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Sample records for tritrichomonas foetus inosine

  1. Tritrichomonas foetus bij de kat

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    van der Leij, W.J.R.

    Tritrichomonas foetus-infecties bij katten verlopen vaak symptoomloos, maar kunnen ook tot chronische colitis leiden. Klinische klachten worden vooral gevonden bij jonge raskatten. Of dit te maken heeft met de leefomstandigheden van raskatten of met een verhoogde gevoeligheid is niet duidelijk. De

  2. Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Júnior Mário Baltazar de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. de Oliveira J.M.B., Batista Filho A.F.B., Borges J. de M., Soares L.B.F., Ortega-Mora L.M., Brandespim D.F., Mota R.A. & Pinheiro Júnior J.W. Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. [Tritrichomonas foetus em touros no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:449-453, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Sanidade e Reprodução de Ruminantes. Unidade Acadêmica de Garanhuns, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Av. Bom Pastor s/n, Boa Vista, Garanhuns, Pernambuco, 55296-901, Brazil. E-mail: juniormariobaltazar@gmail.com The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. In total, 105 samples of preputial smegma were collected from bulls in service belonging to different herds (n=63 and slaughterhouses (n=42. Genomic DNA extraction from collected samples was carried out to identify the agent in the samples and they were also submitted to the polymerase chain reaction. A frequency of 6.6% (2.7 - 13.2%; C.I. 95% was found for T. foetus. None of the slaughterhouse samples were positive. With regards to the number of foci, 21.8% (7/32 of the properties contained animals that were positive for T. foetus. In conclusion, T. foetus infection occurred in bulls in this way, this agent should be included in the diagnosis in animal health control programs. Therefore, as the removal of infected bulls and their replacement by younger animals, should be implemented in order to avoid the dissemination of the agent in herds.

  3. Hemolytic activity of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus

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    Geraldo A De Carli

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The hemolytic activity of live isolates and clones of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus was investigated. The isolates were tested against human erythrocytes. No hemolytic activity was detected by the isolates of T. foetus. Whereas the isolates of T. vaginalis lysed erythrocytes from all human blood groups. No hemolysin released by the parasites could be detected. Our preliminary results suggest that hemolysis depend on the susceptibility of red cell membranes to destabilization and the intervention of cell surface receptors as a mechanism of the hemolytic activity. The mechanism could be subject to strain-species-genera specific variation of trichomonads. The hemolytic activity of T. vaginalis is not due to a hemolysin or to a product of its metabolism. Pretreatment of trichomonads with concanavalin A reduced levels of hemolysis by 40%.

  4. Immunohistochemical detection of Tritrichomonas foetus in experimentally infected mice

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    Monteavaro Cristina Esther

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to intensify knowledge of the pathogenesis of bovine genital trichomoniasis (BGT led to the use of alternative animal models such as the mouse. Nevertheless, it is necessary to elucidate the dynamics of the infection in this animal species, evaluating different stages of the colonization and evolution of the pathological alterations. The immunohistochemistry (IHC offers advantages over the routine histopathological staining techniques for the detection of the protozoan in tissues, cellular detritus and inside the macrophages. The goal of the present study was to demonstrate the presence of Tritrichomonas foetus in the reproductive tract of infected mice using an IHC technique. Female BALB/c mice were infected with a suspension of T. foetus by intravaginal route, in the estrum phase, detected by exfoliative vaginal cytology. After 10 weeks, the animals were sacrificed; uterus and vagina were fixed and histologically processed. Some slides were stained with HE. The rest of the slides were processed for IHC. An immunoadsorbed polyclonal serum against T. foetus was used. The avidine-biotine technique (HistoMouse, Zymed[tm] was employed. The histopathological studies showed a dilation of the uterine glands, presence of macrophages in the lumen of the organ and inner part of the endometrial glands. No T. foetus was identified using this method. The IHQ allowed additionally the identification of the protozoan in the endometrium, endometrial glands, uterine lumen and inside neutrophils and macrophages. The cytological studies stained with IHC showed either isolated T. foetus adhered to epithelial cells or inside macrophages. This technique proves to be a useful tool for the study of the pathogenesis of bovine genital trichomoniasis (BGT in an experimental model.

  5. Viabilidade de Tritrichomonas foetus após congelamento com diferentes crioprotetores Viability of Tritrichomonas foetus after freezing with diferents cryoprotectors

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    Nelson Éder Martins

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a viabilidade de um isolado de Tritrichomonas foetus criopreservada com glicerol e dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO a -196ºC. Isolados do protozoário foram descongeladas dois dias após o congelamento e 6, 12, 18 e 26 meses, para avaliação de sua viabilidade. Em todos os tempos analisados, o congelamento foi viável em 60% e 90% das amostras congeladas com glicerol a 10% e DMSO a 12%, respectivamente.The aim of this work was to evaluate the viabilitity of Tritrichomonas foetus cryopreservated with glycerol and dimethilsulphosyde (DMSO at -196ºC. Samples of the protozoa were thaw two days and 6, 12, 18, and 26 months after freezing to be evaluated. In the time analyzed, the freezing was viable in 60% and 90% of freeze samples with glycerol at 10% and DMSO at 12%, respectively.

  6. Tritrichomonas foetus adhere to superhydrophilic vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube surface

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    Moreira Machado, Susane [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, 12244-000, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Oliveira Lobo, Anderson, E-mail: loboao@yahoo.com [Laboratorio de Nanotecnologia Biomedica (NanoBio), Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12244-000, SP (Brazil); Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Vibracional Biomedica, Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Avenida Shishima Hifumi, 2911, CEP 12244-000, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Bueno Loureiro Sapucahy, Ariel [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, 12244-000, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Marciano, Fernanda Roberta [Laboratorio de Nanotecnologia Biomedica (NanoBio), Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12244-000, SP (Brazil); Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Vibracional Biomedica, Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Avenida Shishima Hifumi, 2911, CEP 12244-000, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Corat, Evaldo Jose [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Laboratorio Associado de Sensores e Materiais (LAS), Av. dos Astronautas 1758, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12227-010 SP (Brazil); Soares da Silva, Newton [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, 12244-000, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-10

    For the first time, we show that Tritrichomonas foetus can adhere on superhydrophilic vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) films. Scanning electron microscopy shows an unusual adhesion with a higher membrane filopodium projection in all directions, directly attached to superhydrophilic VACNT tips. Highlights: {yields} This is a new method to study the T. foetus adhesion mechanism. {yields} SEM images and interfacial adhesion force show a high adhesion level. {yields} It is very important for future understanding mechanism adhesion and protein expression.

  7. Tritrichomonas foetus adhere to superhydrophilic vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube surface

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    Moreira Machado, Susane; Oliveira Lobo, Anderson; Bueno Loureiro Sapucahy, Ariel; Marciano, Fernanda Roberta; Corat, Evaldo Jose; Soares da Silva, Newton

    2011-01-01

    For the first time, we show that Tritrichomonas foetus can adhere on superhydrophilic vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) films. Scanning electron microscopy shows an unusual adhesion with a higher membrane filopodium projection in all directions, directly attached to superhydrophilic VACNT tips. Highlights: → This is a new method to study the T. foetus adhesion mechanism. → SEM images and interfacial adhesion force show a high adhesion level. → It is very important for future understanding mechanism adhesion and protein expression.

  8. A cross-sectional study of Tritrichomonas foetus infection among healthy cats at shows in Norway

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    Nødtvedt Ane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus has been recognised as an important cause of chronic large-bowel diarrhoea in purebred cats in many countries, including Norway. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the proportion of animals with T. foetus infection among clinically healthy cats in Norway and to assess different risk factors for T. foetus infection, such as age, sex, former history of gastrointestinal symptoms and concurrent infections with Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium sp. Methods The sample population consisted of 52 cats participating in three cat shows in Norway in 2009. Samples were examined for motile T. foetus by microscopy, after culturing and for T. foetus-DNA by species-specific nested PCR, as well as for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Results By PCR, T. foetus-DNA was demonstrated in the faeces of 11 (21% of the 52 cats tested. DNA-sequencing of five positive samples yielded 100% identity with previous isolates of T. foetus from cats. Only one sample was positive for T. foetus by microscopy. By IFAT, four samples were positive for Giardia cysts and one for Cryptosporidium oocysts, none of which was co-infected with T. foetus. No significant associations were found between the presence of T. foetus and the various risk factors examined. Conclusions T. foetus was found to be a common parasite in clinically healthy cats in Norway.

  9. New metabolic labelling medium for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus using 35S methionine

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    Torian, B.E.; Kenny, G.E.

    1986-04-01

    A metabolic labelling medium was devised for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus utilizing 35S methionine. T. vaginalis cultured for 24h in the medium took up approximately 27% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in number. Counts per microgram of protein were 32,555 +/- 10% between different strains or identical strains in different labelling runs. T. foetus took up approximately 5% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in 24h. This resulted in specific labelling of 12,704 cpm/ug protein +/- 10% between different runs with the same strain.

  10. New metabolic labelling medium for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus using 35S methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torian, B.E.; Kenny, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    A metabolic labelling medium was devised for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus utilizing 35S methionine. T. vaginalis cultured for 24h in the medium took up approximately 27% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in number. Counts per microgram of protein were 32,555 +/- 10% between different strains or identical strains in different labelling runs. T. foetus took up approximately 5% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in 24h. This resulted in specific labelling of 12,704 cpm/ug protein +/- 10% between different runs with the same strain

  11. Cysteine protease 30 (CP30) contributes to adhesion and cytopathogenicity in feline Tritrichomonas foetus.

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    Gould, Emily N; Giannone, Richard; Kania, Stephen A; Tolbert, M Katherine

    2017-09-15

    Tritrichomonas foetus (T. foetus) is a flagellated protozoan parasite that is recognized as a significant cause of diarrhea in domestic cats with a prevalence rate as high as 30%. No drugs have been shown to consistently eliminate T. foetus infection in all cats. Cysteine proteases (CPs) have been identified as mediators of T. foetus-induced adhesion-dependent cytotoxicity to the intestinal epithelium. These CPs represent novel targets for the treatment of feline trichomonosis. However, cats also produce CPs that are part of life-critical systems. Thus, parasitic CPs need to be selectively targeted to reduce the potential for host toxicity. Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of a specific CP, CP30, in mediating bovine and human trichomonad cytopathogenicity. This CP has also recently been identified in feline T. foetus, although the function of this protease in the feline genotype remains unknown. Therefore, the study objectives were to characterize the presence of CP30 in feline T. foetus isolates and to evaluate the effect of targeted inhibition of CP30 on feline T. foetus-induced adhesion dependent cytotoxicity. The presence of CP30 in feline T. foetus isolates was identified by In gel zymography and proteomic analysis, indirect immunofluorescence (IF), and flow cytometry using a rabbit polyclonal antibody that targets bovine T. foetus CP30 (α-CP30). The effect of inhibition of CP30 activity on T. foetus adhesion and cytotoxicity was determined using CFSE-labeled feline T. foetus and crystal violet spectrophotometric assays in a previously validated co-culture model. CP30 expression was confirmed in all feline T. foetus isolates tested by all assays. Targeted inhibition of feline T. foetus CP30 resulted in decreased T. foetus adhesion to and cytotoxicity towards IPEC-J2 monolayers compared to rabbit IgG-treated T. foetus isolates. These studies establish that CP30 is expressed by feline T. foetus isolates and may be an important virulence factor

  12. Heterologous expression in Tritrichomonas foetus of functional Trichomonas vaginalis AP65 adhesin

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    Alderete JF

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichomonosis, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, is the number one, nonviral sexually transmitted infection that has adverse consequences for the health of women and children. The interaction of T. vaginalis with vaginal epithelial cells (VECs, a step preparatory to infection, is mediated in part by the prominent surface protein AP65. The bovine trichomonad, Tritrichomonas foetus, adheres poorly to human VECs. Thus, we established a transfection system for heterologous expression of the T. vaginalis AP65 in T. foetus, as an alternative approach to confirm adhesin function for this virulence factor. Results In this study, we show stable transfection and expression of the T. vaginalis ap65 gene in T. foetus from an episomal pBS-ap65-neo plasmid. Expression of the gene and protein was confirmed by RT-PCR and immunoblots, respectively. AP65 in transformed T. foetus bound to host cells. Specific mAbs revealed episomally-expressed AP65 targeted to the parasite surface and hydrogenosome organelles. Importantly, surface-expression of AP65 in T. foetus paralleled increased levels of adherence of transfected bovine trichomonads to human VECs. Conclusion The T. vaginalis AP65 adhesin was stably expressed in T. foetus, and the data obtained using this heterologous system strongly supports the role of AP65 as a prominent adhesin for T. vaginalis. In addition, the heterologous expression in T. foetus of a T. vaginalis gene offers an important, new approach for confirming and characterizing virulence factors.

  13. Interaction of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus with keratin: an important role in parasite infection

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    Ricardo Chaves Vilela

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are human and bovine parasites, respectively, that provoke the sexually transmitted disease trichomoniasis. These extracellular parasites adhere to the host epithelial cell surface. Although mucinases and proteases have been described as important proteins for parasite adhesion to epithelial cells, no studies have examined the role of the keratin molecules that cornify the vaginal epithelium. Here, we investigated the interaction of T. vaginalis and T. foetus with human keratin in vitro; additionally, adherence assays were performed in cattle with T. foetus to elucidate whether trichomonads were able to interact with keratin in vivo. We demonstrated that both T. vaginalisand T. foetusinteracted directly with keratin. Additionally, the trichomonads ingested and digested keratin, shedding new light on the Trichomonas infection process.

  14. Experimentally induced intravaginal Tritrichomonas foetus infection in a mouse model Infecção experimental intravaginal com Tritricho-monas foetus em modelo camundongo

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    Pedro Soto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest to develop research on the host-parasite relationship in bovine tritrichomonosis has accomplished the use of experimental models alternative to cattle. The BALB/c mouse became the most appropriate species susceptible to vaginal Tritrichomonas foetus infection requiring previous estrogenization. For the need of an experimental model without persistent estrogenization and with normal estrous cycles, the establishment and persistence of vaginal infection on BALB/c mouse with different concentrations of T. foetus in two experimental groups was evaluated. Group A was treated with 5mg of b-estradiol 3-benzoate to synchronize the estrous, 48 hours before the T. foetus vaginal inoculation, and Group B was inoculated in natural estrus. At 5-7 days after treatment, estrogenic effect decreased allowing all animals to cycle regularly during the experiment. From the first week post-infection, samples of vaginal mucus were taken from all animals during 34 weeks, in order to evaluate the course of infection and the stage of the estrus cycle. Group A showed 93.6% of infected animals, and Group B showed 38%. Different doses of T. foetus were assayed to establish the vaginal infection, with a persistence of 34 weeks. Although different behavior was observed in each subgroup belonging to either Group A or Group B, there were no significant differences among the infecting doses used. The b-estradiol 3-benzoate treatment had a favorable effect on the establishment of the infection (PA necessidade de esclarecer a relação agente-hospedeiro na tricomoníase bovina deu motivo para o uso de modelos experimentais alternativos ao bovino. O camundongo BALB/c resultou como espécie mais adequada para a infeção vaginal com Tritrichomonas foetus, requerendo uma estrogenização prévia. Visando a necessidade de um modelo experimental sem estrogenização persistente e com ciclos estrais normais, foi avaliada a instalação e persistência da infeção vaginal

  15. IL-10 release by bovine epithelial cells cultured with Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus

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    Ricardo Chaves Vilela

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are parasitic protists of the human and bovine urogenital tracts, respectively. Several studies have described the cytotoxic effects of trichomonads on urogenital tract epithelial cells. However, little is known about the host cell response against trichomonads. The aim of this study was to determine whether T. foetus and T. vaginalis stimulated the release of the cytokine interleukin (IL-10 from cultured bovine epithelial cells. To characterise the inflammatory response induced by these parasites, primary cultures of bovine oviduct epithelial cells were exposed to either T. vaginalis or T. foetus. Within 12 h after parasite challenge, supernatants were collected and cytokine production was analysed. Large amounts of IL-10 were detected in the supernatants of cultures that had been stimulated with T. foetus. Interestingly, T. vaginalis induced only a small increase in the release of IL-10 upon exposure to the same bovine cells. Thus, the inflammatory response of the host cell is species-specific. Only T. foetus and not T. vaginalis induced the release of IL-10 by bovine oviduct epithelial cells.

  16. Co-infection by Tritrichomonas foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis in asymptomatic cats

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    Caroline Spitz dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tritrichomonas foetus, a parasite well known for its significance as a venereally transmitted pathogen in cattle, has been identified as a cause of chronic large bowel diarrhea in domestic cats in many countries of the world. In Brazil, several studies on the diagnosis of bovine trichomoniasis have been performed, but until now, no study was made regarding feline trichomoniasis. Thus, this is the first study to report the occurrence of T. foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis in cats using morphological and molecular analysis. Feces from 77 cats were examined, four of which (5.2% were positive for the presence of parabasalids. Morphological analysis of stained smears revealed piriform trophozoites showing the three anterior flagella, elongated nucleus and axostyle ending abruptly in fillet, characteristic of T. foetus. In scanning and transmission electron microscopy, identification characters similar to those previously reported for T. foetus were observed. The cultures containing trophozoites were submitted for molecular analysis, which resulted positive for T. foetus DNA using specific primers (TFR3 and TFR4, and all samples were positive and subjected to sequencing in which they showed 99.7-100% similarity with another isolate sequencing of T. foetus (JX960422. Although no trophozoite with consistent morphology of P. hominis has been visualized in the samples, differential diagnosis was performed using specific primers for P. hominis (TH3 and TH5 amplicon. In three of the four samples (3.89% sequencing revealed 100% similarity when compared with another sequence of P. hominis deposited in Genbank (KC623939. Therefore, the present study revealed through the diagnostic techniques employed the simultaneous infection by T. foetus and P. hominis in the feces of cats. However, it was necessary to use more than one technique for the diagnosis of the co-infection. These results demonstrate the importance of a correct diagnosis to allow an

  17. A cross-sectional study of Tritrichomonas foetus infection in feral and shelter cats in Prince Edward Island, Canada

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    Raab, Oriana; Greenwood, Spencer; Vanderstichel, Raphael; Gelens, Hans

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study examined the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus, and other intestinal parasites, in feral and shelter cats in Prince Edward Island (PEI). Fecal samples were collected from 100 feral cats, 100 cats from the PEI Humane Society, and 5 cats from a private residence. The occurrence of T. foetus, based on fecal culture, was 0% in feral and shelter cats. A single positive sample was obtained from an owned Abyssinian cat that was imported to PEI. Intestinal parasites were ide...

  18. Collection of preputial material by scraping and aspiration for the diagnosis of Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls

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    P.C. Irons

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Two trials were carried out to assess the diagnostic sensitivity and practicability of preputial scraping as a method of collecting preputial material from bulls infected with Tritrichomonas foetus. In the 1st trial, preputial material was collected by simultaneous scraping and aspiration from 3 infected and 1 uninfected bull 10 times over a 5-week period. In the 2nd trial, samples from 5 infected bulls were collected by both sheath washing and scraping on 6 occasions, while 8 uninfected animals were sampled 3 times. Samples were cultured using a modified Trichomonas culture medium (Oxoid. In the first trial, 29 of 30 samples from infected bulls were found to be positive. In the second trial, 83 % of samples collected by both methods tested positive. In neither trial were any samples from the control bulls found to be positive. Scraping was found to be quick and safe, and offered advantages over preputial washing in that urine contamination was easily avoided, samples were smaller and more concentrated and contamination was reduced. It may, however, be subject to greater operator variability than sheath washing. It is concluded that preputial scraping is as effective as washing and represents a suitable alternative for the collection of material for direct examination and culture of Tritrichomonas foetus.

  19. Sequence differences in the diagnostic region of the cysteine protease 8 gene of Tritrichomonas foetus parasites of cats and cattle.

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    Sun, Zichen; Stack, Colin; Šlapeta, Jan

    2012-05-25

    In order to investigate the genetic variation between Tritrichomonas foetus from bovine and feline origins, cysteine protease 8 (CP8) coding sequence was selected as the polymorphic DNA marker. Direct sequencing of CP8 coding sequence of T. foetus from four feline isolates and two bovine isolates with polymerase chain reaction successfully revealed conserved nucleotide polymorphisms between feline and bovine isolates. These results provide useful information for CP8-based molecular differentiation of T. foetus genotypes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of far-UV and near-UV radiation on the cell surface charge of the protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus

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    Silva Filho, F C; Elias, C A; Souza, W de

    1986-05-01

    Cell electrophoresis was used to detect the effect of far-UV or near-UV radiation on the cell surface charge of the pathogenic protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus. Either far-UV or near-UV radiation interfered with the surface charge of T. foetus at fluences which inhibited cell growth by 50%. Both UV-radiations induced a significant decrease on surface charge of T. foetus, as evaluated by measurement of its electrophoretic mobility (EPM). Determinations of EPM of protozoa in solution of low ionic strength indicated that the decrease in the EPM induced by far-UV is much less pronounced that that observed for near-UV or control cells.

  1. Coinfection with Tritrichomonas foetus and Giardia duodenalis in Two Cats with Chronic Diarrhea

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    Sergio A. Zanzani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A Tritrichomonas foetus and Giardia duodenalis mixed infection was diagnosed in two Maine Coon cats aged six months. One of them presented a history of chronic liquid diarrhea and of several unsuccessful treatments. In both cats, G. duodenalis and trichomonads were detected in fecal smears from freshly voided feces; the presence of T. foetus was confirmed by a real-time PCR assay. The cats completely recovered after treatment with ronidazole. In a refrigerated fecal sample collected from the cat with chronic diarrhea, drop-shaped trichomonad pseudocysts smaller than G. duodenalis cysts were detected. They appeared brownish or light-bluish when stained with Lugol’s solution or with Giemsa stain, respectively, and their morphological features were similar to those expressed by bovine T. foetus pseudocysts in vitro. Existence of pseudocysts even in feline trichomonads is noteworthy as they could represent a form of protozoan resistance due to unfavorable conditions whose detection in refrigerated feces can be a useful clue for clinicians.

  2. Investigation of sexually transmitted protozoan parasite Tritrichomonas foetus in cattle in Bangladesh

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    MR Islam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine trichomoniasis is a venereal disease caused by the protozoa Tritrichomonas foetus. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of T. foetus in cattle and associated risk factors. A total of 200 samples from 183 cows and 17 bulls were collected from Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Bangladesh Agricultural University; Mymensingh district and Regional station of Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute in Shahjadpur, Sirajgonj during the period from March 2015 to May 2016. Among 200 cattle, 65 were indigenous, 100 were Holstein cross and 35 were Shahiwal cross bred. The collected samples were vaginal and uterine washing, aborted foetus and semen. The samples were collected from vagina and uterus by flashing with phosphate buffer solution by artificial insemination tube connected with 20 ml syringe. The samples were examined for T. foetus under microscope. The samples were examined on the same day of collection. Out of 200 samples examined, 3 (1.5% were found infected with T. foetus protozoa. Among these 3 positive cases of tritrichomoniasis, one was detected in aborted foetal materials and other two were detected in vaginal washings. We did not find any T. foetus in the semen samples from the bulls. Therefore, bulls represent zero prevalence of T. foetus. During the study period the examined animals were categorized into three age groups viz. 40, 60 and 100 cattle for below 3 years, over 3 years to below 6 years and over 6 years to ten years, respectively. The prevalence rate was found in adult cattle over 6 years (>610 years was 2.00%, over 3 years (>36 years was 1.66% and below 3 years (<3 years was 0%. In the study, prevalence rate of cross bred animals were 2.22% and no infection was found in indigenous bred. So, this preliminary study indicates that a low prevalence rate of bovine trichomoniasis present in cattle in this study area. Further investigation using serological and molecular method will help to detect precisely the

  3. The Caatinga endemic Manilkara rufula possesses remarkable activity against Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus.

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    de Brum Vieira, Patrícia; Feijó Silva, Nícolas Luiz; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; da Silva, Alexandre Gomes; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; Bastida, Jaume; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2017-02-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus infects the bovine urogenital tract, causing bovine trichomoniasis. Significant economic losses may occur due to infertility and abortion among cattle. Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis; the most common but overlooked non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Human and bovine trichomoniasis present treatment restrictions and efforts to identify new alternatives are essential. The present study evaluated the anti-trichomonads activities of seven fractions from northwest endemic plant Manilkara rufula. Flavonoids and condensed tannins were identified from these fractions by LC-DAD-MS/MS and MALDI-MS/MS. Altogether, the results demonstrated for the first time the structural description of tannins from leaves of M. rufula and the relation of these compounds with anti-T. vaginalis and anti-T. foetus activities. Overall, this report reveals the potential of M. rufula fractions against both parasites and shows new alternatives to treat the infection caused by trichomonads. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of natural occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats in Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Roberta P. Duarte

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats in the area surrounding the city of Araçatuba municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Fecal samples from 129 cats were collected by rectal flush technique. It was compared two diagnosis methods, direct examination of feces and PCR. The presence of T. foetus DNA was verified using PCR by amplification of 347-bp fragment from the primers TFR3 and TFR4 and amplicons of positive cases were sequenced. Statistical analyses were performed investigating the associations between T. foetus infection with gender, age, breed, presence of diarrhea and/or history of diarrhea, previous treatment, lifestyle, origin, environment, and co-infection. T. foetus was observed in one sample (n=129 by direct microscopic examination of feces while PCR was positive in five samples (3.9%. Giardia species and Cryptosporidium species co-infection was also observed. Statistical analyses showed no significant associations between T. foetus infection and all listed factors, although most positive cats were asymptomatic and lived in multi-cat household. The isolates of T. foetus showed 100% identical sequences with other T. foetus isolates from cats around the world. So, the occurrence of T. foetus was confirmed in cats in Araçatuba city (Brazil. This parasite must be considered as a differential diagnosis in cats with diarrhea and also in asymptomatic carriers as source of infection in multi-cat environments.

  5. Effects of bacterial contamination of media on the diagnosis of Tritrichomonas foetus by culture and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, Kristin A; Villanueva, Michelle; Torain, Andrea; Hult, Cynthia; Wallace, Rachel

    2015-03-15

    The venereal pathogen Tritrichomonas foetus causes early embryonic death and abortion in cattle. With no approved treatment, control involves detection of infected animals and their removal from the herd. Culture is the traditional diagnostic method; standard media are formulated to support protozoal growth while suppressing competing organisms which may prevent microscopic recognition of T. foetus. Real-time PCR increases diagnostic sensitivity and specificity over culture but requires intact T. foetus DNA for detection. The purposes of this study were 1) to evaluate the effects of resident preputial bacteria that are not suppressed by antimicrobials in a commercial culture medium (InPouch™) on T. foetus detection by culture and PCR, and 2) to determine the performance of a laboratory-prepared culture medium on T. foetus detection by culture and PCR in samples with and without this bacterial contamination. A known concentration of one of three different strains of T. foetus inoculated into InPouch™ (IP) or modified Diamonds-Plastridge media (DPM) were co-incubated with a smegma culture media (CONTAM) for 24h and examined microscopically for the presence of identifiable T. foetus. PCR was performed on IP samples to determine if CONTAM also affected T. foetus DNA detection. A PCR protocol was then validated in DPM that performed similarly to the established IP PCR method. IP and DPM with CONTAM were spiked with serial dilutions that mimic field infections of one of four T. foetus strains and evaluated by real-time PCR; cycles to threshold (Ct) values and "positive" classification were compared between media. T. foetus motility and morphology as well as media pH were severely altered in IP samples with CONTAM compared to those without as well as to DPM medium with and without CONTAM (Pmedia interfere with T. foetus identification by culture and PCR and adversely affect diagnostic sensitivity for this fastidious pathogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  6. Cysteine protease 30 (CP30) contributes to adhesion and cytopathogenicity in feline Tritrichomonas foetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, Emily N. [Univ. of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, Knoxville, TN (United States); Giannone, Richard [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kania, Stephen A. [The Univ. of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tolbert, M. Katherine [Univ. of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus (T. foetus) is a flagellated protozoan parasite that is recognized as a significant cause of diarrhea in domestic cats with a prevalence rate as high as 30%. No drugs have been shown to consistently eliminate T. foetus infection in all cats. Cysteine proteases (CPs) have been identified as mediators of T. foetus-induced adhesion-dependent cytotoxicity to the intestinal epithelium. These CPs represent novel targets for the treatment of feline trichomonosis. However, cats also produce CPs that are part of life-critical systems. Thus, parasitic CPs need to be selectively targeted to reduce the potential for host toxicity. Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of a specific CP, CP30, in mediating bovine and human trichomonad cytopathogenicity. This CP has also recently been identified in feline T. foetus, although the function of this protease in the feline genotype remains unknown. Furthermore, the study objectives were to characterize the presence of CP30 in feline T. foetus isolates and to evaluate the effect of targeted inhibition of CP30 on feline T. foetus-induced adhesion dependent cytotoxicity.

  7. Photodynamic therapy in the cattle protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus cultivated on superhydrophilic carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Susane Moreira [Laboratory of Tissue and Cell Biology, Development and Research Institute (IP and D), Universidade do Vale do Paraíba (UNIVAP), Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Urbanova, 12244-000 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Pacheco-Soares, Cristina [Laboratory of Tissue and Cell Biology, Development and Research Institute (IP and D), Universidade do Vale do Paraíba (UNIVAP), Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Urbanova, 12244-000 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Laboratory of Dynamics of Cellular Compartments, Development and Research Institute (IP and D), Universidade do Vale do Paraíba (UNIVAP), Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Urbanova, 12244-000 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Marciano, Fernanda Roberta; Lobo, Anderson Oliveira [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology, Development and Research Institute (IP and D), Universidade do Vale do Paraíba (UNIVAP), Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Urbanova, 12244-000 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Soares da Silva, Newton, E-mail: nsoares@univap.br [Laboratory of Tissue and Cell Biology, Development and Research Institute (IP and D), Universidade do Vale do Paraíba (UNIVAP), Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Urbanova, 12244-000 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Laboratory of Dynamics of Cellular Compartments, Development and Research Institute (IP and D), Universidade do Vale do Paraíba (UNIVAP), Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Urbanova, 12244-000 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-01

    Superhydrophilic vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT-O{sub 2}) were used for the first time as scaffolds for photodynamic therapy (PDT) to induce inhibition of cell division in eukaryotic cells. VACNT-O{sub 2} scaffolds were produced on Ti substrates using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique and functionalized by oxygen plasma. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to characterize the surface changes of the protozoan and interaction with VACNT-O{sub 2}. Characterization of lipid and total protein expression was performed with protozoa that were or not treated with PDT. Quantification of protein was conducted using Qubit fluorometer and separated on a polyacrylamide gel. SEM analysis showed the release of lipid vesicles by protozoa after the PDT. These vesicles were characterized by the PKH26 fluorescent probe. The results demonstrated a greater amount of protein released after PDT than in the control. When analyzing the protein material in polyacrylamide gel, a significant protein expression of approximately 65 kDa was found. A model identified the programmed death of Tritrichomonas foetus after the PDT was also proposed. - Highlights: • VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} used for the first time as scaffolds for study in parasitic protozoan. • VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} films applied to understand spreading mechanisms of parasitic protozoan. • A release of a protein of approximately 65kDa of protozoan was also observed.

  8. Photodynamic therapy in the cattle protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus cultivated on superhydrophilic carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Susane Moreira; Pacheco-Soares, Cristina; Marciano, Fernanda Roberta; Lobo, Anderson Oliveira; Soares da Silva, Newton

    2014-01-01

    Superhydrophilic vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT-O 2 ) were used for the first time as scaffolds for photodynamic therapy (PDT) to induce inhibition of cell division in eukaryotic cells. VACNT-O 2 scaffolds were produced on Ti substrates using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique and functionalized by oxygen plasma. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to characterize the surface changes of the protozoan and interaction with VACNT-O 2 . Characterization of lipid and total protein expression was performed with protozoa that were or not treated with PDT. Quantification of protein was conducted using Qubit fluorometer and separated on a polyacrylamide gel. SEM analysis showed the release of lipid vesicles by protozoa after the PDT. These vesicles were characterized by the PKH26 fluorescent probe. The results demonstrated a greater amount of protein released after PDT than in the control. When analyzing the protein material in polyacrylamide gel, a significant protein expression of approximately 65 kDa was found. A model identified the programmed death of Tritrichomonas foetus after the PDT was also proposed. - Highlights: • VAMWCNT-O 2 used for the first time as scaffolds for study in parasitic protozoan. • VAMWCNT-O 2 films applied to understand spreading mechanisms of parasitic protozoan. • A release of a protein of approximately 65kDa of protozoan was also observed

  9. Effect of far-UV and near-UV radiation on the cell surface charge of the protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, F.C.; Elias, C.A.; Souza, W. de

    1986-01-01

    Cell electrophoresis was used to detect the effect of far-UV or near-UV radiation on the cell surface charge of the pathogenic protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus. Either far-UV or near-UV radiation interfered with the surface charge of T. foetus at fluences which inhibited cell growth by 50%. Both UV-radiations induced a significant decrease on surface charge of T. foetus, as evaluated by measurement of its electrophoretic mobility (EPM). Determinations of EPM of protozoa in solution of low ionic strength indicated that the decrease in the EPM induced by far-UV is much less pronounced that that observed for near-UV or control cells. (author)

  10. Characterisation of 20S Proteasome in Tritrichomonas foetus and Its Role during the Cell Cycle and Transformation into Endoflagellar Form.

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    Antonio Pereira-Neves

    Full Text Available Proteasomes are intracellular complexes that control selective protein degradation in organisms ranging from Archaea to higher eukaryotes. These structures have multiple proteolytic activities that are required for cell differentiation, replication and maintaining cellular homeostasis. Here, we document the presence of the 20S proteasome in the protist parasite Tritrichomonas foetus. Complementary techniques, such as a combination of whole genome sequencing technologies, bioinformatics algorithms, cell fractionation and biochemistry and microscopy approaches were used to characterise the 20S proteasome of T. foetus. The 14 homologues of the typical eukaryotic proteasome subunits were identified in the T. foetus genome. Alignment analyses showed that the main regulatory and catalytic domains of the proteasome were conserved in the predicted amino acid sequences from T. foetus-proteasome subunits. Immunofluorescence assays using an anti-proteasome antibody revealed a labelling distributed throughout the cytosol as punctate cytoplasmic structures and in the perinuclear region. Electron microscopy of a T. foetus-proteasome-enriched fraction confirmed the presence of particles that resembled the typical eukaryotic 20S proteasome. Fluorogenic assays using specific peptidyl substrates detected presence of the three typical peptidase activities of eukaryotic proteasomes in T. foetus. As expected, these peptidase activities were inhibited by lactacystin, a well-known specific proteasome inhibitor, and were not affected by inhibitors of serine or cysteine proteases. During the transformation of T. foetus to endoflagellar form (EFF, also known as pseudocyst, we observed correlations between the EFF formation rates, increases in the proteasome activities and reduced levels of ubiquitin-protein conjugates. The growth, cell cycle and EFF transformation of T. foetus were inhibited after treatment with lactacystin in a dose-dependent manner. Lactacystin

  11. A cross-sectional study of Tritrichomonas foetus infection in feral and shelter cats in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Oriana; Greenwood, Spencer; Vanderstichel, Raphael; Gelens, Hans

    2016-03-01

    A cross-sectional study examined the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus, and other intestinal parasites, in feral and shelter cats in Prince Edward Island (PEI). Fecal samples were collected from 100 feral cats, 100 cats from the PEI Humane Society, and 5 cats from a private residence. The occurrence of T. foetus, based on fecal culture, was 0% in feral and shelter cats. A single positive sample was obtained from an owned Abyssinian cat that was imported to PEI. Intestinal parasites were identified via fecal flotation in 76% of feral cats and 39% of cats from the humane society. Feral cats had a higher incidence of Toxocara cati than cats from the humane society (P cats had a higher incidence of Cystoisospora spp. (P feral and shelter cats in PEI, imported cats could serve as reservoirs.

  12. Host origin determines pH tolerance of Tritrichomonas foetus isolates from the feline gastrointestinal and bovine urogenital tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Adeline, Victoria; Fraser, Stuart T; Stack, Colin; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The ability for protozoan parasites to tolerate pH fluctuations within their niche is critical for the establishment of infection and require the parasite to be capable of adapting to a distinct pH range. We used two host adapted Tritrichomonas foetus isolates, capable of infecting either the digestive tract (pH 5.3-6.6) of feline hosts or the reproductive tract (pH 7.4-7.8) of bovine hosts to address their adaptability to changing pH. Using flow cytometry, we investigated the pH tolerance of the bovine and feline T. foetus isolates over a range of physiologically relevant pH in vitro. Following exposure to mild acid stress (pH 6), the bovine T. foetus isolates showed a significant decrease in cell viability and increased cytoplasmic granularity (p-value  0.7). In contrast, the feline genotype displayed an enhanced capacity to maintain cell morphology and viability (p-value > 0.05). Microscopic assessment revealed that following exposure to a weak acidic stress (pH 6), the bovine T. foetus transformed into rounded parasites with extended cell volumes and displays a decrease in viability. The higher tolerance for acidic extracellular environment of the feline isolate compared to the bovine isolate suggests that pH could be a critical factor in regulating T. foetus infections and host-specificity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of presence of Tritrichomonas foetus in uterine lavages from cows with reproductive problems Determinação da presença de Tritrichomonas foetus em lavados uterinos de vacas com problemas reprodutivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Carolina González-Carmona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Tritrichomonasfoetus in two dairy herds on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense. Twenty-one low-volume uterine lavages from cows with a history of reproductive problems in two dairy herds located in the municipality of Sibaté (Cundinamarca and Ventaquemada (Boyacá were evaluated. In the first herd, 10 cows were sampled and in the second, 11 cows, based on three inclusion criteria. The uterine lavages were obtained through infusion of physiological saline solution into the uterine body. The samples were centrifuged and seeded in Tritrichomonas basal medium for 10-15 days at 37 ºC. The protozoa were evaluated on the day of sampling and 10 and 15 days after incubation by means of direct viewing under a dark-field microscope. Positive samples were stained with Wright and Lugol to identify the morphological characteristics. This study showed that T. foetus was present in 61.8% of the animals sampled. The determination that T. foetus was present in 61.8% of the samples analyzed is a significant finding given that in the herds evaluated, this agent had not previously been diagnosed.O objetivo do presente estudo, foi determinar a presença de Tritrichomonas foetus em dois rebanhos leiteiros no Altiplano Cundiboyacense. De vacas com um histórico de problemas reprodutivos, foram avaliados 21 lavados uterinos de pequeno volume, em dois rebanhos leiteiros localizados nos municípios de Sibaté (Cundinamarca e Ventaquemada (Boyacá. No primeiro rebanho, 10 vacas foram amostradas e no segundo 11, baseado em três critérios de inclusão. Os lavados uterinos foram obtidos mediante infusão de solução salina fisiológica no corpo do útero. As amostras foram centrifugadas e semeadas em meio de cultura básico para Tritrichomonas por 10-15 dias a 37 ºC. Os protozoários foram avaliados no dia da colheita de amostras e 10 e 15 dias após incubação por meio de visualização direta sob um microscópio de

  14. Detection of Tritrichomonas foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis in intestinal tissue specimens of cats by chromogenic in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostegl, Meike M; Wetscher, Andreas; Richter, Barbara; Nedorost, Nora; Dinhopl, Nora; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2012-02-10

    In this retrospective study 102 cats were analyzed for the presence of trichomonads in intestinal tissue sections using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). Two intestinal trichomonad species are described in cats: Pentatrichomonas hominis and Tritrichomonas foetus. While P. hominis is considered a mere commensal, T. foetus has been found to be the causative agent of feline large-bowel diarrhea. For the detection of both agents within intestinal tissue CISH assays using three different probes were performed. In the first CISH run a probe specific for all relevant members of the order Trichomonadida (OT probe) was used. In a second CISH run all positive samples were further examined on three consecutive tissue sections using the OT probe, a probe specific for the family of Tritrichomonadidae (Tritri probe) and a newly designed probe specifically detecting P. hominis (Penta hom probe). In total, four of the 102 cats were found to be positive with the OT probe. Thereof, one cat gave a positive reaction with the P. hominis probe and three cats were positive with the T. foetus probe. All Trichomonas-positive cats were pure-bred and between 8 and 32 weeks of age. In one cat positive for T. foetus large amounts of parasites were found in the gut lumen and invading the intestinal mucosa. The species of the detected trichomonads were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing of a part of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. In this study, the usefulness of CISH to detect intestinal trichomonads within feline tissue samples was shown. Additionally, the specific detection of P. hominis using CISH was established. Generally, it was shown that CISH is well suited for detection and differentiation of trichomonosis in retrospective studies using tissue samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus: interaction with fibroblasts and muscle cells - new insights into parasite-mediated host cell cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chaves Vilela

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are parasitic, flagellated protists that inhabit the urogenital tract of humans and bovines, respectively. T. vaginalis causes the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide and has been associated with an increased risk for human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection in humans. Infections by T. foetus cause significant losses to the beef industry worldwide due to infertility and spontaneous abortion in cows. Several studies have shown a close association between trichomonads and the epithelium of the urogenital tract. However, little is known concerning the interaction of trichomonads with cells from deeper tissues, such as fibroblasts and muscle cells. Published parasite-host cell interaction studies have reported contradictory results regarding the ability of T. foetus and T. vaginalis to interact with and damage cells of different tissues. In this study, parasite-host cell interactions were examined by culturing primary human fibroblasts obtained from abdominal biopsies performed during plastic surgeries with trichomonads. In addition, mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, primary chick embryo myogenic cells and L6 muscle cells were also used as models of target cells. The parasite-host cell cultures were processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopy and were tested for cell viability and cell death. JC-1 staining, which measures mitochondrial membrane potential, was used to determine whether the parasites induced target cell damage. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling staining was used as an indicator of chromatin damage. The colorimetric crystal violet assay was performed to ana-lyse the cytotoxicity induced by the parasite. The results showed that T. foetus and T. vaginalis adhered to and were cytotoxic to both fibroblasts and muscle cells, indicating that trichomonas infection of the connective and muscle tissues is likely to occur; such

  16. Anti-Retroviral Lectins Have Modest Effects on Adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis to Epithelial Cells In Vitro and on Recovery of Tritrichomonas foetus in a Mouse Vaginal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Ratner, Daniel M.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Johnson, Patricia J.; O’Keefe, Barry R.; Secor, W. Evan; Anderson, Deborah J.; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes vaginitis and increases the risk of HIV transmission by heterosexual sex, while Tritrichomonas foetus causes premature abortion in cattle. Our goals were to determine the effects, if any, of anti-retroviral lectins, which are designed to prevent heterosexual transmission of HIV, on adherence of Trichomonas to ectocervical cells and on Tritrichomonas infections in a mouse model. We show that Trichomonas Asn-linked glycans (N-glycans), like those of HIV, bind the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) that is part of the innate immune system. N-glycans of Trichomonas and Tritrichomonas bind anti-retroviral lectins (cyanovirin-N and griffithsin) and the 2G12 monoclonal antibody, each of which binds HIV N-glycans. Binding of cyanovirin-N appears to be independent of susceptibility to metronidazole, the major drug used to treat Trichomonas. Anti-retroviral lectins, MBL, and galectin-1 cause Trichomonas to self-aggregate and precipitate. The anti-retroviral lectins also increase adherence of ricin-resistant mutants, which are less adherent than parent cells, to ectocervical cell monolayers and to organotypic EpiVaginal tissue cells. Topical application of either anti-retroviral lectins or yeast N-glycans decreases by 40 to 70% the recovery of Tritrichomonas from the mouse vagina. These results, which are explained by a few simple models, suggest that the anti-retroviral lectins have a modest potential for preventing or treating human infections with Trichomonas. PMID:26252012

  17. Anti-Retroviral Lectins Have Modest Effects on Adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis to Epithelial Cells In Vitro and on Recovery of Tritrichomonas foetus in a Mouse Vaginal Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis causes vaginitis and increases the risk of HIV transmission by heterosexual sex, while Tritrichomonas foetus causes premature abortion in cattle. Our goals were to determine the effects, if any, of anti-retroviral lectins, which are designed to prevent heterosexual transmission of HIV, on adherence of Trichomonas to ectocervical cells and on Tritrichomonas infections in a mouse model. We show that Trichomonas Asn-linked glycans (N-glycans, like those of HIV, bind the mannose-binding lectin (MBL that is part of the innate immune system. N-glycans of Trichomonas and Tritrichomonas bind anti-retroviral lectins (cyanovirin-N and griffithsin and the 2G12 monoclonal antibody, each of which binds HIV N-glycans. Binding of cyanovirin-N appears to be independent of susceptibility to metronidazole, the major drug used to treat Trichomonas. Anti-retroviral lectins, MBL, and galectin-1 cause Trichomonas to self-aggregate and precipitate. The anti-retroviral lectins also increase adherence of ricin-resistant mutants, which are less adherent than parent cells, to ectocervical cell monolayers and to organotypic EpiVaginal tissue cells. Topical application of either anti-retroviral lectins or yeast N-glycans decreases by 40 to 70% the recovery of Tritrichomonas from the mouse vagina. These results, which are explained by a few simple models, suggest that the anti-retroviral lectins have a modest potential for preventing or treating human infections with Trichomonas.

  18. Ocorrência da infecção por Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis e Tritrichomonas foetus em búfalos no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Borges

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivou-se com estudo determinar a ocorrência da infecção por Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis e Tritrichomonas foetus em búfalos no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Foram coletadas 133 amostras biológicas (muco cervicovaginal e raspado prepucial de animais, procedentes de oito propriedades, de diferentes regiões do estado. O material biológico coletado foi transferido para solução salina tamponada (PBS e, posteriormente, inoculado em meios de transporte específicos, Lander para diagnóstico de C. fetus subsp. venerealis e Diamond para T. foetus. Para o diagnóstico das infecções por Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis e Tritrichomonas foetus, as amostras foram submetidas à reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR e cultivadas em meio ágar Columbia acrescido de antibiótico e Diamond, respectivamente. Para pesquisa de C. fetus subsp. venerealis, observou-se uma ocorrência de 1,8% (2/113 de animais positivos no exame microbiológico com confirmação pela PCR. Em relação à procedência, observou-se que 100% das amostras positivas pertenciam a dois machos do mesmo rebanho. Nenhum animal foi positivo na pesquisa de T. foetus. Este é o primeiro registro da infecção por C. fetus subsp. venerealis em búfalos no Brasil. Apesar da baixa ocorrência, recomenda-se adoção de medidas de controle, com o intuito de se evitar a disseminação do agente para outros rebanhos.

  19. Investigação de Campylobacter fetus e Tritrichomonas foetus na mucosa prepucial de touros da região do Médio Paraíba, RJ Campylobacter fetus and Tritrichomonas foetus investigation in prepucial mucous of bulls from Médio Paraíba/RJ region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Soares da Rocha

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Trinta e nove touros provenientes de propriedades de pecuária leiteira (n=9 e de pecuária de corte (n=30, situadas na região do Médio Paraíba, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, foram investigados para a presença de Campylobacter fetus e Tritrichomonas foetus. Para a pesquisa de Campylobacter, amostras de esmegma foram coletadas e submetidas à técnica de cultivo e isolamento e amostras de lavado prepucial ao teste de Imunofluorescência Direta (IFD. Para a pesquisa de Tritrichomonas, foi utilizada a técnica de exame direto a partir de lavado prepucial. Foi observada a presença de C. fetus em 14 amostras (35,9 %, por meio da IFD, e o isolamento de C. fetus, subespécie venerealis, foi obtido a partir de quatro amostras (10,3%. T. foetus não foi identificado nas amostras investigadas. A alta freqüência de C. fetus observada nos animais investigados sugere a presença da campilobacteriose na região do Médio Paraíba, em rebanhos com problemas reprodutivos.Thirty nine breeding bulls from dairy farms (n=9 and beef farms (n=30 located in Médio Paraíba region at Rio de Janeiro - Brazil state were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter fetus and Tritrichomonas foetus. For Campylobacter investigation, smegma samples were examined by culture and prepucial washings were examined by direct immunofluorescence technique (DIF. The prepucial washings were also examined for Tritrichomonas foetus presence by direct examination. C. fetus was identified in 14 samples (35.9 % by DIF technique and C. fetus subspecies venerealis was isolated from four samples (10.3%. T. foetus was not detected in bull samples. The high frequency of C. fetus observed in bull samples suggests the occurrence of Campylobacteriosis among herds which have reproductive problems at the Médio Paraíba region.

  20. Construção de iniciadores e otimização de ensaios de PCR e de nested-PCR para a detecção específica de Tritrichomonas foetus Primers design and optimization of PCR and nested-PCR assays for the specific detection of Tritrichomonas foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rogério Fernandes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Tritrichomonas foetus é um protozoário patogênico responsável por doença venérea em bovinos conhecida por tricomonose genital bovina. A tricomonose bovina é uma doença venérea causada pelo protozoário cujo habitat natural é o trato genital. Os protocolos já desenvolvidos para o diagnóstico deste parasito por PCR, apesar de serem eficazes na identificação do DNA genômico alvo, promovem algumas amplificações inespecíficas ou são incapazes de distinguir T. foetus das outras espécies do gênero. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estabelecer e otimizar protocolos de ensaio de PCR e nested-PCR para o diagnóstico específico de T. foetus, empregando-se novos iniciadores, selecionados do alinhamento das seqüências dos genes 18S rRNA, 5,8S rRNA, 28S rRNA e dos espaços transcritos do rDNA (ITS1 e ITS2. Um par de iniciadores foi construído para amplificação gênero-específica de um fragmento de 648 pares de base e outros dois para a obtenção de produtos espécie- específicos de 343 e 429 pb. Nenhuma reação cruzada foi observada frente ao DNA genômico de Bos taurus ou de microrganismos responsáveis por infecções genitais. A sensibilidade dos ensaios de PCR e de nested-PCR apresentados neste estudo permitiu um limiar de detecção de até dois parasitos.Tritrichomonas foetus is a pathogenic protozoan that causes a venereal disease in cattle known as bovine genital tricomonosis. In spite of the efficacy to recognize the target genomic DNA, the protocols so far developed for the diagnosis of this organism by PCR promote some inespecific amplifications or they are unable to discriminate T. foetus against other species within the genus. The objective of this study was to assess and optimize PCR and nested-PCR assays for the specific diagnosis of T. foetus, using novel primers selected from the alignment of sequences of the genes 18S rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, 28S rRNA and of the internal transcribed spacers of the

  1. Metabolomic profiling and stable isotope labelling of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus reveal major differences in amino acid metabolism including the production of 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid, cystathionine and S-methylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrop, Gareth D; Wang, Lijie; Blackburn, Gavin J; Zhang, Tong; Zheng, Liang; Watson, David G; Coombs, Graham H

    2017-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are pathogens that parasitise, respectively, human and bovine urogenital tracts causing disease. Using LC-MS, reference metabolomic profiles were obtained for both species and stable isotope labelling with D-[U-13C6] glucose was used to analyse central carbon metabolism. This facilitated a comparison of the metabolic pathways of T. vaginalis and T. foetus, extending earlier targeted biochemical studies. 43 metabolites, whose identities were confirmed by comparison of their retention times with authentic standards, occurred at more than 3-fold difference in peak intensity between T. vaginalis and T. foetus. 18 metabolites that were removed from or released into the medium during growth also showed more than 3-fold difference between the species. Major differences were observed in cysteine and methionine metabolism in which homocysteine, produced as a bi-product of trans-methylation, is catabolised by methionine γ-lyase in T. vaginalis but converted to cystathionine in T. foetus. Both species synthesise methylthioadenosine by an unusual mechanism, but it is not used as a substrate for methionine recycling. T. vaginalis also produces and exports high levels of S-methylcysteine, whereas only negligible levels were found in T. foetus which maintains significantly higher intracellular levels of cysteine. 13C-labeling confirmed that both cysteine and S-methylcysteine are synthesised by T. vaginalis; S-methylcysteine can be generated by recombinant T. vaginalis cysteine synthase using phosphoserine and methanethiol. T. foetus contained higher levels of ornithine and citrulline than T. vaginalis and exported increased levels of putrescine, suggesting greater flux through the arginine dihydrolase pathway. T. vaginalis produced and exported hydroxy acid derivatives of certain amino acids, particularly 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid derived from leucine, whereas negligible levels of these metabolites occurred in T. foetus.

  2. Metabolomic profiling and stable isotope labelling of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus reveal major differences in amino acid metabolism including the production of 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid, cystathionine and S-methylcysteine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth D Westrop

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are pathogens that parasitise, respectively, human and bovine urogenital tracts causing disease. Using LC-MS, reference metabolomic profiles were obtained for both species and stable isotope labelling with D-[U-13C6] glucose was used to analyse central carbon metabolism. This facilitated a comparison of the metabolic pathways of T. vaginalis and T. foetus, extending earlier targeted biochemical studies. 43 metabolites, whose identities were confirmed by comparison of their retention times with authentic standards, occurred at more than 3-fold difference in peak intensity between T. vaginalis and T. foetus. 18 metabolites that were removed from or released into the medium during growth also showed more than 3-fold difference between the species. Major differences were observed in cysteine and methionine metabolism in which homocysteine, produced as a bi-product of trans-methylation, is catabolised by methionine γ-lyase in T. vaginalis but converted to cystathionine in T. foetus. Both species synthesise methylthioadenosine by an unusual mechanism, but it is not used as a substrate for methionine recycling. T. vaginalis also produces and exports high levels of S-methylcysteine, whereas only negligible levels were found in T. foetus which maintains significantly higher intracellular levels of cysteine. 13C-labeling confirmed that both cysteine and S-methylcysteine are synthesised by T. vaginalis; S-methylcysteine can be generated by recombinant T. vaginalis cysteine synthase using phosphoserine and methanethiol. T. foetus contained higher levels of ornithine and citrulline than T. vaginalis and exported increased levels of putrescine, suggesting greater flux through the arginine dihydrolase pathway. T. vaginalis produced and exported hydroxy acid derivatives of certain amino acids, particularly 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid derived from leucine, whereas negligible levels of these metabolites occurred in T

  3. Foetus-in-Foetu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Rehan; Qadir, Maqbool; Ahmed, Shakeel; Kumar, Prem

    2011-11-01

    Foetus-in-foetu is a rare malformation in which a monozygotic diamniotic parasitic twin is incorporated into the body of its fellow twin and grows inside it. Less than 100 cases have been reported in literature. One day old newborn male was admitted with antenatal diagnosis of abdominal mass. It was cystic/solid in nature with pressure effects on left ureter and urinary bladder, most likely to be a germ cell tumour. Birth history was uneventful. Exploratory laparotomy was performed and the mass was excised. Physical examination confirmed the diagnosis of foetus-in-foetu. Although it is a rare condition, imaging may play an important role in the correct prospective diagnosis of foetus-in-foetu. Surgical excision is the recommended treatment.

  4. Effect of near-ultraviolet radiation on the cell surface of the protozoan Tritichomonas foetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filho, F.C.S.; Elias, C.A.; Souza, W. de

    1982-01-01

    It is concluded that the authors' data showing that near-ultraviolet radiation decreases the cellular electrophoretic mobility of Tritrichomonas foetus indicate that ultraviolet radiation may have an important effect on basic properties of the plasma membrane such as (a) its surface charge, (b) the mobility of membrane-associated components, as revealed by the concanavalin A-induced agglutination, and (c) changes in its permeability to cytoplasmic components. These data also indicate that protozoa may be a useful model for studies related with the effect of radiation on eukaryotic cells. (author)

  5. Foetus in foetu--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, H; Tan, K P

    1989-10-01

    A three-month old baby presented to the Paediatric Department with a problem of abdominal distension. Clinically, he had a large right abdominal mass which on investigations suggested a teratomatous lesion. At operation, a foetus-like tumour mass was located in the retroperitoneal space. A diagnosis of foetus in foetu was made. A close differential of a retroperitoneal teratoma is discussed and comparison with confirmed cases made.

  6. Rapid synthesis of triazine inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, William J; Guo, Junqing; Dhar, T G Murali; Shen, Zhongqi; Gu, Henry H; Watterson, Scott H; Bednarz, Mark S; Chen, Bang Chi; Barrish, Joel C; Bassolino, Donna; Cheney, Daniel; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine A; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2002-08-19

    A series of novel triazine-based small molecule inhibitors (IV) of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase was prepared. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SAR) derived from in vitro studies are described.

  7. Novel amide-based inhibitors of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Scott H; Liu, Chunjian; Dhar, T G Murali; Gu, Henry H; Pitts, William J; Barrish, Joel C; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine; Sherbina, N Z; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2002-10-21

    A series of novel amide-based small molecule inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) was explored. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) derived from in vitro studies are described.

  8. Penetrating chest wound of the foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Wandaogo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumas of the foetus caused by stabbings are rare but actually life-threatening for both the foetus and the mother. We report a case of penetrating chest wound on a baby taken from the obstetrics unit to the paediatric surgical department. His mother was assaulted by his father, a mentally sick person with no appropriate follow-up. The foetus did not show any sign of vital distress. Surgical exploration of the wound has revealed a section of the 10 th rib, a laceration of the pleura and a tearing of the diaphragm. A phrenorraphy and a pleural drainage were performed. The new-born and its mother were released from hospital after 5 days and the clinical control and X-ray checks 6 months later showed nothing abnormal. We insisted a medical, psychiatric follow-up be initiated for the father. As regards pregnant women with penetrating wounds, the mortality rate of the foetus is 80%. The odds are good for our newborn due to the mild injuries and good professional collaboration of the medical staff. Penetrating transuterine wounds of the foetus can be very serious. The health care needed should include many fields due to the mother and the foetus′ lesions extreme polymorphism. In our case, it could have prevented by a good psychiatric followed up of the offender.

  9. Transport of compounds from mother to foetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, B.M.; Garnett, E.S.; Perrier, D.G.; Prestwich, W.

    1992-06-01

    This study reviews the literature and investigates the transport of selected radiopharmaceuticals from the mother to the foetus and the distribution of these radiopharmaceuticals in both animals and man. This search emphasizes the placental transport of the drugs from the mother to the foetus and the development of pharmacokinetic models that could describe this transport. An outline of the distribution and/or transport of several radio-pharmaceuticals is presented followed by a description of the factors that regulate the transport of the radiopharmaceuticals from the mother to the foetus. Pharmacokinetic models were designed on the available information in the open literature. The limitation of the literature is discussed and suggestions for future experimental investigation are made

  10. Novel guanidine-based inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Edwin J; Watterson, Scott H; Liu, Chunjian; Gu, Henry H; Mitt, Toomas; Leftheris, Katerina; Barrish, Joel C; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine; Sherbina, N Z; Hollenbaugh, Diane L

    2002-10-21

    A series of novel guanidine-based small molecule inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) was explored. IMPDH catalyzes the rate determining step in guanine nucleotide biosynthesis and is a target for anticancer, immunosuppressive and antiviral therapy. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs), derived from in vitro studies, for this new series of inhibitors is given.

  11. [Immunological and clinical study on therapeutic efficacy of inosine pranobex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołebiowska-Wawrzyniak, Maria; Markiewicz, Katarzyna; Kozar, Agata; Derentowicz, Piotr; Czerwińska-Kartowicz, Iwona; Jastrzebska-Janas, Krystyna; Wacławek, Jolanta; Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew M; Siwińska-Gołebiowska, Henryka

    2005-09-01

    Many studies in vitro and in vivo have shown immunomodulating and antiviral activities of inosine pranobex. The object of this research was to examine the potential beneficial effects of inosine pranobex (Groprinosin) on immune system in children with cellular immunodeficiency as a prophylaxis of recurrent infections, mainly of viral origin. 50 mg/kg b.w/day of inosine pranobex in divided doses was given to the group of 30 children aged 3-15 years for 10 days in 3 following months. Clinical and immunological investigations were done before and after the treatment. Statistically significant rise of CD3T lymphocytes number (p = 0.02) and in this CD4T lymphocytes number (p = 0.02) as well as statistically significant improvement of their function (p = 0.005) evaluated with blastic transformation method were found. These laboratory findings were parallel to clinical benefits. Control study was performed in the group of children completed by randomization and treated in the same way with garlic (Alliofil).

  12. Gastric necrosis four years after fundoplication causing a dead foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Ebbe; Skovsen, Anders Peter; Kildsig, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    A 31-year-old pregnant woman was admitted and treated for diabetic ketoacidosis. As the patient deteriorated and the viability of the foetus was uncertain a CT scan was done which showed free fluid and air intraabdominally. Surgery was performed. A dead foetus was delivered and a 2 × 5 cm necrotic...

  13. Irradiation of the foetus from maternal intakes of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, N.; Stather, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    A brief review is given of published animal data on the initial uptake of activity by the foetal and maternal tissues following entry of plutonium into body fluids at various stages during gestation, on the extent to which activity deposited in maternal tissues is subsequently translocated to the foetus and on its distribution in the tissues of the developing foetus. The limited data available from these animal studies do not readily allow the development of a comprehensive human foetal metabolic model but they do suggest a method for estimating radiation doses to the foetus from maternal intakes of plutonium. (U.K.)

  14. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase messenger RNA expression is correlated to clinical outcomes in mycophenolate mofetil-treated kidney transplant patients, whereas inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase activity is not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sombogaard, Ferdi; Peeters, Annemiek M. A.; Baan, Carla C.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Quaedackers, Monique E.; Vulto, Arnold G.; Weimar, Willem; van Gelder, Teun

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the pharmacodynamic biomarker inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity in renal transplant recipients has been proposed to reflect the biological effect better than using pharmacokinetic parameters to monitor mycophenolate mofetil therapy. The IMPDH assays are however

  15. Structure of the orthorhombic form of human inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porta, Jason; Kolar, Carol; Kozmin, Stanislav G.; Pavlov, Youri I.; Borgstahl, Gloria E. O.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray crystallographic analysis of human inosine triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase provided the secondary structure and active-site structure at 1.6 Å resolution in an orthorhombic crystal form. The structure gives a framework for future structure–function studies employing site-directed mutagenesis and for the identification of substrate/product-binding sites. The structure of human inosine triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (ITPA) has been determined using diffraction data to 1.6 Å resolution. ITPA contributes to the accurate replication of DNA by cleansing cellular dNTP pools of mutagenic nucleotide purine analogs such as dITP or dXTP. A similar high-resolution unpublished structure has been deposited in the Protein Data Bank from a monoclinic and pseudo-merohedrally twinned crystal. Here, cocrystallization of ITPA with a molar ratio of XTP appears to have improved the crystals by eliminating twinning and resulted in an orthorhombic space group. However, there was no evidence for bound XTP in the structure. Comparison with substrate-bound NTPase from a thermophilic organism predicts the movement of residues within helix α1, the loop before α6 and helix α7 to cap off the active site when substrate is bound

  16. Is There a Right to the Death of the Foetus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathison, Eric; Davis, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    At some point in the future - perhaps within the next few decades - it will be possible for foetuses to develop completely outside the womb. Ectogenesis, as this technology is called, raises substantial issues for the abortion debate. One such issue is that it will become possible for a woman to have an abortion, in the sense of having the foetus removed from her body, but for the foetus to be kept alive. We argue that while there is a right to an abortion, there are reasons to doubt that there is a right to the death of the foetus. Our strategy in this essay is to consider and reject three arguments in favour of this latter right. The first claims that women have a right not to be biological mothers, the second that women have a right to genetic privacy, and the third that a foetus is one's property. Furthermore, we argue that it follows from rejecting the third claim that genetic parents also lack a right to the destruction of cryopreserved embryos used for in vitro fertilization. The conclusion that a woman possesses no right to the death of the foetus builds upon the claims that other pro-choice advocates, such as Judith Jarvis Thomson, have made. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Estimated neutron dose to embryo and foetus during commercial flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Lewis, B. J.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Green, A. R.; Tracy, B. L.

    2005-01-01

    A study has been carried out to assess the radiation exposure from cosmic-ray neutrons to the embryo and foetus of pregnant aircrew and air travellers in consideration of the radiation exposure from cosmic-ray neutrons to the embryo and foetus. A Monte Carlo analysis was performed to determine the equivalent dose from neutrons to the brain and body of an embryo at 8 weeks and to the foetus at the 3, 6 and 9 month periods. Neutron fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients for the foetal brain and for the entire foetal body (isotropic irradiation geometry) have been determined at the four developmental stages. The equivalent dose rate to the foetus during commercial flights has been further evaluated considering the fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients, a neutron spectrum measured at an altitude of 11.3 km and an ICRP-92 radiation-weighting factor for neutrons. This study indicates that the foetus can exceed the annual dose limit of 1 mSv for the general public after, for example, 15 round trips on commercial trans-Atlantic flights. (authors)

  18. Orocervical foetus-in-foetu with prenatal sonographic diagnosis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Braimoh, Kolawole T; Abdulkadir, Adekunle Y; Balogun, Rabiu O

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Foetus-in-foetu is a very rare congenital abnormality where a malformed foetus is included within the body of another foetus. Less than 200 cases have been reported with over 80% occurring in the abdomen. Only three cases of cervical foetus in foetu have been reported. The present case of giant orocervical foetus-in-foetu appears to be an index case. Case presentation This is a report of an extremely rare orocervical foetus-in-foetu with grotesque oddity diagnosed on pre...

  19. Death before life: The legal status of cadaveric foetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2011-01-01

    to the Municipality of Odense regarding the establishment of a separate anonymous lawn for aborted foetuses at the town’s principal cemetery in order to provide parents with a free and optional alternative to the current procedure.The aim of this article is to analyse death before life in Danish law and to offer some...

  20. Intrauterine Idiopathic Amputation of the Head of a Porcine Foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J. S.; Garoussi, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    Contents An anencephalic full-term porcine foetus accompanied by a mummified head was submitted for examination. The neck almost entirely lacked skin and was covered by granulation tissue as were the exposed parts of the spine and spinal cord. The case represents a rare case of intrauterine...

  1. Minimal infectious doses and prepatent periods in Giardia muris, Spironucleus muris and Tritrichomonas muris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachan, R; Kunstýr, I

    1983-12-01

    The minimal infectious doses (MID) of Giardia muris cysts, Spironucleus muris cysts and Tritrichomonas muris pseudocysts for athymic mice were determined. A novel micromanipulator-aided technique was developed for selecting small exact numbers of specified fresh or old cysts/pseudocysts from a faecal homogenate. This technique can also be of value in manipulating protozoan parasites of any particular species. Only fresh cysts/pseudocysts, which appeared bright under phase contrast optics, were infectious. Older cysts and pseudocysts which appeared dark in phase contrast were not infectious. The MID for three murine intestinal flagellates addressed above were: 10 (between 5 and 20), 1 and 5 cysts/pseudocysts respectively. Corresponding prepatent periods (PP) were 8, 5 and 10 days. A relation was evident between the infectious dose and the PP: The prepatent period shortened with an increased infectious dose.

  2. Foetus in foetu: CT findings in two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, M; Aggarwal, B K

    2002-01-01

    Foetus in foetu is a rare abdominal mass presenting in early childhood, which shows classic radiologic appearances that make a preoperative diagnosis certain. We present two such cases in which the diagnosis was initially established on computed tomography, which showed mature skeletal structures including vertebrae and long bones in addition to fat. The diagnosis was corroborated by plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging in one case and confirmed operatively and histopathologically in both cases.

  3. Signaling pathways underlying the antidepressant-like effect of inosine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Filipe Marques; Neis, Vivian Binder; Rieger, Débora Kurrle; Lopes, Mark William; Heinrich, Isabella A; Costa, Ana Paula; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Kaster, Manuella P; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy

    2017-06-01

    Inosine is a purine nucleoside formed by the breakdown of adenosine that elicits an antidepressant-like effect in mice through activation of adenosine A 1 and A 2A receptors. However, the signaling pathways underlying this effect are largely unknown. To address this issue, the present study investigated the influence of extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2, Ca 2+ /calmoduline-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII), protein kinase A (PKA), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3β) modulation in the antiimmobility effect of inosine in the tail suspension test (TST) in mice. In addition, we attempted to verify if inosine treatment was capable of altering the immunocontent and phosphorylation of the transcription factor cyclic adenosine monophosphatate (cAMP) response-binding element protein (CREB) in mouse prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Intracerebroventricular administration of U0126 (5 μg/mouse, MEK1/2 inhibitor), KN-62 (1 μg/mouse, CaMKII inhibitor), H-89 (1 μg/mouse, PKA inhibitor), and wortmannin (0.1 μg/mouse, PI3K inhibitor) prevented the antiimmobility effect of inosine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)) in the TST. Also, administration of a sub-effective dose of inosine (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with a sub-effective dose of AR-A014418 (0.001 μg/mouse, GSK-3β inhibitor) induced a synergic antidepressant-like effect. None of the treatments altered locomotor activity of mice. Moreover, 24 h after a single administration of inosine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), CREB phosphorylation was increased in the hippocampus. Our findings provided new evidence that the antidepressant-like effect of inosine in the TST involves the activation of PKA, PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2, and CaMKII and the inhibition of GSK-3β. These results contribute to the comprehension of the mechanisms underlying the purinergic system modulation and indicate the intracellular signaling pathways involved in the antidepressant-like effect of inosine

  4. Comparison of the IFAT and Iscom-ELISA response in bovine foetuses with Neospora caninum infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slotved, H.C.; Jensen, L.; Lind, Peter

    1999-01-01

    was significantly lower than in Group C. Levels of total IgG ranged from 0.01 to 1.78 (mg IgG) ml(-1) measured by single radial immunodiffusion technique. A measurable level of total IgG was found in all foetuses from Groups A and B, with no significant difference between levels in the two groups. Only one foetus......The study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of foetal serology in the diagnosis of Neospora-associated bovine abortions. Fluids from 14 foetuses of cows with confirmed neosporosis (Group A), seven foetuses with confirmed bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVD infection) (Group B) and 11 aborted...... foetuses without demonstrable infection (Group C) were examined. The age of the foetuses ranged from 4.5 months to 9 months. Albumin concentration (measured by Rocket Immunoelectrophoresis) was not significantly different in Group A compared with that in both Groups B and C, while that in Group B...

  5. Diphosphoglycerate and Inosine Hexaphosphate Control of Oxygen Binding by Hemoglobin: A Theoretical Interpretation of Experimental Data*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Gilbert N.

    1970-01-01

    A theoretical equation is presented for the control of cooperative adsorption on proteins and other linear macromolecules by hormones, drugs, ATP, and other „cardinal adsorbents.” With reasonable accuracy, this equation describes quantitatively the control of oxygen binding to hemoglobin by 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and by inosine hexaphosphate. PMID:5272319

  6. 3-cyanoindole-based inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase: synthesis and initial structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, T G Murali; Shen, Zhongqi; Gu, Henry H; Chen, Ping; Norris, Derek; Watterson, Scott H; Ballentine, Shelley K; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine A; Barrish, Joel C; Townsend, Robert; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2003-10-20

    A series of novel small molecule inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), based upon a 3-cyanoindole core, were explored. IMPDH catalyzes the rate determining step in guanine nucleotide biosynthesis and is a target for anticancer, immunosuppressive and antiviral therapy. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SAR), derived from in vitro studies, for this new series of inhibitors is given.

  7. A survey of cyclic replacements for the central diamide moiety of inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, T G Murali; Liu, Chunjian; Pitts, William J; Guo, Junquing; Watterson, Scott H; Gu, Henry; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine; Sherbina, N Z; Barrish, Joel C; Hollenbaugh, Diane; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2002-11-04

    A series of heterocyclic replacements for the central diamide moiety of 1, a potent small molecule inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) were explored The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs), derived from in vitro studies, for these new series of inhibitors is given.

  8. Metabolism of tritiated water in foetuses and newborn mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujeno, Y.; Takimoto, K.

    1982-01-01

    The compartment models of transplacental transfer of tritiated water injected into pregnant females, to foetuses and of lacteal transfer of tritiated water injected into nursing females, to sackling newborn mice were presented, respectively. There are many assumptions in the models and they do not fit the experimental data well. However, some of the differences between the models and experimental data can be qualitatively explained by physiological reasoning. The changes in the kidney functions of pregnant women are also the important factors which have to be considered to analyze the dynamics. The present dynamics analyses with mice can contribute to the understanding of the dynamics of tritiated water in humans. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Efficacy of inosine pranobex in frequently ill children with chronic Epstein–Barr virus infection: randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Simovanyan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High incidence of acute respiratory infections (ARI in immunocompromised frequently ill children with chronic Epstein–Barr infection forces the prescription of drugs with complex antivirus and immunocorrecting effect. The objective: to study the efficacy of inosine pranobex (Isoprinosine in treatment of active Epstein–Barr virus infection in frequently ill children. Methods: patients were randomized in group of standard treatment (n = 24 and standard treatment + inosine pranobex 50 mg/kg of body weight divided to 3–4 parts daily (3 courses of 10 days every other 10 days. Primary efficacy criterion was the incidence of ARI episodes during 12 months of observation. Results: the treatment with inosine pranobex resulted in decrease of incidence (4 and 25% and duration of ARI (5.6 ± 1.2 and 8.8 ± 3.3 days compared to standard treatment. Besides, inosine pranobex decreased the frequency of lymphoproliferation, arthralgic and cardiac syndromes, favored to rapid elimination of serologic markers of Epstein–Barr virus replication and normalization of blood concentrations of interferon _ and interleukine 4. Side effects of treatment with inosine pranobex were not registered. Conclusion: inosine pranobex is efficient and safe drug in treatment of active form of chronic Epstein–Barr virus infection in frequently ill children.Key words: frequently ill children, Epstein–Barr virus, inosine pranobex, treatment.

  10. The common mouse protozoa Tritrichomonas muris alters mucosal T cell homeostasis and colitis susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Nichole K; Lemire, Paul; Cruz Tleugabulova, Mayra; Prescott, David; Mortha, Arthur; Streutker, Catherine J; Girardin, Stephen E; Philpott, Dana J; Mallevaey, Thierry

    2016-12-12

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract hosts a diverse community of microbes including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, helminths, and viruses. Through coevolution, mammals and these microbes have developed a symbiosis that is sustained through the host's continuous sensing of microbial factors and the generation of a tolerant or pro-inflammatory response. While analyzing T cell-driven colitis in nonlittermate mouse strains, we serendipitously identified that a nongenetic transmissible factor dramatically increased disease susceptibility. We identified the protozoan Tritrichomonas muris as the disease-exacerbating element. Furthermore, experimental colonization with T. muris induced an elevated Th1 response in the cecum of naive wild-type mice and accelerated colitis in Rag1 -/- mice after T cell transfer. Overall, we describe a novel cross-kingdom interaction within the murine gut that alters immune cell homeostasis and disease susceptibility. This example of unpredicted microbial priming of the immune response highlights the importance of studying trans-kingdom interactions and serves as a stark reminder of the importance of using littermate controls in all mouse research. © 2016 Escalante et al.

  11. Effect of gamma background on the dose absorbed by human embryon and foetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miloslavov, V.; Doncheva, B.

    1989-01-01

    A method is proposed for calculation of absorbed radiation dose in different stages of human foetus development under normal or increased gamma background. On the base of ICRP-data for critical organ's mass (foetus, placenta, blood, uterus) a formula is given for absorbed dose evaluation of gonads. It is concluded that increased gamma background is insignificant compared to internal irradiation from absorbed radionuclides

  12. Orocervical foetus-in-foetu with prenatal sonographic diagnosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braimoh Kolawole T

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Foetus-in-foetu is a very rare congenital abnormality where a malformed foetus is included within the body of another foetus. Less than 200 cases have been reported with over 80% occurring in the abdomen. Only three cases of cervical foetus in foetu have been reported. The present case of giant orocervical foetus-in-foetu appears to be an index case. Case presentation This is a report of an extremely rare orocervical foetus-in-foetu with grotesque oddity diagnosed on prenatal ultrasonography at 35 weeks gestational age in a 28-year-old, G2P1+0, Nigerian woman who was unsure of her last menstrual date or month. The included foetus had two eyes, cranium, nose, long bones and a spine. The mother's attempts at vaginal delivery rather than the elective Caesarean delivery she was offered resulted in obstructed labour and intrauterine foetal demise. Conclusion Giant cervical foetus-in-foetu is extremely rare. It could result in obstructed labour if vaginal delivery is attempted.

  13. Orocervical foetus-in-foetu with prenatal sonographic diagnosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braimoh, Kolawole T; Abdulkadir, Adekunle Y; Balogun, Rabiu O

    2008-12-04

    Foetus-in-foetu is a very rare congenital abnormality where a malformed foetus is included within the body of another foetus. Less than 200 cases have been reported with over 80% occurring in the abdomen. Only three cases of cervical foetus in foetu have been reported. The present case of giant orocervical foetus-in-foetu appears to be an index case. This is a report of an extremely rare orocervical foetus-in-foetu with grotesque oddity diagnosed on prenatal ultrasonography at 35 weeks gestational age in a 28-year-old, G2P1+0, Nigerian woman who was unsure of her last menstrual date or month. The included foetus had two eyes, cranium, nose, long bones and a spine. The mother's attempts at vaginal delivery rather than the elective Caesarean delivery she was offered resulted in obstructed labour and intrauterine foetal demise. Giant cervical foetus-in-foetu is extremely rare. It could result in obstructed labour if vaginal delivery is attempted.

  14. Foetus in foetu: serological assessment of monozygotic origin by automated analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, M J; Lockyer, J W; Wood, C B

    1972-09-01

    A further example of the rare disorder of embryonic development known as ;foetus in foetu' is described. Extensive blood group determinations, using a new autoanalytical technique, were combined with chromosome studies to show that the chance of the foetus in foetu and its host being of monozygotic origin was 0.947.

  15. Immuno-histochemical features of the structure of foetuses' ovarian from the mothers with pregnancy complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Kupriianova

    2017-02-01

    Kharkiv National Medical University, Kharkov, Ukraine   Abstract As a material of our research, we took into account foetuses' ovarian at the gestation term from 21 to 42 weeks; and, as a result, all types of material we divided into few groups: foetuses from healthy mothers; foetuses from mothers with pre-eclampsia complications of pregnancy of different stages; foetuses from mothers with pregnancy's complications as a chronical infection. Research methods: organomethrical, histochemical, immuno-histochemical, statistical. As a result of the complex research, in foetuses' ovarian from mothers with pregnancy complications of different types, we can see reducing of indicators of structural and functional activity of organs, increasing of apoptotic index; increasing of endothelin-1 production; decreasing of hormones production. Key words: fetus, pregnancy, pre-eclampsia; infection, ovary.

  16. SAR in the mother and foetus for RF plane wave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimbylow, Peter [Health Protection Agency, Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-07

    This paper describes the finite-difference time-domain calculation of SAR from 20 MHz to 3 GHz in hybrid voxel-mathematical models of the pregnant female. Mathematical models of the developing foetus at 8-, 13-, 26- and 38-week gestation were converted into voxels and combined with the reference adult female model, NAOMI at a resolution of 2 mm. Whole-body averaged SAR in the mother is presented as well as the average over the foetus, over the foetal brain and in 10 g of the foetus. The electric field values required to produce the ICNIRP public exposure restriction of 2 W kg{sup -1} when averaged over 10 g of the foetus were calculated. Comparison suggests that the ICNIRP public reference level is a conservative predictor of local SAR in the foetus.

  17. SAR in the mother and foetus for RF plane wave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the finite-difference time-domain calculation of SAR from 20 MHz to 3 GHz in hybrid voxel-mathematical models of the pregnant female. Mathematical models of the developing foetus at 8-, 13-, 26- and 38-week gestation were converted into voxels and combined with the reference adult female model, NAOMI at a resolution of 2 mm. Whole-body averaged SAR in the mother is presented as well as the average over the foetus, over the foetal brain and in 10 g of the foetus. The electric field values required to produce the ICNIRP public exposure restriction of 2 W kg -1 when averaged over 10 g of the foetus were calculated. Comparison suggests that the ICNIRP public reference level is a conservative predictor of local SAR in the foetus

  18. CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL EFFICACY OF INOSINE PRANOBEX FOR ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN WITH ATOPIC ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Bulgakova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence rate of atopic asthma in children remains high. One of the reasons for lack of control over asthma symptoms is repeated infection. The article describes results from the study of immunomodulating medication inosine pranobex used in treatment of acute respiratory infections in children with atopic asthma. The results obtained prove the efficacy and safety of this medication. The use of this immunomodifier with antiviral activity during the period of acute respiratory infection in children with atopic asthma contributes to shortening of intoxication and catarrhal signs duration, elimination of viral agents. Key words: asthma, acute respiratory infections, immunomodifiers, inosine pranobex, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:98-105

  19. Therapeutic efficacy of inosine against radiation-induced damage at cellular, biochemical and chromosomal levels in swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shamy, E.; Sallam, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Inosine has been used for treatment of various diseases and disorders in medicine. Modulator effect of inosine against γ radiation-induced histological alterations in testis, reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO), acid and alkaline phosphatases activities (AP and ALP) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) in mice was studied at various experimental intervals between 1 and 30 days. Mice exposed to 8 Gy γ-rays showed acute radiation sickness including marked testis histological changes and chromosomal aberrations (CA) in bone marrow cells with 100 % mortality within 22 days. When inosine was given orally at a dose of 80 mg/ kg body wt for 15 consecutive days after exposure to γ-rays, death in radiation + inosine group was reduced to 70 % at 30 days. The radiation - dose reduction factor (DRF) was 1.43. There was significantly lesser degree of damage to testis tissue architecture and various cell populations including spermatogonia, spermatids and leydig cells. Correspondingly, a significant decrease in the LPO and increase in the GSH levels were observed in testis of radiation + inosine group. Similarly, a significant decrease in level of AP and increase in level of ALP were observed. Inosine treatment significantly prevented γ-rays-induced CA frequency in bone marrow cells.

  20. Secondary deuterium isotope effects for acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of inosine and adenosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, R.; Stein, R.; Bull, H.G.; Cordes, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    Kinetic α deuterium isotope effects have been measured for acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of inosine and adenosine. For inosine hydrolysis, values of k/sub H/k/sub D/ follow: in 1.0 M HCl, 1.21 and 1.20 at 25 and 50 0 C, respectively; in 0.1 M HCl, 1.19 and 1.18 at 25 and 50 0 C, respectively. For adenosine hydrolysis, k/sub H/k/sub D/ is 1.23 in 0.1 M HCl at 25 0 C. The values require that the transition states for hydrolysis of both the monocation and dication of inosine and the dication of adenosine have marked oxocarbonium ion character. Detailed mechanisms which accord with this and other experimental observations include (1) a classical Al mechanism in which the C--N bond is largely cleaved in the transition state; (2) a mechanism involving some form of nucleophilic participation by solvent in which bond cleavage is advanced relative to bond formation in the transition state; or (3) complete C--N bond cleavage with rate-determining diffusion apart of oxocarbonium ion and purine base. 53 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  1. Extended-gate field-effect transistor (EG-FET) with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film for selective inosine determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskierko, Zofia; Sosnowska, Marta; Sharma, Piyush Sindhu; Benincori, Tiziana; D'Souza, Francis; Kaminska, Izabela; Fronc, Krzysztof; Noworyta, Krzysztof

    2015-12-15

    A novel recognition unit of chemical sensor for selective determination of the inosine, renal disfunction biomarker, was devised and prepared. For that purpose, inosine-templated molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film was deposited on an extended-gate field-effect transistor (EG-FET) signal transducing unit. The MIP film was prepared by electrochemical polymerization of bis(bithiophene) derivatives bearing cytosine and boronic acid substituents, in the presence of the inosine template and a thiophene cross-linker. After MIP film deposition, the template was removed, and was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. Subsequently, the film composition was characterized by spectroscopic techniques, and its morphology and thickness were determined by AFM. The finally MIP film-coated extended-gate field-effect transistor (EG-FET) was used for signal transduction. This combination is not widely studied in the literature, despite the fact that it allows for facile integration of electrodeposited MIP film with FET transducer. The linear dynamic concentration range of the chemosensor was 0.5-50 μM with inosine detectability of 0.62 μM. The obtained detectability compares well to the levels of the inosine in body fluids which are in the range 0-2.9 µM for patients with diagnosed diabetic nephropathy, gout or hyperuricemia, and can reach 25 µM in certain cases. The imprinting factor for inosine, determined from piezomicrogravimetric experiments with use of the MIP film-coated quartz crystal resonator, was found to be 5.5. Higher selectivity for inosine with respect to common interferents was also achieved with the present molecularly engineered sensing element. The obtained analytical parameters of the devised chemosensor allow for its use for practical sample measurements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The radiation dose to the foetus during isotope investigations of the mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, K.; Brod, K.H.; Wolf, R.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation dose to the foetus from the application of five different sup(99m)technetium compounds during isotope investigation of the mother was investigated. After i-v injection of 100 μCi(3.7 MBq) of sup(99m)Tc-compounds into pregnant rats, these were sacrificed during the first, second and third week of pregnancy and radioactivity was determined in the foetuses and in the blood and organs of the mother. From these measurements the proportion of total body activity in individual organs and their specific activity was calculated. From this data the radiation burden to the rat foetuses from the various sup(99m)Tc compounds could be evaluated. Making use of phantom studies and the known biokinetic data of technetium compounds in man it was possible to calculate the radiation dose to the human foetus during isotope investigations of the mother. (orig.) [de

  3. Congenital jaundice in bovine aborted foetuses: an emerging syndrome in southern Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delooz, L; Mori, M; Petitjean, T; Evrard, J; Czaplicki, G; Saegerman, C

    2015-04-01

    Southern Belgium faces an unusual recent increase of icteric bovine aborted foetuses. In the necropsy room, the majority of foetuses presented jaundice and splenomegaly. Despite a wide range of analyses, no definitive cause of abortion has yet been established but some analysis results support the leptospirosis hypothesis. This first description of cases will help veterinary practitioners to recognize more cases and to conduct those to the laboratory for future investigations. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Morphometric Changes in Talus of Club Foot A Gross Observation in Human Foetuses

    OpenAIRE

    Fazal-ur-Rehman,; Faruqi, Nafis A

    2012-01-01

    Both the feet of six human foetuses of different age groups having unilateral club feet, were dissected for morphological study. Six morphometric parameters considered for comparing gross anatomical changes in normal and deformed feet, were 1-Maximum length of the talus, 2-Longitudinal dimension of head of talus, 3-Anterior trochlear breadth, 4-Maximum medial talar height, 5-Talar neck and calcaneal angle, 6-Talocalcaneal angle. All the foetuses with congenital club feet have almost similar d...

  5. Prenatal sonography and computed tomography for cerebral malformations of the foetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, G.; Brix, F.; Weisner, D.

    1987-07-01

    In three pregnant women, sonography and amniocentesis suggested cranial abnormalities of the foetuses. In view of the far-reaching consequences of such a diagnosis, CT was carried out to confirm the diagnosis. It was possible to show the intra-uterine abnormalities and the type of malformation in considerable detail. In one case an encephalocele was demonstrated, in the two others, an anencephalic foetus was shown.

  6. Prenatal sonography and computed tomography for cerebral malformations of the foetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, G.; Brix, F.; Weisner, D.; Kiel Univ.

    1987-01-01

    In three pregnant women, sonography and amniocentesis suggested cranial abnormalities of the foetuses. In view of the far-reaching consequences of such a diagnosis, CT was carried out to confirm the diagnosis. It was possible to show the intra-uterine abnormalities and the type of malformation in considerable detail. In one case an encephalocele was demonstrated, in the two others, an anencephalic foetus was shown. (orig.) [de

  7. Transfer of tritium to foetuses and newborns from mother mice administered with tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Y.; Nakamura, S.; Takahashi, T.; Aiba, H.

    1979-01-01

    The kinetics of tritium release from the skin, liver and brain of pregnant and nursing mice or foetuses and sucking newborns were studied after single subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injections and the per oral uptake. When female mice were injected subcutaneously at various times during pregnancy, tritium in wet tissues at delivery was reduced lineally on a semi-log scale with prolongation of the exposure time in both pregnant females and foetuses. Tritium in dry tissues was not reduced for a short time before delivery. The estimated half-lives of tissues were longer in pregnant females than in non-pregnant ones. The half-lives of wet tissues were shorter in pregnant females than in foetuses but those of dry tissues were shorter in foetuses. The estimated doses in wet and dry tissues for 10 days after delivery were larger in foetuses than in pregnant females. In the oral uptake, the tritium in wet tissues of both pregnant females and foetuses increased with prolongation of the drinking period, reached a maximum after about 200 h and fell with the further prolongation of the period. The patterns of tritium release in nursing females injected intraperitoneally immediately after delivery were similar to those of normal females, and those of sucking newborns depended upon those of nursing females. The estimated doses in tissues at 300 h after delivery were larger in nursing females than in sucking newborns except for the amount in the skin. (author)

  8. Prenatal diagnosis of foetuses with congenital abnormalities and duplication of the MECP2 region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Fang; Liu, Huan-ling; Li, Ru; Han, Jin; Yang, Xin; Min, Pan; Zhen, Li; Zhang, Yong-ling; Xie, Gui-e; Lei, Ting-ying; Li, Yan; Li, Jian; Li, Dong-zhi; Liao, Can

    2014-08-10

    MECP2 duplication results in a well-recognised syndrome in 100% of affected male children; this syndrome is characterised by severe neurodevelopmental disabilities and recurrent infections. However, no sonographic findings have been reported for affected foetuses, and prenatal molecular diagnosis has not been possible for this disease due to lack of prenatal clinical presentation. In this study, we identified a small duplication comprising the MECP2 and L1CAM genes in the Xq28 region in a patient from a family with severe X-linked mental retardation and in a prenatal foetus with brain structural abnormalities. Using high-resolution chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) to screen 108 foetuses with congenital structural abnormalities, we identified additional three foetuses with the MECP2 duplication. Our study indicates that ventriculomegaly, hydrocephalus, agenesis of the corpus callosum, choroid plexus cysts, foetal growth restriction and hydronephrosis might be common ultrasound findings in prenatal foetuses with the MECP2 duplication and provides the first set of prenatal cases with MECP2 duplication, the ultrasonographic phenotype described in these patients will help to recognise the foetuses with possible MECP2 duplication and prompt the appropriate molecular testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimation of foetus risk from x-ray pelvimetric examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iba, Shozo; Sato, Kazuichi

    1983-01-01

    X-ray pelvimetric examinations are carried out for the purpose of diagnosing the cephalo pelvic disproportion at terminal pregnancy and they are still an excellent method, being performed more often than other examinations. However the invitable fetal exposure is considered to be a significant dose and makes an estimation of stochastic fetal risk related to x-ray exposure and to investigate the methods of dose reduction. As the methods judging the exposure dose actually made in the hospitals, a questionnarie regarding the main technical factors of an x-ray examination was given to 26 hospitals, including 5 university hospitals, in Kantou district, and the answeres were analyzed. The estimated risks involving genetics, leukemia and malignant diseases were dependent on the exposure dose which could be calculated on the basis of the technical factors obtained. Total risks on the foetus ranged widely from 1.27 x 10 rad -1 to 1.19 x 10 rad -1 . So for as we have investigated, if all the hospitals used a grid ratio of 5:1, a tube voltage of 120 kV, intensitying screens with rare earth phosphors and green-sensitive orthomatic medical x-ray films for the x-ray pelvimetric examinations, it would be possible to reduce the present exposure dose by one-fourth. The ratio of the x-ray pelvimetry taken on pregnant patients ranged from 2 % to 33 %, having a mean value of 15 %. (author)

  10. Regulatory factors governing adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, HuiQi; Lin, Jaymie Siqi; Chen, Leilei

    2015-03-31

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, the most prevalent mode of transcript modification in higher eukaryotes, is catalysed by the adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs). A-to-I editing imposes an additional layer of gene regulation as it dictates various aspects of RNA metabolism, including RNA folding, processing, localization and degradation. Furthermore, editing events in exonic regions contribute to proteome diversity as translational machinery decodes inosine as guanosine. Although it has been demonstrated that dysregulated A-to-I editing contributes to various diseases, the precise regulatory mechanisms governing this critical cellular process have yet to be fully elucidated. However, integration of previous studies revealed that regulation of A-to-I editing is multifaceted, weaving an intricate network of auto- and transregulations, including the involvement of virus-originated factors like adenovirus-associated RNA. Taken together, it is apparent that tipping of any regulatory components will have profound effects on A-to-I editing, which in turn contributes to both normal and aberrant physiological conditions. A complete understanding of this intricate regulatory network may ultimately be translated into new therapeutic strategies against diseases driven by perturbed RNA editing events. Herein, we review the current state of knowledge on the regulatory mechanisms governing A-to-I editing and propose the role of other co-factors that may be involved in this complex regulatory process.

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of post mortem MRI for abdominal abnormalities in foetuses and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, Owen J.; Thayyil, Sudhin; Owens, Catherine M.; Olsen, Oystein E.; Wade, Angie; Addison, Shea; Jones, Rod; Norman, Wendy; Scott, Rosemary J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •Postmortem MR imaging (PMMR) has high overall accuracy for abdominal pathology in foetuses, newborns and children. •PMMR is particularly good at detecting renal abnormalities, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities. •In clinical practice, PMMR may be a useful alternative or adjunct to conventional autopsy in foetuses and children for detecting abdominal abnormalities. -- Abstract: Background: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) specifically for abdominal pathology in foetuses and children, compared to conventional autopsy. Methods: Institutional ethics approval and parental consent was obtained. 400 unselected foetuses and children underwent PMMR using a 1.5 T Siemens Avanto MR scanner before conventional autopsy. PMMR images and autopsy findings were reported blinded to the other data respectively. Results: Abdominal abnormalities were found in 70/400 (12%) autopsies. Overall sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) of PMMR for abdominal pathology was 72.5% (61.0, 81.6) and 90.8% (87.0, 93.6), with positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of 64.1% (53.0, 73.9) and 93.6% (90.2, 95.8) respectively. PMMR was good at detecting renal abnormalities (sensitivity 80%), particularly in foetuses, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities (sensitivity 50%). Overall accuracy was 87.4% (83.6, 90.4). Conclusions: PMMR has high overall accuracy for abdominal pathology in foetuses, newborns and children. PMMR is particularly good at detecting renal abnormalities, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities. In clinical practice, PMMR may be a useful alternative or adjunct to conventional autopsy in foetuses and children for detecting abdominal abnormalities

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of post mortem MRI for abdominal abnormalities in foetuses and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen J., E-mail: owen.arthurs@gosh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Institute of Child Health, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@imperial.ac.uk [Perinatal Neurology and Neonatology, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Owens, Catherine M., E-mail: Catherine.owens@gosh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Cardiorespiratory Division, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Olsen, Oystein E., E-mail: oystein.olsen@gosh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Institute of Child Health, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: a.wade@ucl.ac.uk [Clinical Epidemiology, Nutrition and Biostatistics Section, UCL Institute of Child health, London (United Kingdom); Addison, Shea, E-mail: shea.addison@imperial.ac.uk [Perinatal Neurology and Neonatology, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Jones, Rod, E-mail: rod.jones@gosh.nhs.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Cardiorespiratory Division, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Norman, Wendy, E-mail: wendy.norman@gosh.nhs.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Cardiorespiratory Division, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Scott, Rosemary J., E-mail: rosemary.scott@uclh.nhs.uk [Department of Histopathology, University College London Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •Postmortem MR imaging (PMMR) has high overall accuracy for abdominal pathology in foetuses, newborns and children. •PMMR is particularly good at detecting renal abnormalities, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities. •In clinical practice, PMMR may be a useful alternative or adjunct to conventional autopsy in foetuses and children for detecting abdominal abnormalities. -- Abstract: Background: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) specifically for abdominal pathology in foetuses and children, compared to conventional autopsy. Methods: Institutional ethics approval and parental consent was obtained. 400 unselected foetuses and children underwent PMMR using a 1.5 T Siemens Avanto MR scanner before conventional autopsy. PMMR images and autopsy findings were reported blinded to the other data respectively. Results: Abdominal abnormalities were found in 70/400 (12%) autopsies. Overall sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) of PMMR for abdominal pathology was 72.5% (61.0, 81.6) and 90.8% (87.0, 93.6), with positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of 64.1% (53.0, 73.9) and 93.6% (90.2, 95.8) respectively. PMMR was good at detecting renal abnormalities (sensitivity 80%), particularly in foetuses, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities (sensitivity 50%). Overall accuracy was 87.4% (83.6, 90.4). Conclusions: PMMR has high overall accuracy for abdominal pathology in foetuses, newborns and children. PMMR is particularly good at detecting renal abnormalities, and relatively poor at detecting intestinal abnormalities. In clinical practice, PMMR may be a useful alternative or adjunct to conventional autopsy in foetuses and children for detecting abdominal abnormalities.

  13. A rapid and simple chemiluminescence method for screening levels of inosine and hypoxanthine in non-traumatic chest pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farthing, Don E; Sica, Domenic; Hindle, Michael; Edinboro, Les; Xi, Lei; Gehr, Todd W B; Gehr, Lynne; Farthing, Christine A; Larus, Terri L; Fakhry, Itaf; Karnes, H Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and simple chemiluminescence method was developed for detection of inosine and hypoxanthine in human plasma. The method utilized a microplate luminometer with direct injectors to automatically dispense reagents during sample analysis. Enzymatic conversions of inosine to hypoxanthine, followed by hypoxanthine to xanthine to uric acid, generated superoxide anion radicals as a useful metabolic by-product. The free radicals react with Pholasin(®) , a sensitive photoprotein used for chemiluminescence detection, to produce measurable blue-green light. The use of Pholasin(®) and a chemiluminescence signal enhancer, Adjuvant-K™, eliminated the need for plasma clean-up steps prior to analysis. The method used 20 μL of heparinized plasma, with complete analysis of total hypoxanthine levels (inosine is metabolized to hypoxanthine using purine nucleoside phosphorylase) in approximately 3.7 min. The rapid chemiluminescence method demonstrated the capability of differentiating total hypoxanthine levels between healthy individuals, and patients presenting with non-traumatic chest pain and potential acute cardiac ischemia. The results support the potential use of chemiluminescence methodology as a diagnostic tool to rapidly screen for elevated levels of inosine and hypoxanthine in human plasma, potential biomarkers of acute cardiac ischemia. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase: SARs about the N-[3-Methoxy-4-(5-oxazolyl)phenyl moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Edwin J; Watterson, Scott H; Guo, Junqing; Pitts, William J; Murali Dhar, T G; Shen, Zhongqi; Chen, Ping; Gu, Henry H; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine A; Cheney, Daniel L; Townsend, Robert M; Hollenbaugh, Diane L

    2003-06-16

    The first reported structure-activity relationships (SARs) about the N-[3-methoxy-4-(5-oxazolyl)phenyl moiety for a series of recently disclosed inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitors are described. The syntheses and in vitro inhibitory values for IMPDH II, and T-cell proliferation (for select analogues) are given.

  15. Absorbed dose conversion coefficients for embryo and foetus in neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Monte Carlo code MCNPX has been used to determine mean absorbed doses to the embryo and foetus when the mother is exposed to neutron fields. There are situations, such as on-board aircraft, where high-energy neutrons are often peaked in top down (TOP) direction. In addition to previous publications for standard irradiation geometries, this study provides absorbed dose conversion coefficients for the embryo of 8 weeks and the foetus of 3, 6 or 9 months at TOP irradiation geometry. The conversion coefficients are compared with the coefficients in isotropic irradiation (ISO). With increasing neutron energies, the conversion coefficients in TOP irradiation become dominant. A set of conversion coefficients is constructed from the higher value in either ISO or TOP irradiation at a given neutron energy. In cases where the irradiation geometry is not adequately known, this set of conversion coefficients can be used in a conservative dose assessment for embryo and foetus in neutron fields. (authors)

  16. Inosine Released from Dying or Dead Cells Stimulates Cell Proliferation via Adenosine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionMany antitumor therapies induce apoptotic cell death in order to cause tumor regression. Paradoxically, apoptotic cells are also known to promote wound healing, cell proliferation, and tumor cell repopulation in multicellular organisms. We aimed to characterize the nature of the regenerative signals concentrated in the micromilieu of dead and dying cells.MethodsCultures of viable melanoma B16F10 cells, mouse fibroblasts, and primary human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS in the presence of dead and dying cells, their supernatants (SNs, or purified agonists and antagonists were used to evaluate the stimulation of proliferation. Viable cell quantification was performed by either flow cytometry of harvested cells or by crystal violet staining of adherent cells. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry of cell SNs were deployed to identify the nature of growth-promoting factors. Coimplantation of living cells in the presence of SNs collected from dead and dying cells and specific agonists was used to evaluate tumor growth in vivo.ResultsThe stimulation of proliferation of few surviving cells by bystander dead cells was confirmed for melanoma cells, mouse fibroblasts, and primary FLS. We found that small soluble molecules present in the protein-free fraction of SNs of dead and dying cells were responsible for the promotion of proliferation. The nucleoside inosine released by dead and dying cells acting via adenosine receptors was identified as putative inducer of proliferation of surviving tumor cells after irradiation and heat treatment.ConclusionInosine released by dead and dying cells mediates tumor cell proliferation via purinergic receptors. Therapeutic strategies surmounting this pathway may help to reduce the rate of recurrence after radio- and chemotherapy.

  17. Literature review of the studies on uptake, retention and distribution of radionuclides by the foetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamothe, E.S.

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes the available literature from the last 10 years dealing with studies on uptake, retention and distribution of radionuclides by an embryo or foetus following maternal intakes. The review concentrates on isotopes commonly used by Canadian licensees. From the animal studies and from the limited human data, it is evident that after maternal contamination, the embryo or foetus accumulates and retains most radionuclides. Very little human data is available and a large fraction of the quoted values for human foetal dose retention are obtained from extrapolation from animal experiments. The information obtained in animal experiments is useful in determining general patterns of retention and distributions of radionuclides within the foetoplacental unit

  18. Lack of cilia and differentiation defects in the liver of human foetuses with the Meckel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotman, Frédéric; Libbrecht, Louis; Killingsworth, Murray C; Loo, Christine C K; Roskams, Tania; Lemaigre, Frédéric P

    2008-03-01

    Meckel syndrome is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by a combination of renal cysts, anomalies of the central nervous system, polydactyly and ductal plate malformations (DPM), which are hepatic anomalies consisting of excessive and abnormal foetal biliary structures. Among the genomic loci associated with Meckel syndrome, mutations in four genes were recently identified. These genes code for proteins associated with primary cilia and are possibly involved in cell differentiation. The aim of the present work was to investigate the formation of the primary cilia and the differentiation of the hepatic cells in foetuses with Meckel syndrome. Sections of livers from human foetuses with Meckel syndrome were analysed by immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The primary cilia of the biliary cells were absent in some Meckel foetuses, but were present in others. In addition, defects in hepatic differentiation were observed in Meckel livers, as evidenced by the presence of hybrid cells co-expressing hepatocytic and biliary markers. Defects in cilia formation occur in some Meckel livers, and most cases show DPM associated with abnormal hepatic cell differentiation. Because differentiation precedes the formation of the cilia during liver development, we propose that defective differentiation may constitute the initial defect in the liver of Meckel syndrome foetuses.

  19. Immuno-histochemical features of the structure of foetuses' uterus from the mothers with pregnancy complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Kupriianova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Material of the research includes uterus of foetuses, that were dead on the gestational term between 21 and 41 weeks. According to peculiarities in the pregnancy course this material was divided into groups: foetuses from mothers with physiological pregnancy; foetuses from mothers. whose pregnancy takes its course on the background of the PE with different stages of the severity; and, finally, foetuses from mothers, whose pregnancy was complicated by the chronic infection of lower genital tracts. Research methods: macroscopic, histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, morphometric, statistical. It was shown an excessive proliferation of the connective tissue in all structural components, in the composition of which prevails an immature collagen of the III type. It was also increased a production of the endothelin-1 by the vascular component of organs. In addition, it was defined an oppression of the functional activity of epithelial component by mucosa, which was expressed like decreasing of the hormonal activity of the the organ and increasing of the manifestation stage of apoptosis changes.

  20. Bilateral oblique facial clefts, rudimentary eyes and hydrocephalus in an aborted equine foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi; McEvoy, Fintan

    2017-01-01

    and hydrocephalus is reported in an equine foetus spontaneously aborted at gestation day 224. The cause of abortion was considered to be intrauterine death caused by umbilical cord torsions and subsequent compromised blood flow, but the aetiology of the malformation could not be determined. A detailed history...

  1. Evaluation of doses given to foetus in diagnostic radiology in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, T.; Donagi, A.; Karpinovitz, A.

    1975-01-01

    Among the various groups exposed to diagnostic radiation, pregnant women, during the first months of pregnancy, require special attention, because of the high sensitivity of the developing foetus to ionizing radiation. In light of this sensitivity, special limitations were adopted in different countries, concerning female X-ray technicians in the reproductive age. However, it frequently happens that a pregnant woman is irradiated during the first months of pregnancy, due to the fact that neither she nor the attending physician is aware that she is pregnant. Many times, after this fact is realized, physicists are asked to ''reconstruct'' the radiographs in order to evaluate the foetus dose. The purpose of this ''reconstruction'' is to determine whether an abortion is to be performed. The present work constitutes the first stage of a research desianed to provide the radiologist with typical Israeli data, which he could use for evaluating the order of magnitude of the foetus dose. The purpose of this ''preliminary evaluation'' carried out by the radiologist is to determine whether the foetus dose is of such a magnitude justifying the performance of a specific ''reconstruction test'' or not. (B.G.)

  2. Can a foetus participate in legal proceedings involving atomic energy law?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    A conceived but still unborn child (foetus) is not able to participate in an administrative lawsuit dealing with the decommissioning of a repository for radioactive waste. Federal Administrative Court, decision of 5.2.1992 - 7 B 13.92 - (Regional Superior Court of Magdeburg). (orig.) [de

  3. Radiation dose and radiation risk to foetuses and newborns during X-ray examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, A. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the way in which the demands set by degree 423/2000 by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health are fulfilled with respect to the most radiosensitive groups, the foetus and the child, by estimating the radiation dose and radiation risk to the foetus from x-ray examinations of an expectant mother's pelvic region, finding out the practice involved in preventing doses to embryos and foetuses and assessing dose practices in cases where an embryo or foetus is or shall be exposed, and by estimating radiation dose and risk due to the radiation received by a new-born being treated in a paediatric intensive care unit. No statistics are available in Finland to indicate how many x-ray examinations of the pelvic region and lower abdomen are made to pregnant patients or to show the dose and risk to the foetus due these examinations. In order to find out the practices in radiological departments concerning the pelvic x-ray examination of fertile woman and the number of foetuses exposed, a questionnaire was sent to all radiation safety officers responsible for the safe use of radiation (n = 290). A total of 173 questionnaires were returned. This study recorded the technique and Dose-Area Product of 118 chest examinations of newborns in paediatric intensive care units. Entrance surface doses and effective doses were calculated separately to each newborn. Based on the patient records, the number of all x-ray examinations during the study was calculated and the effective doses were estimated retrospectively to each child. The radiation risk was estimated both for the foetuses and for the newborns. According to this study, it is rare in Finland to expose a pregnant woman to radiation. On the other hand, with the exception of pelvimetry examinations, there are no compiled statistics concerning the number of pelvic x-ray examinations of a pregnant woman. There was no common practice on how to exclude the possibility of pregnancy. The dose

  4. Radiation dose and radiation risk to foetuses and newborns during X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettunen, A.

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the way in which the demands set by degree 423/2000 by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health are fulfilled with respect to the most radiosensitive groups, the foetus and the child, by estimating the radiation dose and radiation risk to the foetus from x-ray examinations of an expectant mother's pelvic region, finding out the practice involved in preventing doses to embryos and foetuses and assessing dose practices in cases where an embryo or foetus is or shall be exposed, and by estimating radiation dose and risk due to the radiation received by a new-born being treated in a paediatric intensive care unit. No statistics are available in Finland to indicate how many x-ray examinations of the pelvic region and lower abdomen are made to pregnant patients or to show the dose and risk to the foetus due these examinations. In order to find out the practices in radiological departments concerning the pelvic x-ray examination of fertile woman and the number of foetuses exposed, a questionnaire was sent to all radiation safety officers responsible for the safe use of radiation (n = 290). A total of 173 questionnaires were returned. This study recorded the technique and Dose-Area Product of 118 chest examinations of newborns in paediatric intensive care units. Entrance surface doses and effective doses were calculated separately to each newborn. Based on the patient records, the number of all x-ray examinations during the study was calculated and the effective doses were estimated retrospectively to each child. The radiation risk was estimated both for the foetuses and for the newborns. According to this study, it is rare in Finland to expose a pregnant woman to radiation. On the other hand, with the exception of pelvimetry examinations, there are no compiled statistics concerning the number of pelvic x-ray examinations of a pregnant woman. There was no common practice on how to exclude the possibility of pregnancy. The dose to a

  5. Experimental infections of the porcine foetus with Bungowannah virus, a novel pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlaison, Deborah S; Cook, Roger W; Srivastava, Mukesh; Frost, Melinda J; King, Katherine R; Kirkland, Peter D

    2010-07-29

    In 2003 an outbreak of sudden deaths occurred in 2-3-week-old pigs on a piggery in New South Wales, Australia. There was a marked increase in the birth of stillborn pigs and preweaning losses associated with a multifocal non-suppurative myocarditis with myonecrosis. The aim of this study was to amplify any infectious agents present in field material to aid the detection and identification of the causative agent of the porcine myocarditis syndrome (PMC). Foetuses were directly inoculated in utero with tissue extracts from field cases of PMC at 56-60, 70-84 or 85-94 days of gestation and euthanased 7-28 days later. The IgG concentration in foetal sera/body fluids was measured, hearts were examined by light microscopy and selected hearts were examined by electron microscopy. An infectious agent was detected in tissues from cases of PMC and its identification as the novel pestivirus Bungowannah virus has recently been reported (Kirkland et al., 2007). Sow sera, foetal tissues and foetal sera/body fluids were tested for Bungowannah virus RNA by qRT-PCR and antibody by peroxidase-linked assay. Bungowannah virus was detected in numerous organs of the porcine foetus. Following direct foetal exposure it is probable that this virus spreads by direct intra-uterine transmission to adjacent foetuses and by trans-uterine transmission to the dam. Data were obtained for both the replication of the virus in the porcine foetus and the humoral immune response in the foetus and sow. Crown Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibiting Inosine Hydrolase and Alanine Racemase to Enhance the Germination of Bacillus anthracis Sterne Spores: Potential Spore Decontamination Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    decontamination strategies>> Maryline DEFEZ 1𔃼, Melissa HUNTER3J Susan WELKOS :~J Christopher COTE3 1 University Grenoble-Alpes, Grenoble, France. 1...inosine hydrolase and alanine racemase to enhance the germination of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores potential spore decontamination strategies 5a...8217 • Accidentally in Humans • Natural reservoir is soil • Anthrax Disease Cycle: - animals infected by soilborne spores in food and water or bites from certain

  7. Inosine-5'-monophosphate is a candidate agent to resolve rigor mortis of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuishi, Masanori; Tsuji, Mariko; Yamaguchi, Megumi; Kitamura, Natsumi; Tanaka, Sachi; Nakamura, Yukinobu; Okitani, Akihiro

    2016-11-01

    The object of the present study was to reveal the action of inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) toward myofibrils in postmortem muscles. IMP solubilized isolated actomyosin within a narrow range of KCl concentration, 0.19-0.20 mol/L, because of the dissociation of actomyosin into actin and myosin, but it did not solubilize the proteins in myofibrils with 0.2 mol/L KCl. However, IMP could solubilize both proteins in myofibrils with 0.2 mol/L KCl in the presence of 1 m mol/L pyrophosphate or 1.0-3.3 m mol/L adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP). Thus, we presumed that pyrophosphate and ADP released thin filaments composed of actin, and thick filaments composed of myosin from restraints of myofibrils, and then both filaments were solubilized through the IMP-induced dissociation of actomyosin. Thus, we concluded that IMP is a candidate agent to resolve rigor mortis because of its ability to break the association between thick and thin filaments. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Interleukin28B and inosine triphosphatase help to personalize hepatitis C treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2011-01-01

    In the therapy using a combination of pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) for chronic hepatitis C (CHC), approximately 50% of CHC patients infected with high viremia of HCV genotype 1 reached sustained viral response. The recent discovery revealed by a genome-wide association study technology provides the unexpected role of IL28B and inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) in HCV infection. The former single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) around the IL28B gene could improve the diagnostics on the prediction of spontaneous clearance and the response to anti-HCV treatment, suggesting that these findings could be strong evidence to enhance the development of a novel therapeutic strategy and the basic study of IFN-λs. Interestingly, the discovered IL28B SNPs revealed the enigma that the viral clearance rate was dependent on ethnicity. The latter functional SNP in ITPA locus was the most significant SNP associated with RBV-induced anemia as well as IFN-induced thrombocytopenia. Note that severe Hb decline, which is mainly found in ITPA-CC patients, was inversely correlated with platelet reduction, contributing to an association between severe anemia and relative reactive increase in platelet count. These data may provide a valuable pharmacogenetic diagnostic tool for tailoring PEG-IFN/RBV dosing to minimize drug-induced adverse events and for further optimization of clinical anti-HCV chemotherapeutics. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Hit discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase, GuaB2, inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Niteshkumar U; Singh, Vinayak; Ferraris, Davide M; Rizzi, Menico; Kharkar, Prashant S

    2018-04-18

    Tuberculosis remains a global concern. There is an urgent need of newer antitubercular drugs due to the development of resistant forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), guaB2, of Mtb, required for guanine nucleotide biosynthesis, is an attractive target for drug development. In this study, we screened a focused library of 73 drug-like molecules with desirable calculated/predicted physicochemical properties, for growth inhibitory activity against drug-sensitive MtbH37Rv. The eight hits and mycophenolic acid, a prototype IMPDH inhibitor, were further evaluated for activity on purified Mtb-GuaB2 enzyme, target selectivity using a conditional knockdown mutant of guaB2 in Mtb, followed by cross-resistance to IMPDH inhibitor-resistant SRMV2.6 strain of Mtb, and activity on human IMPDH2 isoform. One of the hits, 13, a 5-amidophthalide derivative, has shown growth inhibitory potential and target specificity against the Mtb-GuaB2 enzyme. The hit, 13, is a promising molecule with potential for further development as an antitubercular agent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of some food pollutants on pregnant rats and their foetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, E.M.H.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of some food pollutants on pregnant rats and their foetuses The present work deals to illustrate asses the possible adverse effect evoked by radiation and/or tartrazine on the pregnant rats and their foetuses and to evaluate their haematological and their histological changes on liver and kidney. The pregnant rats were treated with radiation (1/2 Gy) on the 5th day of gestation and two doses of tartrazine (2.8, 5.6 mg/kg b.wt) from the 5th to 20th day of gestation singly or in combination. On the 20th day of gestation, the results have teveald marked decrease of maternal body weight, increase in the percentage of abortion and decrease in maternal uterine weight. In addition. to wide haematological disorders which are represented by decrease in erythrocytic count, decrease in haemoglobin content and haematocrit percentage. In addition to increase in total leukocyte count, changes in blood differential, and marked histological changes in their livers and kidneys. The effect of radiation and/or tartrazine on the development rat foetuses were characterized by growth retardation, high percentage of foetal mortality with gross malformation. In addition to decrease in R.B.Cs count and haemoglobin content and increase in total leucocyte count with marked histological changes in their livers and kidneys. Furthermore, the use of radiation alone or in combination with the two doses of tartrazine were found to cause effects both pregnant rats and their resulting foetuses. These effects increase with the highest dose of tartrazine than with the lower one and it was more pronounced in combination groups than in the groups used radiation or tartrazine alone. 5 tabs., 102 figs., 357 refs

  11. Different characteristics and nucleotide binding properties of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine C Thomas

    Full Text Available We recently reported that Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase (IMPDH, a rate-limiting enzyme in de novo guanine nucleotide biosynthesis, clustered into macrostructures in response to decreased nucleotide levels and that there were differences between the IMPDH isoforms, IMPDH1 and IMPDH2. We hypothesised that the Bateman domains, which are present in both isoforms and serve as energy-sensing/allosteric modules in unrelated proteins, would contribute to isoform-specific differences and that mutations situated in and around this domain in IMPDH1 which give rise to retinitis pigmentosa (RP would compromise regulation. We employed immuno-electron microscopy to investigate the ultrastructure of IMPDH macrostructures and live-cell imaging to follow clustering of an IMPDH2-GFP chimera in real-time. Using a series of IMPDH1/IMPDH2 chimera we demonstrated that the propensity to cluster was conferred by the N-terminal 244 amino acids, which includes the Bateman domain. A protease protection assay suggested isoform-specific purine nucleotide binding characteristics, with ATP protecting IMPDH1 and AMP protecting IMPDH2, via a mechanism involving conformational changes upon nucleotide binding to the Bateman domain without affecting IMPDH catalytic activity. ATP binding to IMPDH1 was confirmed in a nucleotide binding assay. The RP-causing mutation, R224P, abolished ATP binding and nucleotide protection and this correlated with an altered propensity to cluster. Collectively these data demonstrate that (i the isoforms are differentially regulated by AMP and ATP by a mechanism involving the Bateman domain, (ii communication occurs between the Bateman and catalytic domains and (iii the RP-causing mutations compromise such regulation. These findings support the idea that the IMPDH isoforms are subject to distinct regulation and that regulatory defects contribute to human disease.

  12. The pentose moiety of adenosine and inosine is an important energy source for the fermented-meat starter culture Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimaux, T; Vrancken, G; Vuylsteke, B; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2011-09-01

    The genome sequence of Lactobacillus sakei 23K has revealed that the species L. sakei harbors several genes involved in the catabolism of energy sources other than glucose in meat, such as glycerol, arginine, and nucleosides. In this study, a screening of 15 L. sakei strains revealed that arginine, inosine, and adenosine could be used as energy sources by all strains. However, no glycerol catabolism occurred in any of the L. sakei strains tested. A detailed kinetic analysis of inosine and adenosine catabolism in the presence of arginine by L. sakei CTC 494, a fermented-meat starter culture, was performed. It showed that nucleoside catabolism occurred as a mixed-acid fermentation in a pH range (pH 5.0 to 6.5) relevant for sausage fermentation. This resulted in the production of a mixture of acetic acid, formic acid, and ethanol from ribose, while the nucleobase (hypoxanthine and adenine in the case of fermentations with inosine and adenosine, respectively) was excreted into the medium stoichiometrically. This indicates that adenosine deaminase activity did not take place. The ratios of the different fermentation end products did not vary with environmental pH, except for the fermentation with inosine at pH 5.0, where lactic acid was produced too. In all cases, no other carbon-containing metabolites were found; carbon dioxide was derived only from arginine catabolism. Arginine was cometabolized in all cases and resulted in the production of both citrulline and ornithine. Based on these results, a pathway for inosine and adenosine catabolism in L. sakei CTC 494 was presented, whereby both nucleosides are directly converted into their nucleobase and ribose, the latter entering the heterolactate pathway. The present study revealed that the pentose moiety (ribose) of the nucleosides inosine and adenosine is an effective fermentable substrate for L. sakei. Thus, the ability to use these energy sources offers a competitive advantage for this species in a meat environment.

  13. Response of mouse foetus to radiation from Na sup(99m)TcO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.A.; Gloria, I.V.; Harper, P.V.

    1976-01-01

    Technetium has assumed ecological importance as a source of law-level radiation, with the use of sup(99m)Tc in nuclear medicine and production of sup(99m)Tc in power generation reactions. Technetium introduced as pertechnetate into the bloodstream of pregnant females is transported across the placental barrier to the foetus, where a portion appears to be incorporated into biomolecules. When combined as biomolecules, radionuclides that decay by electron capture or isomeric transition show a lethality greater than that predicted in cell cultures and radiation therapy. The decay of sup(99m)Tc by isomeric transition, together with the above considerations, places a high priority on the investigation of its radiation effects due to clinical doses of up to 25 mCi. Female mice were given daily intravenous injections of 0, 5, 50 and 500 μCi of sup(99m)Tc as pertechnetate in isotonic saline throughout gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation. At two months of age, the progeny were mated with randomly selected litter mates to produce a second generation; the process was repeated for production of the third generation. Only the first generation was irradiated. An injection of 5 μCi/mouse and 10 mCi/human both approximately equal 0.2 μCi/g of body weight; however, the mouse foetus receives an estimated radiation dose of 0.05 rad, and the human 1 rad. Throughout the gestation period, a mouse at the 5 μCi level receives about 100 μCi of sup(99m)Tc, resulting in approximately 1 rad to the foetus. Significant reduction of body weight was noted in all experimental groups. The greatest effects were seen in the progeny of mothers treated during gestation only. These preliminary results reinforce the existing concern about use of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate in pregnant or potentially pregnant subjects

  14. Distribution of /sup 14/C-labelled acrylamide and betaine in foetuses of rats, rabbits, beagle dogs and miniature pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, G.J.; Miller, E.; Sapienza, P.P.; Michel, T.C.; King, M.T.; Turner, V.A.; Blumenthal, H.; Jackson, W.E.; Levin, S.

    1983-02-01

    (/sup 14/C)Acrylamide and (/sup 14/C)betaine hydrochloride were administered in a single iv dose to pregnant rats, rabbits, beagle dogs and miniature pigs late in gestation (1-2 days before expected parturition). Dosages used were 10 mg/kg for rats and 5 mg/kg for the other species. The compounds were allowed to equilibrate in the animal (for 1 hr in rats and for 2 hr in the other species); the dam was then killed and the foetuses were removed by caesarean section. Each foetus was weighed and analysed for radioactivity, either by homogenization of the whole foetus (rat and rabbit) or by determining separately the radioactivity in individual organs and tissues (dog and pig). Foetal uptake of the polar compound betaine hydrochloride was much lower than that of the more lipophilic acrylamide. The sex of the foetus did not appear to affect uptake of either compound. There were no significant differences in total uptake of isotope attributable to the position of the foetus within the uterus in any of the four species given either acrylamide or betaine. Similarly, uterine position did not affect the uptake of acrylamide or betaine by individual tissues of foetal dogs or pigs. Since the distributions of /sup 14/C-labelled acrylamide and betaine hydrochloride were essentially uniform throughout a litter, it would not be necessary to sample all of the members of a litter to obtain a representative picture of foetal distribution.

  15. Irradiation of the foetus and the child during radiodiagnosis. Low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grellet, J.

    1994-01-01

    Controlling irradiation of the conceptus, the child and the adolescent due to radiodiagnosis techniques is of particular importance since these age groups are more sensitive to ionizing irradiation than adults. In addition the conceptus (embryo or foetus) often receives whole-body irradiation. Based on the data in the literature, it can only be demonstrated that, under normal diagnostic conditions, irradiation risks do exist. However, the aim of applying ethical standards based on the ''ALARA'' concept is to reduce the potential irradiation-related risk and to sustain a sufficiently high level of awareness of the potential danger in health careworkers. (author). 15 refs., 1 fig

  16. A model for determination of human foetus irradiation during intrauterine development when the mother incorporates iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, V.; Doncheva, B.

    1989-01-01

    A model is presented for irradiation calculation of human foetus during weeks 8-15 of the intrauterine development, when the mother chronically incorporates iodine 131. This period is critical for the nervous system of the foetus. Compared to some other author's models, the method proposed eliminates some uncertainties and takes into account the changes in the activity of mother's thyroid in time. The model is built on the base of data from 131 I-kinetics of pregnant women and experimental mice. A formula is proposed for total foetus irradiation calculation including: the internal γ and β irradiation; the external γ and β irradiation from the mother as a whole; and the external γ irradiation from the mother's thyroid

  17. Organ doses for foetuses, babies, children and adults from environmental gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petoussi, N.; Jacob, P.; Zankl, M.; Saito, K.

    1991-01-01

    Organ doses for babies, children and adults and doses to foetuses from environmental gamma rays were calculated using Monte Carlo codes. Firstly, gamma ray fields in the air-over-ground geometry were simulated, neglecting the disturbances of the radiation field by the human body. The exposure modes considered were semi-infinite homogeneous volume sources in the air, infinite plane sources at a depth of 0.5 g.cm -2 in the ground and homogeneous volume sources of natural radionuclides in the ground. The results of the simulation of the gamma ray transport in the air-over-ground geometry were used as sources irradiating the anthropomorphic phantoms: an 8 week old baby, a seven year old child and two 'reference' adult phantoms of a male and a female. The dose to foetuses were estimated from the dose to the uterus of the adult female. Dose conversion factors normalised to source intensity and air kerma were calculated for monoenergetic sources (15 keV to 10 MeV) and natural and artificial radionuclides. (author)

  18. Radiation exposure to foetus and breasts from dental X-ray examinations: effect of lead shields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaranta, Anna; Ekholm, Marja; Toroi, Paula; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Dental radiography may involve situations where the patient is known to be pregnant or the pregnancy is noticed after the X-ray procedure. In such cases, the radiation dose to the foetus, though low, needs to be estimated. Uniform and widely used guidance on dental X-ray procedures during pregnancy are presently lacking, the usefulness of lead shields is unclear and practices vary. Upper estimates of radiation doses to the foetus and breasts of the pregnant patient were estimated with an anthropomorphic female phantom in intraoral, panoramic, cephalometric and CBCT dental modalities with and without lead shields. The upper estimates of foetal doses varied from 0.009 to 6.9 μGy, and doses at the breast level varied from 0.602 to 75.4 μGy. With lead shields, the foetal doses varied from 0.005 to 2.1 μGy, and breast doses varied from 0.002 to 10.4 μGy. The foetal dose levels without lead shielding were dental radiographic examination.

  19. Brain heparan sulphate proteoglycans are altered in developing foetus when exposed to in-utero hyperglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, M S; Nandini, C D

    2017-08-01

    In-utero exposure of foetus to hyperglycaemic condition affects the growth and development of the organism. The brain is one of the first organs that start to develop during embryonic period and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs) are one of the key molecules involved in its development. But studies on the effect of hyperglycaemic conditions on brain GAGs/PGs are few and far between. We, therefore, looked into the changes in brain GAGs and PGs at various developmental stages of pre- and post-natal rats from non-diabetic and diabetic mothers as well as in adult rats induced with diabetes using a diabetogenic agent, Streptozotocin. Increased expression of GAGs especially that of heparan sulphate class in various developmental stages were observed in the brain as a result of in-utero hyperglycaemic condition but not in that of adult rats. Changes in disaccharides of heparan sulphate (HS) were observed in various developmental stages. Furthermore, various HSPGs namely, syndecans-1 and -3 and glypican-1 were overexpressed in offspring from diabetic mother. However, in adult diabetic rats, only glypican-1 was overexpressed. The offsprings from diabetic mothers became hyperphagic at the end of 8 weeks after birth which can have implications in the long run. Our results highlight the likely impact of the in-utero exposure of foetus to hyperglycaemic condition on brain GAGs/PGs compared to diabetic adult rats.

  20. Malformations induced by gamma irradiation combined with vitamin A administration in pregnant female albino rats and their foetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.

    2007-01-01

    In The Present investigation, oral administration of vitamin A of the therapeutic doses and double therapeutic doses (9.000 lU/kg b.wt and 18.000 IU/ kg body, wt) to female rats starting on day 1 up to day 19 of pregnancy and exposed to 3 Gy (1 Gy/3 times) whole body gamma irradiation on days 7th, 1th and 15th of gestation (dissection was preformed on day 20) caused morphological, histochemical and skeletal changes in pregnant rats and their foetuses. The congenital anomalies occurred in foetuses when pregnant rats were exposed to γ-irradiation including diminution of size and subcutaneous haemorrhage. On the other hand, miscellaneous malformations including kypophysis, exencephally, anophthalmia and deformation of ear region were designated in foetuses maternally treated with excess vitamin A. The malformations were severe when mothers were irradiated during vitamin A administration as manifested by macrocephaly and fusion of digits of the hind limb (Oligosyndactyly). The examination of the endo skeletal system of foetuses obtained from irradiated pregnant rats and treated with low or excess doses of vitamin A showed retardation in of the ossification of the skull bones and lack of ossification at the centre of vertebrae. Moreover, no ossification was observed in sternebra, metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges. In the present study, the content of DNA exhibited significant decrease in mother irradiated and combined or not with vitamin A. The results are of great importance from the standpoint of radiation protection and drug safety

  1. Immuno-histochemical features of the structure of foetuses' uterine tubes from the mothers with pregnancy complications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Kupriianova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Material of the research includes uterine tubes of foetuses, that were dead on the gestational term between 21 and 41 weeks. According to peculiarities in the pregnancy course this material was divided into groups: foetuses from mothers with physiological pregnancy; foetuses from mothers. whose pregnancy takes its course on the background of the PE with different stages of the severity; and, finally, foetuses from mothers, whose pregnancy was complicated by the chronic infection of lower genital tracts. Research methods: macroscopic, histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, morphometric, statistical. It was shown an excessive proliferation of the connective tissue in all structural components, in the composition of which prevails an immature collagen of the III type. It was also increased a production of the endothelin-1 by the vascular component of organs. In addition, it was defined an oppression of the functional activity of epithelial component by mucosa, which was expressed like decreasing of the hormonal activity of the the organ and increasing of the manifestation stage of apoptosis changes.

  2. Polyphasic taxonomic approach in the description of Alishewanella fetalis gen. nov., sp nov., isolated from a human foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Venkateswaran, K.; Christensen, H.

    2000-01-01

    A taxonomically unique bacterium is described on the basis of a physiological and biochemical characterization, fatty acid profiling and sequence analyses of 16S rRNA and gyrase B (gyrB) genes. This non-motile, non-fermentative bacterium was isolated from a human foetus in Uppsala, Sweden...

  3. Abnormal Doppler flow velocimetry in the growth restricted foetus as a predictor for necrotising enterocolitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt A

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obstetric decision- making for the growth restricted foetus has to take into consideration the benefits and risks of waiting for pulmonary maturity and continued exposure to hostile intra-uterine environment. Necrotising Enterocolitis (NEC results from continued exposure to hostile environment and is an important cause of poor neonatal outcome. AIMS: To evaluate the predictive value of abnormal Doppler flow velocimetry of the foetal umbilical artery for NEC and neonatal mortality. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective study carried out at a tertiary care centre for obstetric and neonatal care. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Seventy-seven neonates with birth weight less than 2000 gm, born over a period of 18 months were studied. These pregnancies were identified as having growth abnormalities of the foetus. Besides other tests of foetal well-being, they were also subjected to Doppler flow velocimetry of the foeto-placental vasculature. Obstetric outcome was evaluated with reference to period of gestation and route of delivery. The neonatal outcome was reviewed with reference to birth weight, Apgar scores and evidence of NEC. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi square test. RESULTS: In the group of patients with Absent or Reverse End Diastolic Frequencies (A/R EDF in the umbilical arteries, positive predictive value for NEC was 52.6%, (RR 30.2; OR 264. The mortality from NEC was 50%. When umbilical artery velocimetry did not show A/REDF, there were no cases of NEC or mortality. Abnormal umbilical or uterine artery flow increased the rate of caesarean section to 62.5% as compared to 17.6% in cases where umbilical artery flow was normal. CONCLUSION: In antenatally identified pregnancies at risk for foetal growth restriction, abnormal Doppler velocimetry in the form of A/REDF in the umbilical arteries is a useful guide to predict NEC and mortality in the early neonatal period.

  4. Induced current density in the foetus of pregnant workers in high magnetic field environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, C.; Wood, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: There are moves to limit by legislation the amount of electric and magnetic fields that workers and the general public are exposed to. In work locations near wiring, cables and equipment carrying high electric currents, there are situations in which the proposed magnetic field limits could be exceeded. Since the limits for the general public are more conservative than those for workers and since the foetus or a pregnant worker should be afforded the status of a member of the general public, it is important to assess a worst-case scenario for the purposes of a general code of practice. Three different magnetic field exposures are modelled, which include the worst case - the body of a pregnant woman at a smallest distance of 30 cm to the conductor. All computations were done by using Multiple Multipole Program (MMP), which is based on the Generalized Multipole Technique (GMT) from ETH (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), Zurich, Switzerland. The torso was modelled as a capped cylinder containing concentric placental and amniotic fluid layers containing a foetus. Appropriate values for conductivity and permittivity were applied to these layers and the Maxwell Equation solver applied for the situations of: cable beneath, alongside perpendicular and alongside parallel to the long axis of the body. Induced current density values were computed for cable distances of 0.3 and 0.5 m from the body and compared to the recommended limit values of 10 and 2 mA/m 2 for Occupational and General Public populations respectively. Regions where these values would be exceeded have been identified in this analysis. In a worst-case scenario the proposed basic restrictions would be exceeded slightly in both maternal and foetal tissue. With appropriate pre-placement assessment, these over-exposures can be avoided. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  5. CD38 Structure-Based Inhibitor Design Using the N1-Cyclic Inosine 5'-Diphosphate Ribose Template.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Moreau

    Full Text Available Few inhibitors exist for CD38, a multifunctional enzyme catalyzing the formation and metabolism of the Ca(2+-mobilizing second messenger cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (cADPR. Synthetic, non-hydrolyzable ligands can facilitate structure-based inhibitor design. Molecular docking was used to reproduce the crystallographic binding mode of cyclic inosine 5'-diphosphoribose (N1-cIDPR with CD38, revealing an exploitable pocket and predicting the potential to introduce an extra hydrogen bond interaction with Asp-155. The purine C-8 position of N1-cIDPR (IC50 276 µM was extended with an amino or diaminobutane group and the 8-modified compounds were evaluated against CD38-catalyzed cADPR hydrolysis. Crystallography of an 8-amino N1-cIDPR:CD38 complex confirmed the predicted interaction with Asp-155, together with a second H-bond from a realigned Glu-146, rationalizing the improved inhibition (IC50 56 µM. Crystallography of a complex of cyclic ADP-carbocyclic ribose (cADPcR, IC50 129 µM with CD38 illustrated that Glu-146 hydrogen bonds with the ligand N6-amino group. Both 8-amino N1-cIDPR and cADPcR bind deep in the active site reaching the catalytic residue Glu-226, and mimicking the likely location of cADPR during catalysis. Substantial overlap of the N1-cIDPR "northern" ribose monophosphate and the cADPcR carbocyclic ribose monophosphate regions suggests that this area is crucial for inhibitor design, leading to a new compound series of N1-inosine 5'-monophosphates (N1-IMPs. These small fragments inhibit hydrolysis of cADPR more efficiently than the parent cyclic compounds, with the best in the series demonstrating potent inhibition (IC50 = 7.6 µM. The lower molecular weight and relative simplicity of these compounds compared to cADPR make them attractive as a starting point for further inhibitor design.

  6. Effect of level of dietary protein on the distribution of 14C-activity from exogenous 14C-inosine in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masushige, Shoichi; Tadokoro, Tadahiro; Suzuki, Takao; Nakajima, Hisao.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of dietary protein level on the metabolic fate of intraperitoneally administered (exogeneous) 8- 14 C-inosine in chicks was studied. Three different protein level diets (low, standard and high) were prepared. Chicks were fed on these diets for 10 days, respectively and the following results were found: (1) RNA content of liver, small intestine and muscle in chicks fed on a low protein diet was decreased as compared to other diet groups, but no difference was observed in kidney or pancreas. (2) 14 C uptake by organs from exogeneous 8- 14 C-inosine was determined. The uptake of 14 C in kidney, pancreas and small intestine was higher than that in liver and muscle. Moreover, the uptake by tissues in the low protein groups was significantly higher than that in either the standard or high protein groups, but no difference was observed between these latter two groups. (3) The rate of incorporation of 14 C labelled purine by acid soluble materials and RNA was higher in kidney, pancreas and small intestine than in liver and muscle, and also higher in chicks fed on a low protein diet than in either the standard or high protein groups. (4) It was revealed that the 14 C-labelled purine rings from 8- 14 C-inosine were incorporated into AMP and GMP as constituents of RNA. (author)

  7. Incorporation of organically bound tritium (OBT) of food or tritium (OBT) of food or tritiated water (TW) into foetuses, placentas and some tissues of pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochalska, M.; Szot, Z.

    1978-01-01

    Pregnant rats between 9 and 17 days of gestation were given OBT or TW during 5 days. On the 6th day the animals were sacrificed (13, 15, 17, 19 and 21st day gestation). Tritium radioactivity of foetuses, placentas, yolk sacs, some organs of mother and some organic compounds separated from foetuses and placentas were examined. The results were referred to the last day of experiment. The highest tritium concentration in the foetuses and placentas was found on the 13th day of gestation and decreased until the 17th day. Then, after a short lasting increase, the incorporation values attained the lowest values on the 21st day. Tritium radioactivity of foetuses was of the order of magnitude of that in the mother's liver and small intestine. During the last days of pregnancy diminished incorporation into phospholipids, nucleic acids and proteins and an increase into acid-soluble fraction was observed. (author)

  8. Differential Sensitivities of Fast- and Slow-Cycling Cancer Cells to Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase 2 Inhibition by Mycophenolic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kan; Cao, Wanlu; Li, Juan; Sprengers, Dave; Hernanda, Pratika Y; Kong, Xiangdong; van der Laan, Luc JW; Man, Kwan; Kwekkeboom, Jaap; Metselaar, Herold J; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Pan, Qiuwei

    2015-01-01

    As uncontrolled cell proliferation requires nucleotide biosynthesis, inhibiting enzymes that mediate nucleotide biosynthesis constitutes a rational approach to the management of oncological diseases. In practice, however, results of this strategy are mixed and thus elucidation of the mechanisms by which cancer cells evade the effect of nucleotide biosynthesis restriction is urgently needed. Here we explored the notion that intrinsic differences in cancer cell cycle velocity are important in the resistance toward inhibition of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) by mycophenolic acid (MPA). In short-term experiments, MPA treatment of fast-growing cancer cells effectively elicited G0/G1 arrest and provoked apoptosis, thus inhibiting cell proliferation and colony formation. Forced expression of a mutated IMPDH2, lacking a binding site for MPA but retaining enzymatic activity, resulted in complete resistance of cancer cells to MPA. In nude mice subcutaneously engrafted with HeLa cells, MPA moderately delayed tumor formation by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Importantly, we developed a lentiviral vector–based Tet-on label-retaining system that enables to identify, isolate and functionally characterize slow-cycling or so-called label-retaining cells (LRCs) in vitro and in vivo. We surprisingly found the presence of LRCs in fast-growing tumors. LRCs were superior in colony formation, tumor initiation and resistance to MPA as compared with fast-cycling cells. Thus, the slow-cycling compartment of cancer seems predominantly responsible for resistance to MPA. PMID:26467706

  9. Experimental measurement and modelling of solubility of inosine-5′-monophosphate disodium in pure and mixed solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Fengxia; Zhuang, Wei; Wu, Jinglan; Zhou, Jingwei; Liu, Qiyan; Chen, Yong; Xie, Jingjing; Zhu, Chenjie; Guo, Ting; Ying, Hanjie

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Solubility of 5′-IMPNa 2 in various solvents was studied for the first time. • The solubility could be ranked as follows: water > methanol > ethanol > acetone. • Modified Apelblat equation gave the best correlating results. • Mixing Gibbs free energies, enthalpies, and entropies were predicted. • Solubility data and equations can optimise the crystallization conditions. - Abstract: The solubility of biological chemicals in solvents provide important fundamental data and is generally considered as an essential factor in the design of crystallization processes. The equilibrium solubility data of inosine-5′-monophosphate disodium (5′-IMPNa 2 ) in water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, as well as in the solvent mixtures (methanol + water, ethanol + water, acetone + water), were measured by an isothermal method at temperatures ranging from (293.15 to 313.15) K. The measured data in pure and mixed solvents were then modelled using the modified Apelblat equation, van’t Hoff equation, λh equation, ideal model and the Wilson model. The modified Apelblat equation showed the best modelling results, and it was therefore used to predict the mixing Gibbs free energies, enthalpies, and entropies of 5′-IMPNa 2 in pure and binary solvents. The positive values of the calculated partial molar Gibbs free energies indicated the variations in the solubility trends of 5′-IMPNa 2 . Water and ethanol (in the binary mixture with water) were found to be the most effective solvent and anti-solvent, respectively

  10. Development of multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfattah M. Selim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion among dairy cattle is one of the major causes of economic losses in the livestock industry. This study describes a 1-step multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus, these are significant bacteria commonly implicated in bovine abortion. ß-actin was added to the same PCR reaction as an internal control to detect any extraction failure or PCR inhibition. The detection limit of multiplex real-time PCR using purified DNA from cultured organisms was set to 5 fg for Leptospira spp. and C. foetus and to 50 fg for Brucella spp. The multiplex real-time PCR did not produce any non-specific amplification when tested with different strains of the 3 pathogens. This multiplex real-time PCR provides a valuable tool for diagnosis, simultaneous and rapid detection for the 3 pathogens causing abortion in bovine.

  11. The impact of not having a ductus arteriosus on clinical outcomes in foetuses diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Seth J; Wadekar, Neelum; Mertens, Luc; Manlhiot, Cedric; McCrindle, Brian W; Jaeggi, Edgar T; Nield, Lynne E

    2015-04-01

    Foetuses with simple tetralogy of Fallot almost universally have a patent ductus arteriosus. Two recently identified cases had an absent patent ductus arteriosus, requiring emergent intervention at birth. The objective of this study was to determine whether foetuses diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot and no patent ductus arteriosus have poorer outcomes compared with those with tetralogy of Fallot+patent ductus arteriosus. All foetal cases of tetralogy of Fallot between January, 2000 and 2012 were retrospectively identified from The Hospital for Sick Children (Toronto, Canada) database. Cases - tetralogy of Fallot+no patent ductus arteriosus confirmed on postnatal echo - and controls - tetralogy of Fallot+patent ductus arteriosus, matched for gestational age - were identified from prenatal records, and both clinical and echocardiographic data were reviewed. Optimal outcome was defined as valve-sparing repair with no residual lesions. Student's t-tests and Fisher's exact χ2 were used to compare groups. n=115 foetuses were diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot: 11 (9%) had no patent ductus arteriosus, and were matched to 22 controls - mean gestational age at diagnosis 23.2±4.2 weeks, 23.4±6.6 weeks, respectively. Cases had a higher proportion of right aortic arches (64% versus 14%, ptetralogy of Fallot.

  12. Glycaemia as a sign of the viability of the foetuses in the last days of gestation in dairy goats with pregnancy toxaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Miguel S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pregnancy toxaemia is one of the most common diseases affecting small ruminants in the last month of gestation. Nearly 80% of the foetal growth occurs in the last 6 weeks of gestation. Fat goats and goats carrying twins and triplets are at greater risk. Pregnancy toxaemia is characterized by metabolic acidosis, hypoglycaemia and ketonaemia and a very high mortality rate. In our study five does with pregnancy toxaemia showed a marked hyperglycaemia (12.4 ± 5.4 mmol/L. Although our findings are based on a small population sample (10 goats, we nonetheless postulate that hyperglycaemia could be explained by the death of the foetuses. Caesarian surgery was performed on four of the five does with hyperglycaemia (HG does. In the fifth, kidding was induced. In this group, two does had two dead foetuses, two had three dead foetuses and one does had four foetuses, only one of which was alive. Caesarian surgery was performed on all five does with hypoglycaemia (LG does. Four does of the LG group had three foetuses and one had two foetuses, all alive. The HG doe had lower rectal temperatures, lower sodium and higher urea nitrogen (BUN in the blood when compared with the LG does. As the condition of affected does may deteriorate quickly, the results of the present study suggest that in the last days of pregnancy goats with pregnancy toxaemia and concurrent hypoglycaemia should be considered for caesarian surgery.

  13. Endogenous Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus RNA is expressed by different cell types in ovine foetus and placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Sanna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The endogenous retroviruses are inherited elements transmitted trough the germline of most animal species and their biological role is still controversial. Ovine Pulmonary Carcinoma (OPC represents a good model for studying the interactions of endogenous retroviruses with their exogenous counterparts. The type D exogenous retrovirus known as Jaagsiekte Sheep Retro-Virus (JSRV is necessary and sufficient to cause OPC in domestic and wild sheep, but both affected and unaffected animals host in their genome 15 to 20 copies of related endogenous retroviruses named endogenous JSRV (enJSRV. In this study we evaluated the expression of enJSRV gag sequences in ovine foetal and placental tissues. RNA in situ hybridisation was performed on tissue sections of thymi, lymph nodes and lungs from ovine foetuses and related placentas, taken at a late stage of development. Reverse transcriptase- in situ polymerase chain reactions were also carried out on placental samples to better define the involved cells. In foetal tissues, specific signals were observed in the thymus medulla, lymph nodes and, at a lesser extent, in foetal bronchiolar cells. In the placental tissues, positive areas were detected in various cell types in the sincythium-and cyto-trophoblast. These data demonstrate that en JSRV RNA is largely expressed in a broad spectrum of cells including tissues which are critical for the development of the immune system.

  14. Immunological and molecular characterization of Leptospira interrogans isolated from a bovine foetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Leonardo Garcia; Ridieri, Karine Forster; Jorge, Sérgio; Oliveira, Natasha Rodrigues; Hartwig, Daiane Drawanz; Amaral, Marta Gonçalves; Hartleben, Cláudia Pinho; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Cattle are commonly infected with pathogenic leptospires, and similarly to rodents, they excrete the bacteria in their urine and can transmit the pathogen from animal to animal or animal to human. Thus, surveillance and monitoring systems for detection of new Leptospira serovars are important for the control of leptospirosis. Here, we report the isolation of a spirochete from a stillborn bovine foetus and its characterization by immunological and molecular techniques. A variable number tandem repeat profile using seven discriminatory primers identified the spirochete as belonging to species Leptospira interrogans serogroup Australis serovar Muenchen. A phenotypic analysis using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against leptospiral membrane-associated proteins confirmed the expression of important virulence and pathogenicity factors (LipL32 and LigBrep). Out of 120 reference sera tested, 22 positive (36.66%) and 9 negative (15%) also reacted with the new isolate. Furthermore, the serovar Muenchen isolate was virulent in hamster model. The animal inoculated developed acute lethal infection characterized by hepatic, pulmonary and renal lesions. Local isolates exhibited unique characteristics that differed from those of reference strains; therefore, isolation of leptospires is useful in the surveillance of local pathogenic serovars. In conclusion, the data obtained from this study can contribute to the epidemiological understanding and control of leptospirosis in southern Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of low dose radiation on the odontogenesis of mice foetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, M.; Al-Achkar, W.

    1998-09-01

    Mice foetuses were irradiated in utero by gamma rays (0,2, 4,6 Gy) at 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 days of gestation. Histological study was carried out on the first premandibular tooth after 2,4,6,8 days of irradiation, to investigate the effect of irradiation on different steps of tooth development. It appeared that the irradiation induced a delay in the tooth development depending on the time of irradiation and period of gestation. The 2 Gy irradiation effect was small. The 4 Gy dose induced a delay of the cytodifferentiation of the odontoblasts and the ameloblasts. These effects were associated with a morphological retardation in the coronal and the tooth root. More pronounced effects after 6 Gy irradiation for all aspects of the odontogenesis were observed. It caused a strong decrease in the tooth development of the anlages (irradiation of day 12 of the gestation), blocked the morphogenesis (irradiation of day 14), and delayed the cytodifferentiation of the odontoblasts and the amelobasts (irradiation of day 16). Whereas the irradiation at the day 18 had no effects on the functional differentiation of the odontoblasts, but a delay in the functional differentiation of the ameloblasts was observed. Our results show, in our experimental conditions, that irradiation effect the processes prior to the cytodifferentiation of the ameloblasts and the odontoblasts and there are no effects to be observed on the cyto and functional differentiation of these two blasts when their cells achieved its final differentiation. (author)

  16. Induced current density in the foetus of pregnant workers in high magnetic field environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, C.; Wood, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    There are moves to limit by legislation the amount of electric and magnetic fields that workers and the general public are exposed to. In work locations near wiring, cables and equipment carrying high electric currents, there are situations in which the proposed magnetic field limits could be exceeded. Since the limits for the general public are more conservative than those for workers and since the foetus or a pregnant worker should be afforded the status of a member of the general public, it is important to assess a worst-case scenario for the purposes of a general code of practice. Three different magnetic field exposures are modelled, which include the worst case - the body of a pregnant woman at a smallest distance of 30 cm to the conductor. All computations were done by using Multiple Multipole Program (MMP), which is based on the Generalized Multipole Technique (GMT) from ETH (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), Zurich, Switzerland. In a worst-case scenario the proposed basic restrictions would be exceeded slightly in both maternal and foetal tissue. With appropriate pre-placement assessment, these over-exposures can be avoided. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  17. Effects of exogenous inosine monophosphate on growth performance, flavor compounds, enzyme activity, and gene expression of muscle tissues in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junshu; Liu, Peifeng; Xu, Liangmei; Huan, Hailin; Zhou, Weiren; Xu, Xiaoming; Shi, Zhendan

    2018-04-01

    The goal of this experiment was to examine effects of diets supplemented with exogenous inosine monophosphate (IMP) on the growth performance, flavor compounds, enzyme activity and gene expression of chicken. A total of 1,500 healthy, 1-day-old male 3-yellow chickens were used for a 52-d experimental period. Individuals were randomly divided into 5 groups (group I, II, III, IV, V) with 6 replicates per group, and fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% IMP, respectively. There was no significant response to the increasing dietary IMP level in average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed:gain ratio (F/G) (P ≥ 0.05). IMP content of the breast and thigh muscle showed an exponential and linear response to the increasing dietary IMP level (P exogenous IMP was fed. There were significant effects of IMP level in diet on free amino acids (FAA) (exponential, linear and quadratic effect, P exogenous IMP was fed. Dietary IMP supplementation had a quadratic effect on 5΄-NT and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme activity in the breast muscle (P exogenous IMP group had the highest (AMPD1) gene expression of the breast muscle and ATIC gene expression of the thigh muscle. These results indicate that dietary IMP did not affect the growth performance of chicken, the diet with 0.2 to 0.3% exogenous IMP is optimal to improve the meat flavor quality in chicken.

  18. Myricetin is a novel inhibitor of human inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase with anti-leukemia activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Huiling; Hu, Qian; Wang, Jingyuan; Liu, Zehui; Wu, Dang; Lu, Weiqiang; Huang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Human inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (hIMPDH) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo biosynthetic pathway of purine nucleotides, playing crucial roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. Dysregulation of hIMPDH expression and activity have been found in a variety of human cancers including leukemia. In this study, we found that myricetin, a naturally occurring phytochemical existed in berries, wine and tea, was a novel inhibitor of human type 1 and type 2 IMPDH (hIMPDH1/2) with IC_5_0 values of 6.98 ± 0.22 μM and 4.10 ± 0.14 μM, respectively. Enzyme kinetic analysis using Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed that myricetin is a mix-type inhibitor for hIMPDH1/2. Differential scanning fluorimetry and molecular docking simulation data demonstrate that myricetin is capable of binding with hIMPDH1/2. Myricetin treatment exerts potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on K562 human leukemia cells in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, cytotoxicity of myricetin on K562 cells were markedly attenuated by exogenous addition of guanosine, a salvage pathway of maintaining intracellular pool of guanine nucleotides. Taking together, these results indicate that natural product myricetin exhibits potent anti-leukemia activity by interfering with purine nucleotides biosynthetic pathway through the suppression of hIMPDH1/2 catalytic activity. - Highlights: • Myricetin, a common dietary flavonoid, is a novel inhibitor of hIMPDH1/2. • Myricetin directly binds with hIMPDH1/2 and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of leukemia cells. • The cytotoxicity of myricetin on K562 cells is markedly attenuated by exogenous addition of guanosine.

  19. Myricetin is a novel inhibitor of human inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase with anti-leukemia activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Huiling; Hu, Qian; Wang, Jingyuan; Liu, Zehui; Wu, Dang [Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Mei Long Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Lu, Weiqiang, E-mail: wqlu@bio.ecnu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences and School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); Huang, Jin, E-mail: huangjin@ecust.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Mei Long Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2016-09-02

    Human inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (hIMPDH) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo biosynthetic pathway of purine nucleotides, playing crucial roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. Dysregulation of hIMPDH expression and activity have been found in a variety of human cancers including leukemia. In this study, we found that myricetin, a naturally occurring phytochemical existed in berries, wine and tea, was a novel inhibitor of human type 1 and type 2 IMPDH (hIMPDH1/2) with IC{sub 50} values of 6.98 ± 0.22 μM and 4.10 ± 0.14 μM, respectively. Enzyme kinetic analysis using Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed that myricetin is a mix-type inhibitor for hIMPDH1/2. Differential scanning fluorimetry and molecular docking simulation data demonstrate that myricetin is capable of binding with hIMPDH1/2. Myricetin treatment exerts potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on K562 human leukemia cells in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, cytotoxicity of myricetin on K562 cells were markedly attenuated by exogenous addition of guanosine, a salvage pathway of maintaining intracellular pool of guanine nucleotides. Taking together, these results indicate that natural product myricetin exhibits potent anti-leukemia activity by interfering with purine nucleotides biosynthetic pathway through the suppression of hIMPDH1/2 catalytic activity. - Highlights: • Myricetin, a common dietary flavonoid, is a novel inhibitor of hIMPDH1/2. • Myricetin directly binds with hIMPDH1/2 and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of leukemia cells. • The cytotoxicity of myricetin on K562 cells is markedly attenuated by exogenous addition of guanosine.

  20. Feminist discourse on sex screening and selective abortion of female foetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazam, Farhat

    2004-06-01

    Although a preference for sons is reportedly a universal phenomenon, in some Asian societies daughters are considered financial and cultural liabilities. Increasing availability of ultrasonography and amniocentesis has led to widespread gender screening and selective abortion of normal female foetuses in many countries, including India. Feminists have taken widely divergent positions on the morality of this practice. Feminists from India have strongly opposed it, considering it as a further disenfranchisement of females in their patriarchal society, and have agitated successfully for legislative prohibitions. Libertarian feminists on the other hand, primarily from the United States, have argued that any prohibition of the use of this technology is a curtailment of a woman's reproductive choices and a violation of her right to make autonomous decisions regarding procreation. Using India as an illustrative case, this paper argues that in the context of what prevails in some societies, an ethical argument that hinges on the principle of autonomy as understood in the West can be problematic. Furthermore, a liberal theoretical assumption that it is always better to have more rather than fewer choices may not hold up well against the realities of life for such women. Although feminists have little disagreement concerning substantive matters, it is in the area of strategy that differences of opinion have arisen, their moral reasoning and responses shaped by the culture, ethnicity, class and race to which they belong. A view that a single 'orthodox' feminism of any variety can embody the aspiration of all women reverts to the problematic issues in the evolution of the rationalistic, individualistic, 'male' ethics against which women have consistently raised objections.

  1. DNA methylation patterns in tissues from mid-gestation bovine foetuses produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer show subtle abnormalities in nuclear reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Rita SF

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cloning of cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is associated with a high incidence of pregnancy failure characterized by abnormal placental and foetal development. These abnormalities are thought to be due, in part, to incomplete re-setting of the epigenetic state of DNA in the donor somatic cell nucleus to a state that is capable of driving embryonic and foetal development to completion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation patterns were not appropriately established during nuclear reprogramming following SCNT. A panel of imprinted, non-imprinted genes and satellite repeat sequences was examined in tissues collected from viable and failing mid-gestation SCNT foetuses and compared with similar tissues from gestation-matched normal foetuses generated by artificial insemination (AI. Results Most of the genomic regions examined in tissues from viable and failing SCNT foetuses had DNA methylation patterns similar to those in comparable tissues from AI controls. However, statistically significant differences were found between SCNT and AI at specific CpG sites in some regions of the genome, particularly those associated with SNRPN and KCNQ1OT1, which tended to be hypomethylated in SCNT tissues. There was a high degree of variation between individuals in methylation levels at almost every CpG site in these two regions, even in AI controls. In other genomic regions, methylation levels at specific CpG sites were tightly controlled with little variation between individuals. Only one site (HAND1 showed a tissue-specific pattern of DNA methylation. Overall, DNA methylation patterns in tissues of failing foetuses were similar to apparently viable SCNT foetuses, although there were individuals showing extreme deviant patterns. Conclusion These results show that SCNT foetuses that had developed to mid-gestation had largely undergone nuclear reprogramming and that the epigenetic signature at this stage was not a

  2. Effect of two non-synonymous ecto-5'-nucleotidase variants on the genetic architecture of inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) and its degradation products in Japanese Black beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemoto, Yoshinobu; Ohtake, Tsuyoshi; Sasago, Nanae; Takeda, Masayuki; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Sakuma, Hironori; Kojima, Takatoshi; Sasaki, Shinji

    2017-11-13

    Umami is a Japanese term for the fifth basic taste and is an important sensory property of beef palatability. Inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) contributes to umami taste in beef. Thus, the overall change in concentration of IMP and its degradation products can potentially affect the beef palatability. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of IMP and its degradation products in Japanese Black beef. First, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS), candidate gene analysis, and functional analysis to detect the causal variants that affect IMP, inosine, and hypoxanthine. Second, we evaluated the allele frequencies in the different breeds, the contribution of genetic variance, and the effect on other economical traits using the detected variants. A total of 574 Japanese Black cattle were genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip and were then used for GWAS. The results of GWAS showed that the genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on BTA9 were detected for IMP, inosine, and hypoxanthine. The ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E) gene, which encodes the enzyme NT5E for the extracellular degradation of IMP to inosine, was located near the significant region on BTA9. The results of candidate gene analysis and functional analysis showed that two non-synonymous SNPs (c.1318C > T and c.1475 T > A) in NT5E affected the amount of IMP and its degradation products in beef by regulating the enzymatic activity of NT5E. The Q haplotype showed a positive effect on IMP and a negative effect on the enzymatic activity of NT5E in IMP degradation. The two SNPs were under perfect linkage disequilibrium in five different breeds, and different haplotype frequencies were seen among breeds. The two SNPs contribute to about half of the total genetic variance in IMP, and the results of genetic relationship between IMP and its degradation products showed that NT5E affected the overall concentration balance of IMP and its degradation products

  3. Investigation of radio-sensitive period of the male gonad in the foetus and newborn of rat and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Stephanie

    2001-01-01

    After a presentation of the different steps of germ line development, and a description of the different effects and consequences of ionizing radiations from a general point of view and in the peculiar case of testis development (DNA damage, stopping of the cellular cycle, apoptosis, DNA methylation), this research thesis reports an experimental work in the field of reproductive physiology performed on foetus and newborns of rats and mice. Results give information on early testis radio-sensitivity for rodents. The unusual response of gonocytes with respect to DNA radio-induced damages seems related to the protection of the genome integrity of the germ line [fr

  4. Targeting the immune system to fight cancer using chemical receptor homing vectors carrying Poly Inosine/Cytosine (PolyIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eLevitzki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer researchers have been looking for ways to harness the immune system and to reinstate immune surveillance, to kill cancer cells without collateral damage. Here we scan current approaches to targeting the immune system against cancer, and emphasize our own approach. We are using chemical vectors attached to a specific ligand, to introduce synthetic dsRNA, poly Inosine/Cytosine (polyIC, into tumors. The ligand binds to a receptor protein that is overexpressed on the surface of the tumor cells. Upon ligand binding, the receptor complex is internalized, introducing the polyIC into the cell. In this fashion a large amount of synthetic dsRNA can be internalized, leading to the activation of dsRNA binding proteins, such as dsRNA dependent protein kinase (PKR, Toll-3 receptor (TLR3, retinoic acid–inducible gene I (RIG-1 and melanoma differentiation–associated gene 5 (MDA5. The simultaneous activation of these signaling proteins leads to the rapid demise of the targeted cell and to cytokine secretion. The cytokines lead to a strong bystander effect and to the recruitment of immune cells that converge upon the targeted cells. The bystander effects lead to the destruction of neighboring tumor cells not targeted themselves by the vector. Normal cells, being more robust than tumor cells, survive. This strategy has several advantages: (1 Recruitment of the immune system is localized to the tumor. (2 The response is rapid, leading to fast tumor eradication. (3 The bystander effects lead to the eradication of tumor cells not harboring the target. (4 The multiplicity of pro-death signaling pathways elicited by PolyIC minimizes the likelihood of the emergence of resistance. In this chapter we focus on EGFR as the targeted receptor, which is overexpressed in many tumors. In principle, the strategy can be extended to other tumors that overexpress a protein that can be internalized by a ligand, which be a small molecule, a single chain antibody or an

  5. Corroboration of in utero MRI using post-mortem MRI and autopsy in foetuses with CNS abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitby, E.H.; Variend, S.; Rutter, S.; Paley, M.N.J.; Wilkinson, I.D.; Davies, N.P.; Sparey, C.; Griffiths, P.D.

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: To corroborate the findings of in utero magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with autopsy and post-mortem MRI in cases of known or suspected central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities on ultrasound and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of ante-natal ultrasound and in utero MRI. METHODS: Twelve pregnant women, whose foetuses had suspected central nervous system abnormalities underwent in utero MRI. The foetuses were imaged using MRi before autopsy. The data were used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of in utero MRI when compared with a reference standard of autopsy and post-mortem MRI in 10 cases and post-mortem MRI alone in two cases. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy of antenatal ultrasound and in utero MRI in correctly characterizing brain and spine abnormalities were 42 and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In utero MRI provides a useful adjuvant to antenatal ultrasound when assessing CNS abnormalities by providing more accurate anatomical information. Post-mortem MRI assists the diagnosis of macroscopic structural abnormalities

  6. A practical application of the ICRP publication n. 88 for controlling the embryo and foetus exposure from intakes of radionuclides by the mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, F.; Frittelli, L.

    2002-01-01

    The International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionising radiation require that the employer of a female worker which has notified pregnancy shall adopt the working conditions in respect of occupational exposure so as to ensure that the embryo or foetus is afforded the same broad level of protection as required for members of the public. In this paper the metabolic and the dosimetric models recommended in the Publication 88 are used for evaluating, for some selected radionuclides, the reference levels for retention or excretion by the mother related to the embryo and foetus exposure

  7. Middle ear bones of a mid-gestation ruminant foetus extracted from x-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costeur, Loic; Mennecart, Bastien; Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg

    2016-10-01

    The timing of ossification of middle ear ossicles has been extensively studied in humans. This is an exception since it is vastly unknown in the +5000 extant species of placentals. As a preliminary approach, a cow foetus (around 115 days of gestation) was visualized using X-ray microtomography (μCT) and the ossicles including stapes, incus, and malleus could be extracted from the data set. All three bones have already undergone substantial ossification, which allow comparison to adult middle ear bones. Their ossification at this stage parallels ossification in humans at a comparable stage of gestation. While full ossification is not yet achieved almost all the morphological characters of the ossicles are observed. Bone tissue is still very porous, the stapes does not have the characteristic plate-like footplate, the lenticular process of the incus is missing and the manubrium of the malleus is very thin and not yet complete. Despite all this, the ossicles are articulate with each other and perfectly with the bony labyrinth. The stapes footplate is positioned on the oval window but is smaller than the latter while it should perfectly fit to transmit sound vibrations to the cochlea. All ossicles, especially the stapes, have not yet reached adult size, while the bony labyrinth already has. This is the first detailed description of a set of middle ear bones in a placental at mid-gestation based on high-resolution μCT. Similarities in ossification timing with humans encourage more work to be done on foetuses to understand if a general rule for placental mammals exists.

  8. Modulation of growth performance, immunological responses and disease resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 by supplementing dietary inosine monophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Kader

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was investigated to examine supplemental effects of dietary inosine monophosphate (IMP on growth performance, feed utilization, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters of juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Disease resistance to experimental infection with Streptococcus agalactiae was also assessed. A semi-purified basal diet was supplemented with 0 (IMP0, Control, 1 (IMP1, 2 (IMP2, 4 (IMP4 and 8 (IMP8 g purified IMP kg−1 diet to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish (0.59 g for 60 days. The results indicated that supplementation of IMP significantly (P  0.05. Among whole body proximate composition and somatic parameters, condition factor was significantly influenced by dietary supplementation of IMP. A wide variation in hematological parameters were observed and dietary supplementation increased the hematocrit content (P  0.05. Total serum protein (TSP, lysozyme activity (LA, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD and bactericidal activity (BA tended to increase with the supplementation of dietary IMP. TSP and SOD were significantly improved with ≥4 g kg−1 supplementation, while LA with 8 g kg−1 and BA with ≥1 g kg−1 supplementations. IMP supplemented groups showed higher (P > 0.05 cumulative survival compared to that of supplementation free control group. IMP supplemented diet groups also showed significantly higher BA in the post challenge test. Based on the overall performances, the results of the current study indicated that the inclusion of IMP in Nile tilapia diet can improve growth performance, feed utilization, haematological and immunological parameters; and disease resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia. Keywords: Nucleotides, Inosine monophosphate, Growth, Immunity, Disease resistance, Nile tilapia, Streptococcus agalactiae

  9. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris, semiaquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens and terrestrial (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna eBarjau Perez-Milicua

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens can hold their breath for about 30 sec. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia and reduced blood supply (ischemia to tissues. Production of adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa, are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal (n=11, semiaquatic (neotropical river otter (n=4 and terrestrial (domestic pig (n=11. Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX, inosine 5’-monophosphate (IMP, adenosine 5’-monophosphate (AMP, adenosine 5’-diphosphate (ADP, ATP, guanosine 5’-diphosphate (GDP, guanosine 5’-triphosphate (GTP, and xanthosine 5’-monophosphate (XMP were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise, aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts.

  10. Prevalence of Campylobacter foetus and Trichomonas foetus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... 2Zoonotic Diseases Section, Agricultural Research Council-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute (ARC-OVI), 100 Old. Soutpan Road ... diseases continue to pose economic losses in Asia,. America and southern Africa due to infertility and abortion. (Kitching, 1999; Brookes et al., 2004). In southern Africa,.

  11. Challenges in nourishing the intrauterine growth-restricted foetus - Lessons learned from studies in the intrauterine growth-restricted foetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, William W; Brown, Laura D; Rozance, Paul J; Wesolowski, Stephanie R; Limesand, Sean W

    2016-08-01

    Previous attempts to improve growth and development of the intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) foetus during pregnancy have not worked or caused harm. Our research identifies tissue-specific mechanisms underlying foetal growth restriction and then tests strategies to improve growth and ameliorate many of the metabolic problems before the infant is born. The goal of our studies is to reduce the impact of foetal growth restriction at critical stages of development on the lifelong complications of IUGR offspring. Defining specific mechanisms that cause growth restriction in the foetus might identify specific nutrients and hormones that could be given to the mother to improve foetal growth and reduce metabolic complications, using strategies first tested in our IUGR animal model. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Ultrastructural analyses of blood capillaries of ovary of 20-days albino rats foetus under their irradiation in different periods of embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablekovskaya, O.N.; Amvros'ev, A.P.

    1999-01-01

    The character and direction of structural transformations of blood capillaries of micro circulatory channel of 20-days white rat foetus in normal conditions and after single external 0,5 Gy dose irradiation by 10 and 14 days of embryogenesis were examined. Electron-microscopical, stereo logical and statistical analyses were used. The peculiarities of reactions of hemo capillaries and their cell structure to gamma-rays action in embryogenesis were revealed. It was shown the increase of diameters of capillaries, extension of section area of cytoplasm of endotheliocytes, diminution the size of nuclei of these cells. Polyploid endotheliocytes were found in the experimental conditions. Prenatal acute irradiation in low doses leaded to reduction of the number of microvessels and mitochondria in cytoplasm of cells of blood capillaries in ovary of rat foetus. These results revealed that low dose ionizing radiation changed the morphological expression of important synthetic, transport and energy processes in capillary cells of ovary in fetal period of ontogenesis

  13. Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid treatment on the altered progesterone and bile acid homeostasis in the mother-placenta-foetus trio during cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiú, Maria C; Monte, Maria J; Rivas, Laura; Moirón, Maria; Gomez-Rodriguez, Laura; Rodriguez-Bravo, Tomas; Marin, Jose J G; Macias, Rocio I R

    2015-02-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is characterized by pruritus and elevated bile acid concentrations in maternal serum. This is accompanied by an enhanced risk of intra-uterine and perinatal complications. High concentrations of sulphated progesterone metabolites (PMS) have been suggested to be involved in the multifactorial aetiopathogenesis of ICP. The aim of this study was to investigate further the mechanism accounting for the beneficial effect of oral administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), which is the standard treatment, regarding bile acid and PMS homeostasis in the mother-placenta-foetus trio. Using HPLC-MS/MS bile acids and PMS were determined in maternal and foetal serum and placenta. The expression of ABC proteins in placenta was determined by real time quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR) and immunofluorescence. In ICP, markedly increased concentrations of bile acids (tauroconjugates > glycoconjugates > unconjugated), progesterone and PMS in placenta and maternal serum were accompanied by enhanced concentrations in foetal serum of bile acids, but not of PMS. UDCA treatment reduced bile acid accumulation in the mother-placenta-foetus trio, but had no significant effect on progesterone and PMS concentrations. ABCG2 mRNA abundance was increased in placentas from ICP patients vs. controls and remained stable following UDCA treatment, despite an apparent further increase in ABCG2. UDCA administration partially reduces ICP-induced bile acid accumulation in mothers and foetuses despite the lack of effect on concentrations of progesterone and PMS in maternal serum. Up-regulation of placental ABCG2 may play an important role in protecting the foetus from high concentrations of bile acids and PMS during ICP. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Discovery of N-[2-[2-[[3-methoxy-4-(5-oxazolyl)phenyl]amino]-5-oxazolyl]phenyl]-N-methyl-4- morpholineacetamide as a novel and potent inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase with excellent in vivo activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, T G Murali; Shen, Zhongqi; Guo, Junqing; Liu, Chunjian; Watterson, Scott H; Gu, Henry H; Pitts, William J; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine A; Sherbina, N Z; McIntyre, Kim W; Shuster, David J; Witmer, Mark R; Tredup, Jeffrey A; Chen, Bang-Chi; Zhao, Rulin; Bednarz, Mark S; Cheney, Daniel L; MacMaster, John F; Miller, Laura M; Berry, Karen K; Harper, Timothy W; Barrish, Joel C; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2002-05-23

    Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is a key enzyme that is involved in the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides. Novel 2-aminooxazoles were synthesized and tested for inhibition of IMPDH catalytic activity. Multiple analogues based on this chemotype were found to inhibit IMPDH with low nanomolar potency. One of the analogues (compound 23) showed excellent in vivo activity in the inhibition of antibody production in mice and in the adjuvant induced arthritis model in rats.

  15. Detection of porcine circovirus genotypes 2a and 2b in aborted foetuses from infected swine herds in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Castro Alessandra MMG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 has been associated with several disease complexes, including reproductive failure. The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of PCV2 that are associated with reproductive failure in pigs from the State of São Paulo, Brazil and to investigate co-infections with other infectious organisms. Findings Samples of 168 aborted foetuses or mummified foetuses from five farrow-to-finish swine farms known to be infected with PCV2 and located in the State of São Paulo were tested for PCV2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Positive samples were additionally tested for porcine parvovirus (PPV, Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. by PCR. PCV2 was detected in 18 of the samples (10.7%. PPV, Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp were found in 2, 10 and 0 cases, respectively. Eleven PCV2 strains were sequenced and determined to be either genotype 2a (n = 1 or 2b (n = 10. Conclusions The findings indicate that the frequency of PCV2 infections in aborted porcine foetuses from the State of São Paulo is rather low (10.7% and that co-infection with other pathogens is common and may be involved in PCV2 associated reproductive failure. No repeatable, characteristic amino acid motifs for regions of the PCV2 capsid protein seemed to be associated with abortion in sows.

  16. [Neurological and psychomotor development of foetuses and children with congenital heart disease--causes and prevalence of disorders and long-term prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberg, U; Hövels-Gürich, H

    2012-06-01

    Children with severe congenital heart defects (CHD) requiring open heart surgery in the first year of life are at high risk for developing neurological and psychomotor abnormalities. Depending on the type and severity of the CHD, between 15 and over 50% of these children have deficits, which are usually confined to distinct domains of development, although formal intelligence tends to be normal. Children with mild CHD, who comprise the majority of congenital heart defects, have a far better developmental prognosis than those with complex CHD. This review concentrates on the impact of severe CHD on the developing brain of the foetus and infant. It also provides a summary of recent clinical and neuroimaging studies, and an overview of the long-term neurological prognosis. Advanced neuroimaging modalities indicate that, related to altered cerebral blood flow and oxygenation, foetuses with severe CHD show delayed third trimester brain maturation and increased vulnerability for hypoxic injury. Morphological and neurological abnormalities are present before surgery, commonly affecting the white matter. In the long-term, impaired neurological and developmental outcomes are related to the combination of prenatal, perinatal and additional perioperative risk factors. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches aim to optimise the intra- and perinatal management of foetuses and newborns with congenital heart defects. Identification and avoidance of risk factors, early neurodevelopmental assessment and therapy may optimise the long-term outcome in this high-risk population. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Isolation of Neospora caninum from kidney and brain of a bovine foetus and molecular characterization in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli Dittrich, Rosangela; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Oliveira Koch, Marília de; Busch, Ana Paula B; Gonçalves, Kamila Alcalá; Cruz, Amilcar A

    2018-02-01

    Bovine neosporosis has become a disease of international concern as it is among the main causes of abortion in cattle. Viable N. caninum has been isolated from brains of fetuses and neonatal calves, and there is no report of isolation of tachyzoites from kidney. Also, detailed information about the genetic diversity of N. caninum is scarce. N. caninum tachyzoites were isolated from the kidney and the brain of an aborted 4-month-old bovine foetus. The parasite was confirmed to be N. caninum by PCR. The tachyzoites of the new isolate, named BNC-PR4, were propagated in Vero cell cultures. Pathogenicity of the parasite was examined in BALB/c mice. Mice inoculated intraperitoneally with BNC-PR4 failed to yield clinical signs of disease and did not induce severe brain lesions, suggesting a bovine isolate with low virulence. The N. caninum-positive DNA sample was further analyzed by multilocus microsatellite (MS) genotyping for MS4, MS5, MS6A, MS6B, MS7, MS8, MS10, MS12, and MS21. Multilocus-microsatellite genotyping revealed a unique genetic profile that differed from previously reported isolates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Individual blastomeres of 16- and 32-cell mouse embryos are able to develop into foetuses and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkowski, Andrzej K; Suwińska, Aneta; Czołowska, Renata; Ożdżeński, Wacław

    2010-12-15

    Cell and developmental studies have clarified how, by the time of implantation, the mouse embryo forms three primary cell lineages: epiblast (EPI), primitive endoderm (PE), and trophectoderm (TE). However, it still remains unknown when cells allocated to these three lineages become determined in their developmental fate. To address this question, we studied the developmental potential of single blastomeres derived from 16- and 32-cell stage embryos and supported by carrier, tetraploid blastomeres. We were able to generate singletons, identical twins, triplets, and quadruplets from individual inner and outer cells of 16-cell embryos and, sporadically, foetuses from single cells of 32-cell embryos. The use of embryos constitutively expressing GFP as the donors of single diploid blastomeres enabled us to identify their cell progeny in the constructed 2n↔4n blastocysts. We showed that the descendants of donor blastomeres were able to locate themselves in all three first cell lineages, i.e., epiblast, primitive endoderm, and trophectoderm. In addition, the application of Cdx2 and Gata4 markers for trophectoderm and primitive endoderm, respectively, showed that the expression of these two genes in the descendants of donor blastomeres was either down- or up-regulated, depending on the cell lineage they happened to occupy. Thus, our results demonstrate that up to the early blastocysts stage, the destiny of at least some blastomeres, although they have begun to express markers of different lineage, is still labile. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Proton and photon absorbed-dose conversion coefficients for embryo and foetus from top-down irradiation geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Absorbed-dose conversion coefficients are calculated for the embryo of 8 weeks and the foetus of 3, 6 or 9 months when the mother's body is exposed to protons and photons from top-down (TOP) direction. It provides data sets in addition to other standard irradiation geometries published previously. The TOP-irradiation geometry is considered here, because high-energy particles are often peaked from the TOP direction onboard aircraft. The results show that absorbed-doses from high-energy particles could be underestimated significantly if isotropic (ISO) irradiation geometry is assumed. For protons of 100 GeV, absorbed-doses from TOP irradiation are ∼2.3-2.9 times higher than the doses from ISO irradiation for different foetal ages. For 10 GeV photons, foetal doses from TOP irradiation are ∼6.8-12 times higher than the doses from ISO irradiation. The coefficients from TOP-irradiation geometry are given in wide energy ranges, from 100 MeV to 100 GeV for protons and from 50 V to 10 GeV for photons. They can, therefore, be used in various applications whenever exposure from the TOP-irradiation direction is concerned. (authors)

  20. Numerical study of RF exposure and the resulting temperature rise in the foetus during a magnetic resonance procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, J W; Li, Y; Hajnal, J V

    2010-01-01

    Numerical simulations of specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature changes in a 26-week pregnant woman model within typical birdcage body coils as used in 1.5 T and 3 T MRI scanners are described. Spatial distributions of SAR and the resulting spatial and temporal changes in temperature are determined using a finite difference time domain method and a finite difference bio-heat transfer solver that accounts for discrete vessels. Heat transfer from foetus to placenta via the umbilical vein and arteries as well as that across the foetal skin/amniotic fluid/uterine wall boundaries is modelled. Results suggest that for procedures compliant with IEC normal mode conditions (maternal whole-body averaged SAR MWB ≤ 2 W kg -1 (continuous or time-averaged over 6 min)), whole foetal SAR, local foetal SAR 10g and average foetal temperature are within international safety limits. For continuous RF exposure at SAR MWB = 2 W kg -1 over periods of 7.5 min or longer, a maximum local foetal temperature >38 deg. C may occur. However, assessment of the risk posed by such maximum temperatures predicted in a static model is difficult because of frequent foetal movement. Results also confirm that when SAR MWB = 2 W kg -1 , some local SAR 10g values in the mother's trunk and extremities exceed recommended limits.

  1. The problems raised by the irradiation of pregnant women. Effects of ionizing radiations on the embryon and foetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1979-01-01

    In man, the period of maximum risk for the embryo and foetus is between the second and tenth week after conception. The most frequent and most severe malformation is microcephaly which in extreme cases is accompanied by mental retardation. The results of studies in experimental animals and man agree that it is impossible to demonstrate any increased risk of malformation with doses below 15 rads, and that the increase over the spontaneous incidence of malformation is slight at doses below 25 rads. A very small increase in the frequency of leukaemias and cancers has been observed after irradiation in utero for pelvimetry, which delivers a few rads; it can be estimated from these data that a dose of 2 rads induces at the most the risk of one case of cancer in 2000 children. In practice, it is only exceptionally that an abortion is advised after a diagnostic radiological examination, since the doses in these circumstances are relatively low. A therapeutic termination of pregnancy should be advised when the dose is greater than 20 rads, but it is necessary to take into account other medico-social factors. Conversely, it is important to avoid any irradiation in women who could be pregnant and in particular avoid any irradiation of the true pelvis during the 10 days prior to menses and especially if there has been a delay in the start of menstruation. In pregnant women radiological examinations should only be made if they are of paramount importance for the mother, and all precautions taken to reduce the dose to the uterus to the absolute minimum [fr

  2. Inosine triphosphatase allele frequency and association with ribavirin-induced anaemia in Brazilian patients receiving antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Delvaux

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inosine triphosphatase (ITPA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are strongly associated with protection against ribavirin (RBV-induced anaemia in European, American and Asian patients; however, there is a paucity of data for Brazilian patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ITPA SNP (rs7270101/rs1127354 frequency in healthy and hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected patients from Brazil and the association with the development of severe anaemia during antiviral therapy. ITPA SNPs were determined in 200 HCV infected patients and 100 healthy individuals by sequencing. Biochemical parameters and haemoglobin (Hb levels were analysed in 97 patients who underwent antiviral therapy. A combination of AArs7270101+CCrs1127354 (100% ITPase activity was observed in 236/300 individuals. Anaemia was observed in 87.5% and 86.2% of treated patients with AA (rs7270101 and CC genotypes (rs1127354, respectively. Men with AA (rs7270101 showed a considerable reduction in Hb at week 12 compared to those with AC/CC (p = 0.1475. In women, there was no influence of genotype (p = 0.5295. For rs1127354, men with the CC genotype also showed a sudden reduction in Hb compared to those with AC. Allelic distribution of rs7270101 and rs1127354 shows high rates of the genotypes AA and CC, respectively, suggesting that the study population had a great propensity for developing RBV-induced anaemia. A progressive Hb reduction during treatment was observed; however, this reduction was greater in men at week 12 than in women.

  3. Inosine triphosphatase polymorphisms and ribavirin pharmacokinetics as determinants of ribavirin-associate anemia in patients receiving standard anti-HCV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DʼAvolio, Antonio; Ciancio, Alessia; Siccardi, Marco; Smedile, Antonina; Baietto, Lorena; Simiele, Marco; Marucco, Diego Aguilar; Cariti, Giuseppe; Calcagno, Andrea; de Requena, Daniel Gonzalez; Sciandra, Mauro; Cusato, Jessica; Troshina, Giulia; Bonora, Stefano; Rizzetto, Mario; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2012-04-01

    Functional variants of inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) were recently found to protect against ribavirin (RBV)-induced hemolytic anemia. However, no definitive data are yet available on the role of plasma RBV concentrations on hemoglobin (Hb) decrement. Moreover, no data have been published on the possible interplay between these 2 factors. A retrospective analysis included 167 patients. The ITPA variants rs7270101 and rs1127354 were genotyped and tested using the χ test for association with Hb reduction at week 4. We also investigated, using multivariate logistic regression, the impact of RBV plasma exposure on Hb concentrations. Both single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with Hb decrease. The carrier of at least 1 variant allele in the functional ITPA single nucleotide polymorphisms was associated with a lower decrement of Hb (-1.1 g/dL), as compared with patients without a variant allele (-2.75 g/dL; P = 4.09 × 10). RBV concentrations were not influenced by ITPA genotypes. A cut-off of 2.3 μg/mL of RBV was found to be associated with anemia (area-under-receiver operating characteristic = 0.630, sensitivity = 50.0%, and specificity = 69.5%, P = 0.008). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, the carrier of a variant allele (P = 0.005) and plasma RBV concentrations model based on ITPA genetic polymorphisms and RBV trough concentration was developed for predicting the risk of anemia. By relying upon these 2 variables, an individualized management of anemia seems to be feasible in recipients of pegylated interferon-RBV therapy.

  4. Estimated fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients for use in radiological protection of embryo and foetus against external exposure to photons from 50 keV to 10 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the literature, no conversion coefficients are available for use in radiological protection of the embryo and foetus against external exposure to photons. This study used the Monte-Carlo code MCNPX to determine mean absorbed doses to the embryo and foetus when the mother is exposed to external photon fields. Monoenergetic photons ranging from 50 keV to 10 GeV were considered. The irradiation geometries included antero-posterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT), and isotropic (ISO). At each of these standard irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the foetal brain and body were calculated for the embryo of 8 weeks and the foetus of 3, 6 or 9 months. Photon fluence-to-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients were estimated for the four prenatal ages. (authors)

  5. Fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients for use in radiological protection of embryo and foetus against external exposure to protons from 100 MeV to 100 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the literature, no conversion coefficients are available for use in radiological protection of embryo and foetus against external exposure to protons. This study used the Monte Carlo code MCNPX to determine mean absorbed doses to the embryo and foetus when the mother is exposed to proton fields. Monoenergetic protons ranging from 100 MeV to 100 GeV were considered. The irradiation geometries include antero-posterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO). At each of these standard irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the foetal brain and body were calculated for the embryo of 8 weeks and the foetus of 3, 6 or 9 months. Proton fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients were derived for the four prenatal ages. (authors)

  6. The prune belly syndrome in a female foetus with urorectal septum malformation sequence: a case report on a rare entity with an unusual association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Dibyajyoti; Kusre, Giriraj; Dutta, Hemonta Kumar; Sarma, Adity

    2013-08-01

    The prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly which is characterized by the triad of an absent or a deficient development of the abdominal muscle, bilateral cryptorchidism and an anomalous urinary tract. In its full form, this condition occurs only in males. However, a similar condition occurs in females in the absence of cryptorchidism. On the other hand, the urorectal septum malformation sequence is a lethal congenital malformation which is characterized by the development of a phallus like structure, a smooth perineum and the absence of urethral, vaginal and anal openings. We are reporting a case of a female foetus with the prune belly syndrome, which was associated with a urorectal septum malformation sequence. A dead foetus with a protruded abdomen and ambiguous genitalia, was born at 32 weeks of pregnancy. On autopsy, it was found to have female internal genital organs. The left kidney, the urinary bladder and the rectum were absent. The sigmoid colon, the ureters and the fallopian tubes opened into a common cloacal sac. The histopathological examination of the ovary showed the presence of Leydig's cells. The occurrence of the female counterpart of the prune belly syndrome is extremely rare and only few of such cases were found to be discussed in the details in the indexed English literature so far. Hence, we hope that this case report will contribute to the existing knowledge on the prune belly syndrome.

  7. Screening and identification of RhD antigen mimic epitopes from a phage display random peptide library for the serodiagnosis of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Song, Jingjing; Zhou, Shuimei; Fu, Yourong; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Shen, Changxin

    2018-01-16

    Identification of RhD antigen epitopes is a key component in understanding the pathogenesis of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn. Research has indicated that phage display libraries are useful tools for identifying novel mimic epitopes (mimotopes) which may help to determine antigen specificity. We selected the mimotopes of blood group RhD antigen by affinity panning a phage display library using monoclonal anti-D. After three rounds of biopanning, positive phage clones were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then sent for sequencing and peptides synthesis. Next, competitive ELISA and erythrocyte haemagglutination inhibition tests were carried out to confirm the inhibitory activity of the synthetic peptide. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the synthetic peptide, a diagnostic ELISA was examined. Fourteen of 35 phage clones that were chosen randomly from the titering plate were considered to be positive. Following DNA sequencing and translation, 11 phage clones were found to represent the same peptide - RMKMLMMLMRRK (P4) - whereas each of the other three clones represented a unique peptide. Through the competitive ELISA and erythrocyte haemagglutination inhibition tests, the peptide (P4) was verified to have the ability to mimic the RhD antigen. The diagnostic ELISA for P4 proved to be sensitive (82.61%) and specific (88.57%). This study reveals that the P4 peptide can mimic RhD antigen and paves the way for the development of promising targeted diagnostic and therapeutic platforms for haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn.

  8. The influence of prolonged gamma irradiation on morpho functional indexes of blood capillaries of ovary in 20-day foetuses white rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablekovskaya, O.N.; Amvros'ev, A.P.

    1999-01-01

    It was studied the character and direction of structural transformations of blood capillaries of micro circulatory channel of 20-days white rat foetus in normal conditions and after prolonged action of gamma-radiation in the whole period of embryogenesis (absorbed dose 0,43 Gy).The peculiarities of reactions of hemo capillaries and their cell structure to gamma-rays action in embryogenesis were revealed. It was shown the decrease of diameters of capillaries, diminution of section area of cytoplasm of endotheliocytes, extension of the size of nuclei of these cells. Polyploid endotheliocytes were found in the experimental conditions. Prenatal irradiation in doses leaded to reduction of the number of microvessels and mitochondria in cytoplasm of cells of blood capillaries in ovary of rat foetus. These results revealed that low dose prolonged action of gamma-radiation during the period of embryogenesis changed the morphological parameters of important synthetic, transport and energy processes in capillary cells of ovary in fetal period of ontogenesis

  9. As to the clastogenic-, sister-chromatid exchange inducing-and cytotoxic activity of inosine triphosphate in cultures of human peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vormittag, W; Brannath, W

    2001-05-09

    The influence of commercial inosine triphosphate (ITP) on the chromosome aberration rate, the mitotic rate, sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency, and the proportion of first (X1), second (X2) and third (X3) division metaphases was investigated in 72h cultures of human peripheral lymphocytes. The blood donors had mild inactive arthrosis and a normal health check-up. All cultures of each volunteer were set-up simultaneously. In contrast to a previous report [Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 278 (1990) 238-244], it was demonstrated in two preliminary studies (number of subjects, n=5 each) that ITP at a final concentration of 100 microM does not induce chromosomal aberrations and, furthermore, that not ITP concentrations higher than 100 microM but ITP doses higher than 3.8mM prohibit culture growth. Based on these results, cultures with a final ITP concentration of 3.6mM (max.) and 1.8mM (max./2) were compared with control cultures (number of subjects n=10; three males and seven females, mean age x=57.6 years). Whereas no increase in the chromosomal breakage rate was observed in cultures with an ITP concentration of 1.8mM and only a marginally significant one (P=0.048) for 3.6mM ITP cultures, a highly significant induction of SCEs, not only at an ITP concentration of 3.6mM (Prate from 0 to 1.8mM as well as from 1.8 to 3.6mM in the aberration studies (all P values are equal to smallest possible one for a sample size of 10, namely, 0.002), and in the SCE studies there is a significant decrease in the X3 frequency when ITP is increased (0-1.8mM: P=0.0061 and 1.8-3.6mM: Pchanges significantly only at the second dose step (0-1.8mM ITP: P=0.22 and 1.8-3.6mM ITP: P<0.0001). The results are discussed.

  10. Peculiarities of psychoemotional condition of pregnant women before foetus echocardiography and parents’ reaction to the prenatal diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Sydorenko

    2015-10-01

      Summary Currently the scientific works focus on a significant maternal and paternal psychological distress after the prenatal diagnosis. The aim of our study was to determine the volume and goals of medical and psychological help to the pregnant women suspected of congenital heart disease in the foetus. The study was conducted at the state-run Scientific and Practical Medical Children’s Cardiology andCardiosurgeryCenterof the Ukrainian Health Ministry. 21 pregnant women before and after echocardiography foetus examination and 9 men were interviewed. It was found that 62% of pregnant women and 50% of husbands displayed subclinical and clinical levels of anxiety and depression before the echocardiography examination. The results highlighted that married couple who learned the prenatal congenital heart disease diagnosis need the relevant follow up program.  This program could include a consultation with the psychologist and the possible excess to enlarged database of educational materials. Key words: prenatal diagnosis, congenital heart defect, anxiety, depression, medical and psychological assistance.       Реферат Все чаще в литературе стали появляться работы посвященные значительному материнскому и отцовскому психологическому дистрессу после пренатального диагноза. Целью исследования было определение объемов и мишеней медико-психологической помощи беременным женщинам, у которых подозревается врожденный порок сердца у плода. Исследование проводилось на базе ГУ «Научно-практический медицинский центр детской кардиологии и кардиохирургии МЗ Украины». Было о

  11. Molecular typing of isolates obtained from aborted foetuses in Brucella-free Holstein dairy cattle herd after immunisation with Brucella abortus RB51 vaccine in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Melzer, Falk; Böttcher, Denny; El-Diasty, Mohamed; El-Beskawy, Mohamed; Rasheed, Nesma; Schmoock, Gernot; Roesler, Uwe; Sprague, Lisa D; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2016-12-01

    Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Egypt in spite of application of surveillance and control measures. An increase of abortions was reported in a Holstein dairy cattle herd with 600 animals in Damietta governorate in Egypt after immunisation with Brucella (B.) abortus RB51 vaccine. Twenty one (10.6%) of 197 vaccinated cows aborted after 3 months. All aborted cows had been tested seronegative for brucellosis in the past 3 years. B. abortus was isolated from four foetuses. Conventional biochemical and bacteriological identification and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed two B. abortus biovar (bv.) 1 smooth and two B. abortus rough strains. None of the B. abortus isolates were identified as RB51. Genotyping analysis by multiple locus of variable number tandem repeats analysis based on 16 markers (MLVA-16) revealed two different profiles with low genetic diversity. B. abortus bv1 was introduced in the herd and caused abortions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Post-mortem MRI as an alternative to non-forensic autopsy in foetuses and children: from research into clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, S; Arthurs, O J

    2014-01-01

    Although post-mortem MRI (PMMR) was proposed as an alternative to conventional autopsy more than a decade ago, the lack of systematic validation has limited its clinical uptake. Minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) using PMMR together with ancillary investigations has now been shown to be as accurate as conventional autopsy in foetuses, newborns and infants and is particularly useful for cerebral, cardiac and genitourinary imaging. Unlike conventional autopsy, PMMR provides a permanent three-dimensional auditable record, with accurate estimation of internal organ volumes. MIA is becoming highly acceptable to parents and professionals, and there is widespread political support and public interest in its clinical implementation in the UK. In the short to medium term, it is desirable that a supraregional network of specialist centres should be established to provide this service within the current National Health Service framework. PMID:24288400

  13. Fluence-to-Absorbed Dose Conversion Coefficients for Use in Radiological Protection of Embryo and Foetus Against External Exposure to Muons from 20MeV to 50GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jing

    2008-01-01

    This study used the Monte-Carlo code MCNPX to determine mean absorbed doses to the embryo and foetus when the mother is exposed to external muon fields. Monoenergetic muons ranging from 20 MeV to 50 GeV were considered. The irradiation geometries include anteroposterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT), isotropic (ISO), and top-down (TOP). At each of these irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the foetal body were calculated for the embryo of 8 weeks and the foetus of 3, 6 or 9 months, respectively. Muon fluence-to-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients were derived for the four prenatal ages. Since such conversion coefficients are yet unknown, the results presented here fill a data gap

  14. 16S rRNA and Omp31 Gene Based Molecular Characterization of Field Strains of B. melitensis from Aborted Foetus of Goats in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Vikas Kumar; Nayakwadi, Shivasharanappa

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a reemerging infectious zoonotic disease of worldwide importance. In human, it is mainly caused by Brucella melitensis, a natural pathogen for goats. In India, a large number of goats are reared in semi-intensive to intensive system within the close vicinity of human being. At present, there is no vaccination and control strategy for caprine brucellosis in the country. Thus, to formulate an effective control strategy, the status of etiological agent is essential. To cope up with these, the present study was conducted to isolate and identify the prevalent Brucella species in caprine brucellosis in India. The 30 samples (fetal membrane, fetal stomach content and vaginal swabs) collected throughout India from the aborted fetus of goats revealed the isolation of 05 isolates all belonging to Brucella melitensis biovars 3. All the isolates produced amplification products of 1412 and 720 bp in polymerase chain reaction with genus and species specific 16S rRNA and omp31 gene based primers, respectively. Moreover, the amplification of omp31 gene in all the isolates confirmed the presence of immuno dominant outer membrane protein (31 kDa omp) in all the field isolates of B. melitensis in aborted foetus of goats in India. These findings can support the development of omp31 based specific serodiagnostic test as well as vaccine for the control of caprine brucellosis in India. PMID:24453799

  15. Acridone-based inhibitors of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase: discovery and SAR leading to the identification of N-(2-(6-(4-ethylpiperazin-1-yl)pyridin-3-yl)propan-2-yl)-2- fluoro-9-oxo-9,10-dihydroacridine-3-carboxamide (BMS-566419).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Scott H; Chen, Ping; Zhao, Yufen; Gu, Henry H; Dhar, T G Murali; Xiao, Zili; Ballentine, Shelley K; Shen, Zhongqi; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine A; Obermeier, Mary; Yang, Zheng; McIntyre, Kim W; Shuster, David J; Witmer, Mark; Dambach, Donna; Chao, Sam; Mathur, Arvind; Chen, Bang-Chi; Barrish, Joel C; Robl, Jeffrey A; Townsend, Robert; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2007-07-26

    Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), a key enzyme in the de novo synthesis of guanosine nucleotides, catalyzes the irreversible nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide dependent oxidation of inosine-5'-monophosphate to xanthosine-5'-monophosphate. Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF), a prodrug of mycophenolic acid, has clinical utility for the treatment of transplant rejection based on its inhibition of IMPDH. The overall clinical benefit of MMF is limited by what is generally believed to be compound-based, dose-limiting gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity that is related to its specific pharmacokinetic characteristics. Thus, development of an IMPDH inhibitor with a novel structure and a different pharmacokinetic profile may reduce the likelihood of GI toxicity and allow for increased efficacy. This article will detail the discovery and SAR leading to a novel and potent acridone-based IMPDH inhibitor 4m and its efficacy and GI tolerability when administered orally in a rat adjuvant arthritis model.

  16. Efficacy of wheat germ oil in alleviating certain disorders induced by aspirin administration and/or Γ-irradiation in pregnant albino rats and their foetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.

    2007-01-01

    Aspirin is one of the most commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, induces during pregnancy high incidence of developmental anomalies in pregnant rats when given on specific days during stage of organogenesis. Accordingly, this study was performed to clarify the beneficial effect of maternal intake of wheat germ oil on the effect of aspirin administration and/or radiation induced maternal and foetal detrimental impact. Pregnant albino rats were administered aspirin from the gestational day (GD), 6 to (GD) 17 at a dose of 250 mg kg/day body wt and exposed to whole body γ-irradiation at dose of 0.5 Gy for 4 times on GD 9,10,11 and 12 days from pregnancy. The extent of lipid peroxidase formation as well as estimation of alkaline phosphatase and total proteins content in tissues of liver and placenta was used as sensitive parameters of choice to evaluate tissue damage. Radiation exposure and aspirin administration induced marked elevation in lipid peroxidase (malondialdehyde), alkaline phosphatase, accompanied by decline in total protein content in placenta and liver tissues. In addition, miscellaneous malformations including anopthalmia, microtia, excencephaly, diminution of size or kypophysis were designated. The results showed that supplementation of pregnant female rats with wheat germ oil were able to reduce the high levels of malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase. Total protein content returned once more to its normal pattern. Also, reduction of severe deleterious symptoms of radiation and aspirin administration inducing i foetal mortality were reduced. Wheat germ oil showed to increase growth in surviving foetuses and remarkable protection against severe morphological deformities as well as biochemical, histochemical and embryological disorders

  17. Consumption of indigenous medicines by pregnant women in North India for selecting sex of the foetus: what can it lead to?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Sutapa Bandyopadhyay; Negandhi, Preeti H; Ganguli, Abhijit; Chopra, Sapna; Sandhu, Navraj; Gupta, Ravi Kant; Zodpey, Sanjay; Singh, Amarjeet; Singh, Arun; Gupta, Rakesh

    2015-09-04

    Sex ratio is an important indicator of development. Despite all the measures undertaken for improvement, it remains an issue of concern in India, with Haryana having a very low sex ratio in the country. Studies have been conducted indicating that consumption of indigenous drugs used for sex selection (SSD) could be strongly associated with adverse effects on the foetal development, including congenital malformations. Some samples of SSDs were collected from parts of North India and analysed in a standard laboratory for its components. Thirty SSDs used by the local community were procured from various sources in north India through a rigorous process of collection. These were subjected to laboratory tests to investigate the presence of phytoestrogen and testosterone. Following sample extraction, thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were carried out for analysing phytoestrogen content. SSDs were available in various forms such as powder, tablets, mostly from faith healers. Around 87% of the samples collected from sources like doctors, quacks and faith healers were to be taken by the pregnant women after conception; 63% drugs were strongly positive for phytoestrogens (genistein, daidzein, formononetin) and 20% drugs were positive for testosterone. The average dose of the components as calculated after analyses was as follows: daidzein--14.1 mg/g sample, genistein--8.6 mg/g sample, formononetin--5 mg/g sample. These SSDs could be potentially detrimental to the growth and development of the foetus. This is likely to have implications on the health of the community. In view of the results obtained in our study, we strongly attest the importance in curbing this harmful practice by banning the supply of the drugs as well as by advocating behavioural changes in the community.

  18. An Examination of the Role of L-Glutamate and Inosine 5'-Monophosphate in Hedonic Taste-Guided Behavior by Mice Lacking the T1R1 + T1R3 Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonde, Ginger D; Spector, Alan C

    2017-06-01

    The heterodimeric T1R1 + T1R3 receptor is considered critical for normal signaling of L-glutamate and 5'-ribonucleotides in the oral cavity. However, some taste-guided responsiveness remains in mice lacking one subunit of the receptor, suggesting that other receptors are sufficient to support some behaviors. Here, mice lacking both receptor subunits (KO) and wild-type (WT, both n = 13) mice were tested in a battery of behavioral tests. Mice were trained and tested in gustometers with a concentration series of Maltrin-580, a maltodextrin, in a brief-access test (10-s trials) as a positive control. Similar tests followed with monosodium glutamate (MSG) with and without the ribonucleotide inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), but always in the presence of the epithelial sodium channel blocker amiloride (A). Brief-access tests were repeated following short-term (30-min) and long-term (48-h) exposures to MSG + A + IMP and were also conducted with sodium gluconate replacing MSG. Finally, progressive ratio tests were conducted with Maltrin-580 or MSG + A + IMP, to assess appetitive behavior while minimizing satiation. Overall, MSG generated little concentration-dependent responding in either food-restricted WT or KO mice, even in combination with IMP. However, KO mice licked less to the amino acid stimuli, a measure of consummatory behavior in the brief-access tests. In contrast, both groups initiated a similar number of trials and had a similar breakpoint in the progressive ratio task, both measures of appetitive (approach) behavior. Collectively, these results suggest that while the T1R1 + T1R3 receptor is necessary for consummatory responding to MSG (+IMP), other receptors are sufficient to maintain appetitive responding to this "umami" stimulus complex in food-restricted mice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. 21 CFR 172.535 - Disodium inosinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION... of water of crystallization. (b) The food additive is used as a flavoring adjuvant in food. ...

  20. The effect of N-acetylated DL-penicillamin and DL-homocysteine thiolactone on the mercury distribution in adult rats, rat foetuses and macaca monkeys after exposure to methyl mercuric chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaseth, J.; Wannag, A.; Norseth, T.; Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway)

    1976-01-01

    The distribution and excretion of mercury was studied in pregnant rats, given a single intravenous dose of 2 μmol/kg of CH 3 203 HgCl on the 13th day of pregnancy. Oral treatment for one week with N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (4 mmol/kg per day) increased the mercury excretion in faces (from 45 to 120 nmol) and urine (from 9 to 160 nmol). Such treatment mobilized mercury from all the organs tested and the foetal and maternal brain levels of mercury were decreased to 1/5 and 1/3 of the controls, respectively. A four-day period of treatment with N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine started three days after the injection of methyl mercury reduced the foetal and maternal brain levels to 1/2 and 2/3 of the controls, respectively. The rapid removal of metal deposits following treatment with N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine is attributed to a free penetration of the complexing thiol into the tissue cells in question. No signs of toxicity were detected in monkeys given an effective daily dose of the agent (4 mmol/kg) for 6 days. In contrast N-acetyl-DL-homocysteine thiolactone was found to be toxic in the monkeys. In addition, the latter agent was ineffective in increasing the mercury elimination from the brains of monkeys, rats and rat foetuses. (author)

  1. Trichomonosis in cats with diarrhoea in Hong Kong, China, between 2009 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza S Köster

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Case series summary Infection of the domestic cat by Tritrichomonas blagburni, previously referred to as T foetus, may lead to a disease called feline trichomonosis, which manifests clinically as large bowel diarrhoea. The disease has a wide geographical distribution, including numerous countries in Europe, North America and Australia/Oceania. Nevertheless, it has occasionally been reported in Asia, South Korea and Japan. A retrospective study was carried out to include all domestic cats with diarrhoea, presented to two veterinary clinics in Hong Kong, China, between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2014. A total of 29 cats with diarrhoea were diagnosed with Tritrichomonas species infection by means of quantitative PCR and direct microscopy. Tritrichomonas species was more frequently found in young (median age 10 months, male (66% and purebred cats (86%. Giardia species was found in 31% of Tritrichomonas species-positive cats. The recommended dose of ronidazole (30 mg/kg q24h for 14 days resolved clinical signs in 83% of diagnosed cats. Relevance and novel information This case series describes Tritrichomonas species as a cause for feline chronic diarrhoea in cats in China. The high rate of failure (17% in those cats receiving a standard regimen of ronidazole might be due to owner or patient compliance rather than protozoal resistance to the drug.

  2. Distribution of 14C-morphine and macromolecules in the brain and liver and their nuclei in pregnant rats and their foetuses after infusion of morphine into pregnant rats at near-term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, W.J.; Johannesson, T.

    1975-01-01

    Timed-pregnant (day 21 or 22) Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 14 C-morphine (2.85 mci/mmol) 5 mg/kg/hr, or saline in equivalent volumes, by continuous intravenous infusion for periods of up to 4hrs. The brains and livers of the maternal rats and of their foetuses were collected and their nuclei were isolated. The tissues and nuclei isolated from them were analyzed for DNA, RNA, protein content and radioactivity. Morphine infused maternal rats exhibited no significant difference in the total amount of DNA, RNA and protein in the brain or in the concentration of these constituents in brain nuclei. The concentration of nuclear RNA in foetal brain of morphine infused mothers was significantly lower at 4 hrs than that of saline infused controls. It was concluded that RNA synthesis in the foetal brain must be much more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of morphine on macromolecular synthesis than that in maternal brain. The change in nuclear RNA concentration in foetal brain became significantly different when morphine reached its highest level in foetal brain nuclei. The morphine concentration (pmol 14 C-morphine equivalents per mg DNA) in the brain of foetal and maternal rats was the same at each time period, whereas the maternal liver levels were at least eight times greater than those in foetal liver. The concentrations in foetal brain nuclei were 2-14 times greater than those in maternal brain nuclei, whereas levels in the latter were found to be low and virtually constant at all time periods tested. It was concluded that foetal brain nuclei have a greater capacity to bind or retain morphine than maternal brain nuclei. (author)

  3. Distribution of /sup 14/C-morphine and macromolecules in the brain and liver and their nuclei in pregnant rats and their foetuses after infusion of morphine into pregnant rats at near-term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, W J; Johannesson, T [Iowa Univ., Iowa City (USA)

    1975-01-01

    Timed-pregnant (day 21 or 22) Sprague-Dawley rats were administered /sup 14/C-morphine (2.85 mci/mmol) 5 mg/kg/hr, or saline in equivalent volumes, by continuous intravenous infusion for periods of up to 4hrs. The brains and livers of the maternal rats and of their foetuses were collected and their nuclei were isolated. The tissues and nuclei isolated from them were analyzed for DNA, RNA, protein content and radioactivity. Morphine infused maternal rats exhibited no significant difference in the total amount of DNA, RNA and protein in the brain or in the concentration of these constituents in brain nuclei. The concentration of nuclear RNA in foetal brain of morphine infused mothers was significantly lower at 4 hrs than that of saline infused controls. It was concluded that RNA synthesis in the foetal brain must be much more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of morphine on macromolecular synthesis than that in maternal brain. The change in nuclear RNA concentration in foetal brain became significantly different when morphine reached its highest level in foetal brain nuclei. The morphine concentration (pmol /sup 14/C-morphine equivalents per mg DNA) in the brain of foetal and maternal rats was the same at each time period, whereas the maternal liver levels were at least eight times greater than those in foetal liver. The concentrations in foetal brain nuclei were 2-14 times greater than those in maternal brain nuclei, whereas levels in the latter were found to be low and virtually constant at all time periods tested. It was concluded that foetal brain nuclei have a greater capacity to bind or retain morphine than maternal brain nuclei.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of breech version by acupuncture-type interventions on BL 67, including moxibustion, for women with a breech foetus at 33 weeks gestation: a modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Ineke; Kaandorp, Guido C; Bosch, Johanna L; Duvekot, Johannes J; Arends, Lidia R; Hunink, M G Myriam

    2010-04-01

    To assess, using a modelling approach, the effectiveness and costs of breech version with acupuncture-type interventions on BL67 (BVA-T), including moxibustion, compared to expectant management for women with a foetal breech presentation at 33 weeks gestation. A decision tree was developed to predict the number of caesarean sections prevented by BVA-T compared to expectant management to rectify breech presentation. The model accounted for external cephalic versions (ECV), treatment compliance, and costs for 10,000 simulated breech presentations at 33 weeks gestational age. Event rates were taken from Dutch population data and the international literature, and the relative effectiveness of BVA-T was based on a specific meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the results. We calculated percentages of breech presentations at term, caesarean sections, and costs from the third-party payer perspective. Odds ratios (OR) and cost differences of BVA-T versus expectant management were calculated. (Probabilistic) sensitivity analysis and expected value of perfect information analysis were performed. The simulated outcomes demonstrated 32% breech presentations after BVA-T versus 53% with expectant management (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43, 0.83). The percentage caesarean section was 37% after BVA-T versus 50% with expectant management (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.59, 0.88). The mean cost-savings per woman was euro 451 (95% CI euro 109, euro 775; p=0.005) using moxibustion. Sensitivity analysis showed that if 16% or more of women offered moxibustion complied, it was more effective and less costly than expectant management. To prevent one caesarean section, 7 women had to use BVA-T. The expected value of perfect information from further research was euro0.32 per woman. The results suggest that offering BVA-T to women with a breech foetus at 33 weeks gestation reduces the number of breech presentations at term, thus reducing the number of caesarean sections

  5. New Inosine and Guanosine Analogs as Inhibitors of Parasitic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-30

    infections. Although chloroquine (CQ) is generally considered to be one of the most fascinating, useful and versatile drugs developed during the modern...ribonucleosides are of particular interest since these nucleosides may be looked upon as aza- analogues of formycin B. The parent s-triazolo[3,4-f]-as...hexopyranosyl)adenine indicate slightly altered glycon. This type of nucleoside analogues could mimic either as ribonucleo- sides or as 2

  6. Graphene and carbon nanotube composite enabling a new prospective treatment for trichomoniasis disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanin, H., E-mail: hudsonzanin@gmail.com [National Institute for Space Research, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, Sao Jose dos Campos CEP: 12227-010, SP (Brazil); Margraf-Ferreira, A.; Silva, N.S. da [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Tissue, Institute of Research and Development, University of Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911, CEP: 12244-000 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Marciano, F. R. [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology, Institute of Research and Development, University of Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911, CEP: 12244-000 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Corat, E. J. [National Institute for Space Research, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, Sao Jose dos Campos CEP: 12227-010, SP (Brazil); Lobo, A. O. [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology, Institute of Research and Development, University of Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911, CEP: 12244-000 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of novel graphene oxide and carbon nanotube oxide (GCN-O) composite. First, pristine multi-walled carbon nanotube was prepared by chemical vapour deposition furnace and then exfoliated and oxidised simultaneously by oxygen plasma etching. The superficial and volumetric compositions of GCN-O were measured by XPS spectroscopy and EDX spectroscopy, respectively. Both XPS and EDX analyses evidence that the GCN-O is composed of up to 20% of oxygen atoms. As a result, GCN-O forms a stable colloidal aqueous solution and shows to have strong interaction with the cell membrane of Tritrichomonas foetus protozoa, making easy its application as a drug carrier. Trichomoniasis infection of cattle is a devastating disease for cattle producers, causing some damages to females and fetus, and the abortion is the most serious result of this disease. There is no effective treatment for trichomoniasis infection yet. Therefore, new treatment, especially one with no collateral effects in animals, is required. With this goal in mind, our results suggest that water dispersible composite is a novel nanomaterial, promising for Trichomoniasis infection treatment and as therapeutic delivery agent as well. - Highlights: • Novel graphene oxide and carbon nanotube oxide (GCN-O{sub 2}) composite • MWCNTs are exfoliated and oxidised simultaneously by oxygen plasma etching. • Tritrichomonas foetus protozoan has a strong affinity with GCN-O{sub 2}.

  7. Graphene and carbon nanotube composite enabling a new prospective treatment for trichomoniasis disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanin, H.; Margraf-Ferreira, A.; Silva, N.S. da; Marciano, F.R.; Corat, E.J.; Lobo, A.O.

    2014-01-01

    We report the synthesis and application of novel graphene oxide and carbon nanotube oxide (GCN-O) composite. First, pristine multi-walled carbon nanotube was prepared by chemical vapour deposition furnace and then exfoliated and oxidised simultaneously by oxygen plasma etching. The superficial and volumetric compositions of GCN-O were measured by XPS spectroscopy and EDX spectroscopy, respectively. Both XPS and EDX analyses evidence that the GCN-O is composed of up to 20% of oxygen atoms. As a result, GCN-O forms a stable colloidal aqueous solution and shows to have strong interaction with the cell membrane of Tritrichomonas foetus protozoa, making easy its application as a drug carrier. Trichomoniasis infection of cattle is a devastating disease for cattle producers, causing some damages to females and fetus, and the abortion is the most serious result of this disease. There is no effective treatment for trichomoniasis infection yet. Therefore, new treatment, especially one with no collateral effects in animals, is required. With this goal in mind, our results suggest that water dispersible composite is a novel nanomaterial, promising for Trichomoniasis infection treatment and as therapeutic delivery agent as well. - Highlights: • Novel graphene oxide and carbon nanotube oxide (GCN-O 2 ) composite • MWCNTs are exfoliated and oxidised simultaneously by oxygen plasma etching. • Tritrichomonas foetus protozoan has a strong affinity with GCN-O 2

  8. Injuries to embryo and foetus from ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devik, F.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review is given of experimental and clinical evidence for tetatological effects of ionising radiation, against the background of general teratology. International and national recommendations and regulations for the protection of the conceptus are quoted. As to interruption of a pregnancy following an unintended exposure, it is pointed out that much of the present evidence points to a dose in the order of 0.1Gy (10 rads) as a dose which may be considered as a practical threshold for the induction of congenital defects. (Auth.)

  9. Spinal cord damage in Zalcitabine maternally treated mice foetuses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present article explores the impacts of the anti-Aids drug (Zalcitabine) on the histological structure and morphometric analysis of the spinal cord of 14-day old mice fetuses. Pregnant mice received two oral concentrations of Zalcitabine (600 and 1000 mg/kg) for five consecutive days (from day 9 to day 13 of gestation).

  10. Post-translational glutamylation and tyrosination in tubulin of tritrichomonads and the diplomonad Giardia intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggild, A K; Sundermann, C A; Estridge, B H

    2002-01-01

    Glutamylated and tyrosinated tubulin were localized in Giardia intestinalis and selected trichomonads of the Tritrichomonadinae subfamily, using specific monoclonal antibodies directed at each of the post-translational modifications. Analysis was carried out using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Although trichomonad tubulins remained unlabeled by anti-tyrosine tubulin (TUB-1A2), the presence of the glutamylation motif (GT 335) was confirmed and found to differ in distribution among tritrichomonads. Tritrichomonas muris was most heavily labeled with GT 335, while T. foetus was the least so. Like trichomonads, Giardia was unreactive to anti-tyrosine tubulin; however, the GT 335 antibody produced marked fluorescence in Giardia trophozoites. This study is the first to report immunofluorescent localization of tubulin glutamylation in Giardia and confirms previously reported mass spectrometry data.

  11. Prevalence of the main infectious causes of abortion in dairy cattle in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derdour Salima-Yamina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abortion in cattle is a major source of economic losses for the agriculture sector. It can be due to infectious or non-infectious factors. Among infectious factors, parasites, bacteria, viruses, and fungi can be involved. The present work investigated the prevalence of the main infectious agents of abortion in Algerian cattle. Material and Methods: Altogether 278 non-aborting and 82 aborting cows were analysed. Results: The prevalence ranged from 0% for Tritrichomonas foetus to 15% for Neospora caninum. Additionally, a case-control study was performed to find the association between the presence of the pathogens and the occurrence of abortion in cows. The odds ratios were significant for Neospora caninum, bovine herpes virus 4, BVD virus, Brucella abortus, Salmonella Dublin, Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo, and Coxiella burnetii. Conclusions: The pathogens enumerated here could be major causes of abortion among Algerian cattle.

  12. Prevalence of genital campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis in crossbred breeding bulls kept on zero-grazed smallholder dairy farms in the Tanga region of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Swai

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey to demonstrate the presence or absence of genital campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis in cross-bred breeding bulls kept under smallholding dairy farms in the Tanga region of Tanzania was carried out during the period of January-June 1996. Sheath washings, swabs and preputial scrapings were collected from 58 randomly selected bulls. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis was demonstrated in 3/58 (5.1 % and Tritrichomonas foetus in 0/58 (0 % of all bulls tested. Bull-level variables of level of taurine genes (62.5 % taurine genes, F2; 75 % taurine genes, F3 and age were not significantly associated with campylobacteriosis (P > 0.05. The result of the study identifies Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerelias as the agent of enzootic infertility in smallholder herds and suggests that may be a significant problem.

  13. Strategies by which some pathogenic trichomonads integrate diverse signals in the decision-making process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIENE BOTTENTUIT LÓPEZ

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between each one of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus with their hosts is a complex process in which components associated to the cell surfaces of both parasites and host epithelial cells, and also to soluble components found in vaginal/urethral secretions, are involved. Either cytoadhesion or the cytotoxicity exerted by parasites to host cells can be dictated by virulence factors such as adhesins, cysteine proteinases, laminin-binding proteins, integrins, integrin-like molecules, a cell detachment factor, a pore-forming protein, and glycosidases among others. How trichomonads manipulate informations from the extracellular medium, transduce such informations, and respond to them by stimulating the activities of some surface molecules and/or releasing enzymes are the aspects concerning trichomonal virulence which are here briefly reviewed and discussed.

  14. The hormonal regulation of purine biosynthesis: control of the inosinic acid branch point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzichini, M.; Di Stefano, A.; Marinello, E.; Pompucci, G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the behavior of purine biosynthesis de novo in the levator animal muscle (LAM) of adult rats, before, after castration, and after testosterone administration. The incorporation of C 14-formate into the acid-soluble bases was performed as an index of the overall rate of purine nucleotide synthesis. It is shown that castration reduces the content, the specific activity of total bases and of the single bases in the LAM, indicating an inferior turnover. The increased turnover of guanylic acid, which is always present although not as much as adenylic acid, will favor the sunthesis of RNA in the sexual organs

  15. Characteristics and crystal structure of bacterial inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R.; Evans, G.; Rotella, F. J.; Westbrook, E. M.; Beno, D.; Huberman, E.; Joachimiak, A.; Collart, F. R.

    1999-01-01

    IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the first step unique to GTP synthesis. To provide a basis for the evaluation of IMPDH inhibitors as antimicrobial agents, we have expressed and characterized IMPDH from the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. Our results show that the biochemical and kinetic characteristics of S. pyogenes IMPDH are similar to other bacterial IMPDH enzymes. However, the lack of sensitivity to mycophenolic acid and the K{sub m} for NAD (1180 {mu}M) exemplify some of the differences between the bacterial and mammalian IMPDH enzymes, making it an attractive target for antimicrobial agents. To evaluate the basis for these differences, we determined the crystal structure of the bacterial enzyme at 1.9 {angstrom} with substrate bound in the catalytic site. The structure was determined using selenomethionine-substituted protein and multiwavelength anomalous (MAD) analysis of data obtained with synchrotron radiation from the undulator beamline (19ID) of the Structural Biology Center at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source. S. pyogenes IMPDH is a tetramer with its four subunits related by a crystallographic 4-fold axis. The protein is composed of two domains: a TIM barrel domain that embodies the catalytic framework and a cystathione {beta}-synthase (CBS) dimer domain of so far unknown function. Using information provided by sequence alignments and the crystal structure, we prepared several site-specific mutants to examine the role of various active site regions in catalysis. These variants implicate the active site flap as an essential catalytic element and indicate there are significant differences in the catalytic environment of bacterial and mammalian IMPDH enzymes. Comparison of the structure of bacterial IMPDH with the known partial structures from eukaryotic organisms will provide an explanation of their distinct properties and contribute to the design of specific bacterial IMPDH inhibitors.

  16. Pharmacodynamic Monitoring of Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase Activity: A Basis For Optimized and Individualized Mycophenolate Mofetil Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Sombogaard (Ferdi)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn 1896 Gosic isolated for the first time mycophenolic acid (MPA) from Penicillium glaucum.It was subsequently isolated from Penicillium stoloniferum Thom (synonym P. brevi-compactum Dierckx) by Alsberg and Black in 1913 who gave the acid phenolic substance its name mycophenolic acid

  17. Etiologic diagnosis of bovine infectious abortion by PCR Diagnóstico etiológico de aborto infeccioso bovino por PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teane Milagres Augusto da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Infectious abortion is a significant cause of reproductive failure and economic losses in cattle. The goal of this study was to detect nucleic acids of several infectious agents known to cause abortion including Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Bovine Herpesvirus 1, Brucella abortus, Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, Chlamydophila abortus, Leptospira sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella sp., Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Neospora caninum, and Tritrichomonas foetus. Tissue homogenates from 42 fetuses and paraffin-embedded tissues from 28 fetuses and 14 placentas/endometrium were included in this study. Brucella abortus was detected in 14.2% (12/84 of the samples. Salmonella sp. DNA was amplified from 2 fetuses, and there was one positive for Neospora caninum, and another for Listeria monocytogenes. This PCR-based approach resulted in identification of the etiology in 19% of samples, or 20% if considered fetal tissues only.Aborto infeccioso é uma causa significativa de falhas reprodutivas e perdas econômicas na bovinocultura. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar ácidos nucleicos de vários agentes infecciosos reconhecidos como causadores de aborto, incluindo-se Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Herpesvirus bovino tipo 1, Brucella abortus, Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, Chlamydophila abortus, Leptospira sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella sp., Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Neospora caninum e Tritrichomonas foetus. Homogenados de tecidos de 42 fetos e tecidos incluídos em parafina de 28 fetos e 14 placentas/endométrio foram incluídos neste estudo. Brucella abortus foi detectada em 14,2% (12/84 das amostras. DNA de Salmonella sp. foi amplificado de dois fetos e houve um feto positivo para Neospora caninum e outro para Listeria monocytogenes. Essa metodologia baseada em PCR resultou na identificação da etiologia em 19% das amostras ou 20% se considerados somente os tecidos fetais.

  18. First identification of Neospora caninum by PCR in aborted bovine foetuses in Romania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suteu, O.; Titilincu, A.; Modrý, David; Mihalca, A. D.; Mircean, A.; Cozma, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2010), s. 719-722 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : DEFINITIVE HOSTS * DAIRY- CATTLE * transmission * ABORTIONS Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.812, year: 2010

  19. Predicting the outcome of pregnancy in threatened abortion using ultrasound in detecting the viability of foetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, R

    1992-06-01

    Between December 1990 and May 1991 in Malaysia, clinicians at the Sultanah Aminah Hospital in Johor Bahru screened 200 women with a diagnosis of threatened miscarriage with ultrasound to determine whether ultrasound could evaluate the viability of the fetus and thus the outcome of pregnancy in cases of threatened abortion. A fetal heartbeat was absent in 65% of cases with the remaining 35% of cases having a fetal heartbeat. Nonviability of the fetus or an abnormal or very early pregnancy may have accounted for an absent fetal heartbeat. The pregnancy of 46% of cases continued while 41% experienced spontaneous abortion. Just 6.2% of cases with a fetal heartbeat suffered from spontaneous abortion compared with 69.7% of those without a fetal heartbeat. 93.8% of cases with a fetal heartbeat continued their pregnancies compared with 30.3% of those without a fetal heartbeat. Inability of ultrasound to detect fetal heartbeats during early pregnancy probably accounted for the somewhat high percentage of those without a fetal heartbeat who continued their pregnancies. Among patients with a fetal heartbeat, the number of pregnancies that continued. Ultrasound detected 13% abnormal pregnancies (i.e., molar pregnancy or ectopic pregnancy). Surgery on these cases confirmed the ultrasound findings. These results showed that ultrasound should be used in every case of threatened miscarriage and that a fetal heartbeat does indicate the viability of the fetus.

  20. Libertarianism and Potential Agents : A Libertarian View of the Moral Rights of Foetuses and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Anna-Karin

    2007-01-01

    This essay advances a libertarian theory of moral rights, which responds effectively to some serious objections that have been raised against libertarianism. I show how libertarianism can explain children’s rights to certain physical integrity and aid. I defend strong moral rights of human, pre-natal organisms, infants and children against all agents to certain non-interference with their physical integrity. I also argue that parents’ moral obligation to aid their offspring follows from a mor...

  1. Molecular regulation of high muscle mass in developing Blonde d'Aquitaine cattle foetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Cassar-Malek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Blonde d'Aquitaine (BA is a French cattle breed with enhanced muscularity, partly attributable to a MSTN mutation. The BA m. Semitendinosus has a faster muscle fibre isoform phenotype comprising a higher proportion of fast type IIX fibres compared to age-matched Charolais (CH. To better understand the molecular network of modifications in BA compared to CH muscle, we assayed the transcriptomes of the m. Semitendinosus at 110, 180, 210 and 260 days postconception (dpc. We used a combination of differential expression (DE and regulatory impact factors (RIF to compare and contrast muscle gene expression between the breeds. Prominently developmentally regulated genes in both breeds reflected the replacement of embryonic myosin isoforms (MYL4, MYH3 with adult isoforms (MYH1 and the upregulation of mitochondrial metabolism (CKMT2, AGXT2L1 in preparation for birth. However, the transition to a fast, glycolytic muscle phenotype in the MSTN mutant BA is detectable through downregulation of various slow twitch subunits (TNNC1, MYH7, TPM3, CSRP3 beyond 210 dpc, and a small but consistent genome-wide reduction in mRNA encoding the mitoproteome. Across the breeds, NRIP2 is the regulatory gene possessing a network change most similar to that of MSTN.

  2. Gross anatomy of superficial fascia and future localised fat deposit areas of the abdomen in foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development and popularity of body contouring procedures such as liposuction and abdominoplasty has renewed interest in the anatomy of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous fat deposits of the abdomen. The study of anatomy of fascia and fetal adipose tissue was proposed as it may be of value in understanding the possible programing of prevention of obesity. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to understand the gross anatomy of superficial fascia of abdomen and to study the gross anatomy of future localized fat deposits (LFDs area of abdomen in fetus. Materials and Methods: Four fetus (two male & two female of four month of intrauterine life were dissected. Attachments & layers of superficial fascia and future subcutaneous fat deposit area of upper and lower abdomen were noted. Results: Superficial fascia of the abdomen was multi layered in mid line and number of layers reduced laterally as in adult. The future abdominal LFD (localized fat deposits area in fetus shows brownish-white blubbary tissue without well-defined adult fat lobules. Conclusion: The attachment and gross anatomy of superficial fascia of the fetus was similar to that in adults. The future LFD areas showed brownish white blubbary tissue with ill-defined fat lobules.

  3. Trefoil factor family peptides in the human foetus and at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Mie Hessellund; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Obeid, Rima

    2011-01-01

    Eur J Clin Invest 2011; 41 (7): 785-792 ABSTRACT: Background Trefoil factors (TFF1-3) are cysteine-rich peptides secreted by mucosal surfaces. Changing levels of expression are reflected in serum concentrations. Serum levels of TFF2 and TFF3 are highly elevated during pregnancy. Here, we explore ...

  4. A perspective on dose limits and biological effects of radiation on the foetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Gordon, K.

    1992-01-01

    The potential biological effects of radiation doses to pregnant workers consistent with Canadian regulations and ICRP recommendations are reviewed. These hazards are in general very small compared to the normal hazards associated with human development. Potential carcinogenic effects may well be the major biological problem associated with foetal exposures. Radiation hazards to the embryo are essentially zero for exposures occurring during the first four weeks after conception. The new ICRP recommendations on exposures of pregnant women suggest a number of problems to be solved. These include (a) improvements in current methods of measuring both external radiation doses and intakes of certain radionuclides in Canada, (b) further research on the metabolism of radionuclides in pregnant women, including concentrations of certain radionuclides in foetal/embryonic tissues and also in adjacent tissues of the mother; and (c) socio-economic problems that may be involved in the implementation of the recommendations on exposures of pregnant workers, particularly in small facilities such as nuclear medicine departments in hospitals. (Author) 3 tabs., 21 refs

  5. Effect of Guanine to Inosine Substitution on Stability of Canonical DNA and RNA Duplexes: Molecular Dynamics Thermodynamics Integration Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krepl, Miroslav; Otyepka, M.; Banáš, Pavel; Šponer, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 6 (2013), s. 1872-1879 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP305/12/G034 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GPPP301/11/P558; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : FREE-ENERGY CALCULATIONS * PARTICLE MESH EWALD * ACID BASE-PAIRS Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.377, year: 2013

  6. Auranofin inactivates Trichomonas vaginalis thioredoxin reductase and is effective against trichomonads in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Melissa; Yun, Jeong-Fil; Zhou, Bianhua; Le, Christine; Kehoe, Katelin; Le, Ryan; Hill, Ryan; Jongeward, Gregg; Debnath, Anjan; Zhang, Liangfang; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Eckmann, Lars; Land, Kirkwood M; Wrischnik, Lisa A

    2016-12-01

    Trichomoniasis, caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common, non-viral, sexually transmitted infection in the world, but only two closely related nitro drugs are approved for its treatment. New antimicrobials against trichomoniasis remain an urgent need. Several organic gold compounds were tested for activity against T. vaginalis thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in cell-free systems as well as for activity against different trichomonads in vitro and in a murine infection model. The organic gold(I) compounds auranofin and chloro(diethylphenylphosphine)gold(I) inhibited TrxR in a concentration-dependent manner in assays with recombinant purified reductase and in cytoplasmic extracts of T. vaginalis transfected with a haemagglutinin epitope-tagged form of the reductase. Auranofin potently suppressed the growth of three independent clinical T. vaginalis isolates as well as several strains of another trichomonad (Tritrichomonas foetus) in a 24 h-assay, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.7-2.5 µM and minimum lethal concentrations of 2-6 µM. The drug also compromised the ability of the parasite to overcome oxidant stress, supporting the notion that auranofin acts, in part, by inactivating TrxR-dependent antioxidant defences. Chloro(diethylphenylphosphine)gold(I) was 10-fold less effective against T. vaginalis in vitro than auranofin. Oral administration of auranofin for 4 days cleared the parasites in a murine model of vaginal T. foetus infection without displaying any apparent adverse effects. The approved human drug auranofin may be a promising agent as an alternative treatment of trichomoniasis in cases when standard nitro drug therapies have failed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic Indicators of Drug Resistance in the Highly Repetitive Genome of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradic, Martina; Warring, Sally D; Tooley, Grace E; Scheid, Paul; Secor, William E; Land, Kirkwood M; Huang, Po-Jung; Chen, Ting-Wen; Lee, Chi-Ching; Tang, Petrus; Sullivan, Steven A; Carlton, Jane M

    2017-06-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted parasite, causes ∼283 million trichomoniasis infections annually and is associated with pregnancy complications and increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition. The antimicrobial drug metronidazole is used for treatment, but in a fraction of clinical cases, the parasites can become resistant to this drug. We undertook sequencing of multiple clinical isolates and lab derived lines to identify genetic markers and mechanisms of metronidazole resistance. Reduced representation genome sequencing of ∼100 T. vaginalis clinical isolates identified 3,923 SNP markers and presence of a bipartite population structure. Linkage disequilibrium was found to decay rapidly, suggesting genome-wide recombination and the feasibility of genetic association studies in the parasite. We identified 72 SNPs associated with metronidazole resistance, and a comparison of SNPs within several lab-derived resistant lines revealed an overlap with the clinically resistant isolates. We identified SNPs in genes for which no function has yet been assigned, as well as in functionally-characterized genes relevant to drug resistance (e.g., pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase). Transcription profiles of resistant strains showed common changes in genes involved in drug activation (e.g., flavin reductase), accumulation (e.g., multidrug resistance pump), and detoxification (e.g., nitroreductase). Finally, we identified convergent genetic changes in lab-derived resistant lines of Tritrichomonas foetus, a distantly related species that causes venereal disease in cattle. Shared genetic changes within and between T. vaginalis and Tr. foetus parasites suggest conservation of the pathways through which adaptation has occurred. These findings extend our knowledge of drug resistance in the parasite, providing a panel of markers that can be used as a diagnostic tool. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  8. Systemic Histomoniasis in a Leucistic Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelazzo, Mariana de Mello Zanim; Sasse, João Pedro; de Souza, Marielen; Marutani, Victor Hugo Brunaldi; Sampaio Baptista, Ana Angelita; Garcia, João Luis; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Headley, Selwyn Arlington

    2017-09-01

    The pathological and molecular findings associated with Histomonas meleagridis are described in a leucistic Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) from Southern Brazil. The most significant gross findings were multifocal necrotizing hepatitis and diphtheric typhlitis. Histopathologic evaluation of the liver, ceca, kidney, spleen, and small intestine revealed systemic histomoniasis (SH) associated with intralesional and intravascular accumulations of histomonad organisms consistent with H. meleagridis. PCR was used to amplify the DNA of H. meleagridis from the liver, ceca, small intestine, spleen, lungs, and kidneys. Direct sequencing and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the isolate of the flagellated trichomonad identified from this investigation is more phylogenetically related to H. meleagridis than Tetratrichomonas gallinarum, Tritrichomonas foetus, and Dientamoeba fragilis. These results confirmed the occurrence of SH in this peafowl and add to the diagnosis of this disease in birds from Brazil. This report might represent the first complete identification of spontaneous histomoniasis in a peafowl due to pathological and molecular characteristics and one of the few documented cases of SH in non-commercial birds.

  9. Effect van verdoven en doden van drachtige dieren op de foetus en vaststellen van de incidentie van doden van (hoog)drachtige dieren in Nederland : welzijn van de foetus bij verdoven en slachten van drachtige dieren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritzen, M.A.; Dixhoorn, van I.D.E.; Hindle, V.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Literature shows that unborn fetuses during the last third of gestation, are able to experience pain. It is suggested that suppressive factors cause a decreased level of consciousness during pregnancy in the fetus, and that, depending on species, the newborns become conscious after a few hours to

  10. The dynamics of zero: on digital memories of Mars and the human foetus in the globital memory field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna READING

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of digitisation and globalisation are synergetically and dialectically changing the ways in which human beings individually and collectively capture, document, share and preserve memories of the past. This paper develops further the concept of the “globital memory field” with a discursive overview of the development of “digital memory” and the significance of zero in the meaning and practice of digital memory. The paper then explains the key elements of this epistemology, with an emphasis on the significance of zero or nothing in relation to two contrasting examples of the medical imaging of the human fœtus to the capturing and sending back to Earth by NASA’s Curiosity robot images from the surface of Mars.

  11. The PROMIS model to highlight the importance of the foetus to the validation of a pregnant woman model

    OpenAIRE

    AURIAULT, Florent; THOLLON, Lionel; PERES, Jérémie; DELOTTE, J; KAYVANTASH, K; BRUNET, Christian; BEHR, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The percentage of trauma during pregnancy related to road accident is between 50% and 75%. This type of trauma can result in premature birth or even foetal loss. To analyse and understand the injury mechanisms in pregnant women involved in a car accident, several studies proposed computational or physical tools to simulate accidents. Specific dummy and numerical models have been proposed and validated using experimental data from post-mortem human surrogate (PMHS) scaled with the equal-stress...

  12. Digitisation and 3D reconstruction of 30 year old microscopic sections of human embryo, foetus and orbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. van Zwieten (Joris); C.P. Botha (Charl); B. Willekens; S. Schutte (Sander); F.H. Post (Frits); H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractA collection of 2200 microscopic sections was recently recovered at the Netherlands Ophthalmic Research Institute and the Department of Anatomy and Embryology of the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam. The sections were created thirty years ago and constitute the largest and most

  13. Ultrasonographic study of deep portion of diencephalo-telencephalic vesicle for the determination of gestational age of the canine foetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaglia, M; Faustini, M; Luvoni, G C

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonographic measurement of the deep portion of diencephalo-telencephalic vesicle (DPTV) in the prediction of delivery date in different size bitches. The effects of litter size and foetal sex ratio on the accuracy were also investigated. For this purpose, the growth curve of DPTV was derived in large size dogs (26-40 kg) and the results of the accuracy of the prediction were compared with those obtained in small (dogs by the application of the equations derived from the growth curve previously described. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed once a week during the second half of pregnancy in seven large size bitches (26-40 kg body weight). A linear regression model was adopted to analyse the relationship between the DPTV mean values and the days remaining to parturition. The results of regression analysis indicated that DPTV measurement in large size dogs is significantly and linearly related to the gestational age. Ultrasonographic measurements of DPTV were also performed during pregnancy in different size bitches with unknown breeding dates. Although the results indicated a similar accuracy of the prediction of the date of parturition in the different sizes of bitches, a higher accuracy was obtained in normal and large litter size compared with small litters. Foetal sex ratio did not affect the accuracy. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the accuracy of the prediction of parturition day obtained by ultrasonographic evaluation of DPTV growth is reliable when specific formulae for different size dogs are applied. It should be noted that although foetal sex ratio does not affect the accuracy, the prediction could be less accurate when a small litter is present.

  14. Diagnosis of Pentatrichomonas hominis from domestic cats in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S. dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. dos Santos C.S., McIntosh D., Berto B.P., de Jesus V.L.T., da Rocha C.N.C., Fernandes J.I., Scott F.B. & Lopes C.W.G. Diagnosis of Pentatrichomonas hominis from domestic cats in Southeastern Brazil. [Diagnóstico de Pentatrichomonas hominis em gatos no sudeste do Brasil.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:25-31, 2015. Curso de Pós-Graduação em Ci- ências Veterinárias, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR-465 Km 7, Campus Seropédica, RJ 23897-970, Brasil. E-mail: carolinespitz@yahoo.com.br The parabasalid flagellate Tritrichomonas foetus is recognized as the causative agent of large bowel diarrhea in domestic cats. A second species of parabasalid flagellate Pentatrichomonas hominis, has also been reported in association with domestic cats, albeit almost exclusively as a commensal organism. However, there is growing evidence to suggest that P. hominis may also be involved in feline gastro-intestinal disorders including diarrhea and that the incidence of infection with P. hominis may have been underestimated due to it being misidentified as T. foetus. The aim of the current study was to establish the basis for routine morphological identification of P. hominis employing light microscopy and to apply the methodology to the examination of cases of diarrhea in a laboratory population of Brazilian domestic cats (n =39. A detailed morphological description of P. hominis isolated from 11 cats with diarrhea was produced and molecular analyses were performed in support of the morphological data and to demonstrate the absence of T. foetus in infected cats. All animals with diarrhea were demonstrated to be infected solely with P. hominis. The findings of the current study provide a straight forward and validated method for the differential diagnosis of P. hominis and contribute to the on-going debate surrounding the pathogenic potential of this parabasalid flagellate.

  15. Dissecting direct and indirect readout of cAMP receptor protein DNA binding using an inosine and 2,6-diaminopurine in vitro selection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemose, Søren; Nielsen, Peter E.; Møllegaard, Niels Erik

    2008-01-01

    The DNA interaction of the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) represents a typical example of a dual recognition mechanism exhibiting both direct and indirect readout. We have dissected the direct and indirect components of DNA recognition by CRP employing in vitro selection...... is functionally intact. The majority of the selected sites contain the natural consensus sequence TGTGAN(6)TCACA (i.e. TITIDN(6)TCDCD). Thus, direct readout of the consensus sequence is independent of minor groove conformation. Consequently, the indirect readout known to occur in the TG/CA base pair step (primary...... kink site) in the consensus sequence is not affected by I-D substitutions. In contrast, the flanking regions are selected as I/C rich sequences (mostly I-tracts) instead of A/T rich sequences which are known to strongly increase CRP binding, thereby demonstrating almost exclusive indirect readout...

  16. Purification and characterization of RihC, a xanthosine-inosine-uridine-adenosine-preferring hydrolase from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Riis; Dandanell, Gert

    2005-01-01

    as the sole carbon and energy source. By functional complementation, we have isolated a nucleoside hydrolase (rihC) that can complement a xapA deletion in E. coli and we have overexpressed, purified and characterized this hydrolase. RihC is a heat stable homotetrameric enzyme with a molecular weight of 135 k...... the neutral form of xanthosine....

  17. The force applied to successfully turn a foetus during reattempts of external cephalic version is substantially reduced when performed under spinal analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Stephen Sik Hung; Khaw, Kim S; Law, Lai Wa; Sahota, Daljit Singh; Lee, Shara Wee Yee; Lau, Tze Kin; Leung, Tak Yeung

    2012-06-01

    To compare the forces exerted during external cephalic version (ECV) on the maternal abdomen between ( 1 ) the primary attempts performed without spinal analgesia (SA), which failed and ( 2 ) the subsequent reattempts performed under SA. Patients with an uncomplicated singleton breech-presenting pregnancy suitable for ECV were recruited. During ECV, the operator wore a pair of gloves, which had thin piezo-resistive pressure sensors measuring the contact pressure between the operator's hands and maternal abdomen. For patients who had failed ECV, reattempts by the same operator was made with patients under SA, and the applied force was measured in the same manner. The profile of the exerted forces over time during each attempt was analyzed and denoted by pressure-time integral (PTI: mmHg sec). Pain score was also graded by patients using visual analogue scale. Both PTI and pain score before and after the use of SA were then compared. Overall, eight patients who had a failed ECV without SA underwent a reattempt with SA. All of them had successful version and the median PTI of the successful attempts under SA were lower than that of the previous failed attempts performed without SA (127 386 mmHg sec vs. 298,424 mmHg sec; p = 0.017). All of them also reported a 0 pain score, which was significantly lower than that of before (median 7.5; p = 0.016). SA improves the success rate of ECV as well as reduces the force required for successful version.

  18. The physician's breach of the duty to inform the parent of deformities and abnormalities in the foetus: "wrongful life" actions, a new frontier of medical responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Paola; Gulino, Matteo; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Zaami, Simona; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2014-07-01

    A recent decision of the Italian Highest Court for the first time legitimized wrongful life suits. The Court stated the following principles: (a) the contract between the mother and the doctor has also protective effects in favour of third parties (father, siblings and the disabled child) who have the right to be compensated; (b) the right to compensation is neither based on the right not to be born nor on the right to be born healthy, but rather it is based on the breach of duty of care which coincides with the child's disabled status; (c) siblings may suffer the reduced availability of their parents; (d) the doctor is held responsible for not providing full information to the mother about the foetal deformity. The Supreme Court once again emphasized the importance of information on the matter of very personal choices, such as termination of pregnancy in case of foetal malformations. In the present case, the gynaecologist breached the duty to inform, especially after the patient requested diagnostic tests designed to highlight any foetal malformations and informed the doctor of the possibility of an eventual subsequent termination of pregnancy if foetal malformations were found.

  19. Man is not a big rat: concerns with traditional human risk assessment of phthalates based on their anti-androgenic effects observed in the rat foetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habert, René; Livera, Gabriel; Rouiller-Fabre, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates provide one of the most documented example evidencing how much we must be cautious when using the traditional paradigm based on extrapolation of experimental data from rodent studies for human health risk assessment of endocrine disruptors (EDs). Since foetal testis is known as one of the most sensitive targets of EDs, phthalate risk assessment is routinely based on the capacity of such compounds to decrease testosterone production by the testis or to impair masculinization in the rat during foetal life. In this paper, the well-established inhibiting effects of phthalates of the foetal Leydig cells function in the rat are briefly reviewed. Then, data obtained in humans and other species are carefully analysed. Already in January 2009, using the organotypic culture system named Fetal Testis Assay (FeTA) that we developed, we reported that phthalates might not affect testosterone production in human foetal testes. Several recent experimental studies using xenografts confirm the absence of detectable anti-androgenic effect of phthalates in the human foetal testes. Epidemiological studies led to contradictory results. Altogether, these findings suggest that phthalates effects on foetal Leydig cells are largely species-specific. Consequently, the phthalate threshold doses that disturb foetal steroidogenesis in rat testes and that are presently used to define the acceptable daily intake levels for human health protection must be questioned. This does not mean that phthalates are safe because these compounds have many deleterious effects upon germ cell development that may be common to the different studied species including human. More generally, the identification of common molecular, cellular or/and phenotypic targets in rat and human testes should precede the choice of the toxicological endpoint in rat to accurately assess the safety threshold of any ED in humans.

  20. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke and environmental pollutants in mothers and its transplacental transfer to the foetus. Part II: Oxidative damage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Milcová, Alena; Líbalová, Helena; Nováková, Zuzana; Topinka, Jan; Balaščak, I.; Šrám, Radim

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 669, 1-2 (2009), s. 20-26 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution * oxidative stress * newborns Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.556, year: 2009

  1. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke and environmental pollutants in mothers and their transplacental transfer to the foetus. Part I: Bulky DNA adducts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topinka, Jan; Milcová, Alena; Líbalová, Helena; Nováková, Zuzana; Rössner ml., Pavel; Balascak, I.; Šrám, Radim

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 669, 1-2 (2009), s. 13-19 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : DNA adducts * PAHs * complex mixtures Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.556, year: 2009

  2. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke and environmental pollutants in mothers and their transplacental transfer to the foetus. Part I: Bulky DNA adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topinka, J.; Milcova, A.; Libalova, H.; Novakova, Z.; Rossner, P.; Balascak, I.; Sram, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    32 P-postlabelling and PAH-ELISA using the antiserum no. 29 were employed to analyze DNA adducts in venous and umbilical cord blood and the placenta of 79 mothers giving birth to 80 living babies in Prague (Czech Republic). Ambient air exposure was measured by stationary measurements of basic air pollutants (PM2.5, c-PAHs) during the entire pregnancy. Tobacco smoke exposure was assessed by questionnaire data and by plasma cotinine levels. The total DNA adduct levels in the lymphocytes of mothers and newborns were elevated by 30-40% (p 8 nucleotides vs. 0.15 ± 0.06 adducts/10 8 nucleotides) with newborns indicated a 30-40% increase of adducts in mothers. Almost equal PAH-DNA adduct levels were detected by anti-BPDE-DNA ELISA in the placenta of tobacco smoke-exposed and -unexposed mothers. Our results suggest a protective effect of the placental barrier against the genotoxic effect of some tobacco smoke components between the circulation of mother and child. We found a correlation between adduct levels in the blood of mothers and newborns.

  3. DNA methylation patterns in tissues from mid-gestation bovine foetuses produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer show subtle abnormalities in nuclear reprogramming

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Rita SF; Couldrey Christine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Cloning of cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is associated with a high incidence of pregnancy failure characterized by abnormal placental and foetal development. These abnormalities are thought to be due, in part, to incomplete re-setting of the epigenetic state of DNA in the donor somatic cell nucleus to a state that is capable of driving embryonic and foetal development to completion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation patterns were not appr...

  4. Correlation between the Amount of Anti-D Antibodies and IgG Subclasses with Severity of Haemolytic Disease of Foetus and Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkova, Emilija

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of subclasses to IgG anti-D on the intensity of hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN) at 45 fetuses/newborns with symptoms of mild and severe HDFN in Republic of Macedonia. In retrospective and prospective studies, in a period of 10 years, from 2004 to 2014, there have been immunohemathology tests performed on 22 009 samples on serums of pregnant women. At 37.78% of the total number of tested patients, IgG1 and IgG3 was the reason for severe HDFN. At 17.77% of the total number of tested patients, which had only IgG1detected, was the reason for serious intensity of HDFN. The correlation of the titer to anti-D antibodies in the mother's serum and the intensity of HDFN were researched in 48 newborns. The titers between 1:8 and 1:32 resulted in 3 cases of HDFN with symptoms of severe disease and in 4 cases there were no signs of HDFN. At 12 women that had a titre between 1:32 and 1:512, five of the newborns developed severe HDFN, and seven had symptoms of mild and weak intensity form. In 3 cases the titer was higher than 512, and out of them one newborn had weak symptoms of HDFN, one developed severe HDFN and one ended with foetal death. Only in one case the titer reached a value higher than 1000, and it ended with a fetal death. The titers of the pregnant women serum those are lower than 32 and those higher than 1000 can well predict HDFN. The titers of anti-D antibodies between 64 and 512 have no exact predictive value. IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses of anti-D have no predictive value by themselves, and cannot foresee the outcome of HDFN. The research study results suggest that IgG1 and IgG3 should be included in a multi - parameter protocol for evaluation of the HDFN intensity. They can give a real assessment of the expected HDFN intensity in combination with the titer hight and the significance of the antibodies.

  5. Correlation between the Amount of Anti-D Antibodies and IgG Subclasses with Severity of Haemolytic Disease of Foetus and Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilija Velkova

    2015-05-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The titers of the pregnant women serum those are lower than 32 and those higher than 1000 can well predict HDFN. The titers of anti-D antibodies between 64 and 512 have no exact predictive value. IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses of anti-D have no predictive value by themselves, and cannot foresee the outcome of HDFN. The research study results suggest that IgG1 and IgG3 should be included in a multi – parameter protocol for evaluation of the HDFN intensity. They can give a real assessment of the expected HDFN intensity in combination with the titer hight and the significance of the antibodies.

  6. Comment on a proposed draft protocol for the European Convention on Biomedicine relating to research on the human embryo and foetus

    OpenAIRE

    Lebech, Mette

    1998-01-01

    Judge Christian Byk renders service to the Steering Committee on Bioethics of the Council ofEurope (CDBI) by proposing a draft of the protocol destined to fill in a gap in international law on the status of the human embryo. This proposal, printed in a previous issue of the Journal of Medical Ethics' deserves nevertheless to be questioned on important points. Is Christian Byk proposing to legalise research on human embryos not only in vitro but also in utero?

  7. Protozoan and helminth infections in pregnancy. Short-term and long-term implications of transmission of infection from mother to foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Eskild

    2007-01-01

    This review of protozoan and helminth infections in pregnancy focuses on the impact on the immune response in the newborn infant to maternal infection. Studies of protozoan and helminth infections in pregnant women and in their offspring have shown that children exposed to antigens or microorgani...

  8. A girl with spina bifida, an extra leg, and ectopic intestinal loops--a "foetus in foetu" or a whim of the neural crest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lende, G; Wendemu, W; Mørk, S; Wester, K

    2007-10-01

    This article describes a girl with an extra leg attached to her lower back, combined with a spina bifida and a myelomeningocele. Despite lacking sensory or motor functions, the leg grew proportionately with the rest of the body. The bony structures were almost normal. A cross section showed fat tissue with some centrally situated blood vessels, nerve bundles, and muscular fragments. Proximally, an isolated colon loop was found. The extra leg and intestine respected the dorsal fascia, without connection with the peritoneal or retroperitoneal compartments. The finding is discussed with reference to existing hypotheses for limb formation.

  9. Thyroid gland protection against radioactive iodine. Fetus and preschool children are more sensitive; Bescherming van de schildklier tegen radioactief jodium. Foetus en kleuter zijn gevoeliger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noteboom, J.L. [Integraal Kankercentrum, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-09-01

    The intake of iodine tablets can prevent the irradiation and accumulation of iodine in the thyroid of humans. The summary of the author`s thesis `Protection of the thyroid against radioactive iodine during fetal life and infancy. An experimental approach in chimpanzees` is presented in an edited form. The research was carried out on pregnant and very young chimpanzees. Based on the experimental results recommendations are made for radiation protection for pre-school children and pregnant women. 3 figs., 1 refs.

  10. Specific DNA Binding of a Potential Transcriptional Regulator, Inosine 5′-Monophosphate Dehydrogenase-Related Protein VII, to the Promoter Region of a Methyl Coenzyme M Reductase I-Encoding Operon Retrieved from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus Strain ΔH▿

    OpenAIRE

    Shinzato, Naoya; Enoki, Miho; Sato, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Kohei; Matsui, Toru; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    Two methyl coenzyme M reductases (MCRs) encoded by the mcr and mrt operons of the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus ΔH are expressed in response to H2 availability. In the present study, cis elements and trans-acting factors responsible for the gene expression of MCRs were investigated by using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and affinity particle purification. A survey of their operator regions by EMSA with protein extracts from mrt-expressing cul...

  11. Specific DNA binding of a potential transcriptional regulator, inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase-related protein VII, to the promoter region of a methyl coenzyme m reductase I-encoding operon retrieved from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus strain DeltaH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Naoya; Enoki, Miho; Sato, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Kohei; Matsui, Toru; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2008-10-01

    Two methyl coenzyme M reductases (MCRs) encoded by the mcr and mrt operons of the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus DeltaH are expressed in response to H(2) availability. In the present study, cis elements and trans-acting factors responsible for the gene expression of MCRs were investigated by using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and affinity particle purification. A survey of their operator regions by EMSA with protein extracts from mrt-expressing cultures restricted them to 46- and 41-bp-long mcr and mrt upstream regions, respectively. Affinity particle purification of DNA-binding proteins conjugated with putative operator regions resulted in the retrieval of a protein attributed to IMP dehydrogenase-related protein VII (IMPDH VII). IMPDH VII is predicted to have a winged helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif and two cystathionine beta-synthase domains, and it has been suspected to be an energy-sensing module. EMSA with oligonucleotide probes with unusual sequences showed that the binding site of IMPDH VII mostly overlaps the factor B-responsible element-TATA box of the mcr operon. The results presented here suggest that IMPDH VII encoded by MTH126 is a plausible candidate for the transcriptional regulator of the mcr operon in this methanogen.

  12. Anti-protozoal effects of the tomato tetrasaccharide glycoalkaloid tomatine and the aglycone tomatidine on mucosal trichomonads

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of the commercial tetrasaccharide tomato glycoalkaloid tomatine and the aglycone tomatidine on three mucosal pathogenic protozoa that are reported to infect humans, cattle, and cats, respectively: Trichomonas vaginalis Strain G3, Tritrichomonas f...

  13. Campylobacter as a venereal disease in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Visser, I.J.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Pastoor, P.W.; Strampel, J.; Kock, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of AI, venereal diseases caused by Tritrichomonas fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis haved been eradicated in The Netherlands. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus can cause sporadic abortion and early embryonic death. When natural breeding is practised, venereal

  14. Interactions of mouse pinworms and trichomonads

    OpenAIRE

    Choutková, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Oxyurid nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera and Syphacia obvelata are both common mouse intestinal parasites; in the same location several species of trichomonads occur. Tritrichomonas muris is the most often found, but there are also some others: Tritrichomonas minuta, Pentatrichomonas hominis or Hexamastix muris. It is known that, under some circumstances, trichomonads can be found in the intestine of mouse pinworms, as reported by Theiler and Farber (1936) for T. muris in A. tetraptera and S....

  15. Control of Giardia infections with ronidazole and intensive hygiene management in a dog kennel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, Ruth; Deplazes, Peter; Schnyder, Manuela

    2012-06-08

    Infections with the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia in dogs and cats are common. Clinical signs vary from asymptomatic to small bowel diarrhea and associated discomfort. The control of infections in dogs is frequently a frustrating issue for animal owners and veterinarians. Drugs with antiprotozoal activity such as fenbendazole and metronidazole are recommended, however, they do not show 100% efficacy and superinfections occur regularly. Ronidazole is currently the drug of choice for the treatment of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats and there is now limited information available about its efficacy against Giardia spp. In the kennel investigated, dogs regularly showed loose feces and the presence of Giardia (assemblage C, renamed as G. canis) cysts. An elimination strategy of this parasite involving strict hygiene management and disinfection of the enclosures with 4-chlorine-M-cresol, oral treatment with ronidazole (30-50mg/kg BW bid for 7 days) and two shampooings (containing chlorhexidine) at the beginning and the end of the treatments was implemented for a group of 6 dogs. As a control another group of 7 dogs was transferred to the disinfected enclosures and shampooed, but left untreated. Dog feces were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts (SAF concentration technique) or Giardia antigen with a commercial ELISA (NOVITEC(®)) and a quick immunochromatography-based test (SensPERT(®)) before and between 5 and 40 days after the last treatment. All ronidazole-treated dogs were negative for Giardia cysts and antigen up to 26 days after the last treatment, while between 1 and 5 of the control animals tested positive in each of the test series. At this point, also dogs of the control group were again moved into clean enclosures, shampooed twice and treated with ronidazole. Five, 12 and 19 days after the last treatment, the dogs in the control group tested negative for Giardia cysts and antigen. However, all animals had again positive results at later time points

  16. A novel surface protein of Trichomonas vaginalis is regulated independently by low iron and contact with vaginal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang T-H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichomonosis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is the number one, non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD that affects more than 250 million people worldwide. Immunoglobulin A (IgA has been implicated in resistance to mucosal infections by pathogens. No reports are available of IgA-reactive proteins and the role, if any, of this class of antibody in the control of this STD. The availability of an IgA monoclonal antibody (mAb immunoreactive to trichomonads by whole cell (WC-ELISA prompted us to characterize the IgA-reactive protein of T. vaginalis. Results An IgA mAb called 6B8 was isolated from a library of mAbs reactive to surface proteins of T. vaginalis. The 6B8 mAb recognized a 44-kDa protein (TV44 by immunoblot analysis, and a full-length cDNA clone encoded a protein of 438 amino acids. Southern analysis revealed the gene (tv44 of T. vaginalis to be single copy. The tv44 gene was down-regulated at both the transcriptional and translational levels in iron-depleted trichomonads as well as in parasites after contact with immortalized MS-74 vaginal epithelial cells (VECs. Immunofluorescence on non-permeabilized organisms confirmed surface localization of TV44, and the intensity of fluorescence was reduced after parasite adherence to VECs. Lastly, an identical protein and gene were present in Tritrichomonas foetus and Trichomonas tenax. Conclusion This is the first report of a T. vaginalis gene (tv44 encoding a surface protein (TV44 reactive with an IgA mAb, and both gene and protein were conserved in human and bovine trichomonads. Further, TV44 is independently down-regulated in expression and surface placement by iron and contact with VECs. TV44 is another member of T. vaginalis genes that are regulated by at least two independent signaling mechanisms involving iron and contact with VECs.

  17. Syphacia obvelata and Radfordia affinis infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harslund, Jakob le Fèvre; Mandrupsen, Karina; Bollen, Peter

    Fèvre Harslund, Karina Mandrupsen & Peter Bollen, Biomedical Laboratory, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark. Introduction: In 2014 we experienced an infection with pinworms. Subsequent health monitoring revealed positive findings of Radfordia and Tritrichomonas. Activities were...... of IVC have been negative.Treatment strategies for eliminating Tritrichomonas muris have not yet been established, and the protozoa is diagnosed on irregular basis by PCR and microscopy on intestinal smears. Discussion and conclusion: Previously new animals were accepted after evaluation of a recent...... with pinworms and fur mites were successfully treated, and successive health monitoring has demonstrated continuous absence of these pathogens. Tritrichomonas muris is to a wide extent regarded as a commensal in the intestinal lumen with minimal side effects on mice (3), and so far, the infection has not been...

  18. Sex-related differences in the anteroposterior diameter of the foetal cisterna magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, G. [Department of Ultrasound, Qilu hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Yew, D.T. [Department of Anatomy, Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Gu, T.; Liu, S.; Ma, Z.; Zhan, X.; Cheng, L. [Department of Ultrasound, Qilu hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Li, C. [Department of Ultrasound, Qilu hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China)], E-mail: chuanfuli2006@hotmail.com

    2008-09-15

    Aim: To measure the anteroposterior diameter of the foetal cisterna magna and observe whether there are differences according to sex. Materials and methods: Three hundred and thirty-seven Chinese women with low-risk pregnancies and a singleton foetus between 22 and 38 weeks' gestational age were included in this retrospective study. Informed consent of the volunteer subjects and hospital authority approval were first obtained. Double-blinded for gender, the anteroposterior diameter of the cisterna magna of the foetuses was measured by transabdominal sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for those foetuses with mega cisterna magna. All of the foetuses were healthy by prenatal and postnatal examination, including physical and imaging examination. Results: The mean anteroposterior diameter of the cisterna magna of all foetuses was 8.01 {+-} 1.79 mm. The anteroposterior diameter of the cisterna magna had no obvious correlation with the gestational age. The mean anteroposterior diameter of the cisterna magna of 179 male foetuses was 8.63 {+-} 2.16 mm, and the mean anteroposterior diameter of the cisterna magna of 158 female foetuses was 7.87 {+-} 1.74 mm. The size difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). In the 33 foetuses with mega cisterna magna, the number of male foetuses was greater than female foetuses, and the proportion of the foetuses with mega cisterna magna in the male group was significantly higher than the foetuses in the female group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Male foetuses had slightly larger anteroposterior diameters of the cisterna magna than female foetuses. The study would be useful for creating normal range values for the cisterna magna of male and female foetuses.

  19. Placental transfer of 60Co as a function of gestation age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylicz, E.; Zablotna, R.; Szot, Z.

    1976-01-01

    The transfer of 60 Co from mother to foetus in relation to the time of gestation was examined 24 hrs after injecting 5 μCi of 60 CoCl 2 to the pregnant rat on 15th - 21st day of gestation. The radioactivity of foetuses, placentae as well as liver, kidney and femur of mother was determined. It was found that activity of 60 Co transferred to the foetus body increased with the time of gestation. (author)

  20. Discrepancies in the laws on identifying foetal sex and terminating a pregnancy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Talha A; Siddiqui, Ayesha T

    2007-01-01

    Laws that regulate the identification of a foetus and the termination of a pregnancy in India are shaped by their social context. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971, discriminates against unmarried women by not recognising that unwanted pregnancies in unmarried women could result in at least as much anguish and suffering as that experienced by married women. While the MTP Act permits the abortion of foetuses with disabilities, the Pre-conception and Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act's ban on identifying the foetus's sex prevents the use of sex-detection to identify foetuses at high risk of sex-linked diseases.

  1. Structural bioinformatics study of PNP from Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Nelson Jose Freitas da; Uchoa, Hugo Brandao; Canduri, Fernanda; Pereira, Jose Henrique; Camera, Joao Carlos; Basso, Luiz Augusto; Palma, Mario Sergio; Santos, Diogenes Santiago; Filgueira de Azevedo, Walter

    2004-01-01

    The parasite Schistosoma mansoni lacks the de novo pathway for purine biosynthesis and depends on salvage pathways for its purine requirements. Schistosomiasis is endemic in 76 countries and territories and amongst the parasitic diseases ranks second after malaria in terms of social and economic impact and public health importance. The PNP is an attractive target for drug design and it has been submitted to extensive structure-based design. The atomic coordinates of the complex of human PNP with inosine were used as template for starting the modeling of PNP from S. mansoni complexed with inosine. Here we describe the model for the complex SmPNP-inosine and correlate the structure with differences in the affinity for inosine presented by human and S. mansoni PNPs

  2. Two purine nucleoside phosphorylases in Bacillus subtilis. Purification and some properties of the adenosine-specific phosphorylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1978-01-01

    Two purine nucleoside phosphorylases (purine-nucleoside:orthophosphate ribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.1) were purified from vegetative Bacillus subtilis cells. One enzyme, inosine-guanosine phosphorylase, showed great similarity to the homologous enzyme of Bacillus cereus. It appeared...

  3. Novel diamide-based inhibitors of IMPDH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Henry H; Iwanowicz, Edwin J; Guo, Junqing; Watterson, Scott H; Shen, Zhongqi; Pitts, William J; Dhar, T G Murali; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine; Sherbina, N Z; Witmer, Mark; Tredup, Jeffrey; Hollenbaugh, Diane

    2002-05-06

    A series of novel amide-based small molecule inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase is described. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) derived from in vitro studies are presented.

  4. Novel inhibitors of IMPDH: a highly potent and selective quinolone-based series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Scott H; Carlsen, Marianne; Dhar, T G Murali; Shen, Zhongqi; Pitts, William J; Guo, Junqing; Gu, Henry H; Norris, Derek; Chorba, John; Chen, Ping; Cheney, Daniel; Witmer, Mark; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine; Townsend, Robert; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2003-02-10

    A series of novel quinolone-based small molecule inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) was explored. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) derived from in vitro studies are described.

  5. Protozoan parasites of four species of wild anurans from a local zoo in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, K N; Badrul, M M; Mohamad, N; Zainal-Abidin, A H

    2013-12-01

    The parasitic protozoan fauna in sixty-six anurans comprising of Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Phrynoidis juxtaspera, Hylarana erythraea and Polypedates leucomystax collected from Zoo Negara Malaysia was investigated. The distribution and prevalence rate of parasitic species in the digestive tract and blood were examined. Seven species of intestinal protozoa (Opalina ranarum, Cepedea dimidiata, Nycthetorus cordiformis, Entamoeba ranarum, Iodamoeba butschlii, Endamoeba blattae, and Tritrichomonas sp.) and two species of blood protozoa (Lankesterella sp. and Trypanosoma sp.) were recorded. Opalina ranarum was the most common protozoan found in the rectum and intestine (prevalence rate: 34.8%) infecting all host species, with P. juxtaspera heavily infected with the parasite, whereas Tritrichomonas sp. was the least prevalent intestinal species infecting only D. melanostictus. Both Lankesterella sp. and Trypanosoma sp. were found in the blood of H. erythraea.

  6. The placental gateway of maternal transgenerational epigenetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. PURNIMA SAILASREE

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... exposure to a harmful environment can have long term consequences on ..... placenta; rather they are carried as a memory in the foetus in the form of ... can have short term influence on the foetus affecting its growth and ...

  7. Placental transfer of ruthenium in rat and guinea-pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levack, V.M.; Pottinger, H.; Harrison, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ruthenium-106 in citrate solution was administered intravenously to rat at different stages of pregnancy and to guinea-pig either before conception or in late pregnancy. The results for rat showed that retention in the embryo/foetus measured at 3-5 days after administration increased from about 0.0002% of injected activity per embryo/foetus on day 12 of gestation to about 0.05% at birth. The relative concentrations of 106 Ru in embryo/foetus and mother (C f /C m ratio) were about 0.1 in each case. Concentrations in the yolk sac on day 12 were about 1% g -1 compared with 0.01% g -1 kin the foetus/ Retention in the guinea-pig foetus in late gestation at 7 days after administration (days 50-57) was about 0.2% injected activity per foetus, corresponding to a C f /C m = 0.2. Retention in each foetoplacental unit was 2% of injected 106 Ru with 50% in the yolk sac, 35% in the placenta and 10% in the foetus. For administration 4 weeks prior to conception, the level of 106 Ru retained in the foetus on day 57 of gestation was two orders of magnitude lower than after short-term administration, with a C f /C m about 0.004. (author)

  8. Extra-Hepatic Storage of Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Damsgaard, Else; Horn, N.

    1975-01-01

    The distribution of copper among the organs of an aborted, male foetus, expected to develop Menkes' syndrome, was entirely different from the distribution in 4 normal foetuses. Copper concentrations determined by neutron activation analysis showed a considerably reduced content in the liver...

  9. Faced with a dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Christiansen, Anne Hjøllund; Petersson, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    's legal right to choose TOP and considerations about the foetus' right to live were suppressed. Midwives experienced a dilemma when faced with aborted foetuses that looked like newborns and when aborted foetuses showed signs of life after a termination. Furthermore, they were critical of how physicians......: A qualitative study consisting of ten individual interviews with Danish midwives, all of whom had taken part in late TOP. RESULTS: Current practice of late TOP resembles the practice of normal deliveries and is influenced by a growing personalisation of the aborted foetus. The midwives strongly supported women...... counsel women/couples after prenatal diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The midwives' practice in relation to late TOP was characterised by an acknowledgement of the growing ethical status of the foetus and the emotional reactions of the women/couples going through late TOP. Other professions as well as structural...

  10. A biometric study of the digestive tract of one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius) fetuses

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bello; B.I. Onyeanusi; M.L. Sonfada; J.B. Adeyanju; M.A. Umaru

    2012-01-01

    A Biometrical study was conducted on the digestive tract of 35 foetuses of the one-humped camel collected from the Sokoto metropolitan abattoir, over a period of five months at different gestational ages. The approximate age of the foetuses was estimated from the crown vertebral rump length (CVRL) and samples were categorised into first, second and third trimester. The mean body weight of the foetus at first, second third trimester ranged from 1.40 ± 0.06 kg, 6.10 ± 0.05 kg and 17.87 ± 0.6 kg...

  11. [Pregnancy-induced haemolytic anaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiozova, J; Masseva, A; Ivanov, St; Marinov, B; Kulinska, R; Boiadjiev, D; Jordanova, D

    2014-01-01

    This is the clinical case of a primiparous eight month pregnant female, presenting with symptoms of pregnancy-induced acute haemolytic anaemia (haemolytic aneamia provoked by an immune mechanism, intra- and extra-erythrocyte defects, and HELLP syndrome were excluded). The anaemia progressed to become life-threatening for both the pregnant women and the foetus, which brought the following questions into consideration: diagnosis of anaemia during pregnancy; dosing of corticosteroid therapy; possibility of giving birth to a viable foetus and prognosis for next pregnancies. Owing to the inter-disciplinary efforts, the life and health of this pregnant woman were preserved, but the foetus was lost.

  12. Effect of maternal hypoglycaemia during gestation on materno-foetal nutrient transfer and embryo-foetal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vivi F.H.; Mølck, Anne Marie; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2018-01-01

    of the chorio-allantoic placental circulation. Maternal hypoglycaemia is accompanied by foetal hypoglycaemia and maternal counter-regulatory measures including a priority to keep nutrients in the maternal circulation by restricting their transfer to the foetus. Concomitantly, the foetus initiates its own...... counter-regulatory attempt to secure nutrients for its development and survival. Despite these measures, there is a general decrease in nutrient transfer to the foetus, which may have severe consequences for foetal development such as malformations and delayed skeletal development....

  13. Føtal hydronefrose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Seleman, Tove Vibeke Agertoft; Thybo, E

    1991-01-01

    Antental intervention in cases where the foetus was suspected of having hydronephrosis has been the subject of intense discussion in recent years where the diagnosis was technically possible. The object of this investigation was to assess the end result in foetuses with hydronephrosis diagnosed...... birth. All three were shown to have multiple malformations and/or chromosome anomalies. Unilateral dilatation of the upper urinary tract (seven cases) was by and large, associated with a good prognosis. Foetuses with bilateral dilatation of the upper urinary tract (seven cases) had poorer prognoses...

  14. Surgical management of haemorrhaging renal angiomyolipoma in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Preece

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This case demonstrates that with a multidisciplinary approach, it is possible to successfully leave a foetus undelivered whilst performing a radical nephrectomy for a large bleeding AML in a woman carrying a late second trimester pregnancy.

  15. TropJrnal Vol 27 No1 4Intnet publicatn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Staphylococcus aureus was reported to be the commonest cause of ... variation from the local findings on antibiotic sensitivity pattern of ... increased risk of Methicillin-Resistant. 13 .... Maternal transport of immunoglobulin to the foetus occurs.

  16. REPRODUCTION IN THE ROCK HYRAX (PROCA VIA CAPENSIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of corpora lutea and foetuses in the females, the reproductive organs and glands of all animals ... However, the approximate time of conception was calculated from the ... These findings were further confirmed by estimating the percentage.

  17. The use of dexamethasone in animals: implication for fertility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to dexamethasone causes numerous changes in various biological systems including the reproductive system and this has huge implication on fertility and pregnancy. Maternal dexamethasone administration promotes foetal lung maturation and thermoregulation in premature foetuses. This indication makes ...

  18. TropJrnal Vol 30 No 1 for PDF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Olusoji

    which will be mentioned in this work. ... ethical arguments from different scholars., there is evaluation of issues such as the relation of the foetus ... towards life if request for abortion are always .... abortion involves a balance argument of what is.

  19. Reproductive immunology : modulation of immune responses in pregnancy and effects on pregnancy outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Jelle Riemer

    2012-01-01

    Tijdens de zwangerschap treedt een intrigerend immunologisch proces op; een voor de moeder gedeeltelijk lichaamsvreemde foetus wordt door het maternale immuunsysteem getolereerd en niet afgestoten. Dit in tegenstelling tot bijvoorbeeld een orgaantransplantatie waar levenslange medicatie noodzakelijk

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for stillbirths in a tertiary hospital in Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    work is properly cited. Prevalence and risk ... women. There were 309(53.1%) male stillbirths and 273(46.9%) female stillbirths. Male foetuses ... Key words: Stillbirth, miscarriage, perinatal mortality, anaemia in pregnancy, obstructed labour ...

  1. Link between the early calcium deposition in placenta and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    and ions to a growing foetus and for its protection against direct contact with infections of ... During physiological pregnancy, minor placental calcification ... with tissue aging due to the induction of some age-related dystrophic changes in the ...

  2. SJVS October 2012 correction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    chronological guide on age estimation of caprine foetuses at 28 day gestational interval, evolved from observations .... V. Appearance of hairs and teeth eruption - The ... one kid which was born after 154 days of ..... adolescent and adult sheep.

  3. The effect of x-irradiation on the implantation and development of the white rat fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danius, J.; Bahauddin, R.

    1976-01-01

    X-ray whole body irradiation (200R, exposure dose) was performed on young virgin females of about 4 months old. The female rats, divided into three groups, were treated as follows: Female rats as control (unirradiated = 1Kt): female rats irradiated before mating (RSbK), and female rats irradiated after mating (RSsK). The average number of surviving foetuses at 20 days gestational stage of 1Kt was compared with that of RSbK, and no significant difference was found (P<=0.05) while the difference between the average number of RSsK foetuses compared with that of 1Kt and RSbK was highly significant (P<0.01). A decrease in the average number of surviving foetuses was found in RSsK, although the analysis of variance of all groups, revealed no significant difference (P<=0.05) in the average number of implantations and weight of the foetuses. (author)

  4. Pregnancy and roentgen radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The newsletter presents information in order to aid midwives, physicians, radiologists and other health workers in their treatment of and information to pregnant women. Health risk assessment, typical radiation doses and injuries to the foetus are presented

  5. Expectant mothers' perception of prenatal sonography in a South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The questionnaire contained a total of 17 questions consisting of 16 close‑ended questions .... pregnant women, which helps to stimulate a parental bond with the foetus and ... patient perception, awareness, expectations and experiences.

  6. The effectiveness of a pregnancy leaflet to promote health in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-21

    Nov 21, 2014 ... healthy lifestyle choices and preventive healthcare in order to promote the health of the mother and foetus. .... of the shame and low self-esteem associated therewith. ... maternal deaths per 100 000 live births. According to the.

  7. Frequency distribution 0f ABO, RH blood groups and blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-11-16

    Nov 16, 2006 ... blood genotypes among the cell biology and genetics students of ... problem in some pregnancies when the mother is Rh – negative and the foetus ... electrophoresis technique was used to determine haemoglobin genotype.

  8. Conjoined (Siamese) Twins in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year-old Zambian multiparous mother gave birth to a set of twins with two heads ... (symmetric or mirror image) but one twin attached with an incomplete foetus is known as hetropagtrs. (asymmetrical). Thoracopagus twins (joined at the chest).

  9. Health Law as a Legal Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Bødker

    2011-01-01

    The issue of how to dispose of aborted foetuses is a sensitive ethical and legal issue which relates directly to the legal status of the foetus. An illustrative example of this issue’s practical legal relevance is the Danish Council of Ethics’ recommendation of March 3, 2011, in reply...... to the Municipality of Odense regarding the establishment of a separate anonymous lawn for aborted foetuses at the town’s principal cemetery in order to provide parents with a free and optional alternative to the current procedure.The aim of this article is to analyse death before life in Danish law and to offer some...... general reflections on the legal status of cadaveric foetuses....

  10. Estimation of foetal brain dose from I-131 in the foetal thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hare, N.J.; Murphy, D.; Malone, J.F.; Gilligan, P.

    1997-01-01

    The ingestion of I-131 by pregnant women can have consequences for the developing foetus, in particular brain function. As the foetal thyroid accumulates iodine from the twelfth week of gestation onwards, the determination of foetal brain dose resulting from such I-131 accumulation is essential. Normal dosimetric methods fail to treat the case of the foetus. Using an approximation method based on the MIRD approach, a foetal dose estimation scheme is developed to allow the determination of foetal brain dose from foetal thyroid irradiation. Dose values are obtained for the foetus based on the maternal intake of I-131. It was found that the choice of biokinetic model for the mother/foetus has a large impact on the determined dose estimate. (author)

  11. Risks associated to exposition to X-rays for medical diagnosis during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espana, M. L.; Prieto, C.; Lopez Franco, P.

    1999-01-01

    The risks for the embryo-foetus in the developing stages, associated to pregnant patients being exposed to X-rays for diagnostic procedures, implies that the fulfillment of the principles of justification and optimisation and the recommendations established by the different organisations related to radiological protection are carried out. In order to do so, it is necessary for the professional people involved to have the maximum information available on the biological effects of ionising radiation on the embryo-foetus that is developing. In this article this matter is updated: the estimated doses values on the embryo-foetus in radiodiagnosis and the risks associated, as well as a series of recommendations that can be of use to establish procedure protocols, on which the measurements taken to reduce the risks of exposition to ionising radiation on the embryo-foetus in the developing stages are recorded. (Author) 11 refs

  12. Astrocytes gate synaptic transmission from unmyelinated sensory afferents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrier, Jean-Francois Marie; Christensen, Rasmus Kordt; Delgado-Lezama, R.

    2015-01-01

    was increased by maternal TNFalpha knockout in a gene dosage-dependent manner. In the VZ of the dorsal cortex, both heterozygous and knockout foetuses showed decreased density of mitotic cells, with no effect of maternal genotype. Immature microglia were found sparsely populating the embryonic brain at E13.......5, with both heterozygous and knockout foetuses showing decreased numbers of microglia and an increase in the fraction of non-arborised (rounded) microglia. In the dorsal and medial SVZ, LPS caused a decrease in mitotic cell density. In the dorsal SVZ, density of proliferating cells was much lower in foetuses...... or indirectly have a profound effect on the development of the foetal brain independently of the ability of the foetus to produce TNFalpha....

  13. Paediatric outcomes following intrauterine exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitors: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger-Grøn, Jesper; Thomsen, Morten; Andersen, Kristian Skytte

    2011-01-01

    The use of serotonine reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) is increasing among Danish pregnant women. This systematic review addresses the potential adverse effects on the foetus and child of maternal SRI medication. The literature indicates a slightly increased risk of cardiovascular malformations...

  14. Diagnostic studies of abortion in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Willadsen, C. M.; Nielsen, Thomas Krogh

    1997-01-01

    Diagnostic findings in 218 aborted bovine foetuses are reported. The materials were examined in a matched case-control study of 69 Danish dairy herds with a sudden increase in the number of abortions and a corresponding 69 control herds. Foetuses aborted during the subsequent 6-month period were...... examined to identify the cause of abortion if possible. A total of 186 specimens were submitted from case herds and 32 from control herds. A likely cause of abortion was diagnosed in 73 foetuses. The most common cause was bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV: 13%) followed by Neospora caninum infection (10......%), mycosis (5%) and Bacillus licheniformis infection (4%). Foetal and/or placental lesions were found in a further 27 cases. Only BVDV infection and neosporosis were diagnosed in more than one foetus per herd and only protozoal associated abortions occurred significantly more frequently in the case, rather...

  15. Faced with a dilemma: Danish midwives' experiences with and attitudes towards late termination of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Hjøllund Christiansen, Anne; Petersson, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    and is influenced by a growing personalisation of the aborted foetus. The midwives strongly supported women’s legal right to choose termination of pregnancy and considerations about the foetus’ right to live were suppressed. Midwives experienced a dilemma when faced with aborted foetuses that looked like newborns...... and when aborted foetuses showed signs of life after a termination. Furthermore, they were critical of how physicians counsel women/couples after prenatal diagnosis. Conclusions: The midwives’ practice in relation to late termination of pregnancy was characterised by an acknowledgement of the growing...... ethical status of the foetus and the emotional reactions of the women/couples going through late termination of pregnancy. Other professions as well as structural factors at the hospital highly influenced the midwives’ ability to organize their work with late terminations. There is a need for more...

  16. New Insights into the Biological Role of Mammalian ADARs; the RNA Editing Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh Mannion

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The ADAR proteins deaminate adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA which is one of the most abundant modifications present in mammalian RNA. Inosine can have a profound effect on the RNAs that are edited, not only changing the base-pairing properties, but can also result in recoding, as inosine behaves as if it were guanosine. In mammals there are three ADAR proteins and two ADAR-related proteins (ADAD expressed. All have a very similar modular structure; however, both their expression and biological function differ significantly. Only two of the ADAR proteins have enzymatic activity. However, both ADAR and ADAD proteins possess the ability to bind double-strand RNA. Mutations in ADARs have been associated with many diseases ranging from cancer, innate immunity to neurological disorders. Here, we will discuss in detail the domain structure of mammalian ADARs, the effects of RNA editing, and the role of ADARs in human diseases.

  17. New Insights into the Biological Role of Mammalian ADARs; the RNA Editing Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Niamh; Arieti, Fabiana; Gallo, Angela; Keegan, Liam P.; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2015-01-01

    The ADAR proteins deaminate adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA which is one of the most abundant modifications present in mammalian RNA. Inosine can have a profound effect on the RNAs that are edited, not only changing the base-pairing properties, but can also result in recoding, as inosine behaves as if it were guanosine. In mammals there are three ADAR proteins and two ADAR-related proteins (ADAD) expressed. All have a very similar modular structure; however, both their expression and biological function differ significantly. Only two of the ADAR proteins have enzymatic activity. However, both ADAR and ADAD proteins possess the ability to bind double-strand RNA. Mutations in ADARs have been associated with many diseases ranging from cancer, innate immunity to neurological disorders. Here, we will discuss in detail the domain structure of mammalian ADARs, the effects of RNA editing, and the role of ADARs in human diseases. PMID:26437436

  18. Iron-59 transfer across the placenta at late pregnancy in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylicz, E.

    1976-01-01

    The transfer of 59 Fe from mother to foetus in relation to the time of gestation was examined 24 hours after injecting 5 μCi of 59 Fe-citrate. The radioactivity of foetuses, placentae and some mother organs between 15th and 21st days of gestation was determined. A striking daily foetal 59 Fe increment with a concomitant decrease of 59 Fe level in maternalorgans was observed from 16th day of pregnancy. (author)

  19. Testosterone determination in amniotic fluid for sec diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroa C, M.M.

    1985-11-01

    This study was carried on 50 samples of amniotic fluid obtained from pregnant patients with gestation old of 38 to 40 weeks; diagnosis of the foetus sex was made by measuring the testosterone levels by radioimmunoassay technique. It was found that 94% of the cases were correctly diagnosed. The testosterone levels found in the amniotic fluid of male and female foetus were significantly different (L<0.01) these confirm the efficacy of the method. (author)

  20. Social networking between cells of the foetal skeleton: the importance of thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Colin

    2011-08-01

    In this issue of Journal of Endocrinology, Lanham et al. investigated the effects of hypothyroidism on the developing skeleton of the ovine foetus in utero. Their analyses indicated that, following thyroidectomy, bone growth, structure and mechanical properties were all altered at late gestation or at term. Adrenalectomy, whilst preventing the prepartum rise in triiodothyronine, did not modify skeletal development. The hypothyroid-mediated skeletal defects of the developing foetus described in this study may have clinical implications for bone health in later life.

  1. Evaluation of the foetal time to death in mice after application of direct and indirect euthanasia methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Mediavilla, C; Cámara, J A; Salazar, S; Segui, B; Sanguino, D; Mulero, F; de la Cueva, E; Blanco, I

    2016-04-01

    Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes requires that the killing of mammal foetuses during the last third of their gestational period should be accomplished through effective and humane methods. The fact that murine foetuses are resistant to hypoxia-mediated euthanasia renders the current euthanasia methods ineffective or humane for the foetuses when these methods are applied to pregnant female mice. We have assessed the time to death of foetuses after performing either indirect (dam euthanasia) or direct (via intraplacental injection--a new approach to euthanasia) euthanasia methods in order to determine a euthanasia method that is appropriate, ethical and efficient for the killing of mouse foetuses. The respective times to death of foetuses after performing the three most commonly used euthanasia methods (namely cervical dislocation, CO2inhalation and intraperitoneal sodium pentobarbital administration) were recorded. Absence of foetal heartbeat was monitored via ultrasound. We consider that the most effective and humane method of foetal euthanasia was the one able to achieve foetal death within the shortest possible period of time. Among the indirect euthanasia methods assessed, the administration of a sodium pentobarbital overdose to pregnant female mice was found to be the fastest for foetuses, with an average post-treatment foetal death of approximately 29.8 min. As for the direct euthanasia method assessed, foetal time to death after intraplacental injection of sodium pentobarbital was approximately 14 min. Significant differences among the different mouse strains employed were found. Based on the results obtained in our study, we consider that the administration of a sodium pentobarbital overdose by intraplacental injection to be an effective euthanasia method for murine foetuses. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Current exposure of 200 pregnant Danish women to phthalates, parabens and phenols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tefre de Renzy-Martin, Katrine; Frederiksen, Hanne; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup

    2014-01-01

    Many phthalates, parabens and phenols are suspected to have endocrine disrupting properties in humans. They are found in consumer products, including food wrapping, cosmetics and building materials. The foetus is vulnerable and exposure to these chemicals is of particular concern for pregnant women...... still raise concern. As current toxicological risk assessments in humans do not take into account simultaneous exposure, the true cumulative risk for the foetus may be underestimated....

  3. Induction of partial protection against infection with Toxoplasma gondii genotype II by DNA vaccination with recombinant chimeric tachyzoite antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Carina Agerbo; De Craeye, S.; Jongert, E.

    2009-01-01

    Infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a significant source of parasitic infections worldwide. In adults, infections may often lead to severe retinochoroiditis. Infection of the foetus causes abortion or congenital pathology that may lead to neurological complicat......Infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a significant source of parasitic infections worldwide. In adults, infections may often lead to severe retinochoroiditis. Infection of the foetus causes abortion or congenital pathology that may lead to neurological...

  4. Trace element metabolism in children with Menkes' syndrom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydorn, K.

    1975-11-01

    Menkes' syndrome, or the kinky hair syndrome, is a hereditary, progressive disease caused by an X-linked recessive gene. The basic defect has been attributed to an insufficient intestinal absorption of copper. Observation of typical signs of Menkes' syndrome in neonates, however, indicates the possible presence of a prenatal defect in the metabolism of copper. Very little reliable information is available on the distribution of copper and other trace elements in foetuses of different age, and the sampling of tissue from a foetus suspected of Menkes' disease was therefore supplemented by sampling a number of controls of different gestational age. The analysis of samples from a total of 7 foetuses of 15 - 21 weeks' gestational age was carried out by neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation for the elements arsenic, copper, manganese and selenium. The distribution of copper among the organs of the foetus expected to develop Menkes' syndrome was entirely different from the distribution observed in the corresponding controls. In particular, the concentration in the liver was much lower, whereas all other tissues had concentrations above normal. Similar differences were not found for arsenic, manganese and selenium in the foetuses investigated, and the distribution of these elements was not very different from that in adults. These observations do not support the hypothesis of defective intestinal transport of copper as the primary cause of Menkes' syndrome, nor do they indicate an inadequate placental transport of copper to the foetus

  5. Effects of salicylic acid on post-ischaemic ventricular function and purine efflux in isolated mouse hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farthing, Don; Gehr, Lynne; Karnes, H Thomas; Sica, Domenic; Gehr, Todd; Larus, Terri; Farthing, Christine; Xi, Lei

    2007-01-01

    Acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Various plasma concentrations of aspirin and its predominant metabolite, salicylic acid, are required for its antiarthritic (1.5-2.5 mM), anti-inflammatory (0.5-5.0 mM) or antiplatelet (0.18-0.36 mM) actions. A recent study demonstrated the inhibitory effects of both aspirin and salicylic acid on oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis in isolated rat cardiac mitochondria in a dose-dependent manner (0-10 mM concentration range). In this context, the present study was conducted to determine the effects of salicylic acid on inosine efflux (a potential biomarker of acute cardiac ischaemia) as well as cardiac contractile function in the isolated mouse heart following 20 min of zero-flow global ischaemia. Inosine efflux was found at significantly higher concentrations in ischaemic hearts perfused with Krebs buffer fortified with 1.0 mM salicylic acid compared with those without salicylic acid (12575+/-3319 vs. 1437+/-348 ng ml(-1) min(-1), mean+/-SEM, n=6 per group, psalicylic acid potentiates 8.8-fold ATP nucleotide purine catabolism into its metabolites (e.g. inosine, hypoxanthine). Salicylic acid (0.1 or 1.0 mM) did not appreciably inhibit purine nucleoside phosphorylase (the enzyme converts inosine to hypoxanthine) suggesting the augmented inosine efflux was due to the salicylic acid effect on upstream elements of cellular respiration. Whereas post-ischaemic cardiac function was further depressed by 1.0 mM salicylic acid, perfusion with 0.1 mM salicylic acid led to a remarkable functional improvement despite moderately increased inosine efflux (2.7-fold). We conclude that inosine is a sensitive biomarker for detecting cardiac ischaemia and salicylic acid-induced effects on cellular respiration. However, the inosine efflux level appears to be a poor predictor of the individual post-ischaemic cardiac functional recovery in this ex vivo model.

  6. A Eukaryote without a Mitochondrial Organelle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karnkowska, A.; Vacek, V.; Zubáčová, Z.; Treitli, S.C.; Petrzelkova, R.; Eme, L.; Novák, L.; Žárský, V.; Barlow, L.D.; Herman, E.K.; Soukal, P.; Hroudová, Miluše; Doležal, P.; Stairs, C.W.; Roger, A. J.; Eliaš, M.; Dacks, J.B.; Vlček, Čestmír; Hampl, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 10 (2016), s. 1274-1284 ISSN 0960-9822 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR GAP506/12/1010 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : arginine dihydrolase pathway * tail-anchored proteins * fe-s cluster * trichomonas-vaginalis * entamoeba-histolytica * giardia-intestinalis * tritrichomonas-fetus * genome annotation * energy-metabolism * gene-transfer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 8.851, year: 2016

  7. Pre-gestational stress reduces the ratio of 5-HIAA to 5-HT and the expression of 5-HT1A receptor and serotonin transporter in the brain of foetal rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yuejun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have found that stress before or during pregnancy is linked to an increased incidence of behavioural disorders in offspring. However, few studies have investigated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity and the serotonergic system as a consequence of pregestational stress. In the present study, we investigated the effect of pre-gestational stress on HPA axis activity in maternal rats and their foetuses and examined whether changes in HPA axis activity of maternal rats produced functional changes in the serotonergic system in the brain of foetuses. Results We used the behavioural tests to assess the model of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS in maternal rats. We found the activity in the open field and sucrose consumption was lower for rats with CUS than for the controls. Body weight but not brain weight was higher for control foetuses than those from the CUS group. Serum corticosterone and corticotrophin-releasing hormone levels were significantly higher for mothers with CUS before pregnancy and their foetuses than for the controls. Levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT were higher in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of foetuses in the CUS group than in the controls, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA levels were lower in the hippocampus in foetuses in the CUS group than in the control group. Levels of 5-HIAA in the hypothalamus did not differ between foetuses in the CUS group and in the control group. The ratio of 5-HIAA to 5-HT was significantly lower for foetuses in the CUS group than in the control group. Levels of 5-HT1A receptor were significantly lower in the foetal hippocampus in the CUS group than in the control group, with no significant difference in the hypothalamus. The levels of serotonin transporter (SERT were lower in both the foetal hippocampus and foetal hypothalamus in the CUS group than in the control group. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that pre-gestational stress alters HPA

  8. STUDY OF MORPHOMETRIC CHANGES OF FOETAL STOMACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aneesur Rahman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Interest in human development is very widespread largely because of the curiosity about our beginnings and desire to improve the quality of life. Understanding of the processes involved in the formation of various organs and systems has unrevealed most cryptic secrets of the nature. Human development begins at fertilisation when a male gamete or sperm unites with a female gamete or oocyte to form a single cell, a zygote. With the formation of zygote (single-celled stage, foetal development begins. The aim of the study is to- 1 Study the morphometric parameters of foetal stomach at various gestational ages. 2 Compare these observations with the previous studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS Present work was the cross-sectional study carried out in the Department of Anatomy in collaboration with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at SRTRGMC and Hospital, Ambajogai Dist., Beed, Maharashtra. For this, approval of Institutional Ethical Committee was taken. 30 aborted human foetuses of different age groups ranging from 12 to 36 weeks of fertilisation were taken from the Department of OB-GYN. Foetuses were preserved by using 10% formalin. Age of foetuses were determined by crown-rump length and history given by mother. Foetuses were dissected after preservation for 15 days and morphometric studies were done on stomach. RESULTS Various quantitative parameters like weight of foetus, crown-rump length, total length of stomach, weight of stomach, length of greater curvature, lesser curvature, width of cardia and width of pylorus were used. For the purpose of study and comparison with other researchers, the foetuses were divided into 3 groups. Morphometric changes were observed in different groups and compared with previous studies. CONCLUSION With the increase in the body weight, crown-rump length and gestational age of the foetus, there is gradual increase on various parameters of stomach.

  9. Evaluation of secondary metabolites from the Red Sea tunicate polyclinum constellatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical investigation of the Red Sea tunicate Polyclinum constellatum afforded nine compounds, identified as thymidine (1), uridine (2), adenosine (3), inosine (4), 24-methylene cholesterol (5), dihydrocholesterol (6), cholesterol (7), oleic acid (8) and 1,3-palmityl-2-palmitoleoylglycerol (9). All...

  10. Hybridization properties of long nucleic acid probes for detection of variable target sequences, and development of a hybridization prediction algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhrmalm, Christina; Jobs, Magnus; Eriksson, Ronnie; Golbob, Sultan; Elfaitouri, Amal; Benachenhou, Farid; Strømme, Maria; Blomberg, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    One of the main problems in nucleic acid-based techniques for detection of infectious agents, such as influenza viruses, is that of nucleic acid sequence variation. DNA probes, 70-nt long, some including the nucleotide analog deoxyribose-Inosine (dInosine), were analyzed for hybridization tolerance to different amounts and distributions of mismatching bases, e.g. synonymous mutations, in target DNA. Microsphere-linked 70-mer probes were hybridized in 3M TMAC buffer to biotinylated single-stranded (ss) DNA for subsequent analysis in a Luminex® system. When mismatches interrupted contiguous matching stretches of 6 nt or longer, it had a strong impact on hybridization. Contiguous matching stretches are more important than the same number of matching nucleotides separated by mismatches into several regions. dInosine, but not 5-nitroindole, substitutions at mismatching positions stabilized hybridization remarkably well, comparable to N (4-fold) wobbles in the same positions. In contrast to shorter probes, 70-nt probes with judiciously placed dInosine substitutions and/or wobble positions were remarkably mismatch tolerant, with preserved specificity. An algorithm, NucZip, was constructed to model the nucleation and zipping phases of hybridization, integrating both local and distant binding contributions. It predicted hybridization more exactly than previous algorithms, and has the potential to guide the design of variation-tolerant yet specific probes. PMID:20864443

  11. Taste perception with age: pleasantness and its relationships with threshold sensitivity and supra-threshold intensity of five taste qualities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Christ-Hazelhof, E.; Heidema, J.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between threshold sensitivity, supra-threshold intensity of NaCl, KCl, sucrose, aspartame, acetic acid, citric acid, caffeine, quinine HCl, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and inosine 5¿-monophosphate (IMP), and the pleasantness of these stimuli in products, were studied in 21 young

  12. Biochemistry of Trypanosomatidae of Importance in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    translocation of the substrate across the cytoplasmic menbrane . As a consequence of this trans- location, substrates may become available to intracellular...concentration in plasma (Arnold and Cysyk, 1983). These authors found that in rat liver the purines hypoxanthine, inosine, and adenine were all found

  13. Protective effect of DNA-spermidine (DA-51) against radiation-induced leukopenia. A study on breast cancer patients receiving postoperative prophylactic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuya, A; Kaneta, K; Okawa, T; Nakama, M [Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo. Hospital; Watari, T

    1976-08-01

    DNA-spermidine (DA-51), which has been originally developed by Dr. Sekiguchi et al. as a protective agent against radiation-induced leukopenia, was submitted to clinical trial by the double blind test. The protective effect against radiation-induced leukopenia and side effect of DA-51 were compared with those of Inosine, selected as a control agent, on breast cancer cases receiving prophylactic irradiation. Daily dose of 2700 mg of DA-51 and 1800 mg of Inosine were administered orally during a 5 week period of irradiation. The differences between the white blood cell counts, the thrombocyte counts and the percentages of lymphocytes in the DA-51 and the Inosine treated groups were assessed at 1, 3 and 5 weeks by x/sup 2/ and T tests, and the following results are obtained: No significant difference in white blood cell or thrombocyte counts was demonstrated at 1, 3 or 5 weeks between the two groups. The only significant difference noted was in the percentage of lymphocyte at 5 weeks, and the thrombocyte counts at 3 weeks. DNA-spermidine is considered to be an effective drug against radiation-induced leukopenia, comparable to Inosine and without noticeable side effects.

  14. Anaerobic energy production and O2 deficit-debt relationship during exhaustive exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Gollnick, PD; Graham, T

    1990-01-01

    oxygen uptake, heart rate, blood pressure, leg blood flow, and femoral arterial-venous differences of oxygen content and lactate were performed as well as determination of ATP, creatine phosphate (CP) inosine monophosphate (IMP) and lactate concentrations on biopsy material from the quadriceps muscle...

  15. Novel indole-based inhibitors of IMPDH: introduction of hydrogen bond acceptors at indole C-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Scott H; Dhar, T G Murali; Ballentine, Shelley K; Shen, Zhongqi; Barrish, Joel C; Cheney, Daniel; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine A; Townsend, Robert; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2003-04-07

    The development of a series of novel indole-based inhibitors of 5'-inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is described. Various hydrogen bond acceptors at C-3 of the indole were explored. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) derived from in vitro studies are outlined.

  16. The TosMIC approach to 3-(oxazol-5-yl) indoles: application to the synthesis of indole-based IMPDH inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, T G Murali; Shen, Zhongqi; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine A; Barrish, Joel C; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2002-11-18

    A modified approach to the synthesis of 3-(oxazolyl-5-yl) indoles is reported. This method was applied to the synthesis of series of novel indole based inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs), derived from in vitro studies, for this new series of inhibitors is given.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF FOETAL COMPROMISE BY DOPPLER ULTRASOUND INVESTIGATION OF THE FOETAL CIRCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Philip

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The condition in which the foetus does not reach its growth potential is called Intrauterine Growth Restricted (IUGR. The mothers who are generally healthy and well nourished, the incidence of IUGR is 3-5%. The incidence of IUGR is 15-20% or higher in a women population with hypertension or previous growth restricted foetus. The aim of the study is to assess foetal compromise by Doppler ultrasound investigation of the foetal circulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study is a prospective study conducted between November 2013 to November 2016 in the Department of Radiodiagnosis and imaging of Mount Zion Medical College, Kerala. A total of 50 singleton pregnancies with suspected IUGR pregnancy attending the outpatient ward of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Inclusion Criteria- Pregnancies from 29 weeks to 42 weeks of gestation complicated by intrauterine growth restriction and who are ultrasound confirmed. In the first trimester, gestational age determination was estimated by history of menstruation or biometry of foetus. Exclusion Criteria- Patients who had multiple gestations, congenital anomalies and history of membranes rupture. All the patients in the study were subjected to clinical history in detail to assess the risk factors of IUGR pregnancy, biometry of ultrasound and amniotic fluid assessment followed by Doppler ultrasound evaluation of uterine arteries, umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery, descending foetal thoracic aorta, ductus venous and umbilical vein. RESULTS Majority of the patients were in the age group of 21-24 years. All the patients were in the age group of 19-30 years. 45% of antenatal mothers examined were between 28-31 weeks of gestational age, 35% were between 32-36 weeks of gestation, 20% were between 37-42 weeks of gestation age. 15 antenatal mothers had elevated uterine artery resistance index (30%, 12 antenatal mothers had persistent early diagnostic notch (24%, 11 antenatal mothers had elevated systolic

  18. Management of foetal asphyxia by intrauterine foetal resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhareddy, S.; Kirankumar, H

    2010-01-01

    Management of foetal distress is a subject of gynaecological interest, but an anaesthesiologist should know about resuscitation, because he should be able to treat the patient, whenever he is directly involved in managing the parturient patient during labour analgesia and before an emergency operative delivery. Progressive asphyxia is known as foetal distress; the foetus does not breathe directly from the atmosphere, but depends on maternal circulation for its oxygen requirement. The oxygen delivery to the foetus depends on the placental (maternal side), placental transfer and foetal circulation. Oxygen transport to the foetus is reduced physiologically during uterine contractions in labour. Significant impairment of oxygen transport to the foetus, either temporary or permanent may cause foetal distress, resulting in progressive hypoxia and acidosis. Intrauterine foetal resuscitation comprises of applying measures to a mother in active labour, with the intention of improving oxygen delivery to the distressed foetus to the base line, if the placenta is functioning normally. These measures include left lateral recumbent position, high flow oxygen administration, tocolysis to reduce uterine contractions, rapid intravenous fluid administration, vasopressors for correction of maternal hypotension and amnioinfusion for improving uterine blood flow. Intrauterine Foetal Resuscitation measures are easy to perform and do not require extensive resources, but the results are encouraging in improving the foetal well-being. The anaesthesiologist plays a major role in the application of intrauterine foetal resuscitation measures. PMID:21189876

  19. Management of foetal asphyxia by intrauterine foetal resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Velayudhareddy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of foetal distress is a subject of gynaecological interest, but an anaesthesiologist should know about resuscitation, because he should be able to treat the patient, whenever he is directly involved in managing the parturient patient during labour analgesia and before an emergency operative delivery. Progressive asphyxia is known as foetal distress; the foetus does not breathe directly from the atmosphere, but depends on maternal circulation for its oxygen requirement. The oxygen delivery to the foetus depends on the placental (maternal side, placental transfer and foetal circulation. Oxygen transport to the foetus is reduced physiologically during uterine contractions in labour. Significant impairment of oxygen transport to the foetus, either temporary or permanent may cause foetal distress, resulting in progressive hypoxia and acidosis. Intrauterine foetal resuscitation comprises of applying measures to a mother in active labour, with the intention of improving oxygen delivery to the distressed foetus to the base line, if the placenta is functioning normally. These measures include left lateral recumbent position, high flow oxygen administration, tocolysis to reduce uterine contractions, rapid intravenous fluid administration, vasopressors for correction of maternal hypotension and amnioinfusion for improving uterine blood flow. Intrauterine Foetal Resuscitation measures are easy to perform and do not require extensive resources, but the results are encouraging in improving the foetal well-being. The anaesthesiologist plays a major role in the application of intrauterine foetal resuscitation measures.

  20. Effects of AET, MEA, or 5-HT treatment before X-irradiation of pregnant C57B mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, L.

    1985-01-01

    C57B mice were either whole body X-irradiated with a dose of 200 R or, 15 minutes before X-radiation injected with AET, MEA, or 5-HT, in a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight, on the first day of gestation. Uterine contents were examined on the nineteenth day of pregnancy. The number of corpora lutea was assumed as 100% and the percentage values of live and dead foetuses, resorptions, and non-implanted embryos were calculated. The percentage ratio of females with live foetuses in the uterus, in relation to the total number of those with a vaginal plug was also determined. X-irradiation of pregnant mice influenced the embryonic survival. As compared with controls, in only X-irradiated mice a lower percentage value of live foetuses and higher percentage values of non-implanted embryos and resorptions were found. One dead foetus was only observed in X-irradiated females. Percentage value of X-irradiated females with live foetuses was lower than that of control ones. High mortality of embryos occurred more often before than after the implantation of blastocysts. The percentage value of non-implanted embryos was higher than that of resorptions. AET, MEA, and 5-HT when injected to mice before their X-irradiation acted as radioprotectors. The strongest radioprotective effect was obtained following AET administration, intermediate after 5-HT treatment and the weakest one when MEA was injected. (orig.) [de

  1. Transmission of electric and magnetic foetal cardiac signals in a case of ectopia cordis: the dominant role of the vernix caseosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakai, R.T.; Lengle, J.M.; Leuthold, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Foetal electrocardiograms (fECGs) and foetal magnetocardiograms (fMCGs) were recorded in the 26th, 29th and 31st weeks of gestation from a foetus with ectopia cordis - a rare condition in which the heart lies outside the chest wall. This provided an opportunity to study foetal cardiograms uninfluenced by the insulating effects of the foetal skin and vernix caseosa. The fECG of the ectopia cordis foetus was striking. Unlike recordings from age-matched normal foetuses, recordings from this subject had very high signal-to-noise ratio and showed no anomalous signal transmission properties. In contrast, fMCGs recorded from the ectopia cordis foetus and normal foetuses were largely similar. Both showed high signal-to-noise ratio and signal transmission properties consistent with volume conduction. The findings corroborate the hypothesis that high foetal skin resistance due primarily to the vernix caseosa is responsible for the low amplitude and anomalous transmission properties of the normal fECG, and demonstrate that the fMCG is relatively insensitive to conductivity inhomogeneities. (author)

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of ataxia-telangiectasia and Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome by the assay of radioresistant DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijer, W.J.; Kraan, M. van der; Los, F.J.; Jaspers, N.G.J.

    1994-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis was performed in 16 pregnancies at risk of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) or Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS). Radioresistant DNA synthesis (RDS) was investigated in cultured chorionic villus (CV) cells and/or amniotic fluid (AF) cells. In four pregnancies, an affected foetus was diagnosed with increased RDS in cultured CV cells. In three of the four cases confirmation of the diagnosis was obtained by analysis of AF cells and/or skin fibroblasts from the foetus cultured after termination of the pregnancy; in the fourth case a fibroblast culture from the aborted foetus failed. In one case, only AF cells could be analysed in a late stage of pregnancy; pregnancy was terminated due to intermediate/equivocal results but the foetus fibroblasts showed normal RDS. Normal RDS was demonstrated in the other 11 pregnancies at 25% risk either by analysis of CB cells (nine cases) or of AF cells (two cases). In some cases the (normal) results on the CV cells were corroborated by subsequent analysis of Af cells. The results suggest that RDS analysis of CV cells allows reliable prenatal diagnosis of A-T/NBS. However, amniocentesis may be necessary to confirm normal results on CV cells if the foetus is female (because of the risk of maternal cell contamination) or in the rare case of equivocal results. (author)

  3. STR typing of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) aborted foetal tissue in criminal paternity cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshef, Ayeleth; Barash, Mark; Voskoboinik, Lev; Brauner, Paul; Gafny, Roni

    2011-03-01

    Sexual assault or rape cases occasionally result in unwanted pregnancies. In almost all such cases the foetus is aborted. A forensic laboratory may receive the foetus, the placenta, or paraffin embedded abortion material for paternity testing. Obtaining a foetal profile DNA from a foetus or placenta may not be successful due to the age or condition of the tissue. Moreover, maternal contamination of placental material will invariably result in a mixed DNA profile. However, the use of properly screened abortion material from paraffin blocks will almost always result in obtaining a foetal DNA profile. Furthermore, foetal tissue fixed in paraffin blocks does not require special conditions for submission and storage as required to preserve fresh foetal or placental tissue. As hospitals routinely prepare foetal tissue in paraffin blocks, which should be readily obtainable by forensic laboratories, these samples would appear to be the preferred choice for paternity testing. 2010 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Euglycaemic ketoacidosis in a non-diabetic primigravida following an appendicectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinushi Dilanka Dikowita

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy creates significant alterations in energy metabolism which itself is a physiological adaptation to provide continuous flow of energy metabolites to the foetus. The state of insulin resistance created by hormonal changes in pregnancy enables free flow of glucose to the foetus and allows its absorption through facilitated diffusion. As glucose is preferentially available for the foetus, maternal fasting glucose level would be less than that of a non-pregnant state and in contrast plasma ketones and free fatty acids levels are elevated, resulting in a state of accelerated starvation. These metabolic alterations place a pregnant woman at a higher risk of developing euglycaemic ketoacidosis when allowed to fast for prolonged periods due to medical, surgical and psychological reasons. We report a rare case of euglycaemic ketoacidosis causing severe increased anion gap metabolic acidosis in a non-diabetic mother following surgery for appendicitis at a gestation of 27 weeks.

  5. MORFOLOGI FETUS MENCIT (MUS MUSCULUS L. SETELAH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK DAUN SAMBILOTO (ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRIANI SETYAWATI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was performed to examine the effects of Andrographis paniculata Nees leaves extract on foetus morphology if given during organogenesis period. Thirty pregnant mice were randomly divided into 5 groups for teratogenic effects. Extract was given orally by gavage with 0 (as control; 0,004 (equal to one time dose to human; 7,5; 15; and 22,5 g/g body weight/ day. Treatment was given from day 6 to day 13 of gestation (organogenesis period. Foetus were removed on day 18 of gestation by caesarean section. Quantitative data were analyzed with Anova and Duncan's Multiple Range Test. The results showed that teratogenic effects increased in dose-related manner by causing foetus death and resorption, hemorrhage and clubfoot.

  6. Metabolism of six CYP probe substrates in fetal hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Naveed Shaik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P-450 (CYP are the most common drug metabolizing enzymes and are abundantly expressed in liver apart from kidney, lungs, intestine, brain etc. Their expression levels change with physiological conditions and disease states. The expression of these CYPs is less in human foetus and neonates compared to adults, which results in lower clearance of xenobiotics in infants and neonates compared to adults. Hepatocytes are the cells which are largely used to study these CYPs. We have isolated hepatocytes from aborted foetus to study the metabolism of six probe substrates: phenacetin, diclofenac, S-mephenytoin, dextromethorphan, nifedipine and testosterone. The results obtained show the expression of various CYPs (CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in human foetus and their involvement in metabolism of CYP probe substrates.

  7. Infants with prenatally diagnosed kidney anomalies have an increased risk of urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Maria; Sunde, Lone; Andersen, René F

    2017-01-01

    AIM: This study estimated the urinary tract infection (UTI) risk in a nationwide cohort of infants prenatally diagnosed with parenchymal kidney anomalies compared with a comparison cohort. METHODS: A Danish population-based nationwide cohort of foetuses diagnosed with parenchymal kidney anomalies...... between 2007 and 2012 had previously been identified. These were compared with foetuses without kidney anomalies who were prenatally scanned the same year. Live born infants were followed from birth until the diagnosis of UTI, emigration, death or two years of age. Cumulative incidences of UTIs were...... computed. Mortality was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: We identified 412 foetuses with parenchymal kidney anomalies out of 362 069 who underwent ultrasound scans and 277 were born alive. The overall risk of a UTI before the age of two years was 19%, and it was 14% among infants without...

  8. Concentration of perfluorinated compounds and cotinine in human foetal organs, placenta, and maternal plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn Salto; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.

    2017-01-01

    levels. Foetal exposure has previously been estimated from umbilical cord plasma, but the actual concentration in foetal organs has never been measured. Objectives The concentrations of 5 PFASs and cotinine – the primary metabolite of nicotine – were measured in human foetuses, placentas, and maternal...... plasma to evaluate to what extent these compounds were transferred from mother to foetus and to determine if the PFAS concentrations were associated with maternal cigarette smoking. Methods Thirty-nine Danish women who underwent legal termination of pregnancy before gestational week 12 were included; 24...... ratio for all five PFASs and cotinine. Smokers presented 99 ng/g cotinine in plasma, 108 ng/g in placenta, and 61 ng/g in foetal organs. No correlation between the maternal cotinine concentrations and PFAS concentrations was found. Conclusions PFASs were transferred from mother to foetus, however...

  9. Teratogenic effects of x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal, Arif

    1981-01-01

    The application of x-rays in the medical field has positive and negative effects. The effects of x-ray radiation to the intrauterine embryo and foetus depend on the period of gestation. In the first trimester the embryo may be resorbed and aborted and may also be born with serious defects. In the late trimester radiation may cause less serious defects and it may disturb the function of organs. Many defects involve nerve tissues and are associated with symptoms of mental retardation. To prevent radiation exposure to embryo and foetus, it is necessary to observe the ''ten-day rule'', when x-ray examination is performed. The threshold doses for embryo and foetus are still unknown. (author)

  10. Programme for reducing the risk factors due to prenatal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arranz, L.; Ferrer, N.; Sastre, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    When a patient is not aware of her pregnancy, the foetus/embryo may be inadvertently irradiated during a diagnostic exploration or therapeutic intervention. The radiosensitivity of the foetus/embryo changes during the different periods of gestation. For this reason there are different risk factors for each moment at which the patient may suffer irradiation. In the past 7 years, the Department of Radiophysics and Radiation Protection has been consulted 75 times for this reason, to evaluate the dose received in the uterus. Since the establishment of a programme to avoid inadvertent irradiation of the foetus/embryo, these consultations have been reduced. This programme is based on informing the patients and on training the medical staff. (author)

  11. The impact of regulatory control on monitoring of pregnant hospital staff in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, K.; Rawlings, D.J.; Marshall, N.W.

    1997-01-01

    In 1990, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommended the introduction of a supplementary dose limit for pregnant staff so that the foetus was adequately protected. This dose limit was framed in terms of an abdomen surface dose of 2 mSv for the duration of the pregnancy, once it had been declared. The philosophical basis underlying this supplementary dose limit was the desire to treat the foetus as a member of the public in respect of the occupational exposure of the mother. In the Basic Safety Standards, the International Atomic Energy Agency endorsed the need to limit the foetal dose, but in this document the dose limit refers to the foetus. The introduction of dose limits for foetal exposure to radiation has significant implications for hospitals as many workers are women of child bearing age. The practical implications of this dose limit will be discussed as well as suggested monitoring arrangements. (author)

  12. Radiation protection program for fetus and newborn by medical exposition during the pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arranz, L.; Ferrer, N.; Sastre, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    When a patient is not aware of her pregnancy, the foetus/embryo may be inadvertently irradiated during a diagnostic exploration of therapeutic treatment. The radiosensitivity of the foetus/embryo changes during the different periods of gestation. For this reason there are different risk factors for each moment at which the patient may suffer irradiation. in the past 7 years, the department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection has been consulted 75 times for this reason, to evaluate the dose received in the uterus. Since the establishment of a programme to avoid inadvertent irradiation of the foetus/embryo, these consultations have been reduced. This programme is based on informing the patients and on training the medical staff. (Author) 15 refs

  13. The human placenta--an alternative for studying foetal exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myren, Maja; Mose, Tina; Mathiesen, Line

    2007-01-01

    Pregnant women are daily exposed to a wide selection of foreign substances. Sources are as different as lifestyle factors (smoking, daily care products, alcohol consumption, etc.), maternal medication or occupational/environmental exposures. The placenta provides the link between mother and foetus......, and though its main task is to act as a barrier and transport nutrients and oxygen to the foetus, many foreign compounds are transported across the placenta to some degree and may therefore influence the unborn child. Foetal exposures to environmental and medicinal products may have impact on the growth...... of the foetus (e.g. cigarette smoke) and development of the foetal organs (e.g. methylmercury and thalidomide). The scope of this review is to give insight to the placental anatomy, development and function. Furthermore, the compounds physical properties and the transfer mechanism across the placental barrier...

  14. Program for radiological protection of embryo and new-born baby caused by the exposition of the mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arranz, Leopoldo; Ferrer, Natividad; Sastre, Jose Maria

    2001-01-01

    When a patient is not aware of her pregnancy, the foetus/embryo may be inadvertently irradiated during a diagnostic exploration or therapeutic intervention. The radiosensitivity of the foetus/embryo changes during the different periods of gestation. For this reason there are different risk factors for each moment at which the patient may suffer irradiation. In the past 7 years, the department of Radiophysics and Radiation Protection has been consulted 75 times for this reason, to evaluate the dose received in the uterus. Since the establishment of a programme to avoid inadvertent irradiation of the foetus/embryo, these consultations have been reduced. This programme is based on informing the patients and on training the medical staff. (author)

  15. Foetal Fentanyl Exposure and Ion Trapping after Intravenous and Transdermal Administration to the Ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Emma M; Kokki, Hannu; Heikkinen, Aki; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Räsänen, Juha; Voipio, Hanna-Marja; Kokki, Merja

    2017-02-01

    Opioids given to pregnant and parturient women are relatively freely transferred across the placenta. Spinal, epidural and intravenous fentanyl has been studied in pregnant women and neonates, but foetal safety of fentanyl dosing with transdermal patch during pregnancy and labour is not sufficiently studied. Foetal pH is physiologically lower than maternal pH, and thus, opioids, which are weak bases, are ionized and may cumulate to foetus. Foetal asphyxia may further worsen acidosis, and ion trapping induced by low pH is assumed to increase the foetal exposure to opioids. Here, we show that no correlation between foetal acidosis and ion trapping of fentanyl could be found. In three experiments, 29 pregnant sheep were administered fentanyl with 2 μg/kg/h patch supplemented with IV boluses/infusion. Foetal exposure to fentanyl was extensive, median 0.34 ng/ml (quartiles 0.21, 0.42), yet drug accumulation to foetus was not observed, and median of foetal/maternal concentration (F/M) ratio was 0.63 (0.43, 0.75) during the first hours after the fentanyl administration. Low foetal pH and pH difference between ewe and the foetus did not correlate with fentanyl concentration in the foetus or F/M ratio. At steady-state during the second patch worn, foetal plasma fentanyl was low, 0.13 ng/ml, and the median of F/M ratio was 0.69. Our results demonstrate that drug accumulation to foetus caused by ion trapping seen with some weak base opioids may not be that significant with fentanyl. These results have a clinical relevance when fentanyl is dosed to pregnant woman and the foetus is acidemic. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  16. Trace element metabolism in children with Menkes' syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydorn, K.; Damsgaard, E.; Horn, N.; Mikkelsen, M.; Tygstrup, I.

    1976-04-01

    Menkes' syndrome, or the kinky hair syndrome, is a hereditary, progressive disease caused by an X-linked recessive gene. The basic defect has been attributed to an insufficient intestinal absorption of copper. Observation of typical signs of Menkes' syndrome in neonates, however, indicates the possible presence of a prenatal defect in the metabolism of copper. Very little reliable information is available on the distribution of copper and other trace elements in foetuses of different age. The sampling of tissue from a foetus suspected of Menkes' disease was therefore supplemented by sampling a number of controls of different gestational age. The analysis of samples from a total of 7 foetuses of 15-21 weeks' gestational age was carried out by neutron activation analysis with radio-chemical separation, so that simultaneous determination of Cu, As, Se, and Mn was achieved. The analytical procedure was investigated by the Analysis of Precision, and its performance characteristics was ascertained. Accuracy was checked by the analysis of Standard Reference Materials. As previously described elsewhere, the distribution of copper among the organs analyzed from the foetus expected to develop Menkes' syndrome, is entirely different from the distribution observed in the corresponding controls. In particular, the concentration in the liver was much lower, whereas all other tissues had concentrations above normal. Similar differences were not found for the concentrations of As, Se, and Mn in the foetuses investigated, and the distribution of these elements was not very different from that in adults. These observations do not support the hypothesis of defective intestinal transport of copper as the primary cause of Menkes' syndrome, nor do they indicate an inadequate placental transport of copper to the foetus. Clearly, a search must not be made for a metabolic defect that also affects the intrafoetal transport. (author)

  17. Prenatal radiation exposures at diagnostic procedures: methods to identify exposed pregnant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, H.; Sandborg, M.; Nilsson, J.; Olsson, S.

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge about frequency and doses to embryo/foetus from diagnostic radiology is of great importance both in the sense of estimating the radiation risks but also for optimizing the diagnostic procedures and making decisions regarding alternative procedures. In addition, the pregnant patient has the right to know the magnitude and type of radiation risks expected as a result of foetus exposure. From a risk perspective epidemiological data have shown that the embryo/foetus together with children experience higher radiation sensitivity in terms of induced leukemia and cancer compared to an adult population. Recent estimates give cancer excess lifetime mortality risks for whole body exposures of children and foetus (0-15 y age) of 0.06% (ICRP84, 2000) up to 0.14% per 10 mSv (BEIR-V 1990). In addition to the risk of cancer induction effects of cell killing, e.g. CNS abnormalities, cataracts, malformations, growth retardation, may occur. However, these effects are believed to have a threshold, about 100-200 mGy (ICRP84, 2000), and such foetus doses are rarely reached in diagnostic radiology procedures. There are 2 principal situations where foetus exposures may occur in diagnostic radiology; 1. The pregnancy of the patient is known at the time of examination, but due to the medical indications the examination can not be postponed or put forward in time, and there are no suitable alternative non-radiological procedures. 2. The pregnancy of the patient is not known at the time of examination, either due to the fact that the patient is unaware of her pregnancy or the medical personnel failed to obtain this information. The former situation may occur during the first few weeks from conception, whereas the latter situation may cover a greater gestation period

  18. Brug af foetocidium ved sene provokerede aborter i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Petersson, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    As a result of prenatal screening, the number of late terminations of pregnancy is increasing in Denmark. The fact that the foetus sometimes shows signs of life after the termination is a large concern for health-care staff and parents. In other countries feticide is performed intrauterinely to e...... to ensure that the foetus is dead before the delivery. In Denmark this method is legally used in foetal reduction, but not in late termination of pregnancy. In the light of international literature on the subject, perspectives on feticide in late termination of pregnancy are explored....

  19. Diagnosis of autism, abortion and the ethics of childcare in Yoruba culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayemi, Ademola Kazeem

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the ethics of childcare in Yoruba culture in the contexts of autism and abortion. The traditional Yoruba moral principles of ibikojuibi (equality of humans at birth) and ajowapo (solidarity) have been theoretically developed to establish the personhood of autistic children and provide a justification for not aborting foetuses with autism. Despite these justifications, this paper argues that there is a need for contextual rethinking, which would allow for: (i) prenatal genetic testing, as well as abortion of foetuses with a high risk of the autism mutation, and (ii) early clinical diagnosis and treatment of autistic children in contemporary Yoruba society.

  20. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus.......The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...

  1. Den nyeste indsigt i praeeklampsiens aetiologi og patogenese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, U R; Hviid, T V

    2000-01-01

    of pre-eclampsia--an immune maladaptation between mother and foetus. Markedly raised incidences are seen in blood relatives (mothers, sisters, daughters) to pre-eclamptic women. In the genetic studies, the importance of specific combinations of mother-foetus-genotypes are recognized. The pathological...... processes involve an aberrant trophoblast-invasion of the spiral arteries, placental dysfunction, abnormal levels of cytokines and endothelial cell dysfunction, resulting in systemic and organ dysfunction. Genetic linkage studies and the use of molecular biology will probably elucidate the predisposing...

  2. Heteropagus twinning on back -- a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Bidyut; Biswas, Sumitra Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Heteropagus twins, also called parasitic twins, are malformation of the foetus where the development of one twin is incomplete. They are attached most commonly to the lower chest and upper abdomen. We report a case of heteropagus twin, where the parasite possessed well-formed limb as well as blind ending intestine. It was attached to the back of the host by a broad pedicle. We take this opportunity to classify areas of confusion prevailing regarding twinning, foetus in foetu, teratoma and caudal duplication.

  3. Assessing and quantifying inter-rater variation for dichotomous ratings using a Rasch model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Larsen, Klaus; Kreiner, Svend

    2010-01-01

    quantifying the rater variation as a suitable measure of the variation of the rater odds ratios. An important example that will serve to motivate and illustrate the proposed model, is the study of Umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry used by obstetricians to assess the status of a foetus. The purpose...... of the assessment is to improve the foetus' chance of survival by choosing the optimal time of elective delivery. In the study, data related to 139 perinatal deaths were sent to 32 experts who were asked whether the use of Doppler velocimetry might have prevented each death....

  4. Development of pregnant female, hybrid voxel-mathematical models and their application to the dosimetry of applied magnetic and electric fields at 50 Hz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of 2 mm resolution hybrid voxel-mathematical models of the pregnant female. Mathematical models of the developing foetus at 8-, 13-, 26- and 38-weeks of gestation were converted into voxels and combined with the adult female model, NAOMI. This set of models was used to calculate induced current densities and electric fields in the foetus from applied 50 Hz magnetic and electric fields. The influence of foetal tissue conductivities was investigated and implications for electromagnetic field guidelines discussed

  5. Diagnostic ultrasound in pregnancy - ethical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sande, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Foetal diagnostics has changed prenatal checkups beyond the point of no return. The practice of offering ultrasound screening involves great responsibility. Routine ultrasound screening requires a high level of competency. Four main ethical issues are discussed; life or death, malformations, the foetus as patient, and the feotus as donor. Other issues discussed are verifying the diagnosis of death, how to inform the parents, procedures in connection with pathological findings, procedures in connection with stillbirth, and the legal rights of the foetus, as well as three recommendations focussing on the above-mentioned issues. 9 refs

  6. Assessment of CT dose to the fetus and pregnant female patient using patient-specific computational models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Tianwu; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Platon, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    of pregnant patients and the embedded foetus, we developed a methodology for construction of patient-specific voxel-based computational phantoms based on existing standardised hybrid computational pregnant female phantoms. We estimated the maternal absorbed dose and foetal organ dose for 30 pregnant patients...... for assessment of the radiation risks to pregnant patients and the foetus from various CT scanning protocols, thus guiding the decision-making process. KEY POINTS: • In CT examinations, the absorbed dose is non-uniformly distributed within foetal organs. • This work reports, for the first time, estimates...

  7. Placental perfusion - a human alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2006-01-01

    Foetal exposures to environmental and medicinal products have impact on the growth of the foetus (e.g. cigarette smoke) and development of organs (e.g. methylmercury and Thalidomide). Perfusion studies of the human term placenta enable investigation of placental transport of chemical substances...... between the mother and foetus. Dual perfusion of a single cotyledon in the human placenta can contribute to a better understanding of the placental barrier, transport rate and mechanisms of different substances and placental metabolism. The perfusion system has recently been established in Copenhagen...

  8. [Fetus in fetu: report of 2 cases and analysis of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montupet, P; Sinico, M; Soulier, Y; Soulier, A; Mulliez, N; Cotte, C; Gauthier, F; Valayer, J

    1984-01-01

    Foetus in foetu is a very unusual cause of abdominal mass in the infancy. Twenty cases only have been quoted in the literature. Two others cases are added, concerning two girls: a three months infant, second born from a genuine twin pregnancy, and a four weeks newborn whose the mass was discovered before the birth, on routine ultrasonography. In together, the diagnosis was made in operating room, then confirmed by pathologic studies. Literature data are recorded, and the difference between teratomas and foetus in foetu is point. The pathogeny remains obscure. It could result from the inclusion of a parasite twin in his bearer, become during embryologic stage of the delimitation.

  9. Prenatal Radiation exposures at diagnostic procedures: methods to identify exposed pregnant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, H.; Sandborg, M.; Nilsson, J.; Olsson, S.; Hellman, S.; Helmrot, E.; Persliden, J.; Cederlund, T.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge about frequency and doses to embryo/foetus from diagnostic radiology is of great importance both in the sense of estimating the radiation risks but also for optimizing the diagnostic procedures and making decisions regarding alternative procedures. In addition, the pregnant patient has a right to know the magnitude and type of radiation risks expected as a result of foetus exposure. From a risk perspective epidemiological data has shown that the embryo/foetus together with children experience higher radiation sensitivity in terms of induced leukemia and cancer compared to an adult population. Recent estimates give cancer excess lifetime mortality risks for whole body exposures of children and foetus (0-15 y age) of 0.06% up to 0.14% per 10 mSv. In addition to the risk of cancer induction effects of cell killing, e.g. CNS abnormalities, cataracts, malformations, growth retardation, may occur. However, these effects are believed to have a threshold, about 100-200 mGy, and such foetus doses are rarely reached in diagnostic radiology procedures. There are 2 principal situations where foetus exposures may occur in diagnostic radiology; The pregnancy of the patient is known at the time of examination, but due to the medical indications the examination can not be postponed or put forward in time, and there are no suitable alternative non-radiological procedures. The pregnancy of the patient is not known at the time of examination, either due to the fact that the patient is unaware of her pregnancy or the medical personnel failed to obtain this information. The former situation may occur during the first few weeks from conception, whereas the latter situation may cover a greater gestation period. The frequency of foetus exposure is not well documented. In Sweden, there are well-established routines to track down pregnant patients before examinations are being performed. However, there are no general obligations or routines to document the cases either (i) when

  10. Pregnancy and exposure to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topsoba, T.L.; Tapsoba, T.L.; Cisse, R.; Lougue Sorgho, L.C.; Bamouni, Y.A.; Gassama Seck, S.

    2006-01-01

    The sensitivity of the embryo and foetus varies during pregnancy. Recent studies confirm that the principal damage is mental retardation. It is generally admitted that the risk is negligible for a dose 200 mSv.The objective of this work is to provide precise information on the various risks related to the irradiation for the foetus, according to the age of gestation and delivered dose, and the action to be taken in case of accidental irradiation. The medical use of ionizing radiation in pregnant women can only be considered within the framework of precise information. (author)

  11. Structure of Cryptosporidium IMP dehydrogenase bound to an inhibitor with in vivo antiparasitic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngchang; Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Gorla, Suresh Kumar; Gollapalli, Deviprasad R.; Cuny, Gregory D.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Hedstrom, Lizbeth

    2015-04-21

    Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is a promising target for the treatment ofCryptosporidiuminfections. Here, the structure ofC. parvumIMPDH (CpIMPDH) in complex with inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) and P131, an inhibitor within vivoanticryptosporidial activity, is reported. P131 contains two aromatic groups, one of which interacts with the hypoxanthine ring of IMP, while the second interacts with the aromatic ring of a tyrosine in the adjacent subunit. In addition, the amine and NO2moieties bind in hydrated cavities, forming water-mediated hydrogen bonds to the protein. The design of compounds to replace these water molecules is a new strategy for the further optimization ofC. parvuminhibitors for both antiparasitic and antibacterial applications.

  12. Analysis of the bioactive components from different growth stages of Fritillaria taipaiensis P. Y. Li

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Peng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD or a diode array detector (DAD were utilized for the quantitative analysis of 4 alkaloids (peimisine, sipeimine, peimine and peiminine and 9 nucleosides and nucleobases (uracil, uridine, adenosine, adenine, inosine, thymine, cytidine, guanosine and thymidine from Fritillaria taipaiensis P. Y. Li that had been cultivated in the same field for 2–6 years. The content of peimisine, sipeimine, peimine, peiminine, uracil, thymine, adenine and inosine in plants cultivated for 2–4 years was significantly higher than that of plants cultivated for 5–6 years, while the content of cytidine, uridine, guanosine, thymidine and adenosine did not change over this period. This is the first evaluation of variation in the bioactive compounds in F. taipaiensis over its life cycle.

  13. CURRENT STATUS OF PROBLEM: CHILDREN WITH RECURRENT RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Bulgakova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with children suffered from recurrent respiraatory infections. The authors attempted to summarize the literature data on the research findings of inosine pranobex application (Isoa prinosine, Teva, Israel in complex therapy against virulent and inflammatory diseases. Within recent years, many experts emphaasize the persistence of viruses and other pathogenic microorganaisms in the human body, which leads to changes in reactivity and emergence of the chronic diseases. These disorders are especially urgent for sickly children, suffering from respiratory infections, what well justifies the application of bacteriogenic immunomodulaa tors, interferon synthesis inductors, expediency for incorporating immunomodulators with antiviral action into complex therapy along with special vaccination against flu, pneumococcus and etc.Key words: sickly children, acute respiratory infections, immunomodulators, inosine pranobex.

  14. Structural basis of the substrate specificity of Bacillus cereus adenosine phosphorylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessanti, Paola [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-1301 (United States); Università di Sassari, (Italy); Zhang, Yang [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-1301 (United States); Allegrini, Simone [Università di Sassari, (Italy); Tozzi, Maria Grazia [Università di Pisa, (Italy); Sgarrella, Francesco [Università di Sassari, (Italy); Ealick, Steven E., E-mail: see3@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-1301 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Adenosine phosphorylase from B. cereus shows a strong preference for adenosine over other 6-oxopurine nucleosides. Mutation of Asp204 to asparagine reduces the efficiency of adenosine cleavage but does not affect inosine cleavage, effectively reversing the substrate specificity. The structures of D204N complexes explain these observations. Purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic cleavage of the glycosidic bond of purine (2′-deoxy)nucleosides, generating the corresponding free base and (2′-deoxy)ribose 1-phosphate. Two classes of PNPs have been identified: homotrimers specific for 6-oxopurines and homohexamers that accept both 6-oxopurines and 6-aminopurines. Bacillus cereus adenosine phosphorylase (AdoP) is a hexameric PNP; however, it is highly specific for 6-aminopurines. To investigate the structural basis for the unique substrate specificity of AdoP, the active-site mutant D204N was prepared and kinetically characterized and the structures of the wild-type protein and the D204N mutant complexed with adenosine and sulfate or with inosine and sulfate were determined at high resolution (1.2–1.4 Å). AdoP interacts directly with the preferred substrate through a hydrogen-bond donation from the catalytically important residue Asp204 to N7 of the purine base. Comparison with Escherichia coli PNP revealed a more optimal orientation of Asp204 towards N7 of adenosine and a more closed active site. When inosine is bound, two water molecules are interposed between Asp204 and the N7 and O6 atoms of the nucleoside, thus allowing the enzyme to find alternative but less efficient ways to stabilize the transition state. The mutation of Asp204 to asparagine led to a significant decrease in catalytic efficiency for adenosine without affecting the efficiency of inosine cleavage.

  15. Effects of cooking method and final core-temperature on cooking loss, lipid oxidation, nucleotide-related compounds and aroma volatiles of Hanwoo brisket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicky Tri Utama

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study observed the effects of cooking method and final core temperature on cooking loss, lipid oxidation, aroma volatiles, nucleotide-related compounds and aroma volatiles of Hanwoo brisket (deep pectoralis. Methods Deep pectoralis muscles (8.65% of crude fat were obtained from three Hanwoo steer carcasses with 1+ quality grade. Samples were either oven-roasted at 180°C (dry heat or cooked in boiling water (moist heat to final core temperature of 70°C (medium or 77°C (well-done. Results Boiling method reduced more fat but retained more moisture than did the oven roasting method (p<0.001, thus no significant differences were found on cooking loss. However, samples lost more weight as final core temperature increased (p<0.01. Further, total saturated fatty acid increased (p = 0.02 while total monounsaturated fatty acid decreased (p = 0.03 as final core temperature increased. Regardless the method used for cooking, malondialdehyde (p<0.01 and free iron contents (p<0.001 were observed higher in samples cooked to 77°C. Oven roasting retained more inosinic acid, inosine and hypoxanthine in samples than did the boiling method (p<0.001, of which the concentration decreased as final core temperature increased except for hypoxanthine. Samples cooked to 77°C using oven roasting method released more intense aroma than did the others and the aroma pattern was discriminated based on the intensity. Most of aldehydes and pyrazines were more abundant in oven-roasted samples than in boiled samples. Among identified volatiles, hexanal had the highest area unit in both boiled and oven-roasted samples, of which the abundance increased as the final core temperature increased. Conclusion The boiling method extracted inosinic acid and rendered fat from beef brisket, whereas oven roasting intensified aroma derived from aldehydes and pyrazines and prevented the extreme loss of inosinic acid.

  16. DAMP-Mediated Innate Immune Failure and Pneumonia after Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AMP , CD39, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), Trauma Patients, Acute Lung Injury, Pneumonia, Oligonucleotides, CyTOF, Computational Modeling, Signal...experimental and clinical/translational studies to define interactions between purinergic signaling mediators (ATP, AMP , Ado, inosine) with oxygen, oxidative...genetic deletion (Figure 1A) • Increase in ATP and ADP hydrolysis and decrease in AMP hydrolysis in peritoneal cells from CLP septic mice (Figure 1B

  17. Diagnosis of immunodeficiency caused by a purine nucleoside phosphorylase defect by using tandem mass spectrometry on dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Marca, Giancarlo; Canessa, Clementina; Giocaliere, Elisa; Romano, Francesca; Malvagia, Sabrina; Funghini, Silvia; Moriondo, Maria; Valleriani, Claudia; Lippi, Francesca; Ombrone, Daniela; Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Speckmann, Carsten; Borte, Stephan; Brodszki, Nicholas; Gennery, Andrew R; Weinacht, Katja; Celmeli, Fatih; Pagel, Julia; de Martino, Maurizio; Guerrini, Renzo; Wittkowski, Helmut; Santisteban, Ines; Bali, Pawan; Ikinciogullari, Aydan; Hershfield, Michael; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Resti, Massimo; Azzari, Chiara

    2014-07-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency is a rare form of autosomal recessive combined primary immunodeficiency caused by a enzyme defect leading to the accumulation of inosine, 2'-deoxy-inosine (dIno), guanosine, and 2'-deoxy-guanosine (dGuo) in all cells, especially lymphocytes. Treatments are available and curative for PNP deficiency, but their efficacy depends on the early approach. PNP-combined immunodeficiency complies with the criteria for inclusion in a newborn screening program. This study evaluate whether mass spectrometry can identify metabolite abnormalities in dried blood spots (DBSs) from affected patients, with the final goal of individuating the disease at birth during routine newborn screening. DBS samples from 9 patients with genetically confirmed PNP-combined immunodeficiency, 10,000 DBS samples from healthy newborns, and 240 DBSs from healthy donors of different age ranges were examined. Inosine, dIno, guanosine, and dGuo were tested by using tandem mass spectrometry (TMS). T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) and kappa-deleting recombination excision circle (KREC) levels were evaluated by using quantitative RT-PCR only for the 2 patients (patients 8 and 9) whose neonatal DBSs were available. Mean levels of guanosine, inosine, dGuo, and dIno were 4.4, 133.3, 3.6, and 3.8 μmol/L, respectively, in affected patients. No indeterminate or false-positive results were found. In patient 8 TREC levels were borderline and KREC levels were abnormal; in patient 9 TRECs were undetectable, whereas KREC levels were normal. TMS is a valid method for diagnosis of PNP deficiency on DBSs of affected patients at a negligible cost. TMS identifies newborns with PNP deficiency, whereas TREC or KREC measurement alone can fail. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of guanosine kinase in the utilization of guanosine for nucleotide synthesis in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Nygaard, Per

    1989-01-01

    Using purine auxotrophic strains of Escherichia coli with additional genetic lesions in the pathways of interconversion and salvage of purine compounds, we demonstrated the in vivo function of guanosine kinase and inosine kinase. Mutants with increased ability to utilize guanosine were isolated b...... a purF, a purL or a purM mutation. A revised map location of the gsk gene is presented and the gene order established as proC-acrA-apt-adk-gsk-purE....

  19. Protective effect of L-Cysteine upon leukopenic syndrome due to radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jingu, K; Matsuura, K [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Bussaka, Y

    1981-08-01

    L-Cysteine, glutathione, inosine, and cepharanthin are the agents which have been widely used to prevent and treat the leukopenic syndrome following radiotherapy. Among these, the efficacy of inosine has been demonstrated in a double-blind comparative study. A double-blind controlled study of L-Cysteine compared to inosine and lactose-placebo was performed. Patients designated to receive radiotherapy for cancer of the lung, breast and uterine cervix were randomly allocated to 3 groups; namely, those to receive L-Cysteine 480 mg TID (CG group), inosine 1,800 mg TID (IN group) and placebo capsules (PL group) for 6 to 7 weeks. Among 159 cases, 152 were subjected to statistical analyses, and the latter consisted of 54 CG, 52 IN and 46 PL subjects. Any discrepancies among these 3 groups concerning sex, age, disease, WBC count, radiation procedure, or combined use of carcinostatics were negligible. According to the life-table analysis, the cumulative rates for the 3 groups were compared with respect to maintenance of WBC counts higher than 4,000/mm/sup 3/. Maintenance was best in the CG group, intermediate in the IN, and poorest in the PL group, the difference between CG and PL being statistically significant at the 5% level. Similar results were obtained in separate analyses of strata with and without concomitant carcinostatics. Furthermore, nearly the same results were obtained as those in the life-table analyses when data concerning efficacy and clinical usefulness as judged by physicians were analyzed. The present study indicates that the oral administration of L-Cysteine is safe and effective in preventing and treating leukopenic complications associated with radiotherapy.

  20. Inhibition by nucleosides of glucose-transport activity in human erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, S M

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of nucleosides with the glucose carrier of human erythrocytes was examined by studying the effect of nucleosides on reversible cytochalasin B-binding activity and glucose transport. Adenosine, inosine and thymidine were more potent inhibitors of cytochalasin B binding to human erythrocyte membranes than was D-glucose [IC50 (concentration causing 50% inhibition) values of 10, 24, 28 and 38 mM respectively]. Moreover, low concentrations of thymidine and adenosine inhibited D-glu...

  1. Parasitological surveillance in a rat (Rattus norvegicus) colony in São Paulo Zoo animal house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Carolina Romeiro Fernandes; Gonzalez, Irys Hany Lima; Favoretto, Samantha Mesquita; Ramos, Patrícia Locosque

    Rattus norvegicus (Mammalia: Rodentia) is a widespread and synanthropic rodent, broadly used in medical experiments. It can also be used for feeding captive animals in zoos. Parasitological surveys are important to guarantee the health of both the animals and the staff responsible for their management. The aim of this study was to identify intestinal parasites of Rattus norvegicus offered as food to captive animals from São Paulo Zoo, and demonstrate the importance of sanitary hurdling, disease control and biosecurity. The identified protozoan parasites were Eimeria sp., Entamoeba sp., Spironucleus sp., Giardia sp., Tritrichomonas sp., Chilomastix sp., unidentified cysts and non-sporulated coccidians oocysts (Isospora/Eimeria). The following helminths were found: Syphacia muris, Rodentolepis nana and Aspiculuris tetraptera.

  2. Prevalência de ecto e endoparasitas em camundongos e ratos criados em biotério

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cecília R. Vieira Bressan

    1997-06-01

    observed in the mice and rats from conventional colonies, but not in animals from the control colony. Mild alopecia and bristly hairs were detected in all animals from the evaluated colonies. Ectoparasites such as Myobia musculi, Myocoptes musculinus, Radfordia affinis, R. ensifera and Poliplax spinulosa were identified in the conventional colonies, in multiple and single infestations. Myobia musculi is described for the first time in rats reared in breeding colonies. Endoparasites such as Hymenolepisnana, Syphacia sp, Aspiculuris tetraptera, Tritrichomonas muris, Spironucleusmuris, Giardia muris, and Eimeria sp were observed in the conventional colonies. However, through necropsy results, in the control colony Syphacia sp and Aspiculuris tetraptera were the only parasites found. Necropsy confirmed the indication of the anal swab method for detection of Syphacia sp rather than the Willis method, and revealed the degree of infection by intestinal protozoa and Syphacia sp. H. nana and Aspiculuris tetraptera were efficiently detected by Willis method.

  3. Sanitary profile in mice and rat colonies in laboratory animal houses in Minas Gerais: I - Endo and ectoparasites Perfil sanitário de colônias de camundongos e ratos de biotérios de Minas Gerais: I - Endo e ectoparasitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Bicalho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The sanitary conditions of 13 animal houses in nine public institutions in Minas Gerais, and the presence of endo and ectoparasites of mice and rats colonies kept in these facilities were evaluated. Data about barriers to prevent the transmission of diseases and a program of sanitary monitoring were obtained through a questionnaire and local visit. Parasitological methods were performed for diagnosing mite, lice, helminthes, and protozoa parasites in 344 mice and 111 rats. Data have shown that the majority of the animal houses had neither proper physical environment nor protection barriers to prevent the transmission of infections. Parasitological results have shown that only one animal house (7.7% had parasite free animals, whereas the others have presented infected animals and the prevalences of parasites in the mice colonies were: Myobia musculi (23.1%; Myocoptes musculinus (38.5%; Radfordia affinis (15.4%; Syphacia obvelata (92.3%; Aspiculuris tetraptera (23.1%; Hymenolepis nana (15.4%; Spironucleus muris (46.2%; Giardia muris (46.2%; Tritrichomonas muris (53.8%; Trichomonas minuta (61.5%; Hexamastix muris (7.7%; and Entamoeba muris (84.6%. As for the rat colonies, the prevalences were: Poliplax spinulosa (8.1%; Syphacia muris (46.2%; Trichosomoides crassicauda (28.6%; Spironucleus muris (85.7%; Tritrichomonas muris (85.7%; Trichomonas minuta (85.7%; Hexamastix muris (14.3% and Entamoeba muris (85.7%.Avaliaram-se as condições sanitárias de 13 biotérios de nove instituições públicas do estado de Minas Gerais, bem como a presença de endo e ectoparasitos nos camundongos e ratos criados nesses biotérios. Os dados sobre barreiras contra infecções e sobre o programa de monitoramento sanitário dos animais foram obtidos por meio de um questionário e de visitas aos biotérios. Métodos parasitológicos foram utilizados para o diagnóstico de ácaros, piolhos, helmintos e protozoários em 344 camundongos e 111 ratos. A maioria dos biot

  4. The effects of maternal diet and breastfeeding on children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increase in the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases highlights the need for devising effective prevention strategies. Several studies have investigated the preventive effect of maternal avoidance of highly allergenic foods, such as cow's milk, eggs, and nuts, during pregnancy to protect the foetus from the effect of ...

  5. Transplacental transmission of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 in ewes in early and mid gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, van der M.; Timmermans, M.; Moulin, V.; Vonk Noordegraaf, C.; Vrijenhoek, M.; Debyser, I.; Smit, de A.J.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) originating from the 2006 European outbreak to cross the ovine placenta during early and mid gestation was investigated in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, 16 ewes were infected with BTV-8 at 70–75 days gestation. The foetuses were

  6. Schizamniogenesis in the rusty bat, Pipistrellus rusticus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schizamniogenesis in the rusty bat,. Pipistrellus rusticus. M. van der Merwe. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria,. 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received 20 September 1993; accepled 3 May 1994. Rusty bats are seasonally mono estrous, carrying a single foetus in each of the two uterine horns.

  7. Amniogenesis in the African yellow bat, Scotophilus dinganii | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African yellow house bat, Scotophilus dinganii, was found to be seasonally monestrus, carrying a single foetus in each of the two uterine horns of the bicornuate uterus. Implantation was superficial, with amniogenesis initiated early during embryogenesis. The amnion in S. dinganii was a schizamnion, and it is deduced ...

  8. Schizamniogenesis in the rusty bat, Pipistrellus rusticus | van der ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rusty bats are seasonally monoestrous, carrying a single foetus in each of the two uterine horns. Implantation is superficial with amniogenesis initiated very early during embryogenesis. Contrary to most other bat species where the amnion is formed by folding, it is formed by cavitation in the rusty bat.

  9. Amniogenesis in Schreiber's long-fingered bat Miniopterus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schreiber's long-fingered bat, Miniopterus schreibersii natalensis is seasonally monoestrous, carrying a single foetus in the right uterine horn. Implantation is superficial, the amnion being a pleuramnion. Lateral folds, originating from the ends of the caudal and cephalic folds, are the main contributors in the formation of the ...

  10. The Effects of Palm wine on the Morphometry and Femur Histology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Palm-wine as an alcoholic beverage plays an important role in the social life of many people in Nigeria especially those in the southern part of the country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible teratogenic effects of palm wine on wistar rat foetuses. Methodology: Female rats were caged with mature ...

  11. An African Thought on the Ethics of Human Foetal Life | Ebeh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an African thought on the ethics of human foetal life and this can be discussed against the backdrop of the African concept of life, person and community. In the process, it examines the fact of humanity and personhood of the human foetus and the role of the community in the determinant of humanity and ...

  12. The Impact of Maternal Congenital Heart Disease on Pregnancy Outcomes in Malta – A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryanne Caruana

    2017-01-01

    Despite the potential adverse effects of maternal CHD on mother and foetus, most pregnancies are uncomplicated and outcomes comparable to those in women without heart disease, particularly if baseline clinical status is good. Based on our findings, it is being proposed that prospective mothers be counselled about the possibility of having smaller infants.

  13. Plutonium in domestic animals and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, C.H.; Kane, P.; Thorne, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter deals with plutonium adsorption, retention and translocation rates in lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, liver and in body tissues of domestic animals and man. Urinary and faecal excretion of plutonium is discussed. Transfer rates to eggs, milk, foetus and newborn are considered. Of all these subjects, data are presented extracted from literature and cast in tables

  14. TropJrnal Vol 29 No 2 PDF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Olusoji

    interrogation, the fact that the foetus was in a blind uterine horn was missed. This can be ... Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). ... blood pressure was 100/ 70 mmHg; Heart sounds I and II ... these cases is a congenital mullerian abnormality.

  15. Coumarins during pregnancy: long-term effects on growth and development of school-age children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, J.; van Driel, D.; Heymans, H. S.; Rosendaal, F. R.; Geven-Boere, L. M.; Smrkovsky, M.; Touwen, B. C.; Sauer, P. J.; Van der Veer, E.

    2001-01-01

    Anticoagulation during pregnancy is complicated because of potential risks for mother and foetus. Unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin is used for most anticoagulant indications. Its efficacy, however, in pregnant women with prosthetic heart valves is questioned, therefore coumarins are

  16. Coumarins during Pregnancy: Long-term Effects on Growth and Development of School-age Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, J; Van Driel, D; Heymans, HSA; Rosendaal, FR; Geven-Boere, LM; Smrkovsky, M; Touwen, BCL; Sauer, PJJ; Van der Veer, E

    Anticoagulation during pregnancy is complicated because of potential risks for mother and foetus. Unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin is used for most anticoagulant indications. Its efficacy, however, in pregnant women with prosthetic heart valves is questioned, therefore coumarins are

  17. PREMATURE RUPTURE OF THE MEMBRANES*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In patients presenting with premature rupture of the membranes there are two factors which influence the foetal morbidity and mortality. These factors are prema- turity and intra-uterine infection. The purpose of this analysis was to elucidate which factor carried the greater risk to the foetus. Recently there has been a spate of.

  18. TropJrnal Vol 32 No 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Olusoji

    2002-07-11

    Jul 11, 2002 ... 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, State Specialist Hospital, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria ... hospitals. Management of diabetic pregnancy, intrapartum management of foetuses presenting by breech, and vaginal birth after caesarean section will .... between categorical variables in the contingency.

  19. Importance of zinc for foetal and post-natal development in swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palludan, B.; Wegger, I.

    1976-01-01

    Maternal zinc deficiency during the third trimester led to redeced zinc concentration in foetal plasma, liver, pancreas and bone. Zinc deposition in foetuses was an exponential function of time, the relative rate being 5.8 and 3.0% daily in normal and deficient foetuses respectively. Distribution of orally administered 65 Zn between maternal and foetal organs was studied. The percentage of absorbed 65 Zn transferred to the foeto-placental unit tended to be highest in zinc-deficient gilts. The greater the liver zinc pool the more 65 Zn accumulated in liver and the less in most other organs in both gilts and foetuses. The gestation period was prolonged and parturition impaired in gilts depleted of zinc late in pregnancy. Persistent loss of umbilical blood was seen and viability of the offspring was poor. However, clinical symptoms and morphological malformations were few. Abnormal ossification occurred as a result of the zinc deficiency. The nature of the changes depended on the period of gestation during which the gilts were depleted of zinc. Absorption of 65 Zn in newborn pigs was unaffected by the zinc status, and the same pattern of distribution among organs as in foetuses was seen. Litter size and weight were not influenced by maternal zinc depletion, and growth of surviving piglets was normal. Zinc stores were low in the newborn, but even when zinc depletion of the mother was continued during lactation, clinical symptoms of zinc deficiency in the piglets were not seen until shortly before weaning. (author)

  20. Laterality of foetal self-touch in relation to maternal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissland, Nadja; Aydin, Ezra; Francis, Brian; Exley, Kendra

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal observational study investigated whether foetuses change their hand preference with gestational age, and also examined the effects of maternal stress on lateralized foetal self-touch. Following ethical approval, fifteen healthy foetuses (eight girls and seven boys) were scanned four times from 24 to 36 weeks gestation. Self-touch behaviours which resulted in a touch of the foetal face/head were coded in 60 scans for 10 min and analysed in terms of frequency of the foetuses using left and right hands to touch their face. The joint effects of foetal age, stress and sex on laterality were assessed. We modelled the proportion of right self-touches for each foetal scan using a generalized linear mixed model, taking account of the repeated measures design. There was substantial variability in hand preference between foetuses. However, there was no significant increase in the proportion of right-handed touches with foetal age. No sex differences in handedness were identified. However, maternally reported stress level was significantly positively related to foetal left-handed self-touches (odds ratio 0.915; p < .0001). This longitudinal study provides important new insights into the effect of recent maternal stress on foetal predominant hand use during self-touch.

  1. work pdf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MIN

    Misoprostol is one of the most important drugs in obstetric practice today. ... adverse effects on the pregnant uterus and foetus, the use of this drug ... The aim of this update is to review the pharmacokinetics and the physiology of .... 4 hours after vaginal administration. .... uterus can be emptied early in the second trimester.

  2. Placenta as a source of hematopoietic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine); C. Robin (Catherine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe placenta is a large, highly vascularised hematopoietic tissue that functions during the embryonic and foetal development of eutherian mammals. Although recognised as the interface tissue important in the exchange of oxygen, nutrients and waste products between the foetus and mother,

  3. De samenhang tussen prenatale blootstelling aan de Hongerwinter en medische bevindingen op lange termijn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roseboom, T. J.; van der Meulen, J. H.; Ravelli, A. C.; Bleker, O. P.

    2000-01-01

    The 'foetal origins' hypothesis (Barker hypothesis) proposes that undernutrition of the foetus during critical periods of development increases the risk of coronary heart disease in later life. The Dutch famine caused by the second World War in the winter of 1944--although a historical

  4. Novel use of ear sockets as points of traction in partial foetotomy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in anterior longitudinal presentation and dorso-sacral positions. The necks and heads were flexed laterally and dorsally. Dystocia of foetal causes due to postural abnormalities (lateral and dorsal flexion of the neck) were diagnosed. Amputations of fore-limbs of the foetuses at the point of the shoulders using ThygesenM® ...

  5. Delivery of placenta before baby in ruptured uterus | Ameh | Annals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An unusual case of ruptured uterus characterized by spontaneous delivery of the placenta while the foetus is retained in the abdomen is presented. The management and prevention of ruptured uterus in Sub- Saharan Africa is discussed. Key Words: Delivery of placenta, ruptured uterus. Annals of African Medicine Vol.3(3) ...

  6. Congenital unilateral hydrocele

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    Abstract. Foetal hydrocoele is a condition diagnosed in utero in male foetus. It is characterised by a half-moon fluid image around the testis. We describe a case of ultrasound diagnosis of hydrocele in a woman at 35 weeks of gestation. Diagnosis was confirmed at birth, distinguishing this from the transient cases usually.

  7. Congenital unilateral hydrocele: a sonographic finding | Ukwenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foetal hydrocoele is a condition diagnosed in utero in male foetus. It is characterised by a half-moon fluid image around the testis. We describe a case of ultrasound diagnosis of hydrocele in a woman at 35 weeks of gestation. Diagnosis was confirmed at birth, distinguishing this from the transient cases usually encountered.

  8. Apple-peel atresia presenting as foetal intestinal obstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apple-peel atresia or Type 3 jejuno-ileal atresia (JIA) is an uncommon cause of foetal intestinal obstruction. Bowel obstruction in the foetus is diagnosed on the prenatal ultrasonography only in 50% cases. We report a case in which foetal intestinal obstruction was diagnosed on prenatal ultrasonography. The child showed ...

  9. Monitoring and treatment of anti-D in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettelheim, D.; Panzer, S.; Reesink, H. W.; Csapo, B.; Pessoa, C.; Guerra, F.; Wendel, S.; Calda, P.; Sprogøe, U.; Dziegiel, M.; Aitokallio-Tallberg, A.; Koskinen, S.; Kuosmanen, M.; Legler, T. J.; Stein, W.; Villa, S.; Villa, M. A.; Trespidi, L.; Acaia, B.; Vandenbussche, F. P. H. A.; Brand, A.; de Haas, M.; Kanhai, H. H. H.; Gounder, D.; Flanagan, P.; Donegan, R.; Parry, E.; Sefonte, C.; Skulstad, S. M.; Hervig, T.; Flesland, Ø; Zupańska, B.; Uhrynowska, M.; Lapaire, O.; Zhong, X. Y.; Holzgreve, W.

    2010-01-01

    Prophylactic anti-D is a very safe and effective therapy for the suppression of anti-D immunization and thus prevention of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn. However, migration from countries with low health standards and substantial cuts in public health expenses have increased the

  10. Hodgkin's disease in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szelc, S.; Szeliga, E.

    1993-01-01

    Pregnancy outcome and its influence on the effect of the MOPP chemotherapy for 30 patients with Hodgkin's disease were analyzed. During the first 6 months after completing the treatment 305 of pregnancies were interrupted. Pregnancy during complete remission of Hodgkin's disease after combined treatment does not increase the risk of relapse and is not a risk to delivery and foetus. (author)

  11. Congenital malformations in mice induced by addiction to alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the teratogenic effect of either alcohol alone, cocaine alone, or a combination of both alcohol and cocaine on mice foetuses. Design: Eighty pregnant mice were divided into four equal groups. In the first (alcohol) group, the pregnant females were given absolute ethanol at 2.5gm/100 gm twice daily by ...

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of malaria amongst pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria during pregnancy poses a substantial risk to mother and foetus especially in sub Saharan Africa. The study was therefore carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude and home based practices towards malaria among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Aba South Local Government Area, Abia State.

  13. Uterine radiation dose from open sources: The potential for underestimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, P.H.; Klijn, J.G.M.; Pillay, M.; Bontebal, M.; Schoenfeld, D.H.W.

    1990-01-01

    Recent observations on the biodistribution of a therapeutic dose of sodium iodide I 131 in a patient with an unsuspected early pregnancy lead us to suspect that current dose estimates with respect to uterine exposure (ARSAC 1988) may seriously underestimate the actual exposure of the developing foetus. (orig.)

  14. Peculiarities of pregnancy results and parturitions of women with iron deficiency anemia in the Semipalatinsk region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajlyubaeva, G.Zh.; Al'seitova, M.Zh.; Ibragimova, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of research is study of factor influence on the frequency and the heaviness of iron deficiency anemia during natal, possibilities of woman rehabilitation with anemia in the post-natal period, peculiarities of pregnancy course, parturition results for both a mother and foetus by iron deficiency anemia

  15. Fosterreduktion--en retrospektiv opgørelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Mette Heinel; Henriksen, Stine Dam; Bønnelykke, Astrid Julie

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Foetal reduction is a procedure by which one or more foetuses in a multi-foetal pregnancy are terminated selectively by an intracardial injection of potassium chloride. There is no Danish study regarding the outcomes after this procedure. The purpose of this study was to calculate...

  16. Conservative Management Of Third Trimester Cervical Spinal Cord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinal cord injury, though an important cause of morbidity appears to be uncommon in pregnant women or perhaps, has not been accurately documented among them. Superimposed on the many impairments resulting from spinal cord injury is the presence of the foetus in the womb, which in itself normally brings about ...

  17. Prevalence of falciparum malaria amongst pregnant women in Aba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria during pregnancy poses a substantial risk to mother and foetus especially an infection with Plasmodium falciparum. This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of falciparum malaria among pregnant women in Aba South Local Government Area, Abia State, south-east Nigeria. Blood samples from 432 ...

  18. Fetal and postnatal development of T-lymphocyte subpopulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matalová, Eva; Kovářů, F.; Kovářů, H.; Fišerová, Anna; Zelníčková, P.; Landa, L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 4 (2002), s. 279-282 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/01/0850; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : prenatal ontogenesis * pig foetuses * lymphatic organs Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.370, year: 2002

  19. Recommendations for pregnancies in patients with crigler-najjar syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, J.H.; Sinaasappel, M.; Lotgering, F.K.; Langendonk, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    During pregnancy, the developing foetus in mothers with Crigler-Najjar type 1 and 2 is exposed to raised levels of unconjugated bilirubin, with the risk of neurotoxicity. We describe two pregnancies in a patient with Crigler-Najjar type 2, who was carefully monitored prior to and during pregnancy

  20. Who's the patient? : ethics in and around maternal-fetal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, Helena Catarina Misarela Loureiro

    2012-01-01

    Het complex van chirurgische handelingen en andere prenatale interventies die reeds voor de geboorte van de foetus worden uitgevoerd wordt ook wel Materno-Foetale chirurgie genoemd (MFS). Doel van deze handelingen is om levensbedreigende of met een ernstige handicap gepaard gaande afwijkingen reeds

  1. delayed interval delivery in twin pregnancy without cerclage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-11-11

    Nov 11, 2011 ... female infant weighing 1300g at twenty nine and a half weeks gestation. After the loss of the first foetus, delayed delivery in ... (male) in cephalic presentation, and a viable second twin. (female) also in cephalic presentation (Figure 1). ... augmentation of labor with oxytocin drip was done. A female neonate ...

  2. Molecular genetics of preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jebbink, Jiska; Wolters, Astrid; Fernando, Febilla; Afink, Gijs; van der Post, Joris; Ris-Stalpers, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is characterised by new onset hypertension and proteinuria and is a major obstetrical problem for both mother and foetus. Haemolysis elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome is an obstetrical emergency and most cases occur in the presence of preeclampsia. Preeclampsia

  3. Anaemia in pregnancy: a survey of pregnant women in Abeokuta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anaemia in pregnancy is a common problem in most developing countries and a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in malaria endemic areas. In pregnancy, anaemia has a significant impact on the health of the foetus as well as that of the mother. 20% of maternal deaths in Africa have been ...

  4. Acquisition of a Nanoindenter for Studying Mechanical Properties of Nanomaterials, Supporting Future Research in Robotics and Enhancing Research-Related Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-14

    extracted from citrus fruit was dried down on PVDF membrane and subsequently incubated, after blocking, with the suspension of the purified ivy...in the PI’s lab, scans were conducted to image T. foetus, and determine the position of the flagella. As shown in Fig. 4A, fixation and dehydration

  5. Delayed interval delivery in twin pregnancy without cerclage: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After the loss of the first foetus, delayed delivery in multiple pregnancies can be successful in selected cases as exemplified by the case presentation. In well prepared perinatal centers, with physically and psychologically balanced patients who are well informed about the risks and benefits of the procedure, delayed interval ...

  6. Fair Inclusion of Pregnant Women in Clinical Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zande, I.S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has always been a reluctance to include pregnant women in clinical research, due to a fear of harm to the foetus. At the same time, there is a need for evidence-based information on medications and treatments for pregnant women who are or become ill during their pregnancy, which

  7. Software for the estimation of foetal radiation dose to patients and staff in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osei, E K [Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto ON M5G 2M9 (Canada); Darko, J B [Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto ON M5G 2M9 (Canada); Faulkner, K [Quality Assurance Centre, Newcastle General Hospital, Westgate Road, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE4 6BE (United Kingdom); Kotre, C J [Regional Medical Physics Department, Newcastle General Hospital, Westgate Road, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE4 6BE (United Kingdom)

    2003-06-01

    Occasionally, it is clinically necessary to perform a radiological examination(s) on a woman who is known to be pregnant or an examination is performed on a woman who subsequently discovers that she was pregnant at the time. In radiological examinations, especially of the lower abdomen and pelvis area, the foetus is directly irradiated. It is therefore important to be able to determine the absorbed dose to the foetus in diagnostic radiology for pregnant patients as well as the foetal dose from occupational exposure of the pregnant worker. The determination of the absorbed dose to the unborn child in diagnostic radiology is of interest as a basis for risk estimates from medical exposure of the pregnant patient and occupational exposure of the pregnant worker. In this paper we describe a simple computer program, FetDose, which calculates the dose to the foetus from both medical and occupational exposures of the pregnant woman. It also calculates the risks of in utero exposure, compares calculated doses with published data in the literature and provides information on the natural spontaneous risks. The program will be a useful tool for the medical and paramedical personnel who are involved with foetal dose (and hence risks) calculations and counselling of pregnant women who may be concerned about in utero exposure of their foetuses.

  8. Evo-Devo of the Human Vertebral Column: On Homeotic Transformations, Pathologies and Prenatal Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Broek, C.M.A.; Bakker, A.J.; Varela-Lasheras, I.; Bugiani, M.; Van Dongen, S.; Galis, F.

    2012-01-01

    Homeotic transformations of vertebrae are particularly common in humans and tend to come associated with malformations in a wide variety of organ systems. In a dataset of 1,389 deceased human foetuses and infants a majority had cervical ribs and approximately half of these individuals also had

  9. Echoscopische screening op het syndroom van Down vroeg in de zwangerschap: de nekplooimeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, M. A.; Pajkrt, E.; Bilardo, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    Screening for Down's syndrome (DS) in the Netherlands is based on maternal age. Women aged 36 years or above are offered amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling to determine if the foetus has Down's syndrome or other chromosomal abnormalities. Disadvantages of this method are a low detection rate

  10. Maternal hypothyroxinemia and effects on cognitive functioning in childhood : How and why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, J.; Ghassabian, A.; Peeters, R.P.; Tiemeier, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to maternal hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy, which is characterized by low free T4 but normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, can negatively affect the foetus. This review provides an overview of present findings concerning the association between maternal hypothyroxinemia

  11. Fetal and neonatal environment : effects on bile acid and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, Hester van

    2012-01-01

    Ondervoeding van de foetus kan het risico op chronische aandoeningen als diabetes, obesitas, hart- en vaatziekten en een verstoorde vetstofwisseling verhogen. Dit verband tussen prenatale voeding en ontwikkeling van ziekten op latere leeftijd wordt ook wel ‘metabolic programming’ genoemd. Inzicht in

  12. Fetal programming in pregnancy-associated disorders : Studies in novel preclinical models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojanovska, Violeta

    2018-01-01

    Het prenatale leven wordt gekenmerkt door snelle groei en ontwikkeling van de foetus. Tijdens deze periode worden organen gevormd en de rijping van alle organen en weefsels gaat samen met een snelle groei van het lichaam. Dit is een zeer kritische periode in het mensenleven, omdat de omgeving

  13. Breathing Patterns In The Newborn And Related Cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transition from foetal to neonatal life is a dramatic one; it demands considerable and effective physiological alteration in the newborn to ensure survival. Simultaneously cardio-respiratory adjustments are initiated and breathing maintained on a continuous basis. The basic movements in the human foetus being about 8 ...

  14. Streptococcus phocae infections associated with starvation in Cape fur seals : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Henton

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Mortalities and abortions associated with starvation occurred at Cape Cross, Namibia, in Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus. Affected seals showed lethargy and emaciation, and the most common pathological signs were those of a respiratory infection, both in adults and offspring. Streptococcus phocae was isolated from adult seals, a cub and aborted foetuses.

  15. Morphogenesis of Mammary Glands in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Challana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research was elucidated on the morphogenesis of mammary gland of buffalo during prenatal development. Total of 16 foetuses ranging from 1.2 cm (34 days to 108 cm CVRL (curved crown rump length (317 days were used for study. The study revealed that mammary line was first observed at 1.2 cm CVRL (34 days, mammary hillock at 1.7 cm (37 days, and mammary bud at 2.6 cm CVRL (41 days foetuses. Epidermal cone was found at 6.7 cm CVRL (58 days whereas primary and secondary ducts were observed at 7.4 cm CVRL (62 days and 15 cm CVRL (96 days, respectively. Connective tissue whorls were reported at 18.2 cm CVRL (110 days and internal elastic lamina and muscle layers at 24.1 cm CVRL (129 days. Lobules were observed at 29.3 cm CVRL (140 days, rosette of furstenberg at 39.5 cm CVRL (163 days, and keratin plug at 45.5 cm CVRL (176 days foetus. Primordia of sweat and sebaceous glands around hair follicle were seen at 21.2 cm CVRL (122 days of foetal life. Differentiation of all the skin layers along with cornification was observed at 69 cm (229 days in group III foetuses.

  16. Studies on long-lasting consequences of prenatal exposure to anticonvulsant drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessens, A. B.; Boer, K.; Koppe, J. G.; van de Poll, N. E.; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T.

    1994-01-01

    Based on neonatal examination at birth, it has been estimated that epileptic women have a 2-3 times greater risk of giving birth to an infant with congenital anomalies. But anticonvulsant drugs may also have more subtle influences on the developing foetus which are not visible at birth but only

  17. Een pasgeborene met een ovariumcyste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baden, David N.; de Beer, Sjoerd A.; Heij, Hugo A.

    2012-01-01

    An ovarian cyst is one of the most common types of cysts found in neonates. As a result of the introduction of the 20-week screening ultrasound, the detection of ovarian cysts will likely increase. An abdominal cyst was detected by ultrasound in a female foetus in her 20th gestational week. This

  18. Long-term results in syndromic craniosynostosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. de Jong (Tim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSkull sutures are fibrous joints between the different bones of the skull. In adult life they have no function but in the foetus they allow the bones to move during the birth process and are involved in skull growth till the age of six years. After the age of six years skull growth takes

  19. Prenatal Experiences of Containment in the Light of Bion's Model of Container/Contained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiello, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the idea of possible proto-experiences of the prenatal child in the context of Bion's model of container/contained. The physical configuration of the embryo/foetus contained in the maternal uterus represents the starting point for an enquiry into the unborn child's possible experiences of its state of being contained in a…

  20. Awobajo et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2013) 10(2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    rats in each group was sacrificed on day nineteen of pregnancy and the placenta and foetus were removed and weighed. The ... Key words: Hybanthus enneaspermus extract; Haematology; Pregnancy; Birth-weight; Thyroid hormones; Uterine contraction. ..... Iodine deficiency and brain development in the first half.

  1. [Leonardo da Vinci and his studies on the human fetus and the placenta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, L; Fanos, V

    2000-01-01

    To review the accuracy of Leonardo's anatomical studies of the female external genitalia and the foetus, particularly those concerning the umbilical cord with its blood vessels. The anatomical drawings of Leonardo da Vinci which are now stored in the Windors Castle near London were reviewed and the accuracy of the details of the genital apparatus and foetus was evaluated. A written comment characterizes many of his drawings. He described accurately the position of the uterine blood vessels and the relationship between the pelvic organs. However his drawing and description of the female external genitalia and human placenta was incorrect because his understanding of it was inadequate. He believed that the human placenta had cotyledons like that of the ungulate uterus (drown side A of sheet 19). At the top of that sheet some Leonardo's details of the anatomic relationship are shown. In our opinion, Leonardo's misunderstanding is probably because he was only able to perform one anatomical dissection of a pregnant women and foetus and therefore his knowledge was limited. The resulting documentation of the pregnant women and foetus was therefore heavily supplemented with his enormous experience in animal anatomy.

  2. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal measles antibodies (MMA) are actively transferred through the placenta from mother to foetus. A relationship could exist between MMA of mother-infant pairs and maternal nutritional indicator (haemoglobin). Objectives: This study reviewed the effects of maternal haemoglobin (Hb) on MMA of ...

  3. Peer education: the effects on knowledge of pregnancy related malaria and preventive practices in women of reproductive age in Edo State, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mens, Petra F.; Scheelbeek, Pauline Fd; Al Atabbi, Hind; Enato, Ehijie Fo

    2011-01-01

    There is limited uptake of measures to prevent malaria by pregnant women in Nigeria which is often related to the lack of knowledge on Malaria in Pregnancy (MIP) and its effects on mother and foetus. This study, explored peer to peer education as a tool in raising knowledge of MIP among women of

  4. Peer education: The effects on knowledge of pregnancy related malaria and preventive practices in women of reproductive age in Edo State, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mens, P.F.; Scheelbeek, P.F.D.; Al Atabbi, H.; Enato, E.F.O.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is limited uptake of measures to prevent malaria by pregnant women in Nigeria which is often related to the lack of knowledge on Malaria in Pregnancy (MIP) and its effects on mother and foetus. This study, explored peer to peer education as a tool in raising knowledge of MIP among

  5. SOCIO-CULTURAL ATTITUDES OF МGBУMМNА TRIBE TOWARD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leke

    2017-02-02

    Feb 2, 2017 ... destruction of life or internal expulsion of an unborn child (abortion) seems to have become .... the foetus not to develop to a mature stage and an action to remove .... order to facilitate the movement of farm inputs and produce.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of dimethoxy-6,7 (parachlorobenzyl) -4 isoquinolin 14C in normal an pregnant mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servin, A.; Wicek, D.; Fazela, S.; Renault, H.; Jacquot, C.; Lussiana, J.P.; Viel, C.

    1983-01-01

    The dimethoxy-6,7 (parachlorobenzyl) -4 isoquinolin 14 C (PV2), spasmolitic and cerebral and peripheral vasodilator, is rapidly distributed throughout the mouse's organism following intravenous administration. In the pregnant mouse, its general distribution is not modified and its passage across the placental barrier, observed by autoradiography is rapid and similar to that observed in the brain. Following oral administration, the quantitative determination of the PV2 metabolites together and of selectively extracted unchanged PV2 has allowed us to determine the pharmacokinetics in the blood, liver, brain and foetus. PV2 is intensely metabolized into 13 metabolites of which 5 are important and include 6 OH-PV2 and 7 OH-PV2. In the brain and the foetus only PV2 crosses the barriers. It is eliminated from the brain according to monoexponential kinetics, being very little metabolized, whereas in the foetus it is very largely metabolized and eliminated again according to monoexponential kinetics. The intense metabolisation in the foetus leads to the appearance of biexponential kinetics during the measurement of the PV2 metabolites together, similar to that observed in liver

  7. An evaluation of teeth of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Greenland as a matrix to monitor spatial and temporal trends of mercury and stable isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubail, Aurore; Dietz, Rune; Riget, Frank Farsø

    2010-01-01

    insights into diet variations between regions or through time. Mercury concentrations decreased the first years of life of the animals suggesting that Hg had been transferred from the mother to the foetus and newborn. The Hg concentrations in teeth were significantly lesser in ringed seals from central...

  8. Forstørret nakkefold kan ses ved osteogenesis imperfecta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönewolf-Greulich, Bitten; Skibsted, Lillian; Maroun, Lisa Leth

    2011-01-01

    . In the present case, ultrasound scanning at 13 weeks of gestation showed a NT of 3.2 mm and no other pathological findings. At 20 weeks a severe skeletal dysplasia was diagnosed by ultrasound. The pathology report of the aborted foetus indicated OI, and DNA analysis confirmed a COL1A1 mutation....

  9. Metabolism of phthalates in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2007-01-01

    on the foetal testis and they are similar to those seen in humans with testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Therefore, exposure of the human foetus and infants to phthalates via maternal exposure is a matter of concern. The metabolic pathways of phthalate metabolites excreted in human urine are partly known for some...

  10. Exposure assessment of prepubertal children to steroid endocrine disrupters 1. Analytical strategy for estrogens measurement in plasma at ultra-trace level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Maume, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Global concern has been raised in recent years over adverse effects that may result from exposure to chemicals that may interfere with the endocrine system. A specific question is related to low-dose effects and long-term exposure consequences, especially for critical populations (foetus, new born...

  11. Deoxynivalenol transport across the human placental barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Vikström, Anna C; Turner, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most commonly detected mycotoxin contaminant of cereal crops and cereal based food products in temperate regions of the world. DON causes adverse health effects in animals, passes through to the foetus and causes foetal abnormalities in animals. Biomonitoring for DON has...

  12. Chemotherapy in the second and third trimester of pregnancy is compatible with the delivery of a healthy infant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Berit Woetmann; Clausen, Mette Borg; Gørløv, Jette Sønderskov

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the delay in diagnosis and treatment of a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in pregnancy of a 27-year-old woman. Chemotherapy was initiated in week 21 of pregnancy - the tumour regressed and the foetus had linear growth. The patient had caesarean section in week 34, and after...

  13. Jernmangel og graviditet efter gastrisk bypassoperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Eva Christina; Milman, N; Wielandt, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    of the foetus. The article concerns the need for managing the malabsorption syndrome, iron deficiency in particular, both in antenatal care, during pregnancy, delivery and in the lactation period. We suggest frequent follow-up in these patients and intravenous iron therapy, when oral iron treatment...

  14. Characteristics of women who binge drink before and after they become aware of their pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Rod Nielsen, Naja; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of high doses of alcohol on a single occasion (binge drinking) may harm the developing foetus and pregnant women are advised to avoid binge drinking while pregnant. We present characteristics of Danish women who binge drank in the pre-and post recognised part of their pregnancy....

  15. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...

  16. Multidisciplinary team training reduces the decision-to-delivery interval for emergency Caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrmann, Lone; Pedersen, T H; Atke, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emergency Caesarean section is performed when the life of the pregnant woman and/or the foetus is considered at risk. A 30-min standard for the decision-to-delivery interval (DDI) is a common practice and is supported by national organisations including The Danish Society of Obstetrics...

  17. Spinal cord injury at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger-Gron, Jesper; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Rasmus G

    2008-01-01

    UNLABELLED: A case of perinatally acquired spinal cord injury (SCI) is presented. The foetus was vigorous until birth, the breech presented and delivery was performed by a non-traumatic Caesarean section. The infant displayed symptoms of severe SCI but diagnosis was delayed due to severe co...

  18. Do Thyroid Disrupting Chemicals Influence Foetal Development during Pregnancy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Boas, Malene; Bliddal, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    Maternal euthyroidism during pregnancy is crucial for normal development and, in particular, neurodevelopment of the foetus. Up to 3.5 percent of pregnant women suffer from hypothyroidism. Industrial use of various chemicals-endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs)-has been shown to cause almost...

  19. Phylogenetic characterisation of the G(L) sequences of equine arteritis virus isolated from semen of asymptomatic stallions and fatal cases of equine viral arteritis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Storgaard, Torben; Holm, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    The study describes for the first time the phylogenetic relationship between equine arteritis virus (EAV) isolated from asymptomatic virus-shedding stallions and fatal cases of equine viral arteritis (EVA) in an European country. EAV was isolated from three dead foals and an aborted foetus during...

  20. Pharmacological treatment of unipolar depression during pregnancy and breast-feeding-A clinical overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Damkier, Per

    2012-01-01

    This overview is aimed at clinicians working with patients in the fertile age who suffer from depressive disorders. The study of adverse effects of antidepressants on the foetus is hampered by difficulty in distinguishing between the behavioural changes that are related to the disorder itself...

  1. Maternal diet, prenatal exposure to dioxin-like compounds and birth outcomes in a European prospective mother–child study (NewGeneris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Kogevinas, Manolis; Botsivali, Maria

    2014-01-01

    . A small non-significant reduction in gestational age was also observed (-1.4days, 95% CI: -3.8, 1.0days). Our results suggest that maternal diet might contribute to the exposure of the foetus to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and may be related to reduced birth weight. More studies are needed...

  2. UGT polymorphisms and lamotrigine clearance during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrenaite, Vaiva; Öhman, Inger; Ekström, Lena

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of maternal UGT1A4 and UGT2B7 genetic polymorphisms and sex of foetus on gestation-induced changes in lamotrigine (LTG) clearance during pregnancy and post-partum (PP). METHODS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms UGT1A4 142T > G, L48V (*3), UGT1A4 70C > A, P24T (*2......), and post-partum (PP) as well as the sex of the foetus. RESULTS: Reductions in the LTG concentration-to-dose ratio (C/D ratio) during pregnancy were seen in all genotype panels and varied between -53% and -74% in T3. Genetic polymorphism of UGT1A4 T142G (*3) and UGT2B7 C802T (*2) had the most pronounced.......015) as well as in T3 compared to the heterozygous carriers (802CT) (p = 0.04). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that women who carried a female foetus had a significantly higher reductions in the LTG C/D ratio from T0 to the end of pregnancy than those with a male foetus (p = 0...

  3. Evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, S.; Bjarnadottir, R. I.

    2007-01-01

    pregnancy is not a sign of maternal iodine deficiency; 5) a higher concentration of TSH and Tg in cord blood than in maternal blood is not a sign of iodine deficiency in the mother or neonate; and 6) thyroid function in a full-term foetus, a neonate or a small child is not more sensitive to a mild iodine...

  4. Gestational trophoblastic diseases - clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and counselling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Isa; Vejerslev, Lars O; Frøding, Ligita

    2015-01-01

    months once or twice a month, thereafter every second to third month. Patients with PSTT and ETT are monitored with measurement of hCG throughout their lifetimes (C). In genetically verified twin pregnancy with hydatidiform mole and a living foetus, the pregnancy can continue if serum hCG is monitored...

  5. Resolution of the type material of the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 (Proboscidea, Elephantidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gentry, A.; Palkopoulou, E.

    2014-01-01

    .maximus, a complete foetus preserved in ethanol, is actually an African elephant, genus Loxodonta. We further discovered that an additional E.maximus syntype, mentioned in a description by John Ray (1693) cited by Linnaeus, has been preserved as an almost complete skeleton at the Natural History Museum...

  6. Primaer hyperparatyroidisme i graviditeten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Munk Frost; Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Jacobsen, Bendt Brock

    2005-01-01

    We present three cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) in pregnancy. The clinical presentation of PHPT is not altered by pregnancy; however, the disease constitutes a serious risk for the foetus and the newborn. Although rare, hypercalcaemia should be suspected in pregnant women presenting...

  7. Is It Ethical to Condone Low Levels of Drinking in Pregnancy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni

    2016-01-01

    associations with a wide range of neurodevelop- mental outcomes, others have not been able to establish such associations, and even others have reported a J-shaped (i.e. curvilinear) function, suggesting that exposure to a little alcohol apparently acts as a protective factor for the developing foetus. From...

  8. Prognosis and risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Line Thousig; Pedersen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is the term describing a foetus that has not reached its genetic growth potential. There is no international consensus on the definition of IUGR. The aim of this study was to describe a cohort of weight-restricted neonates and their mothers...

  9. Country-specific chemical signatures of persistent environmental compounds in breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krysiak-Baltyn, Konrad; Toppari, J.; Skakkebaek, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    for exposure of the foetus to such agents. Therefore, we undertook a comprehensive ecological study of 121 EDCs, including the persistent compounds dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides and flame retardants, and non-persistent phthalates, in 68 breast milk samples from Denmark and Finland...

  10. Monitoring and treatment of anti-D in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bettelheim, D; Panzer, S; Reesink, H W

    2010-01-01

    Prophylactic anti-D is a very safe and effective therapy for the suppression of anti-D immunization and thus prevention of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn. However, migration from countries with low health standards and substantial cuts in public health expenses have increased...

  11. The effect of maternal Inflammation on foetal programming of metabolic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvorsen, Camilla; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Ozanne, S. E.

    2015-01-01

    ‐grade inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, that pregnancy can improve disease state. If pregnancy is also capable of suppressing the obesity‐associated inflammation, the immunological markers might be less likely to affect metabolic programming in the developing foetus than otherwise implied....

  12. Duplication of 7q36.3 encompassing the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) gene is associated with congenital muscular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lone Krøldrup; Kjaergaard, S; Kirchhoff, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    with muscular hypertrophy and mildly retarded psychomotor development. Array-CGH identified a small duplication of 7q36.3 including the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) gene in both the aborted foetus and the live born male sib. Neither of the parents carried the 7q36.3 duplication. The consequences of overexpression...

  13. Fiskeolietilskud og graviditetsvarighed. En randomiseret kontrolleret undersøgelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Søorensen, J.D.; Secher, N.J.

    1994-01-01

    ; the difference in gestational age depended on the level of fish intake at enrollment, with a low fish intake enhancing the difference. Fish oil supplementation in the third trimester seems to prolong gestation while allowing continued growth of the foetus; this effect seems to explain the difference between...

  14. Fluence to absorbed foetal dose conversion coefficients for photons in 50 keV-10 GeV calculated using RPI-P models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taranenko, V.; Xu, X.G.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation protection of pregnant females and the foetus against ionising radiation is of particular importance to radiation protection due to high foetal radiosensitivity. The only available set of foetal conversion coefficients for photons is based on stylised models of simplified anatomy. Using the RPI-P series of pregnant female and foetus models representing 3-, 6- and 9-month gestation, a set of new fluence to absorbed foetal dose conversion coefficients has been calculated. The RPI-P anatomical models were developed using novel 3D geometry modelling techniques. Organ masses were adjusted to agree within 1% with the ICRP reference data for a pregnant female. Monte Carlo dose calculations were carried out using the MCNPX and Penelope codes for external 50 keV-10 GeV photon beams of six standard configurations. The models were voxelised at 3-mm voxel resolution. Conversion coefficients were tabulated for the three gestational periods for the whole foetus and brain. Comparison with previously published data showed deviations up to 120% for the foetal doses at 50 keV. The discrepancy can be primarily ascribed to anatomical differences. Comparison with published data for five major mother organs is also provided for the 3-month model. Since the RPI-P models exhibit a high degree of anatomical realism, the reported dataset is recommended as a reference for radiation protection of the foetus against external photon exposure. (authors)

  15. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and the origin of carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Novotny, Guy W

    2008-01-01

    foetus, but the genetic background may also play a role. The morphological similarity of carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells (the precursor of the majority of invasive testicular cancers) with primordial germ cells and gonocytes, and overlap in expression of protein markers suggests an origin of CIS from...

  16. Influence of Very Early Exposure of Cefuroxime on Gut Microbiota Composition of Infants Born by Caesarean Section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Bin Shamzir Kamal, Shamrulazhar; Hyldig, Nana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cefuroxime is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic. It is standard caesarean section (CS) procedure at many hospitals to administer the mother a single prophylactic dose (1500mg) before skin incision and hence before the umbilical cord is cut, indirectly exposing the foetus...

  17. Transport of benzo[alpha]pyrene in the dually perfused human placenta perfusion model: effect of albumin in the perfusion medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Line; Rytting, Erik; Mose, Tina

    2009-01-01

    compared to other species; since it is available without major ethical obstacles, we have used the human placenta perfusion model to study transport from mother to foetus. Placentas were donated after births at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen from pregnant mothers who signed an informed consent. Ba...

  18. Disrupted pregnancies? How doctors, sonographers and pregnant couples negotiate high risk for Down’s syndrome – a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Stina; Hvidman, Lone; Petersen, Olav Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    that 90–95% of the high-risk couples carry a foetus with normal chromosomes. How do these couples frame the disruption caused by the high risk category? Are they able to return to a ‘normal’ pregnancy or does the disruption cause subsequent worry? In the presentation, we will reflect on this important...

  19. Serum concentrations of Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) in 95 patients with Klinefelter syndrome with or without cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Christiansen, Peter; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is produced by foetal Sertoli cells at the time of sexual differentiation and is responsible for the regression of the Müllerian ducts in the male foetus. AMH is a testis-specific marker of diagnostic value in infants with ambiguous genitalia or with bilateral...

  20. Modelling of human transplacental transport as performed in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Line; Mørck, Thit Aarøe; Zuri, Giuseppina

    2014-01-01

    Placenta perfusion models are very effective when studying the placental mechanisms in order to extrapolate to real-life situations. The models are most often used to investigate the transport of substances between mother and foetus, including the potential metabolism of these. We have studied...

  1. Cobalamin analogues in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Obeid, Rima; Herrmann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Haptocorrin (HC) carries cobalamin analogues (CorA), but whether CorA are produced in the body is unknown. All cobalamins (Cbl) to the foetus are delivered by the Cbl-specific protein transcobalamin (TC), and therefore analysis of cord serum for CorA may help to clarify the origin...

  2. Action of minute dosis of gamma rays on gestation of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templier, J.; Maudouyt, M.A.; Charpenteau, M.; Bonnet, J.

    1978-01-01

    Female mice were irradiated with 10 rads of 60 Co gamma ray, 7 hours after mating. This low dose induces a decrease in implantation number, and alive foetus number and is followed by a lower number of corpora lutea. These results to seem to show an effect of gamma irradiation on ovary and embryonic development [fr

  3. Post-mortem MRI of the foetal spine and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjaja, E.; Whitby, E.H.; Cohen, M.; Paley, M.N.J.; Griffiths, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To compare the findings of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the foetal spine with autopsy with a view to using post-mortem MRI as an alternative or adjunct to autopsy, particularly in foetal and neonatal cases. Materials and Methods: The brains and spines of 41 foetuses, with a gestational age range of 14-41 weeks, underwent post-mortem MRI before autopsy. Post-mortem MRI of the brain consisted of T2-weighted sequences in three orthogonal planes and MRI of the spine consisted of T2-weighted sequence in the sagittal and axial planes in all cases and coronal planes in selected cases. Results: Thirty of 41 (78%) foetal spines were found to be normal at autopsy and on post-mortem MRI. Eleven of 41 (22%) foetal spines were abnormal: eight foetuses had myelomeningocoeles and Chiari 2 deformities, one foetus had limited dorsal myeloschisis, one foetus had caudal regression syndrome, and one had diastematomyelia. The post-mortem MRI findings concurred with the autopsy findings in 10/11 of the abnormal cases, the disagreement being the case of diastematomyelia that was shown on post-mortem MRI but was not diagnosed at autopsy. Conclusions: In this series, post-mortem MRI findings agreed with the autopsy findings in 40/41(98%) cases and in one case the post-mortem MRI demonstrated an abnormality not demonstrated at autopsy

  4. Software for the estimation of foetal radiation dose to patients and staff in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, E K; Darko, J B; Faulkner, K; Kotre, C J

    2003-01-01

    Occasionally, it is clinically necessary to perform a radiological examination(s) on a woman who is known to be pregnant or an examination is performed on a woman who subsequently discovers that she was pregnant at the time. In radiological examinations, especially of the lower abdomen and pelvis area, the foetus is directly irradiated. It is therefore important to be able to determine the absorbed dose to the foetus in diagnostic radiology for pregnant patients as well as the foetal dose from occupational exposure of the pregnant worker. The determination of the absorbed dose to the unborn child in diagnostic radiology is of interest as a basis for risk estimates from medical exposure of the pregnant patient and occupational exposure of the pregnant worker. In this paper we describe a simple computer program, FetDose, which calculates the dose to the foetus from both medical and occupational exposures of the pregnant woman. It also calculates the risks of in utero exposure, compares calculated doses with published data in the literature and provides information on the natural spontaneous risks. The program will be a useful tool for the medical and paramedical personnel who are involved with foetal dose (and hence risks) calculations and counselling of pregnant women who may be concerned about in utero exposure of their foetuses

  5. Simultaneous quantification by HPLC of purines in umami soup stock and evaluation of their effects on extracellular and intracellular purine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuuchi, T; Iyama, N; Yamaoka, N; Kaneko, K

    2018-04-13

    Ribonucleotide flavor enhancers such as inosine monophosphate (IMP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP) provide umami taste, similarly to glutamine. Japanese cuisine frequently uses soup stocks containing these nucleotides to enhance umami. We quantified 18 types of purines (nucleotides, nucleosides, and purine bases) in three soup stocks (chicken, consommé, and dried bonito soup). IMP was the most abundant purine in all umami soup stocks, followed by hypoxanthine, inosine, and GMP. The IMP content of dried bonito soup was the highest of the three soup stocks. We also evaluated the effects of these purines on extracellular and intracellular purine metabolism in HepG2 cells after adding each umami soup stock to the cells. An increase in inosine and hypoxanthine was evident 1 h and 4 h after soup stock addition, and a low amount of xanthine and guanosine was observed in the extracellular medium. The addition of chicken soup stock resulted in increased intracellular and extracellular levels of uric acid and guanosine. Purine metabolism may be affected by ingredients present in soups.

  6. Purine-related metabolites and their converting enzymes are altered in frontal, parietal and temporal cortex at early stages of Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Andrés, Patricia; Albasanz, José Luis; Ferrer, Isidro; Martín, Mairena

    2018-01-24

    Adenosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, guanosine and inosine levels were assessed by HPLC, and the activity of related enzymes 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT), adenosine deaminase (ADA) and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) measured in frontal (FC), parietal (PC) and temporal (TC) cortices at different stages of disease progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in age-matched controls. Significantly decreased levels of adenosine, guanosine, hypoxanthine and xanthine, and apparently less inosine, are found in FC from the early stages of AD; PC and TC show an opposing pattern, as adenosine, guanosine and inosine are significantly increased at least at determinate stages of AD whereas hypoxanthine and xanthine levels remain unaltered. 5'-NT is reduced in membranes and cytosol in FC mainly at early stages but not in PC, and only at advanced stages in cytosol in TC. ADA activity is decreased in AD when considered as a whole but increased at early stages in TC. Finally, PNP activity is increased only in TC at early stages. Purine metabolism alterations occur at early stages of AD independently of neurofibrillary tangles and β-amyloid plaques. Alterations are stage dependent and region dependent, the latter showing opposite patterns in FC compared with PC and TC. Adenosine is the most affected of the assessed purines. © 2018 International Society of Neuropathology.

  7. Structural basis of the substrate specificity of Bacillus cereus adenosine phosphorylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessanti, Paola; Zhang, Yang; Allegrini, Simone; Tozzi, Maria Grazia; Sgarrella, Francesco; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell); (Sassari); (Pisa)

    2012-10-08

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic cleavage of the glycosidic bond of purine (2{prime}-deoxy)nucleosides, generating the corresponding free base and (2{prime}-deoxy)ribose 1-phosphate. Two classes of PNPs have been identified: homotrimers specific for 6-oxopurines and homohexamers that accept both 6-oxopurines and 6-aminopurines. Bacillus cereus adenosine phosphorylase (AdoP) is a hexameric PNP; however, it is highly specific for 6-aminopurines. To investigate the structural basis for the unique substrate specificity of AdoP, the active-site mutant D204N was prepared and kinetically characterized and the structures of the wild-type protein and the D204N mutant complexed with adenosine and sulfate or with inosine and sulfate were determined at high resolution (1.2-1.4 {angstrom}). AdoP interacts directly with the preferred substrate through a hydrogen-bond donation from the catalytically important residue Asp204 to N7 of the purine base. Comparison with Escherichia coli PNP revealed a more optimal orientation of Asp204 towards N7 of adenosine and a more closed active site. When inosine is bound, two water molecules are interposed between Asp204 and the N7 and O6 atoms of the nucleoside, thus allowing the enzyme to find alternative but less efficient ways to stabilize the transition state. The mutation of Asp204 to asparagine led to a significant decrease in catalytic efficiency for adenosine without affecting the efficiency of inosine cleavage.

  8. The Epitranscriptome and Innate Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A O'Connell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge of the variety and abundances of RNA base modifications is rapidly increasing. Modified bases have critical roles in tRNAs, rRNAs, translation, splicing, RNA interference, and other RNA processes, and are now increasingly detected in all types of transcripts. Can new biological principles associated with this diversity of RNA modifications, particularly in mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, be identified? This review will explore this question by focusing primarily on adenosine to inosine (A-to-I RNA editing by the adenine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR enzymes that have been intensively studied for the past 20 years and have a wide range of effects. Over 100 million adenosine to inosine editing sites have been identified in the human transcriptome, mostly in embedded Alu sequences that form potentially innate immune-stimulating dsRNA hairpins in transcripts. Recent research has demonstrated that inosine in the epitranscriptome and ADAR1 protein establish innate immune tolerance for host dsRNA formed by endogenous sequences. Innate immune sensors that detect viral nucleic acids are among the readers of epitranscriptome RNA modifications, though this does preclude a wide range of other modification effects.

  9. Hypoxic Vasospasm Mediated by cIMP: When Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase Turns Bad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuansheng; Chen, Zhengju; Leung, Susan W S; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    In a number of isolated blood vessel types, hypoxia causes an acute contraction that is dependent on the presence of nitric oxide and activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase. It is more pronounced when the preparations are constricted and is therefore termed hypoxic augmentation of vasoconstriction. This hypoxic response is accompanied by increases in the intracellular level of inosine 5'-triphosphate and in the synthesis of inosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cIMP) by soluble guanylyl cyclase. The administration of exogenous cIMP or inosine 5'-triphosphate causes augmented vasoconstriction to hypoxia. Furthermore, the vasoconstriction evoked by hypoxia and cIMP is associated with increased activity of Rho kinase (ROCK), indicating that cIMP may mediate the hypoxic effect by sensitizing the myofilaments to Ca through ROCK. Hypoxia is implicated in exaggerated vasoconstriction in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, hypertension, and stroke. The newly found role of cIMP may help to identify unique therapeutic targets for certain cardiovascular disorders.

  10. Uterine blood flow in sows: effects of pregnancy stage and litter size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Père, M C; Etienne, M

    2000-01-01

    Female pigs were assigned to three groups at 94 days of age: a control group (CTR), a group undergoing the ligation and severing of the left oviduct (LIG), and a group undergoing right hysteroovariectomy (HHO). They were inseminated at 307 days of age. At 35 days of pregnancy, an ultrasonic transit time flow probe was implanted around the middle artery of one uterine horn in 33 sows and uterine blood flow was measured during thirteen 24-h periods between 44 and 111 days. Despite large differences in ovulation rate per uterine horn (4.8, 8.3 and 16.9 in the LIG, CTR and HHO groups, respectively), variation of litter size was considerably reduced with advancement of pregnancy (3.0, 6.6 and 10.8 foetuses per uterine horn at 35 days, and 3.0, 5.8 and 4.9 at 112 days (slaughter), respectively). Uterine blood flow increased linearly during pregnancy. It was lower in the LIG sows (0.82 to 1.74 L x min(-1) x horn(-1) from 44 to 111 days) than in the CTR and HHO sows (1.22 to 2.84 and 1.09 to 2.63 L x min(-1) x horn(1), respectively). It was more closely related to litter weight than to litter size and amounted to 0.42 L x min(-1) x kg foetus(-1) at 111 days. Uterine blood flow per foetus decreased when litter size increased. It increased from 0.31 to 0.72, 0.26 to 0.60 and 0.20 to 0.43 L x min(-1) x foetus(-1) from 44 to 111 days when there were 2 to 3, 4 to 5, and 6 to 8 foetuses in the uterine horn, respectively. This explains why piglets from large litters are lighter at birth.

  11. Faced with a dilemma: Danish midwives' experiences with and attitudes towards late termination of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Christiansen, Anne Hjøllund; Petersson, Birgit

    2013-12-01

    The introduction of prenatal screening for all pregnant women in Denmark in 2004 has lead to an increase in the number of late terminations of pregnancy after the 12th week of pregnancy. Midwives' experiences with late termination of pregnancy (TOP) are still poorly described in the scientific literature. To explore Danish midwives' experiences with and attitudes towards late TOP. Focus was on how midwives perceive their own role in late TOP, and how their professional identity is influenced by working with late TOP in a time where prenatal screening is rapidly developing. A qualitative study consisting of ten individual interviews with Danish midwives, all of whom had taken part in late TOP. Current practice of late TOP resembles the practice of normal deliveries and is influenced by a growing personalisation of the aborted foetus. The midwives strongly supported women's legal right to choose TOP and considerations about the foetus' right to live were suppressed. Midwives experienced a dilemma when faced with aborted foetuses that looked like newborns and when aborted foetuses showed signs of life after a termination. Furthermore, they were critical of how physicians counsel women/couples after prenatal diagnosis. The midwives' practice in relation to late TOP was characterised by an acknowledgement of the growing ethical status of the foetus and the emotional reactions of the women/couples going through late TOP. Other professions as well as structural factors at the hospital highly influenced the midwives' ability to organize their work with late terminations. There is a need for more thorough investigation of how to secure the best possible working conditions for midwives, and how to optimise the care for women/couples going through late TOP. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  12. Sodium kinetics in hypertonic saline abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telfer, N.; Ballard, C.S.; McKee, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    The sodium kinetics of hypertonic saline abortions have been followed by measuring the radioactivity and the sodium concentrations in amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, urine, the foetus and placenta after intrauterine installation of 20% hypertonic saline labelled with 22 Na in order to determine the reason for abortion of a dead foetus in 24 to 48 hours, and reasons for sodium reactions. There is dilution of the 300 ml of amniotic fluid to a maximum of 1.5 to 2.0 litres in an exponential fashion, by the influx of mainly maternal water, slowing after 8 hours. There is an exponential type of increase in plasma radioactivity, also slowing after 8 hours. However, equilibration is never reached, the specific activity of the amniotic fluid remaining 10 times that of the plasma, and the sodium concentration 3 times that of the plasma. The urine equilibrates with the plasma, and about 3% of the administered dose is lost in 22 hours. The largest foetus and placenta picked up the least radioactivity. Thus, a more mature foetus may be protected to some degree against the hypertonic saline action; this has been observed clinically. Hyperkaliaemia was found in all four subjects, and hypoglycaemia occurred sporadically. These were not accompanied by any symptoms. Factors associated with expulsion of the dead foetus are dehydration and decreased circulation associated with fibrinoid necrosis of the placenta, which may also account for cessation of equilibration between maternal plasma and amniotic fluid. Although no saline reactions occurred, the role of extrauterine deposition of hypertonic saline, as shown in one subject, might be considered. (author)

  13. Gene expression profiles associated with anaemia and ITPA genotypes in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CH-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birerdinc, A; Estep, M; Afendy, A; Stepanova, M; Younossi, I; Baranova, A; Younossi, Z M

    2012-06-01

    Anaemia is a common side effect of ribavirin (RBV) which is used for the treatment of hepatitis C. Inosine triphosphatase gene polymorphism (C to A) protects against RBV-induced anaemia. The aim of our study was to genotype patients for inosine triphosphatase gene polymorphism rs1127354 SNP (CC or CA) and associate treatment-induced anaemia with gene expression profile and genotypes. We used 67 hepatitis C patients with available gene expression, clinical, laboratory data and whole-blood samples. Whole blood was used to determine inosine triphosphatase gene polymorphism rs1127354 genotypes (CC or CA). The cohort with inosine triphosphatase gene polymorphism CA genotype revealed a distinct pattern of protection against anaemia and a lower drop in haemoglobin. A variation in the propensity of CC carriers to develop anaemia prompted us to look for additional predictors of anaemia during pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and RBV. Pretreatment blood samples of patients receiving a full course of PEG-IFN and RBV were used to assess expression of 153 genes previously implicated in host response to viral infections. The gene expression data were analysed according to presence of anaemia and inosine triphosphatase gene polymorphism genotypes. Thirty-six genes were associated with treatment-related anaemia, six of which are involved in the response to hypoxia pathway (HIF1A, AIF1, RHOC, PTEN, LCK and PDGFB). There was a substantial overlap between sustained virological response (SVR)-predicting and anaemia-related genes; however, of the nine JAK-STAT pathway-related genes associated with SVR, none were implicated in anaemia. These observations exclude the direct involvement of antiviral response in the development of anaemia associated with PEG-IFN and RBV treatment, whereas another, distinct component within the SVR-associated gene expression response may predict anaemia. We have identified baseline gene expression signatures associated with RBV-induced anaemia and identified

  14. Rapid, reliable, and sensitive detection of adenosine deaminase activity by UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS and its application to inhibitory activity evaluation of traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shenglan; Guan, Huida; Deng, Gang; Yang, Tao; Cheng, Xuemei; Liu, Wei; Liu, Ping; Wang, Changhong

    2018-05-10

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA), which is a key enzyme in the metabolism of purine nucleosides, plays important roles in diverse disorders, such as tuberculosis, diabetes, liver disorders, and cancer. Determination of the activities of ADA and its isoenzymes in body fluids has received considerable attention in the diagnosis and treatment of relative diseases. Ultraviolet spectroscopy with adenosine (AD) as a substrate is a classical approach for screening potential ADA inhibitors by measuring the decrease in substrate (AD) at 265 nm or increase in the product (inosine) at 248 nm. However, AD and inosine share a very close maximum absorption wavelength, and the reaction is uncertain and is frequently interfered by the background color of matrix compounds or plant extracts. Thus, the method usually yields false positive or negative results. In this study, a novel, rapid, sensitive, and accurate ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-Q exactive hybrid quadrupole orbitrap high-resolution accurate mass spectrometric (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) method was developed for determining and screening ADA inhibitors by directly determining the deamination product of AD, inosine. A proper separation was achieved for inosine and chlormequat (internal standard) within 2 min via isocratic elution (0.1% formic acid:methanol = 85:15, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL min -1 on a Waters ACQUITY HSS T3 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.8 μm) following a simple precipitation of proteins. The intra- and inter-day precisions of the developed method were below 7.17% and 8.99%, respectively. The method exhibited advantages of small total reaction volume (60 μL), short running time (2 min), high sensitivity (lowest limit of quantification of 0.02 μM for inosine), and low cost (small enzyme consumption of 0.007 unit mL -1 for ADA and substrate of 3.74 μM for AD in individual inhibition), and no matrix effects (101.64%-107.12%). Stability results showed that all

  15. [External cephalic version for breech presentation at term: an effective procedure to reduce the caesarean section rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojacono, A; Donarini, G; Valcamonico, A; Soregaroli, M; Frusca, T

    2003-12-01

    Although term breech presentation is a relatively rare condition (3-5% of all births), it continues to be an important indication for caesarean section and has contributed to its increased use. Risk of complications may be increased for both mother and foetus in such a situation. Vaginal delivery of a breech presenting foetus is complex and may involve many difficulties, so today there is a general consensus that planned caesarean section is better than planned vaginal birth for the foetus in breech presentation at term. External cephalic version is one of the most effective procedures in modern obstetrics. It involves the external manipulation of the foetus from the breech into the cephalic presentation. A successful manoeuvre can decrease costs by avoiding operative deliveries and decreasing maternal morbidity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this obstetric manoeuvre to increase the proportion of vertex presentation among foetuses that were formerly in the breech position near term, so as to reduce the caesarean section rate. The safety of the version is also showed. From 1999 to 2002, 89 women with foetal breech presentation underwent external cephalic version at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Brescia University. The gestational age was 36.8+/-0.8 weeks. The following variables have been taken into consideration: breech variety, placental location, foetal back position, parity, amount of amniotic fluid and gestational age. Every attempt was performed with a prior use of an intravenous drip of Ritodrine, and foetal heart rate was monitored continuously with cardiotocogram. The success rate of the procedure was 42.7% (n=38). No maternal or foetal complication or side effects occurred, both during and after the manoeuvre, except a transient foetal bradycardia that resolved spontaneously. Only one spontaneous reversion of the foetus occurred before delivery. Of all the women that underwent a successful version

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of prune-belly syndrome at 13 weeks of gestation: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantoniou, Nikolaos; Papoutsis, Dimitrios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Chatzipapas, Ioannis; Sindos, Michael; Papaspyrou, Irini; Mesogitis, Spiridon; Antsaklis, Aris

    2010-10-01

    We present a case report of a foetus with Prune-Belly syndrome (PBS) which was diagnosed sonographically during the 13th week of gestation and review of the literature. Sonographic diagnosis was based on abnormally distended urinary bladder and abdomen and absence of 'keyhole sign'. Termination was performed on parental request and post-mortem examination revealed absence of abdominal wall musculature and the distended urinary bladder in a male foetus. Prenatal diagnosis of PBS is based on ultrasound and is usually diagnosed in the second trimester. In the first trimester there are very few reports to date. Prognosis and possible treatment options are herein discussed as well as the underlying mechanisms that may explain the clinical presentation of the syndrome.

  17. [Maturation diagnosis in full term hypotrophic fetuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnke, H D; Gartzke, J; Fleischer, G; Isbruch, E

    1977-01-01

    Foam-Test by Clements is a valuable method for determining the foetus maturity of lungs. We introduce this test along with other parameters for the maturity-diagnosis since one year. In 15% result, the Foam-Test was not applicable because of blood, or meconic amniotic fluid, other wise wrong negative and in 0% wrong positive results. By unmatured child, there was doubtable results with Foam-Test. Since it is important to determine the early delivery of unmatured children, particularly the case of foetus maturity of lungs must be exact, we therefore decided to use the Lecithin/Sphingomyelinquotients in some cases. The results of Lecithin/Sphingomyelinquotient in unmatured children are almost with the approximated date under two. From this, one must deduce from these children, that the intrauterine unmatured lungs lately took place.

  18. Experiencing abortion rights in India through issues of autonomy and legality: A few controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tulsi

    2018-06-01

    Abortion laws in India, like other laws, are premised on the 1861 British Penal Code. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act was passed in 1971 to circumvent the criminality clause around abortion. Yet the law continues to render invisible women's right to choose. Legal procedures have often hindered in permitting abortion, resulting in the death of a mother or the foetus. Despite the latest techno-medical advances, the laws have remained stagnant or rather restrictive, complicated further by selective female foetus abortions. Legal resistance to abortion-seeking after 20 weeks gestation adversely affects women, depriving them of autonomy of choice. In this paper, raising important gender, health and ethical issues are illustrated through a recent legal case in India. Feminist campaigns against the legal mindset in India are emerging.

  19. [Impact of hypoxia in different periods of prenatal ontogenesis on ECoG of rabbit fetus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseĭnov, A G; Mamedov, Kh B

    2012-10-01

    Sensitivity of ECoG of sensorimotor cortex of 28-day rabbit foetus in different periods (prefetal and fetal) of embryogenesis to hypoxia impact was studied. In the foetus subjected to hypoxia during prefetal period (8-18th days) in the spectrum of the general activity the increase of slow waves, occupying little portion of the spectrum, is noticed, while the main delta-rhythm has more clear pattern. At the same time, hypoxia, undertaken in the fetal period (18-28th days) does not have significant effect on ECoG indexes. On the basis of our own and literature data one can propose tha high sensitivity of ECoG to oxygen deficiency is due to low stability of the brain cortex itself and subcortical white matter to hypoxic inpairement in early embriogenesis.

  20. Protective effect of selenium against ionizing radiation-induced malformations in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cekan, E.; Tribukait, B.; Vokal-Borek, H.

    A single dose of sodium selenite (0.5 mg Se/kg b.w.) was injected intraperitoneally into mice on day 9 of pregnancy, either 30 min or 2 h before 1.75 Gy whole body irradiation. Administration of selenite 2 h but not 30 min before irradiation resulted in a significant decrease in the number of malformed foetuses (p < 0.005). The decrease in foetal malformations occurred proportionally for all the major malformations observed, i.e. short or kinked tail, rib and vertebral malformations, coloboma and deformation of retina and iris. In addition, selenium pretreatment also protected against radiation-induced retardation of the sternum of the foetus.

  1. Protective effect of selenium against ionizing radiation-induced malformations in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cekan, E.; Tribukait, B.; Vokal-Borek, H.; Stockholm Univ.

    1985-01-01

    A single dose of sodium selenite (0.5 mg Se/kg b.w.) was injected intraperitoneally into mice on day 9 of pregnancy, either 30 min or 2 h before 1.75 Gy whole body irradiation. Administration of selenite 2 h but not 30 min before irradiation resulted in a significant decrease in the number of malformed foetuses (p<0.005). The decrease in foetal malformations occurred proportionally for all the major malformations observed, i.e. short or kinked tail, rib and vertebral malformations, coloboma and deformation of retina and iris. In addition, selenium pretreatment also protected against radiation-induced retardation of the sternum of the foetus. (orig.)

  2. Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from chorionic villi of a Turner syndrome spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Shagufta; Panicker, M M; Gupta, Pawan Kumar

    2017-03-01

    A major cause of spontaneous abortions is chromosomal abnormality of foetal cells. We report the generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from the fibroblasts isolated from chorionic villi of an early spontaneously aborted foetus with Turner syndrome. The Turner syndrome villus induced pluripotent stem cell line is transgene free, retains the original XO karyotype, expresses pluripotency markers and undergoes trilineage differentiation. This pluripotent stem cell model of Turner syndrome should serve as a tool to study the developmental abnormalities of foetus and placenta that lead to early embryo lethality and profound symptoms like infertility in 45 XO survivors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of messenger RNA of fetoplacental source in maternal plasma of women with normal pregnancies and pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala Ramírez, Paola; García Robles, Reggie; Rojas, Juan Diego; Bermúdez, Martha; Bernal, Jaime

    2012-07-01

    to quantify placenta-specific RNA in plasma of women carrying foetuses with intrauterine growth restriction and pregnant women with normal pregnancies. 8 pregnant women with foetuses with intrauterine growth restriction were studied as well as 18 women with uncomplicated pregnancies in the third pregnancy trimester. Total free RNA was quantified in maternal plasma by spectrophotometry and the gene expression of hPL (Human Placental Lactogen) at the messenger RNA level through technical Real Time-Chain Reaction Polymerase. plasma RNA of fetoplacental origin was successfully detected in 100% of pregnant women. There were no statistically significant differences between the values of total RNA extracted from plasma (p= 0.5975) nor in the messenger RNA expression of hPL gene (p= 0.5785) between cases and controls. messenger RNA of fetoplacental origin can be detected in maternal plasma during pregnancy.

  4. An investigation into the ancient abortion laws: comparing ancient Persia with ancient Greece and Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Zargaran, Arman; Vatanpour, Azadeh; Abedini, Ehsan; Adhami, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of medicine, medical rights and ethics have always been one of mankind's concerns. In any civilisation, attention paid to medical laws and ethics depends on the progress of human values and the advancement of medical science. The history of various civilisations teaches that each had its own views on medical ethics, but most had something in common. Ancient civilisations such as Greece, Rome, or Assyria did not consider the foetus to be alive and therefore to have human rights. In contrast, ancient Persians valued the foetus as a living person equal to others. Accordingly, they brought laws against abortion, even in cases of sexual abuse. Furthermore, abortion was considered to be a murder and punishments were meted out to the mother, father, and the person performing it.

  5. Thoracic heteropagus conjoined twins associated to an omphalocele: Report of a case and complete review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotti Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heteropagus twins are an extremely rare event with an incidence of 1–2 million live births that represents, sometimes, a real challenge for paediatric surgeons. The majority of cases have complete or partial duplication of the pelvis and/or lower extremities. Thoracic heteropagus conjoined twins is a rare condition in which a grossly defective foetus (the parasite is attached to the thorax of the main foetus (the autosite. We describe a case of a parasitic heteropagus attached at the chest wall with a rare presentation of giant exomphalos on the autosite. In this situation, the separation procedure was simple after a well-done anatomic study using X-ray, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance and echocardiogram are performed.

  6. Application of solid state nuclear track detectors to measurements of natural alpha-radioactivity in human body tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshaw, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    A review of the work at Bristol University on the determination of α-activity in human tissues is given. Techniques for the quantitative analysis of α-activity in CR-39 (TASTRAK) plastic are summarized. The distribution of α-activity in lung, bone, bone marrow and teeth is described together with the typical activity and dose values. Special emphasis is given to the α-radiation dose to red bone marrow and to the foetus. The contribution from radon to the dose received by these tissues is addressed. It is concluded that the dose from internal α-emitters is often comparable to that from low LET radiations at around 1 mSv yr -1 . In cases of high radon exposure, >400 Bq m -3 or above, the cost contribution from radon to the red bone marrow and the foetus is likely to be significantly in excess of 1 mSv yr -1 . (author)

  7. Herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy and in neonate: status of art of epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barucca Valentina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herpes simplex virus (HSV infection is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The first time infection of the mother may lead to severe illness in pregnancy and may be associated with virus transmission from mother to foetus/newborn. Since the incidence of this sexually transmitted infection continues to rise and because the greatest incidence of herpes simplex virus infections occur in women of reproductive age, the risk of maternal transmission of the virus to the foetus or neonate has become a major health concern. On these purposes the Authors of this review looked for the medical literature and pertinent publications to define the status of art regarding the epidemiology, the diagnosis, the therapy and the prevention of HSV in pregnant women and neonate. Special emphasis is placed upon the importance of genital herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy and on the its prevention to avoid neonatal HSV infections.

  8. [Link between prenatal exposure to the "Winter of Famine" and long-term medical consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseboom, T J; van der Meulen, J H; Ravelli, A C; Bleker, O P

    2000-12-23

    The 'foetal origins' hypothesis (Barker hypothesis) proposes that undernutrition of the foetus during critical periods of development increases the risk of coronary heart disease in later life. The Dutch famine caused by the second World War in the winter of 1944--although a historical disaster--provides a unique opportunity to study effects of undernutrition during gestation in humans. The health of people born around the time of the Dutch famine, in the Wilhelmina Gasthuis in Amsterdam, of whom detailed birth records exist, was assessed. There were indications that chronic diseases in later life are associated with prenatal undernutrition. The associations with undernutrition, however, depend upon the time of occurrence during gestation. Our findings are compatible with the conclusion that maternal malnutrition during gestation may permanently affect adult health without affecting the size of the baby at birth. This may imply that adaptations that enable the foetus to continue to grow may have adverse consequences for health in later life.

  9. Trimester in Acquabox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Eflerová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trimester in Acquabox (2010 is a live performance by Czech-British artist Helena Eflerová, which was originally exhibited at the Para Haus exhibition in São Paulo, Brazil. The audience is invited to view a narrative journey representing a metaphor of the foetus' development in the womb, and to share the experience with the performer, exploring an underwater weightless habitat. This collective experience of viewing such an intimate performance proposes questions around the personal experience of early childhood and motherhood. It questions the development of the foetus, its capacity of memory, its happy and traumatic experiences in the womb, and the after-effect on postnatal life. http://podcast.ulcc.ac.uk/accounts/BirkbeckCollege/mamsie/trimester_in_acquabox.mov

  10. Diagnostic prénatal: quelles sont les techniques actuelles et futures ? (flyer)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    La majorité des bébés qui viennent au monde ne présentent pas d'anomalies particulières. Cependant, il faut savoir qu'environ 1 foetus 170 présente une anomalie chromosomique (défaut de la structure ou du nombre de chromosomes) qui va peser plus ou moins lourdement sur sa vie future et 1 foetus sur 100 présente une maladie génique due à un changement dans un gène. Le diagnostic prénatal a connu et connaît une formidable expansion grâce aux progrès technologiques en génétique et imagerie foetale.

  11. Insulin analogues in pregnancy and specific congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Josta; Garne, Ester; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Insulin analogues are commonly used in pregnant women with diabetes. It is not known if the use of insulin analogues in pregnancy is associated with any higher risk of congenital anomalies in the offspring compared with use of human insulin. We performed a literature search for studies of pregnant...... women with pregestational diabetes using insulin analogues in the first trimester and information on congenital anomalies. The studies were analysed to compare the congenital anomaly rate among foetuses of mothers using insulin analogues with foetuses of mothers using human insulin. Of 29 studies, we...... samples in the included studies provided insufficient statistical power to identify a moderate increased risk of specific congenital anomalies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  12. Response of blood capillaries in albino rat ovaries to gamma-radiation in fetal period of ontogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablekovskaya, O.N.; Amvros'ev, A.P.

    1999-01-01

    The character and direction of structural transformations of blood capillaries of micro circulatory channel of 20-days white rat foetus in normal conditions and after single external 1 Gy dose irradiation by 10 and 14 days of embryogenesis were examined. Electron-microscopical, stereo logical and statistical analyses were used. The peculiarities of reactions of hemo capillaries and their cell structure to gamma-rays action in embryogenesis were revealed. It was shown the reduction of diameters of capillaries, changes in section area of cytoplasm of endotheliocytes, diminution the size of nuclei of these cells. The injury effect was more pronounced in the case of irradiation on 14 days of embryogenesis. Polyploid endotheliocytes were found in the experimental conditions. Prenatal acute irradiation in low doses leaded to reduction of the number of microvessels and mitochondria in cytoplasm of cells of blood capillaries of rat foetus ovary

  13. The antibiotic transformation of Danish obstetrics. The hidden links between the decline in perinatal mortality and maternal mortality in the mid-twentieth century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Anne

    2012-01-01

    du placenta, éclampsie, bassin resserré ou prolapsus du cordon ombilical. Dans ces circonstances, le recours aux antibiotiques a autorisé, pour sauver le foetus, des interventions plus invasives sans risque afférent d’augmentation de la mortalité maternelle infectieuse. L’application de ce protocole...... aux accouchements pathologiques prend toute son importance dès lors qu’on rappelle les risques considérablement plus élevés pour la mère et le foetus des opérations ouvertes par opposition aux accouchements par voie basse, pratiqués par une sagefemme adroite dans la majorité des naissances sans...

  14. Cancer presenting during pregnancy: radiological perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, S.; Messiou, C.; Rutherford, J.M.; Dineen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Malignancy presenting during pregnancy is rare. When it does, there are important considerations and challenges for the radiologist. The physiological changes of pregnancy may mask signs and symptoms of malignancy leading to delayed presentation. Endocrine and physiological changes during pregnancy can interact with tumour biology to alter the behaviour and patterns of growth of certain tumours. The timing and choice of imaging technique pose potential risks to the foetus, but this must be weighed against the risks to both mother and foetus of inadequate investigation or misdiagnosis. This review outlines the general principles and approach to imaging the pregnant patient with suspected malignancy, following which there is a more detailed discussion of the effects of pregnancy on tumour biology and presentation of specific tumours. Imaging strategies are discussed for the different entities, and where possible, evidence-based imaging recommendations are made.

  15. Selenomethionine Uptake Test as a Sensitive Indicator of Placental Function in the Last Trimester of Pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrow, J. S. [Medical Research Council, Department of Obstetrics, Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1971-02-15

    During the last trimester of pregnancy the demands of the human foetus for nutrients can only just be met by the normal placenta. If the placenta is damaged or poorly developed foetal growth is impaired or, in severe cases, the baby dies. It is clinically important to detect placental failure as early as possible so that the underlying cause can be treated, or if this is not possible the baby can be delivered before term. {sup 75}Se-selenomethionine is one of the amino-acids which is taken up by the placenta from the mother's blood and actively transported against a concentration gradient to the foetus. In the selenomethionine uptake test two 3-in. diameter Nal detectors in cylindrical collimators are used; one is positioned over the mother's mediastinum and the other over her uterus. The output from each detector is fed through a pulse-height analyser to a recording ratemeter. A dose of 2 {mu}Ci of selenomethionine is given intravenously to the mother, and from the recorded count-rates during the next 15 minutes the efficiency of placental amino-acid transport can be assessed. The maximum radiation dose to the mother or foetus is 20 mrad. This test has been applied without ill effects to over 500 patients in whom there were clinical grounds for suspecting placental damage. Gross placental failure and intrauterine death were invariably associated with a very low selenomethionine-uptake over the uterus, and high uterine uptakes were always associated with good placental function. Misleading results may be obtained in cases with rhesus immunization or congenital defect in the foetus, since in such cases foetal growth failure is not due to a defect of transport in the placenta. Generally the test provides a quick, simple and reliable indication of the nutritive function of the placenta, and can be safely used to select those mothers who need particularly careful clinical management. (author)

  16. Asymptomatic bacteriuria & obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy in north Indian women

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Vaishali; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy if left untreated, may lead to acute pyelonephritis, preterm labour, low birth weight foetus, etc. Adequate and early treatment reduces the incidence of these obstetric complications. The present study was done to determine presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital of...

  17. Hormone and enzyme determination as influenced by corticoids and tocolytics in the final stage of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, G.; Kayser, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    In order to prevent membrane syndrome, the synthetic corticoids betamethasone, dexamethasone and 16-methylene prednisolone combined with tokolytic substances. The hormones ACTH, cortisol, oestriol, and the enzyme renine have been investigated by RIA in order to find out whether the various corticoids cause different changes in the endocrinous parameters of mother and foetus. A suppression of the four measured parameters was found in the presence of corticoids. (orig./MG) [de

  18. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: GROSS ANOMALIES

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Prakash; Rajniti; Deepika; Royana

    2015-01-01

    BACK GROUND: Prenatal exposure of AgNPs can induces devastative and detrimental effect in the organogenesis period of the developing embryos and foetuses. Organogenesis period is highly condemnatory and persuadable. Any injury to embryo during this period leads to dysmorphogenesis or even death AIM: The present study means to evaluate the gross anomalies on developing f o etus subsequent to silver nanoparticle ingestion during the gestational period. ...

  19. Influence of beryllium chloride and oxide on the sexual function in female rats and development of offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selivanova, L.N.; Savinova, T.B.

    1989-11-01

    A translation is given of a Russian article on the influence of beryllium chloride and oxide on the sexual cycle in female rats and on their capacity to conceive; another aim was to identify any embryotoxic and teratogenic effect of these compounds and to identify the exposure period values for pregnant females and the capacity of beryllium to penetrate the placenta and to accumulate in the foetus. (UK)

  20. Picture perfect: ‘4D’ ultrasound and the commoditisation of the private prenatal clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Gareth Martin

    2017-01-01

    Non-medical ‘4D’ ultrasound is commercially advertised as promoting maternal ‘bonding’, providing reassurance, and tendering entertaining experiences for expectant parents. Despite the proliferation of this technology, it has not yet been subjected to sufficient social scientific attention. Drawing on an ethnography of a private prenatal clinic in the UK, I explore how 4D scans, providing detailed real-time images of a foetus, have transformed the prenatal clinic into a site of consumption. I...

  1. Parturition effects on reproductive health in the gilt and sow

    OpenAIRE

    Peltoniemi, Olli Aarno Tapio; Björkman, Stefan; Oliviero, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we address significant characteristics of parturition in the pig and their connection to post-partum reproductive health and fertility. We discuss the normal physiology and behaviour around parturition and the effect of the second phase (expulsion of foetuses) on the third phase of parturition (expulsion of foetal membranes). In addition, we intend to cover retained placenta, and the connection to post-partum uterine health and fertility in the contemporary prolific sow. We al...

  2. Approximate distribution of dose among foetal organs for radioiodine uptake via placenta transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, R. K.; Saunders, M.; Palmer, A. M.; Preece, A. W.

    2001-11-01

    Absorbed radiation doses to internal foetal organs were calculated according to the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) technique in this study. Anthropomorphic phantoms of the pregnant female as in MIRDOSE3 enabled estimation of absorbed dose to the whole foetus at two stages of gestation. Some foetal organ self-doses could have been estimated by invoking simple spherical models for thyroid, liver, etc, but we investigated the use of the MIRDOSE3 new-born phantom as a surrogate for the stage 3 foetus, scaled to be compatible with total foetal body mean absorbed dose/cumulated activity. We illustrate the method for obtaining approximate dose distribution in the foetus near term following intake of 1 MBq of 123I, 124I, 125I or 131I as sodium iodide by the mother using in vivo biodistribution data examples from a good model of placenta transfer. Doses to the foetal thyroid of up to 1.85 Gy MBq-1 were predicted from the 131I uptake data. Activity in the foetal thyroid was the largest contributor to absorbed dose in the foetal body, brain, heart and thymus. Average total doses to the whole foetus ranged from 0.16 to 1.2 mGy MBq-1 for stages 1 and 3 of pregnancy using the MIRDOSE3 program, and were considerably higher than those predicted from the maternal contributions alone. Doses to the foetal thymus and stomach were similar, around 2-3 mGy MBq-1. Some foetal organ doses from the radioiodides were ten times higher than to the corresponding organs of the mother, and up to 100 times higher to the thyroid. The fraction of activity uptakes in foetal organs were distributed similarly to the maternal ones.

  3. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...... during gestation. The neuroendocrine events and their timing in the placental, foetal and maternal compartments are critical for initiation and maintenance of pregnancy, for foetal growth and development, and for parturition. As pregnancy advances, the relative number of trophoblasts increase...

  4. Post-mortem magnetic resonance foetal imaging: a study of morphological correlation with conventional autopsy and histopathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vullo, Annamaria; Panebianco, Valeria; Cannavale, Giuseppe; Aromatario, Mariarosaria; Cipolloni, Luigi; Frati, Paola; Santurro, Alessandro; Vullo, Francesco; Catalano, Carlo; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to offer our experience concerning post-mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR) in foetal death cases and an evaluation of the differences between the findings acquired by PMMR and by forensic autopsy. Fifteen foetuses were recruited from July 2014 to December 2015. These had suffered intrauterine death in women in the 21st to 38th week of gestation who were treated in the emergency department for non-perception of foetal movements. We performed a PMMR on foetuses, 3 ± 1 days on average from the time of death, and then a complete forensic autopsy was performed. All 15 foetuses were examined with a whole-body study protocol, starting from the skull, down to and including the lower limbs. The total time of examination ranged from 20 to 30 min in each case. The external evaluation and description of post-mortem phenomena (maceration), record of the weight and detection and the various measurements of foetal diameters were evaluated before performing autopsy. A complete histopathological study was performed in each case. Out of 15 cases examined, eight were negative for structural anatomical abnormalities and/or diseases, both in the preliminary radiological examination and the traditional autopsy. In the remaining seven cases, pathological findings were detected by PMMR with corresponding results at autopsy. PMMR can provide useful information on foetal medical conditions and result in improved diagnostic classification. It may enable the planning of a more suitable technique before proceeding to autopsy, including focusing on certain aspects of organ pathology otherwise not detectable. The association between PMMR, post-mortem examination and related histological study of the foetus-placenta unit could help reduce the percentage of cases in which the cause of foetal death remains unexplained. Lastly, it may allow a selective sampling of the organ in order to target histological investigations.

  5. Sirenomelia in a Cameroonian woman: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfaw, Frederick Li; Nana, Philip N

    2012-01-01

    Sirenomelia is a rare congenital malformative disorder characterized by fusion of the lower limbs giving a characteristic mermaid-like appearance to the affected foetus. We report a case of sirenomelia occurring in a 19 year old Cameroonian woman following premature rupture of membranes and associated cord prolapse. This is the first documented case in this country. We highlight some of the cultural myths associated with this disorder and discuss our findings relative to the present literature and related controversies on its etiopathogenesis.

  6. The psychological well-being and prenatal bonding of gestational surrogates.

    OpenAIRE

    Lamba, Nishtha; Jadva, Vasanti Harish; Kadam, K; Golombok, Susan Esther

    2018-01-01

    Study question: How does the psychological well-being and prenatal bonding of Indian surrogates differ from a comparison group of mothers? Summary answer: Surrogates had higher levels of depression during pregnancy and post-birth, displayed lower emotional connection with the unborn baby, and greater care towards the healthy growth of the foetus, than the comparison group of mothers. What is already known: Studies in the West have found that surrogates do not suffer long-term psychol...

  7. Effect of sodium fluoride in maternal and offspring rats and its amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Panchal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available High fluoride content is known to cause dental and skeletal abnormalities. In addition, present review indicates that sodium fluoride consumption caused increased number of r=esorptions and dead foetuses. Various skeletal anomalies such as wavy ribs, presence of 14th ribs, lacking 6th sternebrae and incompete ossification of skull occur. All these changes could be due to oxidative stress caused by fluoride consumption. Fluoride-induced changes could be successfully ameliorated by cotreatment with vitamins and calcium.

  8. Metabolic and mineral conditions of retained placenta in highly productive dairy cows: pathogenesis, diagnostics and prevention – a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ryszard Mordak; Józef Nicpoń; Josef Illek

    2017-01-01

    The time around calving in highly productive dairy cows is a critical period in terms of their metabolism, which is connected with high demands of the foetus as well as with the onset of lactation. Retained placenta in cows may have multifactorial aetiology, but in herds which are free from infectious diseases, the most important reasons are; periparturient metabolic changes and disturbances to the internal balance and stress. During the periparturient period, the most important factor causin...

  9. Functional changes motorics of breathing in pregnant women and their influence by the Physiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chytrá, Markéta

    2013-01-01

    During pregnancy there are many changes in the mother organism that influence each other. This bachelor's thesis summarizes the information about these significant changes. The thesis is focused on breathing mechanics and breathing patterns changes and considers ways how to influence and adapt breathing during physiologic pregnancy. One chapter points to psychosomatics of pregnant woman associated with the changes of organ systems and growth of foetus. The main part discusses possibilities of...

  10. Is placental iodine content related to dietary iodine intake?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, R

    2011-08-01

    Delivery of iodine to the foetus depends not only on maternal dietary iodine intake but also on the presence of a functioning placental transport system. A role for the placenta as an iodine storage organ has been suggested, and this study compares the iodine content of placentas from women giving birth at term in Ireland and Iran, areas with median urinary iodine of 79 and 206 μg\\/l respectively.

  11. Approximate distribution of dose among foetal organs for radioiodine uptake via placenta transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millard, R.K. [Medical Physics Research Centre, Bristol Oncology Centre, Bristol (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rkmillard_69@yahoo.co.uk; Saunders, M.; Palmer, A.M.; Preece, A.W. [Medical Physics Research Centre, Bristol Oncology Centre, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2001-11-01

    Absorbed radiation doses to internal foetal organs were calculated according to the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) technique in this study. Anthropomorphic phantoms of the pregnant female as in MIRDOSE3 enabled estimation of absorbed dose to the whole foetus at two stages of gestation. Some foetal organ self-doses could have been estimated by invoking simple spherical models for thyroid, liver, etc, but we investigated the use of the MIRDOSE3 new-born phantom as a surrogate for the stage 3 foetus, scaled to be compatible with total foetal body mean absorbed dose/cumulated activity. We illustrate the method for obtaining approximate dose distribution in the foetus near term following intake of 1 MBq of {sup 123}I, {sup 124}I, {sup 125}I or {sup 131}I as sodium iodide by the mother using in vivo biodistribution data examples from a good model of placenta transfer. Doses to the foetal thyroid of up to 1.85 Gy MBq{sup -1} were predicted from the {sup 131}I uptake data. Activity in the foetal thyroid was the largest contributor to absorbed dose in the foetal body, brain, heart and thymus. Average total doses to the whole foetus ranged from 0.16 to 1.2 mGy MBq{sup -1} for stages 1 and 3 of pregnancy using the MIRDOSE3 program, and were considerably higher than those predicted from the maternal contributions alone. Doses to the foetal thymus and stomach were similar, around 2-3 mGy MBq{sup -1}. Some foetal organ doses from the radioiodides were ten times higher than to the corresponding organs of the mother, and up to 100 times higher to the thyroid. The fraction of activity uptakes in foetal organs were distributed similarly to the maternal ones. (author)

  12. Prenatal detection of a probable heterozygote for ADA deficiency and severe combined immunodeficiency disease using a microradioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.A.; Kleijer, W.J.; Niermeijer, M.F.; Galjaard, H.; Herbschleb-Voogt, E.

    1980-01-01

    A pregnancy at risk for adenosine deaminase deficiency and severe combined immunodeficiency disease has been investigated by assay of adenosine deaminase activity in cultured amniotic fluid cells using a microradioassay. A low-normal level of consistent with heterozygote status in the foetus was found and confirmed after birth by assay of red cell and fibroblast adenosine deaminase activities. It is suggested that the radioassay method offers significant advantages in sensitivity and specificity over the standard spectrophotometric procedure. (author)

  13. The 10-day rule: a misnomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The option of restricting medical irradiation of women of reproductive age to the first 10 days of the menstrual cycle is discussed. The current ICRP proposal to abandon the 10-day option in diagnostic radiography is outlined and some reasons for this action by the ICRP are proposed, including the fact that the most sensitive period for radiation damage to the developing foetus brain is at 10-18 weeks after the first day of the last menstrual period. (U.K.)

  14. Microcephaly, mental retardation and chromosomal aberrations in a girl following radiation therapy during late fetal life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, K H; Jagell, S; Blomquist, H K; Nordenson, I [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden)

    1981-01-01

    A human foetus was heavily irradiated in the thirtieth to the thirty-third week due to carcinoma of the uterine cervix of the mother. Irradiation after 20 weeks of pregnancy is thought not to produce severe abnormalities. However, the child showed microcephaly, mental retardation, stunted growth, microphthalmus, retinal degeneration, cataract and defective dentition. Cytogenetically the frequencies of both chromatid and chromosome breaks were increased.

  15. MedRate: a wearable against child mortality

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    In humanitarian environments, when treating the main causes of child mortality, there are two key vital constants not easily measurable: the heart beat of the foetus and respiration rate of children. During the CERN Medtech:Hack, my team came up with MedRate, an inexpensive wearable able to monitor both. Collaboration is required to make MedRate a reality. Would you join us for a more fair fight against child mortality?

  16. A study of aerobic bacterial pathogens associated with vaginitis in reproductive age group women (15-45 years) and their sensitivity pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeetha K. T.; Saroj Golia; Vasudha C. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is caused by a displacement of the healthy vaginal Lactobacillus species with aerobic pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus that triggers a localized vaginal inflammatory immune response. AV if it is not diagnosed and treated early, especially during pregnancy can place the health of both the mother and the foetus at risk as it is associated with preterm birth, premature rupture of membranes (PROM) and chorioamni...

  17. [Thyroid disorders during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, R

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid disorders may not only be the cause infertility but also increases the incidence of miscarriages and the morbidity of the pregnancies. During pregnancy the demand of thyroid hormones increases to about 30 - 50 % and the thyroid has to cope with this increase. In Germany the iodine intake has improved significantly during the last 20 years, but still is borderline low with an mean intake of about 120 microg iodide per day. Therefore it is still recommended that pregnant women are supplemented with about 100 - 150 microg of iodide during pregnancy and the time of breast-feeding, to avoid hypothyroidism of the foetus with concomitant delay of the brain development. Not only women with subclinical hypothyroidism, but only elevated TPO antibodies have a significant increase in early miscarriage and preterm delivery. An early supplementation with Levothyroxin despite euthyroidism might reduce these risks. Those women also more frequently develop postpartum thyroiditis. This risk can be reduced by a supplementation with selenium during and after pregnancy. Graves' disease is a rare disorder and only about 0,1 - 0,4 pregnancies are affected. The course of the disease is biphasic, with an exacerbation within the first trimester and an improvement thereafter, but a recurrence after delivery. Overt thyrotoxicosis has to be treated with propylthiouracil, to maintain euthyroidism during pregnancy. The TSH receptor antibodies are transferred to the foetus with the risk of thyrotoxicosis. Special care of the foetus is therefore necessary. Transient mild hyperthyroidism may occur in women with very high HCG levels during the first three months of pregnancy. This often is associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. Subclinical hypothyroidism of the mother will disturb the normal development of the foetus and therefore has to be treated even when TSH is within the upper normal level. Special care is necessary in women with elevated TPO antibodies, because these more often

  18. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Bosgra, Sieto; Boon, Polly E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz) using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach and an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three......) and the fraction of individuals with IMoEs vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz is not likely to be of concern for the reproductive development of their male foetuses. However...

  19. Fingerprinting taste buds: intermediate filaments and their implication for taste bud formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, M; Reutter, K; Ganchrow, D; Ganchrow, J R

    2000-01-01

    Intermediate filaments in taste organs of terrestrial (human and chick) as well as aquatic (Xenopus laevis) species were detected using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. During development, the potential importance of the interface between the taste bud primordium and non-gustatory adjacent tissues is evidenced by the distinct immunoreactivity of a subpopulation of taste bud cells for cytokeratins and vimentin. In human foetuses, the selective molecular marker for taste bud primor...

  20. Alternative pathway of metronidazole activation in Trichomonas vaginalis hydrogenosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdý, I.; Cammack, R.; Stopka, Pavel; Kulda, J.; Tachezy, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 12 (2005), s. 5033-5036 ISSN 0066-4804 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NB7377; GA ČR GA204/04/0435; GA MŠk(CZ) OC B22.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : trichomonas-foetus * nitroimidazoles Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.379, year: 2005