a key work that set the foundations of modern cosmology. We find that the paper followed as a natural next step after Einstein's development of the general theory of relativity and that the work offers many insights into his thoughts on relativity, astronomy and cosmology. Our review includes a description of the observational and theoretical background to the paper; a paragraph-by-paragraph guided tour of the work; a discussion of Einstein's views of issues such as the relativity of inertia, the curvature of space and the cosmological constant. Particular attention is paid to little-known aspects of the paper such as Einstein's failure to test his model against observation, his failure to consider the stability of the model and a mathematical oversight concerning his interpretation of the role of the cosmological constant. We recall the response of theorists and astronomers to Einstein's cosmology in the context of the alternate models of the universe proposed by Willem de Sitter, Alexander Friedman and Georges Lemaître. Finally, we consider the relevance of the Einstein World in today's `emergent' cosmologies.
Hamiltonian dynamics of purely affine fields (Einstein-Schroedinger Theory)
Treder, H.-J.
The Lagrangian of the general-relativistic affine field theory of the non-symmetric connection field is the Schroedinger scalar density and the field variables (canonical coordinates) are Einstein's affine tensors. The field equations are the Einstein-Schroedinger equations, and the minors give by definition gmn = lambda-1Rmn, and lambda becomes the cosmological constant. The Hamiltonian density is the upsilon00-component of the Einstein energy-momentum complex, and the tensor-density components are the canonically conjugated momentum densities of the field coordinates. The canonical equations are (-g)-1/2Nlmnupsilon00 = 0, and we have no constraints. The affine field theory is invariant with respect to all transformations which preserve the Levi-Civita parallelism (Einstein's unified T-A group), and the field equations possess transposition invariance. The symmetry conditions Gammaimn = Gamma inm reduce the space to the general-relativistic Einstein spaces with Rik = Rki. The equation Rik = lambda gik yields Gammaikl = vector (i kl), and the pathes of test particles define geodesic world lines of the Einstein spaces.
Ehrenfest en Einstein. Menselijke katalysator van het heldere denken
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marijn J. Hollestelle
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Ehrenfest and EinsteinEhrenfest and Einstein met just before Ehrenfest became professor at Leiden University. They had much in common and became best friends. Ehrenfest shed light on some problematic aspects of Einstein’s work and during the years acted as an important sparring partner for Einstein. Ehrenfest also explained difficult aspects of Einstein’s work to the physics community. He set others on the track of working on general relativity and made Leiden an international centre for these developments during the years 1912–1920. Ehrenfest made sure Einstein was appointed part-time professor at Leiden, from which Leiden physics profited. He also aided Bohr and Einstein during their notorious debates. Ehrenfest struggled with depression his whole life. The rapid developments and mathematicising of quantum physics, Hitler’s appointment as Reichs Chancellor, money and marriage problems worsened his depressions. In 1933 Ehrenfest committed suicide, and Einstein moved to the United States and away from the study on quantum physics.
A geometric formulation of Einstein Maxwell theory in Einstein-Cartan space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fonseca Neto, J.B. da; Rivelles, V.O.
1984-01-01
A geometric theory is proposed for electrogametism and gravitation where the electromagnetic potential is introduced in the geometry through the torsion. An is first built action for dyon electrodynamics using the two potentials formulation in such a way it is equivalent to Maxwell theory if the ratio between electric and magnetic charges is an universal constant. Since the torsion can be decomposed into a trace, a pseudo-trace and a traceless part, the two potentials of the dyon elctrodynamics with the two traces of the torsion are identified and an action which reproduces the Einstein-Maxwell theory: Matter fields do not have a propor minimal coupling to this theory. (Author) [pt
Einstein's greatest mistake abandonment of the aether
Deutsch, Sid
2006-01-01
If a child wants proof, we can think of 10 different ways to show that we are surrounded by air, but we are, of course, normally unaware that we live at the bottom of an “ocean” of air. It is claimed, in this book, that we are unaware, similarly, that we are surrounded by an atmosphere of aether. There is one major difference, however: We have not been able to detect the aether. Nevertheless, the aether provides a solution to the following mystery: How can light, or any electromagnetic wave, travel for billions of years across the vastness of the Universe, without losing any energy? The answer is that the Universe is filled with a light-transmitting medium, The Aether. The proof that there is an aether is the subject of the present book. An intriguing…exploration of a fringe scientific theory. Luminiferous aether—or "light-bearing aether," a theory first postulated by Isaac Newton in the 18th century, later refined by James Clerk Maxwell in the 19th century and ultimately replaced by Albert Einstein'...
Physics of hollow Bose-Einstein condensates
Padavić, Karmela; Sun, Kuei; Lannert, Courtney; Vishveshwara, Smitha
2017-10-01
Bose-Einstein condensate shells, while occurring in ultracold systems of coexisting phases and potentially within neutron stars, have yet to be realized in isolation on Earth due to the experimental challenge of overcoming gravitational sag. Motivated by the expected realization of hollow condensates by the space-based Cold Atomic Laboratory in microgravity conditions, we study a spherical condensate undergoing a topological change from a filled sphere to a hollow shell. We argue that the collective modes of the system show marked and robust signatures of this hollowing transition accompanied by the appearance of a new boundary. In particular, we demonstrate that the frequency spectrum of the breathing modes shows a pronounced depression as it evolves from the filled-sphere limit to the hollowing transition. Furthermore, when the center of the system becomes hollow surface modes show a global restructuring of their spectrum due to the availability of a new, inner, surface for supporting density distortions. We pinpoint universal features of this topological transition as well as analyse the spectral evolution of collective modes in the experimentally relevant case of a bubble-trap.
Structure of binary Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trippenbach, Marek; Goral, Krzysztof; Rzazewski, Kazimierz; Malomed, Boris; Band, Y.B.
2000-01-01
We identify all possible classes of solutions for two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) within the Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation and check these results against numerical simulations of the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPEs). We find that they can be divided into two general categories. The first class contains solutions with a region of overlap between the components. The other class consists of non-overlapping wavefunctions and also contains solutions that do not possess the symmetry of the trap. The chemical potential and average energy can be found for both classes within the TF approximation by solving a set of coupled algebraic equations representing the normalization conditions for each component. A ground state minimizing the energy (within both classes of states) is found for a given set of parameters characterizing the scattering length and confining potential. In the TF approximation, the ground state always shares the symmetry of the trap. However, a full numerical solution of the coupled GPEs, incorporating the kinetic energy of the BEC atoms, can sometimes select a broken-symmetry state as the ground state of the system. We also investigate effects of finite-range interactions on the structure of the ground state. (author)
Cosmological models in the generalized Einstein action
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arbab, A.I.
2007-12-01
We have studied the evolution of the Universe in the generalized Einstein action of the form R + β R 2 , where R is the scalar curvature and β = const. We have found exact cosmological solutions that predict the present cosmic acceleration. These models predict an inflationary de-Sitter era occurring in the early Universe. The cosmological constant (Λ) is found to decay with the Hubble constant (H) as, Λ ∝ H 4 . In this scenario the cosmological constant varies quadratically with the energy density (ρ), i.e., Λ ∝ ρ 2 . Such a variation is found to describe a two-component cosmic fluid in the Universe. One of the components accelerated the Universe in the early era, and the other in the present era. The scale factor of the Universe varies as a ∼ t n = 1/2 in the radiation era. The cosmological constant vanishes when n = 4/3 and n =1/2. We have found that the inclusion of the term R 2 mimics a cosmic matter that could substitute the ordinary matter. (author)
Bose-Einstein correlation measurements at CMS
Dogra, Sunil
2014-01-01
Multidimensional and one-dimensional quantum-statistical (Bose-Einstein) correlations are measured in proton-proton collisions at 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV, in proton-lead collisions at 5.02 TeV/nucleon pair and peripheral lead-lead collisions at 2.76 TeV/nucleon pair center-of-mass energy with the CMS detector at the LHC. The correlation functions are extracted in terms of different components of the relative momentum of the pair, in order to investigate the extension of the emission source in different directions. The results are presented for different intervals of transverse pair momentum, $k_T$, and charged particle multiplicity of the collision, $N_\\text{tracks}$, as well as for their integrated values. Besides inclusive charged particles, charged pions and kaons, identified via their energy loss in the silicon tracker detector, can also be correlated. The extracted source radii increase with increasing multiplicity, and decreases with increasing $k_T$. The results open the possibility to study scaling and fa...
Scientists present their design for Einstein Telescope
ASPERA Press Release
2011-01-01
Plans shape up for a revolutionary new observatory that will explore black holes and the Big Bang. This detector will ‘see’ the Universe in gravitational waves. A new era in astronomy will come a step closer when scientists from across Europe present their design study today for an advanced observatory capable of making precision measurements of gravitational waves – minute ripples in the fabric of spacetime – predicted to emanate from cosmic catastrophes such as merging black holes and collapsing stars and supernovae. It also offers the potential to probe the earliest moments of the Universe just after the Big Bang, which are currently inaccessible. The Einstein Observatory (ET) is a so-called third-generation gravitational-wave (GW) detector, which will be 100 times more sensitive than current instruments. Like the first two generations of GW detectors, it is based on the measurement of tiny changes (far less than the size of an atomic nucleus) in the le...
Einstein@Home Finds an Elusive Pulsar
Kohler, Susanna
2015-08-01
Since the release of the second Fermi-LAT catalog in 2012, astronomers have been hunting for 3FGL J1906.6+0720, a gamma-ray source whose association couldn't be identified. Now, personal-computer time volunteered through the Einstein@Home project has resulted in the discovery of a pulsar that has been hiding from observers for years. A Blind Search: Identifying sources detected by Fermi-LAT can be tricky: the instrument's sky resolution is limited, so the position of the source can be hard to pinpoint. The gamma-ray source 3FGL J1906.6+0720 appeared in both the second and third Fermi-LAT source catalogs, but even after years of searching, no associated radio or X-ray source had been found. A team of researchers, led by Colin Clark of the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, suspected that the source might be a gamma-ray pulsar. To confirm this, however, they needed to detect pulsed emission — something inherently difficult given the low photon count and the uncertain position of the source. The team conducted a blind search for pulsations coming from the general direction of the gamma-ray source. Two things were needed for this search: clever data analysis and a lot of computing power. The data analysis algorithm was designed to be adaptive: it searched a 4-dimensional parameter space that included a safety margin, allowing the algorithm to wander if the source was at the edge of the parameter space. The computing power was contributed by tens of thousands of personal computers volunteered by participants in the Einstein@Home project, making much shorter work out of a search that would have required dozens of years on a single laptop. The sky region around the newly discovered pulsar. The dotted ellipse shows the 3FGL catalog 95% confidence region for the source. The data analysis algorithm was designed to search an area 50% larger (given by the dashed ellipse), but it was allowed to “walk away” within the gray shaded region if the source seemed to
Gravity: An Introduction to Einstein's General Relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabris, Julio C
2004-01-01
General relativity is one of the cornerstones of modern physics. In spite of this, the teaching of general relativity at undergraduate level remains quite marginal. The reasons for this particular situation are quite well known. We can quote, for example, two of them: general relativity requires specific mathematical tools that are somehow outside the mainstream of undergraduate technical development; moreover, this is a branch of physics whose observational and experimental applications have remained rare until recent times, and even though this scenario has changed dramatically in the last few years, the new situation has not yet been absorbed into undergraduate teaching. In this new book, Hartle attempts to address the difficulties that must be faced by anyone who teaches general relativity at undergraduate level. In order to not scare the student with the hard technical preparation needed to obtain the basic equations of general relativity, Einstein's equations, he simply gives up the idea of introducing these equations at the very beginning. Instead, he chooses to present Einstein's equations, with most of the mathematics needed to do them, in the last part of the book. This delicate (and of course dangerous) choice has the advantage of introducing the reader first to the physical aspects of general relativity. This approach can be dangerous because the relevant solutions of the equations necessary to discuss the physical content of general relativity are presented first without a formal derivation. The book is divided into three parts. In the first, covering five chapters of the 24 in the whole book, Newtonian physics and special relativity are reviewed. This review is done in a manner that prepares the reader for the subsequent discussion of general relativity itself. The principle of relativity, the variational principle, the geometrical content of Newtonian theory and the main ideas behind special relativity are all presented. The heart of the book is, in
The intellectual quadrangle: Mach-Boltzmann-Planck-Einstein
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broda, E.
1981-01-01
These four men were influential in the transition from classical to modern physics. They interacted as scientists, often antagonistically. Thus Boltzmann was the greatest champion of the atom, while Mach remained unconvinced all his life. As a aphysicist, Einstein was greatly influenced by both Mach and Boltzmann, although Mach in the end rejected relativity as well. Because of his work on statistical mechanics, fluctuations, and quantum theory, Einstein has been called the natural successor to Boltzmann. Planck also was influenced by Mach at first. Hence he and Boltzmann were adversaries antil Planck converted to atomistics in 1900 and used the statistical interpretation of entropy to establish his radiation law. Planck accepted relativity early, but in quantum theory he was for a long time partly opposed to Einstein, and vice versa - Einstein considered Planck's derivation of his radiation law as unsound, while Planck could not accept the light quantum. In the case of all four physicists, science was interwoven with philosophy. Boltzmann consistently fought Mach's positivism, while Planck and Einstein moved from positivism to realism. All were also, though in very different ways, actively interested in public affairs. (orig.)
Echoing Citizen Einstein in the East: Andrei Sakharov
Rhéaume, Charles
2006-11-01
As if a handing of the torch, Andrei Sakharov saw his dissidence acquire initial impetus from nuclear tests that it was clear were becoming out of control in the hands of an unscrupulous regime in 1955, the very year Einstein died. He had of course drawn from the latter's science for the realization of the Soviet H-bomb. From then on, however, it would be the humanistic views of Einstein that would lead his way. Not only was he not an anti-Semite like many in official circles in the Soviet Union at the time but through experiences in his young age and later in his work on the bomb where he had many Jewish colleagues, Sakharov had come to admire Jewish culture and particularly its inclination towards intellectual life. It was with a fully open mind then that he got acquainted with Einstein's ideas on how the great man saw the world. Sakharov would divulge his own vision of the world in an essay titled "Progress, Peaceful Coexistence and Intellectual Freedom" in 1968. The Albert Einstein Peace Prize he would be awarded in 1988 for his relentless advocacy of peace would come as a confirmation of the spiritual linkage between the two men. This paper scrutinizes traces of Einstein's thinking in Sakharov's own. It focuses particularly on their convergent understanding of the notion of world government.
Linearized pseudo-Einstein equations on the Heisenberg group
Barletta, Elisabetta; Dragomir, Sorin; Jacobowitz, Howard
2017-02-01
We study the pseudo-Einstein equation R11bar = 0 on the Heisenberg group H1 = C × R. We consider first order perturbations θɛ =θ0 + ɛ θ and linearize the pseudo-Einstein equation about θ0 (the canonical Tanaka-Webster flat contact form on H1 thought of as a strictly pseudoconvex CR manifold). If θ =e2uθ0 the linearized pseudo-Einstein equation is Δb u - 4 | Lu|2 = 0 where Δb is the sublaplacian of (H1 ,θ0) and L bar is the Lewy operator. We solve the linearized pseudo-Einstein equation on a bounded domain Ω ⊂H1 by applying subelliptic theory i.e. existence and regularity results for weak subelliptic harmonic maps. We determine a solution u to the linearized pseudo-Einstein equation, possessing Heisenberg spherical symmetry, and such that u(x) → - ∞ as | x | → + ∞.
Einstein's Equivalence Principle and Invalidity of Thorne's Theory for LIGO
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lo C. Y.
2006-04-01
Full Text Available The theoretical foundation of LIGO's design is based on the equation of motion derived by Thorne. His formula, motivated by Einstein's theory of measurement, shows that the gravitational wave-induced displacement of a mass with respect to an object is proportional to the distance from the object. On the other hand, based on the observed bending of light and Einstein's equivalence principle, it is concluded that such induced displacement has nothing to do with the distance from another object. It is shown that the derivation of Thorne's formula has invalid assumptions that make it inapplicable to LIGO. This is a good counter example for those who claimed that Einstein's equivalence principle is not important or even irrelevant.
Quantum theory and Einstein's general relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
v. Borzeszkowski, H.; Treder, H.
1982-11-01
We dicusss the meaning and prove the accordance of general relativity, wave mechanics, and the quantization of Einstein's gravitation equations themselves. Firstly, we have the problem of the influence of gravitational fields on the de Broglie waves, which influence is in accordance with Einstein's weak principle of equivalence and the limitation of measurements given by Heisenberg's uncertainty relations. Secondly, the quantization of the gravitational fields is a ''quantization of geometry.'' However, classical and quantum gravitation have the same physical meaning according to limitations of measurements given by Einstein's strong principle of equivalence and the Heisenberg uncertainties for the mechanics of test bodies.
Albert Einstein for beginners. 12. enl. and rev. ed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karamanolis, Stratis
2008-01-01
He was called the most important jew since the birth of Christus. Others however believed however he has came like no other nearer to the gods. Thought is Albrt Einstein, the scientific work of him and especially his relativity theory has the world changed radically both in scientific and in political regard. The present 12th extended and strongly revised edition of the book, which came out firstly above 20 years ago and until today thousands of readers - young and old - has always enthused, describes not only the relativity theory but also the role, which Einstein played in the development of the first atomic bomb. A short biographical part mediates to the reader also something about the man Einstein
A geometric formulation of Einstein-Maxwell theory in Einstein-Cartan space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fonseca Neto, J.B. da; Rivelles, V.O.
1986-01-01
A geometry theory is proposed for electromagnetism and gravitation in which the electromagnetics potential is introduced in the geometry through the torsion. An action is first built for dyon electrodynamics using the two-potential formulation in such a way that it is equivalent to Maxwell theory if the ratio between electric and magnetic charges is a universal constant. Since the torsion can be decomposed into a trace, a pseudo-trace and a traceless part, the two potentials of the dyon electrodynamics with the two tracers of the torsion are identified and an action which reproduces the Einstein-Maxwell theory is built. Matter fields do not have a proper minimal coupling to this theory. (Author) [pt
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument and Bell inequalities for Bose-Einstein spin condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laloee, F.; Mullin, W. J.
2008-01-01
We discuss the properties of two Bose-Einstein condensates in different spin states, represented quantum mechanically by a double Fock state. Individual measurements of the spins of the particles are performed in transverse directions (perpendicular to the spin quantization axis), giving access to the relative phase of the two macroscopically occupied states. Before the first spin measurement, the phase is completely undetermined; after a few measurements, a more and more precise knowledge of its value emerges under the effect of the quantum measurement process. This naturally leads to the usual notion of a quasiclassical phase (Anderson phase) and to an interesting transposition of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument to macroscopic physical quantities. The purpose of this paper is to discuss this transposition, as well as situations where the notion of a quasiclassical phase is no longer sufficient to account for the quantum results, and where significant violations of Bell-type inequalities are predicted. Quantum mechanically, the problem can be treated exactly: the probability for all sequences of results can be expressed in the form of a double integral, depending on all parameters that define the experiment (number of particles, number and angles of measurements). We discuss the differences between this case and the usual two-spin case. We discuss the effect of the many parameters that the experimenters can adjust for their measurements, starting with a discussion of the effect of the angles of measurement (the 'settings'), and then envisaging various choices of the functions that are used to obtain violation of Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities. We then discuss how the 'sample bias loophole' (often also called 'efficiency loophole') can be closed in this case, by introducing a preliminary sequence of measurements to localize the particles into 'measurement boxes'. We finally show that the same nonlocal effects can be observed with distinguishable
The Stokes-Einstein relation at moderate Schmidt number.
Balboa Usabiaga, Florencio; Xie, Xiaoyi; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Donev, Aleksandar
2013-12-07
The Stokes-Einstein relation for the self-diffusion coefficient of a spherical particle suspended in an incompressible fluid is an asymptotic result in the limit of large Schmidt number, that is, when momentum diffuses much faster than the particle. When the Schmidt number is moderate, which happens in most particle methods for hydrodynamics, deviations from the Stokes-Einstein prediction are expected. We study these corrections computationally using a recently developed minimally resolved method for coupling particles to an incompressible fluctuating fluid in both two and three dimensions. We find that for moderate Schmidt numbers the diffusion coefficient is reduced relative to the Stokes-Einstein prediction by an amount inversely proportional to the Schmidt number in both two and three dimensions. We find, however, that the Einstein formula is obeyed at all Schmidt numbers, consistent with linear response theory. The mismatch arises because thermal fluctuations affect the drag coefficient for a particle due to the nonlinear nature of the fluid-particle coupling. The numerical data are in good agreement with an approximate self-consistent theory, which can be used to estimate finite-Schmidt number corrections in a variety of methods. Our results indicate that the corrections to the Stokes-Einstein formula come primarily from the fact that the particle itself diffuses together with the momentum. Our study separates effects coming from corrections to no-slip hydrodynamics from those of finite separation of time scales, allowing for a better understanding of widely observed deviations from the Stokes-Einstein prediction in particle methods such as molecular dynamics.
The world-line. Albert Einstein and modern physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maalampi, Jukka
2008-01-01
This book is an entertaining and formula-free presentation of modern physics from the 19th century to present. The life of Albert Einstein and his scientific works are drawn as red fathom through the text. The author explains central terms and results of modern physics in populary-scientific form from the historical perspective. To the reader in humorous form an imagination is mediated how modern physics has been developed. We learn from the exciting effects of the ether, we hear from faraday and magnetic needles, from Maxwell's prediction of the electromagnetic waves, from heinrich Hertz and from the photoelectric effect. Was the Michelson-Morley experiment a measurement success or an unsuccess? Why has Einstein abandoned the ether? How has Einstein in the miraculous year 1905 revolutionated physics and why he has begged Newton for excusement? Exist atoms? What is motion? What is light and what is to be understood under ''now'' and ''here''? Light deviation or non-deviation? How act the tidal forces? And above all: How has Einstein answered these questions. We meet Poincare, Lorentz and Hilbert, Boltzmann and Bohr, Minkowski, Planck, de Broglie, Hubble and Weyl, Gamow, Hahn and Meitner, Kapiza and Landau, Fermi and many other famous scientists. What had Eddington against Chandrasekhar and what had Einstein against black holes? Why should space tourists and dream tourists make holiday not on the Loch Ness but on the safe side of a black hole? Why inveighed Pauli against Einstein? Is the concern with the atomic-bomb formula right? Smeared matter, big bang and cosmic background radiation, gravitational waves and double pulsars, the cosmological constant and the expansion of the universe are further themes, which keep the reader in breath and let no mental vacuum arise [de
Einstein's Relativity The Ultimate Key to the Cosmos
Cooperstock, Fred I
2012-01-01
This richly illustrated book is unique in bringing Einstein's relativity to a higher level for the non-specialist than has ever been attempted before, using nothing more than grade-school algebra. Bondi's approach with spacetime diagrams is simplified and expanded, clarifying the famous asymmetric aging-of-twins paradox. Einstein's theory of gravity, general relativity, is simplified for the reader using spacetime diagrams. The theory is applied to important topics in physics such as gravitational waves, gravitational collapse and black holes, time machines, the relationship to the quantum world, galactic motions and cosmology.
Einstein x-ray observations of cataclysmic variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mason, K.O.; Cordova, F.A.
1982-01-01
Observations with the imaging x-ray detectors on the Einstein Observatory have led to a large increase in the number of low luminosity x-ray sources known to be associated with cataclysmic variable stars (CVs). The high sensitivity of the Einstein instrumentation has permitted study of their short timescale variability and spectra. The data are adding significantly to our knowledge of the accretion process in cataclysmic variables and forcing some revision in our ideas concerning the origin of the optical variability in these stars
Einstein, the Universe, and All That: An Introduction to Relativity
Prescod-Weinstein, Chandra
2011-01-01
Black holes) an expanding universe) space and time inextricably tied together) GPS ... What was this Einstein guy thinking?!? In this tutorial) I'll give an overview of Einstein's theories of relativity and the wild things they say about our Universe. What really happens when a particle crosses an event horizon? What is the future of the Universe? And how can we know it? Wh I'll try to touch on these questions and in so doing) give the talks in the Cosmology) Gravitation and Relativity sessions some context.
Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes
Nandan, Dhritiman; Plefka, Jan; Schlotterer, Oliver; Wen, Congkao
2016-01-01
We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton ca...
On a remarkable electromagnetic field in the Einstein Universe
Kopiński, Jarosław; Natário, José
2017-06-01
We present a time-dependent solution of the Maxwell equations in the Einstein universe, whose electric and magnetic fields, as seen by the stationary observers, are aligned with the Clifford parallels of the 3-sphere S^3. The conformal equivalence between Minkowski's spacetime and (a region of) the Einstein cylinder is then exploited in order to obtain a knotted, finite energy, radiating solution of the Maxwell equations in flat spacetime. We also discuss similar electromagnetic fields in expanding closed Friedmann models, and compute the matter content of such configurations.
Charged Einstein-aether black holes and Smarr formula
Ding, Chikun; Wang, Anzhong; Wang, Xinwen
2015-10-01
In the framework of the Einstein-Maxwell-aether theory, we present two new classes of exact charged black hole solutions, which are asymptotically flat and possess the universal as well as Killing horizons. We also construct the Smarr formulas and calculate the temperatures of the horizons, using the Smarr mass-area relation. We find that, in contrast to the neutral case, a temperature obtained this way is not proportional to its surface gravity at either of the two types of horizons. Einstein-Maxwell-aether black holes with the cosmological constant and their topological cousins are also presented.
On the Einstein-Stern model of rotational heat capacities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Jens Peder
1998-01-01
The Einstein-Stern model for the rotational contribution to the heat capacity of a diatomic gas has recently been resuscitated. In this communication, we show that the apparent success of the model is illusory, because it is based on what has turned out to be an unfortunate comparison with experi......The Einstein-Stern model for the rotational contribution to the heat capacity of a diatomic gas has recently been resuscitated. In this communication, we show that the apparent success of the model is illusory, because it is based on what has turned out to be an unfortunate comparison...
Einstein His Impact on Accelerators; His Impact on the World
Sessler, Andrew M
2005-01-01
The impact of the work of Albert Einstein on accelerator physics is described. Because of the limit of time, and also because the audience knows the details, the impact is described in broad strokes. Nevertheless, it is seen how his work has affected many different aspects of accelerator physics. In the second half of the talk, Albert Einstein's impact on the world will be discussed; namely his work on world peace (including his role as a pacifist, in the atomic bomb, and in arms control) and his efforts as a humanitarian (including his efforts on social justice, anti-racism, and civil rights).
Einstein: His Impact on Accelerators; His Impact on the World
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sessler, A.
2005-01-01
The impact of the work of Albert Einstein on accelerator physics is described. Because of the limit of time, and also because the audience knows the details, the impact is described in broad strokes. Nevertheless, it is seen how his work has affected many different aspects of accelerator physics. In the second half of the talk, Albert Einstein's impact on the world will be discussed; namely his work on world peace (including his role as a pacifist, in the atomic bomb, and in arms control) and his efforts as a humanitarian (including his efforts on social justice, anti-racism, and civil rights)
Einstein's legacy the unity of space and time
Schwinger, Julian Seymour
1986-01-01
In this splendidly lucid and profusely illustrated book, a Nobel laureate relates the fascinating story of Einstein, the general and special theories of relativity, and the scientists before and since who influenced relativity's genesis and development. Eschewing technical terms in favor of ordinary language, the book offers a perfect introduction to relativity for readers without specialized knowledge of mathematics and science.The author follows Einstein's own dictum to make explanations ""as simple as possible, but not more so."" His periodic use of equations as points of clarification inv
Nonlinear dynamics in the Einstein-Friedmann equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Yosuke; Mizuno, Yuji; Ohta, Shigetoshi; Mori, Keisuke; Horiuchi, Tanji
2009-01-01
We have studied the gravitational field equations on the basis of general relativity and nonlinear dynamics. The space component of the Einstein-Friedmann equation shows the chaotic behaviours in case the following conditions are satisfied: (i)the expanding ratio: h=x . /x max = +0.14) for the occurrence of the chaotic behaviours in the Einstein-Friedmann equation (0 ≤ λ ≤ +0.14). The numerical calculations are performed with the use of the Microsoft EXCEL(2003), and the results are shown in the following cases; λ = 2b = +0.06 and +0.14.
Albert Einstein, the human side glimpses from his archives
Einstein, Albert; Hoffmann, Banesh
2013-01-01
Modesty, humor, compassion, and wisdom are the traits most evident in this illuminating selection of personal papers from the Albert Einstein Archives. The illustrious physicist wrote as thoughtfully to an Ohio fifth-grader, distressed by her discovery that scientists classify humans as animals, as to a Colorado banker who asked whether Einstein believed in a personal God. Witty rhymes, an exchange with Queen Elizabeth of Belgium about fine music, and expressions of his devotion to Zionism are but some of the highlights found in this warm and enriching book.
On the deformed Einstein equations and quantum black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dil, E; Ersanli, C C; Kolay, E
2016-01-01
Recently q -deformed Einstein equations have been studied for extremal quantum black holes which have been proposed to obey deformed statistics by Strominger. In this study, we give the solutions of deformed Einstein equations by considering these equations for the charged black holes. Also we present the implications of the solutions, such as the deformation parameters lead the charged black holes to have a smaller mass than the classical Reissner- Nordstrom black holes. The reduction in mass of a classical black hole can be viewed as a transition from classical to quantum black hole regime. (paper)
Einstein, social responsibility of physicists and human rights in China
Fang, Li-Zhi
2005-03-01
Since Einstein first visited Shanghai on 1922, he was deeply and constantly concerned about the cases of injustice, suppression, and human rights abuses in China. The strong sense of social responsibility shown by Einstein is an illustrious role model for Chinese intellectual, especially physicists, who advocate the universal principle of human rights. I will briefly review this history. I will also briefly report what have been done and is doing by Chinese physicists in the long and difficult journey toward democracy and human rights of China.
EPR before EPR: A 1930 Einstein-Bohr thought Experiment Revisited
Nikolic, Hrvoje
2012-01-01
In 1930, Einstein argued against the consistency of the time-energy uncertainty relation by discussing a thought experiment involving a measurement of the mass of the box which emitted a photon. Bohr seemingly prevailed over Einstein by arguing that Einstein's own general theory of relativity saves the consistency of quantum mechanics. We revisit…
Ethic and Evolution in Boltzmann's and Einstein's Thought
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broda, E.
1980-01-01
In physics and to a large extent in epistomology, Einstein was the natural successor to Boltzmann. But while Boltzmann was an ardent evolutionist, Einstein cared little for biology. Boltzmann applied Darwinian principles also to ethics, but remained aloof from politics. In contrast, Einstein's morality, though expressed in magnificent and selfless activity, lacked a firm theoretical basis. (author)
Contribution of the Association »Albert Einstein« Through a 5-year Existance
Vojniković, Božo
2011-01-01
The Association »Albert Einstein« has been established as it is written in its memorandum: The Association »Albert Einstein« was established in 2005, the year of Physics and Albert Einstein, with intention to propagate Einstein’s contribution to Physics, Theory of Relativity and his humanities.
Boltzmann and Einstein: Statistics and dynamics –An unsolved ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The struggle of Boltzmann with the proper description of the behavior of classical macroscopic bodies in equilibrium in terms of the properties of the particles out of which they consist will be sketched. He used both a dynamical and a statistical method. However, Einstein strongly disagreed with Boltzmann's statistical method ...
lEinstein's Last Dream: The Space - Time Unification of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
lEinstein's Last Dream: The Space - Time. Unification of Fundamental Forces. Abdus Salam. 1. From the earliest times, man's dream has been to comprehend the complexity of nature in terms of as few unifying concepts as possible. In this context, in the history of physics, three names stand together; those of Newton, ...
Albert Einstein's Personal Papers: A Physics Teaching Resource.
Derman, Samuel
2000-01-01
Presents the concept of using Einstein the man as a way of generating interest in the study of physics among students. Finds that it provides an instantly recognizable face for science, thus a gateway to the subject through the discussion of the man. (Author/CCM)
Albert Einstein and LD: An Evaluation of the Evidence.
Thomas, Marlin
2000-01-01
This article refutes claims that Albert Einstein had a learning disability and argues the claim derives its force not from evidence but from belief that the greatest among us suffer from some impairment and from desire to enhance the status of a marginalized group by including exceptional individuals. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
Einstein and Hilbert: The creation of general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todorov, I.T.
1992-12-01
It took eight years after Einstein announced the basic physical ideas behind the relativistic gravity theory before the proper mathematical formulation of general-relativity was mastered. The efforts of the greatest physicist and of the greatest mathematician of the time was involved and reached a breathtaking concentration during the last month of the work. (author)
Einstein's Last Dream: The Space–Time Unification of Fundamental ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Einstein's Last Dream: The Space – Time Unification of Fundamental Forces. Abdus Salam. Reflections Volume 3 Issue 1 January 1998 pp 81-88. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
On Einstein, Light Quanta, Radiation, and Relativity in 1905
Miller, Arthur I.
1976-01-01
Analyzes section 8 of Einstein's relativity paper of 1905, "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies," in its historical context. Relates this section to the rest of the relativity paper, to the genesis of relativity theory, and to contemporaneous work on radiation theory. (Author/MLH)
The Einstein-Vlasov System/Kinetic Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Håkan Andréasson
2002-12-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to provide a guide to theorems on global properties of solutions to the Einstein-Vlasov system. This system couples Einstein's equations to a kinetic matter model. Kinetic theory has been an important field of research during several decades in which the main focus has been on nonrelativistic and special relativistic physics, i.e., to model the dynamics of neutral gases, plasmas, and Newtonian self-gravitating systems. In 1990, Rendall and Rein initiated a mathematical study of the Einstein-Vlasov system. Since then many theorems on global properties of solutions to this system have been established. The Vlasov equation describes matter phenomenologically, and it should be stressed that most of the theorems presented in this article are not presently known for other such matter models (i.e., fluid models. This paper gives introductions to kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes and then the Einstein-Vlasov system is introduced. We believe that a good understanding of kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes is fundamental to good comprehension of kinetic theory in general relativity.
The Lorentz Theory of Electrons and Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Goldberg, Stanley
1969-01-01
Traces the development of Lorentz's theory of electrons as applied to the problem of the electrodynamics of moving bodies. Presents evidence that the principle of relativity did not play an important role in Lorentz's theory, and that though Lorentz eventually acknowledged Einstein's work, he was unwilling to completely embrace the Einstein…
Vortices in Bose–Einstein condensates: A review of the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Rotating dilute Bose–Einstein condensates (BEC) of alkali atoms offer a test- ing ground for theories of vortices in weakly interacting superfluids. In a rotating super- ...... [39] N R Cooper, N K Wilkin and J M F Gunn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 120405 (2001). [40] T L Ho, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 060403 (2001). [41] U R Fischer ...
Explosion of a collapsing Bose-Einstein condensate
Duine, R.A.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2001-01-01
We show that elastic collisions between atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate with attractive interactions can lead to an explosion that ejects a large fraction of the collapsing condensate. We study variationally the dynamics of this explosion and find excellent agreement with recent experiments on
Skyrmions in a ferromagnetic Bose−Einstein condensate
Al Khawaja, U.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2001-01-01
Multi-component Bose-Einstein condensates provide opportunities to explore experimentally the wealth of physics associated with the spin degrees of freedom. The ground-state properties and line-like vortex excitations of these quantum systems have been studied theoretically. In principle,
Explosion of a Collapsing Bose-Einstein Condensate
Duine, R.A.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2000-01-01
we show that elastic collisions between atoms in an Bose-Einstein condensate with attractive interactions lead to an explosion that ejects a large fraction of the collapsing condensate. We study variationally the dynamics of thes explosion and find excellent agreement with recent experiments on
Stochastic dynamics of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate
Duine, R.A.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2001-01-01
We present a variational solution of the Langevin field equation describing the nonequilibrium dynamics of a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. If the thermal cloud remains in equilibrium at all times, we find that the equations of motion for the parameters in our variational ansatz are
Monopoles in an Antiferromagnetic Bose-Einstein Condensate
Stoof, H.T.C.; Vliegen, E.; Al Khawaja, U.
2001-01-01
We show that even in three dimensions an antiferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate, which can, for instance, be created with 23Na atoms in an optical trap, has not only singular linelike vortex excitations, but also allows for singular pointlike topological excitations, i.e., monopoles
A Hamiltonian structure for the linearized Einstein vacuum field equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres del Castillo, G.F.
1991-01-01
By considering the Einstein vacuum field equations linearized about the Minkowski metric, the evolution equations for the gauge-invariant quantities characterizing the gravitational field are written in a Hamiltonian form. A Poisson bracket between functionals of the field, compatible with the constraints satisfied by the field variables, is obtained (Author)
Einstein Meets Hilbert: At the Crossroads of Physics and Mathematics
Rowe, David E.
One of the most famous episodes in the early history of general relativity involves the ``race'' in November 1915 between Albert Einstein and David Hilbert to uncover the ``correct'' form for the ten gravitational field equations. In light of recent archival findings, however, this story now has become a topic of renewed interest and controversy among historians of physics and mathematics. Drawing on recent studies and newly found sources, the present essay takes up this familiar tale from a new perspective, one that has seldom received due attention in the standard literature, namely, the mathematical issues at the heart of Einstein's theory. Told from this angle, the leading actors are Einstein's collaborator Marcel Grossmann, his critic Tullio Levi-Civita, his competitor David Hilbert, and several other mathematicians, many of them connected with Hilbert's Göttingen colleagues such as Hermann Weyl, Felix Klein, and Emmy Noether. As Einstein was the first to admit, Göttingen was far more important than Berlin as an active center for research in general relativity. Any account which, like this one, tries to understand both the actions and motives of the leading players must confront the problem of interpreting the rather sparse documentary evidence available. The interpretation offered herein, whatever its merits, aims first and foremost to show how mathematical issues deeply permeated the early history of general relativity.
100 years of Einstein's Theory of Brownian Motion: From Pollen ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 11. 100 years of Einstein's Theory of Brownian Motion: From Pollen Grains to Protein Trains – 2. Debashish Chowdhury. General Article Volume 10 Issue 11 November 2005 pp 42-54 ...
Einstein as Armchair Detective: The Case of Stimulated Radiation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 6. Einstein as Armchair Detective:-The Case of Stimulated Radiation. Vasant Natarajan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 6 June 2001 pp 28-42. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
A Conceptual Derivation of Einstein's Postulates of Special Relativity.
Bearden, Thomas E.
This document presents a discussion and conceptual derivation of Einstein's postulates of special relativity. The perceptron approach appears to be a fundamentally new manner of regarding physical phenomena and it is hoped that physicists will interest themselves in the concept. (Author)
Quantum Fluctuations of Low Dimensional Bose-Einstein ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Tadesse
can be classified as quantum fluctuations and thermal (classical) fluctuations. In every physical process ... Other kinds of fluctuations that exist in nature are those induced by nonlinear dynamics. Bose-Einstein ..... enough so that no significant heat transfer happens between the system and the outside environment. On the ...
Zur Beziehung von statistischer Mechanik und Mach-Einstein-Doktrin.
Mücket, J. P.
On the basis of Treder's formulation of Mach's principle, the so-called Mach-Einstein doctrine, the premises for a statistical-mechanical description of a gas is investigated. The corresponding thermodynamical relations are derived. Because of the induction of inertia exclusively by means of the gravitational interaction between the particles, the equation of state is, in part, modified essentially.
Albert Einstein-The Man Behind the Myths
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 8. Albert Einstein-The Man Behind the Myths. John Stachel. Reflections Volume 3 Issue 8 August 1998 pp 76-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/08/0076-0092. Author Affiliations.
A new solution of Einstein's vacuum field equations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A new solution of Einstein's vacuum field equations is discovered which appears as a generalization of the well-known Ozsváth–Schücking solution and explains its source of curvature which has otherwise remained hidden. Curiously, the new solution has a vanishing Kretschmann scalar and is singularity-free despite ...
Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere
Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John
2010-01-01
Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…
Self-dual Einstein spaces, heavenly metrics, and twistors
Alexandrov, S.; Pioline, B.; Vandoren, S.J.G.
2010-01-01
Four-dimensional quaternion-Kähler metrics, or equivalently self-dual Einstein spaces M, are known to be encoded locally into one real function h subject to Przanowski’s heavenly equation. We elucidate the relation between this description and the usual twistor description for quaternion-Kähler
Space and Time: From Antiquity to Einstein and Beyond
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
on learning that Einstein was attempting to find a new .... Second, gravity is always attractive. This is in striking contrast with, say, the electric force where unlike charges attract while like charges repel. As a result, while one can easily cre- ate regions in ..... mathematical language to formulate and analyze gen- eral relativity ...
Static Solutions of Einstein's Equations with Cylindrical Symmetry
Trendafilova, C. S.; Fulling, S. A.
2011-01-01
In analogy with the standard derivation of the Schwarzschild solution, we find all static, cylindrically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equations for vacuum. These include not only the well-known cone solution, which is locally flat, but others in which the metric coefficients are powers of the radial coordinate and the spacetime is…
Magnons interaction of spinor Bose–Einstein condensates in an ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We study the interaction of magnons in dipolar spinor Bose–Einstein conden- sates in an optical lattice. By means of Holstein–Primakoff and Fourier transformations the energy spectra of the ground and the excited states is obtained analytically. Our results show that the collision of magnons is elastic which is ...
How Einstein Discovered "E[subscript 0] = mc[squared]"
Hecht, Eugene
2012-01-01
This paper traces Einstein's discovery of "the equivalence of mass [m] and energy ["E[subscript 0]"]." He came to that splendid insight in 1905 while employed by the Bern Patent Office, at which time he was not an especially ardent reader of physics journals. How then did the young savant, working outside of academia in semi-isolation, realize…
Boltzmann and Einstein: Statistics and dynamics–An unsolved ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The struggle of Boltzmann with the proper description of the behavior of classical macroscopic bodies in equilibrium in terms of the properties of the particles out of which they consist will be sketched. He used both a dynamical and a statistical method. However, Einstein strongly disagreed with Boltzmann's statistical method ...
Einstein's Riddle as a Tool for Profiling Students
Özeke, Vildan; Akçapina, Gökhan
2016-01-01
There are many computer games, learning environments, online tutoring systems or computerized tools which keeps the track of the user while learning or engaging in the activities. This paper presents results from an exploratory study and aims to group students regarding their behavior data while solving the Einstein's riddle. 45 undergraduate…
Feshbach resonance induced shock waves in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Brazhnyi, Valeriy A.
2004-01-01
We propose a method for generating shock waves in Bose-Einstein condensates by rapidly increasing the value of the nonlinear coefficient using Feshbach resonances. We show that in a cigar-shaped condensate there exist primary (transverse) and secondary (longitudinal) shock waves. We analyze how the shocks are generated in multidimensional scenarios and describe the related phenomenology
Coset Space Dimensional Reduction of Einstein--Yang--Mills theory
Chatzistavrakidis, A.; Prezas, N.; Zoupanos, G.
2007-01-01
In the present contribution we extend our previous work by considering the coset space dimensional reduction of higher-dimensional Einstein--Yang--Mills theories including scalar fluctuations as well as Kaluza--Klein excitations of the compactification metric and we describe the gravity-modified rules for the reduction of non-abelian gauge theories.
Coset space dimensional reduction of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory
Chatzistavrakidis, A.; Manousselis, P.; Prezas, N.; Zoupanos, G.
2008-04-01
In the present contribution we extend our previous work by considering the coset space dimensional reduction of higher-dimensional Einstein--Yang--Mills theories including scalar fluctuations as well as Kaluza--Klein excitations of the compactification metric and we describe the gravity-modified rules for the reduction of non-abelian gauge theories.
Bose–Einstein condensation: Where many become one and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Bose–Einstein condensation and superfluidity are well known to occur in the dilute gaseous as well as in the dense liquid state of matter having a fixed number of. Bose particles. Very recently, experimental evidence has been obtained for the probable realization of BEC and superfluidity in 4He in the solid state ...
Bose–Einstein condensation: Where many become one and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Bose–Einstein condensation and superfluidity are well known to occur in the dilute gaseous as well as in the dense liquid state of matter having a fixed number of Bose particles. Very recently, experimental evidence has been obtained for the probable realization of BEC and superfluidity in 4He in the solid state too, ...
Vortices in Bose–Einstein condensates: A review of the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Rotating dilute Bose–Einstein condensates (BEC) of alkali atoms offer a test- ing ground for theories of vortices in weakly interacting superfluids. In a rotating super- fluid, quantised vortices, with a vorticity h/m, form above a critical velocity. Such vortices have been generated in BEC of alkali atoms by different ...
L'influenza di Einstein sul pensiero di Popper
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlo Veronesi
2016-12-01
Full Text Available EINSTEIN’S INFLUENCE ON POPPER’S THOUGHT In a BBC radio programme Popper acknowledged his debt to Einstein saying that Einstein’s influence on his thinking was immense and that he mainly made explicit certain points that were implicit in the work of Einstein. In fact, in various writings Einstein presents his critical attitude toward any scientific theory: of particular interest is Einstein’s article «Induktion und Deduktion in der Physik» (1919 that can be considered a concentrate of Popper’s views of science. In the second part of the paper are presented the views of Popper on quantum mechanics and his defense of objectivity and realism. Popper opposes the idea, which he associates with the Copenhagen interpretation, that the theories describing quantum phenomena are about the subjective states of the human observers. Following the lead of Einstein, Popper emphasizes that scientific theories should be interpreted as attempts to describe a mind‐independent reality.
Parallel Vector Fields and Einstein Equations of Gravity
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
Rwanda Journal Volume 20, Series C, 2011: Mathematical Sciences, Engineering and Technology. 106. Parallel Vector Fields and. Einstein Equations of Gravity. By Isidore Mahara. National University of Rwanda. Department of Applied Mathematics. Abstract. In this paper, we prove that no nontrivial timelike or spacelike ...
First integrals of geodesics in the Einstein-Schwarzschild space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meshkov, A.G.; Dordzhiev, P.B.
1984-01-01
Linear and quadratic velocity integrals of geodesics in the Einstein-Schwarzschild space are calculated. The Schwarzschild geodesics equations have only four independent linear integrals. Quadratic integrals are polynomials from linear ones with constant coefficients. Total separation of variables in the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with Schwarzschild metric is possible only in two coordinate systems: ''spherical'' and ''conic'' systems
Investigating tunable KRb gases and Bose-Einstein condensates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Nils Byg
2015-01-01
We present the production of dual-species Bose-Einstein condensates of 39K and 87Rb with tunable interactions. A dark spontaneous force optical trap was used for 87Rb to reduce the losses in 39K originating from light-assisted collisions in the magneto optical trapping phase. Using sympathetic...
Sensing electric and magnetic fields with Bose-Einstein condensates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wildermuth, Stefan; Hofferberth, S.; Lesanovsky, Igor
2006-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate that one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates brought close to microfabricated wires on an atom chip are a very sensitive sensor for magnetic and electric fields reaching a sensitivity to potential variations of ∼ 10-14 eV at 3 μm spatial resolution. We measure a two...
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scherer, Manuel; Lücke, Bernd; Peise, Jan
2013-01-01
We present an analytical model for the theoretical analysis of spin dynamics and spontaneous symmetry breaking in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). This allows for an excellent intuitive understanding of the processes and provides good quantitative agreement with the experimental results...
Wormholes in Dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Theory
Kanti, Panagiota; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta
2011-01-01
We construct traversable wormholes in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory in four spacetime dimensions, without needing any form of exotic matter. We determine their domain of existence, and show that these wormholes satisfy a generalised Smarr relation. We demonstrate linear stability with respect to radial perturbations for a subset of these wormholes.
Wormholes in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory.
Kanti, Panagiota; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta
2011-12-30
We construct traversable wormholes in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory in four spacetime dimensions, without needing any form of exotic matter. We determine their domain of existence, and show that these wormholes satisfy a generalized Smarr relation. We demonstrate linear stability with respect to radial perturbations for a subset of these wormholes.
Radiation in the Einstein universe and the cosmic background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segal, I.E.
1983-01-01
It is shown that the cosmic background radiation is not at all uniquely or scientifically relatively economically indicative of a ''big bang.'' Specifically, essentially any temporally homogeneous theory in the Einstein universe is consistent with the existence of a cosmic background radiation (CBR) conforming to the Planck law; in particular, the chronometric cosmology is such. It is noted that the Einstein universe appears particularly natural as a habitat for photons by virtue of the absence of infrared divergences and of the absolute convergence of the trace for associated Gibbs-state density matrices. These features are connected with the closed character of space in the Einstein universe, and facilitate the use of the latter in modeling local phenomena, in place of Minkowski space with periodic boundary conditions or the like, with minimal loss of covariance or effect on the wave functions. In particular, the Einstein universe may be used in the analysis of the perturbation of a Planck-law spectrum due to a local nonvanishing isotropic angular momentum of the CBR, of whatever origin. The estimated distortion of the spectrum due to such a kinematically admissible effect is in very good agreement with that observed by Woody and Richards, which is opposite in direction to those earlier predicted by big-bang theories. The theoretical analysis involves a preliminary treatment of equilibria of linear quantum fields with supplementary quasilinear constraints
The Einstein-Vlasov System/Kinetic Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andréasson Håkan
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to provide a guide to theorems on global properties of solutions to the Einstein-Vlasov system. This system couples Einsteins equations to a kinetic matter model. Kinetic theory has been an important field of research during several decades in which the main focus has been on nonrelativistic and special relativistic physics, i.e. to model the dynamics of neutral gases, plasmas, and Newtonian self-gravitating systems. In 1990, Rendall and Rein initiated a mathematical study of the Einstein-Vlasov system. Since then many theorems on global properties of solutions to this system have been established. The Vlasov equation describes matter phenomenologically, and it should be stressed that most of the theorems presented in this article are not presently known for other such matter models (i.e. fluid models. This paper gives introductions to kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes and then the Einstein-Vlasov system is introduced. We believe that a good understanding of kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes is fundamental to good comprehension of kinetic theory in general relativity.
Productive Learning: Science, Art, and Einstein's Relativity in Educational Reform
Glazek, Stanislaw D.; Sarason, Seymour B.
2006-01-01
Why do people, college-bound or even in college, stay away in droves from courses in science, especially physics? Why do people know so little about the significance of Einstein's contributions which require dramatic changes in how we understand ourselves, our world, and the entire universe? Why have educational reforms failed? In this book, two…
Electronic Pumping of Quasiequilibrium Bose-Einstein Condensed Magnons
Bender, S.A.; Duine, R.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127; Tserkovnyak, Y.
2012-01-01
We theoretically investigate spin transfer between a system of quasiequilibrated Bose-Einstein-condensed magnons in an insulator in direct contact with a conductor. While charge transfer is prohibited across the interface, spin transport arises from the exchange coupling between insulator and
The EPR Paradox: Einstein Scrutinises Quantum Mechanics -28 ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Einstein contributed key ideas to the early development of quantum theory. However, he did not think that quantum mechanics was the final answer to the question of theoretically mapping objective physical reality. His tersely worded, yet extremely lucidly written, criticism of quantum theory is formulated in the EPR paper.
How Einstein Discovered the Special Theory of Relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 2. How Einstein Discovered the Special Theory of Relativity. Sriranjan Banerji. General Article Volume 11 Issue 2 February 2006 pp 27-42. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
The EPR Paradox: Einstein Scrutinises Quantum Mechanics -28 ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Arvind. Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR), in their fa- mous paper, argued that the quantum-mechani- cal description of physical reality is incomplete. They showed that one can envisage physical sit- uations whereby 'an element of physical reality' can be located such that it does not have a coun- terpart in quantum ...
Einstein relation in compound semiconductors and their nanostructures
Bhattacharya, Sitangshu
2008-01-01
Deals with the Einstein relation in compound semiconductors and their nanostructures. This book considers materials such as nonlinear optical, III-V, ternary, quaternary, II-VI, IV-VI, Bismuth, stressed compounds, quantum wells, quantum wires, nipi structures, carbon nanotubes, heavily doped semiconductors, and inversion layers.
Beyond Einstein: From the Big Bang to Black Holes
2005-01-01
How did the Universe begin? Does time have a beginning and an end? Does space have edges? The questions are clear and simple. They are as old as human curiosity. But the answers have always seemed beyond the reach of science. Until now. In their attempts to understand how space, time, and matter are connected, Einstein and his successors made three predictions. First, space is expanding from a Big Bang; second, space and time can tie themselves into contorted knots called black holes where time actually comes to a halt; third, space itself contains some kind of energy that is pull- ing the Universe apart. Each of these three predictions seemed so fantastic when it was made that everyone, including Einstein himself, regarded them as unlikely. Incredibly, all three have turned out to be true. Yet Einstein's legacy is one of deep mystery, because his theories are silent on three questions raised by his fantastic predictions: (1) What powered the Big Bang? (2) What happens to space, time, and matter at the edge of a black hole? (3) What is the mysterious dark energy pulling the Universe apart? The answers to these questions-which lie at the crux of where our current theories fail us-will lead to a profound, new understanding of the nature of time and space. To find answers, however, we must venture beyond Einstein. The answers require new theories, such as the inflationary Universe and new insights in high-energy particle theory. Like Einstein s theories, these make fantastic predictions that seem hard to believe: unseen dimensions and entire universes beyond our own. We must find facts to confront and guide these new theories. Powerful new technologies now make this possible. And NASA and its partners are developing an armada of space-based observatories to chart the path to discovery. Here is where the Beyond Einstein story begins. By exploring the three questions that are Einstein s legacy, we begin the next revolution in understanding our Universe. We plot our way
Albert Einstein and his mentor Max Talmey. The seventh Charles B. Snyder Lecture.
Ravin, J G
1997-01-01
While he was a student at the Munich medical school, Max Talmey strongly influenced the education of Albert Einstein. Their association occurred during five years of Einstein's second decade. They lost contact for many years after each left Munich. Talmey emigrated to the United States and practiced medicine, mainly ophthalmology, in New York City. He made significant contributions to medicine, to the popularization of Einstein's work, and to the development of international languages. The relationship of Talmey and Einstein was rekindled when Einstein visited and later moved to the United States.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kimishima, Yoshihide [Yokohama National University, Kanagawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1998-11-25
In 'letter to Kamerilingh Onnes from the Hantaro Nagaoka', Einstein inspected the He liquefier in the university in 1920. At that time, cooled sample tried to investigate the possibility of the academic alternating current of the fact between reason and Honda Kotaro teacher and Kamerilingh Onnes described Honda Kotaro teacher Ni steel. (NEDO)
Grundmann, Siegfried
Referring to the Straus-Herrmann correspondence, we deal only with one aspect of the ``political Einstein'': his attitude towards Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin (who were in the past sometimes called the ``classics of Marxism-Leninism''). Einstein revered Marx, but condemned Stalin as a criminal. He also resisted attempts to be misused by representatives of ``dialectic materialism''.
Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nandan, Dhritiman; Plefka, Jan; Schlotterer, Oliver; Wen, Congkao
2016-01-01
We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton case with a single color trace. As the derivation is made in the dimension-agnostic Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, our results are valid for external bosons in any number of spacetime dimensions. Moreover, they generalize to the superamplitudes in theories with 16 supercharges.
Stability of the Einstein static universe in open cosmological models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canonico, Rosangela; Parisi, Luca
2010-01-01
The stability properties of the Einstein static solution of general relativity are altered when corrective terms arising from modification of the underlying gravitational theory appear in the cosmological equations. In this paper the existence and stability of static solutions are considered in the framework of two recently proposed quantum gravity models. The previously known analysis of the Einstein static solutions in the semiclassical regime of loop quantum cosmology with modifications to the gravitational sector is extended to open cosmological models where a static neutrally stable solution is found. A similar analysis is also performed in the framework of Horava-Lifshitz gravity under detailed balance and projectability conditions. In the case of open cosmological models the two solutions found can be either unstable or neutrally stable according to the admitted values of the parameters.
Comparison of Einstein-Boltzmann solvers for testing general relativity
Bellini, E.; Barreira, A.; Frusciante, N.; Hu, B.; Peirone, S.; Raveri, M.; Zumalacárregui, M.; Avilez-Lopez, A.; Ballardini, M.; Battye, R. A.; Bolliet, B.; Calabrese, E.; Dirian, Y.; Ferreira, P. G.; Finelli, F.; Huang, Z.; Ivanov, M. M.; Lesgourgues, J.; Li, B.; Lima, N. A.; Pace, F.; Paoletti, D.; Sawicki, I.; Silvestri, A.; Skordis, C.; Umiltà, C.; Vernizzi, F.
2018-01-01
We compare Einstein-Boltzmann solvers that include modifications to general relativity and find that, for a wide range of models and parameters, they agree to a high level of precision. We look at three general purpose codes that primarily model general scalar-tensor theories, three codes that model Jordan-Brans-Dicke (JBD) gravity, a code that models f (R ) gravity, a code that models covariant Galileons, a code that models Hořava-Lifschitz gravity, and two codes that model nonlocal models of gravity. Comparing predictions of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background and the power spectrum of dark matter for a suite of different models, we find agreement at the subpercent level. This means that this suite of Einstein-Boltzmann solvers is now sufficiently accurate for precision constraints on cosmological and gravitational parameters.
Black hole dynamics in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory
Hirschmann, Eric W.; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.; Palenzuela, Carlos
2018-03-01
We consider the properties and dynamics of black holes within a family of alternative theories of gravity, namely Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. We analyze the dynamical evolution of individual black holes as well as the merger of binary black hole systems. We do this for a wide range of parameter values for the family of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories, investigating, in the process, the stability of these black holes. We examine radiative degrees of freedom, explore the impact of the scalar field on the dynamics of merger, and compare with other scalar-tensor theories. We argue that the dilaton can largely be discounted in understanding merging binary systems and that the end states essentially interpolate between charged and uncharged, rotating black holes. For the relatively small charge values considered here, we conclude that these black hole systems will be difficult to distinguish from their analogs within General Relativity.
Quantum nucleation of phase slips in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buechler, H.P.; Blatter, G.; Geschkenbein, V.B.; Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow
2001-01-01
We present a theoretical study of quantum fluctuations in a Bose-Einstein condensate confined within a thin cylindrical trap and perturbed by a moving impurity. We derive an effective action which maps the problem to that of a massive particle with damping in a periodic potential. Quantum fluctuations lead to a finite nucleation rate of phase slips and we make use of known results in our determination of the transport characteristic. Real Bose-Einstein condensate are finite systems and exhibit interesting effects depending on topology: in superfluid rings we obtain a critical velocity below which the nucleation rate is quenched. In a cigar shaped condensate the low-energy action is equivalent to that of a capacitively shunted Josephson junction. The state with a well defined phase difference across the impurity then is unstable towards a decoupled state with a fixed number of particles on either side of the impurity. (orig.)
Breakdown of Bose-Einstein distribution in photonic crystals.
Lo, Ping-Yuan; Xiong, Heng-Na; Zhang, Wei-Min
2015-03-30
In the last two decades, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of nano-photonics in photonic crystals. Previous theoretical investigations of photon dynamics were carried out at zero temperature. Here, we investigate micro/nano cavity photonics in photonic crystals at finite temperature. Due to photonic-band-gap-induced localized long-lived photon dynamics, we discover that cavity photons in photonic crystals do not obey Bose-Einstein statistical distribution. Within the photonic band gap and in the vicinity of the band edge, cavity photons combine the long-lived non-Markovain dynamics with thermal fluctuations together to form photon states that memorize the initial cavity state information. As a result, Bose-Einstein distribution is completely broken down in these regimes, even if the thermal energy is larger or much larger than the cavity detuning energy. In this investigation, a crossover phenomenon from equilibrium to nonequilibrium steady states is also revealed.
The Einstein-Vlasov System/Kinetic Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Håkan Andréasson
2011-05-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to provide a guide to theorems on global properties of solutions to the Einstein-Vlasov system. This system couples Einstein’s equations to a kinetic matter model. Kinetic theory has been an important field of research during several decades in which the main focus has been on non-relativistic and special relativistic physics, i.e., to model the dynamics of neutral gases, plasmas, and Newtonian self-gravitating systems. In 1990, Rendall and Rein initiated a mathematical study of the Einstein-Vlasov system. Since then many theorems on global properties of solutions to this system have been established. This paper gives introductions to kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes and then the Einstein–Vlasov system is introduced. We believe that a good understanding of kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes is fundamental to a good comprehension of kinetic theory in general relativity.
Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nandan, Dhritiman; Plefka, Jan [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Schlotterer, Oliver [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Wen, Congkao [I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy)
2016-10-14
We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton case with a single color trace. As the derivation is made in the dimension-agnostic Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, our results are valid for external bosons in any number of spacetime dimensions. Moreover, they generalize to the superamplitudes in theories with 16 supercharges.
Theorems on Existence and Global Dynamics for the Einstein Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rendall Alan
2002-01-01
Full Text Available This article is a guide to theorems on existence and global dynamics of solutions ofthe Einstein equations. It draws attention to open questions in the field. The local-in-time Cauchy problem, which is relatively well understood, is surveyed. Global results for solutions with various types of symmetry are discussed. A selection of results from Newtonian theory and special relativity that offer useful comparisons is presented. Treatments of global results in the case of small data and results on constructing spacetimes with prescribed singularity structure are given. A conjectural picture of the asymptotic behaviour of general cosmological solutions of the Einstein equations is built up. Some miscellaneous topics connected with the main theme are collected in a separate section.
Theorems on Existence and Global Dynamics for the Einstein Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rendall Alan D.
2005-10-01
Full Text Available This article is a guide to theorems on existence and global dynamics of solutions of the Einstein equations. It draws attention to open questions in the field. The local-in-time Cauchy problem, which is relatively well understood, is surveyed. Global results for solutions with various types of symmetry are discussed. A selection of results from Newtonian theory and special relativity that offer useful comparisons is presented. Treatments of global results in the case of small data and results on constructing spacetimes with prescribed singularity structure or late-time asymptotics are given. A conjectural picture of the asymptotic behaviour of general cosmological solutions of the Einstein equations is built up. Some miscellaneous topics connected with the main theme are collected in a separate section.
Einstein, la luz, el espacio-tiempo y los cuantos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fernando Barbero G., J.
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The study of light, its nature and properties was a central topic in the works of Albert Einstein. This paper discusses the role of light in the formulation of special relativity, in particular as a tool to provide operational definitions of the basic kinematic concepts. It also discusses the role of light in understanding general relativity and ends by briefly considering its quantum behaviour.El estudio de la luz, su naturaleza y sus propiedades ocupó un lugar central en los trabajos de Albert Einstein. En este artículo se discute el papel de la luz en la formulación de la relatividad especial, en particular como instrumento para la definición operacional de las magnitudes cinemáticas básicas, se muestra su importancia para la comprensión de la relatividad general y, por último, se considera brevemente su comportamiento cuántico.
Einstein contra Aristotle: The sound from the heavens
Neves, J. C. S.
2017-09-01
In "On the Heavens" Aristotle criticizes the Pythagorean point of view which claims the existence of a cosmic music and a cosmic sound. According to the Pythagorean argument, there exists a cosmic music produced by stars and planets. These celestial bodies generate sound in its movements, and the music appears due to the cosmic harmony. For Aristotle, there is no sound produced by celestial bodies. Then, there is no music as well. However, recently, LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Waves Observatory) has detected the gravitational waves predicted by Einstein. In some sense, a sound originated from black holes has been heard. That is, Einstein or the General Relativity and LIGO appear to be with the Pythagoreanism and against the master of the Lyceum.
The use of exterior forms in Einstein's gravitation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thirring, W.; Wallner, R.
1978-01-01
Cartan's calculus is used to reformulate the general variational principle and conservation laws in terms of exterior forms. In applying this method to Einstein's gravitation theory, we do not only benefit from the great economy of Cartan's formalism but also gain a deeper understanding of fundamental results already known. So the existence of superpotential-forms may be deduced from d o d identical to 0 and as a consequence the vanishing of total energy and momentum in a closed universe is affirmed in a more general way. Simple expressions for the sundry superpotential are obtained quite naturally. As a byproduct, Einstein's equations are rewritten in a form where the coderivative of a 2-form (the superpotential-form) is a current, and therefore resembles the inhomogeneous Maxwell equations. In passing from the Lagrangian to the Hamiltonian 4-form, the ADM formalism is immediately entered without lengthy calculations [pt
Theorems on Existence and Global Dynamics for the Einstein Equations.
Rendall, Alan D
2005-01-01
This article is a guide to theorems on existence and global dynamics of solutions of the Einstein equations. It draws attention to open questions in the field. The local-in-time Cauchy problem, which is relatively well understood, is surveyed. Global results for solutions with various types of symmetry are discussed. A selection of results from Newtonian theory and special relativity that offer useful comparisons is presented. Treatments of global results in the case of small data and results on constructing spacetimes with prescribed singularity structure or late-time asymptotics are given. A conjectural picture of the asymptotic behaviour of general cosmological solutions of the Einstein equations is built up. Some miscellaneous topics connected with the main theme are collected in a separate section.
Generalization of Einstein's gravitational field equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moulin, Frederic
2017-01-01
The Riemann tensor is the cornerstone of general relativity, but as is well known it does not appear explicitly in Einstein's equation of gravitation. This suggests that the latter may not be the most general equation. We propose here for the first time, following a rigorous mathematical treatment based on the variational principle, that there exists a generalized 4-index gravitational field equation containing the Riemann curvature tensor linearly, and thus the Weyl tensor as well. We show that this equation, written in n dimensions, contains the energy-momentum tensor for matter and that of the gravitational field itself. This new 4-index equation remains completely within the framework of general relativity and emerges as a natural generalization of the familiar 2-index Einstein equation. Due to the presence of the Weyl tensor, we show that this equation contains much more information, which fully justifies the use of a fourth-order theory. (orig.)
Einstein-Dirac theory in spin maximum I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crumeyrolle, A.
1975-01-01
An unitary Einstein-Dirac theory, first in spin maximum 1, is constructed. An original feature of this article is that it is written without any tetrapod technics; basic notions and existence conditions for spinor structures on pseudo-Riemannian fibre bundles are only used. A coupling gravitation-electromagnetic field is pointed out, in the geometric setting of the tangent bundle over space-time. Generalized Maxwell equations for inductive media in presence of gravitational field are obtained. Enlarged Einstein-Schroedinger theory, gives a particular case of this E.D. theory. E. S. theory is a truncated E.D. theory in spin maximum 1. A close relation between torsion-vector and Schroedinger's potential exists and nullity of torsion-vector has a spinor meaning. Finally the Petiau-Duffin-Kemmer theory is incorporated in this geometric setting [fr
Laser cooling, evaporative cooling and Bose-Einstein condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Pradip N.
2002-01-01
Laser radiations are used to slow down atoms by the process of momentum transfer. This leads to reducing the temperature to micro kelvin region. Gas phase atoms are trapped by using magnetic fields. The recent advances have led to the realization of the dream of physicists of confining the atoms and reducing their velocities to the limit imposed by quantum mechanics. A number of new experiments are possible with the cooled and trapped atoms and ions that would be useful to solve many problems of theoretical physics. Further cooling by the process of evaporative technique has led to the observation of Bose-Einstein Condensation predicted by Einstein and Bose nearly seventy-five years ago. A brief review of the method of laser cooling, magnetic trapping and evaporative cooling methods used for obtaining ultracold atoms are discussed. It is possible to obtain temperature in the nano kelvin region without using cryogenic methods thus simplifying the experimental methods to a great extent. (author)
General relativity at 75: how right was einstein?
Will, C M
1990-11-09
The status of experimental tests of general relativity is reviewed on the occasion of its 75th anniversary. Einstein's equivalence principle is well supported by experiments such as the Eötvös experiment, tests of special relativity, and the gravitational redshift experiment. Tests of general relativity have reached high precision, including the light deflection and the perihelion advance of Mercury, proposed by Einstein 75 years ago, and new tests such as the Shapiro time delay and the Nordtvedt effect in lunar motion. Gravitational wave damping has been detected to an accuracy of 1 percent on the basis of measurements of the binary pulsar. The status of the "fifth force" is discussed, along with the frontiers of experimental relativity, including proposals for testing relativistic gravity with advanced technology and spacecraft.
Interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates in microgravity.
Müntinga, H; Ahlers, H; Krutzik, M; Wenzlawski, A; Arnold, S; Becker, D; Bongs, K; Dittus, H; Duncker, H; Gaaloul, N; Gherasim, C; Giese, E; Grzeschik, C; Hänsch, T W; Hellmig, O; Herr, W; Herrmann, S; Kajari, E; Kleinert, S; Lämmerzahl, C; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Malcolm, J; Meyer, N; Nolte, R; Peters, A; Popp, M; Reichel, J; Roura, A; Rudolph, J; Schiemangk, M; Schneider, M; Seidel, S T; Sengstock, K; Tamma, V; Valenzuela, T; Vogel, A; Walser, R; Wendrich, T; Windpassinger, P; Zeller, W; van Zoest, T; Ertmer, W; Schleich, W P; Rasel, E M
2013-03-01
Atom interferometers covering macroscopic domains of space-time are a spectacular manifestation of the wave nature of matter. Because of their unique coherence properties, Bose-Einstein condensates are ideal sources for an atom interferometer in extended free fall. In this Letter we report on the realization of an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer operated with a Bose-Einstein condensate in microgravity. The resulting interference pattern is similar to the one in the far field of a double slit and shows a linear scaling with the time the wave packets expand. We employ delta-kick cooling in order to enhance the signal and extend our atom interferometer. Our experiments demonstrate the high potential of interferometers operated with quantum gases for probing the fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics and general relativity.
Bose-Einstein condensates in charged black-hole spacetimes
Castellanos, Elías; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Macías, Alfredo; Perlick, Volker
2018-01-01
We analyze Bose-Einstein condensates on three types of spherically symmetric and static charged black-hole spacetimes: the Reissner-Nordström spacetime, Hoffmann's Born-Infeld black-hole spacetime, and the regular Ayón-Beato-García spacetime. The Bose-Einstein condensate is modeled in terms of a massive scalar field that satisfies a Klein-Gordon equation with a self-interaction term. The scalar field is assumed to be uncharged and not self-gravitating. If the mass parameter of the scalar field is chosen sufficiently small, there are quasi-bound states of the scalar field that may be interpreted as dark matter clouds. We estimate the size and the total energy of such clouds around charged supermassive black holes and we investigate if their observable features can be used for discriminating between the different types of charged black holes.
Network computing with Einstein@home and climateprediction.net
CERN. Geneva; Christensen, Carl; Massey, Neil; Aina, Tolu; Marquina, Miguel Angel
2005-01-01
Einstein@Home is a project developed to search data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (LIGO) in the US and from the GEO 600 gravitational wave observatory in Germany for signals coming from extremely dense, rapidly rotating stars. Such sources are believed to be either quark stars or neutron stars, and a subclass of these are already observed by conventional means as pulsars or X-ray emitting celestial objects. Einstein@home is an official project of the Year of Physics. 2. climateprediction.net aims to investigate the approximations that have to be made in state-of-the-art climate models by running such models thousands of times under a range of approximations. This will help understand how sensitive different models are to small changes in, for example, the carbon dioxide and the sulphur cycle. This will contribute to exploring how climate may change in the next century under a wide range of different scenarios.
Electronic Pumping of Quasiequilibrium Bose-Einstein-Condensed Magnons
Bender, Scott A.; Duine, Rembert A.; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav
2012-06-01
We theoretically investigate spin transfer between a system of quasiequilibrated Bose-Einstein-condensed magnons in an insulator in direct contact with a conductor. While charge transfer is prohibited across the interface, spin transport arises from the exchange coupling between insulator and conductor spins. In a normal insulator phase, spin transport is governed solely by the presence of thermal and spin-diffusive gradients; the presence of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), meanwhile, gives rise to a temperature-independent condensate spin current. Depending on the thermodynamic bias of the system, spin may flow in either direction across the interface, engendering the possibility of a dynamical phase transition of magnons. We discuss the experimental feasibility of observing a BEC steady state (fomented by a spin Seebeck effect), which is contrasted to the more familiar spin-transfer-induced classical instabilities.
Bose-Einstein correlations in W-pair decays
Barate, R; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Jézéquel, S; Lees, J P; Martin, F; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Pietrzyk, B; Alemany, R; Bravo, S; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Graugès-Pous, E; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Morawitz, P; Pacheco, A; Riu, I; Ruiz, H; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Boix, G; Buchmüller, O L; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Ciulli, V; Davies, G; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Gianotti, F; Greening, T C; Halley, A W; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kado, M; Leroy, O; Maley, P; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moutoussi, A; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Spagnolo, P; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Tournefier, E; Valassi, Andrea; Wright, A E; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Chazelle, G; Deschamps, O; Dessagne, S; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Pascolo, J M; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Brient, J C; Machefert, F P; Rougé, A; Swynghedauw, M; Tanaka, R; Videau, H L; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Chalmers, M; Kennedy, J; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Räven, B; Smith, D; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Ward, J J; Cavanaugh, R J; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Leibenguth, G; Putzer, A; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Marinelli, N; Martin, E B; Nash, J; Nowell, J; Przysiezniak, H; Sciabà, A; Sedgbeer, J K; Thompson, J C; Thomson, E; Williams, M D; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Buck, P G; Ellis, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Robertson, N A; Smizanska, M; Williams, M I; Giehl, I; Hölldorfer, F; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Kröcker, M; Müller, A S; Nürnberger, H A; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Schmeling, S; Wachsmuth, H W; Zeitnitz, C; Ziegler, T; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bonissent, A; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Ealet, A; Fouchez, D; Tilquin, A; Aleppo, M; Antonelli, M; Gilardoni, S S; Ragusa, F; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Hüttmann, K; Lütjens, G; Mannert, C; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Azzurri, P; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacholkowska, A; Lefrançois, J; Serin, L; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; De Vivie de Régie, J B; Zerwas, D; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Dell'Orso, R; Ferrante, I; Giassi, A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sguazzoni, G; Tenchini, Roberto; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Coles, J; Cowan, G D; Green, M G; Hutchcroft, D E; Jones, L T; Medcalf, T; Strong, J A; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Norton, P R; Tomalin, I R; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Fabbro, B; Faïf, G; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Rosowsky, A; Seager, P; Trabelsi, A; Tuchming, B; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Loomis, C; Kim, H Y; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Hodgson, P N; Lehto, M H; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Grupen, Claus; Hess, J; Misiejuk, A; Prange, G; Sieler, U; Borean, C; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Pütz, J; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Williams, R W; Armstrong, S R; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; Kile, J; McNamara, P A; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Zobernig, G
2000-01-01
Bose-Einstein correlations are studied in semileptonicWW --> qqbarlnu and fully hadronic WW --> qqbarqqbar W-pair decays with the ALEPH detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies of 172, 183 and 189GeV. They are compared with those made at the Z peak after correction for the different flavour compositions. A Monte Carlo model of Bose-Einsteincorrelations based on the JETSET hadronization scheme was tuned to the Z data and reproduces the correlations in the WW --> qqbarlnu events. The same Monte Carlo reproduces the correlations in the WW --> qqbarqqbarchannel assuming independent fragmentation of the two W's. A variant thismodel with Bose-Einstein correlations between decay products of different W's is disfavoured.
TV News Magazine Presentation: Einstein by Schweizer Fernsehen (2009)
CERN Bulletin
2011-01-01
In this episode of Einstein, students from the University of Zurich explain the LHC physics experiments with chocolate and coffee cups. Using these ordinary items, the young researchers demonstrate what happens when two protons collide and how they are measured and detected. They also visit the CMS and LHCb detectors. Other topics in this episode include studies of crash test dummies to determine the right kind of protection needed for winter sports, such as skiing and snowboarding; image researchers at the University of Zurich poll people on the effects of image verses hard facts; the enormous potential of LED lights as the source of light for the future; and scientists determine that our closest ancestors are not the chimpanzee or orangutan, but the common marmoset. Due to room issues last time, Einstein will be presented on Friday, 11 February from 13:00 to 14:00 in the Council Chamber Language: German
Gravitational catalysis of merons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory
Canfora, Fabrizio; Oh, Seung Hun; Salgado-Rebolledo, Patricio
2017-10-01
We construct regular configurations of the Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in various dimensions. The gauge field is of meron-type: it is proportional to a pure gauge (with a suitable parameter λ determined by the field equations). The corresponding smooth gauge transformation cannot be deformed continuously to the identity. In the three-dimensional case we consider the inclusion of a Chern-Simons term into the analysis, allowing λ to be different from its usual value of 1 /2 . In four dimensions, the gravitating meron is a smooth Euclidean wormhole interpolating between different vacua of the theory. In five and higher dimensions smooth meron-like configurations can also be constructed by considering warped products of the three-sphere and lower-dimensional Einstein manifolds. In all cases merons (which on flat spaces would be singular) become regular due to the coupling with general relativity. This effect is named "gravitational catalysis of merons".
How Einstein Created Relativity out of Physics and Astronomy
Topper, David
2013-01-01
This book tracks the history of the theory of relativity through Einstein’s life, with in-depth studies of its background as built upon by ideas from earlier scientists. The focus points of Einstein’s theory of relativity include its development throughout his life; the origins of his ideas and his indebtedness to the earlier works of Galileo, Newton, Faraday, Mach and others; the application of the theory to the birth of modern cosmology; and his quest for a unified field theory. Treading a fine line between the technical and popular (but not shying away from the occasional equation), this book explains the entire range of relativity and weaves an up-to-date biography of Einstein throughout. The result is an explanation of the world of relativity, based on an extensive journey into earlier physics and a simultaneous voyage into the mind of Einstein, written for the curious and intelligent reader.
Generalization of Einstein's gravitational field equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moulin, Frederic [Ecole Normale Superieure Paris-Saclay, Departement de Physique, Cachan (France)
2017-12-15
The Riemann tensor is the cornerstone of general relativity, but as is well known it does not appear explicitly in Einstein's equation of gravitation. This suggests that the latter may not be the most general equation. We propose here for the first time, following a rigorous mathematical treatment based on the variational principle, that there exists a generalized 4-index gravitational field equation containing the Riemann curvature tensor linearly, and thus the Weyl tensor as well. We show that this equation, written in n dimensions, contains the energy-momentum tensor for matter and that of the gravitational field itself. This new 4-index equation remains completely within the framework of general relativity and emerges as a natural generalization of the familiar 2-index Einstein equation. Due to the presence of the Weyl tensor, we show that this equation contains much more information, which fully justifies the use of a fourth-order theory. (orig.)
Bose-Einstein condensation in the relativistic ideal Bose gas.
Grether, M; de Llano, M; Baker, George A
2007-11-16
The Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) critical temperature in a relativistic ideal Bose gas of identical bosons, with and without the antibosons expected to be pair-produced abundantly at sufficiently hot temperatures, is exactly calculated for all boson number densities, all boson point rest masses, and all temperatures. The Helmholtz free energy at the critical BEC temperature is lower with antibosons, thus implying that omitting antibosons always leads to the computation of a metastable state.
Einstein's Symphony: A Gravitational Wave Voyage Through Space and Time
Shapiro Key, Joey; Yunes, Nico; Grimberg, Irene
2015-01-01
Einstein's Symphony: A Gravitational Wave Voyage Through Space and Time is a gravitational wave astronomy planetarium show in production by a collaboration of scientists, filmmakers, and artisits from the Center for Gravitational Wave Astonomy (CGWA) at the University of Texas at Brownsville (UTB) and Montana State University (MSU). The project builds on the success of the interdisciplinary Celebrating Einstein collaboration. The artists and scientists who created the A Shout Across Time original film and the Black (W)hole immersive art installation for Celebrating Einstein are teaming with the Museum of the Rockies Taylor Planetarium staff and students to create a new full dome Digistar planetarium show that will be freely and widely distributed to planetaria in the US and abroad. The show uses images and animations filmed and collected for A Shout Across Time and for Black (W)hole as well as new images and animations and a new soundtrack composed and produced by the MSU School of Music to use the full capability of planetarium sound systems. The planetarium show will be narrated with ideas drawn from the Celebrating Einstein danced lecture on gravitational waves that the collaboration produced. The combination of products, resources, and team members assembled for this project allows us to create an original planetarium show for a fraction of the cost of a typical show. In addition, STEM education materials for G6-12 students and teachers will be provided to complement and support the show. This project is supported by the Texas Space Grant Consortium (TSGC), Montana Space Grant Consortium (MSGC), and the American Physical Society (APS).
Through an understanding of thermoluminescence phenomena from Einstein radiation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nieto H, B.; Vazquez C, G.A.; Azorin, J. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)
2005-07-01
In this work we made an outline of Einstein's radiation theory and its connection with elementary TL theory. We did not pretend in this paper to discuss advanced TL theories in these terms. Our main goal was to explore the simplest relationships among radiation theory, such as, transition probabilities and mean time-lives with kinetic parameters of the Randall-Wilkins model. (Author)
Bose-Einstein condensation of light: general theory.
Sob'yanin, Denis Nikolaevich
2013-08-01
A theory of Bose-Einstein condensation of light in a dye-filled optical microcavity is presented. The theory is based on the hierarchical maximum entropy principle and allows one to investigate the fluctuating behavior of the photon gas in the microcavity for all numbers of photons, dye molecules, and excitations at all temperatures, including the whole critical region. The master equation describing the interaction between photons and dye molecules in the microcavity is derived and the equivalence between the hierarchical maximum entropy principle and the master equation approach is shown. The cases of a fixed mean total photon number and a fixed total excitation number are considered, and a much sharper, nonparabolic onset of a macroscopic Bose-Einstein condensation of light in the latter case is demonstrated. The theory does not use the grand canonical approximation, takes into account the photon polarization degeneracy, and exactly describes the microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic Bose-Einstein condensation of light. Under certain conditions, it predicts sub-Poissonian statistics of the photon condensate and the polarized photon condensate, and a universal relation takes place between the degrees of second-order coherence for these condensates. In the macroscopic case, there appear a sharp jump in the degrees of second-order coherence, a sharp jump and kink in the reduced standard deviations of the fluctuating numbers of photons in the polarized and whole condensates, and a sharp peak, a cusp, of the Mandel parameter for the whole condensate in the critical region. The possibility of nonclassical light generation in the microcavity with the photon Bose-Einstein condensate is predicted.
Beyond Einstein: A live webcast from around the Globe
Communication Team
2005-01-01
The longest-ever organised webcast: once round the clock and all the way round the world! Twelve hours of online broadcast, a worldwide web of speakers from locations such as the Imperial College in London, Fermilab in Chicago and the Exploratorium in San Francisco. The result: a global discussion of the grand themes of Einstein's physics, such as relativity, gravitational waves, mass and gravity, antimatter and the origins of the Big Bang.
Equilibrium statistical mechanics in Mach-Einstein-universes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muecket, J.P.
1984-03-01
Within the framework of the Mach-Einstein-doctrine as formulated by Treder the thermodynamical quantities and the relations between them are derived for a simple N-particle-gas in equilibrium by means of a statistical-mechanical description of the particle system. Because of the induction of inertia for each particle due to the gravitational interaction with all other particles the corresponding equations of state are modified essentially in some cases.
Hidden multiparticle excitation in weakly interacting Bose-Einstein Condensate
Watabe, Shohei
2017-01-01
We investigate multiparticle excitation effect on a collective density excitation as well as a single-particle excitation in a weakly interacting Bose--Einstein condensate (BEC). We find that although the weakly interacting BEC offers weak multiparticle excitation spectrum at low temperatures, this multiparticle excitation effect may not remain hidden, but emerges as bimodality in the density response function through the single-particle excitation. Identification of spectra in the BEC betwee...
BRST Lagrangian construction for spin-2 field in Einstein space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchbinder, I.L.; Krykhtin, V.A.; Lavrov, P.M.
2010-01-01
We explore a new possibility of BRST construction in higher spin field theory to obtain a consistent Lagrangian for massive spin-2 field in Einstein space. Such approach automatically leads to gauge invariant Lagrangian with suitable auxiliary and Stueckelberg fields. It is proved that in this case a propagation of spin-2 field is hyperbolic and causal. Also we extend notion of partial masslessness for spin-2 field in the background under consideration.
Bose-Einstein condensation and indirect excitons: a review.
Combescot, Monique; Combescot, Roland; Dubin, François
2017-06-01
We review recent progress on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of semiconductor excitons. The first part deals with theory, the second part with experiments. This Review is written at a time where the problem of exciton Bose-Einstein condensation has just been revived by the understanding that the exciton condensate must be dark because the exciton ground state is not coupled to light. Here, we theoretically discuss this missed understanding before providing its experimental support through experiments that scrutinize indirect excitons made of spatially separated electrons and holes. The theoretical part first discusses condensation of elementary bosons. In particular, the necessary inhibition of condensate fragmentation by exchange interaction is stressed, before extending the discussion to interacting bosons with spin degrees of freedom. The theoretical part then considers composite bosons made of two fermions like semiconductor excitons. The spin structure of the excitons is detailed, with emphasis on the crucial fact that ground-state excitons are dark: indeed, this imposes the exciton Bose-Einstein condensate to be not coupled to light in the dilute regime. Condensate fragmentations are then reconsidered. In particular, it is shown that while at low density, the exciton condensate is fully dark, it acquires a bright component, coherent with the dark one, beyond a density threshold: in this regime, the exciton condensate is 'gray'. The experimental part first discusses optical creation of indirect excitons in quantum wells, and the detection of their photoluminescence. Exciton thermalisation is also addressed, as well as available approaches to estimate the exciton density. We then switch to specific experiments where indirect excitons form a macroscopic fragmented ring. We show that such ring provides efficient electrostatic trapping in the region of the fragments where an essentially-dark exciton Bose-Einstein condensate is formed at sub-Kelvin bath
Spotlight on advances in VTE management: CALLISTO and EINSTEIN CHOICE.
Bach, Miriam; Bauersachs, Rupert
2016-09-28
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with numerous complications and high mortality rates. Patients with cancer are at high risk of developing cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), and VTE recurrence is common. Evidence supporting use of non-vitamin K antagonist (VKA) oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in patients with cancer is lacking - direct comparisons between NOACs and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) are needed, along with patient-reported outcomes. Cancer Associated thrombosis - expLoring soLutions for patients through Treatment and Prevention with RivarOxaban (CALLISTO) is an international research programme exploring the potential of the direct, oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban for the prevention and treatment of CAT, supplementing existing data from EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE. Here, we focus on four CALLISTO studies: A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Rivaroxaban Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Ambulatory Cancer Participants receiving Chemotherapy (CASSINI), Anticoagulation Therapy in SELECTeD Cancer Patients at Risk of Recurrence of Venous Thromboembolism (SELECT-D), Rivaroxaban in the Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism in Cancer Patients - a Randomized Phase III Study (CONKO-011) and a database analysis. Optimal anticoagulation duration for VTE treatment has always been unclear. Following favourable results for rivaroxaban 20 mg once-daily (Q. D.) for secondary VTE prevention (EINSTEIN EXT), EINSTEIN CHOICE is assessing rivaroxaban safety and (20 mg Q. D. or 10 mg Q. D.) vs acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), and will investigate whether an alternative rivaroxaban dose (10 mg Q. D.) could offer long-term VTE protection. It is anticipated that results from these studies will provide important answers and expand upon current evidence for rivaroxaban in VTE management.
On higher dimensional Einstein spacetimes with a warped extra dimension
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ortaggio, Marcello; Pravda, Vojtěch; Pravdová, Alena
2011-01-01
Roč. 28, č. 10 (2011), s. 105006 ISSN 0264-9381 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/10/0749 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : higher-dimensional gravity * algebraic classification * Einstein spacetimes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 3.320, year: 2011 http://iopscience.iop.org/0264-9381/28/10/105006/
Dimensional Reduction of Conformal Tensors and Einstein-Weyl Spaces
Jackiw, Roman
2007-09-01
Conformal Weyl and Cotton tensors are dimensionally reduced by a Kaluza-Klein procedure. Explicit formulas are given for reducing from four and three dimensions to three and two dimensions, respectively. When the higher dimensional conformal tensor vanishes because the space is conformallly flat, the lower-dimensional Kaluza-Klein functions satisfy equations that coincide with the Einstein-Weyl equations in three dimensions and kink equations in two dimensions.
Generation of dark solitons in oscillating Bose-Einstein condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Theocharis, G. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 15784 (Greece); Kevrekidis, P.G. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-4515 (United States); Nistazakis, H.E. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 15784 (Greece); Department of Telecommunications Science and Technology, University of Peloponnese, Tripolis 22100 (Greece); Frantzeskakis, D.J. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 15784 (Greece)]. E-mail: dfrantz@cc.uoa.gr; Bishop, A.R. [Center for Nonlinear Studies and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)
2005-04-11
We propose an experimentally tractable setting for observing an 'instability' of a repulsive oscillating Bose-Einstein condensate that leads to the generation of dark solitons. We illustrate that when the trap of the condensate (which incorporates a localized impurity) is displaced so that the condensate flow is characterized by an atomic velocity larger than the local speed of sound, dark solitons are generated. The subcritical, near critical and supercritical are analyzed in detail.
Wormhole instanton solution in the Einstein-Yang-Mills system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosoya, Akio; Ogura, Waichi.
1989-01-01
A spherical symmetric classical solution of the Einstein and the SU(2) Yang-Mills equations is found in the four dimensional Euclidean space-time with the cosmological constant. The isospinor fermion has zero modes. Their cosmological implications are also discussed with an emphasis on the fact that wormhole instantons in general can be found not only in the sub-Planck physics but also in almost all the stages in lower energy physics. (author)
Holographic superconductors in Einstein-æther gravity
Lin, Kai; Wu, Yumei
2017-11-01
In this paper, we apply Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole solution of the Einstein-æther theory to the study of the holographic superconductor and show that the AdS black hole solution can be rewritten in some very simple forms, from which it is easy to identify the locations of various killing horizons. Then, we investigate the different effects of these horizons on the holographic superconductor.
Critical remarks on Bruno Thuring's polemic against Einstein.
Kerschbaum, F.; Lackner, K.; Posch, T.
2005-08-01
Bruno Thüring (1905-1989) was among those scientists who joined the campaign against Einstein's Theories of Relativity which was undertaken in the name of so-called "German Physics". Thüring served as director of Vienna's University Observatory between 1940-45; hence, we present biographical information on his scientific and administrative activities in Vienna, partly based on interviews with time-witnesses. It is one of Thüring's basic convictions that Einstein's work cannot be understood without an analysis of the developments of physics and philosophy in the 19th century. While this is true generally, Thüring's account of these developments is rather superficial. For example, Thüring considers Kant's idea of the a priori status of geometry as a wholly sufficient epistemological foundation of mechanics, while both post-Kantian idealism and positivism were a mere backdrop to the development of knowledge - a view which can hardly stand critical examination. Concerning the impact of Einstein's theories on physics, Thüring argues that the principles of special and general relativity be nothing else but arbitrary decisions (as opposed to real insights). Hence these principles would never be verified or falsified by any experiment. The Michelson-Moreley experiment, e.g., would not prove the principles of special relativity. Thüring considers Einstein's interpretation of this experiment as premature and as an arbitrary judgement on a very particular and subaltern phenomenon which would not justify the conclusion that the velocity of the Earth with respect to the luminiferous aether be immeasurable by just any experimental technique.
Sonic black holes in dilute Bose-Einstein condensates
Garay, L. J.; Anglin, J. R.; Cirac, J. I.; Zoller, P.
2000-01-01
The sonic analog of a gravitational black hole in dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensates is investigated. It is shown that there exist both dynamically stable and unstable configurations which, in the hydrodynamic limit, exhibit behaviors completely analogous to that of gravitational black holes. The dynamical instabilities involve the creation of quasiparticle pairs in positive and negative energy states. We illustrate these features in two qualitatively different one-dimensional models, namel...
How were the Hilbert-Einstein equations discovered?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, Anatolii A; Mestvirishvili, Mirian A; Petrov, Vladimir A
2004-01-01
The ways in which Albert Einstein and David Hilbert independently arrived at the gravitational field equations are traced. A critical analysis is presented of a number of papers in which the history of the derivation of the equations is viewed in a way that 'radically differs from the standard point of view'. The conclusions of these papers are shown to be totally unfounded. (from the history of physics)
Local and Global Existence Theorems for the Einstein Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alan D. Rendall
1998-01-01
Full Text Available This article is a guide to the literature on existence theorems for the Einstein equations which also draws attention to open problems in the field. The local in time Cauchy problem, which is relatively well understood, is treated first. Next global results for solutionswith symmetry are discussed. This is followed by a presentation of global results in the case of small data, and some miscellaneous topics connected with the main theme.
Geometry and experience: Einstein's 1921 paper and Hilbert's axiomatic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Gandt, Francois
2006-01-01
In his 1921 paper Geometrie und Erfahrung, Einstein decribes the new epistemological status of geometry, divorced from any intuitive or a priori content. He calls that 'axiomatics', following Hilbert's theoretical developments on axiomatic systems, which started with the stimulus given by a talk by Hermann Wiener in 1891 and progressed until the Foundations of geometry in 1899. Difficult questions arise: how is a theoretical system related to an intuitive empirical content?
Rotated charged black holes in Einstein-Born-Infeld theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lombardo, D.J.
2001-01-01
In this work the solution of the Einstein equations for slowly rotating black hole with Born-Infeld charge is obtained. Geometrical properties, singularities, horizons of this solution are analyzed. There are considered the conditions when the black hole modifies its mass (like in the non-linear monopole cases) and angular momentum for the same non-linear electromagnetic field what produces the black hole
Gutfreund, Hanoch
2017-01-01
First published in 1922 and based on lectures delivered in May 1921, Albert Einstein's The Meaning of Relativity offered an overview and explanation of the then new and controversial theory of relativity. The work would go on to become a monumental classic, printed in numerous editions and translations worldwide. Now, The Formative Years of Relativity introduces Einstein's masterpiece to new audiences. This beautiful volume contains Einstein's insightful text, accompanied by important historical materials and commentary looking at the origins and development of general relativity. Hanoch Gutfreund and Jurgen Renn provide fresh, original perspectives, placing Einstein's achievements into a broader context for all readers. In this book, Gutfreund and Renn tell the rich story behind the early reception, spread, and consequences of Einstein's ideas during the formative years of general relativity in the late 1910s and 1920s. They show that relativity's meaning changed radically throughout the nascent years of it...
Jung, Tobias
In 1922, Franz Selety, university-bred philosopher and self-educated physicist and cosmologist, developed a molecular hierarchical, spatially infinite, Newtonian cosmological model. His considerations were based on his earlier philosophical work published in 1914 as well as on the early correspondence with Einstein in 1917. Historically, the roots of hierarchical models can be seen in 18th century investigations by Thomas Wright of Durham, Immanuel Kant and Johann Heinrich Lambert. Those investigations were taken up by Edmund Fournier d'Albe and Carl Charlier at the beginning of the 20th century. Selety's cosmological model was criticized by Einstein mainly due to its spatial infiniteness which in Einstein's opinion seemed to contradict Mach's principle. This criticism sheds light on Einstein's conviction that with his first cosmological model, namely the static, spatially infinite, though unbounded Einstein Universe of 1917, the appropriate cosmological theory already had been established.
The Einstein-Brazil Fogarty: A decade of synergy.
Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Nosanchuk, Murphy D; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Carvalho, Antonio C Campos de; Weiss, Louis M; Spray, David C; Tanowitz, Herbert B
2015-01-01
A rich, collaborative program funded by the US NIH Fogarty program in 2004 has provided for a decade of remarkable opportunities for scientific advancement through the training of Brazilian undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral students from the Federal University and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation systems at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. The focus of the program has been on the development of trainees in the broad field of Infectious Diseases, with a particular focus on diseases of importance to the Brazilian population. Talented trainees from various regions in Brazil came to Einstein to learn techniques and study fungal, parasitic and bacterial pathogens. In total, 43 trainees enthusiastically participated in the program. In addition to laboratory work, these students took a variety of courses at Einstein, presented their results at local, national and international meetings, and productively published their findings. This program has led to a remarkable synergy of scientific discovery for the participants during a time of rapid acceleration of the scientific growth in Brazil. This collaboration between Brazilian and US scientists has benefitted both countries and serves as a model for future training programs between these countries.
G. Einstein matrix and nano-biophotonic treatment
Przybyl-Einstein, George; Moratin, Holdy; Garcia, Eduardo
2005-04-01
The publication is presenting the Einstein Matrix Treatment Method and initial results for blood borne diseases on example of hepatitis, HIV and arthritis. The initial research was conducted at Einstein Clinical Laboratories S.A. on limited funds. The treatment and method is strongly recommended for specific viruses bacteria in blood borne diseases but also for treatment of none specific viruses and bacteria in emergency treatments as SARS or ANTHRAX to safe life of the human. In the past years the Individual's Safety is in jeopardy by natural viral infections as well as by engineering cultured viruses and bacteria. Viruses mutate and become more resistant to current known medical treatment, in many cases partially efficient. This event required new testing method to investigate the possibility of treatments and to create new vaccine for non-specific viral and bacteria or viruses infections that causes death to thousands adults and children. The authors present in this paper the possibility of treatment of the non-specific viral, bacterial infections of the blood in human body. This treatment has safe procedure and no known side effect up to this time for patients that were treated at Einstein Clinical Laboratories SA.
A New Solution for Einstein Field Equation in General Relativity
Mousavi, Sadegh
2006-05-01
There are different solutions for Einstein field equation in general relativity that they have been proposed by different people the most important solutions are Schwarzchild, Reissner Nordstrom, Kerr and Kerr Newmam. However, each one of these solutions limited to special case. I've found a new solution for Einstein field equation which is more complete than all previous ones and this solution contains the previous solutions as its special forms. In this talk I will present my new metric for Einstein field equation and the Christofel symbols and Richi and Rieman tensor components for the new metric that I have calculated them by GR TENSOR software. As a result I will determine the actual movement of black holes which is different From Kerr black hole's movement. Finally this new solution predicts, existence of a new and constant field in the nature (that nobody can found it up to now), so in this talk I will introduce this new field and even I will calculate the amount of this field. SADEGH MOUSAVI, Amirkabir University of Technology.
Is Einstein the Father of the Atomic Bomb
Lustig, Harry
2009-05-01
Soon after the American atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the notion took hold in the popular mind that Albert Einstein was ``the father of the bomb.'' The claim of paternity rests on the belief that E=mc2 is what makes the release of enormous amounts of energy in the fission process possible and that the atomic bomb could not have been built without it. This is a misapprehension. Most physicists have known that all along. Nevertheless in his reaction to the opera Dr. Atomic, a prominent physicist claimed that Einstein's discovery that matter can be transformed into energy ``is precisely what made the bomb possible.'' In fact what makes the fission reaction and one of its applications,the atomic bomb, possible is the smaller binding energies of fission products compared to the binding energies of the nuclei that undergo fission.The binding energies of nuclei are a well understood consequence of the numbers and arrangements of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and of quantum-mechanical effects. The realization that composite systems have binding energies predates relativity. In the 19th century they were ascribed to potential and other forms of energy that reside in the system. With Einstein they became rest mass energy. While E=mc2 is not the cause of fission, measuring the masses of the participants in the reaction does permit an easy calculation of the kinetic energy that is released.
Einstein Gravity, Lagrange-Finsler Geometry, and Nonsymmetric Metrics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergiu I. Vacaru
2008-10-01
Full Text Available We formulate an approach to the geometry of Riemann-Cartan spaces provided with nonholonomic distributions defined by generic off-diagonal and nonsymmetric metrics inducing effective nonlinear and affine connections. Such geometries can be modelled by moving nonholonomic frames on (pseudo Riemannian manifolds and describe various types of nonholonomic Einstein, Eisenhart-Moffat and Finsler-Lagrange spaces with connections compatible to a general nonsymmetric metric structure. Elaborating a metrization procedure for arbitrary distinguished connections, we define the class of distinguished linear connections which are compatible with the nonlinear connection and general nonsymmetric metric structures. The nonsymmetric gravity theory is formulated in terms of metric compatible connections. Finally, there are constructed such nonholonomic deformations of geometric structures when the Einstein and/or Lagrange-Finsler manifolds are transformed equivalently into spaces with generic local anisotropy induced by nonsymmetric metrics and generalized connections. We speculate on possible applications of such geometric methods in Einstein and generalized theories of gravity, analogous gravity and geometric mechanics.
The Media of Relativity: Einstein and Telecommunications Technologies.
Canales, Jimena
2015-07-01
How are fundamental constants, such as "c" for the speed of light, related to the technological environments that produce them? Relativistic cosmology, developed first by Albert Einstein, depended on military and commercial innovations in telecommunications. Prominent physicists (Hans Reichenbach, Max Born, Paul Langevin, Louis de Broglie, and Léon Brillouin, among others) worked in radio units during WWI and incorporated battlefield lessons into their research. Relativity physicists, working at the intersection of physics and optics by investigating light and electricity, responded to new challenges by developing a novel scientific framework. Ideas about lengths and solid bodies were overhauled because the old Newtonian mechanics assumed the possibility of "instantaneous signaling at a distance." Einstein's universe, where time and space dilated, where the shortest path between two points was often curved and non-Euclidean, followed the rules of electromagnetic "signal" transmission. For these scientists, light's constant speed in the absence of a gravitational field-a fundamental tenet of Einstein's theory-was a lesson derived from communication technologies.
Characterizing SL2S galaxy groups using the Einstein radius
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Verdugo, T.; Motta, V.; Foex, G.
2014-01-01
Aims. We aim to study the reliability of RA (the distance from the arcs to the center of the lens) as a measure of the Einstein radius in galaxy groups. In addition, we want to analyze the possibility of using RA as a proxy to characterize some properties of galaxy groups, such as luminosity (L......) and richness (N). Methods. We analyzed the Einstein radius, θE, in our sample of Strong Lensing Legacy Survey (SL2S) galaxy groups, and compared it with RA, using three different approaches: 1) the velocity dispersion obtained from weak lensing assuming a singular isothermal sphere profile (θE,I); 2) a strong.......7 ± 0.2)RA, θE,II = (0.4 ± 1.5) + (1.1 ± 0.4)RA, and θE,III = (0.4 ± 1.5) + (0.9 ± 0.3)RA for each method respectively. We found weak evidence of anti-correlation between RA and z, with Log RA = (0.58 ± 0.06) − (0.04 ± 0.1)z, suggesting a possible evolution of the Einstein radius with z, as reported...
Bose–Einstein condensation in the Rindler space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shingo Takeuchi
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Based on the Unruh effect, we calculate the critical acceleration of the Bose–Einstein condensation in a free complex scalar field at finite density in the Rindler space. Our model corresponds to an ideal gas performing constantly accelerating motion in a Minkowski space–time at zero-temperature, where the gas is composed of the complex scalar particles and it can be thought to be in a thermal-bath with the Unruh temperature. In the accelerating frame, the model will be in the Bose–Einstein condensation state at low acceleration; on the other hand, there will be no condensation at high acceleration by the thermal excitation brought into by the Unruh effect. Our critical acceleration is the one at which the Bose–Einstein condensation begins to appear in the accelerating frame when we decrease the acceleration gradually. To carry out the calculation, we assume that the critical acceleration is much larger than the mass of the particle.
Static trace free Einstein equations and stellar distributions
Hansraj, Sudan; Goswami, Rituparno; Mkhize, Njabulo; Ellis, George
2017-08-01
We construct models of static spherical distributions of the perfect fluid in trace free Einstein gravity theory. The equations governing the gravitational field are equivalent to standard Einstein's equations; however, their presentation is manifestly different, which motivates the question whether new information would emerge due to the nonlinearity of the field equations. The incompressible fluid assumption does not lead to the well known Schwarzschild interior metric of Einstein gravity, and a term denoting the presence of a cosmological constant is present on account of the integration process. The Schwarzschild interior is regained as a special case of a richer geometry. On the other hand, when the Schwarzschild geometry is prescribed, a constant density fluid emerges consistent with the standard equations. A complete model of an isothermal fluid sphere with pressure and density obeying the inverse square law is obtained. Corrections to the model previously presented in the literature by Saslaw et al. are exhibited. The isothermal ansatz does not yield a constant gravitational potential in general, but both potentials are position dependent. Conversely, it is shown that assuming a constant gr r gravitational potential does not yield an isothermal fluid in general as is the case in standard general relativity. The results of the standard Einstein equations are special cases of the models reported here. Noteworthy is the fact that whereas the previously reported isothermal solution was only of cosmological interest, the solution reported herein admits compact objects by virtue of the fact that a pressure free hypersurface exists. Finally we analyze the consequences of selecting the Finch-Skea metric as the seed solution. The density profiles match; however, there is a deviation between the pressure profiles with the Einstein case although the qualitative behavior is the same. It is shown in detail that the model satisfies elementary requirements for physical
van Dongen, Jeroen
2012-01-01
Albert Einstein accepted a "special" visiting professorship at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands in February 1920. Although his appointment should have been a mere formality, it took until October of that year before Einstein could occupy his special chair. Why the delay? The explanation involves a case of mistaken identity with Carl Einstein, Dadaist art, and a particular Dutch fear of revolutions. But what revolutions was one afraid of? The story of Einstein’s Leiden chair throws ...
Einstein on Race and Racism, presented by Fred Jerome and Rodger Taylor
Jerome, Fred; Taylor, Rodger
2007-10-01
It is little-known that physicist Albert Einstein strongly held the view that ``Racism is America's worst disease.'' Einstein was active in the fight against racism from the 1930's until his death in 1955. Included among his friends were a number of important Afro-American figures, including the educator W.E.B. DuBois, the actor and basso profundo singer Paul Robeson, and the soprano Marian Anderson. Based on the authors' work ``Einstein on Race and Racism.''
Geometry and Physics after 100 Years of Einstein's Relativity (5-8 April 2005)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braginsky, Vladimir B
2005-01-01
As part of the celebration of the World Year of Physics, the Conference 'Geometry and Physics after 100 Years of Einstein's Relativity' was held in Golm, near Potsdam, Germany, on April 5-8, 2005. The Conference was organized by the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (also known as the Albert Einstein Institute), which is celebrating its 10th anniversary in 2005. Conference participants discussed progress made in theoretical and experimental research during the 100 years since the publication of Einstein's famous papers in 1905, the year which has gone down in history as 'Albert Einstein's ANNUS MIRABILIS'. (annus mirabilis. physics of our days)
Control for dynamics of two coupled Bose-Einstein condensate solitons by potential deviation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li Hong [Department of Physics, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi (China); School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Huangshi Institute of Technology, Huangshi (China)], E-mail: lihong-hust@hust.edu.cn; Wang, D.N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)
2008-06-15
The control of the potential deviation for two coupled Bose-Einstein condensate solitons is investigated by the variational approach, and the effects of the potential deviation on dynamics of the two Bose-Einstein condensate solitons are discussed. The potential deviation resets the stationary state, affects the existence time, and changes the switching and self-trapping effect on the Bose-Einstein condensate solitons. The results are confirmed by the evolution of the atom population transferring ratio, and demonstrate a new way to guide the motion of the two Bose-Einstein condensate solitons.
van Dongen, Jeroen
2012-06-01
Albert Einstein accepted a "special" visiting professorship at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands in February 1920. Although his appointment should have been a mere formality, it took until October of that year before Einstein could occupy his special chair. Why the delay? The explanation involves a case of mistaken identity with Carl Einstein, Dadaist art, and a particular Dutch fear of revolutions. But what revolutions was one afraid of? The story of Einstein's Leiden chair throws new light on the reception of relativity and its creator in the Netherlands and in Germany.
The legacy of Albert Einstein a collection of essays in celebration of the Year of Physics
2007-01-01
This indispensable volume contains a compendium of articles covering a vast range of topics in physics which were begun or influenced by the works of Albert Einstein: special relativity, quantum theory, statistical physics, condensed matter physics, general relativity, geometry, cosmology and unified field theory. An essay on the societal role of Einstein is included. These articles, written by some of the renowned experts, offer an insider's view of the exciting world of fundamental science. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Einstein and the Search for Unification (625 KB). Contents: Einstein and
The Influence of Ernst Mach and Ludwig Boltzmann on Albert Einstein
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broda, E.
1979-01-01
This document, written by Engelbert Broda in 1979, analyses the influence of Ernst Mach and Ludwig Boltzmann on Albert Einstein. Broda describes how Einstein and his scientific thinking benefited from Mach’s criticism on classical mechanics and its basic concepts like absolute time and absolute space. This criticism encouraged Einstein in the time he worked on his special relativity. On the other side Broda writes about the influence of Ludwig Boltzman, an atomist, whose scientific work and research prepared the ground for Einsteins work on the quantum-structure of electromagnetic radiation or the discovery of the photoelectric effect. (nowak)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arms, J.M.; Marsden, J.E.; Moncrief, V.
1982-11-01
The space of solutions of Einstein's vacuum equations is shown to have conical singularities at each spacetime possessing a compact Cauchy surface of constant mean curvature and a nontrivial set of Killing fields. Similar results are shown for the coupled Einstein-Yang-Mills system. Combined with an appropriate slice theorem, the results show that the space of geometrically equivalent solutions is a stratified manifold with each stratum being a symplectic manifold characterized by the symmetry type of its members. Contents: Introduction 1. The Kuranishi map and its properties. 2. The momentum constraints. 3. The Hamiltonian constraints. 4. The Einstein-Yang-Mills system. 5. Discussion and examples.
New state of matter: Bose-Einstein condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1995-01-01
70 years after work by the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose led Einstein to predict the existence of a new state of matter, the Bose-Einstein condensate has finally been seen. The discovery was made in July by a team from Colorado, and was followed one month later by a second sighting at Rice University at Houston, Texas. It is Bose's theoretical framework governing the behaviour of the particles we now call bosons which led to Einstein's prediction. Unlike fermions, which obey the Pauli exclusion principle of only one resident particle per allowed quantum state, any number of bosons can pack into an identical quantum state. This led Einstein to suggest that under certain conditions, bosons would lose their individual identities, condensing into a kind of 'superboson'. This condensate forms when the quantum mechanical waves of neighbouring bosons overlap, hiding the identity of the individual particles. Such a condition is difficult to achieve, since most long-lived bosons are composite particles which tend to interact and stick together before a condensate can emerge. Extremely low temperatures and high densities are required to overcome this problem. As bosons lose energy and cool down, their wavelengths become longer, and they can be packed close enough together to merge into a condensate. Up until now, however, the extreme conditions needed have not been attainable. Nevertheless, hints of the Bose- Einstein condensate have been inferred in phenomena such as superconductivity and liquid helium superfluidity. Condensates could also play an important role in particle physics and cosmology, explaining, for example, why the pion as a bound quark-antiquark state is so much lighter than the three-quark proton. A hunt to create a pure Bose- Einstein condensate has been underway for over 15 years, with different groups employing different techniques to cool their bosons. The two recent successes have been achieved by incorporating several
Testing Brans-Dicke gravity using the Einstein telescope
Zhang, Xing; Yu, Jiming; Liu, Tan; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Anzhong
2017-06-01
Gravitational radiation is an excellent field for testing theories of gravity in strong gravitational fields. The current observations on the gravitational-wave (GW) bursts by LIGO have already placed various constraints on the alternative theories of gravity. In this paper, we investigate the possible bounds which could be placed on the Brans-Dicke gravity using GW detection from inspiraling compact binaries with the proposed Einstein Telescope, a third-generation GW detector. We first calculate in detail the waveforms of gravitational radiation in the lowest post-Newtonian approximation, including the tensor and scalar fields, which can be divided into the three polarization modes, i.e., "plus mode," "cross mode," and "breathing mode." Applying the stationary phase approximation, we obtain their Fourier transforms, and derive the correction terms in amplitude, phase, and polarization of GWs, relative to the corresponding results in general relativity. Imposing the noise level of the Einstein Telescope, we find that the GW detection from inspiraling compact binaries, composed of a neutron star and a black hole, can place stringent constraints on the Brans-Dicke gravity. The bound on the coupling constant ωBD depends on the mass, sky position, inclination angle, polarization angle, luminosity distance, redshift distribution, and total observed number NGW of the binary systems. Taking into account all the burst events up to redshift z =5 , we find that the bound could be ωBD≳1 06×(NGW/1 04)1/2. Even for the conservative estimation with 1 04 observed events, the bound is still more than one order tighter than the current limit from Solar System experiments. So, we conclude that the Einstein Telescope will provide a powerful platform to test alternative theories of gravity.
Damour, Thibault
2016-01-01
On sait qu'Einstein a créé la physique du XXe siècle par ses travaux sur la relativité et les quanta. Mais que sait-on vraiment des idées qu'il a apportées ? Comment les a-t-il trouvées ? A travers des scènes concrètes de la vie d'Einstein, ce livre donne à voir la formation de ses théories. Il nous entraîne aussi dans une réflexion sur leur impact philosophique : comment penser le temps après la théorie de la relativité, qui enlève tout sens au "maintenant" et montre que des jumeaux peuvent ne pas avoir le même âge ? Comment penser la réalité alors que la théorie quantique prédit que des objets spatialement séparés restent liés dans un "enchevêtrement" qui semble défier notre intuition ? Accompagnant Einstein au long de sa vie et de son oeuvre dans un récit limpide et réjouissant, Thibault Damour met à la portée de tous les idées du grand physicien et nous rappelle ce qu'il faut retenir aujourd'hui des bouleversements conceptuels qu'il a introduits.
Einstein-First: Changing the Paradigm of School Physics Education
Kaur, Tejinder
2015-08-01
The early years of high school physics are focused on Newtonian physics with little mention of the fundamental conceptual breakthroughs made by Einstein and others in the 20th century that underlie our current description of reality, collectively referred to here as Einsteinian Physics.Students’ conception of the Universe is still defined by Newton’s laws of motion and gravitation based on Euclidian-space. When Einsteinian Physics is eventually encountered, i.e. in university physics, astronomy and astrophysics classrooms, the contradictory concepts are difficult to understand intuitively.The Einstein-First project is investigating methods and strategies for incorporating Einsteinian Physics into the curriculum at a stage where it would comprise students’ first exposure to physics. Concepts fundamental to the modern paradigm such as curved space, warped time, photons and the uncertainty principle are introduced as the primary conceptualization of reality. From these foundations students can make the transition to the Euclidean-Newtonian model, which remains useful for many practical applications.Course programs consist of conceptual content and simple analogy-based activities, which have been developed to bring the relevant topics to life. The course also utilizes astrophysical observations to provide concrete examples of Einsteinian Physics in the Universe. Our telescope facilitates first-hand observations of these phenomenaThe efficacy of these programs has been investigated in multiple pilot studies by administering carefully designed tests, both before the program and after, to students of various levels of ability. Early results have been encouraging.This talk will present an overview of the Einstein-First program, including videos and demonstrations of course content and activities, as well as pilot study results, which suggest it is possible to present this material in a way that students, irrespective of ability and background, are appropriately
Einsteins' apparition. Teleportation and further mysteries of quantum physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeilinger, A.
2005-01-01
The author, renomated professor of experimental physics at Vienna, had proven it: teleportation is possible. But how does it work, and what chances are in it? ''Einsteins' apparition'' presents also for non-scientists an understandable, vividly written and yet comprehensive introduction to quantum physics - a scientific field, hardly sizeable by common sense, but that's just why fascinating enormously. But also practically minded persons get one's money's worth by the author: futural applications like about quantum computers or data transmission by quantum communication will change our everyday life fundamentally - even if the ''beaming'' of man belongs further in the science fiction field. (GL)
Generating solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell equations
Contopoulos, I. G.; Esposito, F. P.; Kleidis, K.; Papadopoulos, D. B.; Witten, L.
2015-09-01
The Einstein-Maxwell (E-M) equations in a curved spacetime that admits at least one Killing vector are derived, from a Lagrangian density adapted to symmetries. In this context, an auxiliary space of potentials is introduced, in which, the set of potentials associated to an original (seed) solution of the E-M equations are transformed to a new set, either by continuous transformations or by discrete transformations. In this paper, continuous transformations are considered. Accordingly, originating from the so-called γA-metric, other exact solutions to the E-M equations are recovered and discussed.
Bruno, Galileo, Einstein: The Value of Myths in Physics
Martinez, Alberto
2015-03-01
Usually, historical myths are portrayed as something to be avoided in a physics classroom. Instead, I will discuss the positive function of myths and how they can be used to improve physics education. First, on the basis of historical research from primary sources and significant new findings about the Catholic Inquisition, I will discuss how to use the inspirational story of Giordano Bruno when discussing cosmology. Next, I will discuss the recurring story about Galileo and the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Finally, I will discuss how neglected stories about the young Albert Einstein can help to inspire students.
Solitons, Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity in He II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chela-Flores, J.; Ghassib, H.B.
1985-09-01
The analytic form of a wave propagating with a constant velocity and a permanent profile is inferred for a weakly interacting Bose gas, using an exact (rather than asymptotic) solution of the field equation of the self-consistent Hartree model. The significance of this approach is indicated, especially when realistic interatomic potentials are used. In addition, the general relation between solitons and Bose-Einstein condensation is underlined by invoking the profound insight recently acquired in studies of the quantum liquids involved in the living state. It is concluded that solitons may occur in He II, and may play a significant role in the phenomena of superfluidity. (author)
Vortices and ring solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carr, L. D.; Clark, Charles W.
2006-01-01
The form and stability properties of axisymmetric and spherically symmetric stationary states in two and three dimensions, respectively, are elucidated for Bose-Einstein condensates. These states include the ground state, central vortices, and radial excitations of both. The latter are called ring solitons in two dimensions and spherical shells in three. The nonlinear Schroedinger equation is taken as the fundamental model; both extended and harmonically trapped condensates are considered. It is found that the instability times of ring solitons can be long compared to experimental time scales, making them effectively stable over the lifetime of an experiment
Vortices in Attractive Bose-Einstein Condensates in Two Dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carr, L.D.; Clark, Charles W.
2006-01-01
The form and stability of quantum vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates with attractive atomic interactions is elucidated. They appear as ring bright solitons, and are a generalization of the Townes soliton to nonzero winding number m. An infinite sequence of radially excited stationary states appear for each value of m, which are characterized by concentric matter-wave rings separated by nodes, in contrast to repulsive condensates, where no such set of states exists. It is shown that robustly stable as well as unstable regimes may be achieved in confined geometries, thereby suggesting that vortices and their radial excited states can be observed in experiments on attractive condensates in two dimensions
A possible realization of Einstein's causal theory underlying quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yussouff, M.
1979-06-01
It is shown that a new microscopic mechanics formulated earlier can be looked upon as a possible causal theory underlying quantum mechanics, which removes Einstein's famous objections against quantum theory. This approach is free from objections raised against Bohm's hidden variable theory and leads to a clear physical picture in terms of familiar concepts, if self interactions are held responsible for deviations from classical behaviour. The new level of physics unfolded by this approach may reveal novel frontiers in high-energy physics. (author)
Great experiments in physics firsthand accounts from Galileo to Einstein
1959-01-01
From Galileo's famous experiments in accelerated motion to Einstein's revolutionary theory of relativity, the experiments recorded here trace the evolution of modern physics from its beginnings to the mid-20th century. Brought together for the first time in one volume are important source readings on 25 epochal discoveries that changed man's understanding of the physical world. The accounts, written by the physicists who made them, include:Issac Newton: The Laws of MotionHenry Cavendish: The Law of GravitationAugustin Fresnel: The Diffraction of LightHans Christian Oersted: ElecromagnetismH
Observation of Weak Collapse in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Eigen, Christoph; Gaunt, Alexander L.; Suleymanzade, Aziza; Navon, Nir; Hadzibabic, Zoran; Smith, Robert P.
2016-10-01
We study the collapse of an attractive atomic Bose-Einstein condensate prepared in the uniform potential of an optical-box trap. We characterize the critical point for collapse and the collapse dynamics, observing universal behavior in agreement with theoretical expectations. Most importantly, we observe a clear experimental signature of the counterintuitive weak collapse, namely, that making the system more unstable can result in a smaller particle loss. We experimentally determine the scaling laws that govern the weak-collapse atom loss, providing a benchmark for the general theories of nonlinear wave phenomena.
Rotating black holes in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory.
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Radu, Eugen
2011-04-15
We construct generalizations of the Kerr black holes by including higher-curvature corrections in the form of the Gauss-Bonnet density coupled to the dilaton. We show that the domain of existence of these Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton (EGBD) black holes is bounded by the Kerr black holes, the critical EGBD black holes, and the singular extremal EGBD solutions. The angular momentum of the EGBD black holes can exceed the Kerr bound. The EGBD black holes satisfy a generalized Smarr relation. We also compare their innermost stable circular orbits with those of the Kerr black holes and show the existence of differences which might be observable in astrophysical systems.
Concepts of Simultaneity From Antiquity to Einstein and beyond
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muller, F A [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Institute for the History and Foundations of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht University P.O Box 80125, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)
2007-10-05
Concepts of Simultaneity (henceforth: Simultaneity) is Jammer's historical monograph dedicated to the development of a single concept in physics. Jammer's idea to write a history of concepts of simultaneity proves to be a wonderful idea: it makes Simultaneity literally unique in its kind and it provides a new perspective from which to look at the historical development of concepts of time, about which much has already been written. Anyone who believes that Einstein was the first person on planet Earth to reflect on how to establish whether two distant events have occurred at the same time, i.e. simultaneously, will stop believing this after having read chapters 2 and 3 of Simultaneity (chapter 1 consists of terminological preliminaries), which deal with Antiquity and the Middle Ages, respectively. For example, Augustine of Hippo anticipated, in his Confessions (397 C.E.), nothing less than the method to determine the simultaneity of distant events that we associate with Einstein. Augustine set out to criticise the heresy of astrology. He considered two infants being born simultaneously in distant places. According to the doctrines of astrology they should lead very similar lives, because they are born under the same constellation of the stars. Yet one infant, Augustine imagined, is the child of a poor maid servant whereas the other is the child of a rich lady, so that they would almost certainly lead very different lives. How to know whether the infants are born simultaneously? Augustine proposed to dispatch, at the moment of birth, two messengers who run equally fast from the houses were the babies were born (whether they do run equally fast can be ascertained by using only local simultaneity judgments); the messengers should run towards each other in order to see whether they meet 'at equal distance from either house' (p. 49). If so, the infants were born simultaneously. Of course, this will not be very accurate, but that is not the point. The
Cooling of a Bose-Einstein Condensate by Spin Distillation
Naylor, B.; Maréchal, E.; Huckans, J.; Gorceix, O.; Pedri, P.; Vernac, L.; Laburthe-Tolra, B.
2015-12-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new cooling mechanism leading to purification of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Our scheme starts with a BEC polarized in the lowest energy spin state. Spin excited states are thermally populated by lowering the single particle energy gap set by the magnetic field. Then, these spin-excited thermal components are filtered out, which leads to an increase of the BEC fraction. We experimentally demonstrate such cooling for a spin 3 52Cr dipolar BEC. Our scheme should be applicable to Na or Rb, with the perspective to reach temperatures below 1 nK.
Generating static perfect-fluid solutions of Einstein's equations
Quevedo, Hernando; Toktarbay, Saken
2015-05-01
We present a method for generating exact interior solutions of Einstein's equations in the case of static and axially symmetric perfect-fluid spacetimes. The method is based upon a transformation that involves the metric functions as well as the density and pressure of the seed solution. In the limiting vacuum case, it reduces to the Zipoy-Voorhees transformation that can be used to generate metrics with multipole moments. All the metric functions of the new solution can be calculated explicitly from the seed solution in a simple manner. The physical properties of the resulting new solutions are shown to be completely different from those of the seed solution.
Conformastatic disk-haloes in Einstein-Maxwell gravity
Gutiérrez-Piñeres, Antonio C.; González, Guillermo A.; Quevedo, Hernando
2013-02-01
We present a relativistic model describing a thin disk surrounded by a halo in the presence of an electromagnetic field. The model is obtained by solving the Einstein-Maxwell equations on a particular conformastatic spacetime background and by using the distributional approach for the energy-momentum tensor. A class of solutions is obtained in which the gravitational and electromagnetic potentials are completely determined by a harmonic function only. A particular solution is given that is asymptotically flat and singularity free, and satisfies all the energy conditions.
Levitating soliton of the Bose–Einstein condensate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vysotina, N. V.; Rosanov, N. N., E-mail: nnrosanov@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov State Optical Institute (Russian Federation)
2016-07-15
We have proposed a mechanical model that corresponds to the Newton equation for describing the dynamics of an oscillon, viz., a soliton-like cluster of the Bose–Einstein condensate (with atomic attraction) placed above an oscillating atomic mirror in a uniform gravitational field. The model describes the stochastic Fermi acceleration and periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motion of the oscillon center, as well as hysteresis phenomena in the case of a slow variation of mirror oscillation frequency, which are in good agreement with the results obtained using the Gross–Pitaevskii equation.
Bose-Einstein interferometry and the Coulomb corrections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erazmus, B.; Lednicky, R; Lyuboshitz, V.; Martin, L.; Mikhailov, V.; Pluta, J.; Sinyukov, Y.; Stavinky, A.
1997-01-01
Two different methods are currently used to unfold the effects of the Coulomb interaction from the experimental correlation functions. Both the Gamow corrections and the method based on correlation function of opposite charge particles fail to reproduce exact calculations of Bose-Einstein correlation functions for two-pion and two-kaon pairs. The Gamow correction is a currently used technique by the physicists' community of ultra-relativistic heavy ions aiming at the deconvolution of the Coulomb interaction effects so allowing the occurrence of only the quantum statistics effects in the correlation functions.An improved formulation of the Gamow correction is presented which gives good agreements with the correct calculations
Local and Global Existence Theorems for the Einstein Equations.
Rendall, Alan D
2000-01-01
This article is a guide to the literature on existence theorems for the Einstein equations which also draws attention to open problems in the field. The local in time Cauchy problem, which is relatively well understood, is treated first. Next global results for solutions with symmetry are discussed. A selection of results from Newtonian theory and special relativity which offer useful comparisons is presented. This is followed by a survey of global results in the case of small data and results on constructing spacetimes with given singularity structure. The article ends with some miscellaneous topics connected with the main theme.
Local and Global Existence Theorems for the Einstein Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rendall Alan D.
2000-01-01
Full Text Available This article is a guide to the literature on existence theorems for the Einstein equations which also draws attention to open problems in the field. The local in time Cauchy problem, which is relatively well understood, is treated first. Next global results for solutions with symmetry are discussed. A selection of results from Newtonian theory and special relativity which offer useful comparisons is presented. This is followed by a survey of global results in the case of small data and results on constructing spacetimes with given singularity structure. The article ends with some miscellaneous topics connected with the main theme.
Multidimensional universes, Kaluza-Klein, Einstein spaces and symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coquereaux, R.
1983-12-01
The aim of these lectures was to present a review of the ''multidimensional universes'' where the old Kaluza-Klein idea holds true. I give first a survey of the theory of fiber bundles. Then there is a discussion on invariant metrics on groups and homogeneous spaces. Then comes a very short section on basic Riemannian geometry. The important results about the structure (topology and metric) of these multidimensional universes is given, the physical ideas are also discussed. In section 6 we show how to obtain many homogeneous Einstein metrics on groups and homogeneous spaces and study how they can lead to ''spontaneous symmetry breaking''
Brownian motion of solitons in a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Aycock, Lauren M; Hurst, Hilary M; Efimkin, Dmitry K; Genkina, Dina; Lu, Hsin-I; Galitski, Victor M; Spielman, I B
2017-03-07
We observed and controlled the Brownian motion of solitons. We launched solitonic excitations in highly elongated [Formula: see text] Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and showed that a dilute background of impurity atoms in a different internal state dramatically affects the soliton. With no impurities and in one dimension (1D), these solitons would have an infinite lifetime, a consequence of integrability. In our experiment, the added impurities scatter off the much larger soliton, contributing to its Brownian motion and decreasing its lifetime. We describe the soliton's diffusive behavior using a quasi-1D scattering theory of impurity atoms interacting with a soliton, giving diffusion coefficients consistent with experiment.
Hermitian-Einstein metrics on parabolic stable bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jiayu; Narasimhan, M.S.
1995-12-01
Let M-bar be a compact complex manifold of complex dimension two with a smooth Kaehler metric and D a smooth divisor on M-bar. If E is a rank 2 holomorphic vector bundle on M-bar with a stable parabolic structure along D, we prove the existence of a metric on E' = E module MbarD (compatible with the parabolic structure) which is Hermitian-Einstein with respect to the restriction of Kaehler metric of M-barD. A converse is also proved. (author). 24 refs
Hydrodynamic flow of expanding Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brazhnyi, V. A.; Konotop, V. V.; Kamchatnov, A. M.
2003-01-01
We study expansion of quasi-one-dimensional (1D) Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) after switching off the confining harmonic potential. Exact solution of dynamical equations is obtained in the framework of the hydrodynamic approximation and it is compared with the direct numerical simulation of the full problem, showing excellent agreement at realistic values of physical parameters. We analyze the maximum of the current density and estimate the velocity of expansion. The results of the 1D analysis provides also qualitative understanding of some properties of BEC expansion observed in experiments
Time-gated Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takei, Nobuyuki; Lee, Noriyuki; Furusawa, Akira; Moriyama, Daiki; Neergaard-Nielsen, J. S.
2006-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate the creation and characterization of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation between optical beams in a time-gated fashion. The correlated beams are created with two independent continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators and a half beam splitter. We define the temporal modes using a square temporal filter with duration T and make time-resolved measurements on the generated state. We observe correlations between the relevant conjugate variables in the temporal mode which correspond to EPR correlation. Our scheme is extendable to continuous-variable quantum teleportation of a non-Gaussian state defined in the time domain such as a superposition of coherent states
Classical mechanics from Newton to Einstein : a modern introduction
McCall, Martin
2011-01-01
This new edition of Classical Mechanics, aimed at undergraduate physics and engineering students, presents in a user-friendly style an authoritative approach to the complementary subjects of classical mechanics and relativity. The text starts with a careful look at Newton's Laws, before applying them in one dimension to oscillations and collisions. More advanced applications - including gravitational orbits and rigid body dynamics - are discussed after the limitations of Newton's inertial frames have been highlighted through an exposition of Einstein's Special Relativity. Examples gi
Observation of Weak Collapse in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christoph Eigen
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We study the collapse of an attractive atomic Bose-Einstein condensate prepared in the uniform potential of an optical-box trap. We characterize the critical point for collapse and the collapse dynamics, observing universal behavior in agreement with theoretical expectations. Most importantly, we observe a clear experimental signature of the counterintuitive weak collapse, namely, that making the system more unstable can result in a smaller particle loss. We experimentally determine the scaling laws that govern the weak-collapse atom loss, providing a benchmark for the general theories of nonlinear wave phenomena.
Propagation of Sound in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrews, M.R.; Kurn, D.M.; Miesner, H.; Durfee, D.S.; Townsend, C.G.; Inouye, S.; Ketterle, W.
1997-01-01
Sound propagation has been studied in a magnetically trapped dilute Bose-Einstein condensate. Localized excitations were induced by suddenly modifying the trapping potential using the optical dipole force of a focused laser beam. The resulting propagation of sound was observed using a novel technique, rapid sequencing of nondestructive phase-contrast images. The speed of sound was determined as a function of density and found to be consistent with Bogoliubov theory. This method may generally be used to observe high-lying modes and perhaps second sound. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
An exact solution of the Einstein-Cartan field equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roque, W.L.; Fonseca Teixeira, A.F. da
1983-01-01
The exact solution of Einstein-Cartan field equations is obtained for an artificial fluid with radially polarized spins, spherically symmetric and under static condition; the energy-momentum metric tensor is taken as zero. The gravitational dynamics is studied for various intensities of torsion (or fluid spin), through the analysis of motion of spinless test particles; in particular, for vanishing torsion we reobtain the Schwarzschild solution. The gravitational effects related to torsion are found sometimes attractive, sometimes repulsive, depending on the value of spin density and on the position and velocity of the test particle. (Author) [pt
DE NEWTON A EINSTEIN: A DEBATE EL DESTINO DEL UNIVERSO
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ROGELIO PARREIRA
2010-01-01
Full Text Available En este artículo se describe la historia del pensamiento científico en términos de las teorías de la inercia, el espacio absoluto, la relatividad y la gravitación; de cómo Newton utilizó el trabajo de los primeros investigadores en sus teorías, y Einstein las teorías de Newton en la suya, para tratar de explicar el destino del universo. Es la descripción de un proceso revolucionario del conocimiento científico, y sus aportes al desarrollo de muchos otros campos del saber
Einstein, la luz, el espacio-tiempo y los cuantos
Fernando Barbero G., J.
2015-01-01
The study of light, its nature and properties was a central topic in the works of Albert Einstein. This paper discusses the role of light in the formulation of special relativity, in particular as a tool to provide operational definitions of the basic kinematic concepts. It also discusses the role of light in understanding general relativity and ends by briefly considering its quantum behaviour.El estudio de la luz, su naturaleza y sus propiedades ocupó un lugar central en los trabajos de Alb...
Paul Ehrenfest, Niels Bohr, and Albert Einstein: Colleagues and Friends
Klein, Martin J.
2010-09-01
In May 1918 Paul Ehrenfest received a monograph from Niels Bohr in which Bohr had used Ehrenfest's adiabatic principle as an essential assumption for understanding atomic structure. Ehrenfest responded by inviting Bohr, whom he had never met, to give a talk at a meeting in Leiden in late April 1919, which Bohr accepted; he lived with Ehrenfest, his mathematician wife Tatyana, and their young family for two weeks. Albert Einstein was unable to attend this meeting, but in October 1919 he visited his old friend Ehrenfest and his family in Leiden, where Ehrenfest told him how much he had enjoyed and profited from Bohr's visit. Einstein first met Bohr when Bohr gave a lecture in Berlin at the end of April 1920, and the two immediately proclaimed unbounded admiration for each other as physicists and as human beings. Ehrenfest hoped that he and they would meet at the Third Solvay Conference in Brussels in early April 1921, but his hope was unfulfilled. Einstein, the only physicist from Germany who was invited to it in this bitter postwar atmosphere, decided instead to accompany Chaim Weizmann on a trip to the United States to help raise money for the new Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Bohr became so overworked with the planning and construction of his new Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen that he could only draft the first part of his Solvay report and ask Ehrenfest to present it, which Ehrenfest agreed to do following the presentation of his own report. After recovering his strength, Bohr invited Ehrenfest to give a lecture in Copenhagen that fall, and Ehrenfest, battling his deep-seated self-doubts, spent three weeks in Copenhagen in December 1921 accompanied by his daughter Tanya and her future husband, the two Ehrenfests staying with the Bohrs in their apartment in Bohr's new Institute for Theoretical Physics. Immediately after leaving Copenhagen, Ehrenfest wrote to Einstein, telling him once again that Bohr was a prodigious physicist, and again
Stability of Einstein Yang-Mills black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bizon, P.
1991-01-01
We examine the problem of stability of Einstein Yang-Mills black holes, studied recently by Straumann and Zhou in the framework of linearized perturbation technique. It is pointed out that the existence of the exponentially growing radial mode, found by Straumann and Zhou, does not necessarily signal behaviour at the horizon. In particular, we show that the lowest-energy coloured black hole is linearly stable against radial perturbations. We show also that the SU(2) Reissner-Nordstroem solution with mass M and magnetic charge 1/g is dynamically stable if the dimensionless constant G 1/2 gM is bigger than some critical value. (orig.)
MONOPOLES AND DYONS IN THE PURE EINSTEIN YANG MILLS THEORY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
HOSOTANI, Y.; BJORAKER, J.
1999-01-01
In the pure Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions there exist monopole and dyon solutions. The spectrum of the solutions is discrete in asymptotically flat or de Sitter space, whereas it is continuous in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. The solutions are regular everywhere and specified with their mass, and non-Abelian electric and magnetic charges. In asymptotically anti-de Sitter space a class of monopole solutions have no node in non-Abelian magnetic fields, and are stable against spherically symmetric perturbations
Transition to instability in a kicked Bose-Einstein condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Chuanwei; Raizen, Mark G.; Liu Jie; Niu Qian
2004-01-01
A periodically kicked ring of a Bose-Einstein condensate is considered as a nonlinear generalization of the quantum kicked rotor. For weak interactions between atoms, periodic motion (antiresonance) becomes quasiperiodic (quantum beating) but remains stable. There exists a critical strength of interactions beyond which quasiperiodic motion becomes chaotic, resulting in an instability of the condensate manifested by exponential growth in the number of noncondensed atoms. Similar behavior is observed for dynamically localized states (essentially quasiperiodic motions), where stability remains for weak interactions but is destroyed by strong interactions
The forces on a single interacting Bose-Einstein condensate
Thu, Nguyen Van
2018-04-01
Using double parabola approximation for a single Bose-Einstein condensate confined between double slabs we proved that in grand canonical ensemble (GCE) the ground state with Robin boundary condition (BC) is favored, whereas in canonical ensemble (CE) our system undergoes from ground state with Robin BC to the one with Dirichlet BC in small-L region and vice versa for large-L region and phase transition in space of the ground state is the first order. The surface tension force and Casimir force are also considered in both CE and GCE in detail.
On tree amplitudes of supersymmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adamo, Tim; Casali, Eduardo; Roehrig, Kai A.; Skinner, David [Department of Applied Mathematics & Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA United Kingdom (United Kingdom)
2015-12-29
We present a new formula for all single trace tree amplitudes in four dimensional super Yang-Mills coupled to Einstein supergravity. Like the Cachazo-He-Yuan formula, our expression is supported on solutions of the scattering equations, but with momenta written in terms of spinor helicity variables. Supersymmetry and parity are both manifest. In the pure gravity and pure Yang-Mills sectors, it reduces to the known twistor-string formulae. We show that the formula behaves correctly under factorization and sketch how these amplitudes may be obtained from a four-dimensional (ambi)twistor string.
Crossover Temperature of Bose-Einstein Condensation in an Atomic Fermi Gas
Falco, G.M.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2004-01-01
We show that in an atomic Fermi gas near a Feshbach resonance the crossover between a Bose-Einstein condensate of diatomic molecules and a Bose-Einstein condensate of Cooper pairs occurs at positive detuning, i.e., when the molecular energy level lies in the two-atom continuum. We determine the
On the role of the Michelson–Morley experiment: Einstein in Chicago
van Dongen, J.A.E.F.
2009-01-01
This article discusses new material, published in volume 12 of the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, that addresses Einstein’s knowledge of the Michelson–Morley experiment prior to 1905: in a lecture in Chicago in 1921, Einstein referred to the experiment, mentioned when he came upon it and
How Einstein Discovered the Special Theory of Relativity -R-ES ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Contrary to what we learn in textbooks on the. Special Theory of Relativity, Michelson-Morley experiment had no direct influence on Einstein's discovery although he undoubtedly knew about it. At the age of only 16, Einstein imagined him- self standing in front of a plane mirror while he himself together with the mirror was ...
5D black hole solution in Einstein-Yang-Mills-Gauss-Bonnet theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.
2007-01-01
By adopting the 5D version of the Wu-Yang ansatz we present in closed form a black hole solution in the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Gauss-Bonnet theory. In the Einstein-Yang-Mills limit, we recover the 5D black hole solution already known
Nonexponential one-body loss in a Bose-Einstein condensate
Knoop, S.; Borbely, J. S.; van Rooij, R.; Vassen, W.
2012-01-01
We have studied the decay of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of metastable helium atoms in an optical dipole trap. In the regime where two- and three-body losses can be neglected we show that the Bose-Einstein condensate and the thermal cloud show fundamentally different decay characteristics. The
Einstein's equations of motion in the gravitational field of an oblate ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In an earlier paper we derived Einstein's geometrical gravitational field equations for the metric tensor due to an oblate spheroidal massive body. In this paper we derive the corresponding Einstein's equations of motion for a test particle of nonzero rest mass in the gravitational field exterior to a homogeneous oblate ...
van Dongen, J.A.E.F.
2012-01-01
Albert Einstein accepted a “special” visiting professorship at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands in February 1920. Although his appointment should have been a mere formality, it took until October of that year before Einstein could occupy his special chair. Why the delay? The explanation
A comment on a proposed ''crucial experiment'' to test Einstein's special theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues Jr, W.A.; Buonamano, V.
1976-01-01
A proposed ''crucial experiment'' to test Einstein's special theory of relativity is analysed and it is shown that it falls into the set of unsatisfactory proposals that attempt to make an experimental distinction between Einstein's special theory of relativity and a ''Lorentzian type'' special theory of relativity
Six Not-So-Easy Pieces Einstein's Relativity, Symmetry, and Space-Time
Feynman, Richard P; Sands, Matthew
2011-01-01
Six lectures, all regarding the most revolutionary discovery in twentieth-century physics: Einstein's Theory of Relativity. No one--not even Einstein himself--explained these difficult, anti-intuitive concepts more clearly, or with more verve and gusto, than Feynman.
A note on the violation of the Einstein relation in a driven moderately dense granular gas
Garzó, Vicente
2008-05-01
The Einstein relation for a driven moderately dense granular gas in d dimensions is analyzed in the context of the Enskog kinetic equation. The Enskog equation neglects velocity correlations but retains spatial correlations arising from volume exclusion effects. As expected, there is a breakdown of the Einstein relation \\epsilon=D/(T_0\\mu)\
Measurement of Genuine Three-Particle Bose-Einstein Correlations in Hadronic Z decay
Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Ewers, A; Extermann, Pierre; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hakobyan, R S; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofiev, D O; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Roux, B; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S V; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R P; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M
2002-01-01
We measure three-particle Bose-Einstein correlations in hadronic Z decay with the L3 detector at LEP. Genuine three-particle Bose-Einstein correlations are observed. By comparing two- and three-particle correlations we find that the data are consistent with fully incoherent pion production.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Umakantha, N.
2009-01-01
A real Young's double-slit experiment which can, without destroying the fringe pattern, establish unequivocally whether a photon passes like a wave along both the paths or passes like a particle along one or the other path only, is presented. The main feature of this experiment is that the point at which the incident wave is to be regarded as being split into two parts to go along the two paths is distinct from the point at which successive incident particles are to be regarded as having random choice to go along one or the other path. Our experimental results support Einstein's Einweg (one-path) point of view.
Multisymplectic unified formalism for Einstein-Hilbert gravity
Gaset, Jordi; Román-Roy, Narciso
2018-03-01
We present a covariant multisymplectic formulation for the Einstein-Hilbert model of general relativity. As it is described by a second-order singular Lagrangian, this is a gauge field theory with constraints. The use of the unified Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism is particularly interesting when it is applied to these kinds of theories, since it simplifies the treatment of them, in particular, the implementation of the constraint algorithm, the retrieval of the Lagrangian description, and the construction of the covariant Hamiltonian formalism. In order to apply this algorithm to the covariant field equations, they must be written in a suitable geometrical way, which consists of using integrable distributions, represented by multivector fields of a certain type. We apply all these tools to the Einstein-Hilbert model without and with energy-matter sources. We obtain and explain the geometrical and physical meaning of the Lagrangian constraints and we construct the multimomentum (covariant) Hamiltonian formalisms in both cases. As a consequence of the gauge freedom and the constraint algorithm, we see how this model is equivalent to a first-order regular theory, without gauge freedom. In the case of the presence of energy-matter sources, we show how some relevant geometrical and physical characteristics of the theory depend on the type of source. In all the cases, we obtain explicitly multivector fields which are solutions to the gravitational field equations. Finally, a brief study of symmetries and conservation laws is done in this context.
Spontaneously broken Yang-Mills-Einstein supergravities as double copies
Chiodaroli, Marco; Günaydin, Murat; Johansson, Henrik; Roiban, Radu
2017-06-01
Color/kinematics duality and the double-copy construction have proved to be systematic tools for gaining new insight into gravitational theories. Extending our earlier work, in this paper we introduce new double-copy constructions for large classes of spontaneously-broken Yang-Mills-Einstein theories with adjoint Higgs fields. One gauge-theory copy entering the construction is a spontaneously-broken (super-)Yang-Mills theory, while the other copy is a bosonic Yang-Mills-scalar theory with trilinear scalar interactions that display an explicitly-broken global symmetry. We show that the kinematic numerators of these gauge theories can be made to obey color/kinematics duality by exhibiting particular additional Lie-algebraic relations. We discuss in detail explicit examples with N=2 supersymmetry, focusing on Yang-Mills-Einstein supergravity theories belonging to the generic Jordan family in four and five dimensions, and identify the map between the supergravity and double-copy fields and parameters. We also briefly discuss the application of our results to N=4 supergravity theories. The constructions are illustrated by explicit examples of tree-level and one-loop scattering amplitudes.
One-loop quantum gravity in the Einstein universe
Avramidi, Ivan G.; Collopy, Samuel J.
2015-11-01
We study quantum gravity with the Einstein-Hilbert action including the cosmological constant on the Euclidean Einstein universe S 1 × S 3. We compute exactly the spectra and the heat kernels of the relevant operators on S 3 and use these results to compute the heat trace of the graviton and ghost operators and the exact one-loop effective action on S 1 × S 3. We show that the system is unstable in the infrared limit due to the presence of the negative modes of the graviton and the ghost operators. We study the thermal properties of the model with the temperature T = (2 πa 1)-1 determined by the radius a 1 of the circle S 1. We show that the heat capacity C v is well defined and behaves like ˜ T 3 in the high temperature limit and has a singularity of the type ˜ ( T - T c )-1, indicating a second-order phase transition, with the critical temperature T c determined by the cosmological constant Λ and the radius a of the sphere S 3. We also discuss some peculiar properties of the model such as the negative heat capacity as well as possible physical applications.
The Generalized Conversion Factor in Einstein's Mass-Energy Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ajay Sharma
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Einstein's September 1905 paper is origin of light energy-mass inter conversion equation ($L = Delta mc^{2}$ and Einstein speculated $E = Delta mc^{2}$ from it by simply replacing $L$ by $E$. From its critical analysis it follows that $L = Delta mc^{2}$ is only true under special or ideal conditions. Under general cases the result is $L propto Delta mc^{2}$ ($E propto Delta mc^{2}$. Consequently an alternate equation $Delta E = A ub c^{2}Delta M$ has been suggested, which implies that energy emitted on annihilation of mass can be equal, less and more than predicted by $Delta E = Delta mc^{2}$. The total kinetic energy of fission fragments of U-235 or Pu-239 is found experimentally 20-60 MeV less than Q-value predicted by $Delta mc^{2}$. The mass of particle Ds (2317 discovered at SLAC, is more than current estimates. In many reactions including chemical reactions $E = Delta mc^{2}$ is not confirmed yet, but regarded as true. It implies the conversion factor than $c^{2}$ is possible. These phenomena can be explained with help of generalized mass-energy equation $Delta E = A ub c^{2}Delta M$.
Einstein y la filosofía del siglo XX
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sánchez Ron, José Manuel
2007-12-01
Full Text Available The philosophical influences that helped Albert Einstein to build the special relativity theory are studied as his philosophical opinions changed as time passed to adapt to the content of his physics: this characteristic was particularly notorious in connection with the general theory of the relativity. The reception of Einstein’s relativity in the Philosophy World is studied too, first of all in the German-speaking world (Schlick, Cassirer, Reichenbach, Carnap y Popper, next in the British one (Russell, idealism versus realism, then in the US (Bridgman, operationalism and also in the Spanish world (Ortega y Gasset.Se analizan las influencias filosóficas que ayudaron a Albert Einstein en la construcción de la teoría de la relatividad especial, y cómo sus opiniones filosóficas cambiaron con el tiempo para adecuarlas al contenido de su física, un rasgo que es especialmente notorio con relación a la teoría general de la relatividad. Asimismo, se considera la recepción de la relatividad einsteiniana en el mundo filosófico; primero en el de habla alemana (los casos, especialmente, de Schlick, Cassirer, Reichenbach, Carnap y Popper, británico (Russell, idealismo versus realismo, estadounidense (operacionalismo, Bridgman y español (Ortega y Gasset.
Spherically symmetric static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krishna Rao, J.; Trivedi, M.M.
1998-01-01
We report a new formalism to obtain solutions of Einstein-Maxwell's equations for static spheres assuming the matter content to be a charged perfect fluid of null-conductivity. Defining three new variables u = 4 4πΕr 2 , v= 4πpr 2 and w= (4π/3)(ρ+ε)r 2 where Ε, ρ and ε denote respectively energy densities of the electric, matter and free gravitational fields whereas p is the fluid pressure, Einstein's field equations are rewritten in an elegant form. The solutions given are all shown to possess simple relations between u, v and w. Another solution for which all the three functions, u, v and w are constants is a trivial case of the present formalism. We have presented six new solutions with ε= 2ρ. For the first three solutions w and u are constants with v as a variable whereas the remaining three solutions satisfy the equation of state for isothermal gas; v=kw=-ku where: i) k is an arbitrary constant but not equal to 1 or 1/3, ii) k= 1 and iii) k= 1/3. We also obtained a generalization of Cooperstock and De la Cruz's solution which is regular for 2ρ > ε but singular for 2ρ ≤ ε. (author)
Fast scrambling in holographic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair
Murata, Keiju
2017-11-01
We demonstrate that a holographic model of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair exhibits fast scrambling. Strongly entangled quark and antiquark in N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory are considered. Their gravity dual is a fundamental string whose endpoints are uniformly accelerated in opposite direction. We slightly increase the acceleration of the endpoint and show that it quickly destroys the correlation between the quark and antiquark. The proper time scale of the destruction is τ ∗ ˜ β ln S where β is the inverse Unruh temperature and S is the entropy of the accelerating quark. We also evaluate the Lyapunov exponent from correlation function as λ L = 2 π/ β, which saturates the Lyapunov bound. Our results suggest that the fast scrambling or saturation of the Lyapunov bound do not directly imply the existence of an Einstein dual. When we slightly decrease the acceleration, the quark and antiquark are causally connected and an "one-way traversable wormhole" is created on the worldsheet. It causes the divergence of the correlation function between the quark and antiquark.