WorldWideScience

Sample records for triton beam review

  1. Charge-exchange reactions with a secondary triton beam

    CERN Document Server

    Sherrill, B M; Austin, S M; Bazin, D; Berg, A; Berg, G P A; Caggiano, J; Daito, I; Fujimura, H; Fujita, Y; Fujiwara, M; Hara, K; Harakeh, M N; Jänecke, J; Kawabata, T; Navin, A; Roberts, D A; Steiner, M

    1999-01-01

    A secondary triton beam from fragmentation of 560-MeV alpha-particles has been used in a high-resolution (t, sup 3 He) charge-exchange experiment at intermediate bombarding energies. The experiment was carried out at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory using a sup 4 He beam from the K1200 cyclotron. The radioactive triton beam of (0.5-1.0)x10 sup 6 particles/s with a mean energy of 350 MeV was produced in a production target of the A1200 fragment separator and transported to the target position of the S800 magnetic spectrometer. Ray-tracing and dispersion-matching techniques were employed to detect sup 3 He particles from the sup 1 sup 2 C(t, sup 3 He) sup 1 sup 2 B reaction near 0 deg. . An energy resolution of DELTA E approx 160 keV or DELTA E/E approx 4.6x10 sup - sup 4 (FWHM) was achieved. This is an improvement over our previous results and opens the possibility for studying high-resolution (n,p)-type reactions at intermediate bombarding energies. (author)

  2. Effects of sawtooth crashes on beam ions and fusion product tritons in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, F.B.; Hone, M.A.; Jarvis, O.N.; Loughlin, M.J.; Sadler, G.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of a sawtooth crash on the radial distribution of the slowing down fusion product tritons and on beams ions, is examined with measurements of the 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV neutron emission line-integrals before and after sawtooth crashes. In deuterium discharges, the 14 MeV neutron production was wholly attributable to burnup of the 1 MeV fusion product tritons from d-d fusion. The local emissivity of 14 MeV neutrons, and hence of the profile of thermalizing tritons, is shown to be only weakly affected by crashes in the discharges studied. This is in contradiction with the apparent behaviour of injected beam ions as deduced from a study of the considerable changes in local emissivity of the 2.5 MeV neutrons. Nevertheless, the behaviour of the fusion product tritons is consistent with the scaling of the beam injected deuterium. 1 ref., 6 figs

  3. Effects of sawtooth crashes on beam ions and fusion product tritons in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, F.B.; Hone, M.A.; Jarvis, O.N.; Loughlin, M.J.; Sadler, G. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Adams, J.M.; Bond, D.S.; Watkins, N. [UKAEA Harwell Lab. (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Div.; Howarth, P.J.A. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    The effect of a sawtooth crash on the radial distribution of the slowing down fusion product tritons and on beams ions, is examined with measurements of the 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV neutron emission line-integrals before and after sawtooth crashes. In deuterium discharges, the 14 MeV neutron production was wholly attributable to burnup of the 1 MeV fusion product tritons from d-d fusion. The local emissivity of 14 MeV neutrons, and hence of the profile of thermalizing tritons, is shown to be only weakly affected by crashes in the discharges studied. This is in contradiction with the apparent behaviour of injected beam ions as deduced from a study of the considerable changes in local emissivity of the 2.5 MeV neutrons. Nevertheless, the behaviour of the fusion product tritons is consistent with the scaling of the beam injected deuterium. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  4. Retroperitoneal "triton" tumor. Report of a case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios Acosta José Martín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The triton tumor was described in 1932 by Masson, as a peripheral nerve sheath malignancy with rabdomioblástica differentiation. The retroperitoneal location is extremely rare, only nine cases have been reported in children. The clinical picture depends on the size of the tumor and the organs involved, their retroperitoneal location is usually asymptomatic. The mainstay of treatment is the surgical excision of the tumor. We report the case of a child with retroperitoneal location of the tumor. A complete resection of it was performed. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. He is currently under control. There is no evidence of relapse.

  5. Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2011-10-24

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  6. Triton burnup in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipsham, E.; Jarvis, O.N.; Sadler, G.

    1989-01-01

    Triton burnup measurements have been made at JET using time-integrated copper activation and time-resolved silicon detector techniques. The results confirm the classical nature of both the confinement and the slowing down of the 1 MeV tritons in a plasma. (author) 8 refs., 3 figs

  7. Global Warming on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; hide

    1998-01-01

    Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global warming since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years, significantly faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton. Our result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a c dominant role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes should also be active on Pluto.

  8. Low-Grade Malignant Triton Tumor of the Neck: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taissir Omar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyoblastic differentiation in a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST is termed malignant triton tumor (MTT, a rare neoplasm that poses a diagnostic dilemma in the differential diagnosis of neck masses and portends poor prognosis. We report a sporadic case of MTT of the neck in a 23-year-old female. We present the pathological findings. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the neurogenic origin with S-100 expression and the rhabdomyoblastic differentiation with desmin and vimentin positivity. Radical surgical excision was done. After 4 years there were no signs of recurrence or distant metastasis. The clinical, microscopic, and long-term follow-up of this case are consistent with those of a low-grade malignancy.

  9. Electron beam damage in oxides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes a variety of beam damage phenomena relating to oxides in (scanning) transmission electron microscopes, and underlines the shortcomings of currently popular mechanisms. These phenomena include mass loss, valence state reduction, phase decomposition, precipitation, gas bubble formation, phase transformation, amorphization and crystallization. Moreover, beam damage is also dependent on specimen thickness, specimen orientation, beam voltage, beam current density and beam size. This article incorporates all of these damage phenomena and experimental dependences into a general description, interpreted by a unified mechanism of damage by induced electric field. The induced electric field is produced by positive charges, which are generated from excitation and ionization. The distribution of the induced electric fields inside a specimen is beam-illumination- and specimen-shape- dependent, and associated with the experimental dependence of beam damage. Broadly speaking, the mechanism operates differently in two types of material. In type I, damage increases the resistivity of the irradiated materials, and is thus divergent, resulting in phase separation. In type II, damage reduces the resistivity of the irradiated materials, and is thus convergent, resulting in phase transformation. Damage by this mechanism is dependent on electron-beam current density. The two experimental thresholds are current density and irradiation time. The mechanism comes into effect when these thresholds are exceeded, below which the conventional mechanisms of knock-on and radiolysis still dominate.

  10. Review of electron beam therapy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Almond, Peter R

    2006-01-01

    For over 50 years, electron beams have been an important modality for providing an accurate dose of radiation to superficial cancers and disease and for limiting the dose to underlying normal tissues and structures. This review looks at many of the important contributions of physics and dosimetry to the development and utilization of electron beam therapy, including electron treatment machines, dose specification and calibration, dose measurement, electron transport calculations, treatment and treatment-planning tools, and clinical utilization, including special procedures. Also, future changes in the practice of electron therapy resulting from challenges to its utilization and from potential future technology are discussed. (review)

  11. Collisional Cascades Following Triton's Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuk, Matija; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Stewart-Mukhopadhyay, Sarah T.

    2017-10-01

    Neptune's moon Triton is widely thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbit, most likely through binary dissociation (Agnor and Hamilton, 2006). Triton's original eccentric orbit must have been subsequently circularized by satellite tides (Goldreich et al. 1989). Cuk and Gladman (2005) found that Kozai oscillations make early tidal evolution inefficient, and have proposed that collisions between Triton and debris from pre-existing satellites was the dominant mechanism of shrinking Triton's large post-capture orbit. However, Cuk and Hamilton (DPS 2016), using numerical simulations and results of Stewart and Leinhardt (2012), have found that collisions between regular satellites are unlikely to be destructive, while collisions between prograde moons and Triton are certainly erosive if not catastrophic. An obvious outcome would be pre-existing moon material gradually grinding down Triton and making it reaccrete in the local Laplace plane, in conflict with Triton's large current inclination. We propose that the crucial ingredient for understanding the early evolution of the Neptunian system are the collisions between the moons and the prograde and retrograde debris originating from the pre-existing moons and Triton. In particular, we expect early erosive impact(s) on Triton to generate debris that will, in subsequent collisions, disrupt the regular satellites. If the retrograde material were to dominate at some planetocentric distances, the end result may be a large cloud or disk of retrograde debris that would be accreted by Triton, shrinking Triton's orbit. Some of the prograde debris could survive in a compact disk interior to Triton's pericenter, eventually forming the inner moons of Neptune. We will present results of numerical modeling of these complex dynamical processes at the meeting.

  12. Escaping 1 MeV tritons in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Strachan, J.D.; Boivin, R.; Cavallo, A.; Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.; Mynick, H.E.; White, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    1 MeV tritons created by D-D reactions can simulate the 'single-particle' behavior expected with 3.5 MeV D-T alphas, since the gyroradii and slowing-down of these two particles are similar. This paper describes measurements of the flux of escaping 1 MeV tritons from the TFTR plasma during high power D 0 →D neutral beam injection, and shows that in most cases the observed triton loss is consistent with the classical (single-particle) first-orbit loss model. In this model tritons are lost if their first orbit intersects the wall due to their large banana width, while almost all tritons confined on their first orbit should stay confined until thermalized. The triton detectors are ZnS(Ag) scintillator screens housed in light-tight boxes located just outside the plasma boundary at the bottom of the TFTR vessel. They are particle 'pinhole' cameras which can resolve the triton flux vs. pitch angle (to ±5 o ), energy (to ±50 %), and time (to <20 μsec). The 2-D images of triton flux onto these scintillators are optically coupled to either an intensified TV camera or to photomultiplyer tubes for fast time resolution. The soft x-ray background in an earlier prototype has been eliminated. Although there are presently 8 such detectors in TFTR, this paper discusses results from only the detector located just below the vessel center (R=259 cm, r=102 cm). Note that the '1 MeV triton' signal discussed below also has about a 30 % contribution from 3 MeV protons; however, since these two particles have identical gyroradii they should behave alike. 5 refs., 5 figs

  13. Electron beam flue gas treatment process. Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkonen, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    The basis of the process for electron beam flue gas treatment are presented in the report. In tabular form the history of the research is reviewed. Main dependences of SO 2 and NO x removal efficiencies on different physico-chemical parameters are discussed. Trends concerning industrial process implementation are presented in the paper,finally. (author). 74 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  14. Review of electron beam therapy physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Almond, Peter R

    2006-07-07

    For over 50 years, electron beams have been an important modality for providing an accurate dose of radiation to superficial cancers and disease and for limiting the dose to underlying normal tissues and structures. This review looks at many of the important contributions of physics and dosimetry to the development and utilization of electron beam therapy, including electron treatment machines, dose specification and calibration, dose measurement, electron transport calculations, treatment and treatment-planning tools, and clinical utilization, including special procedures. Also, future changes in the practice of electron therapy resulting from challenges to its utilization and from potential future technology are discussed.

  15. Review of linear collider beam-beam interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P.

    1989-01-01

    Three major effects from the interaction of e/sup +/e/sup /minus// beams---disruption, beamstrahlung, and electron-positron pair creation---are reviewed. For the disruption effects we discuss the luminosity enhancement factor, the maximum and rms disruption angles, and the ''kink instability''. All the results are obtained from computer simulations. Scaling laws for the numerical results and theoretical explanations of the computer acquired phenomena are offered wherever possible. For the beamstrahlung effects we concentrate only on the final electron energy spectrum resulting from multiple photon radiation process, and the deflection angle associated with low energy particles. For the effects from electron-positron pair creation, both coherent and incoherent processes of beamstrahlung pair creation are discussed. In addition to the estimation on total number of such pairs, we also look into the energy spectrum and the deflection angle. 17 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Tritons for the study of the charge-exchange reactions with the LHE streamer chamber: status and some possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramenko, S.A.; Belikov, Yu.A.; Golokhvastov, A.I.; Kirillov, A.D.; Khorozov, S.A.; Komolov, L.N.; Lukstin'sh, Yu.; Rukoyatkin, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The 6 and 9 GeV/c secondary tritons, produced in the 4 He+A→ 3 H+X reaction, were used to study the charge-exchange reactions using a streamer chamber in magnetic field. The triton formation schemes, the beam parameters achieved as well as a way to reduce the beam momentum spread are given in the paper

  17. Triton's streaks as windblown dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Chyba, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    Explanations for the surface streaks observed by Voyager 2 on Triton's southern hemisphere are discussed. It is shown that, despite Triton's tenuous atmosphere, low-cohesion dust trains with diameters of about 5 micron or less may be carried into suspension by aeolian surface shear stress, given expected geostrophic wind speeds of about 10 m/s. For geyser-like erupting dust plumes, it is shown that dust-settling time scales and expected wind velocities can produce streaks with length scales in good agreement with those of the streaks. Thus, both geyserlike eruptions or direct lifting by surface winds appear to be viable mechanisms for the origin of the streaks.

  18. Color and chemistry on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Sagan, Carl

    1990-01-01

    The surface of Triton is very bright but shows subtle yellow to peach hues which probably arise from the production of colored organic compounds from CH4 + N2 and other simple species. In order to investigate possible relationships between chemical processes and the observed surface distribution of chromophores, the surface units are classified according to color/albedo properties, the rates of production of organic chromophores by the action of ultraviolet light and high-energy charged particles is estimated, and rates, spectral properties, and expected seasonal redistribution processes are compared to suggest possible origins of the colors seen on Triton's surface.

  19. Redesigning TRACER trial after TRITON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebruany, Victor L

    2015-10-15

    Designing of smart clinical trials is critical for regulatory approval and future drug utilization. Importantly, trial design should be reconsidered if the interim analyses suggest unexpected harm, or conflicting results were yielded from the other trials within the same therapeutic area. With regard to antiplatelet agents, the perfect example is redesigning of the ongoing PRoFESS trial by eliminating aspirin from clopidogrel arm after the earlier MATCH trial results became available. The goal was to aseess the unchanged TRACER trial design in light of the evidence yielded from the earlier completed TRITON trial. TRACER was designed as a triple versus dual antiplatelet trial in NSTEMI patients with no previous long-term outcome data supporting such aggressive strategy. TRITON data represented dual versus dual antiplatelet therapy, and became available before TRACER enrollment starts revealing prasugrel front-loaded early vascular benefit predominantly in STEMI patients with the growing over time bleeding and cancer risks. Moreover, large prasugrel NSTEMI TRITON cohort exhibited trend towards excess mortality in experimental arm warning against aggressive TRACER design. The long-term TRITON results in general, and especially in the NSTEMI patients challenge unchanged TRACER trial design. Applying dual, rather than triple antiplatelet therapy protocol modification should be considered in TRACER to minimize bleeding, cancer, and non-cardiovascular death risks. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Beam diagnostics in circular machines: Review of new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.

    1990-06-01

    Recent developments in beam diagnostic equipment and measurement techniques have been driven by commercial technological advances, better data analysis algorithms, and the need to measure complex beam properties. The need for such developments is due to the increased diversity, beam intensity, and luminosity/brightness requirements of charged particle circular accelerators. In addition, the advent of fast analog-to-digital converters and cheap, powerful microprocessors have fundamentally changed the approach to beam diagnosis, allowing designers to create systems where signal processing is performed locally at each detector. New beam monitors from a wide variety of circular accelerators are reviewed. A number of interesting or innovative ideas are presented in detail. 56 refs

  1. Description of the Triton reactor; Pile Triton, rapport descriptif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-09-01

    The Triton reactor is an enriched uranium pool type reactor. It began operation in 1959, after a divergence made on the June 30 the same year. Devoted to studies of radiation protection, its core can be displaced in the longitudinal direction. The pool can be separated in two unequal compartments by a wall. The Triton core is placed in a small compartment, the Nereide core in the big compartment. A third compartment without water is called Naiade II, is separated by a concrete wall in which is made a window closed by an aluminium plate (2.50 m x 2.70 m). The Naiade II hole is useful for protection experiments using the Nereide core. After a complete refitting, the power of the triton reactor that reached progressively from 1.2 MW to 2 MW, then 3 MW has reached in August 1965 6.5 MW. The reactor has been specialized in irradiations in fix position, the core become fix, the nereide core has been hung mobile. Since it has been used for structure materials irradiation, for radioelements fabrication and fundamental research. The following descriptions are valid for the period after August 1965. [French] Le reacteur Triton est un reacteur piscine, a uranium enrichi. Il est entre en fonctionnement en 1959, apres une divergence effectuee le 30 juin de cette meme annee. Destine a des etudes de protection contre les rayonnements, son coeur pouvait se deplacer dans le sens longitudinal. La piscine peut etre separee en deux compartiments inegaux par un batardeau. Le coeur triton est place dans le petit compartiment, le coeur Nereide dans le grand compartiment. Un troisieme compartiment sans eau, appele Naiade II, est separe par une paroi en beton dans laquelle est amenagee une fenetre obturee par une plaque d'aluminium (2,50 m x 2,70 m). La fosse Naiade II sert a des experiences de protection utilisant le coeur nereide. Apres une refonte complete, la puissance du reacteur triton qui etait passee progressivement de 1,2 MW a 2 MW, puis 3 MW, a atteint en aout 1965 6, 5 MW

  2. Review of tolerances at the Final Focus Test Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, F.; Burke, D.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Roy, G.; Yamamoto, N.

    1991-01-01

    The authors review the tolerances associated with the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB). The authors have computed the acceptability window of the input beam for orbit jitter, emittance beta functions mismatch, incoming dispersion and coupling; tolerances on magnet alignment, strength and multipole content; and the initial tuneability capture of the line

  3. Review of tolerances at the Final Focus Test Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, F.; Burke, D.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Roy, G.; Yamamoto, N.

    1991-05-01

    We review the tolerances associated with the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB). We have computed the acceptability window of the input beam for orbit jitter, emittance beta functions mismatch, incoming dispersion and coupling; tolerances on magnet alignment, strength and multipole content; and the initial tuneability capture of the line. 2 refs., 1 fig

  4. Exploring Triton with multiple landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2005-01-01

    In our pathway for Outer Planetary Exploration several mission concepts were considered, based on the proposed JIMO mission architecture. This paper describes a JIMO follow-on mission concept to Neptunes largest moon. Triton is a target of interest for outer solar system studies. It has a highly inclined retrograde orbit, suggesting that it may have been a Kuiper Belt object captured by Neptune. Given this assumption its composition, which may include organic materials, would be of significant scientific interest.

  5. Description of the Triton reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-09-01

    The Triton reactor is an enriched uranium pool type reactor. It began operation in 1959, after a divergence made on the June 30 the same year. Devoted to studies of radiation protection, its core can be displaced in the longitudinal direction. The pool can be separated in two unequal compartments by a wall. The Triton core is placed in a small compartment, the Nereide core in the big compartment. A third compartment without water is called Naiade II, is separated by a concrete wall in which is made a window closed by an aluminium plate (2.50 m x 2.70 m). The Naiade II hole is useful for protection experiments using the Nereide core. After a complete refitting, the power of the triton reactor that reached progressively from 1.2 MW to 2 MW, then 3 MW has reached in August 1965 6.5 MW. The reactor has been specialized in irradiations in fix position, the core become fix, the nereide core has been hung mobile. Since it has been used for structure materials irradiation, for radioelements fabrication and fundamental research. The following descriptions are valid for the period after August 1965 [fr

  6. REVIEW OF STRENGTHENING REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS USING CFRP LAMINATE

    OpenAIRE

    SAGATOV BAHODIR UKTAMOVICH; SHODMONOV ANARQUL YULDASHEVICH; ALIYEV MASHRAB RAHMONQULOVICH; DJURAYEV UKTAM URALBAYEVICH

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Literature Review of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips to reinforced concrete (RC) as a strengthening solution for T-beams. Although a great deal of research has been carried out on Rectangular beams strengthened with Fibre-Reinforced Polymer composites (FRP), Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been increasingly studied for their application in the flexural or shear strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) members. A detailed discussion of the ...

  7. Triton Blushes: A Clue to Global Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, B. J.; Hicks, M. D.; Newburn, R. L., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The large Neptunian satellite Triton is a geologically active body that apparently undergoes complex seasonal changes in its 165 year journey around the sun. Because it is the vehicle for the seasonal transport of volatiles, Triton's atmosphere is expected to undergo large changes in temperature and pressure on a time scale of decades.

  8. Physics with polarized beams: experimental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krisch, A.D.

    1978-01-01

    In high energy physics, discussion of spin effects generally involves proton--proton scattering, that being the area where the best experiments could be performed. Several such experiments are reviewed

  9. Electron beam processing of fresh produce - A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Suresh D.; Shayanfar, Shima

    2018-02-01

    To meet the increasing global demand for fresh produce, robust processing methods that ensures both the safety and quality of fresh produce are needed. Since fresh produce cannot withstand thermal processing conditions, most of common safety interventions used in other foods are ineffective. Electron beam (eBeam) is a non-thermal technology that can be used to extend the shelf life and ensure the microbiological safety of fresh produce. There have been studies documenting the application of eBeam to ensure both safety and quality in fresh produce, however, there are still unexplored areas that still need further research. This is a critical review on the current literature on the application of eBeam technology for fresh produce.

  10. A review of electron beam dose calculation algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kell, P.A. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia)]|[Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). Dept. of Mathematical Physics; Hoban, P.W. [Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW (Australia)

    1996-09-01

    The advantage of accurate dose calculation in radiotherapy is the availability of better quality information with which to prescribe treatments, and also increased confidence when optimisation procedures are applied in the planning process. Due to the continual increase in computation speed through improvements in technology, a number of advanced electron beam dose calculation algorithms have recently been developed which incorporate physically rigorous modelling of the scattering and interaction processes involved in electron transport. These algorithms are significantly more accurate than those employed by commercially available radiotherapy planning systems. The advantages and disadvantages of various calculation methods are discussed and reviewed. These include the 3D Pencil beam method, the Pencil Beam Redefinition Method, the Multi-ray model, theoretical perturbative methods, the Phase Space Evolution model, Monte Carlo techniques, the Superposition/Convolution method, the Macro-Monte Carlo algorithm, the Super-Monte Carlo method and the Voxel-based Monte Carlo method are discussed in this review. 120 refs., 15 figs.

  11. Cone beam computed tomography in Endodontics - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, S.; Durack, C.; Abella, F.; Shemesh, H.; Roig, M.; Lemberg, K.

    2015-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) produces undistorted three-dimensional information of the maxillofacial skeleton, including the teeth and their surrounding tissues with a lower effective radiation dose than computed tomography. The aim of this paper is to: (i) review the current literature on

  12. Did Triton Destroy Neptune's First Moons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    Neptunes moon system is not what we would expect for a gas giant in our solar system. Scientists have now explored the possibility that Neptune started its life with an ordinary system of moons that was later destroyed by the capture of its current giant moon, Triton.An Odd SystemOur current understanding of giant-planet formation predicts a period of gas accretion to build up the large size of these planets. According to models, the circumplanetary gas disks that surround the planets during this time then become the birthplaces of the giant planets satellite systems, producing systems of co-planar and prograde (i.e., orbiting in the same direction as the planets rotation) satellites similar to the many-moon systems of Jupiter or Saturn.Tritons orbit is tilted relative to the inner Neptunian satellite orbits. [NASA, ESA, and A. Feild (STScI)]Neptune, however, is quirky. This gas giant has surprisingly few satellites only 14 compared to, say, the nearly 70 moons of Jupiter and most of them are extremely small. One of Neptunes moons is an exception to this, however: Triton, which contains 99.7% of the mass of Neptunes entire satellite system!Tritons orbit has a number of unusual properties. The orbit is retrograde Triton orbits in the opposite direction as Neptunes rotation which is unique behavior among large moons in our solar system. Tritons orbit is also highly inclined, and yet the moons path is nearly circular and lies very close to Neptune.The distribution of impact velocities in the authors simulations for primordial satellite interactions with Triton, in three cases of different satellite mass ratios. In the low-mass case a third of the mass ratio of the Uranian satellite system 88% of simulations ended with Triton surviving on its high-inclination orbit. The survival rate was only 12% in the high-mass case. [Adapted from Rufu et al. 2017]How did this monster of a satellite get its strange properties, and why is Neptunes system so odd compared to what we

  13. Neutral-beam-injected tokamak fusion reactors: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1976-08-01

    The theories of energetic-ion velocity distributions, stability, injection, and orbits were summarized. The many-faceted role of the energetic ions in plasma heating, fueling, and current maintenance, as well as in the direct enhancement of fusion power multiplication and power density, is discussed in detail for three reactor types. The relevant implications of recent experimental results on several beam-injected tokamaks are examined. The behavior of energetic ions is found to be in accordance with classical theory, large total ion energy densities are readily achieved, and plasma equilibrium and stability are maintained. The status of neutral-beam injectors and of conceptual design studies of beam-driven reactors are briefly reviewed. The principal plasma-engineering problems are those associated directly with achieving quasi-stationary operation

  14. A review of electron beam dose calculation algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keall, P J; Hoban, P W

    1996-09-01

    The advantage of accurate dose calculation in radiotherapy is the availability of better quality information with which to prescribe treatments, and also increased confidence when optimisation procedures are applied in the planning process. Due to the continual increase in computation speed through improvements in technology, a number of advanced electron beam dose calculation algorithms have recently been developed which incorporate physically rigorous modelling of the scattering and interaction processes involved in electron transport. These algorithms are significantly more accurate than those employed by commercially available radiotherapy planning systems. The advantages and disadvantages of the 3D Pencil beam method, the Pencil Beam Redefinition Method, the Multi-ray model, theoretical perturbative methods, the Phase Space Evolution model, Monte Carlo techniques, the Superposition/Convolution method, the Macro-Monte Carlo algorithm, the Super-Monte Carlo method and the Voxel-based Monte Carlo method are discussed in this review.

  15. Triton-3He relative and differential flows and the high density behavior of nuclear symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, Gaochan; Li, Baoan; Chen, Liewen

    2010-01-01

    Using a transport model coupled with a phase-space coalescence after-burner we study the triton- 3 He relative and differential transverse flows in semi-central 132 Sn + 124 Sn reactions at a beam energy of 400 MeV/nucleon. We find that the triton- 3 He pairs carry interesting information about the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. The t- 3 He relative flow can be used as a particularly powerful probe of the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy. (author)

  16. Polarized triton scattering from 26Mg, 27Al and 28Si at 17 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardekopf, R.A.; Brown, R.E.; Correll, F.D.; Ohlsen, G.G.

    1980-01-01

    Differential-cross-section and analyzing-power angular distributions were measured for 17 MeV tritons elastically scattered from targets of 26 Mg, 27 Al, and 28 Si in the angular range 20 to 160 0 . The experiment was performed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Van de Graaff facility using the Lamb-shift polarized triton source and the supercube scattering chamber. A pair of detector telescopes with angular resolutions of +-0.4 0 detected the reaction products, with mass identification and storage performed by an on-line computer. The triton beam intensity available at the target was about 70 nA with a polarization of 0.77. The target thicknesses were about 3 mg/cm 2 , although thinner targets were used for the 27 Al forward-angle data

  17. Cone beam computed tomography in Endodontics - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S; Durack, C; Abella, F; Shemesh, H; Roig, M; Lemberg, K

    2015-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) produces undistorted three-dimensional information of the maxillofacial skeleton, including the teeth and their surrounding tissues with a lower effective radiation dose than computed tomography. The aim of this paper is to: (i) review the current literature on the applications and limitations of CBCT; (ii) make recommendations for the use of CBCT in Endodontics; (iii) highlight areas of further research of CBCT in Endodontics. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Atmospheric Structure of Triton and Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, James L.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this research was to better determine the atmospheric structures of Triton and Pluto through further analysis of three occultation data sets obtained with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO.) As the research progressed, we concentrated our efforts on the Triton data, as this appeared to be the most fruitful. Three papers have been prepared as a result of this research. The first paper presents new results about Triton's atmospheric structure from the analysis of all ground-based stellar occultation data recorded to date, including one single-chord occultation recorded on 1993 July 10 and nine occultation lightcurves from the double-star event on 1995 August 14. These stellar occultation observations made both in the visible and in the infrared have good spatial coverage of Triton, including the first Triton central-flash observations, and are the first data to probe the altitude level 20-100 km on Triton. The small-planet lightcurve model of J. L. Elliot and L. A. Young was generalized to include stellar flux refracted by the far limb, and then fitted to the data. Values of the pressure, derived from separate immersion and emersion chords, show no significant trends with latitude, indicating that Triton's atmosphere is spherically symmetric at approximately 50 km altitude to within the error of the measurements; however, asymmetry observed in the central flash indicates the atmosphere is not homogenous at the lowest levels probed (approximately 20 km altitude). From the average of the 1995 occultation data, the equivalent isothermal temperature of the atmosphere is 47 plus or minus 1 K and the atmospheric pressure at 1400 km radius (approximately 50 km altitude) is 1.4 plus or minus 0.1 microbar. Both of these are not consistent with a model based on Voyager UVS and RSS observations in 1989. The atmospheric temperature from the occultation is 5 K colder than that predicted by the model and the observed pressure is a factor of 1.8 greater than the

  19. Review of medical radiography and tomography with proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert P.

    2018-01-01

    The use of hadron beams, especially proton beams, in cancer radiotherapy has expanded rapidly in the past two decades. To fully realize the advantages of hadron therapy over traditional x-ray and gamma-ray therapy requires accurate positioning of the Bragg peak throughout the tumor being treated. A half century ago, suggestions had already been made to use protons themselves to develop images of tumors and surrounding tissue, to be used for treatment planning. The recent global expansion of hadron therapy, coupled with modern advances in computation and particle detection, has led several collaborations around the world to develop prototype detector systems and associated reconstruction codes for proton computed tomography (pCT), as well as more simple proton radiography, with the ultimate intent to use such systems in clinical treatment planning and verification. Recent imaging results of phantoms in hospital proton beams are encouraging, but many technical and programmatic challenges remain to be overcome before pCT scanners will be introduced into clinics. This review introduces hadron therapy and the perceived advantages of pCT and proton radiography for treatment planning, reviews its historical development, and discusses the physics related to proton imaging, the associated experimental and computation issues, the technologies used to attack the problem, contemporary efforts in detector and computational development, and the current status and outlook.

  20. TOPICAL REVIEW: Dose calculations for external photon beams in radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnesjö, Anders; Mania Aspradakis, Maria

    1999-11-01

    Dose calculation methods for photon beams are reviewed in the context of radiation therapy treatment planning. Following introductory summaries on photon beam characteristics and clinical requirements on dose calculations, calculation methods are described in order of increasing explicitness of particle transport. The simplest are dose ratio factorizations limited to point dose estimates useful for checking other more general, but also more complex, approaches. Some methods incorporate detailed modelling of scatter dose through differentiation of measured data combined with various integration techniques. State-of-the-art methods based on point or pencil kernels, which are derived through Monte Carlo simulations, to characterize secondary particle transport are presented in some detail. Explicit particle transport methods, such as Monte Carlo, are briefly summarized. The extensive literature on beam characterization and handling of treatment head scatter is reviewed in the context of providing phase space data for kernel based and/or direct Monte Carlo dose calculations. Finally, a brief overview of inverse methods for optimization and dose reconstruction is provided.

  1. Effects of beam-beam collisions on storage-ring performance - a pedagogical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schonfeld, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of the experimental and theoretical literature on colliding-beam effects in both leptonic and hadronic storage rings. For the most part, this literature is rather technical and, to the novice, both obscurely written and hard to locate. Although there have already been several symposia on the subject, as well as a number of reviews for specialists there has up till now been no unified and pedagogical exposition. The present work represents an attempt to fill this gap. The material is grouped into four major areas: observational phenomenology, computer simulation, mathematical background, and theoretical models. 113 references, 36 figures

  2. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam drilling: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Girish Dutt; Pandey, Arun Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Laser beam drilling (LBD) is one of non contact type unconventional machining process that are employed in machining of stiff and high-strength materials, high strength temperature resistance materials such as; metal alloys, ceramics, composites and superalloys. Most of these materials are difficult-to-machine by using conventional machining methods. Also, the complex and precise holes may not be obtained by using the conventional machining processes which may be obtained by using unconventional machining processes. The laser beam drilling in one of the most important unconventional machining process that may be used for the machining of these materials with satisfactorily. In this paper, the attention is focused on the experimental and theoretical investigations on the pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling of different categories of materials such as ferrous materials, non-ferrous materials, superalloys, composites and Ceramics. Moreover, the review has been emphasized by the use of pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling of different materials in order to enhance productivity of this process without adverse effects on the drilled holes quality characteristics. Finally, the review is concluded with the possible scope in the area of pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling. This review work may be very useful to the subsequent researchers in order to give an insight in the area of pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling of different materials and research gaps available in this area.

  3. SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF OCTYLPHENOL ETHOXYLATE NONIONICS (TRITON X-100, TRITON X-114 AND TRITON X-405 AND THE TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON THIS PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliha Sidim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface tensions and condutvities of aqueous solutions of nonionic surfactants at various concentrations were measured at diffferent temperatures.The critical micelle concentration (CMC of aqueous solutions of three different octylphenol ethoxylate nonionics(Triton X-114, Triton X-100 and Triton X-405 are determined at different temperatures.The effect of the ethylene oxide chain length and temperature on the CMC is also determined.

  4. A simple and realistic triton wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomnitz-Adler, J.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1980-01-01

    We propose a simple triton wave function that consists of a product of three correlation operators operating on a three-body spin-isospin state. This wave function is formally similar to that used in the recent variational theories of nuclear matter, the main difference being in the long-range behavior of the correlation operators. Variational calculations are carried out with the Reid potential, using this wave function in the so-called 'symmetrized product' and 'independent pair' forms. The triton energy and density distributions obtained with the symmetrized product wave function agree with those obtained in Faddeev and other variational calculations using harmonic oscillator states. The proposed wave function and calculational methods can be easily generalized to treat the four-nucleon α-particle. (orig.)

  5. Triton - Stratospheric molecules and organic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Singh, Sushil K.; Khare, B. N.; Sagan, Carl

    1989-01-01

    Continuous-flow plasma discharge techniques show production rates of hydrocarbons and nitriles in N2 + CH4 atmospheres appropriate to the stratosphere of Titan, and indicate that a simple eddy diffusion model together with the observed electron flux quantitatively matches the Voyager IRIS observations for all the hydrocarbons, except for the simplest ones. Charged particle chemistry is very important in Triton's stratosphere. In the more CH4-rich case of Titan, many hydrocarbons and nitriles are produced in high yield. If N2 is present, the CH4 fraction is low, but hydrocarbons and nitriles are produced in fair yield, abundances of HCN and C2H2 in Triton's stratosphere exceed 10 to the 19th molecules/sq cm per sec, and NCCN, C3H4, and other species are predicted to be present. These molecules may be detected by IRIS if the stratosphere is as warm as expected. Both organic haze and condensed gases will provide a substantial UV and visible opacity in Triton's atmosphere.

  6. Topological Insulator Film Growth by Molecular Beam Epitaxy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa P. Ginley

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will review recent progress in the growth of topological insulator (TI thin films by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. The materials we focus on are the V2-VI3 family of TIs. These materials are ideally bulk insulating with surface states housing Dirac excitations which are spin-momentum locked. These surface states are interesting for fundamental physics studies (such as the search for Majorana fermions as well as applications in spintronics and other fields. However, the majority of TI films and bulk crystals exhibit significant bulk conductivity, which obscures these states. In addition, many TI films have a high defect density. This review will discuss progress in reducing the bulk conductivity while increasing the crystal quality. We will describe in detail how growth parameters, substrate choice, and growth technique influence the resulting TI film properties for binary and ternary TIs. We then give an overview of progress in the growth of TI heterostructures. We close by discussing the bright future for TI film growth by MBE.

  7. Calculation of triton confinement and burn-up in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Battistoni, P.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical investigation is made of the confinement and subsequent burn-up of fusion produced tritons in a deuterium Tokamak plasma. Explicit approximations are obtained for the triton confinement factor, clearly displaying the scaling with physical parameters. The importance of pitch angle scattering losses during the triton slowing down is also estimated. A comparison with experiments and numerical calculations on the FT Tokamak slows good qualitative agreement. (authors)

  8. Review on structured optical field generated from array beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tianyue; Zhou, Pu; Ma, Yanxing; Zhi, Dong

    2018-03-01

    Structured optical field (SOF), which includes vortex beams, non-diffraction beams, cylindrical vector beams and so on, has been under intensive investigation theoretically and experimentally in recent years. Generally, current research focus on the extraordinary properties (non-diffraction propagation, helical wavefront, rotation of electrical field, et al), which can be widely applied in micro-particle manipulation, super-resolution imaging, free-space communication and so on. There are mainly two technical routes, that is, inner-cavity and outer-cavity (spatial light modulators, diffractive phase holograms, q-plates). To date, most of the SOFs generated from both technical routes involves with single monolithic beam. As a novel technical route, SOF based on array beams has the advantage in more flexible freedom degree and power scaling potential. In this paper, research achievements in SOF generation based on array beams are arranged and discussed in detail. Moreover, experiment of generating exotic beam by array beams is introduced, which illustrates that SOF generated from array beams is theoretically valid and experimentally feasible. SOF generated from array beams is also beneficial for capacity increasing and data receiving for free-space optical communication systems at long distance.

  9. Malignant Triton Tumor (MTT) of the neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristine Bjørndal; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2006-01-01

    Malignant Triton Tumor (MTT) is a rare, malignant periphere nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. One third of described MTT's were located at the head and neck region. One third of these are associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. MTT most often appears in the third decade....... MTT's are very aggressive tumors with early metastases and the overall survival is poor (26%). Therefore, early diagnosis and correct treatment is of utmost importance. We report a case of MTT of the left supraclavicular region in a 41-year-old man. We present the pathological findings, both light...

  10. Review of ion beam therapy: Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Jose R.

    2000-06-01

    First therapy efforts at the Bevalac using neon ions took place in the 70's and 80's. Promising results led to construction of HIMAC in Chiba Japan, and more recently to therapy trials at GSI. Both these facilities are now treating patients with carbon beams. Advances in both accelerator technology and beam delivery have taken place at these two centers. Plans are well along for new facilities in Europe and Japan.

  11. The role of Triton surfactant in anisotropic etching of {1 1 0} reflective planes on (1 0 0) silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Drago; Vrtacnik, Danilo; Aljancic, Uros; Mozek, Matej; Amon, Slavko

    2005-06-01

    Etching characteristics and properties of {1 1 0} silicon crystal planes used as 45° optical mirrors for deflecting optical beams from/to optical fibers were investigated. Fiber aligning grooves and passive mirror-like planes were realized by wet micromachining of (1 0 0) silicon in KOH IPA and TMAH IPA systems. Implementation of Triton-x-100 surfactant as an additive to 25% TMAH in anisotropic etching of {1 1 0} silicon passive mirror planes is reported and discussed. It was found that Triton-x-100 contents in the range of 10 200 ppm to the 25% TMAH water etchant significantly increase the anisotropy mostly by decreasing the {1 1 0} etch rate and retaining the {1 0 0} etch rate. It is also shown that {1 1 0} surface roughness is substantially improved compared to two other etching systems. Furthermore, efficient convex corner underetching reduction is demonstrated. The results of optical characterization of passive mirrors with 632 nm incident light show reduced scattering of reflected optical beam due to improved microroughness for mirrors made by TMAH Triton. For the reflection of the optical beam with 1.33 µm and 1.54 µm wavelengths, sputtered layer of gold is used as reflective coating on silicon mirrors thus increasing the reflected optical beam intensity by an additional 8%.

  12. Production and focusing of high-currents beams of relativistic electrons up to high densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, A.V.; Korolev, V.D.; Sidorov, Y.L.; Smirnov, V.P.

    1975-01-01

    The results of beam focusing experiments carried out on the ''MS'' and ''Triton'' accelerators are presented. The magnetic insulation of vacuum lines is described. Some experiments on beam focusing in the diode gap with a plasma filling are discussed. (MOW)

  13. Evidence for the di-triton resonance in 6He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Nakayama, S.

    2002-01-01

    A di-triton cluster state at highly excited energies in 6 He has been investigated via the ( 7 Li, 7 Be) reaction with an incident energy of 65 MeV/A. Decay charged-particles from excited states in 6 He were measured in coincidence with 7 Be ejectiles using solid-state detectors. A prominent bump was observed at E x =18 MeV in the binary triton decay channel. The branching ratio of the binary triton decay channel from this bump was 100% based on the spectrum decomposition analysis. (author)

  14. Tritons and tritides as the solute and diffusing species in ceramic tritium breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, A.K.; Johnson, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Intragranular diffusion of tritium is an inherent participant in the process of releasing tritium from lithium-containing ceramics that are used to breed tritium in a fusion reactor. The nature of this transport is reviewed in terms of the understanding established for the mechanism of hydrogen migration in other oxides, namely, that the diffusing species is the proton and that it moves from oxide ion to oxide ion, thereby giving rise to apparent hydroxide migration. Analogously, the triton, transiently bonded to successive oxides and forming successive tritoxides, is taken to be the dominant migrating species in ceramic breeders. In addition, tritide becomes a significant participant at low oxygen activity. The relationship of tritons and tritides as the migrating species to the observed release of both reduced and oxidized forms can be understood in terms of the thermodynamic conditions that prevail. Mechanisms exist that can be proposed to rationalize the participation of these species

  15. Deuteron-, triton - and alpha - clusters in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, H.; Coelho, H.T.; Delfino, A.

    1981-01-01

    It is studied with a simple model how deuteron-, triton- and α-clusters behave concerning their cluster structure identities during the scatterring process and just after reaching nuclear matter of finite size. (Author) [pt

  16. Triton Hopper: Exploring Neptune's Captured Kuiper Belt Object

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a hopper vehicle using a radioisotope thermal rocket engine, using in-situ propellant, to explore Neptune's moon Triton. This moon is thought to be a...

  17. Shear Strengthening of RC T Beam using CFRP Laminate: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    M.B.S. Alferjani; A.A. Abdul Samad; N. Mohamad; M. Hilton; N. Ali

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the Literature Review of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips to reinforced concrete (RC) as a strengthening solution for T-beams. Although a great deal of research has been carried out on Rectangular beams strengthened with Fibre-Reinforced Polymer composites (FRP), Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been increasingly studied for their application in the flexural or shear strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) members. A detailed discussion of the ...

  18. Review of electron beam microinstabilities and their relevance to EBIS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma kinetic theory and some examples of microinstabilities are briefly reviewed. Although the velocity space configuration of any EBIS is inherently susceptible to a number of classical beam microinstabilities, the small radial dimension of an EBIS plasma may prevent modes from occurring in EBIS traps due to physical limitation. In EBIS devices with high electron beam compression, where the potential for beam microinstabilities is great, the radial dimension is smaller than the Debye length, which renders plasma kinetic theory invalid. Potential for parametric instabilities exists due to coupling of structure excited modes into plasma modes by various mode-mode coupling ''decay'' processes

  19. Voyager IRIS Measurements of Triton's Thermal Emission: Impllications for Pluto?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansberry, John A.; Spencer, John; Linscott, Ivan

    2015-11-01

    The New Horizons Pluto encounter data set includes unique observations obtained using the Radio Science experiment to measure the night-side thermal emission at centimeter wavelengths, well beyond the emission peak (in the 70 to 100 micron range). 26 years ago the Voyager 2 Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) obtained spectra in the 30 - 50 micron wavelength range to try and detect thermal emission from Pluto's sibling, Triton. Conrath etal. (1989) analyzed 16 of the IRIS spectra of Triton's dayside and derived a weak limit of 36 K - 41 K. We have analysed those, and an additional 75 spectra, to refine the limits on the temperature of Triton's surface, and to explore diurnal differences in the thermal emission. Triton results from other Voyager instruments provide important constraints on our interpretation of the IRIS data, as do Spitzer measurements of Pluto's thermal emission.For unit-emissivity, average temperature is 34 K, inconsistent with the pressure of Triton's atmosphere (13 - 19 microbar), the presence of beta-phase nitrogen ice on the surface, and the likely presence ofwarm regions on the surface. The atmospheric pressure requires nitrogen ice temperatures of 37.4 K - 38.1 K, which in turn requires emissivity of 0.31--0.53. Such a low emissivity in this spectral region might be expected if the surface is dominated by nitrogen or methane ice. Averages of data subsets show evidence for brightness temperature variations across Triton's surface. Surprisingly, the data seem to indicate that Triton's nightside equatorial region was warmer than on the dayside.These Voyager results for Triton provide a useful context for interpreting New Horizons and ALMA observations of emission from Pluto in the sub-millimeter and centimeter region. JWST will be capable of detecting Triton's and Pluto's 10 - 28 micron thermal emission, although scattered light from Neptune may be an issue for the Triton. Combined with new capabilities of ALMA to measure the sub

  20. A Review on Strengthening Steel Beams Using FRP under Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kamruzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the application of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP composites for strengthening structural elements has become an efficient option to meet the increased cyclic loads or repair due to corrosion or fatigue cracking. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the existing FRP reinforcing techniques to care for fatigue damaged structural steel elements. This study covers the surface treatment techniques, adhesive curing, and support conditions under cyclic loading including fatigue performance, crack propagation, and failure modes with finite element (FE simulation of the steel bridge girders and structural elements. FRP strengthening composites delay initial cracking, reduce the crack growth rate, extend the fatigue life, and decrease the stiffness decay with residual deflection. Prestressed carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP is the best strengthening option. End anchorage prevents debonding of the CRRP strips at the beam ends by reducing the local interfacial shear and peel stresses. Hybrid-joint, nanoadhesive, and carbon-flex can also be attractive for strengthening systems.

  1. Pluto and Triton: Interactions Between Volatiles and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, D. P.

    2001-01-01

    Volatiles moving across the surfaces of Pluto and Triton can give rise to interesting dynamical consequences. Conversely, measurement of dynamical states can help constrain the movement of volatiles and interior structure of both bodies. Polar wander may theoretically occur on both Triton and Pluto. Triton's obliquity is low, so that the equatorial regions receive more insolation than the poles. Hence there is a tendency for nitrogen ice to sublime at the equator and condense at the poles, creating polar caps. If the nitrogen supply is large enough, then these caps could move in approximately 10(exp 5) years the global equivalent of 200 m of ice to the poles. At this point the equatorial moment of inertia becomes larger than the moment of inertia measured about the rotation axis, so that Triton overbalances and becomes dynamically unstable. The satellite then undergoes polar wander, restoring stability when the new equator contains the excess matter. Hence the pole may be continually wandering. Neptune raises a permanent tidal bulge on Triton, so that the satellite's surface is elongated like a football, with the long axis pointing at Neptune. This is expected to be the axis about which the pole wanders. Volatile migration would resurface the satellite to some depth and wandering would disturb leading side/trailing side crater statistics. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Development process of new bumper beam for passenger car: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoodi, M.M.; Sapuan, S.M.; Aidy, A.; Abu Osman, N.A.; Oshkour, A.A.; Wan Abas, W.A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The process of new bumper beam development for passenger car is discussed. ► A new bumper system has been added to the previous developed bumper systems. ► The flow chart of design and analysis of bumper beam is shown. ► Different analysis for developing new bumper beam before production is discussed. ► The process of material selection in bumper beam is discussed. -- Abstract: Bumper beam absorbs the accidental kinetic energy by deflection in low-speed impact and by deformation in high-speed impact. The safety regulations “low-, and high-speed, and pedestrian impacts” along with new environmental restrictions “end-of-life vehicles” increased the complexity level of bumper system design. The new bumper design must be flexible enough to reduce the passenger and occupant injury and stay intact in low-speed impact besides being stiff enough to dissipate the kinetic energy in high-speed impact. The reinforcement beam plays a vital role in safety and it must be validated through finite-element analysis (FEA) and experimental tests before mass production. The careful design and analysis of bumper beam effective parameters can optimize the strength, reduce the weight, and increase the possibility of utilizing biodegradable and recyclable materials to reduce the environmental pollution. Developing the correct design and analysis procedures prevents design re-modification. On the other hand, analysis of the most effective parameters conducive to high bumper beam strength increases the efficiency of product development. Cross section, longitudinal curvature, fixing method, rib thickness, and strength are some of the significant design parameters in bumper beam production. This study critically reviews the related literature on bumper design to come up with the optimal bumper beam design process. It particularly focuses on the effective parameters in the design of bumper beam and their most suitable values or ranges of values. The results can

  3. Resist materials for proton beam writing: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.A. van; Malar, P.; Wang, Y.H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PBW can now achieve 19 nm details in HSQ and 65 nm in PMMA. • A complete table of resist materials for PBW has been presented, including minimum feature size, achievable aspect ratio, suitability for electroplating and where available contrast of the resist. • PBW fabricated molds can now be used for single DNA molecule detection, single DNA manipulation and large scale Genome mapping. - Abstract: Proton beam writing (PBW) is a lithographic technique that has been developed since the mid 1990s, initially in Singapore followed by several groups around the world. MeV protons while penetrating materials will maintain a practically straight path. During the continued slowing down of a proton in material it will mainly interact with substrate electrons and transfer a small amount of energy to each electron, the induced secondary electrons will modify the molecular structure of resist within a few nanometers around the proton track. The recent demonstration of high aspect ratio sub 20 nm lithography in HSQ shows the potential of PBW. To explore the full capabilities of PBW, the understanding of the interaction of fast protons with different resist materials is important. Here we give an update of the growing number of resist materials that have been evaluated for PBW. In particular we evaluate the exposure and development strategies for the most promising resist materials like PMMA, HSQ, SU-8 and AR-P and compare their characteristics with respect to properties such as contrast and sensitivity. Besides an updated literature survey we also present new findings on AR-P and PMGI resists. Since PBW is a direct write technology it is important to look for fast ways to replicate micro and nanostructures. In this respect we will discuss the suitability and performance of several resists for Ni electroplating for mold fabrication in nano imprint technologies. We will summarize with an overview of proton resist characteristics like sensitivity, contrast

  4. Triton burnup measurements in KSTAR using a neutron activation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jungmin; Cheon, MunSeong; Kim, Jun Young; Rhee, T.; Kim, Junghee; Shi, Yue-Jiang; Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of the time-integrated triton burnup for deuterium plasma in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) have been performed following the simultaneous detection of the d-d and d-t neutrons. The d-d neutrons were measured using a 3He proportional counter, fission chamber, and activated indium sample, whereas the d-t neutrons were detected using activated silicon and copper samples. The triton burnup ratio from KSTAR discharges is found to be in the range 0.01%-0.50% depending on the plasma conditions. The measured burnup ratio is compared with the prompt loss fraction of tritons calculated with the Lorentz orbit code and the classical slowing-down time. The burnup ratio is found to increase as plasma current and classical slowing-down time increase.

  5. A thermal model for the seasonal nitrogen cycle on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Candice J.; Paige, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The seasonal N2-cycle model presently used to characterize such observed phenomena on Triton as atmospheric pressure and surface albedo features at the time of the Voyager encounter incorporates diurnal and seasonal subsurface heat conduction, and can account for the heat capacity of N2 frost deposits. The results obtained by this model differ from those of previous studies in that they do not predict the seasonal freezing-out of the Triton atmosphere; even for a wide range of input parameters, the bright southern polar cap is seen as rather unlikely to be N2. The results support the microphysical arguments for the presence of either dark or smooth translucent N2 frosts on the Triton surface.

  6. Technical review of the Sandia Laboratories' Particle Beam Fusion Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-18

    This report considers the technical aspects of Sandia Laboratories' Particle Beam Fusion Program and examines the program's initial goals, the progress made to date towards reaching those goals, and the future plans or methods of reaching those original or modified goals. A summary of Sandia Laboratories' effort, which seeks to demonstrate that high voltage pulsed power generated high-current electron or light ion beams can be used to ignite a deuterium or tritium pellet, is provided. A brief review and assessment of the Sandia Pulse Power Program is given. Several critical issues and summaries of the committee members' opinions are discussed.

  7. Coherent beam-beam effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    There are two physical pictures that describe the beam-beam interaction in a storage ring collider: The weak-strong and the strong-strong pictures. Both pictures play a role in determining the beam-beam behavior. This review addresses only the strong-strong picture. The corresponding beam dynamical effects are referred to as the coherent beam-beam effects. Some basic knowledge of the weak-strong picture is assumed. To be specific, two beams of opposite charges are considered. (orig.)

  8. Time-resolved triton burnup measurement using the scintillating fiber detector in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, K.; Isobe, M.; Nishitani, T.; Murakami, S.; Seki, R.; Nakata, M.; Takada, E.; Kawase, H.; Pu, N.; LHD Experiment Group

    2018-03-01

    Time-resolved measurement of triton burnup is performed with a scintillating fiber detector system in the deuterium operation of the large helical device. The scintillating fiber detector system is composed of the detector head consisting of 109 scintillating fibers having a diameter of 1 mm and a length of 100 mm embedded in the aluminum substrate, the magnetic registrant photomultiplier tube, and the data acquisition system equipped with 1 GHz sampling rate analogies to digital converter and the field programmable gate array. The discrimination level of 150 mV was set to extract the pulse signal induced by 14 MeV neutrons according to the pulse height spectra obtained in the experiment. The decay time of 14 MeV neutron emission rate after neutral beam is turned off measured by the scintillating fiber detector. The decay time is consistent with the decay time of total neutron emission rate corresponding to the 14 MeV neutrons measured by the neutron flux monitor as expected. Evaluation of the diffusion coefficient is conducted using a simple classical slowing-down model FBURN code. It is found that the diffusion coefficient of triton is evaluated to be less than 0.2 m2 s-1.

  9. Comparison of technologies for nano device prototyping with a special focus on ion beams: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchhaus, L.; Mazarov, P.; Bischoff, L.; Gierak, J.; Wieck, A. D.; Hövel, H.

    2017-03-01

    Nano device prototyping (NDP) is essential for realizing and assessing ideas as well as theories in the form of nano devices, before they can be made available in or as commercial products. In this review, application results patterned similarly to those in the semiconductor industry (for cell phone, computer processors, or memory) will be presented. For NDP, some requirements are different: thus, other technologies are employed. Currently, in NDP, for many applications direct write Gaussian vector scan electron beam lithography (EBL) is used to define the required features in organic resists on this scale. We will take a look at many application results carried out by EBL, self-organized 3D epitaxy, atomic probe microscopy (scanning tunneling microscope/atomic force microscope), and in more detail ion beam techniques. For ion beam techniques, there is a special focus on those based upon liquid metal (alloy) ion sources, as recent developments have significantly increased their applicability for NDP.

  10. Review of common accidents in external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ombogo, C.M

    2015-02-01

    This work covers patients protection in Radiotherapy which is a multi step procedure that is complex. Any error in any step has an effect on the patient and therefore the entire process requires attention to details in order to achieve patients protection. This project reviews eight case studies involving accidents that occurred during the process of therapy delivery. Professionalism in case one and two was not practiced in that in case one medical physicist failed to calculate decay data instead relied on incorrect decay graph thus giving wrong dose. While in case two a wrong TPS was approved following a formal written procedure due to new technology. In case three and seven there was a software malfunction due to uniformed choice of TPS and in case four a computer file was not updated in the TPS while in eight the failure is inter look system led to patients recieving high dose than was prescribed. Calibration in case five and six was due to wrong actions in both repairs and interpretation of treatment time than the overdose to patient. The lessen learnt seeks to act as a checklist for ensuring patient protection in radiotherapy and prevention of future accidents. (au)

  11. Use of resistant mutants to study the interaction of triton X-100 with Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Raychaudhuri, D; Chatterjee, A N

    1985-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus mutants resistant to the nonionic detergent Triton X-100, isolated from the wild-type strain H and the autolysin-deficient strain RUS3, could grow and divide in broth containing 5% (vol/vol) Triton X-100, while growth of the parental strains was markedly inhibited above the critical micellar concentration (0.02%) of the detergent. Growth-inhibitory concentrations of Triton X-100 killed wild-type cells without demonstrable cellular lysis. Triton X-100 stimulated autolysin...

  12. Extracted-beam-detection system around synchrotron saturne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, Remy; Milleret, Gerard; Giuliani, Arlette; Lefol, Andre; Perret, Robert; Poupard, Joseph; Trogno, Andre; Van den Bossche, Maurice; N'Guyen Sieu Viet.

    1977-07-01

    The extracted-beam-detection system working around the synchrotron Saturne is presented. The whole system is composed of about forty multiwire chambers used for beam tuning and providing beams profiles. Optic beam parameters such as position, divergence, dimension, emittance can be easily measured, or calculated with a program running on a computer. They are working in large range intensity beams (10 2 to 5.10 11 p/cm 2 /s of protons, alpha particles, deutons, pions, tritons and electrons [fr

  13. APPLICATION OF TRITON X-100 COATED POLY VINYL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    including sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Triton X-100, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. (CTAB) and n-dodecytrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) with the purity of analytical grade was purchased from E. Merck, Darmstadt, Germany and were used as received. Doubly distilled deionized water was used throughout.

  14. Status report of the Triton/Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinks, U.

    1988-01-01

    At the Accelerator Laboratory of the Universities of Munich a booster for the existing MP-tandem is under construction. The Tritron project was finally funded in January this year. The Tritron is a cyclotron with separated orbits with both the magnets and cavities superconducting. It will increase the ion energies by a factor of 4.9, so a 12 C 6+ -beam will have a maximum energy of 21 MeV/u e.g. The cryostat has a diameter of 3.6 m. The beam is injected at a radius r 1 = 66 cm and extracted after almost 20 turns at r 2 = 145 cm. The turn separation is δR = 4 cm. The bending is made by 12 flat magnet sectors, each consisting of 20 magnetic channels of window frame type. In each channel the magnetic field (∼ 1.4 T) is adjustable individually, so that the beam always can be guided along the spiral orbit. The gradient is alternating from one sector to the next resulting in strong focusing in both transversal directions. In each second intermediate gap a wedge-shaped accelerating cavity of the reentrant type is installed for the 20 parallel beams. The radial cavity length is 1.2 m, the outside width 0.7 m. The radial length of the accelerating lips is 0.9 m, the gap width at injection radius 6 cm, at extraction radius 13 cm. The rf-frequency is ∼ 170 MHz, the maximum voltage at injection U(r 1 ) ≅ 270 kV, at extraction U(r 2 ) ≅ 540 kV per cavity. If the bunchers cross the cavity at a rf-phase with increasing accelerating voltage, they are focused longitudinally, resulting in ∼ 0.2 synchrotron oscillations per turn. The longitudinal focusing causes the rf-phase to change automatically corresponding to the necessary energy gain and to the radial characteristic of the voltage amplitude along the gap. 2 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  15. RETROFITTING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS USING FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMER (FRP COMPOSITES - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namasivayam Aravind

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation and strengthening of old structures using advanced materials is a contemporary research in the field of Structural Engineering. During past two decades, much research has been carried out on shear and flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using different types of fibre reinforced polymers and adhesives. Strengthening of old structures is necessary to obtain an expected life span. Life span of Reinforced Concrete (RC structures may be reduced due to many reasons, such as deterioration of concrete and development of surface cracks due to ingress of chemical agents, improper design and unexpected external lateral loads such as wind or seismic forces acting on a structure, which are also the reasons for failure of structural members. The superior properties of polymer composite materials like high corrosion resistance, high strength, high stiffness, excellent fatigue performance and good resistance to chemical attack etc., has motivated the researchers and practicing engineers to use the polymer composites in the field of rehabilitation of structures. This paper reviews fourteen articles on rehabilitation of reinforced concrete (RC beams. The paper reviews the different properties of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP and Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP composites and adhesives, influence of dimensions of beams and loading rate causing failure. The paper proposes an enhanced retrofitting technique for flexural members and to develop a new mathematical model.

  16. RETROFITTING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS USING FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMER (FRP COMPOSITES – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namasivayam Aravind

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation and strengthening of old structures using advanced materials is a contemporary research in the field of Structural Engineering. During past two decades, much research has been carried out on shear and flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using different types of fibre reinforced polymers and adhesives. Strengthening of old structures is necessary to obtain an expected life span. Life span of Reinforced Concrete (RC structures may be reduced due to many reasons, such as deterioration of concrete and development of surface cracks due to ingress of chemical agents, improper design and unexpected external lateral loads such as wind or seismic forces acting on a structure, which are also the reasons for failure of structural members. The superior properties of polymer composite materials like high corrosion resistance, high strength, high stiffness, excellent fatigue performance and good resistance to chemical attack etc., has motivated the researchers and practicing engineers to use the polymer composites in the field of rehabilitation of structures. This paper reviews fourteen articles on rehabilitation of reinforced concrete (RC beams. The paper reviews the different properties of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP and Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP composites and adhesives, influence of dimensions of beams and loading rate causing failure. The paper proposes an enhanced retrofitting technique for flexural members and to develop a new mathematical model.

  17. Irradiation of wastewater with electron beam is a key to sustainable smart/green cities: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Kaizar; Maruthi, Y. Avasn; Das, N. Lakshmana; Rawat, K. P.; Sarma, K. S. S.

    2018-03-01

    Remediation of wastewater, sludge and removal of objectionable substances from our environment using radiation technology is neglected. Hardly, a couple of decades ago, application of electron beam (EB) technology has gained attention for waste management. When wastewater is irradiated with electron beam, the beam can alter the physico-chemical properties of irradiated aqueous material and also transform wastewater chemicals due to the excitation or ionization of chemical molecules. Thus, chemical reactions may be capable of producing new compounds. The beam of electrons initiates primary reactions to induce the excitation or ionization of molecules at varied rates. This review paper will help to a budding researcher how to optimize the irradiation process to achieve high efficiency with low electron beam energy which is economically viable/feasible. Application of E-beam radiation for wastewater treatment may ensure future smart cities with sustainable water resources management.

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: Nanofabrication by advanced electron microscopy using intense and focused beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Furuya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanogrowth and nanofabrication of solid substances using an intense and focused electron beam are reviewed in terms of the application of scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM and STEM to control the size, position and structure of nanomaterials. The first example discussed is the growth of freestanding nanotrees on insulator substrates by TEM. The growth process of the nanotrees was observed in situ and analyzed by high-resolution TEM (HRTEM and was mainly controlled by the intensity of the electron beam. The second example is position- and size-controlled nanofabrication by STEM using a focused electron beam. The diameters of the nanostructures grown ranged from 4 to 20 nm depending on the size of the electron beam. Magnetic nanostructures were also obtained using an iron-containing precursor gas, Fe(CO5. The freestanding iron nanoantennas were examined by electron holography. The magnetic field was observed to leak from the nanostructure body which appeared to act as a 'nanomagnet'. The third example described is the effect of a vacuum on the size and growth process of fabricated nanodots containing W in an ultrahigh-vacuum field-emission TEM (UHV-FE-TEM. The size of the dots can be controlled by changing the dose of electrons and the partial pressure of the precursor. The smallest particle size obtained was about 1.5 nm in diameter, which is the smallest size reported using this method. Finally, the importance of a smaller probe and a higher electron-beam current with atomic resolution is emphasized and an attempt to develop an ultrahigh-vacuum spherical aberration corrected STEM (Cs-corrected STEM at NIMS is reported.

  19. Endodontic applications of cone beam computed tomography: case series and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Abella

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT is a relatively new method that produces three-dimensional (3D information of the maxillofacial skeleton, including the teeth and their surrounding tissue, with a lower effective radiation dose than traditional CT scans. Specific endodontic applications for CBCT are being identified as the use of this technology becomes more common. CBCT has great potential to become a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing endodontic problems, as well as for assessing root fractures, apical periodontitis, resorptions, perforations, root canal anatomy and the nature of the alveolar bone topography around teeth. This article aims to review cone beam technology and its advantages over CT scans and conventional radiography, to illustrate current and future clinical applications in endodontic practice, and to highlight areas of further research of CBCT in endodontics. Specific case examples illustrate how treatment planning has changed with the images obtained with CBCT technology compared with only periapical radiography.

  20. A study of triton radiative capture in some light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, Michel.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this work is to complete the knowledge of the nucleon Giant Dipole Resonance (G.D.R.) by means of the study of radiative capture of complex particles: tritons. The following reactions were studied: 12 C(t,γ 0 ) 15 N, 16 O(t,γ) 19 F, 20 Ne(t,γ) 23 Na, 24 Mg(t,γ 0 ) 27 Al, 24 Mg(t,γ 1 ) 27 Al*, 23 Na(t,γ 0 ) 26 Mg, 23 Na(t,γ) 26 Mg* between between 1.5 and 3.5MeV incident triton energy. The detector was a 25x30cm NaI(Tl) crystal [fr

  1. Pulse radiolysis of Triton X-100 aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkowski, J.; Mayer, J.

    1990-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis of deaerated aqueous solutions of 4 · 10 -5 -2.4 · 10 -3 mol · dm -3 Triton X-100 gives rise to a transient species originating from the reactions of OH radicals and H atoms. The rate constants of these reactions were found to be 8.8 · 10 9 mol -1 · dm 3 · s -1 and 1.25 · 10 9 mol -1 · dm 3 · s -1 , respectively, for Triton X-100 concentrations below CMC. The corresponding transient species were found to decay according to second order kinetics. The mechanism of the reactions, including concentration effects is discussed. (author) 18 refs.; 3 figs

  2. Simulation of triton burn-up in JET plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughlin, M.J.; Balet, B.; Jarvis, O.N.; Stubberfield, P.M. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents the first triton burn-up calculations for JET plasmas using the transport code TRANSP. Four hot ion H-mode deuterium plasmas are studied. For these discharges, the 2.5 MeV emission rises rapidly and then collapses abruptly. This phenomenon is not fully understood but in each case the collapse phase is associated with a large impurity influx known as the ``carbon bloom``. The peak 14 MeV emission occurs at this time, somewhat later than that of the 2.5 MeV neutron peak. The present results give a clear indication that there are no significant departures from classical slowing down and spatial diffusion for tritons in JET plasmas. (authors). 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Triton X-100 catalyzed synthesis of α-aminophosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemallapudi Bakthavatchala Reddy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of α-aminophosphonates by a three-component condensation of an aldehyde, amines and dialkyl phosphites in the presence of a non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 catalyst at 70 °C in aqueous medium is accomplished. The advantages are high yield, mild reaction conditions, simple work-up and eco-friendliness. All the newly-synthesized compounds (4a–j exhibited moderate in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  4. Structure of Triton's atmosphere from the occultation of Tr176

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicardy, B.; Mousis, O.; Beisker, W.; Hummel, E.; Hubbard, W. B.; Hill, R.; Reitsema, H. J.; Anderson, P.; Ball, L.; Downs, B.; Hutcheon, S.; Moy, M.; Nielsen, G.; Pink, I.; Walters, R.

    1998-09-01

    The occultation of the star Tr176 by Triton (Mc Donald & Elliot, AJ 109, 1352, 1995) was observed on 18 July 1997 from three stations in Queensland, Australia (Bundaberg, Ducabrook and Lochington) and one station in Texas, USA (Brownsville). All observations were made with CCD (no filter) and with portable C14 telescopes, except at Bundaberg, where a fixed 48-cm telescope was used. Time sampling rate ranges from 0.33 sec (Bundaberg) to 0.66 sec (Ducabrook and Lochington), with the intermediate value 0.5 sec at Brownsville. Isothermal fits were performed to the lightcurves in order to determine the isothermal temperature, T_iso, and the radius at half-level, R_{1/2}, of Triton's atmosphere (assumed to be composed of pure N_2). Considering the level of noise, we cannot detect any departure from isothermal profiles, and we do not see any deviations from spherical shape. A global fit yields T_iso = 53.7 +/- 2 K and R_{1/2} = 1456 +/- 3 km. We also derive the pressure at 1400 km: p1400 = 1.9 +/- 0.3 mu bars. We will discuss these results and compare them with previous works obtained by Voyager teams from the 1989 observations, and by Olkin et al. (Icarus 129, 178, 1997), who analyze two Triton occultations observed in July 1993 (Tr60) and August 1995 (Tr148). We observe a general increase of pressure at 1400 km, since Olkin et al. derive p1400 = 1.4 +/- 0.1 mu bars from the Tr148 event. This result is actually confirmed by a recent work by Elliot et al., (Nature 393, 765 1998), who note a global warming on Triton, based in particular on a new HST occultation observation in November 1997 (Tr180).

  5. Neptune's Triton: A moon rich in dry ice and carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, A. J. R.

    1989-01-01

    The encounter of the spacecraft Voyager 2 with Neptune and its large satellite Triton in August 1989 will provide a crucial test of ideas regarding the origin and chemical composition of the outer solar system. In this pre-encounter publication, the possibility is quantified that Titron is a captured moon which, like Pluto and Charon, originally condensed as a major planetesimal within the gas ring that was shed by the contracting protosolar cloud at Neptune's orbit. Ideas of supersonic convective turbulence are used to compute the gas pressure, temperature and rat of catalytic synthesis of CH4, CO2, and C(s) within the protosolar cloud, assuming that all C is initially present as CO. The calculations lead to a unique composition for Triton, Pluto, Charon: each body consists of, by mass, 18 1/2 percent solid CO2 ice, 4 percent graphite, 1/2 percent CH4 ice, 29 percent methanated water ice and 48 percent of anhydrous rock. This mix has a density consistent with that of the Pluto-Charon system and yields a predicted mean density for Triton of 2.20 + or - 0.5 g/cu cm, for satellite radius equal to 1,750 km.

  6. Psychoanalytic and musical ambiguity: the tritone in gee, officer krupke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee Nagel, Julie

    2010-02-01

    The poignant and timeless Broadway musical West Side Story is viewed from the standpoint of taking musical forms as psychoanalytic data. The musical configuration of notes called the tritone (or diabolus in musica) is taken as a sonic metaphor expressing ambiguity both in musical vocabulary and in mental life. The tritone, which historically and harmonically represents instability, is heard throughout the score and emphasizes the intrapsychic, interpersonal, and social dramas that unfold within and between the two gangs in West Side Story. Particular emphasis is given to the comic but exceedingly sober song Gee, Officer Krupke. Bernstein's sensitivity to the ambiguity and tension inherent in the tritone in West Side Story is conceptualized as an intersection of music theory and theories of mind; this perspective holds implications for clinical practice and transports psychoanalytic concepts from the couch to the Broadway stage and into the community to address the complexities of love, hate, aggression, prejudice, and violence. Ultimately, West Side Story cross-pollinates music and theater, as well as music and psychoanalytic concepts.

  7. Pitch jnd and the tritone paradox: The linguistic nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Kourosh

    2002-11-01

    Previous research has shown a connection between absolute pitch (the ability to name a specific pitch in the absence of any reference) and native competence in a tone language (Deutsch, 1990). In tone languages, tone is one of the features which determines the lexical meaning of a word. This study investigates the relationship between native competence in a tone language and the just noticeable difference of pitch. Furthermore, the tritone paradox studies have shown that subjects hear two tritones (with bell-shaped spectral envelopes) as either ascending or descending depending on their linguistic backgrounds (Deutsch, 1987). It is hypothesized that the native speakers of tone languages have a higher JND for pitch, and hear the two tones of the tritone paradox as ascending, whereas, native speakers of nontone languages hear them as descending. This study will indicate the importance of early musical training for the development of acute tone sensitivity. It will also underline the importance of language and culture in the way it shapes our musical understanding. The significance of this study will be in the areas of music education and pedagogy.

  8. Clinical applications of cone beam computed tomography in endodontics: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohenca, Nestor; Shemesh, Hagay

    2015-09-01

    The use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in endodontics has been extensively reported in the literature. Compared with the traditional spiral computed tomography, limited field of view (FOV) CBCT results in a fraction of the effective absorbed dose of radiation. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the application and advantages associated with advanced endodontic problems and complications, while reducing radiation exposure during complex endodontic procedures. The benefits of the added diagnostic information provided by intraoperative CBCT images in select cases justify the risk associated with the limited level of radiation exposure.

  9. Comparative calculations and parametric studies using HELIOS and TRITON. Technical report; Vergleichsrechnungen und Parameterstudien mit HELIOS und TRITON. Technischer Bericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Fabian

    2017-05-15

    In the frame of the project ''evaluation and feasibility of a validation for computational codes for criticality and burnout calculations for the use in systems with boiling water reactor fuel'' the burnout code HELIOS for the calculation of inventories was used which allows due to the fast routines Monte-Carlo based sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. The calculated neutron multiplication factor for the HELIOS based calculations were compared with TRITON results.

  10. Oxygen effect in the radiolysis of triton X-100 aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkowski, J.; Mayer, J.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments with Triton X-100 as a model surfactant were performed under steady-state conditions, using deoxygenated solutions as well as those saturated with N 2 O, O 2 or N 2 O/O 2 mixtures. The Triton x-100 decomposition yield was dependent on the O 2 content of the irradiated system. Oxygen promoted surfactant decomposition in aqueous solution containing only Triton X-100. (author) 13 refs.; 1 tab

  11. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. Abdou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140–145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities.

  12. Removal of Bound Triton X-100 from Purified Bovine Heart Cytochrome bc1

    OpenAIRE

    Varhač, Rastislav; Robinson, Neal C.; Musatov, Andrej

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome bc1 isolated from Triton X-100 solubilized mitochondrial membranes contains up to 120 nmol of Triton X-100 bound per nmol of the enzyme. Purified cytochrome bc1 is fully active; however, protein bound Triton X-100 significantly interferes with structural studies of the enzyme. Removal of Triton X-100 bound to bovine cytochrome bc1 was accomplished by incubation with Bio-Beads SM-2 in presence of sodium cholate. Sodium cholate is critical since it does not interfere with the adsorpt...

  13. TRITON: graphic software for rational engineering of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damboský, J; Prokop, M; Koca, J

    2001-01-01

    Engineering of the catalytic properties of enzymes requires knowledge about amino acid residues interacting with the transition state of the substrate. TRITON is a graphic software package for modelling enzymatic reactions for the analysis of essential interactions between the enzyme and its substrate and for in silico construction of protein mutants. The reactions are modelled using semi-empirical quantum-mechanic methods and the protein mutants are constructed by homology modelling. The users are guided through the calculation and data analysis by wizards.

  14. A new cartography for the Triton and Nereide reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debiar, A.; Loverini, M.J.; Annibal, M.

    1997-01-01

    Triton and Nereide are two reactors from the first generation of pool type reactors, and have been dismantled between 1982 and 1986; they are to be used as a test and certification station for dismantling materials. Since 1993, they are continuously monitored. In 1983, a first reactivity balance was carried out, showing an equivalent residual activity inferior to 1.3 curie, which was followed by the classification of the facilities and its thorough cleaning. A new cartography of the radiological state of the site is in course, before its final decommissioning

  15. Report of the Review Committee on the BNL colliding beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Colliding Beam Accelerator (CBA) proposal by BNL for a pp collider of 400 GeV /times/ 400 GeV with a maximum luminosity /Brit pounds/ = 2 /times/ 10 33 was reviewed by a DOE team, including consultants, on April 11--15, 1983. No major flaws were found that would prevent, in principle, the proposed collider from reaching its design goals. BNL has made sufficient progress in their superconducting magnet RandD program that, although there is not yet a magnet of the CBA baseline design, the Committee believes the design can be achieved. However, to ensure prompt completion of the project, substantial RandD needs to be carried out in short order, particularly on the timely and cost-effective production of magnets, reliability of quench protection, and determination of cryogenic heat loads

  16. Investigation of fusion proton and triton emission in ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinberger, U.

    1991-01-01

    A diagnostic method of measuring the fusion rate profile was developed on ASDEX. The collimated protons and tritons from d-d fusion reaction are simultaneously detected by a semiconductor counter at a single position in the vacuum vessel for different viewing directions. The detection efficiency profiles for these viewing directions are numerically calculated from the measured currents in the coils and assumed plasma current distributions. Folding the detection efficiency profile with a fusion rate profile yields the proton and triton fluxes to the detector. Comparison with measured fluxes allows one to find a fusion rate profile in agreement with the experimental data. In certain cases the detection efficiency profile strongly on the plasma current density profile, and information on the current distribution in the plasma can thus be achieved. It was proved that the spectra from rotating plasmas are in accordance with the theory of a rotating thermal plasma. Deviations can only be found in the case of strong vignetting of the detection efficiency by structures in the vacuum vessel. (orig.)

  17. Non-immunological precipitation by the neutral detergent triton X-100 in agar gel diffusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Mansheim, B J; Stenstrom, M L

    1980-01-01

    Triton X-100 can be used to clarify vague immunoprecipitin lines from bacterial antigens; however, non-immunological precipitation can lead to mistaken interpretation of immunodiffusion results. If Triton X-100 is added directly to the gel during preparation rather than to the antigen well, this detergent artifact can be eliminated.

  18. Cone-beam computerized tomography imaging and analysis of the upper airway: a systematic review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guijarro-Martinez, R.; Swennen, G.R.J.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature concerning upper airway imaging and analysis using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed. A PubMed search (National Library of Medicine, NCBI; revised 9th January 2011) yielded 382 papers published between 1968 and 2010. The 382 full papers were

  19. Interactions of dipeptides with Triton X-100 in aqueous solution: A volumetric and spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhenning; Wu, Shuangyan; Pan, Qi; Geng, Rui; Gu, Bixin; Wang, Jianji

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The values of V 2,ϕ o and Δ t V° are positive. • Interactions of Triton X-100 with charged and polar groups of dipeptides dominate. • Addition of dipeptide in water decreases the c cmc and the aggregation number of Triton X-100. • The affinity between dipeptide and Triton X-100 micelle increases with the increase in the length of alkyl chain of peptides. • Triton X-100 interacts with dipeptides more weakly than SDS. -- Abstract: The interactions of dipeptides with Triton X-100 in aqueous solution have been investigated by means of density, fluorescence spectroscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy. The standard partial molar volume (V 2,ϕ o ), standard partial molar volume of transfer for dipeptide from water to aqueous Triton X-100 solution (Δ t V o ) and partial molar expansibility (E ϕ o ) have been calculated from density data. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to estimate the critical micellar concentration (c cmc ) and micelle aggregation number of Triton X-100 in aqueous dipeptide solutions. Effects of temperature and hydrocarbon chain length of dipeptides on the volumetric properties of dipeptide and critical micelle concentration (c cmc ) of Triton X-100 were examined. The pyrene fluorescence spectra were also used to study the change of micropolarity produced by the interactions of Triton X-100 with dipeptides. From the results of UV–vis absorption spectra, the binding constant between dipeptide and Triton X-100 above the c cmc was determined. The results have been interpreted in terms of solute–solvent interactions and structural changes in the mixed solutions

  20. The Sendai triton calculation with three-nucleon potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, T.

    1986-01-01

    Where can we see the effects of quarks remains a fundamental question in nuclear theory physics. A bold approach is to try to reproduce physical quantities theoretically by utilizing a quark picture with imagination. A conservative but safer approach may be to study the triton as thoroughly as possible using realistic two- and three-nucleon potentials. We are taking the latter approach. In fact, our calculation of the EMC effect, which was one thought to be a realization of the quark-gluon picture of nuclei, suggests that we might not have to make recourse to this picture. The calculation was done for 3 He, while experimental data for 4 He are shown. We hope that an experiment for 3 He is done soon, to check whether our conservative approach actually works for the EMC effect. (orig./WL)

  1. Effective dose of cone beam CT (CBCT) of the facial skeleton: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Okshi, A; Lindh, C; Salé, H; Gunnarsson, M; Rohlin, M

    2015-01-01

    To estimate effective dose of cone beam CT (CBCT) of the facial skeleton with focus on measurement methods and scanning protocols. A systematic review, which adhered to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews (PRISMA) Statement, of the literature up to April 2014 was conducted. Data sources included MEDLINE®, The Cochrane Library and Web of Science. A model was developed to underpin data extraction from 38 included studies. Technical specifications of the CBCT units were insufficiently described. Heterogeneity in measurement methods and scanning protocols between studies made comparisons of effective doses of different CBCT units and scanning protocols difficult. Few studies related doses to image quality. Reported effective dose varied across studies, ranging between 9.7 and 197.0 μSv for field of views (FOVs) with height ≤5 cm, between 3.9 and 674.0 μSv for FOVs of heights 5.1-10.0 cm and between 8.8 and 1073.0 μSv for FOVs >10 cm. There was an inconsistency regarding reported effective dose of studies of the same CBCT unit with the same FOV dimensions. The review reveals a need for studies on radiation dosages related to image quality. Reporting quality of future studies has to be improved to facilitate comparison of effective doses obtained from examinations with different CBCT units and scanning protocols. A model with minimum data set on important parameters based on this observation is proposed. Data important when estimating effective dose were insufficiently reported in most studies. A model with minimum data based on this observation is proposed. Few studies related effective dose to image quality.

  2. Role of triton X-100 and hydrothermal treatment on the morphological features of nanoporous hydroxyapatite nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyyappan, E.; Wilson, P., E-mail: catwils@gmail.com; Sheela, K.; Ramya, R.

    2016-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were synthesized using Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4} as precursors with varying contents of non-ionic surfactant viz., triton X-100 (organic modifier) via co-precipitation method followed by hydrothermal treatment. The prepared HA particles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX), High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Nitrogen adsorption–desorption experiments. The XRD and FTIR studies indicate the formation of HA phase in all the synthesized samples. The specific roles of triton X-100 and hydrothermal treatment in dispersing and in directing the crystal growth respectively have been discussed by comparing the observations from individual experiments using triton X-100 and hydrothermal treatment with that of combined protocol involving both. The plausible mechanism for the individual roles of both triton X-100 and hydrothermal treatment have been proposed. - Highlights: • Nanoporous HA nanorods are synthesized via triton X-100 assisted hydrothermal treatment. • Triton X-100 hinder the agglomeration of HA primary particles • Hydrothermal treatment increase the aspect ratio of the HA particles • Oriented attachment of HA particles occurs under hydrothermal treatment facilitated by triton X-100 stabilized HA collides • The percentage of mesopore volume is higher for hydrothermally treated samples.

  3. Role of triton X-100 and hydrothermal treatment on the morphological features of nanoporous hydroxyapatite nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyyappan, E.; Wilson, P.; Sheela, K.; Ramya, R.

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were synthesized using Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ·4H 2 O and (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 as precursors with varying contents of non-ionic surfactant viz., triton X-100 (organic modifier) via co-precipitation method followed by hydrothermal treatment. The prepared HA particles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX), High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Nitrogen adsorption–desorption experiments. The XRD and FTIR studies indicate the formation of HA phase in all the synthesized samples. The specific roles of triton X-100 and hydrothermal treatment in dispersing and in directing the crystal growth respectively have been discussed by comparing the observations from individual experiments using triton X-100 and hydrothermal treatment with that of combined protocol involving both. The plausible mechanism for the individual roles of both triton X-100 and hydrothermal treatment have been proposed. - Highlights: • Nanoporous HA nanorods are synthesized via triton X-100 assisted hydrothermal treatment. • Triton X-100 hinder the agglomeration of HA primary particles • Hydrothermal treatment increase the aspect ratio of the HA particles • Oriented attachment of HA particles occurs under hydrothermal treatment facilitated by triton X-100 stabilized HA collides • The percentage of mesopore volume is higher for hydrothermally treated samples

  4. Triton X-100 as a complete liquid scintillation cocktail for counting aqueous solutions and ionic nutrient salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    Triton X-100, used alone, was found to act as a complete liquid scintillation cocktail. Triton X-100 acted as a scintillator and the effect was not due to Cerenkov radiation. A variety of other commercially available surfactants also acted as scintillators, but with different levels of efficiency. Triton X-100/water combinations were suitable for counting aqueous solutions of 33 P and 86 Rb and the count rate was stable over extended periods of time. Triton X-100/toluene combinations also yielded high counting efficiencies. Triton X-100 was more sensitive to quenching than standard cocktails containing fluors. (author)

  5. Triton burnup study using scintillating fiber detector on JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harano, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1997-09-01

    The DT fusion reactor cannot be realized without knowing how the fusion-produced 3.5 MeV {alpha} particles behave. The {alpha} particles` behavior can be simulated using the 1 MeV triton. To investigate the 1 MeV triton`s behavior, a new type of directional 14 MeV neutron detector, scintillating fiber (Sci-Fi) detector has been developed and installed on JT-60U in the cooperation with LANL as part of a US-Japan collaboration. The most remarkable feature of the Sci-Fi detector is that the plastic scintillating fibers are employed for the neutron sensor head. The Sci-Fi detector measures and extracts the DT neutrons from the fusion radiation field in high time resolution (10 ms) and wide dynamic range (3 decades). Triton burnup analysis code TBURN has been made in order to analyze the time evolution of DT neutron emission rate obtained by the Sci-Fi detector. The TBURN calculations reproduced the measurements fairly well, and the validity of the calculation model that the slowing down of the 1 MeV triton was classical was confirmed. The Sci-Fi detector`s directionality indicated the tendency that the DT neutron emission profile became more and more peaked with the time progress. In this study, in order to examine the effect of the toroidal field ripple on the triton burnup, R{sub p}-scan and n{sub e}-scan experiments have been performed. The R{sub p}-scan experiment indicates that the triton`s transport was increased as the ripple amplitude over the triton became larger. In the n{sub e}-scan experiment, the DT neutron emission showed the characteristic changes after the gas puffing injection. It was theoretically confirmed that the gas puffing was effective for the collisionality scan. (J.P.N.) 127 refs.

  6. Utilization of Triton X-100 and polyethylene glycols during surfactant-mediated biodegradation of diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyrwas, Bogdan; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Szulc, Alicja; Cyplik, Paweł; Białas, Wojciech; Szymański, Andrzej; Hołderna-Odachowska, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Efficient degradation of Triton X-100 under both aerobic and aerobic conditions. ► Triton X-100 was most likely degraded via the ‘central fission’ mechanism. ► Preferential degradation of Triton X-100 over diesel oil. ► The presence of surfactants decreased diesel oil biodegradation efficiency. - Abstract: The hypothesis regarding preferential biodegradation of surfactants applied for enhancement of microbial hydrocarbons degradation was studied. At first the microbial degradation of sole Triton X-100 by soil isolated hydrocarbon degrading bacterial consortium was confirmed under both full and limited aeration with nitrate as an electron acceptor. Triton X-100 (600 mg/l) was utilized twice as fast for aerobic conditions (t 1/2 = 10.3 h), compared to anaerobic conditions (t 1/2 = 21.8 h). HPLC/ESI-MS analysis revealed the preferential biodegradation trends in both components classes of commercial Triton X-100 (alkylphenol ethoxylates) as well as polyethylene glycols. The obtained results suggest that the observed changes in the degree of ethoxylation for polyethylene glycol homologues occurred as a consequence of the ‘central fission’ mechanism during Triton X-100 biodegradation. Subsequent experiments with Triton X-100 at approx. CMC concentration (150 mg/l) and diesel oil supported our initial hypothesis that the surfactant would become the preferred carbon source even for hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Regardless of aeration regimes Triton X-100 was utilized within 48–72 h. Efficiency of diesel oil degradation was decreased in the presence of surfactant for aerobic conditions by approx. 25% reaching 60 instead of 80% noted for experiments without surfactant. No surfactant influence was observed for anaerobic conditions.

  7. Detection and Assessment of Wood Decay in Glulam Beams Using a Decay Rate Approach: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Adam Senalik

    2013-01-01

    A glulam beam is subjected to X-ray computer tomography and acousto-ultrasonic measurements to detect and assess wood decay. A glulam beam without visible indications of wood decay was taken from field use. A modified impulse-echo technique is employed as an inspection method requiring access to only one side of the beam. It is observed that decay-rate analysis of the...

  8. The influence of thermal inertia on temperatures and frost stability on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John R.; Moore, Jeffrey M.

    1992-01-01

    It is presently argued, in view of (1) a thermal inertia model for the surface of Triton which (like previous ones) predicts a monotonic recession of permanent N2 deposits toward the poles and very little seasonal N2 frost in the southern hemisphere, and (2) new spectroscopic evidence for nonvolatile CO2 on Triton's bright southern hemisphere, that much of that bright southern material is not N2. Such bright southern hemisphere volatiles may allow the formation of seasonal frosts, thereby helping to explain the observed spectroscopic changes of Triton during the last decade.

  9. Surfactant-enhanced remediation of a trichloroethene-contaminated aquifer. 1. Transport of triton X-100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.A.; Sahoo, D.; Mclellan, H.M.; Imbrigiotta, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    Transport of a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) at aqueous concentrations less than 400 mg/L through a trichloroethene-contaminated sand-and-gravel aquifer at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ, has been studied through a series of laboratory and field experiments. In the laboratory, batch and column experiments were conducted to quantify the rate and amount of Triton X-100 sorption to the aquifer sediments. In the field, a 400 mg/L aqueous Triton X-100 solution was injected into the aquifer at a rate of 26.5 L/min for a 35-d period. The transport of Triton X-100 was monitored by sampling and analysis of groundwater at six locations surrounding the injection well. Equilibrium batch sorption experiments showed that Triton X-100 sorbs strongly and nonlinearly to the field soil with the sharpest inflection point of the isotherm occurring at an equilibrium aqueous Triton X-100 concentration close to critical micelle concentration. Batch, soil column, and field experimental data were analyzed with zero-, one-, and two- dimensional (respectively) transient solute transport models with either equilibrium or rate-limited sorption. These analyses reveal that Triton X- 100 sorption to the aquifer solids is slow relative to advective and dispersive transport and that an equilibrium sorption model cannot simulate accurately the observed soil column and field data. Comparison of kinetic sorption parameters from batch, column, and field transport data indicate that both physical heterogeneities and Triton X-100 mass transfer between water and soil contribute to the kinetic transport effects.Transport of a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) at aqueous concentrations less than 400 mg/L through a trichloroethene-contaminated sand-and-gravel aquifer was studied. Equilibrium batch sorption experiments showed that Triton X-100 sorbs strongly and nonlinearly to the field soil with the sharpest inflection point of the isotherm occurring at an equilibrium aqueous Triton X-100 concentration close to

  10. Accuracy and precision of cone beam computed tomography in periodontal defects measurement (systematic review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anter, Enas; Zayet, Mohammed Khalifa; El-Dessouky, Sahar Hosny

    2016-01-01

    Systematic review of literature was made to assess the extent of accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a tool for measurement of alveolar bone loss in periodontal defect. A systematic search of PubMed electronic database and a hand search of open access journals (from 2000 to 2015) yielded abstracts that were potentially relevant. The original articles were then retrieved and their references were hand searched for possible missing articles. Only articles that met the selection criteria were included and criticized. The initial screening revealed 47 potentially relevant articles, of which only 14 have met the selection criteria; their CBCT average measurements error ranged from 0.19 mm to 1.27 mm; however, no valid meta-analysis could be made due to the high heterogeneity between the included studies. Under the limitation of the number and strength of the available studies, we concluded that CBCT provides an assessment of alveolar bone loss in periodontal defect with a minimum reported mean measurements error of 0.19 ± 0.11 mm and a maximum reported mean measurements error of 1.27 ± 1.43 mm, and there is no agreement between the studies regarding the direction of the deviation whether over or underestimation. However, we should emphasize that the evidence to this data is not strong. PMID:27563194

  11. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for diagnosis and treatment planning in periodontology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Clemens; Schmidt, Julia C; Dula, Karl; Sculean, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The improvement in diagnostic accuracy and optimization of treatment planning in periodontology through the use of three-dimensional imaging with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is discussed controversially in the literature. The objective was to identify the best available external evidence for the indications of CBCT for periodontal diagnosis and treatment planning in specific clinical situations. A systematic literature search was performed for articles published by 2 March 2015 using electronic databases and hand search. Two reviewers performed the study selection, data collection, and validity assessment. PICO and PRISMA criteria were applied. From the combined search, seven studies were finally included. The case series were published from the years 2009 to 2014. Five of the included publications refer to maxillary and/or mandibular molars and two to aspects related to vertical bony defects. Two studies show a high accuracy of CBCT in detecting intrabony defect morphology when compared to periapical radiographs. Particularly, in maxillary molars, CBCT provides high accuracy for detecting furcation involvement and morphology of surrounding periodontal tissues. CBCT has demonstrated advantages, when more invasive treatment approaches were considered in terms of decision making and cost benefit. Within their limits, the available data suggest that CBCT may improve diagnostic accuracy and optimize treatment planning in periodontal defects, particularly in maxillary molars with furcation involvement, and that the higher irradiation doses and cost-benefit ratio should be carefully analyzed before using CBCT for periodontal diagnosis and treatment planning.

  12. Applications of linac-mounted kilovoltage Cone-beam Computed Tomography in modern radiation therapy: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Kavitha; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Shepherd, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The use of Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in radiotherapy is increasing due to the widespread implementation of kilovoltage systems on the currently available linear accelerators. Cone beam CT acts as an effective Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) tool for the verification of patient position. It also opens up the possibility of real-time re-optimization of treatment plans for Adaptive Radiotherapy (ART). This paper reviews the most prominent applications of CBCT (linac-mounted) in radiation therapy, focusing on CBCT-based planning and dose calculation studies. This is followed by a concise review of the main issues associated with CBCT, such as imaging artifacts, dose and image quality. It explores how medical physicists and oncologists can best apply CBCT for therapeutic applications.

  13. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 2000-present, Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Incoming Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  14. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 2000-present, Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Incoming Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  15. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 2000-present, Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Incoming Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  16. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 2000-present, Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Incoming Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  17. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1980-present, Position

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Position data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  18. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1980-present, Position

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Position data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  19. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1991-present, Net Shortwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Net Shortwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  20. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 2000-present, Net Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Net Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  1. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1998-present, Barometric (Air) Pressure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Barometric (Air) Pressure data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  2. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 1977-present, Air Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Air Temperature data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  3. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 1987-present, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Salinity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  4. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1989-present, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  5. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1980-present, Position

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Position data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  6. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 1980-present, Position

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Position data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  7. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1977-present, Currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  8. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1992-present, Sea Surface Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Sea Surface Salinity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  9. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 2000-present, Buoyancy Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Buoyancy Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  10. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 2000-present, Net Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Net Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  11. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1987-present, Potential Density Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Potential Density Anomaly (sigma-theta) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  12. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1989-present, Sensible Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Sensible Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  13. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1989-present, Sensible Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Sensible Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  14. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 1977-present, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Temperature data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  15. Radiation chemistry connection with the positronium formation in aqueous solution of triton X-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Ganguly, B.N.

    1996-01-01

    Positronium formation bears its connection to radiation chemical phenomenon. This has been demonstrated here to probe the micelle formation and further structural changes in Triton X-100 surfactant solution. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  16. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 1989-present, Sensible Heat Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Sensible Heat Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  17. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1989-present, Relative Humidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Relative Humidity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  18. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 1989-present, Relative Humidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Relative Humidity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  19. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1989-present, Relative Humidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Relative Humidity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  20. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1989-present, Relative Humidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Relative Humidity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  1. Binding Of Ferrocyphen By Sds, Ctab And Triton X-100 In Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SDS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Triton X-100 surfactants was studied spectrophotometrically in water-ethanol medium. The equilibrium binding constant (Kb) and the number of binding sites (n) per surfactant monomer were ...

  2. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1989-present, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  3. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 1988-2015, ADCP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) water currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA...

  4. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1988-2015, ADCP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) water currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA...

  5. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 1997-present, Heat Flux Due To Rain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Heat Flux Due To Rain data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  6. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1997-present, Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  7. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 1901-present, Downgoing Shortwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Downgoing Shortwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  8. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1991-present, Downgoing Shortwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Downgoing Shortwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  9. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1997-present, Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  10. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1991-present, Downgoing Shortwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Downgoing Shortwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  11. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1991-present, Downgoing Shortwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Downgoing Shortwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  12. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 1997-present, Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  13. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1989-present, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  14. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1998-present, Barometric (Air) Pressure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Barometric (Air) Pressure data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  15. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1992-present, Sea Surface Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Sea Surface Salinity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  16. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 2000-present, Net Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Net Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  17. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1992-present, Sigma-Theta

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Sigma-Theta (Potential Density Anomaly) data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  18. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1997-present, Evaporation Minus Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Evaporation Minus Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  19. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1977-present, Currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  20. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1977-present, 20C Isotherm Depth

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly 20C Isotherm Depth data (the depth at which the ocean temperature is 20C) from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean,...

  1. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1989-present, Evaporation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Evaporation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  2. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1997-present, Evaporation Minus Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Evaporation Minus Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  3. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1989-present, Evaporation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Evaporation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  4. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1992-present, Sea Surface Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Sea Surface Salinity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  5. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1977-present, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Temperature data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  6. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 1980-present, Heat Content

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Heat Content data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  7. Photochemical assessment of UO2+2 complexation in Triton X-100 micellar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Ganguly, B.N.

    1994-01-01

    This is a report on the spectral characteristics of UO 2 +2 in the excited state in the Triton X-100 micellar medium. The downward curving of the Stern-Volmer plot explains the two kinds of populations of UO 2 +2 upon micellization. A blue shift of the quenched emission is ascribed due to the collisional encounter of UO 2 +2 with the head groups of Triton X-100. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs

  8. Fluorometric sensing of Triton X-100 based organized media in water by a MOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Biswajit, E-mail: bdeychem@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Mondal, Ranjan Kumar; Dhibar, Subhendu [Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Chattopadhyay, Asoke Prasun [Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235 (India); Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2016-04-15

    The fluorescent property of the aqueous solution of a metal organic framework (MOF) of Mn(II), having a sedimentary rocks like microstructure in solid-state, has been investigated. The luminescent feature of the the aqueous solution of MOF has been employed for studying the interactions of MOF with different surfactants including neutral, cationic, and anionic types in water medium. Interestingly, the MOF can very selective sense Triton X-100 based micelle in water medium. During the sensing process the fluorescent monomer of the MOF gets accommodated at the palisade layer of Triton X-100 in water medium and this has also been justified by simple fluorescence spectral and FE-SEM microstructural analysis. Thus, a MOF of Mn(II) can act as a selective fluorescent sensor for Triton X-100 based organized medium in water. - Highlights: • Microstructural and crystallographic studies of a water-soluble MOF are performed. • The luminescent property of MOF in water medium is explored. • The interaction between Triton X-100 and the MOF in water medium is studied by fluorometric and microstructural analysis. • The MOF acts as a selective fluorometric sensor for the Triton X-100 based organized media in water. • The monomer of MOF presents in the Triton X-100 micelle in water.

  9. Fluorometric sensing of Triton X-100 based organized media in water by a MOF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Biswajit; Mondal, Ranjan Kumar; Dhibar, Subhendu; Chattopadhyay, Asoke Prasun; Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    The fluorescent property of the aqueous solution of a metal organic framework (MOF) of Mn(II), having a sedimentary rocks like microstructure in solid-state, has been investigated. The luminescent feature of the the aqueous solution of MOF has been employed for studying the interactions of MOF with different surfactants including neutral, cationic, and anionic types in water medium. Interestingly, the MOF can very selective sense Triton X-100 based micelle in water medium. During the sensing process the fluorescent monomer of the MOF gets accommodated at the palisade layer of Triton X-100 in water medium and this has also been justified by simple fluorescence spectral and FE-SEM microstructural analysis. Thus, a MOF of Mn(II) can act as a selective fluorescent sensor for Triton X-100 based organized medium in water. - Highlights: • Microstructural and crystallographic studies of a water-soluble MOF are performed. • The luminescent property of MOF in water medium is explored. • The interaction between Triton X-100 and the MOF in water medium is studied by fluorometric and microstructural analysis. • The MOF acts as a selective fluorometric sensor for the Triton X-100 based organized media in water. • The monomer of MOF presents in the Triton X-100 micelle in water.

  10. Association of nerve growth factor receptors with the triton X-100 cytoskeleton of PC12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vale, R.D.; Ignatius, M.J.; Shooter, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Triton X-100 solubilizes membranes of PC12 cells and leaves behind a nucleus and an array of cytoskeletal filaments. Nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors are associated with this Triton X-100-insoluble residue. Two classes of NGF receptors are found on PC12 cells which display rapid and slow dissociating kinetics. Although rapidly dissociating binding is predominant (greater than 75%) in intact cells, the majority of binding to the Triton X-100 cytoskeleton is slowly dissociating (greater than 75%). Rapidly dissociating NGF binding on intact cells can be converted to a slowly dissociating form by the plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). This lectin also increases the number of receptors which associate with the Triton X-100 cytoskeleton by more than 10-fold. 125 I-NGF bound to receptors can be visualized by light microscopy autoradiography in Triton X-100-insoluble residues of cell bodies, as well as growth cones and neurites. The WGA-induced association with the cytoskeleton, however, is not specific for the NGF receptor. Concentrations of WGA which change the Triton X-100 solubility of membrane glycoproteins are similar to those required to alter the kinetic state of the NGF receptor. Both events may be related to the crossbridging of cell surface proteins induced by this multivalent lectin

  11. Resistance of human erythrocyte membranes to Triton X-100 and C12E8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepaldi Domingues, Cleyton; Ciana, Annarita; Buttafava, Armando; Balduini, Cesare; de Paula, Eneida; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2009-01-01

    Lipid rafts are microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids that contain specific membrane proteins. The resistance of domains to extraction by nonionic detergents at 4 degrees C is the commonly used method to characterize these structures that are operationally defined as detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs). Because the selectivity of different detergents in defining membrane rafts has been questioned, we have compared DRMs from human erythrocytes prepared with two detergents: Triton X-100 and C12E8. The DRMs obtained presented a cholesterol/protein mass ratio three times higher than in the whole membrane. Flotillin-2 was revealed in trace amounts in DRMs obtained with C12E8, but it was almost completely confined within the DRM fraction with Triton X-100. Differently, stomatin was found distributed in DRM and non-DRM fractions for both detergents. We have also measured the order parameter (S) of nitroxide spin labels inserted into DRMs by means of electron paramagnetic resonance. The 5- and 16-stearic acid spin label revealed significantly higher S values for DRMs obtained with either Triton X-100 or C12E8 in comparison to intact cells, while the difference in the S values between Triton X-100 and C12E8 DRMs was not statistically significant. Our results suggest that although the acyl chain packing is similar in DRMs prepared with either Triton X-100 or C12E8 detergent, protein content is dissimilar, with flotillin-2 being selectively enriched in Triton X-100 DRMs.

  12. FTIR AND NMR STUDIES OF ADSORBED TRITON X-114 IN MCM-41 MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Taba

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One source of water pollutions is caused by the high use of surface-active agents (surfactants by industries and households. As a consequence, it is required to remove such substances from the environment One of the important and widely used methods for removal of substances from solution is adsorption. In this research, MCM-41 and its modification MCM41-TMCS were used to adsorb nonionic surfactant, Triton X-114. FTIR and NMR methods were used to study the interaction between the surfactants and the adsorbents. MCM-41 was synthesized hydrothermally at 100 oC and its modification was conducted by silylation of MCM-41 with trimethylchloro silane (MCM41-TMCS. Both unmodified and modified MCM-41 can adsorb the surfactant. The amount adsorbed in the unmodified material is higher than that in the modified one. The interaction of Triton X-114 with MCM-41 was hydrogen bonding between the silanol groups in MCM-41 and hydroxyl groups of Triton X-114. For modified samples, Triton X-114 interacted with alkylsilyl groups mostly through hydrophobic interaction. It is more likely that the interaction was through C12, C13, C26 and C27 of Triton X-114.    Keywords: FTIR, NMR, adsorbed Triton X-114, MCM-41 materials

  13. Solvation dynamics in triton-X-100 and triton-X-165 micelles: Effect of micellar size and hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhakar, Manoj; Nath, Sukhendu; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Pal, Haridas

    2004-09-01

    Dynamic Stokes' shift measurements using coumarin 153 as the fluorescence probe have been carried out to study solvation dynamics in two nonionic micelles, viz., triton-X-100 (TX-100) and triton-X-165 (TX-165). In both the micelles, the solvent relaxation dynamics is biexponential in nature. While the fast solvation time τs1 is seen to be almost similar for both the micelles, the slow solvation time τs2 is found to be appreciably smaller in TX-165 than in TX-100 micelle. Dynamic light scattering measurements indicate that the TX-165 micelles are substantially smaller in size than that of TX-100. Assuming similar core size for both the micelles, as expected from the similar chemical structures of the nonpolar ends for both the surfactants, the Palisade layer is also indicated to be substantially thinner for TX-165 micelles than that of TX-100. The aggregation number of TX-165 micelles is also found to be substantially smaller than that of TX-100 micelles. Fluorescence spectral studies of C153 dye in the two micelles indicate that the Palisade layer of TX-165 micelles is more polar than that of TX-100 micelles. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements indicate that the microviscosity in the Palisade layer of TX-165 micelles is also lower than that of TX-100 micelles. Based on these results it is inferred that the structure of the Palisade layer of TX-165 micelles is quite loose and have higher degree hydration in comparison to that of TX-100 micelles. Due to these structural differences in the Palisade layers of TX-165 and TX-100 micelles the solvation dynamics is faster in the former micelles than in the latter. It has been further inferred that in the present systems the collective response of the water molecules at somewhat away from the probes is responsible for the faster component of the solvation time, which does not reflect much of the structural changes of the micellar Palisade layer. On the contrary, the slower solvation time component, which is mainly due to

  14. Solar-hydrogen energy systems: an authoritative review of water-splitting systems by solar beam and solar heat : hydrogen production, storage, and utilisation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ōta, Tokio

    1979-01-01

    ... An Authoritative Review of Watersplitting Systems by Solar Beam and Solar Heat: Hydrogen Production, Storage and Utilisation edited by TOKIO OHTA Professor of Materials Science and Energy System Yoko...

  15. A review of the concentrated photovoltaic/thermal (CPVT) hybrid solar systems based on the spectral beam splitting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Xing; Xu, Chao; Han, Xue; Du, Xiaoze; Wei, Gaosheng; Yang, Yongping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A review on spectral beam splitting (SBS) CPVT technologies is presented. • SBS methods including interference, liquid absorptive and other filters are discussed. • The researches of SBS CPVTs are reviewed comprehensively and summarized. • Recent research status and system performance characteristics are analysed. • Suggestions on the development of SBS CPVT technologies are proposed. - Abstract: This article presents a review on the research and development of spectral beam splitting concentrated photovoltaic/thermal (SBS CPVT) hybrid solar systems. The investigations on the SBS CPVT hybrid technologies had begun in the 1980s and were aimed at complete utilization of the solar irradiation over the whole solar spectrum using both PV cells and thermal absorbers. Several different SBS approaches were employed to achieve better conversion efficiencies, including the interference filter, liquid absorptive filter, holographic filter, luminescent filter, diffractive filter, combined interference and liquid absorptive filter, combined liquid and solid absorptive filter, and photovoltaics itself as a solid absorptive filter. The SBS CPVT systems were proposed or assembled in various system configurations for numerous purposes, such as domestic hot water, thermochemical reaction, hydrogen production, or even power generation. These researches and developments are comprehensively reviewed in this article, and the advantages and disadvantages of different SBS methods are presented and concluded. This paper also aims to provide a global point of view on research trends, market potential, technical obstacles, and the future work required for the development of SBS CPVT technology.

  16. A state of the art review on reinforced concrete beams with openings retrofitted with FRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Bashir H.; Wu, Erjun; Ji, Bohai; S Abdelgader, Abdeldime M.

    2016-09-01

    The use of externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets, strips or steel plates is a modern and convenient way for strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Several researches have been carried out on reinforced concrete beams with web openings that strengthened using fiber reinforced polymer composite. Majority of researches focused on shear strengthening compared with flexural strengthening, while others studied the effect of openings on shear and flexural separately with various loading. This paper investigates the impact of more than sixty articles on opening reinforced concrete beams with and without strengthening by fiber reinforcement polymers FRP. Moreover, important practical issues, which are contributed in shear strengthening of beams with different strengthening techniques, such as steel plate and FRP laminate, and detailed with various design approaches are discussed. Furthermore, a simple technique of applying fiber reinforced polymer contributed with steel plate for strengthening the RC beams with openings under different load application is concluded. Directions for future research based on the existing gaps of the present works are presented.

  17. Cone beam CT findings of retromolar canals: Report of cases and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Sun [Dept. of Dental Hygiene, Eulji University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Seo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    A retromolar canal is an anatomical variation in the mandible. As it includes the neurovascular bundle, local anesthetic insufficiency can occur, and an injury of the retromolar canal during dental surgery in the mandible may result in excessive bleeding, paresthesia, and traumatic neuroma. Using imaging analysis software, we evaluated the cone-beam computed tomography (CT) images of two Korean patients who presented with retromolar canals. Retromolar canals were detectable on the sagittal and cross-sectional images of cone-beam CT, but not on the panoramic radiographs of the patients. Therefore, the clinician should pay particular attention to the identification of retromolar canals by preoperative radiographic examination, and additional cone beam CT scanning would be recommended.

  18. Cone beam CT findings of retromolar canals: Report of cases and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Sun; Park, Chang Seo

    2013-01-01

    A retromolar canal is an anatomical variation in the mandible. As it includes the neurovascular bundle, local anesthetic insufficiency can occur, and an injury of the retromolar canal during dental surgery in the mandible may result in excessive bleeding, paresthesia, and traumatic neuroma. Using imaging analysis software, we evaluated the cone-beam computed tomography (CT) images of two Korean patients who presented with retromolar canals. Retromolar canals were detectable on the sagittal and cross-sectional images of cone-beam CT, but not on the panoramic radiographs of the patients. Therefore, the clinician should pay particular attention to the identification of retromolar canals by preoperative radiographic examination, and additional cone beam CT scanning would be recommended.

  19. Charged fusion product analysis as diagnostics in high-energy deuterium beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayetti, P.; Bottiglioni, F.; Martin, G.; Pamela, J.

    1986-01-01

    The detection of protons (3 MeV) and tritons (1 MeV) originating from D--D fusion reactions are presented as a tool for inferring the main features of a powerful deuterium neutral beam. By an energy analysis, beam species content, neutralization, and power transmission efficiencies have been measured. Using a localization detector, a method for measuring beam profiles has been developed

  20. Charged fusion product analysis as diagnostics in high energy deuterium beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayetti, P.; Bottiglioni, F.; Martin, G.; Pamela, J.

    1985-05-01

    The detection of protons (3 MeV) and tritons (1 MeV) originating from D-D fusion reactions are presented as a tool for inferring the main features of a powerful deuterium neutral beam. By an energy analysis, beam species content, neutralisation and power transmission efficiencies have been measured. Using a localisation detector, a method for measuring beam profiles has been developed

  1. MO-A-BRB-01: Review of TG-262 Internal Survey of Practices in EMR for External Beam Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechalakos, J.

    2015-01-01

    The process of converting to an electronic chart for radiation therapy can be daunting. It requires a dedicated committee to first research and choose appropriate software, to review the entire documentation policy and flow of the clinic, to convert this system to electronic form or if necessary, redesign the system to more easily conform to the electronic process. Those making the conversion and those who already use electronic charting would benefit from the shared experience of those who have been through the process in the past. Therefore TG262 was convened to provide guidance on electronic charting for external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy. This course will present the results of an internal survey of task group members on EMR practices in External Beam Radiation Therapy as well as discuss important issues in EMR development and structure for both EBRT and brachytherapy. Learning Objectives: Be familiarized with common practices and pitfalls in development and maintenance of an electronic chart in Radiation Oncology Be familiarized with important issues related to electronic charting in External Beam Radiation Therapy Be familiarized with important issues related to electronic charting in Brachytherapy

  2. Electron cloud with LHC-type beams in the SPS A review of three years of measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, J M; Collier, Paul; Ferioli, G; Henrist, Bernard; Hilleret, Noël; Jensen, L; Weiss, K; Zimmermann, Frank

    2002-01-01

    In August 1999, high bunch intensities LHC-type beams were injected for the first time in the SPS inducing strong vacuum pressure rises, perturbations on the electrostatic pick-ups and beam instabilities. Evidences of the electron cloud phenomenon as the mechanism responsible for these instabilities are reviewed. This paper also presents the results obtained with several detectors installed in the SPS machine to improve the understanding of the electron cloud mechanism and refine the simulations. The spatial distributions of the electrons in the cloud are shown in presence of and without a dipole magnetic field. The effects of the beam intensity and filling pattern on the behaviour of the electron cloud are presented. The scrubbing effect is studied using an in-situ measurement of the secondary electron yields. Finally, the potential limitations due to the electron cloud in the SPS and the issues for the LHC are discussed. Possible remedies will be presented, i.e. nitrogen and argon glow discharges or new fil...

  3. Transfer reactions at the neutron dripline with triton target

    CERN Multimedia

    Two-neutron transfer to $^{9}$Li will populate the ground state of $^{11}$Li as well as low-lying resonances in a way that is complementary to studies of these states performed at higher beam energies. We aim at detecting the charged particles from the transfer reactions as well as neutrons coming from the decay of possible $^{11}$Li resonances.

  4. Transfer reactions at the neutron dripline with triton target

    CERN Document Server

    Borge, M J G; Fynbo, H O U; Gomez Camacho, J; Johansen, J; Johansson, H T; Jonson, B; Krücken, R; Kurcewicz, J; Martel, I; Moro, A; Mücher, D; Nilsson, T; Nyman, G; Raabe, R; Randisi, G; Riisager, K; Sambi, S; Sanchez-Benitez, AM; Tengblad, O

    2012-01-01

    Two-neutron transfer to $^{9}$Li will populate the ground state of $^{11}$Li as well as low-lying resonances in a way that is complementary to studies of these states performed at higher beam energies. We aim at detecting the charged particles from the transfer reactions as well as neutrons coming from the decay of possible $^{11}$Li resonances.

  5. Burnup of fusion produced tritons and 3He ions in PLT and PDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Chrien, R.E.; Strachan, J.D.

    1982-09-01

    The d(d,p)t and d(d,n) 3 He fusion reactions produce 1 MeV tritons and 0.8 MeV 3 He ions which can subsequently undergo d(t,n)α and d( 3 He,p)α fusion reactions. The magnitude of this triton and 3 He ion burnup was measured on the PLT and PDX tokamaks by detection of the 14 MeV neutron and 15 MeV proton emission. In discharges with B/sub phi/ greater than or equal to 2 T, the measured 3 He burnup agrees well with predictions based on classical theories of ion confinement and slowing down, while the triton burnup was about four times lower than theoretically predicted. In discharges with weaker toroidal fields, the burnup of both ions fell by more than a factor of ten

  6. A photochemical study of uranyl ion interaction with the Triton X-100 micellar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Ganguly, B.N.

    1996-01-01

    This is a report on the spectroscopic characteristics of UO 2 2+ in the excited state in Triton X-100 micellar medium. It also indicates some important results of viscosity and surface tension measurements of the system which have direct relevance to the spectroscopic investigation in the excited state. The quenching of the UO 2 2+ fluorescence due to Triton X-100, upon micellization in the aqueous medium, reveals two kinds of microenvironments of the fluorophore from the Stern-Volmer plot. This has been verified by flash photolytic measurements. A blue shift of the quenched emission spectrum is ascribed to the collisional encounter of UO 2 1 + with the head groups of Triton X-100

  7. Effect of xylanase, urea, Tween and Triton additives on bioethanol production of corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiu; Lu, Jie; Yang, Rui-Feng; Song, Wen-jing; Li, Hai-ming; Wang, Hai-song; Zhou, Jing-hui

    2017-03-01

    Corn stover is a potential source of renewable biomass for conversion to bioethanol. Fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharifcation and fermentation (S-SSF) of corn stover pretreated by liquid hot water (LHW) was investigated. The present study aimed to confirm the influence of xylanase, urea, Tween and Triton additives on bioethanol. Results show that the positive effect of xylanase, urea, Tween was observed. High ethanol concentration requires the addition of xylanase in the stage of saccharification. The optimal amount of xylanase was 0.2 g/g biomass and addition of Triton (Triton X-100) increases the effect of xylanase. Urea has a promotion effect on the whole fermentation process.When adding 0.1% urea in the fermentation stage,the best promoting rate is 24.2%. In the longitudinal comparison of the Tween series, under the same experimental conditions, the promoting effect of Tween series: Tween 40 > Tween 80 > Tween 20 > Tween 60.

  8. The importance of cone-beam computed tomography in the management of endodontic problems: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venskutonis, Tadas; Plotino, Gianluca; Juodzbalys, Gintaras; Mickevičienė, Lina

    2014-12-01

    To obtain essential information in clinical endodontics, cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging can be used in all phases of treatment including diagnosis, treatment planning, during the treatment phase, and through post-treatment assessment and follow-up. The purpose of this article was to review the use of CBCT imaging in the diagnosis, treatment planning, and assessing the outcome of endodontic complications. Literature was selected through a search of PubMed electronic databases for the following keywords: tooth root injuries, tooth root radiography, tooth root perforation, tomography, cone-beam computed tomography, endodontic complications, tooth root internal/external resorption, root fractures, and broken instruments. The research was restricted to articles published in English. One hundred twelve articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Currently, intraoral radiography is the imaging technique of choice for the management of endodontic disease, but CBCT imaging appears to have a superior validity and reliability in the management of endodontic diagnosis and complications. Endodontic cases should be judged individually, and CBCT imaging should be considered in situations in which information from conventional imaging systems may not yield an adequate amount of information to allow the appropriate management of endodontic problems. CBCT imaging has the potential to become the first choice for endodontic treatment planning and outcome assessment, especially when new scanners with lower radiation doses will be available. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Four-channel ZnS scintillator measurements of escaping tritons in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.J.

    1988-10-01

    A four-channel scintillation detector capable of measuring tritons, protons, and alphas escaping from a tokamak plasma was operated during the 1986 run period of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Signals consistent with the expected 1 MeV triton behavior have been observed during deuterium operation. Backgrounds associated with neutrons, gammas, and soft x-rays have been evaluated in situ. Such a detector should be capable of measuring escaping alphas during the D/T phase of TFTR. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  10. EFFECT OF VITIS VINIFERA AGAINST TRITON X 100 INDUCED HYPERLIPIDAEMIA IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Masani YA; Mathew N; Chakraborty M; Kamath JV

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of Vitis vinfera fruit juice (VVFJ) against Triton X 100 induced hyperlipidaemia. Wister strain rats were treated with atorvastatin (ATOR-10mg/kg, p.o.), low and high dose of Vitis vinifera fruit juice (VVFJ- 100 and 500mg/kg) orally for 0, 24 and 44 hours after treated with Triton X 100 (400mg/kg, p.o). 4 hour after the last dose, blood was collected from all the animals and the separated serum was subjected for the estimation of serum lipoproteins level such as Trigly...

  11. Chemiluminescence determination of surfactant Triton X-100 in environmental water with luminol-hydrogen peroxide system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Chaokun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid, simple determination of surfactants in environmental samples is essential because of the extensive use and its potential as contaminants. We describe a simple, rapid chemiluminescence method for the direct determination of the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 (polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether in environmental water samples. The optimized experimental conditions were selected, and the mechanism of the Luminol-H2O2-Triton X-100 chemiluminesence system was also studied. Results The novel chemiluminescence method for the determination of non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 was based on the phenomenon that Triton X-100 greatly enhanced the CL signal of the luminol-H2O2 system. The alkaline medium of luminol and the pH value obviously affected the results. Luminol concentration and hydrogen peroxide concentration also affected the results. The optimal conditions were: Na2CO3 being the medium, pH value 12.5, luminol concentration 1.0 × 10-4 mol L-1, H2O2 concentration 0.4 mol L-1. The possible mechanism was studied and proposed. Conclusion Under the optimal conditions, the standard curve was drawn up and quotas were evaluated. The linear range was 2 × 10-4 g·mL-1-4 × 10-2 g·mL-1 (w/v, and the detection limit was 3.97 × 10-5 g·mL-1 Triton X-100 (w/v. The relative standard deviation was less than 4.73% for 2 × 10-2 g·mL-1 (w/v Triton X-100 (n = 7. This method has been applied to the determination of Triton X-100 in environmental water samples. The desirable recovery ratio was between 96%–102% and the relative standard deviation was 2.5%–3.3%. The luminescence mechanism was also discussed in detail based on the fluorescence spectrum and the kinetic curve, and demonstrated that Triton X-100-luminol-H2O2 was a rapid reaction.

  12. Four-channel ZnS scintillator measurements of escaping tritons in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.

    1988-10-01

    A four-channel scintillation detector capable of measuring tritons, protons, and alphas escaping from a tokamak plasma was operated during the 1986 run period of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Signals consistent with the expected 1 MeV triton behavior have been observed during deuterium operation. Backgrounds associated with neutrons, gammas, and soft x-rays have been evaluated in situ. Such a detector should be capable of measuring escaping alphas during the D/T phase of TFTR. 16 refs., 10 figs

  13. Permeabilization and lysis of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes cells by triton X-100 for efficient production of D-malate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, M.J. van der; Hartmans, S.; Tweel, W.J.J. van den

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes can only form d-malate from maleate after incubation of the cells with a solvent or a detergent. The effect of the detergent Triton X-100 on d-malate production was studied in more detail. The longer the cells were incubated with Triton X-100, the higher was the

  14. The Role of Cone-Beam CT in Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pung, Leland; Ahmad, Moiz; Mueller, Kerstin; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Stave, Christopher; Hwang, Gloria L; Shah, Rajesh; Kothary, Nishita

    2017-03-01

    To review available evidence for use of cone-beam CT during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) for detection of tumor and feeding arteries. Literature searches were conducted from inception to May 15, 2016, in PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Searches included "cone beam," "CBCT," "C-arm," "CACT," "cone-beam CT," "volumetric CT," "volume computed tomography," "volume CT," AND "liver," "hepatic*," "hepatoc*." Studies that involved adults with HCC specifically and treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization that used cone-beam CT were included. Inclusion criteria were met by 18 studies. Pooled sensitivity of cone-beam CT for detecting tumor was 90% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82%-95%), whereas pooled sensitivity of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for tumor detection was 67% (95% CI, 51%-80%). Pooled sensitivity of cone-beam CT for detecting tumor feeding arteries was 93% (95% CI, 91%-95%), whereas pooled sensitivity of DSA was 55% (95% CI, 36%-74%). Cone-beam CT can significantly increase detection of tumors and tumor feeding arteries during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. Cone-beam CT should be considered as an adjunct tool to DSA during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization treatments of HCC. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling of the water gap in BWR fuel elements using SCALE/TRITON; Modellierung des Wasserspalts bei SWR-BE mit SCALE/TRITON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tittelbach, S.; Chernykh, M. [WTI Wissenschaftlich-Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The authors show that an adequate modeling of the water gap in BWR fuel element models using the code TRITON requires an explicit consideration of the Dancoff factors. The analysis of three modeling options reveals that considering the moderating effects of the water gap coolant for the peripheral fuel elements the resulting deviations of the U-235 and Pu-239 concentrations are significantly reduced. The increased temporal calculation efforts are justified with respect to the burnup credits for criticality safety analyses.

  16. Sorption of Triton X-100 on soil organic matter fractions: kinetics and isotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangzhi; Hu, Hao; Sun, Weiling; Ni, Jinren

    2009-01-01

    Kinetics and isotherms of Triton X-100 sorption on soil, base-extracted soil (BE), humic acid (HA) and humin (HM) were investigated respectively to get better understanding on characteristics of the surfactant sorption onto different soil organic matters (SOMs). It was demonstrated that the kinetics results could be satisfactorily described by the pseudo-second order model. The half of the time to reach equilibrium (t1/2) for different sorbents followed the sequence of soil > HA > BE > HM. Furthermore, the calculated equilibrium sorption capacity (C(eq)) was found in the sequence of HA > BE > HM > soil, which agreed well with the experimental results. The isotherms of Triton X-100 sorption on soil and HA could be well described by the S-type isotherm, but BE and HM by the L-type. The isotherms of all the four sorbents were found reasonably fitted to the Langmuir equation. The K(d) value, defined as the ratio of Triton X-100 in sorbent and in the equilibrium solution for given concentrations, generally followed the order of HM > HA > soil > BE. Separated HM and HA showed high affinity for Triton X-100, but the HA and HM in soil and BE were tightly bounded by the minerals. Thus, the HA on the soil surface might dominate the sorption, whereas the bounded HM would play a key role upon the surfactants being penetrated inside the soil.

  17. Optimized triton X-114 assisted lipopolysaccharide (LPS) removal method reveals the immunomodulatory effect of food proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodorowicz, Malgorzata; Perdijk, Olaf; Verhoek, Iris; Govers, Coen; Savelkoul, Huub F.J.; Tang, Yongfu; Wichers, Harry; Broersen, Kerensa

    2017-01-01

    Scope Investigations into the immunological response of proteins is often masked by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination. We report an optimized Triton X-114 (TX-114) based LPS extraction method for β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and soy protein extract suitable for cell-based immunological assays.

  18. Optimized triton X-114 assisted lipopolysaccharide (LPS) removal method reveals the immunomodulatory effect of food proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodorowicz, Malgorzata; Perdijk, Olaf; Verhoek, Iris; Govers, Coen; Savelkoul, Huub F.J.; Tang, Yongfu; Wichers, Harry; Broersen, Kerensa

    2017-01-01

    Scope Investigations into the immunological response of proteins is often masked by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination. We report an optimized Triton X-114 (TX-114) based LPS extraction method for β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and soy protein extract suitable for cell-based immunological assays. Methods

  19. Tuning intermicellar potential of Triton X-100– anthranilic acid mixed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural parameters of micelles formed by Triton X-100 in the presence of solubilized anthranilic acid at different pH values was investigated using light scattering and small angle neutron scattering. Analysis of the SANS data indicate that micelles are oblate ellipsoidal in nature with little variation in the dimensions, in the ...

  20. Thermophysical and spectroscopic studies of room temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate in Tritons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Ganga Ram; Bansal, Shafila; Mehta, S.K.; Ahluwalia, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermophysical studies of new formulations of [BMIM][PF 6 ]+TX(45,100) have been made. ► Strong intermolecular interactions between [BMIM][PF 6 ] and TX (45, 100) is observed. ► Magnitude of interactions increases with the addition of oxyethylene groups in TX. ► With rise in temperature, intermolecular interactions increases. ► Spectroscopic studies show that interactions are via aromatic rings of RTIL and TX. - Abstract: The thermophysical properties viz. density ρ, speed of sound u, and specific conductivity κ of pure room temperature ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) and its binary formulations with Triton X-45 and Triton X-100 have been studied over the entire composition range at different temperatures (293.15 to 323.15) K. Excess molar volume V E , deviation in isentropic compressibility ΔK S , partial molar excess volume V i E , deviation in partial molar isentropic compressibility ΔK S,i , deviation in specific conductivity Δκ have also been estimated and analysed. Spectroscopic properties (IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR) of these mixtures have been investigated in order to understand the structural and interactional behaviour of formulations studied. The magnitude of interactions between the two components increases with addition of number of oxyethylene groups in Tritons and with rise in temperature. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that interactions are mainly taking place through the five member ring of room temperature ionic liquid and six member ring of Tritons.

  1. Tuning intermicellar potential of Triton X-100– anthranilic acid mixed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the attractive interaction between the micelles diminishes. The interaction potential between Triton X-100 micelles can be thought of as the sum of the attractive van der Walls interaction and Coulombic repulsion due to charged anthranilic molecules on the surface of the micelles. Assuming a Yukawa form of the potential for ...

  2. The asymptotic D-state to S-state ratio of triton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dictions of the asymptotic D-state to S-state ratio of triton are calculated to more fully evaluate the adequacy of the ... deuteron radiative capture was also calculated at thermal neutron energies, using pionless. EFT up to N2LO ... necessary for this work and the derivation of the integral equation describing neutron– deuteron ...

  3. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1977-present, 20C Isotherm Depth

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day 20C Isotherm Depth data (the depth at which the ocean temperature is 20C) from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/...

  4. Energy transfer in triton-X 100 micelles: a fluorescence study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, D. C.; Ray, K.; Misra, T. N.

    2000-03-01

    The study of fluorescence energy transfer from the phenyl groups of the micellar triton X-100 (TX-100) to solubilised 1-pyrene butyric acid (PBA) has been carried out. Through the analysis of the donor fluorescence quenching energy transfer efficiency has been determined. The observed donor-acceptor separation suggests that pyrene molecules are distributed uniformly in the micellar core.

  5. Beam Techniques - Beam Control and Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, Michiko G

    2003-04-24

    We describe commonly used strategies for the control of charged particle beams and the manipulation of their properties. Emphasis is placed on relativistic beams in linear accelerators and storage rings. After a brief review of linear optics, we discuss basic and advanced beam control techniques, such as transverse and longitudinal lattice diagnostics, matching, orbit correction and steering, beam-based alignment, and linac emittance preservation. A variety of methods for the manipulation of particle beam properties are also presented, for instance, bunch length and energy compression, bunch rotation, changes to the damping partition number, and beam collimation. The different procedures are illustrated by examples from various accelerators. Special topics include injection and extraction methods, beam cooling, spin transport and polarization.

  6. Review of energy confinement and local transport scaling results in neutral-beam-heated tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, S.M.

    1985-05-01

    Over the past several years, tokamak neutral beam injection experiments have evolved from the brute force study of the effects of global discharge characteristics (I/sub p/, anti n/sub e/, P/sub heat/, etc.) on energy confinement to the appreciation that there are effects more subtle, yet controllable, that may influence confinement dramatically. While this evolution from first to second generation experiments is derived from an empirical understanding of low and high energy confinement modes and how to achieve them operationally, the underlying physics is still unknown. Several theories with different physical bases appear to describe the global scaling of the low confinement mode discharges quite well. On the other hand, little agreement has been found between theoretical and experimentally deduced values of local transport coefficients. While it is known operationally how to achieve any one of several types of high confinement mode discharges, here too, the underlying physics of the transport associated with these modes is poorly understood.

  7. Review of energy confinement and local transport scaling results in neutral-beam-heated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, S.M.

    1985-05-01

    Over the past several years, tokamak neutral beam injection experiments have evolved from the brute force study of the effects of global discharge characteristics (I/sub p/, anti n/sub e/, P/sub heat/, etc.) on energy confinement to the appreciation that there are effects more subtle, yet controllable, that may influence confinement dramatically. While this evolution from first to second generation experiments is derived from an empirical understanding of low and high energy confinement modes and how to achieve them operationally, the underlying physics is still unknown. Several theories with different physical bases appear to describe the global scaling of the low confinement mode discharges quite well. On the other hand, little agreement has been found between theoretical and experimentally deduced values of local transport coefficients. While it is known operationally how to achieve any one of several types of high confinement mode discharges, here too, the underlying physics of the transport associated with these modes is poorly understood

  8. Laser and electron-beam powder-bed additive manufacturing of metallic implants: A review on processes, materials and designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Swee Leong; An, Jia; Yeong, Wai Yee; Wiria, Florencia Edith

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also commonly known as 3D printing, allows the direct fabrication of functional parts with complex shapes from digital models. In this review, the current progress of two AM processes suitable for metallic orthopaedic implant applications, namely selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM) are presented. Several critical design factors such as the need for data acquisition for patient-specific design, design dependent porosity for osteo-inductive implants, surface topology of the implants and design for reduction of stress-shielding in implants are discussed. Additive manufactured biomaterials such as 316L stainless steel, titanium-6aluminium-4vanadium (Ti6Al4V) and cobalt-chromium (CoCr) are highlighted. Limitations and future potential of such technologies are also explored. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Separation of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Triton X-114 Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunagiri Appusamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interaction energy between Triton X-114 surfactant + methylene blue or water and methylene blue + water was investigated using Hartree-Fock (HF theory with 6-31G* basis set. The results of structures and interaction energies show that these complexes have good physical and chemical interactions at atom and molecular levels. However, the Triton X-114 surfactant + methylene blue complex shows stronger molecular interaction compared to other complexes systems. The order of the interaction energy is 4303.472023 (Triton X-114 surfactant + water > -1222.962 (methylene blue + water > -3573.28 (Triton X-114 surfactant + methylene blue kJ·mole−1. Subsequently, the cloud point extraction was carried out for 15 ppm of methylene blue in a mixture at 313.15 and 323.15 K over the surfactant concentration range from 0.01 M to 0.1 M. From the measured data, the excess molar volume was calculated for both phases. The results show a positive deviation in the dilute phase and a negative deviation in the surfactant rich phase. It is confirmed that the interaction between Triton X-114 and methylene blue is stronger than other complex systems due to the presence of chemical and structural orientation. The concentration of dyes and surfactant in the feed mixture and temperature effect in both phases has been studied. In addition, the thermodynamics feasibility and efficiency of the process have also been investigated.

  10. ICE MINERALOGY ACROSS AND INTO THE SURFACES OF PLUTO, TRITON, AND ERIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegler, S. C.; Grundy, W. M.; Olkin, C. B.; Young, L. A.; Romanishin, W.; Cornelison, D. M.; Khodadadkouchaki, R.

    2012-01-01

    We present three near-infrared spectra of Pluto taken with the Infrared Telescope Facility and SpeX, an optical spectrum of Triton taken with the MMT and the Red Channel Spectrograph, and previously published spectra of Pluto, Triton, and Eris. We combine these observations with a two-phase Hapke model and gain insight into the ice mineralogy on Pluto, Triton, and Eris. Specifically, we measure the methane-nitrogen mixing ratio across and into the surfaces of these icy dwarf planets. In addition, we present a laboratory experiment that demonstrates it is essential to model methane bands in spectra of icy dwarf planets with two methane phases—one highly diluted by nitrogen and the other rich in methane. For Pluto, we find bulk, hemisphere-averaged, methane abundances of 9.1% ± 0.5%, 7.1% ± 0.4%, and 8.2% ± 0.3% for sub-Earth longitudes of 10°, 125°, and 257°. Application of the Wilcoxon rank sum test to our measurements finds these small differences are statistically significant. For Triton, we find bulk, hemisphere-averaged, methane abundances of 5.0% ± 0.1% and 5.3% ± 0.4% for sub-Earth longitudes of 138° and 314°. Application of the Wilcoxon rank sum test to our measurements finds the differences are not statistically significant. For Eris, we find a bulk, hemisphere-averaged, methane abundance of 10% ± 2%. Pluto, Triton, and Eris do not exhibit a trend in methane-nitrogen mixing ratio with depth into their surfaces over the few centimeter range probed by these observations. This result is contrary to the expectation that since visible light penetrates deeper into a nitrogen-rich surface than the depths from which thermal emission emerges, net radiative heating at depth would drive preferential sublimation of nitrogen leading to an increase in the methane abundance with depth.

  11. Multinuclear NMR characterization of CTAB-hexanol-water, sodium oleate-butanol-water and triton X-100-decanol-water microemulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, J.B.; Bodart-Ravet, I.; Derouane, E.G.; Gourgue, A.; Verfaillie, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Multinuclear NMR is a very valuable tool to characterize micellar systems or microemulsions. It allows one to determine c.m.c. values, to study the dissolution of organic molecules, the solvation of cations and anions, the structural changes occurring in a ternary diagram, the mobility of the molecules, etc. This review paper essentially deals with the characterization of cationic (CTAB-hexanol-water), anionic (sodium oleate-butanol-water) and neutral (Triton X-100-decanol-water) reversed micelles. The use of paramagnetic ions [Ni(II), CO(II), Fe(III), etc.] is particularly emphasized to characterize the site of solubilization and their interaction with surfactant and cosurfactant molecules 13 C-NMR). It is concluded, that the metallic ions are basically solvated in the inner water cores and one or more hexanol molecules are included in their first coordination shells in the CTAB-hexanol-water microemulsions. In the Triton X-100-decanol-water microemulsions, both decanol and Triton X-100 molecules enter the first coordination shell of Co(II) ions which are dissolved in both aqeous water cores and the organic medium. 19 F-NMR of a fluorinated probe molecule is particularly useful to study the size of the inner water cores. The method is based on the partition of the molecules between the interface and the organic medium. However, this method has to be applied with great care, and the computed data have to be compared to other physico-chemical results. Both 19 F- and 23 Na-NMR results show a great variation of the behaviour of the sodium oleate-butanol-water system in the so-called bicontinuous region. The Na + ions are oriented independently on a hypothetical inverse micellar droplet. (author). 43 refs.; 18 figs.; 7 tabs

  12. Protective effect of Tritone (Livosone) on oxidative DNA damage and its hepatoprotective potential against various hepatotoxic agent in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhekar, Sheetal Kashinath; Jadhav, Tejas Pandurang; Sasane, Vishal Sadashiv; Shende, Vikas Suresh; Aloorkar, Nagesh Hanmantrao; Chincholkar, Anjali Baburao; Soman, Girish Sudhakar; Kulkarni, Ajit Shankarrao

    2017-03-02

    To evaluate antioxidant activity, DNA damage inhibition and hepatoprotecitve potential of polyherbal formulation Tritone (Livosone). In vitro antioxidant activity of Tritone formulation was performed by using DPPH assay. Hepatoprotecitve potential of Tritone was evaluated against various hepatotoxic agents including Paracetamol (2g/kg b. wt p.o. single dose on 15th day), Galactosamine (400mg/kg b. wt. i.p. single dose on 8th day) and Alcohol (30% p.o.1ml/100g of rat for 15days). Tritone formulation at the doses of (40.5, 81 and 162mg/kg) and standard silymarin (100mg/kg) and Liv52 (270mg/kg) were administered p.o. The hepatoprotective assessment was done by estimating biochemical parameters: SGOT, SGPT, ALP and Total Bilirubin total protein and ChE levels. Additionally histopathological and DNA fragmentation study of Tritone was also performed. Administration of hepatotoxins (paracetamol, D-GaiN and alcohol) in experimental animals showed significant biochemical, histological deterioration and DNA fragmentation. Pretreatment with Tritone (Livosone) shows significant reduction in serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP and total bilirubin levels and shows significant elevation in total protein and cholinesterase (ChE) levels compared to groups treated with hepatotoxic agents. Histopathological observations of rat liver pretreated with Tritone (Livosone) shows significant protection against hepatic damage. Inhibition of DNA fragmentation by Tritone indicates protective effect of formulation on liver at molecular level. Finally all the results were compared with standard drugs Silymarin and Liv52. Correlation of antioxidant activity, biochemical results, histopathological changes and inhibition of DNA damage after treatment with Tritone shows maximum hepatoprotective potential at dose 81mg/kg and 162mg/kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Digital Signal Processing. A review of DSP formalism, algorithms and networks for the beam instrumentation workshop, Vancouver, Canada, October 4, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linscott, I.

    1995-01-01

    The formalism of Digital Signal Processing (DSP), is reviewed with the objective of providing a framework for understanding the utility of DSP techniques for Beam Instrumentation and developiong criteria for assessing the merits of DSP applications. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  14. Cone beam computed tomography and periapical lesions: a systematic review analysing studies on diagnostic efficacy by a hierarchical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, C; Spin-Neto, R; Wenzel, A; Kirkevang, L-L

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate using a systematic review approach the diagnostic efficacy of CBCT for periapical lesions, focusing on the evidence level of the included studies using a six-tiered hierarchical model. The MEDLINE bibliographic database was searched from 2000 to July 2013 for studies evaluating the potential of CBCT imaging in the diagnosis and planning of treatment for periapical lesions. The search strategy was limited to English language publications using the following combined terms in the search strategy: apical pathology or endodontic pathology or periapical or lesion or healing and CBCT or cone beam CT. The diagnostic efficacy level of the studies was assessed independently by four reviewers. The search identified 25 publications that qualitatively or quantitatively assessed the use of CBCT for the diagnosis of periapical lesions, in which the methodology/results comprised at least one of the following parameters: the methods, the imaging protocols or qualitative/quantitative information on how CBCT influenced the diagnosis and/or treatment plan. From the assessed studies, it can be concluded that although there is a tendency for a higher accuracy for periapical lesion detection using CBCT compared to two-dimensional imaging methods, no studies have been conducted that justify the standard use of CBCT in diagnosing periapical lesions. In addition, it should be considered that, at the present time, the efficacy of CBCT as the diagnostic imaging method for periapical lesions has been assessed merely at low diagnostic efficacy levels. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A general framework and review of scatter correction methods in cone beam CT. Part 2: Scatter estimation approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehrnschopf and, Ernst-Peter; Klingenbeck, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The main components of scatter correction procedures are scatter estimation and a scatter compensation algorithm. This paper completes a previous paper where a general framework for scatter compensation was presented under the prerequisite that a scatter estimation method is already available. In the current paper, the authors give a systematic review of the variety of scatter estimation approaches. Scatter estimation methods are based on measurements, mathematical-physical models, or combinations of both. For completeness they present an overview of measurement-based methods, but the main topic is the theoretically more demanding models, as analytical, Monte-Carlo, and hybrid models. Further classifications are 3D image-based and 2D projection-based approaches. The authors present a system-theoretic framework, which allows to proceed top-down from a general 3D formulation, by successive approximations, to efficient 2D approaches. A widely useful method is the beam-scatter-kernel superposition approach. Together with the review of standard methods, the authors discuss their limitations and how to take into account the issues of object dependency, spatial variance, deformation of scatter kernels, external and internal absorbers. Open questions for further investigations are indicated. Finally, the authors refer on some special issues and applications, such as bow-tie filter, offset detector, truncated data, and dual-source CT.

  16. Triton X-100 inhibits agonist-induced currents and suppresses benzodiazepine modulation of GABA(A) receptors in Xenopus oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Ebert, Bjarke; Klaerke, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Changes in lipid bilayer elastic properties have been proposed to underlie the modulation of voltage-gated Na(+) and L-type Ca(2+) channels and GABA(A) receptors by amphiphiles. The amphiphile Triton X-100 increases the elasticity of lipid bilayers at micromolar concentrations, assessed from its...... effects on gramicidin channel A appearance rate and lifetime in artificial lipid bilayers. In the present study, the pharmacological action of Triton-X 100 on GABA(A) receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes was examined. Triton-X 100 inhibited GABA(A) alpha(1)beta(3)gamma(2S) receptor currents...... in a noncompetitive, time- and voltage-dependent manner and increased the apparent rate and extent of desensitization at 10 muM, which is 30 fold below the critical micelle concentration. In addition, Triton X-100 induced picrotoxin-sensitive GABA(A) receptor currents and suppressed allosteric modulation...

  17. Additive Manufacturing Modeling and Simulation A Literature Review for Electron Beam Free Form Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seufzer, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is coming into industrial use and has several desirable attributes. Control of the deposition remains a complex challenge, and so this literature review was initiated to capture current modeling efforts in the field of additive manufacturing. This paper summarizes about 10 years of modeling and simulation related to both welding and additive manufacturing. The goals were to learn who is doing what in modeling and simulation, to summarize various approaches taken to create models, and to identify research gaps. Later sections in the report summarize implications for closed-loop-control of the process, implications for local research efforts, and implications for local modeling efforts.

  18. Adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate on granular activated carbon from date pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzougui, Z.; Nedjah, S.; Azoudj, Y.; Addoun, F. [Laboratoire d' etude physic-chimique des materiaux et application a l' environnement, Faculte de Chimie, USTHB (Algeria)], E-mail: zmerzougi@yahoo.fr

    2011-07-01

    Activated carbons, thanks to their versatility, are being used in the water treatment sector to absorb pollutants. Several factors influence the adsorption capacity of activated carbon and the aim of this study was to assess the effects of the porous texture and chemical nature of activated carbons on the adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate. Activated carbons used in this study were prepared from date pits with ZnCl2, KOH and H3PO4 by carbonization without adjuvant and adsorption of triton X100 and potassium hydrogen phthalate was conducted at 298K. Results showed that activated carbons prepared from date pits have a great potential for removing organic and inorganic pollutants from water and that the adsorption potential depends on the degree of activation of the activated carbons and on the compounds to absorb. This study highlighted that an increase of the carbon surface area and porosity results in a better adsorption capacity.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of novel N-substituted poly aniline by Triton X-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsalani, N.; Khavei, M.; Entezami, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    A new N-substituted poly aniline is synthesized by insertion of polyether chain in the form of Triton X-100 onto the poly aniline backbone. In the preparation method, firstly the emeraldine base poly aniline was reacted with Na H to produce the N-anionic doped poly aniline and then contacted with chlorinated Triton X-100. The prepared N-substituted poly aniline was characterized by UV-vis, FTIR, 1 H NMR spectroscopy techniques and elemental analysis. The physical properties of synthesized polymer such as electrical conductivity, thermal and electro activity properties were also studied. The prepared polymer has good solubility in common organic solvents such as T HF and chloroform

  20. Positronium reactions in the Triton X-100-p-nitro phenol system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar Das, S.; Nandi Ganguly, B.

    1997-01-01

    The positronium reactions have been used as a probe to study the solubilization of p-nitro phenol within the micellar phase of a Triton X-100 solution and the corresponding changes in the molecular association phenomenon. The presence of p-nitro phenol resulted in an enhancement of micellization which has been corroborated by surface tension measurements. This paper also lays emphasis on the secondary aggregation phenomenon of Triton X-100 molecules at the far post-micellar stage (∼ 10-15 mM). The solubilization of p-nitro phenol at various stages of aggregation has been discussed through the interaction with positronium atoms by setting up a kinetic model and reaction equilibria. (author)

  1. Radiolytic syntheses of hollow UO2 nanospheres in Triton X-100-based lyotropic liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongming; Chen, Qingde; Shen, Xinghai

    2017-01-01

    Hollow nanospheres (φ: 60-80 nm, wall thickness: 10-20 nm), consisted of UO 2 nanoparticles (φ: 3-5 nm), were successfully prepared in a Triton X-100-water (50:50, w/w) hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) by γ-irradiation, where water soluble ammonium uranyl tricarbonate was added as precursor. The product was stable at least up to 300 C. Furthermore, whether the nanospheres were hollow or not, and the wall thickness of the hollow nanospheres could be easily controlled via adjusting dose rate. While in the Triton X-100 based micellar systems, only solid nanospheres were obtained. At last, a possible combination mechanism containing adsorption, aggregation and fracturing processes was proposed.

  2. Present state and chemical evolution of the atmospheres of Titan, Triton, and Pluto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunine, J.I.; Atreya, S.K.; Pollack, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the current understanding of the atmospheres of Titan, Triton, and Pluto, as well as of theoretical models for their origin and evolution. All three atmospheres contain methane, while Titan, and probably Triton, have nitrogen. The primary driver in the evolution of the Titan atmosphere has been the irreversible photolysis of methane. If a surface reservoir of liquid methane exists to resupply the atmosphere, it is subject to enrichment in ethane due to the long-term photolysis of methane. The key issue in the origin and early evolution of Titan's atmosphere is the source of molecular nitrogen; two schemes for the conversion of ammonia to nitrogen have been considered

  3. Delivery of Optical Contrast Agents using Triton-X100, Part 1: Reversible permeabilization of live cells for intracellular labeling

    OpenAIRE

    van de Ven, Anne L; Adler-Storthz, Karen; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Effective delivery of optical contrast agents into live cells remains a significant challenge. We sought to determine whether Triton-X100, a detergent commonly used for membrane isolation and protein purification, could be used to effectively and reversibly permeabilize live cells for delivery of targeted optical contrast agents. Although Triton-X100 is widely recognized as a good cell permeabilization agent, no systematic study has evaluated the efficiency, reproducibility, and reversibility...

  4. Solid methane on Triton and Pluto - 3- to 4-micron spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John R.; Buie, Marc W.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.

    1990-01-01

    Methane has been identified in the Pluto/Charon system on the basis of absorption features in the reflectance spectrum at 1.5 and 2.3 microns; attention is presently given to observations of a 3.25 micron-centered deep absorption feature in Triton and Pluto/Charon system reflectance spectra. This absorption may indicate the presence of solid methane, constituting either the dominant surface species or a mixture with a highly transparent substance, such as N2 frost.

  5. A rare case of retroperitoneal malignant triton tumor invading renal vein and small intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović Žaklina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant Triton tumor is a very rare malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. Most of those tumors occur in patients with von Recklinghausen’s disease or as a late complication of irradiation and commonly seen in the head, neck, extremities and trunk. Case report. We reported retroperitoneal malignant Triton tumor in a 57-year-old female patient. Skin lesions were not present, and there was no family history of neurofibromatosis or previous irradiation. The presented case is one of a few recorded in the specialized literature that occurs in the retroperitoneal space in sporadic form. In this case, tumor consisted of a multilobular mass was in close relation with the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava and involved the renal vein with gross invasion of the small intestine. The patient underwent total resection of the tumor and left nefrectomy was performed. The small intestine 10 cm in length was also resected and end-to-end anastomosis was conducted. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged from the hospital ten days after the surgery. Conclusion. Diagnostically, it is crucial to recognize this uncommon histological variant because malignant Triton tumor has a worse prognosis than classic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor does. The use of the immunohistochemistry is essential in making the correct diagnosis. Only appropriate pathological evaluation supported by immunostaining with S-100 protein and desmin confirmed the diagnosis. Aggressive surgical management treatment improves the prognosis of such cases with adjuvant radiotherapy.

  6. Spectral-motion aftereffects and the tritone paradox among Canadian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawe, L A; Platt, J R; Welsh, E

    1998-02-01

    The effect of spectral motion on the tritone paradox was investigated by pretesting subjects residing in southwestern Ontario, Canada, on the tritone task, presenting them with a continuous ascending or descending chromatic scale created using Shepard tones, and then retesting them on the tritone task. Results indicated a negative-motion aftereffect that affected the orientation of the pitch class circle. Differential effects of perceived pitch height on the lower portion of the pitch class circle and of adaptation on the upper portion of the pitch class circle were found in the pre- and postadaptation data, respectively. The implications of this dissociation are discussed. In addition, since our subjects lived relatively close to the U.S. border, the experimental pretests allowed us to examine the hypothesis that a canonical American pitch template similar to that found among "Californian" subjects (Deutsch, 1991) is propagated by linguistic influences of media such as television and radio (Ragozzine & Deutsch, 1994). A survey of our subjects indicated that overall, the majority of time engaged in listening to the radio and watching television or movies was spent with American sources. Despite this, and despite the fact that subjects had widely varying language and cultural backgrounds, a tight distribution of peak-pitch classes was found that is indicative of a "British" pitch template (Deutsch, 1991) for every subject tested.

  7. A review of treatment planning for precision image-guided photon beam pre-clinical animal radiation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Frank; van Hoof, Stefan; Granton, Patrick V; Trani, Daniela

    2014-12-01

    Recently, precision irradiators integrated with a high-resolution CT imaging device became available for pre-clinical studies. These research platforms offer significant advantages over older generations of animal irradiators in terms of precision and accuracy of image-guided radiation targeting. These platforms are expected to play a significant role in defining experiments that will allow translation of research findings to the human clinical setting. In the field of radiotherapy, but also others such as neurology, the platforms create unique opportunities to explore e.g. the synergy between radiation and drugs or other agents. To fully exploit the advantages of this new technology, accurate methods are needed to plan the irradiation and to calculate the three-dimensional radiation dose distribution in the specimen. To this end, dedicated treatment planning systems are needed. In this review we will discuss specific issues for precision irradiation of small animals, we will describe the workflow of animal treatment planning, and we will examine several dose calculation algorithms (factorization, superposition-convolution, Monte Carlo simulation) used for animal irradiation with kilovolt photon beams. Issues such as dose reporting methods, photon scatter, tissue segmentation and motion will also be discussed briefly. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Cone beam computed tomography in implant dentistry: a systematic review focusing on guidelines, indications, and radiation dose risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Michael M; Scarfe, William C; Vaughn, Vida M; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to identify, review, analyze, and summarize available evidence in three areas on the use of cross-sectional imaging, specifically maxillofacial cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in pre- and postoperative dental implant therapy: (1) Available clinical use guidelines, (2) indications and contraindications for use, and (3) assessment of associated radiation dose risk. Three focused questions were developed to address the aims. A systematic literature review was performed using a PICO-based search strategy based on MeSH key words specific to each focused question of English-language publications indexed in the MEDLINE database retrospectively from October 31, 2012. These results were supplemented by a hand search and gray literature search. Twelve publications were identified providing guidelines for the use of cross-sectional radiography, particularly CBCT imaging, for the pre- and/or postoperative assessment of potential dental implant sites. The publications discovered by the PICO strategy (43 articles), hand (12), and gray literature searches (1) for the second focus question regarding indications and contraindications for CBCT use in implant dentistry were either cohort or case-controlled studies. For the third question on the assessment of associated radiation dose risk, a total of 22 articles were included. Publication characteristics and themes were summarized in tabular format. The reported indications for CBCT use in implant dentistry vary from preoperative analysis regarding specific anatomic considerations, site development using grafts, and computer-assisted treatment planning to postoperative evaluation focusing on complications due to damage of neurovascular structures. Effective doses for different CBCT devices exhibit a wide range with the lowest dose being almost 100 times less than the highest dose. Significant dose reduction can be achieved by adjusting operating parameters, including exposure factors and reducing the

  9. Terascale Beam-Beam Simulations for Tevatron, RHIC and LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, J.

    2005-05-16

    In this paper, we report on recent advances in terascale simulations of the beam-beam interaction in Tevatron, RHIC and LHC.Computational methods for self consistent calculation of beam-beam forces are reviewed. New method for solving the two-dimensional Poisson equation with open boundary conditions is proposed and tested. This new spectral-finite difference method is a factor of four faster than the widely used FFT based Green function method for beam-beam interaction on axis. We also present applications to the study of antiproton losses during the injection stage at Tevatron, to the study of multiple bunch coherent beam-beam modes at RHIC, and to the study of beam-beam driven emittance growth at LHC.

  10. Terascale Beam-Beam Simulations for Tevatron, RHIC and LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we report on recent advances in terascale simulations of the beam-beam interaction in Tevatron, RHIC and LHC.Computational methods for self consistent calculation of beam-beam forces are reviewed. New method for solving the two-dimensional Poisson equation with open boundary conditions is proposed and tested. This new spectral-finite difference method is a factor of four faster than the widely used FFT based Green function method for beam-beam interaction on axis. We also present applications to the study of antiproton losses during the injection stage at Tevatron, to the study of multiple bunch coherent beam-beam modes at RHIC, and to the study of beam-beam driven emittance growth at LHC

  11. Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy in the Treatment of Mycosis Fungoides: A Review of Conventional and Low-Dose Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Mudit; Chhabra, Arpit M; Kharod, Shivam; Marwaha, Gaurav

    2016-12-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most prevalent subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, which is characterized by the proliferation of CD4 + T cells. While often an indolent disease, most patients eventually develop progression from isolated patches to tumors and finally nodal or visceral involvement. Treatment choice is largely based on disease burden, though prognostic factors such as disease stage, patient age, and extracutaneous involvement must be taken into consideration. Radiotherapy represents one of the most effective therapeutic modalities in the treatment of MF. Lymphocytes are exquisitely radiosensitive, and excellent responses are observed even with low doses of radiation. Total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is a special technique that allows for the homogenous irradiation of the entire skin. There are well-documented radiation dose-response relationships for achieving a complete response. As such, TSEBT doses ≥ 30 Gy comprise the current standard of care. Although highly effective, most patients experience recurrent disease even after conventional-dose (≥ 30 Gy) TSEBT. In addition, toxicity is cumulatively dose dependent, and there is reluctance to administer multiple courses of conventional-dose TSEBT. Consequently, there has been renewed interest in determining the utility of TSEBT at lower total (≤ 30 Gy) doses. Advantages of low-total-dose (with standard dose per fraction) TSEBT include a shortened treatment course, the potential to minimize the risk of adverse events, and the opportunity to allow for retreatment in cases of disease recurrence. This comprehensive review compares the impact of different TSEBT dosing schemes on clinical outcomes of MF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Laser beam shaping techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DICKEY,FRED M.; WEICHMAN,LOUIS S.; SHAGAM,RICHARD N.

    2000-03-16

    Industrial, military, medical, and research and development applications of lasers frequently require a beam with a specified irradiance distribution in some plane. A common requirement is a laser profile that is uniform over some cross-section. Such applications include laser/material processing, laser material interaction studies, fiber injection systems, optical data image processing, lithography, medical applications, and military applications. Laser beam shaping techniques can be divided into three areas: apertured beams, field mappers, and multi-aperture beam integrators. An uncertainty relation exists for laser beam shaping that puts constraints on system design. In this paper the authors review the basics of laser beam shaping and present applications and limitations of various techniques.

  13. Efimov physics: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidon, Pascal; Endo, Shimpei

    2017-05-01

    This article reviews theoretical and experimental advances in Efimov physics, an array of quantum few-body and many-body phenomena arising for particles interacting via short-range resonant interactions, that is based on the appearance of a scale-invariant three-body attraction theoretically discovered by Vitaly Efimov in 1970. This three-body effect was originally proposed to explain the binding of nuclei such as the triton and the Hoyle state of carbon-12, and later considered as a simple explanation for the existence of some halo nuclei. It was subsequently evidenced in trapped ultra-cold atomic clouds and in diffracted molecular beams of gaseous helium. These experiments revealed that the previously undetermined three-body parameter introduced in the Efimov theory to stabilise the three-body attraction typically scales with the range of atomic interactions. The few- and many-body consequences of the Efimov attraction have been since investigated theoretically, and are expected to be observed in a broader spectrum of physical systems.

  14. Hypolipidemic action of chrysin on Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in female C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Stéfani Zarzecki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone is a flavonoid, natural component of traditional medicinal herbs, present in honey, propolis and many plant extracts. The objective of this study was to investigate the hypolipidemic properties of chrysin on Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in female C57BL/6 mice. Triton WR-1339 was administered intraperitoneally (400 mg/kg to overnight-fasted mice to develop acute hyperlipidemia. Chrysin was administered orally (10 mg/kg 30 min before Triton WR-1339. At 24 h after Triton WR-1339 injection, blood samples were collected to measure plasma lipid levels. The hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, carbonyl content, non-protein sulfhydryl (NPSH and ascorbic acid (AA levels, as well as catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity were recorded. Chrysin administration significantly decreased total cholesterol levels. In addition, it partially decreased non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglycerides levels in plasma of hyperlipidaemic mice. In addition chrysin administration prevented the increase on TBARS levels and prevented the decrease in SOD activity induced by Triton WR-1339. These findings indicated that chrysin was able to decrease plasma lipids concentration and that its antioxidant properties was, at least in part, involved in the hypolipidaemic action of chrysin.

  15. Origin and Evolution of Nitrogen on Titan, Enceladus, Triton, and Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, S. K.; Niemann, H. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Owen, T. C.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogen, together with carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur (CHNOPS), plays a central role in life as we know it. Indeed, molecular nitrogen is the most abundant component of the terrestrial atmosphere, and second only to carbon dioxide on Mars and Venus. The Voyager and Cassini-Huygens observations show that copious nitrogen is present on Titan also, comprising some 95% by volume of this moon's 1500 millibar atmosphere. After water vapor, it may be the most abundant (4%) of the gases around tiny Enceladus, as revealed by the recent Cassini observations. A thin nitrogen atmosphere is found even on the coldest of the solar system bodies, Triton and Pluto. The available evidence on nitrogen isotopes and the heavy noble gases suggests that Titan acquired its nitrogen largely in the form of ammonia. Subsequent chemical evolution, beginning with the photolysis of NH3 on primordial Titan, led to the nitrogen atmosphere we see on Titan today. This is also the scenario for the origin of nitrogen on the terrestrial planets. Contrary to Titan, the colder outer solar system objects, Triton and Pluto, neither had the luxury of receiving much arnmonia in the first place, nor of photolyzing whatever little ammonia they did receive in the planetesimals that formed them. On the other hand, it is plausible the planetesimals were capable of trapping and delivering molecular nitrogen directly to Triton and Pluto, unlike Titan. The origin of nitrogen on Enceladus is somewhat enigmatic. A scenario similar to Titan's, but with a role for the interior processes, may be at work. In this paper, we will discuss the source and loss of nitrogen for the above objects, and why Ganymede, the largest moon in the solar system, is nitrogen starved.

  16. Dengue virus inactivation by minipool TnBP/Triton X-45 treatment of plasma and cryoprecipitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnouf, T; Chou, M-L; Cheng, L-H; Li, Z-R; Wu, Y-W; El-Ekiaby, M; Tsai, K-H

    2013-01-01

    A minipool solvent/detergent (S/D; 1% TnBP/1% Triton X-45; 31°C) process was developed for viral inactivation of plasma and cryoprecipitate used for transfusion. The goal of this study was to determine the rate and extent of inactivation of dengue virus (DENV) during this process. DENV-1 was propagated using C6/36 mosquito cells to an infectivity titre close to 9 log and spiked (10% v/v) into individual plasma and cryoprecipitate samples from two distinct donors. Samples were taken right after spiking and during viral inactivation treatment by 1% TnBP-1% Triton X-45 at 31°C. DENV-1 infectivity was assessed on Vero E6 cells by a focus-forming assay (FFA). Culture medium and complement-inactivated plasma were used as experimental controls. Experiments were done in duplicate. DENV-1 infectivity was 7·5 log in spiked plasma and 7·1 and 7·3 log in spiked cryoprecipitate. There was no loss of DENV-1 infectivity in the spiked materials, nor in the controls not subjected to S/D treatment. No infectivity was found in plasma and cryoprecipitate subjected to S/D treatment at the first time-point evaluated (10 min). DENV-1 was strongly inactivated in plasma and cryoprecipitate, respectively, within 10 min of 1% TnBP/1% Triton X-45 treatment at 31°C. These data provide a reassurance of the safety of such S/D-treated plasma and cryoprecipitate with regard to the risk of transmission of all DENV serotypes and other flaviviruses. © 2012 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2012 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  17. TRITON vs POLARIS. Comparison Between Two Modules for LWRs Modelling in SCALE 6.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labarile, A.; Barrachina, T.; Miró, R.; Verdú, G.

    2015-07-01

    -One of them challenges more important in the research of reactors nuclear is the development of codes of best estimate that allow decrease them uncertainties of them calculations increasing the reliability of the results. You will also need sensitivity and uncertainty analysis and validation of the implemented code. This work offers a comparison of two modules of SCALE-6.2 for the case of a reactor's water to pressure (PWR). Based is in data from plant of the reactor Three thousands Island-1 is has calculated the keff and the cross sections effective with two modules in two dimensions (2-D) of the program SCALE: TRITON and POLARIS. TRITON is a module already validated for the calculation of the transport as POLARIS is located in distribution from end of the 2014. The objective is to compare the results of keff and cross sections of two simulations, and carry out a sensitivity analysis and uncertainty of the results. In TRITON and POLARIS calculations have been made to fuel elements of the PWR Three thousand Island-1, in two different configurations (with and without control rods), condition of stop in hot (HZP) and condition of full power (HFP). The results are presented in this work. A good correlation between the results of two simulations has found and, in addition, POLARIS module has presented less computational time and good stability in the parameters. After having compared the results obtained, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out to confirm the validation of two modules and study the influence of uncertainties in the calculation of the fuel element. (Author)

  18. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: Role of tween 80 and triton X in ascitic fluid cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver, portal hypertension with hepatic encephalopathy and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP was admitted in an obtunded condition. Attempts at delineating the aetiology of the SBP using conventional cultures as well as automated systems were not successful. The use of non-anionic surfactant agents such as Tween 80-incorporated blood agar and Triton X treatment of the specimens facilitated the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae from the ascitic fluid, which otherwise would have been concluded to represent culture-negative neutrocytic ascites. Thus, the use of the aforementioned agents could be explored in elucidating the aetiology of body cavity infections when conventional methods fail.

  19. Kinetics of solubilization with Triton X-100 of egg-yolk lecithin bilayers containing cholesterol

    OpenAIRE

    Hobai, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    The titration solubilization of multilamellar egg-yolk lecithin liposomes (MLV-EYL) with Triton X-100 was studied by rectangular optical diffusimetric measurements as a function of cholesterol (Chol) concentration. It was determinated the variation of optic percentage diffu-sion (per mmol surfactant), DDif%/mmol TX-100, in the course of solubilization of MLV-EYL-Chol system with TX-100 10mM. The statistical analysis of the titration curves can reveal the contribution of cholesterol to the sta...

  20. The cooling of particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1994-10-01

    A review is given of the various methods which can be employed for cooling particle beams. These methods include radiation damping, stimulated radiation damping, ionization cooling, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, laser cooling, and laser cooling with beam coupling. Laser Cooling has provided beams of the lowest temperatures, namely 1 mK, but only for ions and only for the longitudinal temperature. Recent theoretical work has suggested how laser cooling, with the coupling of beam motion, can be used to reduce the ion beam temperature in all three directions. The majority of this paper is devoted to describing laser cooling and laser cooling with beam coupling

  1. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available zones capable of introducing a phase shift of zero or p on the alternately out of phase rings of the TEMp0 beams into a unified phase and then focusing the rectified beam to generate a high resolution beam which has a Gaussian beam intensity distribution...

  2. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  3. Triton X-114 cloud point extraction to subfractionate blood plasma proteins for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Flemming; Wulff, Tune

    2015-01-01

    A simple and reproducible procedure for enrichment of a plasma protein subfraction suitable for two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DE) was developed, using a Triton X-114-based cloud point extraction (CPE). Appropriate conditions for such a CPE procedure were found by SDS......-PAGE to be a plasma protein concentration of about 10mg/ml in 3% (w/v) Triton X-114. 2DE of proteins obtained by CPE of 400μl of human plasma revealed about 200 spots constituting a spot pattern very different from the pattern of total plasma. The CPE procedure only had a limited contribution to the technical......-sterol acyltransferase, serum amyloid A, and serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1, which are proteins of a hydrophobic nature, as in plasma they relate to lipoprotein particles. Thus, Triton X-114-based CPE is a simple plasma prefractionation tool, attractive for detailed 2DE studies of hydrophobic plasma proteins...

  4. The ATLAS inner detector semiconductor tracker (Si and GaAs strips) review of the 1995 beam tests at the CERN SPS H8 beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Moorhead, G F

    1995-01-01

    This talk will consist of a brief review of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) strip detector (both silicon and gallium arsenide) beam tests conducted at the ATLAS test beam facility at the CERN SPS H8 beamline. It will include a brief overview of the H8 facilities, the experimental layout of the SCT/Strip apparatus, the data acquisition system, some of the online software tools and the high precision silicon hodoscope and timing modules used. A very brief indication of some of the main varieties of detector systems tested and the measurements performed will be given. Throughout some emphasis will be placed on the contributions and-interests of members of the Melbourne group. (author).

  5. Heat transfer in nucleate pool boiling of aqueous SDS and triton X-100 solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasekar, Vivek M. [Tata Steel Limited, Department of Research and Development, Jamshedpur (India)

    2009-09-15

    Variation in degree of surface wettability is presented through the application of Cooper's correlative approach (h{proportional_to}M{sup -0.5}q{sub w}''0.67) for computing enhancement ({phi}) in nucleate pool boiling of aqueous solutions of SDS and Triton X-100 and its presentation with Marangoni parameter ({chi}) that represents the dynamic convection effects due to surface tension gradients. Dynamic spreading coefficient defined as {sigma} {sub dyn}N{sub a}, which relates spreading and wetting characteristics with the active nucleation site density on the heated surface and bubble evolution process, represents cavity filling and activation process and eliminates the concentration dependence of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer in boiling of aqueous surfactant solutions. Using the dynamic spreading coefficient ({sigma}{sub dyn}N{sub a}=0.09q{sub w}''0.71), correlation predictions within {+-}15% for both SDS and triton X-100 solutions for low heat flux boiling condition (q{sub w}''{<=} 100 kW/m {sup 2}) characterised primarily by isolated bubble regime are presented. (orig.)

  6. Effect of the treatment with Euterpe oleracea Mart. oil in rats with Triton-induced dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Souza, Belmira S Faria; Carvalho, Helison O; Ferreira, Irlon M; da Cunha, Edilson L; Barros, Albenise Santana; Taglialegna, Talisson; Carvalho, José C T

    2017-06-01

    Dyslipidemias are defined as changes in lipid metabolism that have abnormal concentrations of lipids or lipoproteins in the bloodstream. Chronic increase in triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c) levels are known as risk factors for the atherogenesis process as well as other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The magnitude of the problems caused by dyslipidemias impels research by new agents that act in the prevention and control. Thus, products from the Amazonian biodiversity, such as Euterpe oleracea oil (OFEO), rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), constitutes a study source for the treatment of alterations in lipid metabolism. The present study aims to investigate the effect of OFEO treatment in rats with Triton-induced dyslipidemia (Tyloxapol WR1339). The physicochemical and chromatographic results confirmed the chemical composition of OFEO with a predominance of UFAs (67.83%), with Oleic acid being the majority (54.32%). At Triton-induced dyslipidemia, the animals treated with OFEO and Simvastatin showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol levels, with values ​​of 121.7±29.5 (pdyslipidemia, acting as antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertriglyceridemic, thus possibly contributing as a preventive agent for CVDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of hypolipidemic Marrubium vulgare effect in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abeer Y; Hendawy, Saber F; Elsayed, Ahmed A A; Omer, Elsayed A

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic activities of four Marrbium vulgare herb extracts using Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in mice. Hyperlipidemia was developed by intraperitoneal injection of Triton (200 mg/kg body weight). The animals were divided into main four groups of eight mice each: normal control group, hyperlipidemic control group, hyperlipidemic plus tween-40 control and treated group. The fourth one was divided into four subgroups, petroleum ether extract group, chloroform extract group, ethyl acetate extract group and methanol extract treated group each of them contains two sub-sub group for treating animals with two doses at 0.1 and 0.25 LD50. After 7 h and 24 h of treatment, the intragastric administration of all extracts caused a significant decrease of plasma total cholesterol. Triglyceride levels were also significantly lowered by all extracts while petroleum ether produced the lowest decreasing level. Similar results were observed for LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Furthermore, more polar extracts (methanol and ethyl acetate)-soluble fractions showed a significant ameliorative action on elevated atherogenic index (AI) and LDL/HDL-C ratios, while these atherogenic markers were not statistically suppressed by the chloroform and petroleum ether-soluble extract. The findings indicated that Marrubium may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrations and might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioavailability of hydrocarbons to bacterial consortia during Triton X-100 mediated biodegradation in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pęziak, Daria; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Marecik, Roman; Lisiecki, Piotr; Woźniak, Marta; Szulc, Alicja; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of Triton X-100 on the biodegradation efficiency of hexadecane and phenanthrene carried out by two bacterial consortia. It was established that the tested consortia were not able to directly uptake compounds closed in micelles. It was observed that in micellar systems the nonionic synthetic surfactant was preferentially degraded (the degradation efficiency of Triton X-100 after 21 days was 70% of the initial concentration - 500 mg/l), followed by a lesser decomposition of hydrocarbon released from the micelles (30% for hexadecane and 20% for phenanthrene). However, when hydrocarbons were used as the sole carbon source, 70% of hexadecane and 30% of phenanthrene were degraded. The degradation of the surfactant did not contribute to notable shifts in bacterial community dynamics, as determined by Real-Time PCR. The obtained results suggest that if surfactant-supplementation is to be used as an integral part of a bioremediation process, then possible bioavailability decrease due to entrapment of the contaminant into surfactant micelles should also be taken into consideration, as this phenomenon may have a negative impact on the biodegradation efficiency. Surfactant-induced mobilization of otherwise recalcitrant hydrocarbons may contribute to the spreading of contaminants in the environment and prevent their biodegradation.

  9. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirin Dejan M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to develop colloidal drug carriers with desired properties, it is important to determine physico-chemical characteristics of these systems. Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100 or anionic (sodium lauryl ether sulfate surfactant having oxyethylene groups in the polar head and following bile salts: cholate, deoxycholate and 7-oxodeoxycholate. Results The micellization behaviour of binary anionic-nonionic and anionic-anionic surfactant mixtures was investigated by conductivity and surface tension measurements. The results of the study have been analyzed using Clint's, Rubingh's, and Motomura's theories for mixed binary systems. The negative values of the interaction parameter indicate synergism between micelle building units. It was noticed that Triton X-100 and sodium lauryl ether sulfate generate the weakest synergistic interactions with sodium deoxycholate, while 7-oxodeoxycholate creates the strongest attractive interaction with investigated co-surfactants. Conclusion It was concluded that increased synergistic interactions can be attributed to the larger number of hydrophilic groups at α side of the bile salts. Additionally, 7-oxo group of 7-oxodeoxycholate enhance attractive interactions with selected co-surfactants more than 7-hydroxyl group of sodium cholate.

  10. SCALE Continuous-Energy Monte Carlo Depletion with Parallel KENO in TRITON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goluoglu, Sedat; Bekar, Kursat B.; Wiarda, Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    The TRITON sequence of the SCALE code system is a powerful and robust tool for performing multigroup (MG) reactor physics analysis using either the 2-D deterministic solver NEWT or the 3-D Monte Carlo transport code KENO. However, as with all MG codes, the accuracy of the results depends on the accuracy of the MG cross sections that are generated and/or used. While SCALE resonance self-shielding modules provide rigorous resonance self-shielding, they are based on 1-D models and therefore 2-D or 3-D effects such as heterogeneity of the lattice structures may render final MG cross sections inaccurate. Another potential drawback to MG Monte Carlo depletion is the need to perform resonance self-shielding calculations at each depletion step for each fuel segment that is being depleted. The CPU time and memory required for self-shielding calculations can often eclipse the resources needed for the Monte Carlo transport. This summary presents the results of the new continuous-energy (CE) calculation mode in TRITON. With the new capability, accurate reactor physics analyses can be performed for all types of systems using the SCALE Monte Carlo code KENO as the CE transport solver. In addition, transport calculations can be performed in parallel mode on multiple processors.

  11. Decomposition of volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial off-gas by electron beams: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paur, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    The electron beam induced decomposition of volatile organic compounds (e.g. aromatic compounds, esters, chlorinated hydrocarbons) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins) in industrial off gas has been investigated by several research groups in Germany and Japan. The method was shown to be effective for cleaning the waste gas of a paint factory, the waste air discharged from an automobile tunnel, the off gas cleaning from a groundwater remediation plant and the flue gas of a waste incinerator. The electron beam process achieves high removal efficiencies for volatile organic compounds. Reaction models have been developed, which suggest that the organic compounds are oxidized by hydroxyl radicals. The electron beam process may treat very large off-gas volumes at ambient temperatures and has a low energy consumption. The production of secondary wastes can be avoided or minimized. Compared to conventional methods the investment and operation costs of the process seem to be attractive for selected applications

  12. Beam-beam and impedance

    CERN Document Server

    White, S.

    2014-07-17

    As two counter-rotating beams interact they can give rise to coherent dipole modes. Under the influence of impedance these coherent beam-beam modes can couple to higher order head-tail modes and lead to strong instabilities. A fully self-consistent approach including beam-beam and impedance was used to characterize this new coupled mode instability and study possible cures such as a transverse damper and high chromaticity.

  13. Beam instrumentation in a multidisciplinary accelerator facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, J.M.; Boon, S.N.; Dermois, O.C.; Kiewiet, H.H.

    Some recently developed beam diagnostic devices for the beam lines of the AGOR cyclotron are reviewed. The range of applications is from low background nuclear physics experiments at "zero degree" to radiation therapy with proton beams. In particular a method to improve beam quality and the

  14. Beam cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Danared, H

    2006-01-01

    Beam cooling is the technique of reducing the momentum spread and increasing the phase-space density of stored particle beams. This paper gives an introduction to beam cooling and Liouville’s theorem, and then it describes the three methods of active beam cooling that have been proven to work so far, namely electron cooling, stochastic cooling, and laser cooling. Ionization cooling is also mentioned briefly.

  15. Molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendelbury, J.M.; Smith, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Studies with directed collision-free beams of particles continue to play an important role in the development of modern physics and chemistry. The deflections suffered by such beams as they pass through electric and magnetic fields or laser radiation provide some of the most direct information about the individual constituents of the beam; the scattering observed when two beams intersect yields important data about the intermolecular forces responsible for the scattering. (author)

  16. Crude soybean hull peroxidase treatment of phenol in synthetic and real wastewater: enzyme economy enhanced by Triton X-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steevensz, Aaron; Madur, Sneha; Feng, Wei; Taylor, Keith E; Bewtra, Jatinder K; Biswas, Nihar

    2014-02-05

    Soybean peroxidase (SBP)-catalyzed removal of phenol from wastewater has been demonstrated as a feasible wastewater treatment strategy and a non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100, has the potential for increasing the enzyme economy of the process. Systematic studies on the enzyme-surfactant system have been lacking as well as demonstration of its applicability to industrial wastewater. This paper addresses those two gaps, the latter based on real wastewater from alkyd resin manufacture. The minimum effective Triton X-100 concentrations for crude SBP-catalyzed phenol conversion (≥95%) over 1-10 mM showed a linear trend. To illustrate translation of such lab results to real-world samples, this data were used to optimize crude SBP needed for phenol conversion over that concentration range. Triton X-100 increases enzyme economy by 10- to 13-fold. This treatment protocol was directly applied to tote-scale (700-1000 L) treatment of alkyd resin wastewater, with phenol ranging from 7 to 28 mM and total organic carbon content of >40 g/L, using a crude SBP extract derived from dry soybean hulls by simple aqueous elution. This extract can be used to remove phenol from a complex industrial wastewater and the process is markedly more efficient in the presence of Triton X-100. The water is thus rendered amenable to conventional biological treatment whilst the hulls could still be used in feed, thus adding further value to the crop. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuropeptides encoded within a neural transcriptome of the giant triton snail Charonia tritonis, a Crown-of-Thorns Starfish predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, U; Suwansa-Ard, S; Maikaeo, L; Motti, C A; Hall, M R; Cummins, S F

    2017-12-01

    Neuropeptides represent a diverse class of signaling molecules originating from neural tissues. These chemical modulators orchestrate complex physiological events including those associated with growth and reproduction. De novo transcriptome sequencing of a cerebral ganglion library of the endangered giant triton snail (Charonia tritonis) was undertaken in an effort to identify key neuropeptides that control or influence its physiology. The giant triton snail is considered a primary predator of the corallivore Acanthaster planci (Crown-of-Thorns Starfish) that is responsible for a significant loss in coral cover on reefs in the Indo-Pacific. The transcriptome library was assembled into contigs, and then bioinformatic analysis was used to identify a repertoire of 38 giant triton snail neuropeptide precursor genes, and various isoforms, that encode conserved molluscan neuropeptides. C. tritonis neuropeptides show overall precursor organisation consistent with those of other molluscs. These include those neuropeptides associated with mollusc reproduction such as the APGWamide, buccalin, conopressin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), NKY and egg-laying hormone. These data provide a foundation for further studies targeted towards the functional characterisation of neuropeptides to further understand aspects of the biology of the giant triton snail, such as elucidating its reproductive neuroendocrine pathway to allow the development of knowledge based captive breeding programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypolipidemic effect and antioxidant activity of glycoprotein isolated from Ulmus davidiana Nakai in Triton WR-1339-treated mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jeong-Hyeon; Lee, Sei-Jung; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2007-01-01

    The glycoprotein isolated from Ulmus davidiana Nakai (UDN) (UDN glycoprotein) has a molecular weight of 116 kDa and consists of 78.65% carbohydrate content and 21.35% protein content. In the present study, we investigated the hypolipidemic effect of UDN glycoprotein on Triton WR-1339-induced mice. With pretreatment with UDN glycoprotein, the triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations were significantly reduced, whereas high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration was increased in the plasma of Triton WR-1339-induced mice. With respect to antioxidative activity, UDN glycoprotein significantly decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and improved activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), without an apparent change of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Also UDN glycoprotein significantly increased nitric oxide (NO) production in Triton WR-1339-induced mice. These results indicate that UDN glycoprotein has a hypolipidemic effect, possesses antioxidant activity and has an ability to stimulate NO production. Thus, we speculate that UDN glycoprotein is an example of natural compound that lowers plasma lipid level together with having an antioxidant function in Triton WR-1339-induced mice.

  19. Determination of the ratio of axial-vector-to-vector weak coupling constants for beta decay of triton

    CERN Document Server

    Akulov, Y A

    2002-01-01

    Data on the chemical shifts of half-lives for atomic and molecular tritium were used to determine the ratio of axial-vector-to-vector weak coupling constants for beta decay of triton (G sub A /G sub V) sub t = -1.2646 +- 0.0035

  20. Polypyrrole nanoparticles fabricated via Triton X-100 micelles template approach and their acetone gas sensing property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fake; Li, Hang [Department of Clinical Laboratory Medcine, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Jiang, Hongmin [26th Research Institute, Chinese Electronics Scientific and Technical Group Company, Chongqing 400060 (China); Zhang, Kejun; Chang, Kai; Jia, Shuangrong; Jiang, Wenbin; Shang, Ya; Lu, Weiping [Department of Clinical Laboratory Medcine, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Deng, Shaoli, E-mail: dengsl072@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Clinical Laboratory Medcine, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Chen, Ming, E-mail: chenming1971@yahoo.com [Department of Clinical Laboratory Medcine, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Nano-scaled polypyrrole (PPy) particles have been successfully synthesized with the help of Triton X-100 micelles via soft template approach. The polypyrrole nanoparticles have been spin-coated on surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducers to demonstrate their sensing capability toward acetone gas exposure. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopes (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy have been utilized to characterize these PPy nanoparticles. The PPy nanoparticles have an average diameter of 95 nm. The responses of the sensors are linearly associated with the acetone concentrations in the range from 5.5 ppm to 80 ppm. In response to 5.5 ppm acetone exposure, the response and recovery time are 9 s and 8.3 s, respectively. SAW sensors coated with PPy nanoparticles were potentially useful to detect acetone.

  1. Polypyrrole nanoparticles fabricated via Triton X-100 micelles template approach and their acetone gas sensing property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fake; Li, Hang; Jiang, Hongmin; Zhang, Kejun; Chang, Kai; Jia, Shuangrong; Jiang, Wenbin; Shang, Ya; Lu, Weiping; Deng, Shaoli; Chen, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Nano-scaled polypyrrole (PPy) particles have been successfully synthesized with the help of Triton X-100 micelles via soft template approach. The polypyrrole nanoparticles have been spin-coated on surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducers to demonstrate their sensing capability toward acetone gas exposure. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopes (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy have been utilized to characterize these PPy nanoparticles. The PPy nanoparticles have an average diameter of 95 nm. The responses of the sensors are linearly associated with the acetone concentrations in the range from 5.5 ppm to 80 ppm. In response to 5.5 ppm acetone exposure, the response and recovery time are 9 s and 8.3 s, respectively. SAW sensors coated with PPy nanoparticles were potentially useful to detect acetone.

  2. Beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.E.; Zinkann, G.P.; Pardo, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The ECR-PII injector beam line is operated at a fixed ion velocity. The platform high voltage is chosen so that all ions have a velocity of 0.0085c at the PII entrance. If a previous tune configuration for the linac is to be used, the beam arrival time must be matched to the previous tune as well. A nondestructive beam-phase pickup detector was developed and installed at the entrance to the PII linac. This device provides continuous phase and beam current information and allows quick optimization of the beam injected into PII. Bunches traverse a short tubular electrode thereby inducing displacement currents. These currents are brought outside the vacuum interface where a lumped inductance resonates electrode capacitance at one of the bunching harmonic frequencies. This configuration yields a basic sensitivity of a few hundred millivolts signal per microampere of beam current. Beam-induced radiofrequency signals are summed against an offset frequency generated by our master oscillator. The resulting kilohertz difference frequency conveys beam intensity and bunch phase information which is sent to separate processing channels. One channel utilizes a phase locked loop which stabilizes phase readings if beam is unstable. The other channel uses a linear full wave active rectifier circuit which converts kilohertz sine wave signal amplitude to a D.C. voltage representing beam current. A prototype set of electronics is now in use with the detector and we began to use the system in operation to set the arrival beam phase. A permanent version of the electronics system for the phase detector is now under construction. Additional nondestructive beam intensity and phase monitors at the open-quotes Boosterclose quotes and open-quotes ATLASclose quotes linac sections are planned as well as on some of the high-energy beam lines. Such a monitor will be particularly useful for FMA experiments where the primary beam hits one of the electric deflector plates

  3. Cyclotrons for high-intensity beams

    CERN Document Server

    Seidel, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the important physical and technological aspects of cyclotrons for the acceleration of high-intensity beams. Special emphasis is given to the discussion of beam loss mechanisms and extraction schemes.

  4. A comparison study of the 1MeV triton burn-up in JET using the HECTOR and SOCRATE codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorini, G.; Kovanen, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The burn-up of the 1MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas has been measured in JET for various plasma conditions. To interpret these measurements the containment, slowing down and burn-up of fast tritons needs to be modelled with a reasonable accuracy. The numerical code SOCRATE has been written for this specific purpose and a second code, HECTOR, has been adapted to study the triton burn-up problem. In this paper we compare the results from the two codes in order to exclude possible errors in the numerical models, to assess their accuracy and to study the sensitivity of the calculation to various physical effects. (author)

  5. Operational beams for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Papaphilippou, Y.; Rumolo, G.; Manglunki, D.

    2014-01-01

    The variety of beams, needed to set-up in the injectors as requested in the LHC, are reviewed, in terms of priority but also performance expectations and reach during 2015. This includes the single bunch beams for machine commissioning and measurements (probe, Indiv) but also the standard physics beams with 50 ns and 25 ns bunch spacing and their high brightness variants using the Bunch Compression Merging and Splitting (BCMS) scheme. The required parameters and target performance of special beams like the doublet for electron cloud enhancement and the more exotic 8b$\\oplus$4e beam, compatible with some post-scrubbing scenarios are also described. The progress and plans for the LHC ion production beams during 2014-2015 are detailed. Highlights on the current progress of the setting up of the various beams are finally presented with special emphasis on potential performance issues across the proton and ion injector chain.

  6. Elliptical beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandres, Miguel A; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C

    2008-12-08

    A very general beam solution of the paraxial wave equation in elliptic cylindrical coordinates is presented. We call such a field an elliptic beam (EB). The complex amplitude of the EB is described by either the generalized Ince functions or the Whittaker-Hill functions and is characterized by four parameters that are complex in the most general situation. The propagation through complex ABCD optical systems and the conditions for square integrability are studied in detail. Special cases of the EB are the standard, elegant, and generalized Ince-Gauss beams, Mathieu-Gauss beams, among others.

  7. Pharmacological Screening ofTrachyspermum ammifor Antihyperlipidemic Activity in Triton X-100 Induced Hyperlipidemia Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Uzma; Riaz, Saba; Ahmad, Bashir; Saleem, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    Mortality rate is increasing due to cardiovascular problems throughout the world. These cardiac problems are directly associated with dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic effect of aqueous extract and methanol extract of Trachyspermum ammi at 1 g/kg, 3 g/kg, and 5 g/kg dose levels in rats. For this purpose, 45 male albino rats were used and randomly divided into nine equal groups ( n = 5). The lipid levels were increased after 24 h of single intraperitoneal injection of Triton X-100 (100 mg/kg) in rats. Aqueous and methanol extracts equivalent to 1 g/kg, 3 g/kg, and 5 g/kg were administered orally to the rats for 21 days. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) was used as standard drug. Blood samples were collected at 0, 2 nd , 9 th , 16 th , and 23 rd day by a direct cardiac puncture in Vacuette ® heparin tubes. Serum was separated and then analyzed for lipid profile, liver function test (LFT), and renal function test (RFT) using standard diagnostic kits. Results showed that extracts at 3 g/kg and 5 g/kg decreased the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein and increased high-density lipoprotein concentration in serum. T. ammi also decreased LFT and RFT parameters at the end of the study. T. ammi possessed antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities along with hepato- and nephro-protective effects. Aqueous and methanol extracts of T. ammi were administered orally at 1-, 3-, and 5 g/kg doses to hyperlipidemic rats (Triton X-100 induced hyperlipidemia) and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, orally) was used as standard drug. Methanol extract at 5 g/kg showed antihyperlipidemic effect that is identical to that of standard drug. Abbreviations Used: LDL: Low-density lipoprotein; TC: Total cholesterol; VLDL: Very low-density lipoprotein; HDL: High-density lipoprotein; T. ammi : Trachyspermum ammi ; WHO: World Health Organization; CAD: Coronary artery disease; BHT: Butylated hydroxytoluene; BUN: Blood urea nitrogen; AST

  8. Pharmacological Screening of Trachyspermum ammi for Antihyperlipidemic Activity in Triton X-100 Induced Hyperlipidemia Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Uzma; Riaz, Saba; Ahmad, Bashir; Saleem, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mortality rate is increasing due to cardiovascular problems throughout the world. These cardiac problems are directly associated with dyslipidemia. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic effect of aqueous extract and methanol extract of Trachyspermum ammi at 1 g/kg, 3 g/kg, and 5 g/kg dose levels in rats. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 45 male albino rats were used and randomly divided into nine equal groups (n = 5). The lipid levels were increased after 24 h of single intraperitoneal injection of Triton X-100 (100 mg/kg) in rats. Aqueous and methanol extracts equivalent to 1 g/kg, 3 g/kg, and 5 g/kg were administered orally to the rats for 21 days. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) was used as standard drug. Blood samples were collected at 0, 2nd, 9th, 16th, and 23rd day by a direct cardiac puncture in Vacuette® heparin tubes. Serum was separated and then analyzed for lipid profile, liver function test (LFT), and renal function test (RFT) using standard diagnostic kits. Results: Results showed that extracts at 3 g/kg and 5 g/kg decreased the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein and increased high-density lipoprotein concentration in serum. T. ammi also decreased LFT and RFT parameters at the end of the study. Conclusion: T. ammi possessed antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities along with hepato- and nephro-protective effects. SUMMARY Aqueous and methanol extracts of T. ammi were administered orally at 1-, 3-, and 5 g/kg doses to hyperlipidemic rats (Triton X-100 induced hyperlipidemia) and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, orally) was used as standard drug. Methanol extract at 5 g/kg showed antihyperlipidemic effect that is identical to that of standard drug. Abbreviations Used: LDL: Low-density lipoprotein; TC: Total cholesterol; VLDL: Very low-density lipoprotein; HDL: High-density lipoprotein; T. ammi: Trachyspermum ammi; WHO: World Health Organization; CAD: Coronary artery disease; BHT

  9. Methods for constraining surface properties and volatile migration on Phoebe, Triton, Pluto, and the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charles Frederick

    The surface properties and surface volatile content of rocky bodies contain clues as to the formation and subsequent evolution of our Solar System. Many Solar System bodies retain essentially pristine subsurface volatiles, but their surface volatiles have often undergone chemical processing from UV irradiation and heating from impacts over millennia. The result is a wide range of surface properties observed today. We analyze the surfaces of these primitive bodies with the goal of deducing their evolutionary history. To this end, we employed three targeted analysis methods to characterize the surface properties and/or volatile distribution of three Solar System satellites. We derived photometric properties of Saturn's moon Phoebe from observations taken at low solar phase angles and corn-pared these results to those published for other Solar System objects. We conclude that Phoebe's surface has similarities to both Jupiter family comets and Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), supporting the conjecture that Phoebe migrated to Saturn the outer Solar System. We converted a General Circulation Model (GCM) to simulate the atmospheric motion of Neptune's moon Triton. We used this model to investigate the effect of N2 surface frosts on Triton's global atmospheric circulation. Our simulations identified specific atmospheric thermal conditions that led to wind speeds and directions consistent with the motion of erupting geysers captured by Voyager 2 images. Finally, we developed an 3-D n-body ballistic plume model to analyze the geometry and dynamics of the ejecta plume created by the impact of the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) on the Moon. LCROSS was designed to detect water content in lunar regolith, but also served as a test bed for comparing the properties of a large-scale, controlled impact with laboratory impact experiments. By comparing plume simulation results to our observations of the LCROSS impact, we confirmed the predictions that the LCROSS

  10. Beam phase space and emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1990-12-01

    The classical and elementary results for canonical phase space, the Liouville theorem and the beam emittance are reviewed. Then, the importance of phase portraits to obtain a geometrical description of motion is emphasized, with examples in accelerator physics. Finally, a statistical point of view is used to define beam emittance, to study its law of approximate conservation and to treat two particular examples

  11. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs

  12. Clival Lesion incidentally discovered on cone-beam computed tomography: A case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadhav, Aniket B.; Tadinada, Aditya; Rengasamy, Kandasamy; Lurie, Alan G. [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine, Farmington (United States); Douglas, Fellows [Division of Diagnostic Sciences and Therapeutics, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington (United States)

    2014-06-15

    An osteolytic lesion with a small central area of mineralization and sclerotic borders was discovered incidentally in the clivus on the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) of a 27-year-old male patient. This benign appearance indicated a primary differential diagnosis of non-aggressive lesions such as fibro-osseous lesions and arrested pneumatization. Further, on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the lesion showed a homogenously low T1 signal intensity with mild internal enhancement after post-gadolinium and a heterogeneous T2 signal intensity. These signal characteristics might be attributed to the fibrous tissues, chondroid matrix, calcific material, or cystic component of the lesion; thus, chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma were added to the differential diagnosis. Although this report was limited by the lack of final diagnosis and the patient lost to follow-up, the incidental skull base finding would be important for interpreting the entire volume of CBCT by a qualified oral and maxillofacial radiologist.

  13. Description of WWER-440 fuel assembly 3D depletion model developed with TRITON6 code (SCALE 6.0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    One of the key components strongly influencing the accuracy of burnup credit methodology is precision of spent nuclear fuel isotopic composition prediction. To enhance the accuracy of spent nuclear fuel isotopic composition prediction modeling 3D depletion model of WWER-440 nuclear fuel was developed by TRITON6. TRITON6 couples ORIGEN-S depletion code with 3D neutron transport solver KENO-VI. This kind of coupling allows updating the ORIGEN-S cross-section libraries by 3D problem-dependent neutron fluxes computed by KENO-VI hence significantly improving the accuracy of isotopic composition predications. WWER-440 fuel assembly destructive experimental results carried out by RIAR Dimitrovgrad are planned to be used for verification and validation of developed model. Therefore WWER-440 fuel assembly model was developed with taking into account peculiarities in destructive experimental results

  14. Radiolytic syntheses of hollow UO{sub 2} nanospheres in Triton X-100-based lyotropic liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yongming; Chen, Qingde; Shen, Xinghai [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Fundamental Science on Radiochemistry and Radiation Chemistry Lab.

    2017-08-01

    Hollow nanospheres (φ: 60-80 nm, wall thickness: 10-20 nm), consisted of UO{sub 2} nanoparticles (φ: 3-5 nm), were successfully prepared in a Triton X-100-water (50:50, w/w) hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) by γ-irradiation, where water soluble ammonium uranyl tricarbonate was added as precursor. The product was stable at least up to 300 C. Furthermore, whether the nanospheres were hollow or not, and the wall thickness of the hollow nanospheres could be easily controlled via adjusting dose rate. While in the Triton X-100 based micellar systems, only solid nanospheres were obtained. At last, a possible combination mechanism containing adsorption, aggregation and fracturing processes was proposed.

  15. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available positions of p zeros of intensity distributions on the Gaussian beam, resulting to a generation of TEMp0 beams where there are minimum losses. The LGBs are well-known family of exact orthogonal solutions of free-space paraxial wave equation in cylindrical...

  16. Ion-beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

  17. Beam dynamics group summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggs, S.

    This paper summarizes the activities of the beam dynamics working group of the LHC Collective Effects Workshop that was held in Montreux in 1994. It reviews the presentations that were made to the group, the discussions that ensued, and the consensuses that evolved.

  18. OSS (Outer Solar System): A fundamental and planetary physics mission to Neptune, Triton and the Kuiper Belt

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe, Bruno; Spilker, Linda J.; Anderson, John D.; André, Nicolas; Asmar, Sami W.; Aurnou, Jonathan; Banfield, Don; Barucci, Antonella; Bertolami, Orfeu; Bingham, Robert; Brown, Patrick; Cecconi, Baptiste; Courty, Jean-Michel; Dittus, Hansjörg; Fletcher, Leigh N.

    2011-01-01

    The present OSS mission continues a long and bright tradition by associating the communities of fundamental physics and planetary sciences in a single mission with ambitious goals in both domains. OSS is an M-class mission to explore the Neptune system almost half a century after flyby of the Voyager 2 spacecraft. Several discoveries were made by Voyager 2, including the Great Dark Spot (which has now disappeared) and Triton's geysers. Voyager 2 revealed the dynamics of Neptune's atmosphere a...

  19. Beam diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U

    2008-01-01

    Most beam measurements are based on the electro-magnetic interaction of fields induced by the beam with their environment. Beam current transformers as well as beam position monitors are based on this principle. The signals induced in the sensors must be amplified and shaped before they are converted into numerical values. These values are further treated numerically in order to extract meaningful machine parameter measurements. The lecture introduces the architecture of an instrument and shows where in the treatment chain digital signal analysis can be introduced. Then the use of digital signal processing is presented using tune measurements, orbit and trajectory measurements as well as beam loss detection and longitudinal phase space tomography as examples. The hardware as well as the treatment algorithms and their implementation on Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) or in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are presented.

  20. Colorimetric detection of melamine in milk based on Triton X-100 modified gold nanoparticles and its paper-based application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nan; Huang, Pengcheng; Wu, Fangying

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we have developed a method for rapid, highly efficient and selective detection of melamine. The negatively charged citrate ions form an electrostatic layer on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and keep the NPs dispersed and stable. When citrate-capped AuNPs were further modified with Triton X-100, it stabilized the AuNPs against the conditions of high ionic strength and a broad pH range. However, the addition of melamine caused the destabilization and aggregation of NPs. This may be attributed to the interaction between melamine and the AuNPs through the ligand exchange with citrate ions on the surface of AuNPs leading Triton X-100 to be removed. As a result, the AuNPs were unstable, resulting in the aggregation. The aggregation induced a wine red-to-blue color change, and a new absorption peak around 630 nm appeared. Triton X-100-AuNPs could selectively detect melamine at the concentration as low as 5.1 nM. This probe was successfully applied to detect melamine in milk. Furthermore, paper-based quantitative detection system using this colorimetric probe was also demonstrated by integrating with a smartphone.

  1. Large transient nonproton ion movements in purple membrane suspensions are abolished by solubilization in Triton X-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetti, T; Mauzerall, D

    1986-09-01

    Light-induced release/uptake of both protons and other ions cause transient changes in conductivity in suspensions of purple membrane (PM) fragments (Marinetti, Tim, and David Mauzerall, 1983, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 80:178-180). We find that the release/uptake of nonproton ions with quantum yield greater than 1 is observed at most pHs and ionic strengths. Only at both low pH and low ionic strength is the conductivity transient mostly due to protons. Our hypothesis is that during the photocycle, changes occur in the PM's dense surface charge distribution that result in changes in the number of counterions bound or condensed at the membrane surface. To test this, the PM structure was perturbed with the nonionic detergent Triton X-100. Immediately after addition, Triton does not abolish the nonproton ion movements; in fact at low detergent concentrations (0.02% vol/vol) the signal amplitudes increased considerably. However, when PM is completely solubilized into monomers in Triton, the conductivity transients are due to protons alone, though at lower quantum yield compared with native PM. These results suggest that changes in the surface charge distribution in native PM's photocycle could contribute to proton transfer between the aqueous phase and bR itself.

  2. Characterization of the Recombinant Thermostable Lipase (Pf2001 from Pyrococcus furiosus: Effects of Thioredoxin Fusion Tag and Triton X-100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Maria Campbell Alquéres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the lipase from Pyrococcus furiosus encoded by ORF PF2001 was expressed with a fusion protein (thioredoxin in Escherichia coli. The purified enzymes with the thioredoxin tag (TRX−PF2001Δ60 and without the thioredoxin tag (PF2001Δ60 were characterized, and various influences of Triton X-100 were determined. The optimal temperature for both enzymes was 80°C. Although the thioredoxin presence did not influence the optimum temperature, the TRX−PF2001Δ60 presented specific activity twice lower than the enzyme PF2001Δ60. The enzyme PF2001Δ60 was assayed using MUF-acetate, MUF-heptanoate, and MUF-palmitate. MUF-heptanoate was the preferred substrate of this enzyme. The chelators EDTA and EGTA increased the enzyme activity by 97 and 70%, respectively. The surfactant Triton X-100 reduced the enzyme activity by 50% and lowered the optimum temperature to 60°C. However, the thermostability of the enzyme PF2001Δ60 was enhanced with Triton X-100.

  3. Triton, deuteron and proton responses of the CR-39 track detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Hiroyoshi; Oda, Keiji [Kobe Univ. of Mercantile Marine (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    In the present study, we assessed the response of the CR-39 detector to proton, deuteron and triton from their etch-pit growth curves obtained by multi-step etching technique and the difference among their track registration properties was discussed. In order to avoid incorrect evaluation due to the missing track effect, particle irradiation was performed at various incident energies. The response function, S(R), etch rate ratio, S, as a function of the residual range, R, was experimentally evaluated for all hydrogen isotopes by this method. In the next, we obtained another form of response functions of S(E), S({beta}) and S(LET{sub 200}), which were presented as functions of the particle energy, E, the particle velocity, {beta}(=v/c), and the linear energy transfer in the case where the cut-off energy is 200 eV, LET{sub 200}, respectively. These information will be useful also in understanding the fundamentals of the latent track formation mechanism in the plastic track detectors. (J.P.N.)

  4. TRITON, 3-D Multi-Region Neutron Diffusion Burnup with Criticality Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: TRITON is a multigroup diffusion depletion program in three dimensions (x,y,z). In addition to the straight K eff calculation, three types of criticality searches are possible - diluted control isotope search, region-wise smeared control isotope search, region-wise smeared control isotope search, region-wise smeared control isotope boundary search (the control isotope can be smeared over one region or over a group of regions called a control bank). The depletion equations are solved region-wise. More than one microscopic cross section library can be used in the various regions of the reactor. The same is true for self-shielding factors. Such sets of data can be changed at pre-determined time steps. 2 - Method of solution: The mathematical model employed for the solution of the finite difference equations, which is derived from a seven-point approximation of diffusion equations, is an on-line Chebyshev semi- iterative method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of: library sets: 1; self-shielding sets: 10; compositions: 100; self-shielding coefficients: 6000; groups: 10; fuel isotopes: 30; fission products: 29; isotopes: 50; burnable isotopes: 40; control banks: 100; mesh points: 15000; regions: 400; time steps: 100; control areas: 100; small time steps: 200; elements in the control list: 400; x planes: 100; y planes: 100; z planes: 100

  5. Dielectric properties of water in Triton X-100 (nonionic detergent)-water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Koji

    2007-01-01

    Dielectric measurements were carried out for mixtures of Triton X-100 (TX, a nonionic detergent with a poly(ethylene oxide) chain) and water with or without electrolytes over a frequency range of 1 MHz to 10 GHz to study the structure and dynamics of water molecules in the mixtures. Dielectric relaxation was found above 100 MHz, being assigned to the dielectric relaxation of water. The intensity of the dielectric relaxation was proportional to the water content above 0 deg. C. Below the freezing temperature of bulk water, the relaxation intensity decreased at TX concentrations (C TX ) below 50 wt% at -10 deg. Cand below 60 wt% at -20 deg. Cbecause frozen water shifts the dielectric relaxation to a frequency region far below 1 MHz. This indicated that there is no bulk water at C TX above 50 wt% and that at least two water molecules per ethylene oxide (EO) unit are tightly associated with the ethylene oxide chain. The low-frequency conductivity of the mixtures of TX and electrolyte solutions was well represented by Bruggeman's mixture equation at C TX below 40 wt%, if two water molecules per EO unit form an insulating shell surrounding TX micelles

  6. Comparison of results for burning with BWR reactors CASMO and SCALE 6.2 (TRITON / NEWT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesado, C.; Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we compare the results from two codes burned, CASMO and SCALE 6.2 (TRITON). To do this, is simulated all segments corresponding to a boiling water reactor (BWR) using both codes. In addition, to account for different working points, simulations changing the instantaneous variables, these are repeated: void fractions (6 points), fuel temperature (6 points) and control rods (two points), with a total of 72 possible combinations of different instantaneous variables for each segment. After all simulations are completed for each segment, we can reorder the obtained cross sections, as SCALE CASMO both, to create a library of compositions nemtab format. This format is accepted by the neutronic code of nodal diffusion, PARCS v2.7. Finally compares the results obtained with PARCS and with the SIMULATE3 -SIMTAB methodology to level of full reactor. Also, we have made use of the KENO-VI and MCDANCOFF modules belonging to SCALE. The first is a Monte Carlo transport code with which you can validate the value of the multiplier, the second has been used to obtain values of Dancoff factor and increase the accuracy of model SCALE. (Author)

  7. A Case of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor with Rhabdomyoblastic Differentiation: Malignant Triton Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichiro Mae

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST constitute a rare variety of soft tissue sarcomas thought to originate from Schwann cells or pluripotent cells of the neural crest. Malignant triton tumor (MTT, a very rare, highly aggressive soft tissue tumor, is a subgroup of MPNST and is comprised of malignant Schwann cells coexisting with malignant rhabdomyoblasts. We herein report the case of a 24-year-old man who presented a subcutaneous mass in his right thigh. The mass was removed surgically in its entirety and radiation therapy was applied locally to prevent tumor regrowth. Nonetheless, the patient died 10 months after surgery from metastases to the lung and brain. He presented neither cafe-au-lait spots nor cutaneous neurofibromas. The histopathology showed a transition from a neurofibroma to an MTT, making this the second report of an MTT arising from a neurofibroma without neurofibromatosis type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder with which 50-70% of tumors reported in previous studies were associated. A histopathological examination using immunostaining with desmin confirmed this diagnosis. MTT has a poorer prognosis than MPNST and should therefore be regarded as a distinct clinical entity.

  8. Studies of Triton X-165-beta-cyclodextrin interactions using both extrinsic and intrinsic fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Atanu; Bose, Debosreeta; Ghosh, Debanjana; Jana, Barnali; Bhattacharya, Bhaswati; Sarkar, Deboleena; Chattopadhyay, Nitin

    2010-07-15

    The interaction of beta-cyclodextrin with the non-ionic micelle-forming surfactant Triton X-165 (TX-165) has been studied using steady state fluorescence and fluorescence anisotropy techniques. Both extrinsic and intrinsic fluorescence have been exploited for the purpose. Phenosafranin (PSF), a cationic phenazinium dye, has been used as the extrinsic probe while fluorescence of TX-165 has served as the intrinsic one. PSF shows discernible interactions with both TX-165 and beta-CD. The experimental results reveal that the extent of interaction of PSF with TX-165 is greater than with beta-CD. However, addition of beta-CD to a micellar solution of TX-165 containing PSF leads to a disruption of the micelles whereby the fluorophore is released from the micellar environment to the bulk aqueous phase. It has been substantiated that an inclusion complex is formed between the non-ionic surfactant and the cyclodextrin. A 1:1 stoichiometry of the TX-165-beta-CD inclusion complex has been proposed. Such a complexation between TX-165 and beta-CD results in an inhibition in the micellization process of TX-165 leading to an enhancement in the apparent CMC value. The inferences are drawn from a series of experiments, viz., binding studies, determination of micropolarity, heavy-ion quenching studies and steady state fluorescence anisotropy experiments monitoring both extrinsic and intrinsic fluorescences. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Incidental occurrence of an unusually large mastoid foramen on cone beam computed tomography and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, Ali Z.; Sin, Cleo; Rios, Raquel [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland (United States); Mupparapu, Mel [Div. of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine, Philadelphia(United States)

    2016-03-15

    The incidental finding of an enlarged mastoid foramen on the right posterior mastoid region of temporal bone is reported, together with a discussion of its clinical significance. A 67-year-old female underwent the pre-implant assessment of a maxillary left edentulous region. A cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) image was acquired and referred for consultation. Axial CBCT slices revealed a unilateral, well-defined, noncorticated, low-attenuation, transosseous defect posterior to the mastoid air cells in the right temporal bone. The borders of the osseous defect were smooth and continuous. No other radiographic signs suggestive of erosion or sclerosis were noted in the vicinity. The density within the defect was homogenous and consistent with a foramen and/or soft tissue. The patient's history and physical examination revealed no significant medical issues, and she was referred to a neuroradiologist for a second opinion. The diagnosis of an enlarged mastoid foramen was made and the patient was reassured.

  10. Incidental occurrence of an unusually large mastoid foramen on cone beam computed tomography and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, Ali Z.; Sin, Cleo; Rios, Raquel; Mupparapu, Mel

    2016-01-01

    The incidental finding of an enlarged mastoid foramen on the right posterior mastoid region of temporal bone is reported, together with a discussion of its clinical significance. A 67-year-old female underwent the pre-implant assessment of a maxillary left edentulous region. A cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) image was acquired and referred for consultation. Axial CBCT slices revealed a unilateral, well-defined, noncorticated, low-attenuation, transosseous defect posterior to the mastoid air cells in the right temporal bone. The borders of the osseous defect were smooth and continuous. No other radiographic signs suggestive of erosion or sclerosis were noted in the vicinity. The density within the defect was homogenous and consistent with a foramen and/or soft tissue. The patient's history and physical examination revealed no significant medical issues, and she was referred to a neuroradiologist for a second opinion. The diagnosis of an enlarged mastoid foramen was made and the patient was reassured

  11. Targets for high power neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.

    1980-01-01

    Stopping high-power, long-pulse beams is fast becoming an engineering challenge, particularly in neutral beam injectors for heating magnetically confined plasmas. A brief review of neutral beam target technology is presented along with heat transfer calculations for some selected target designs

  12. Department of Energy's High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), September 15--19, 1980: An independent on-site safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    The intent of this on-site safety review was to make a broad management assessment of HFBR operations, rather than conduct a detailed in-depth audit. The result of the review should only be considered as having identified trends or indications. The Team's observations and recommendations for the most part are based upon licensed reactor facility practices used to meet industry standards. These standards form the basis for many of the comments in this report. The Team believes that a uniform minimum standard of performance should be achieved in the operation of DOE reactors. In order to assure that this is accomplished, clear standards are necessary. Consistent with the past AEC and ERDA policy, the team has used the standards of the commercial nuclear power industry. It is recognized that this approach is conservative in that the HFBR reactor has a significantly greater degree of inherent safety (low pressure, temperature, power, etc.) than a licensed reactor

  13. Newly defined landmarks for a three-dimensionally based cephalometric analysis: a retrospective cone-beam computed tomography scan review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonyoung; Kanavakis, Georgios; Miner, R Matthew

    2015-01-01

    To identify two novel three-dimensional (3D) cephalometric landmarks and create a novel three-dimensionally based anteroposterior skeletal measurement that can be compared with traditional two-dimensional (2D) cephalometric measurements in patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns. Full head cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of 100 patients with all first molars in occlusion were obtained from a private practice. InvivoDental 3D (version 5.1.6, Anatomage, San Jose, Calif) was used to analyze the CBCT scans in the sagittal and axial planes to create new landmarks and a linear 3D analysis (M measurement) based on maxillary and mandibular centroids. Independent samples t-test was used to compare the mean M measurement to traditional 2D cephalometric measurements, ANB and APDI. Interexaminer and intraexaminer reliability were evaluated using 2D and 3D scatterplots. The M measurement, ANB, and APDI could statistically differentiate between patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns (P < .001). The M measurement exhibited a correlation coefficient (r) of -0.79 and 0.88 with APDI and ANB, respectively. The overall centroid landmarks and the M measurement combine 2D and 3D methods of imaging; the measurement itself can distinguish between patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns and can serve as a potential substitute for ANB and APDI. The new three-dimensionally based landmarks and measurements are reliable, and there is great potential for future use of 3D analyses for diagnosis and research.

  14. External Beam Radiotherapy for Focal Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma in the Urinary Bladder: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Kushida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelioma is a malignant epithelial tumor in the nasopharynx characterized by prominent lymphoid infiltration. Carcinomas that resemble lymphoepitheliomas have been called lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas and have been reported in other organs. A tumor in the bladder is categorized by the percentage of the total area occupied by the lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma pattern, with the prognosis dependent on the percentage. We present an 81-year-old man with stage 3 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a history of aortic aneurysm repair. The computed tomography scans indicated thickening and irregularity of the bladder wall, with left external iliac lymph node metastasis. His diagnosis was bladder cancer, and the clinical stage was evaluated as T3N1M0. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumor was performed, and the pathological specimen showed that the tumor was composed of undifferentiated malignant cells with sheets and nests arranged in a syncytial pattern, as well as an urothelial carcinoma lesion. A prominent lymphoid reaction accompanied the tumor. The pathological diagnosis was focal-type lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma containing a component of urothelial carcinoma G3>G2. His general condition was such that he could not tolerate radical cystectomy or systemic chemotherapy. External beam radiotherapy (total 60 Gy was given to the bladder, including the lymph node metastatic lesion. No cancer recurrence was detected by regular follow-up computed tomography and cystoscopy. He eventually died of other causes 48 months later. Although treatment for focal lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma generally requires multifocal therapies, in the present case, the bladder became tumor free. We also summarize previously reported lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma cases treated with radiotherapy.

  15. Molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a timeless and rather complete theoretical and experimental treatment of electric and magnetic resonance molecular-beam experiments for studying the radio frequency spectra of atoms and molecules. The theory of interactions of the nucleus with atomic and molecular fields is extensively presented. Measurements of atomic and nuclear magnetic moments, electric multipole moments, and atomic fine and hyperfine structure are detailed. Useful but somewhat outdated chapters on gas kinetics, molecular beam design, and experimental techniques are also included

  16. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Considerable experience has now been gained with the various beam transport lines, and a number of minor changes have been made to improve the ease of operation. These include: replacement of certain little-used slits by profile monitors (harps or scanners); relocation of steering magnets, closer to diagnostic harps or profile scanners; installation of a scanner inside the isocentric neutron therapy system; and conversion of a 2-doublet quadrupole telescope (on the neutron therapy beamline) to a 2-triplet telescope. The beam-swinger project has been delayed by very late delivery of the magnet iron to the manufacturer, but is now progressing smoothly. The K=600 spectrometer magnets have now been delivered and are being assembled for field mapping. The x,y-table with its associated mapping equipment is complete, together with the driver software. One of the experimental areas has been dedicated to the production of collimated neutron beams and has been equipped with a bending magnet and beam dump, together with steel collimators fixed at 4 degrees intervals from 0 degrees to 16 degrees. Changes to the target cooling and shielding system for isotope production have led to a request for much smaller beam spot sizes on target, and preparations have been made for rearrangement of the isotope beamline to permit installation of quadrupole triplets on the three beamlines after the switching magnet. A practical system of quadrupoles for matching beam properties to the spectrometer has been designed. 6 figs

  17. Methods of generation of molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, N.N.; Mazyar, O.A.; Sukhov, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In the work are reviewed methods of generation of molecular beams. Traditional effusive and gasodynamical sources of molecular beams are examined in detail, there is given their comparative analysis. Methods to obtain high-energy beams (>1 eV) intensively developing now are discussed in detail. A special attention is drawn to fast molecular beams containing atomic oxygen and applied for the study of physo-chemical processes on the solid surface

  18. Time-dependent association between platelet-bound fibrinogen and the Triton X-100 insoluble cytoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peerschke, E.I.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies indicated a correlation between the formation of EDTA-resistant (irreversible) platelet-fibrinogen interactions and platelet cytoskeleton formation. The present study explored the direct association of membrane-bound fibrinogen with the Triton X-100 insoluble cytoskeleton of aspirin-treated, gel-filtered platelets, activated but not aggregated with 20 mumol/L adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or 150 mU/mL human thrombin (THR) when bound fibrinogen had become resistant to dissociation by EDTA. Conversion of exogenous 125I-fibrinogen to fibrin was prevented by adding Gly-Pro-Arg and neutralizing THR with hirudin before initiating binding studies. After 60 minutes at 22 degrees C, the cytoskeleton of ADP-treated platelets contained 20% +/- 12% (mean +/- SD, n = 14) of membrane-bound 125I-fibrinogen, representing 10% to 50% of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding. The THR-activated cytoskeleton contained 45% +/- 15% of platelet bound fibrinogen, comprising 80% to 100% of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding. 125I-fibrinogen was not recovered with platelet cytoskeletons if binding was inhibited by the RGDS peptide, excess unlabeled fibrinogen, or disruption of the glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa complex by EDTA-treatment. Both development of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding and fibrinogen association with the cytoskeleton were time dependent and reached maxima 45 to 60 minutes after fibrinogen binding to stimulated platelets. Although a larger cytoskeleton formed after platelet stimulation with thrombin as compared with ADP, no change in cytoskeleton composition was noted with development of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding

  19. Thermodynamics of non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100-cationic surfactants mixtures at the cloud point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batigoec, Cigdem; Akbas, Halide; Boz, Mesut

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Non-ionic surfactants are used as emulsifier and solubilizate in such as textile, detergent and cosmetic. → Non-ionic surfactants occur phase separation at temperature as named the cloud point in solution. → Dimeric surfactants have attracted increasing attention due to their superior surface activity. → The positive values of ΔG cp 0 indicate that the process proceeds nonspontaneous. - Abstract: This study investigates the effects of gemini and conventional cationic surfactants on the cloud point (CP) of the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) in aqueous solutions. Instead of visual observation, a spectrophotometer was used for measurement of the cloud point temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters of these mixtures were calculated at different cationic surfactant concentrations. The gemini surfactants of the alkanediyl-α-ω-bis (alkyldimethylammonium) dibromide type, on the one hand, with different alkyl groups containing m carbon atoms and an ethanediyl spacer, referred to as 'm-2-m' (m = 10, 12, and 16) and, on the other hand, with -C 16 alkyl groups and different spacers containing s carbon atoms, referred to as '16-s-16' (s = 6 and 10) were synthesized, purified and characterized. Additions of the cationic surfactants to the TX-100 solution increased the cloud point temperature of the TX-100 solution. It was accepted that the solubility of non-ionic surfactant containing polyoxyethylene (POE) hydrophilic chain was a maximum at the cloud point so that the thermodynamic parameters were calculated at this temperature. The results showed that the standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG cp 0 ), the enthalpy (ΔH cp 0 ) and the entropy (ΔS cp 0 ) of the clouding phenomenon were found positive in all cases. The standard free energy (ΔG cp 0 ) increased with increasing hydrophobic alkyl chain for both gemini and conventional cationic surfactants; however, it decreased with increasing surfactant concentration.

  20. Hypolipidaemic activity of aqueous Ocimum basilicum extract in acute hyperlipidaemia induced by triton WR-1339 in rats and its antioxidant property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, Souliman; Harnafi, Hicham; Bouanani, Nour El Houda; Aziz, Mohammed; Caid, Hana Serghini; Manfredini, Stefano; Besco, Elena; Napolitano, Mariarosaria; Bravo, Elena

    2006-12-01

    Hyperlipidaemia, atherosclerosis and related diseases are becoming a major health problem in developing countries. Ocimum basilicum is one of the medicinal plants widely used in Morocco to reduce plasma cholesterol and to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis-related diseases. However, mechanisms underlying the reported hypolipidaemic effect of this plant have not been investigated. This study evaluates the lipid lowering effect of aqueous Ocimum basilicum extract in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidaemic rats. Hyperlipidaemia was developed in animals by intraperitoneal injection of Triton (200 mg/kg). After injection of Triton the animals were divided into three treatment groups: hyperlipidaemic, hyperlipidaemic plus herb extract and hyperlipidaemic plus fenofibrate treated rats. At 7 h after the Triton injection, levels of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol in rats treated also with the Ocimum basilicum extract (0.5 g/100 g body weight) were, respectively, 50%, 83% and 79% lower than Triton-treated rats and HDL-cholesterol was 129% higher than in rats given Triton alone. At 24 h following Ocimum basilicum administration, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol levels decreased by 56%, 63% and 68%, respectively, in comparison with the Triton treated group and HDL-cholesterol was not increased significantly. The hypolipidaemic effect exerted by Ocimum basilicum extract was markedly stronger than the effect induced by fenofibrate treatments. Further it was demonstrated that Ocimum basilicum aqueous extract displayed a very high antioxidant power. These results indicate that Ocimum basilicum extract may contain hypolipidaemic and antioxidant substances and its use as a therapeutic tool in hyperlipidaemic subjects may be of benefit and encourage further investigation in this field.

  1. SU-F-T-224: Importance of Timely Review of Daily Cone-Beam CTs: Dosimetric Evaluation of Rejected CBCTs for Head and Neck Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, M; Yu, N; Joshi, N; Koyfman, S; Xia, P [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lin, S [Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To dosimetrically evaluate the importance of timely reviewing daily CBCTs for patients with head and neck cancer. Methods: After each fraction daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) for head and neck patients are reviewed by physicians prior to next treatment. Physician rejected image registrations of CBCT were identified and analyzed for 17 patients. These CBCT images were rigidly fused with planning CT images and the contours from the planning CT were transferred to CBCTs. Because of limited extension in the superior-inferior dimension contours with partial volumes in CBCTs were discarded. The treatment isocenter was placed by applying the clinically recorded shifts to the volume isocenter of the CBCT. Dose was recalculated at the shifted isocenter using a homogeneous dose calculation algorithm. Dosimetrically relevant changes defined as greater than 5% deviation from the clinically accepted plans but with homogeneous dose calculation were evaluated for the high dose (HD), intermediate dose (ID), and low dose (LD) CTVs, spinal cord, larynx, oropharynx, parotids, and submandibular glands. Results: Among seventeen rejected CBCTS, HD-CTVs, ID-CTVs, and LD-CTVs were completely included in the CBCTs for 17, 1, and 15 patients, respectively. The prescription doses to the HD-CTV, ID-CTV, and LD-CTV were received by < 95% of the CTV volumes in 5/17, 1/1, and 5/15 patients respectively. For the spinal cord, the maximum doses (D0.03cc) were increased > 5% in 13 of 17 patients. For the oropharynx, larynx, parotid, and submandibular glands, the mean dose of these organs at risk was increased > 5% in 7/17, 8/12, 11/16 and 6/16 patients, respectively. Conclusion: Timely review daily CBCTs for head and neck patients under daily CBCT guidance is important, and uncorrected setup errors can translate to dosimetrically relevant dose increases in organsat- risk and dose decreases in the clinical target volumes.

  2. Quantum beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    Present state and future prospect are described on quantum beams for medical use. Efforts for compactness of linac for advanced cancer therapy have brought about the production of machines like Accuray's CyberKnife and TOMOTHERAPY (Tomo Therapy Inc.) where the acceleration frequency of X-band (9-11 GHz) is used. For cervical vein angiography by the X-band linac, a compact hard X-ray source is developed which is based on the (reverse) Compton scattering through laser-electron collision. More intense beam and laser are necessary at present. A compact machine generating the particle beam of 10 MeV-1 GeV (laser-plasma accelerator) for cancer therapy is also developed using the recent compression technique (chirped-pulse amplification) to generate laser of >10 TW. Tokyo University is studying for the electron beam with energy of GeV order, for the laser-based synchrotron X-ray, and for imaging by the short pulse ion beam. Development of advanced compact accelerators is globally attempted. In Japan, a virtual laboratory by National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), a working group of universities and research facilities through the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, started in 2001 for practical manufacturing of the above-mentioned machines for cancer therapy and for angiography. Virtual Factory (Inc.), a business venture, is to be stood in future. (N.I.)

  3. Time average neutralized migma: A colliding beam/plasma hybrid physical state as aneutronic energy source — A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglich, Bogdan C.

    1988-08-01

    A D + beam of kinetic energy Ti = 0.7 MeV was stored in a "simple mirror" magnetic field as self-colliding orbits or migma and neutralized by ambient, oscillating electrons whose bounce frequencies were externally controlled. Space charge density was exceeded by an order of magnitude without instabilities. Three nondestructive diagnostic methods allowed measurements of ion orbit distribution, ion storage times, ion energy distribution, nuclear reaction rate, and reaction product spectrum. Migma formed a disc 20 cm in diameter and 0.5 cm thick. Its ion density was sharply peaked in the center; the ion-to-electron temperature ratio was TiTe ˜ 10 3; ion-electron temperature equilibrium was never reached. The volume average and central D + density were n = 3.2 × 10 9 cm -3 and nc = 3 × 10 10 cm -3 respectively, compared to the space charge limit density nsc = 4 × 10 8 cm -3. The energy confinement time was τc = 20-30 s, limited by the change exchange reactions with the residual gas in the vacuum (5 × 10 -9 Torr). The ion energy loss rate was 1.4 keV/s. None of the instabilities that were observed in mirrors at several orders of magnitude lower density occurred. The proton energy spectrum for dd + d → T + p + 4 MeV shows that dd collided at an average crossing angle of 160°. Evidence for exponential density buildup has also been observed. Relative to Migma III results and measured in terms of the product of ion energy E, density n, and confinement time τ, device performance was improved by a factor of 500. Using the central fast ion density, we obtained the triple product: Tnτ ≅ 4 × 10 14 keV s cm -3, which is greater than that of the best fusion devices. The luminosity (collision rate per unit cross section) was ˜ 10 29 cm -2s -1, with o.7 A ion current through the migma center. The stabilizing features of migma are: (1) large Larmor radius; (2) small canonical angular momentum; (3) short axial length z (disc shape); (4) nonadiabatic motions in r and z

  4. Electron beam-cured coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Naoyuki

    1976-01-01

    The method for hardening coatings by the irradiation with electron beams is reviewed. The report is divided into seven parts, namely 1) general description and characteristics of electron beam-cured coating, 2) radiation sources of curing, 3) hardening conditions and reaction behaviour, 4) uses and advantages, 5) latest trends of the industry, 6) practice in the field of construction materials, and 7) economy. The primary characteristics of the electron beam hardening is that graft reaction takes place between base resin and coating to produce strong adhesive coating without any pretreatment. A variety of base resins are developed. High class esters of acrylic acid monomers and methacrylic acid monomers are mainly used as dilutants recently. At present, scanning type accelerators are used, but the practical application of the system producing electron beam of curtain type is expected. The dose rate dependence, the repetitive irradiation and the irradiation atmosphere are briefly described. The filed patent applications on the electron beam hardening were analyzed by the officer of Japan Patent Agency. The production lines for coatings by the electron beam hardening in the world are listed. In the electron beam-cured coating, fifty percent of given energy is consumed effectively for the electron beam hardening, and the solvents discharged from ovens and polluting atmosphere are not used, because the paints of high solid type is used. The running costs of the electron beam process are one sixth of the thermal oven process. (Iwakiri, K.)

  5. Inhibitory effect of non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series on the corrosion of carbon steel in sulphuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs-Godec, R.

    2007-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition characteristics of non-ionic surfactants of the TRITON-X series, known as TRITON-X-100 and TRITON-X-405, on stainless steel (SS) type X4Cr13 in sulphuric acid were investigated by potentiodynamic polarisation measurements. It was found that these surfactants act as good inhibitors of the corrosion of stainless steel in 2 mol L -1 H 2 SO 4 solution, but the inhibition efficiency strongly depends on the electrode potential. The polarisation data showed that the non-ionic surfactants used in this study acted as mixed-type inhibitors and adsorb on the stainless steel surface, in agreement with the Flory-Huggins adsorption isotherm. Calculated ΔG ads values are -57.79 kJ mol -1 for TRITON-X-100, and -87.5 kJ mol -1 for TRITON-X-405. From the molecular structure it can be supposed that these surfactants adsorb on the metal surface through two lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen atoms of the hydrophilic head group, suggesting a chemisorption mechanism

  6. Membrane-surfactant interactions. The role of surfactant in mitochondrial complex III-phospholipid-Triton X-100 mixed micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valpuesta, J.M.; Arrondo, J.L.; Barbero, M.C.; Pons, M.; Goni, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase) was purified from beef heart mitochondria in the form of protein-phospholipid-Triton X-100 mixed micelles (about 1:80:100 molar ratio). Detergent may be totally removed by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and the resulting lipoprotein complexes retain full enzyme activity. In order to understand the role of surfactant in the mixed micelles, and the interaction of Triton X-100 with integral membrane proteins and phospholipid bilayers, both the protein-lipid-surfactant mixed micelles and the detergent-free lipoprotein system were examined from the point of view of particle size and ultrastructure, enzyme activity, tryptophan fluorescence quenching, 31P NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The NMR and IR spectroscopic studies show that surfactant withdrawal induces a profound change in phospholipid architecture, from a micellar to a lamellar-like phase. However, electron microscopic observations fail to reveal the existence of lipid bilayers in the absence of detergent. We suggest that, under these conditions, the lipid:protein molar ratio (80:1) is too low to permit the formation of lipid bilayer planes, but the relative orientation and mobility of phospholipids with respect to proteins is similar to that of the lamellar phase. Protein conformational changes are also detected as a consequence of surfactant removal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates an increase of peptide beta-structure in the absence of Triton X-100; changes in the amide II/amide I intensity ratio are also detected, although the precise meaning of these observations is unclear

  7. Malignant Triton Tumor of the Sciatic Nerve as a Secondary Malignancy after Extended Field Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy of Hodgkin's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Nitsche

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Late effects of therapy for Hodgkin's disease include secondary malignancies like leukemia, lymphoma or solid tumors developing after long periods of latency. Ionizing radiation often causes the last group. The highest risks have been described for induced breast and lung cancers. We are the first to report a malignant triton tumor (MTT as a secondary malignancy after radiotherapy and chemotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. MTT is a very rare subtype of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation and an aggressive course of disease.

  8. Spectrofotometric determination of copper in sugar cane spirit using biquinoline in the presence of ethanol and Triton X-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento Rocha, Sarah Adriana; Dantas, Alaílson Falcão; Jaeger, Helena Valli; Costa, Antônio Celso Spínola; Leão, Elsimar dos Santos; Gonçalves, Mara Rúbia

    2008-12-15

    The present paper proposes a method for molecular spectrophotometric determination of copper in sugar cane spirits. The copper(I) reacts with biquinoline forming a pink complex with maximum absorption at 545 nm. The reaction occurs in the presence of hydroxylamine, ethanol and Triton X-100 tensioative. Determination of copper is possible in a linear range 0.2-20.0 mgL(-1) with a detection limit 0.05 mgL(-1). The great advantages of the proposed methodology are the elimination of liquid-liquid extraction step and the use of toxic organics solvents, like dioxane, to dissolve the reagent.

  9. Lead preconcentration in synthetic samples with triton x-114 in the cloud point extraction and analysis by atomic absorption (EAAF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zegarra Pisconti, Marixa; Cjuno Huanca, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    A methodology was developed about lead preconcentration in water samples that were added dithizone as complexing agent, previously dissolved in the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114, until the formation of the critical micelle concentration and the cloud point temperature. The centrifuged system gave a precipitate with high concentrations of Pb (II) that was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy with flame (EAAF). The method has proved feasible to be implemented as a method of preconcentration and analysis of Pb in aqueous samples with concentrations less than 1 ppm. Several parameters were evaluated to obtain a percentage recovery of 89.8%. (author)

  10. Precision of cone beam CT to assess periodontal bone defects: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Letícia Fernanda; Zimmermann, Glaucia Santos; De Luca Canto, G; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Corrêa, Márcio

    2018-02-01

    Evaluate the diagnostic validity of CBCT in measuring periodontal bone defects when compared with the reference standard (in situ measurement). Studies in which the main objective was to evaluate the diagnostic validity of CBCT in measuring periodontal bone defects when compared with the reference standard were selected. Four databases were searched. The studies were selected by two independent reviewers. The methodology of selected studies was assessed using the 14-item Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. The quality of evidence and strength of recommendation was assessed by The Grading of Recommendations Assessment Tool, Development and Evaluation. Using a selection process in two phases, 16 studies were identified and, in seven articles meta-analysis was performed. The results from these meta-analyses showed that no difference between the measurements of CBCT and in situ for alveolar bone loss, and demonstrated a concordance of 82.82% between CBCT and in situ for the classification of the degree of furcation involvement. Based on a moderate level of evidence, CBCT could be useful for furcation involvement periodontal cases, but it should only be used in cases where clinical evaluation and conventional radiographic imaging do not provide the information necessary for an adequate diagnosis and proper periodontal treatment planning.

  11. BEAM-BEAM SIMULATIONS FOR DOUBLE-GAUSSIAN BEAMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MONTAG, C.; MALITSKY, N.; BEN-ZVI, I.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-05-16

    Electron cooling together with intra-beam scattering results in a transverse distribution that can best be described by a sum of two gaussians, one for the high-density core and one for the tails of the distribution. Simulation studies are being performed to understand the beam-beam interaction of these double-gaussian beams. Here we report the effect of low-frequency random tune modulations on diffusion in double-gaussian beams and compare the effects to those in beam-beam interactions with regular gaussian beams and identical tune shift parameters.

  12. BEAM-BEAM SIMULATIONS FOR DOUBLE-GAUSSIAN BEAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MONTAG, C.; MALITSKY, N.; BEN-ZVI, I.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling together with intra-beam scattering results in a transverse distribution that can best be described by a sum of two gaussians, one for the high-density core and one for the tails of the distribution. Simulation studies are being performed to understand the beam-beam interaction of these double-gaussian beams. Here we report the effect of loW--frequency random tune modulations on diffusion in double-gaussian beams and compare the effects to those in beam-beam interactions with regular gaussian beams and identical tune shift parameters

  13. Beam-Beam Simulations for Double-Gaussian Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Montag, Christoph; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; Malitsky, Nikolay

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling together with intra-beam scattering results in a transverse distribution that can best be described by a sum of two Gaussians, one for the high-density core and one for the tails of the distribution. Simulation studies are being performed to understand the beam-beam interaction of these double-Gaussian beams. Here we report the effect of low-frequency random tune modulations on diffusion in double-Gaussian beams and compare the effects to those in beam-beam interactions with regular Gaussian beams and identical tuneshift parameters.

  14. Diagnostic Accuracy of Cone-beam Computed Tomography and Conventional Radiography on Apical Periodontitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi Dutra, Kamile; Haas, Letícia; Porporatti, André Luís; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Nascimento Santos, Juliana; Mezzomo, Luis André; Corrêa, Márcio; De Luca Canto, Graziela

    2016-03-01

    Endodontic diagnosis depends on accurate radiographic examination. Assessment of the location and extent of apical periodontitis (AP) can influence treatment planning and subsequent treatment outcomes. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the diagnostic accuracy of conventional radiography and cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging on the discrimination of AP from no lesion. Eight electronic databases with no language or time limitations were searched. Articles in which the primary objective was to evaluate the accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of any type of radiographic technique to assess AP in humans were selected. The gold standard was the histologic examination for actual AP (in vivo) or in situ visualization of bone defects for induced artificial AP (in vitro). Accuracy measurements described in the studies were transformed to construct receiver operating characteristic curves and forest plots with the aid of Review Manager v.5.2 (The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark) and MetaDisc v.1.4. software (Unit of Clinical Biostatistics Team of the Ramón y Cajal Hospital, Madrid, Spain). The methodology of the selected studies was evaluated using the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2. Only 9 studies met the inclusion criteria and were subjected to a qualitative analysis. A meta-analysis was conducted on 6 of these articles. All of these articles studied artificial AP with induced bone defects. The accuracy values (area under the curve) were 0.96 for CBCT imaging, 0.73 for conventional periapical radiography, and 0.72 for digital periapical radiography. No evidence was found for panoramic radiography. Periapical radiographs (digital and conventional) reported good diagnostic accuracy on the discrimination of artificial AP from no lesions, whereas CBCT imaging showed excellent accuracy values. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Incidence of Maxillary Sinus Disease Before Sinus Floor Elevation Surgery as Identified by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fabio; Emanuelli, Enzo; Robiony, Massimo

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the literature to assess the incidence of maxillary sinus disease before sinus floor elevation surgery (SFE) as identified by cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT). Only studies in which CBCT was performed in patients for dental implant placement in the past 10 years were considered. Eleven studies were identified. A total of 1792 patients were collected. All the studies reviewed reported on thickening of the sinus mucosa as a criterion for sinus disease with different threshold values. All studies reported mucosal thickening (MT) ranging between 25.5% and 93.1%. The mean incidence of MT was 54.99%. Two studies examined the correlation of MT with clinical symptoms. Three studies reported evaluation of the ostiomeatal complex (OMC). There is a high probability of detecting a certain degree of MT in patients referred for SFE. There is no consensus regarding the threshold values beyond which MT is considered pathological. Independently from the threshold values or the type of MT, the studies lack correlation with clinical data regarding patients' sinusitis-related history or symptoms. CBCT with a large field of view to evaluate the OMC is appropriate in patients scheduled for SFE. Future studies should include a systematic correlation with clinical symptoms and the possible presence of OMC obstruction. A clinical assessment that includes nasal endoscopy is indicated when MT and obstruction of the OMC are identified. Surgical correction of OMC obstruction seems to be appropriate to increase the success rate and to avoid possible complication after SFE.

  16. Beam-Material Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high- intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target , and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and envir onment in challenging current and future application

  17. Beam-Material Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Cerutti, F. [CERN

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high-intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target, and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and environment in challenging current and future applications.

  18. Recent radioactive ion beam program at RIKEN and related topics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent experimental programs at RIKEN concerning RI beams are reviewed. RIKEN has the ring cyclotron (RRC) with high intense heavy-ion beams and large acceptance fragment separator, RIPS. The complex can provide high intense RI-beams. By using the high intense RI-beams, a variety of experiments have been ...

  19. Thermodynamics of non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100-cationic surfactants mixtures at the cloud point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batigoec, Cigdem [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Trakya University, 22030 Edirne (Turkey); Akbas, Halide, E-mail: hakbas34@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Trakya University, 22030 Edirne (Turkey); Boz, Mesut [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Trakya University, 22030 Edirne (Turkey)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Non-ionic surfactants are used as emulsifier and solubilizate in such as textile, detergent and cosmetic. > Non-ionic surfactants occur phase separation at temperature as named the cloud point in solution. > Dimeric surfactants have attracted increasing attention due to their superior surface activity. > The positive values of {Delta}G{sub cp}{sup 0} indicate that the process proceeds nonspontaneous. - Abstract: This study investigates the effects of gemini and conventional cationic surfactants on the cloud point (CP) of the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) in aqueous solutions. Instead of visual observation, a spectrophotometer was used for measurement of the cloud point temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters of these mixtures were calculated at different cationic surfactant concentrations. The gemini surfactants of the alkanediyl-{alpha}-{omega}-bis (alkyldimethylammonium) dibromide type, on the one hand, with different alkyl groups containing m carbon atoms and an ethanediyl spacer, referred to as 'm-2-m' (m = 10, 12, and 16) and, on the other hand, with -C{sub 16} alkyl groups and different spacers containing s carbon atoms, referred to as '16-s-16' (s = 6 and 10) were synthesized, purified and characterized. Additions of the cationic surfactants to the TX-100 solution increased the cloud point temperature of the TX-100 solution. It was accepted that the solubility of non-ionic surfactant containing polyoxyethylene (POE) hydrophilic chain was a maximum at the cloud point so that the thermodynamic parameters were calculated at this temperature. The results showed that the standard Gibbs free energy ({Delta}G{sub cp}{sup 0}), the enthalpy ({Delta}H{sub cp}{sup 0}) and the entropy ({Delta}S{sub cp}{sup 0}) of the clouding phenomenon were found positive in all cases. The standard free energy ({Delta}G{sub cp}{sup 0}) increased with increasing hydrophobic alkyl chain for both gemini and conventional cationic

  20. Micelle size modulation and phase behavior in MEGA-10/Triton X-100 mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naous, M., E-mail: elzahraadz@yahoo.fr; Molina-Bolívar, J.A.; Ruiz, C. Carnero, E-mail: ccarnero@uma.es

    2014-12-20

    Highlights: • The size of micelles was studied as a function of the micellar composition, NaCl addition and temperature. • Cloud point can be modulated by changing both micellar composition and NaCl addition. • The energetic quantities at the cloud point were evaluated and discussed. - Abstract: This paper reports the effect of temperature and NaCl addition on micelle size and phase behavior in mixtures of N-decanoyl-N-methylglucamide (MEGA-10) and p-tert-octyl-phenoxy polyethylene (9.5) ether (Triton X-100 or TX100). The size of mixed micelles, as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), was found to increase with temperature but to be less pronounced at higher proportions of MEGA-10 in the solution. The cloud point was found to increase with an initial increase in the percentage of sugar-based surfactant in the mixture. This phase separation was sensitive to the presence of NaCl in the micellar solution, which induced a cloud point depression, thereby suggesting that the presence of electrolyte produces a marked alteration of the hydration layer of micelles. A thermodynamic analysis was performed assuming the clouding phenomenon to be a liquid–liquid phase-separation process. The resulting ΔG{sub CP}{sup 0} values were positive for all solutions. The cloud point process was exothermic in nature for the mixed micellar system, as proven by the negative value of ΔH{sub CP}{sup 0}. The process was more exothermic as the proportion of sugar-based surfactant in the mixed micelle increased (with and without NaCl in the solution). Furthermore, the negative values of ΔS{sub CP}{sup 0} indicate that the association of micelles in the clouding phenomenon is entropically unfavorable. It was observed from the enthalpy–temperature plots that the change in heat capacity is negative, thus indicating the important role played by dehydration in this thermodynamic process. This study found that the enthalpy–entropy compensation relationship holds for this

  1. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) from Triton X-100 to 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol: Varying FRET efficiency with CMC of the donor (Triton X-100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Bijan Kumar; Ganguly, Aniruddha; Karmakar, Saswati; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    A heterocyclic compound viz., 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol (4B2YP) has been synthesized and its photophysics have been examined through steady-state absorption, emission and time resolved emission spectroscopic techniques, in brief. Then 4B2YP has been exploited as an acceptor in the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) process from photoexcited benzene aromatic nucleus of Triton X-100 (TX-100) surfactant. Dependence of the energy transfer efficiency on the donor concentration with respect to its critical micelle concentration (CMC) is clearly reflected in the study. High values of Stern–Volmer constant (K SV ) for quenching of the donor fluorescence in the presence of the acceptor suggest the operation of long-range dipole–dipole interaction in the course of energy transfer process, while the inference is aptly supported from time resolved fluorescence decay results. Experimental results show maximum FRET efficiency at the CMC of the donor (TX-100). -- Highlights: • FRET from neutral surfactant Triton X-100 to chromophore 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol. • Steady state and time resolved spectroscopy. • Long-range dipole–dipole interaction responsible for FRET. • FRET efficiency as a measure of CMC of surfactant

  2. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) from Triton X-100 to 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol: Varying FRET efficiency with CMC of the donor (Triton X-100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Bijan Kumar, E-mail: bijan.paul.chem.cu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Calcutta 700009 (India); Ganguly, Aniruddha [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Calcutta 700009 (India); Karmakar, Saswati [Department of Chemistry, Sree Chaitanya College, Habra, North 24 Parganas (India); Guchhait, Nikhil, E-mail: nguchhait@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Calcutta 700009 (India)

    2013-11-15

    A heterocyclic compound viz., 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol (4B2YP) has been synthesized and its photophysics have been examined through steady-state absorption, emission and time resolved emission spectroscopic techniques, in brief. Then 4B2YP has been exploited as an acceptor in the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) process from photoexcited benzene aromatic nucleus of Triton X-100 (TX-100) surfactant. Dependence of the energy transfer efficiency on the donor concentration with respect to its critical micelle concentration (CMC) is clearly reflected in the study. High values of Stern–Volmer constant (K{sub SV}) for quenching of the donor fluorescence in the presence of the acceptor suggest the operation of long-range dipole–dipole interaction in the course of energy transfer process, while the inference is aptly supported from time resolved fluorescence decay results. Experimental results show maximum FRET efficiency at the CMC of the donor (TX-100). -- Highlights: • FRET from neutral surfactant Triton X-100 to chromophore 4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenol. • Steady state and time resolved spectroscopy. • Long-range dipole–dipole interaction responsible for FRET. • FRET efficiency as a measure of CMC of surfactant.

  3. Tutorial on beam current monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a tutorial level review covering a wide range of aspects related to charged particle beam current measurement. The tutorial begins with a look at the characteristics of the beam as a signal source, the associated electromagnetic fields, the influence of the typical accelerator environment on those fields, and the usual means of modifying and controlling that environment to facilitate beam current measurement. Short descriptions of three quite different types of current monitors are presented and a quantitative review of the classical transformer circuit is given. Recognizing that environmental noise pick-up may present a large source of error in quantitative measurements, signal handling considerations are given considerable attention using real-life examples. An example of a successful transport line beam current monitor implementation is presented and the tutorial concludes with a few comments about signal processing and current monitor calibration issues

  4. Beam Instabilities in Hadron Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E; Bartosik, H; Biancacci, N; Buffat, X; Esteban Muller, J F; Herr, W; Iadarola, G; Lasheen, A; Li, K; Oeftiger, A; Pieloni, T; Quartullo, D; Rumolo, G; Salvant, B; Schenk, M; Shaposhnikova, E; Tambasco, C; Timko, H; Zannini, C; Burov, A; Banfi, D; Barranco, J; Mounet, N; Boine-Frankenheim, O; Niedermayer, U; Kornilov, V; White, S

    2016-01-01

    Beam instabilities cover a wide range of effects in particle accelerators and they have been the subjects of intense research for several decades. As the machines performance was pushed new mechanisms were revealed and nowadays the challenge consists in studying the interplays between all these intricate phenomena, as it is very often not possible to treat the different effects separately. The aim of this paper is to review the main mechanisms, discussing in particular the recent developments of beam instability theories and simulations.

  5. Beam based systems and controls

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, D

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will give a review from the operations team of the performance and issues of the beam based systems, namely RF, ADT, beam instrumentation, controls and injection systems. For each of these systems, statistics on performance and availability will be presented with the main issues encountered in 2012. The possible improvements for operational efficiency and safety will be discussed, with an attempt to answer the question "Are we ready for the new challenges brought by the 25ns beam and increased energy after LSI? ".

  6. Beam phase space and emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1992-02-01

    The classical and elementary results for canonical phase space, the Liouville theorem and the beam emittance are reviewed. Then, the importance of phase portraits to obtain a geometrical description of motion is emphasized, with examples in accelerator physics. Finally, a statistical point of view is used to define beam emittance, to study its law of approximate conservation, with three particular examples, and to introduce a beam envelope-ellipse and the β-function, emphasing the statistical features of its properties. (author) 14 refs.; 11 figs

  7. [EFFECT OF TRITON X-100 ON LIPOSOME MEDIATED BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 2 BY TRANSFECTION OF RAT BONE MARROW MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Delin; Huang, Mingke; Fu, Guangxing; Ma, Zheng; Wu, Shuangjiang; Zhou, Hangyu

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of Triton X-100 promoting liposome-mediated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) gene transfection of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). BMSCs were separated and cultured from the femur and tibia of healthy Wistar rats (8-week-old, male). The 3rd passage BMSCs identified by detecting the surface antigen were used to transfect. The optimum concentration of Triton X-100 for liposome mediated gene transfection was determined with ELISA meter by the way of MTT. In optimum concentration of Triton X-100, liposome mediated BMP-2 gene was transfected to BMSCs. The experiment was divided into 3 groups according to types of trasfection agents: BMSCs were transfected with Triton X-100+liposome+BMP-2 (experimental group), with liposome+ BMP-2 (conventional transfection group), and untransfected BMSCs served as blank control group. After 48 hours of transfecting, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in cells was detected through inverted fluorescence microscope. After 72 hours of transfection, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was applied to measure the mRNA expression of BMP-2. 0.01% Triton X-100 was determined to be the optimum concentration for not only making the BMSCs maintain vitality, but also achieving a certain effect on BMSCs. After trasfecting for 48 hours, GFP was observed through inverted fluorescence microscope in the experimental group and conventional transfection group, but was not observed in the blank control group. After trasfecting for 72 hours, the relative BMP-2 mRNA expression level was 5.94 ± 0.12 in the experimental group, and was 4.99 ± 0.08 in the conventional transfection group, showing significant difference (t = 360.28, P = 0.02). The transfection efficiency was increased by 19% in the experimental group. 0.010% Triton X-100 can promote the liposome mediated BMP-2 gene transfection of rat BMSUs, and can improve the transfection efficiency.

  8. Modeling of neutron emission spectroscopy in JET discharges with fast tritons from (T)D ion cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.; Andersson Sunden, E.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Giacomelli, L.; Hellesen, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Kaellne, J.; Ronchi, E.; Sjoestrand, H.; Weiszflog, M.; Johnson, T.; Lamalle, P. U.

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of fast ion populations is one of the diagnostic capabilities provided by neutron emission spectroscopy (NES). NES measurements were carried out during JET trace tritium campaign with the magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer. A favorable plasma scenario is (T)D where the resulting 14 MeV neutron yield is dominated by suprathermal emission from energetic tritons accelerated by radio frequency at their fundamental cyclotron frequency. Information on the triton distribution function has been derived from NES data with a simple model based on two components referred to as bulk (B) and high energy (HE). The HE component is based on strongly anisotropic tritium distribution that can be used for routine best-fit analysis to provide tail temperature values (T HE ). This article addresses to what extent the T HE values are model dependent by comparing the model above with a two-temperature (bi-) Maxwellian model featuring parallel and perpendicular temperatures. The bi-Maxwellian model is strongly anisotropic and frequently used for radio frequency theory

  9. A calculational procedure for neutronic and depletion analysis of Molten-Salt reactors based on SCALE6/TRITON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, R.J.; Chang, J.S.; Liu, Y.-W. H.

    2011-01-01

    Molten-Salt Reactors (MSRs) represent one of the selected categories in the GEN-IV program. This type of reactor is distinguished by the use of liquid fuel circulating in and out of the core, which makes it possible for online refueling and salt processing. However, this operation characteristic also complicates the modeling and simulation of reactor core behaviour using conventional neutronic codes. The TRITON sequence in the SCALE6 code system has been designed to provide the combined capabilities of problem-dependent cross-section processing, rigorous treatment of neutron transport, and coupled with the ORIGEN-S depletion calculations. In order to accommodate the simulation of dynamic refueling and processing scheme, an in-house program REFRESH together with a run script are developed for carrying out a series of stepwise TRITON calculations, that makes the work of analyzing the neutronic properties and performance of a MSR core design easier. As a demonstration and cross check, we have applied this method to reexamine the conceptual design of Molten Salt Actinide Recycler & Transmuter (MOSART). This paper summarizes the development of the method and preliminary results of its application on MOSART. (author)

  10. Cholesterol Oxidase/Triton X-100 Parked Microelectrodes for the Detection of Cholesterol in Plasma Membrane at Single Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiyan; Zhou, Shuai; Jiang, Dechen; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-01-16

    The classic electrochemical analysis of plasma membrane cholesterol at single cells utilizes a cholesterol oxidase modified microelectrode that oxidizes local cholesterol efflux from the plasma membrane to generate hydrogen peroxide for the electrochemical quantification. In this letter, a mixture of cholesterol oxidase and Triton X-100 was filled in the microcapillary that could park at the Pt layer coated tip due to slow hydrodynamic flow. During the contact of the tip with the cellular membrane, Triton X-100 at the tip permeabilized the contacted membrane to release cholesterol for the reaction with cholesterol oxidase. As compared with the linkage of cholesterol oxidase at the electrode surface, the oxidase parked in aqueous solution at the tip had a higher turnover rate resulting in larger electrochemical signal for single cell analysis. More charge collected at acyl-coA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibited cells supported that this novel detection strategy could monitor the flunctation of membrane cholesterol at single cells. The successful detection of plasma membrane cholesterol at single cells using the oxidase parked microelectrode will provide a special strategy for the fabrication of biosensor that permits the integration of more molecules without functional groups at the electrode to measure active and inactive molecules in the plasma membrane. Moreover, the larger electrochemical signals collected could further increase the spatial resolution for single cell electrochemical analysis.

  11. Study of the {sup 6}He wave function by the {sup 6}He(p,t){sup 4}He transfer reaction: contribution of the triton-triton configuration; Etude de la fonction d'onde de l' {sup 6}He par la reaction de transfert {sup 6}He(p,t){sup 4}He: contribution de la configuration a deux tritons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giot, L

    2003-10-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the importance of the alpha-2n and triton-triton configurations in He{sup 6}. We measured at GANIL, the angular distribution of the transfer reaction He{sup 6}(p,t)He{sup 4} at 25 A.MeV with the SPEG spectrometer coupled to the MUST array. The forward and backward c.m. angles were obtained with SPEG. The coincidences of the MUST modules provide the intermediate angles. The elastic scattering He{sup 6}(p,p)He{sup 6}, measured at the same time with the SPEG spectrometer, sets the optical potential He{sup 6}+p for the entrance channel of the transfer reaction. DWBA and coupled channels calculations allow to study the sensitivity to the possible different channels of the He{sup 6}+p system and specially the He{sup 6} breakup with discretized-continuum channels. The comparison between the theoretical and experimental He{sup 6}(p,t)He{sup 4} differential cross-section gives a spectroscopic factor close to 1 for the alpha-2n configuration and between 0.06 and 0.09 for the t-t configuration. (author)

  12. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The beam diagnostic components for both the transfer and the high-energy beamlines perform well except for some of the scanners whose noise pick-up has become a problem, especially at low beam intensities. This noise pick-up is primarily due to deterioration of the bearings in the scanner. At some locations in the high-energy beamlines, scanners were replaced by harps as the scanners proved to be practically useless for the low-intensity beams required in the experimental areas. The slits in the low-energy beamline, which are not water-cooled, have to be repaired at regular intervals because of vacuum leaks. Overheating causes the ceramic feedthroughs to deteriorate resulting in the vacuum leaks. Water-cooled slits have been ordered to replace the existing slits which will later be used in the beamlines associated with the second injector cyclotron SPC2. The current-measurement system will be slightly modified and should then be much more reliable. 3 figs

  13. Negative ion based neutral beams for plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelec, K.

    1978-01-01

    Neutral beam systems based on negative ions have been considered because of a high expected power efficiency. Methods for the production, acceleration and neutralization of negative ions will be reviewed and possibilities for an application in neutral beam lines explored

  14. Focused ion beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamo, K.

    1993-01-01

    Focussed ion beam (FIB) technology has the advantage of being a maskless process compatible with UHV processing. This makes it attractive for use in in situ processing and has been applied to the fabrication of various mesoscopic structures. The present paper reviews these results whilst putting emphasis on in situ processing by a combined FIB and molecular beam epitaxy system. The typical performance of present FIB systems is also presented. In order to utilize the potential advantages of FIB processing, reduction of damage and improvement of throughput are important, and much effort has been devoted to developing processing techniques which require a reduced dose. The importance of low-energy FIB is discussed. (author)

  15. Beam divergence scaling in neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    One of the main considerations in the design of neutral beam injectors is to monimize the divergence of the primary ion beam and hence maximize the beam transport and minimize the input of thermal gas. Experimental measurements of the divergence of a cylindrical ion beam are presented and these measurements are used to analyze the major components of ion beam divergence, namely: space charge expansion, gas-ion scattering, emittance and optical aberrations. The implication of these divergence components in the design of a neutral beam injector system is discussed and a method of maximizing the beam current is described for a given area of source plasma

  16. A small-angle neutron scattering study of the structure of graphitized carbon black aggregates in Triton X-100/water solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garamus, V.M.; Pedersen, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The structure of graphitized carbon black (CB) aggregates dispersed in water solutions with a non-ionic surfactant are studied by small-angle neutron scattering using contrast variation by heavy/light water mixing. The addition of CB to Triton X-100/water mixtures shifts the critical micelle...

  17. Comparative proteomics of Staphylococcus aureus and the response of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive strains to Triton X-100

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordwell, Stuart J; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Cole, Rebecca T

    2002-01-01

    . Comparative maps were used to characterize the S. aureus response to treatment with Triton X-100 (TX-100), a detergent that has been shown to reduce methicillin resistance independently of an interaction with the mecA-encoded penicillin-binding protein 2a. In response to growth of the bacteria in the presence...

  18. Molecular basis of interactions between mitochondrial proteins and hydroxyapatite in the presence of Triton X-100, as revealed by proteomic and recombinant techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takenori; Tamaki, Haruna; Katsuda, Chie; Nakatani, Kiwami; Terauchi, Satsuki; Terada, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Yasuo

    2013-08-02

    Hydroxyapatite chromatography is a very important step in the purification of voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) and several members of solute carrier family 25 (Slc25) from isolated mitochondria. In the presence of Triton X-100, VDACs and Slc25 members present a peculiar property, i.e., a lack of interaction with hydroxyapatite, resulting in their presence in the flow-through fraction of hydroxyapatite chromatography. This property has allowed selective isolation of VDACs and Slc25 members from a mixture of total mitochondrial proteins. However, the reason why only these few proteins are selectively obtained in the presence of Triton X-100 from the flow-though fraction of hydroxyapatite chromatography has not yet been adequately understood. In this study, when we examined the protein species in the flow-through fractions by proteomic analysis, VDAC isoforms, Slc25 members, and some other membrane proteins were identified. All the mitochondrial proteins had in common high hydrophobicity over their entire protein sequences. When the proteins were fused to soluble proteins, the fused proteins showed affinity for hydroxyapatite even in the presence of Triton X-100. Based on these results, we discussed the molecular basis of the interactions between proteins and hydroxyapatite in the presence of Triton X-100. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Beam screens for the LHC beam pipes

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    1997-01-01

    Cross-section of LHC prototype beam pipes showing the beam screens. Slits in the screens allow residual gas molecules to be pumped out and become frozen to the walls of the ultra-cold beam pipe. Beam screens like these have been designed to line the beam pipes, absorbing radiation before it can hit the magnets and warm them up, an effect that would greatly reduce the magnetic field and cause serious damage.

  20. Beam geometry selection using sequential beam addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popple, Richard A; Brezovich, Ivan A; Fiveash, John B

    2014-05-01

    The selection of optimal beam geometry has been of interest since the inception of conformal radiotherapy. The authors report on sequential beam addition, a simple beam geometry selection method, for intensity modulated radiation therapy. The sequential beam addition algorithm (SBA) requires definition of an objective function (score) and a set of candidate beam geometries (pool). In the first iteration, the optimal score is determined for each beam in the pool and the beam with the best score selected. In the next iteration, the optimal score is calculated for each beam remaining in the pool combined with the beam selected in the first iteration, and the best scoring beam is selected. The process is repeated until the desired number of beams is reached. The authors selected three treatment sites, breast, lung, and brain, and determined beam arrangements for up to 11 beams from a pool comprised of 25 equiangular transverse beams. For the brain, arrangements were additionally selected from a pool of 22 noncoplanar beams. Scores were determined for geometries comprised equiangular transverse beams (EQA), as well as two tangential beams for the breast case. In all cases, SBA resulted in scores superior to EQA. The breast case had the strongest dependence on beam geometry, for which only the 7-beam EQA geometry had a score better than the two tangential beams, whereas all SBA geometries with more than two beams were superior. In the lung case, EQA and SBA scores monotonically improved with increasing number of beams; however, SBA required fewer beams to achieve scores equivalent to EQA. For the brain case, SBA with a coplanar pool was equivalent to EQA, while the noncoplanar pool resulted in slightly better scores; however, the dose-volume histograms demonstrated that the differences were not clinically significant. For situations in which beam geometry has a significant effect on the objective function, SBA can identify arrangements equivalent to equiangular

  1. Beam geometry selection using sequential beam addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popple, Richard A., E-mail: rpopple@uabmc.edu; Brezovich, Ivan A.; Fiveash, John B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1720 2nd Avenue South, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The selection of optimal beam geometry has been of interest since the inception of conformal radiotherapy. The authors report on sequential beam addition, a simple beam geometry selection method, for intensity modulated radiation therapy. Methods: The sequential beam addition algorithm (SBA) requires definition of an objective function (score) and a set of candidate beam geometries (pool). In the first iteration, the optimal score is determined for each beam in the pool and the beam with the best score selected. In the next iteration, the optimal score is calculated for each beam remaining in the pool combined with the beam selected in the first iteration, and the best scoring beam is selected. The process is repeated until the desired number of beams is reached. The authors selected three treatment sites, breast, lung, and brain, and determined beam arrangements for up to 11 beams from a pool comprised of 25 equiangular transverse beams. For the brain, arrangements were additionally selected from a pool of 22 noncoplanar beams. Scores were determined for geometries comprised equiangular transverse beams (EQA), as well as two tangential beams for the breast case. Results: In all cases, SBA resulted in scores superior to EQA. The breast case had the strongest dependence on beam geometry, for which only the 7-beam EQA geometry had a score better than the two tangential beams, whereas all SBA geometries with more than two beams were superior. In the lung case, EQA and SBA scores monotonically improved with increasing number of beams; however, SBA required fewer beams to achieve scores equivalent to EQA. For the brain case, SBA with a coplanar pool was equivalent to EQA, while the noncoplanar pool resulted in slightly better scores; however, the dose-volume histograms demonstrated that the differences were not clinically significant. Conclusions: For situations in which beam geometry has a significant effect on the objective function, SBA can identify

  2. Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions

  3. Extraction and separation of tungsten (VI) from aqueous media with Triton X-100-ammonium sulfate-water aqueous two-phase system without any extractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqiang Zhang; Tichang Sun; Tieqiang Lu; Chunhuan Yan

    2016-11-25

    An aqueous two-phase system composed of Triton X-100-(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 -H 2 O was proposed for extraction and separation of tungsten(VI) from aqueous solution without using any extractant. The effects of aqueous pH, concentration of ammonium sulfate, Triton X-100 and tungsten, extracting temperature on the extraction of tungsten were investigated. The extraction of tungsten has remarkable relationship with aqueous pH and are to above 90% at pH=1.0-3.0 under studied pH range (pH=1.0-7.0) and increases gradually with increasing Triton X-100 concentration, but decreases slightly with increasing ammonium sulfate concentration. The extraction percentage of tungsten is hardly relevant to temperature but its distribution coefficient linearly increases with increasing temperature within 303.15-343.15K. The distribution coefficient of tungsten increases with the increase of initial tungsten concentration (0.1-3%) and temperature (303.15 K-333.15K). The solubilization capacity of tungsten in Triton X-100 micellar phase is independent of temperature. FT-IR analysis reveals that there is no evident interaction between polytungstate anion and ether oxygen unit in Triton X-100, and DLS analysis indicates that zeta potential of Triton X-100 micellar phase have a little change from positive to negative after extracting tungsten. Based on the above-mentioned results, it can be deduced that polytungstate anions are solubilized in hydrophilic outer shell of Triton X-100 micelles by electrostatic attraction depending on its relatively high hydrophobic nature. The stripping of tungsten is mainly influenced by temperature and can be easily achieved to 95% in single stage stripping. The tungsten (VI) is separated out from solution containing Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Al(III), Cr(III) and Mn(II) under the suitable conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Observations and diagnostics in high brightness beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cianchi, A., E-mail: alessandro.cianchi@roma2.infn.it [University of Rome Tor Vergata and INFN-Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Anania, M.P.; Bisesto, F.; Castellano, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    The brightness is a figure of merit largely used in the light sources, like FEL (Free Electron Lasers), but it is also fundamental in several other applications, as for instance Compton backscattering sources, beam driven plasma accelerators and THz sources. Advanced diagnostics are essential tools in the development of high brightness beams. 6D electron beam diagnostics will be reviewed with emphasis on emittance measurement.

  5. Convergence of triton asymptotic wave function for hyperspherical harmonics expansion with two nucleon Reid soft core potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Das, T.K. (Physics Department, Calcutta University, 92 A.P.C. Road, Calcutta 700009 (India)); Kanta, K.P. (Physics Department, Burdwan University, Burdwan 713104 (India)); Ghosh, A.K. (Sainthia Avedananda Mahavidyalaya, Sainthia, Birbhum, W. B. (India))

    1994-10-01

    The asymptotic normalization constants (ANC) [ital C][sub 0] and [ital C][sub 2] of the triton have been calculated by the hyperspherical harmonics expansion method with the Reid soft core potential (no three body force). The results do not agree with the corresponding calculations by the Faddeev method, when only a few hyperspherical partial waves are included. However Schneider's convergence theorems on hyperspherical expansion allow one to extrapolate the results for a large number of partial waves and then they agree fairly well with the Faddeev results. This indicates that even though the hyperspherical expansion for the asymptotic wave function is very slow, a convergent and reliable wave function is attained by extrapolation of a relatively small-sized calculation.

  6. Cloud Point Extraction of Toxic Reactive Black 5 Dye from Water Samples Using Triton X-100 as Nonionic Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raziyeh Mousavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A surfactant mediated cloud point extraction (CPE procedure has been developed to remove color from wastewater containing reactive black 5, using triton x-100 (TX-100 as non-ionic surfactant. The effects of the concentration of the surfactant, pH, temperature and salt concentration on the different concentrations of dye have been studied and optimum conditions were obtained for the removal of reactive black 5 (RB 5. The concentration of RB 5 in the dilute phase was measured using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. It was found that the separation of phases was complete and the recovery of RB 5 was very effective in the presence of NaCl as an electrolyte. The results showed that up to 600 mg L-1 of RB 5 can quantitatively be removed (>97% by cloud point extraction procedure in a single extraction using optimum conditions.

  7. Cloud point extraction for the determination of heavy metals by nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 and PAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera Puig, I.; Perez Gramatges, A.

    2006-01-01

    A novel methodology for extraction and preconcentration of trace metals based on cloud point phenomenon was applied to the analysis of Co(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) y Ni(II) in a certified reference material (CRM), using Triton X-100 as nonionic surfactant, and AAS for the determination. Different parameters that can influence the extraction efficiency were studied, such as pH and ionic strength of the solution. The precision, accuracy and detection limits of the method were determined using a CRM from the Environmental Analysis Laboratory of InSTEC. We applied our methodology to the detection of the metals in naturals waters (Almendares river and tap water) . The data obtained presented in this work is part of the validation file of the proposed analytical procedure for the determination of heavy metals

  8. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  9. Cost of New Technologies in Prostate Cancer Treatment: Systematic Review of Costs and Cost Effectiveness of Robotic-assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy, Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy, and Proton Beam Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeck, Florian Rudolf; Jacobs, Bruce L; Bhayani, Sam B; Nguyen, Paul L; Penson, David; Hu, Jim

    2017-11-01

    Some of the high costs of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and proton beam therapy may be offset by better outcomes or less resource use during the treatment episode. To systematically review the literature to identify the key economic trade-offs implicit in a particular treatment choice for prostate cancer. We systematically reviewed the literature according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement and protocol. We searched Medline, Embase, and Web of Science for articles published between January 2001 and July 2016, which compared the treatment costs of RARP, IMRT, or proton beam therapy to the standard treatment. We identified 37, nine, and three studies, respectively. RARP is costlier than radical retropubic prostatectomy for hospitals and payers. However, RARP has the potential for a moderate cost advantage for payers and society over a longer time horizon when optimal cancer and quality-of-life outcomes are achieved. IMRT is more expensive from a payer's perspective compared with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, but also more cost effective when defined by an incremental cost effectiveness ratio new versus traditional technologies is costlier. However, given the low quality of evidence and the inconsistencies across studies, the precise difference in costs remains unclear. Attempts to estimate whether this increased cost is worth the expense are hampered by the uncertainty surrounding improvements in outcomes, such as cancer control and side effects of treatment. If the new technologies can consistently achieve better outcomes, then they may be cost effective. We review the cost and cost effectiveness of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and proton beam therapy in prostate cancer treatment. These technologies are costlier than their traditional counterparts. It remains unclear whether their use is associated

  10. Radiation effects of ion beams on polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Seiichi

    1993-01-01

    Recent progress in the radiation effects of ion beams on polymers are reviewed briefly. Our recent work on the radiation effects of ion beams on polystyrene thin films on silicon wafers and time resolved emission studies on polymers are described. (orig.)

  11. Resolving beam transport problems in electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews problem areas in beam transmission which are frequently encountered during the design, operation and upgrading of electrostatic accelerators. Examples are provided of analytic procedures that clarify accelerator ion optics and lead to more effective beam transport. Suggestions are made for evaluating accelerator design with the goal of improved performance

  12. A reviewed technique for total body electron therapy using a Varian Clinac 2100C/D high dose rate treatment beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, L.D.; Xuereb, E.M.A.; Last, V.; Hunt, P.B.; Wilfert, A.

    1996-01-01

    Our (Royal North Shore Hospital) most recent linear accelerator acquisition is a Varian Clinac 2100C/D which has a high dose rate (approximately 25Gy per minute at 1 metre) total body electron option. We investigated the physical characteristics of the electron beam to develop a suitable method of treatment for total body electron therapy. The useful electron beam width is defined as 80cm above and below the reference height. Measurements of the electron dose received from the two angled electron beams showed a critical dependence on the gantry angles. The treatment protocol uses ten different patient angles, fractionated into directly opposing fields and treated seuqentially each day. A full cycle of treatment is completed in five days. (author)

  13. Beam-beam effects in the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V.; Alexahin, Y.; Lebedev, V.; Lebrun, P.; Moore, R.S.; Sen, T.; Tollestrup, A.; Valishev, A.; Zhang, X.L.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with 6 times more bunches, many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Electromagnetic long-range and head-on interactions of high intensity proton and antiproton beams have been significant sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations. We present observations of the beam-beam phenomena in the Tevatron and results of relevant beam studies. We analyze the data and various methods employed in operations, predict the performance for planned luminosity upgrades, and discuss ways to improve it.

  14. Crystalline beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Ions in a storage ring are confined to a mean orbit by focusing elements. To a first approximation these may be described by a constant harmonic restoring force: F = -Kr. If the particles in the frame moving along with the beam have small random thermal energies, then they will occupy a cylindrical volume around the mean orbit and the focusing force will be balanced by that from the mutual repulsion of the particles. Inside the cylinder only residual two-particle interactions will play a significant role and some form of ordering might be expected to take place. The results of some of the first MD calculations showed a surprising result: not only were the particles arranged in the form of a tube, but they formed well-defined layers: concentric shells, with the particles in each shell arranged in a hexagonal lattice that is characteristic of two-dimensional Coulomb systems. This paper discusses the condense layer structure

  15. Observations and open questions in beam-beam interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Tanaji

    2010-01-01

    The first of the hadron colliders, ISR, started operation in 1970. In the following years, the hadron colliders to follow were the SPS (started 1980), the Tevatron (started 1987 first as a fixed target machine), RHIC (started 2000) and most recently the LHC, which started in 2008. HERA was a hybrid that collided electrons and protons. All of these accelerators had or have their performance limited by the effects of the beam-beam interactions. That has also been true for the electron-positron colliders such as LEP, CESR, KEKB and PEPII. In this article I will discuss how the beam-beam limitations arose in some of these machines. The discussion will be focused on common themes that span the different colliders. I will mostly discuss the hadron colliders but sometimes discuss the lepton colliders where relevant. Only a handful of common accelerator physics topics are chosen here, the list is not meant to be exhaustive. A comparative review of beam-beam performance in the ISR, SPS and Tevatron (ca 1989) can be found in reference. Table 1 shows the relevant parameters of colliders (excluding the LHC), which have accelerated protons.

  16. Adjuvant external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of endometrial cancer (MRC ASTEC and NCIC CTG EN.5 randomised trials): pooled trial results, systematic review, and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, P; Swart, Ann Marie; Orton, J; Kitchener, H; Whelan, T; Lukka, H; Eisenhauer, E; Bacon, M; Tu, D; Parmar, M K B; Amos, C; Murray, C; Qian, W

    2009-01-10

    Early endometrial cancer with low-risk pathological features can be successfully treated by surgery alone. External beam radiotherapy added to surgery has been investigated in several small trials, which have mainly included women at intermediate risk of recurrence. In these trials, postoperative radiotherapy has been shown to reduce the risk of isolated local recurrence but there is no evidence that it improves recurrence-free or overall survival. We report the findings from the ASTEC and EN.5 trials, which investigated adjuvant external beam radiotherapy in women with early-stage disease and pathological features suggestive of intermediate or high risk of recurrence and death from endometrial cancer. Between July, 1996, and March, 2005, 905 (789 ASTEC, 116 EN.5) women with intermediate-risk or high-risk early-stage disease from 112 centres in seven countries (UK, Canada, Poland, Norway, New Zealand, Australia, USA) were randomly assigned after surgery to observation (453) or to external beam radiotherapy (452). A target dose of 40-46 Gy in 20-25 daily fractions to the pelvis, treating five times a week, was specified. Primary outcome measure was overall survival, and all analyses were by intention to treat. These trials were registered ISRCTN 16571884 (ASTEC) and NCT 00002807 (EN.5). After a median follow-up of 58 months, 135 women (68 observation, 67 external beam radiotherapy) had died. There was no evidence that overall survival with external beam radiotherapy was better than observation, hazard ratio 1.05 (95% CI 0.75-1.48; p=0.77). 5-year overall survival was 84% in both groups. Combining data from ASTEC and EN.5 in a meta-analysis of trials confirmed that there was no benefit in terms of overall survival (hazard ratio 1.04; 95% CI 0.84-1.29) and can reliably exclude an absolute benefit of external beam radiotherapy at 5 years of more than 3%. With brachytherapy used in 53% of women in ASTEC/EN.5, the local recurrence rate in the observation group at 5 years

  17. Summary of the polarized beam working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.; Dyck, O. van.

    1989-05-01

    The polarized beam working group reviewed the AGS Bookster and TRIUMF KAON Factory facilities, heard an overview of the subject of siberian snakes, discussed internal polarized gas targets, and made recommendations for further study

  18. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangler, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam

  19. Clinical applications of cone beam computed tomography in endodontics: a comprehensive review. Part 2: applications associated with advanced endodontic problems and complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohenca, N.; Shemesh, H.

    2015-01-01

    The use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in endodontics has been extensively reported in the literature. Compared with the traditional spiral computed tomography, limited field of view (FOV) CBCT results in a fraction of the effective absorbed dose of radiation. The purpose of this manuscript

  20. Clinical applications of cone beam computed tomography in endodontics: a comprehensive review. Part 1: applications associated with endodontic treatment and diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohenca, N.; Shemesh, H.

    2015-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a new technology that produces three-dimensional (3D) digital imaging at reduced cost and less radiation for the patient than traditional CT scans. It also delivers faster and easier image acquisition. By providing a 3D representation of the maxillofacial

  1. The quest for crystalline ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, U; Bussmann, M; Habs, D

    2002-01-01

    The phase transition of an ion beam into its crystalline state has long been expected to dramatically influence beam dynamics beyond the limitations of standard accelerator physics. Yet, although considerable improvement in beam cooling techniques has been made, strong heating mechanisms inherent to existing high-energy storage rings have prohibited the formation of the crystalline state in these machines up to now. Only recently, laser cooling of low-energy beams in the table-top rf quadrupole storage ring PAaul Laser cooLing Acceleration System (PALLAS) has lead to the experimental realization of crystalline beams. In this article, the quest for crystalline beams as well as their unique properties as experienced in PALLAS will be reviewed.

  2. The clinical case for proton beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, Robert L; Haddock, Michael G; Yan, Elizabeth; Laack, Nadia N; Arndt, Carola A S

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, several proton beam treatment programs have been implemented throughout the United States. Increasingly, the number of new programs under development is growing. Proton beam therapy has the potential for improving tumor control and survival through dose escalation. It also has potential for reducing harm to normal organs through dose reduction. However, proton beam therapy is more costly than conventional x-ray therapy. This increased cost may be offset by improved function, improved quality of life, and reduced costs related to treating the late effects of therapy. Clinical research opportunities are abundant to determine which patients will gain the most benefit from proton beam therapy. We review the clinical case for proton beam therapy. Proton beam therapy is a technically advanced and promising form of radiation therapy

  3. The clinical case for proton beam therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foote Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past 20 years, several proton beam treatment programs have been implemented throughout the United States. Increasingly, the number of new programs under development is growing. Proton beam therapy has the potential for improving tumor control and survival through dose escalation. It also has potential for reducing harm to normal organs through dose reduction. However, proton beam therapy is more costly than conventional x-ray therapy. This increased cost may be offset by improved function, improved quality of life, and reduced costs related to treating the late effects of therapy. Clinical research opportunities are abundant to determine which patients will gain the most benefit from proton beam therapy. We review the clinical case for proton beam therapy. Summary sentence Proton beam therapy is a technically advanced and promising form of radiation therapy.

  4. Design issues of radioactive ion beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieuvin, M.

    1996-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in Radioactive Ion Beams throughout the world. These ions open new domains of research for nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and atomic physics. Two methods are used for the production of these beams: fragmentation of a primary, high energy heavy ion beam passing through a thin target or nuclei production in a thick target bombarded either by a heavy ion beam, a proton beam or by neutrons. When radioactive species are produced in a thick target, they must be extracted, ionised, separated, identified and finally accelerated. This requires a radioactive ion source, a mass separator and a post accelerator. This paper reviews these two methods, their respective domains and the specific problems related to the control and the accelerator of radioactive ion beams. (author). 39 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Radioactive Ion Beams and Radiopharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxdal, R. E.; Morton, A. C.; Schaffer, P.

    2014-02-01

    Experiments performed at radioactive ion beam facilities shed new light on nuclear physics and nuclear structure, as well as nuclear astrophysics, materials science and medical science. The many existing facilities, as well as the new generation of facilities being built and those proposed for the future, are a testament to the high interest in this rapidly expanding field. The opportunities inherent in radioactive beam facilities have enabled the search for radioisotopes suitable for medical diagnosis or therapy. In this article, an overview of the production techniques and the current status of RIB facilities and proposals will be presented. In addition, accelerator-generated radiopharmaceuticals will be reviewed.

  6. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized.

  7. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized

  8. Recent radioactive ion beam program at RIKEN and related topics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    525–533. Recent radioactive ion beam program at RIKEN and related topics. AKIRA OZAWA. RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198, Japan. Abstract. Recent experimental programs at RIKEN concerning RI beams are reviewed. RIKEN has the ring cyclotron (RRC) with high intense heavy-ion beams and large ...

  9. Intense relativistic electron beam: generation and propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, K.C.; Mondal, J.

    2010-01-01

    A general review of relativistic electron beam extracted from explosive field emission diode has been presented here. The beam current in the diode gap taking into account cathode and anode plasma expansion velocity and excluding the self magnetic field effect is directly proportional to gap voltage V 3/2 and inversely proportional to the square of the effective diode gap (d-vt). In the limit of high current, self magnetic field focusing effect comes into play and results in a critical current at which pinching will take place. When the diode current exceeds the critical current, the electron flow is in the para-potential regime. Different diode geometries such as planner, coaxial, rod-pinched, reflex triode are discussed qualitatively. When the beam is injected into a vacuum drift tube the propagation of the beam is only possible in presence of a strong axial magnetic field which prevents the beam expansion in the radial direction. If the beam is injected in the drift tube filled with dense plasma, then the redistribution of the plasma electrons effectively neutralizes the beam space charge, resulting subsequent propagation of the beam along the drift tube. The beam propagation through neutral gas is similar to the plasma filled drift tube. In this case both the neutral gas pressure and the beam current regulate the transmission of the REB. (author)

  10. The fast neutron facility at the research reactor Munich. Determination of the beam quality and medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, F. M.; Koester, L.

    1990-01-01

    At the research reactor FRM, fast and epithermal neutron beams are generated by a thermal-to-fast neutron converter and/or near core scatterers. The dosimetry and spectroscopy of the resulting intense mixed beams of neutron and gamma radiation with a wide range of energies set spetial tasks for neutron dosimetry and spectroscopy. The twin chamber method and some others are briefly described. Neutron spectroscopy is performed by a Li-6 sandwich spectrometer covering the full neutron spectrum of a well-collimated mixed beam from about 20 keV to 8 MeV. The data registration is assisted by a microcomputer which generates sum and triton spectra on-line. Sum analysis is applied to neutron energies greater than 0.3 MeV; the intermediate neutron spectrum is evaluated by unfolding of the triton spectrum. Moreover, a brief overview of the reactor neutron therapy (RENT) at the FRM is given. After a number of animal experiments for the determination of the biological effectiveness relative to X-rays, clinical irradiations have been started in 1985. The most important indications for RENT are listed. 140 patients with bad prognoses have been treated since. The average tumour control rate of 60% is surprisingly high. Possibilities for an assisting Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) are shown. 8 figs., 23 refs

  11. OSS (Outer Solar System): a fundamental and planetary physics mission to Neptune, Triton and the Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophe, B.; Spilker, L. J.; Anderson, J. D.; André, N.; Asmar, S. W.; Aurnou, J.; Banfield, D.; Barucci, A.; Bertolami, O.; Bingham, R.; Brown, P.; Cecconi, B.; Courty, J.-M.; Dittus, H.; Fletcher, L. N.; Foulon, B.; Francisco, F.; Gil, P. J. S.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Grundy, W.; Hansen, C.; Helbert, J.; Helled, R.; Hussmann, H.; Lamine, B.; Lämmerzahl, C.; Lamy, L.; Lehoucq, R.; Lenoir, B.; Levy, A.; Orton, G.; Páramos, J.; Poncy, J.; Postberg, F.; Progrebenko, S. V.; Reh, K. R.; Reynaud, S.; Robert, C.; Samain, E.; Saur, J.; Sayanagi, K. M.; Schmitz, N.; Selig, H.; Sohl, F.; Spilker, T. R.; Srama, R.; Stephan, K.; Touboul, P.; Wolf, P.

    2012-10-01

    The present OSS (Outer Solar System) mission continues a long and bright tradition by associating the communities of fundamental physics and planetary sciences in a single mission with ambitious goals in both domains. OSS is an M-class mission to explore the Neptune system almost half a century after the flyby of the Voyager 2 spacecraft. Several discoveries were made by Voyager 2, including the Great Dark Spot (which has now disappeared) and Triton's geysers. Voyager 2 revealed the dynamics of Neptune's atmosphere and found four rings and evidence of ring arcs above Neptune. Benefiting from a greatly improved instrumentation, a mission as OSS would result in a striking advance in the study of the farthest planet of the solar system. Furthermore, OSS would provide a unique opportunity to visit a selected Kuiper Belt object subsequent to the passage of the Neptunian system. OSS would help consolidate the hypothesis of the origin of Triton as a Kuiper Belt object captured by Neptune, and to improve our knowledge on the formation of the solar system. The OSS probe would carry instruments allowing precise tracking of the spacecraft during the cruise. It would facilitate the best possible tests of the laws of gravity in deep space. These objectives are important for fundamental physics, as they test General Relativity, our current theoretical description of gravitation, but also for cosmology, astrophysics and planetary science, as General Relativity is used as a tool in all these domains. In particular, the models of solar system formation uses General Relativity to describe the crucial role of gravity. OSS is proposed as an international cooperation between ESA and NASA, giving the capability for ESA to launch an M-class mission towards the farthest planet of the solar system, and to a Kuiper Belt object. The proposed mission profile would allow to deliver a 500 kg class spacecraft. The design of the probe is mainly constrained by the deep space gravity test in order

  12. Physical profile data collected in the Equatorial Pacific during cruises to service the TAO/TRITON array, a network of deep ocean moored buoys, February 23 - December 16, 2005 (NODC Accession 0002644)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 2005, CTD data were collected in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during cruises to service the TAO/TRITON array, a network of deep ocean moored buoys to support...

  13. Physical profile and meteorological data from CTD casts during cruises to service the TAO/TRITON buoys in the equatorial Pacific from 02 March 2002 to 22 November 2002 (NODC Accession 0000945)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical profile data and meteorological data were collected from CTD casts in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during cruises to to service the TAO/TRITON buoy array....

  14. Electron beam control for barely separated beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David R.; Ament, Lucas J. P.

    2017-04-18

    A method for achieving independent control of multiple beams in close proximity to one another, such as in a multi-pass accelerator where coaxial beams are at different energies, but moving on a common axis, and need to be split into spatially separated beams for efficient recirculation transport. The method for independent control includes placing a magnet arrangement in the path of the barely separated beams with the magnet arrangement including at least two multipole magnets spaced closely together and having a multipole distribution including at least one odd multipole and one even multipole. The magnetic fields are then tuned to cancel out for a first of the barely separated beams to allow independent control of the second beam with common magnets. The magnetic fields may be tuned to cancel out either the dipole component or tuned to cancel out the quadrupole component in order to independently control the separate beams.

  15. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  16. Performance with lead ions of the LHC beam dump system

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R; Jensen, L; Lefèvre, T; Weterings, W

    2007-01-01

    The LHC beam dump system must function safely with 208Pb82+ions. The differences with respect to the LHC proton beams are briefly recalled, and the possible areas for performance concerns discussed, in particular the various beam intercepting devices and the beam instrumentation. Energy deposition simulation results for the most critical elements are presented, and the conclusions drawn for the lead ion operation. The expected performance of the beam instrumentation systems are reviewed in the context of the damage potential of the ion beam and the required functionality of the various safety and post-operational analysis requirements.

  17. The Equilibrium and Pre-equilibrium Triton Emission Spectra of Some Target Nuclei for ( n, xt) Reactions up to 45 MeV Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, E.; Kaplan, A.; Aydın, A.; Özkorucuklu, S.; Büyükuslu, H.; Yıldırım, G.

    2010-08-01

    Although there have been significant research and development studies on the inertial and magnetic fusion reactor technology, there is still a long way to go to penetrate commercial fusion reactors to the energy market. Tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. For self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. So, working out the systematics of ( n,t) reaction cross sections and triton emission differential data are important for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at different energies. In this study, ( n,xt) reactions for some target nuclei as 16O, 27Al, 59Co and 209Bi have been investigated up to 45 MeV incident neutron energy. In the calculations of the triton emission spectra, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects have been used. The calculated results have been compared with the experimental data taken from the literature.

  18. High-Yield and Sustainable Production of Phosphatidylserine in Purely Aqueous Solutions via Adsorption of Phosphatidylcholine on Triton-X-100-Modified Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Li, Binglin; Wang, Jiao; Li, Huanyu; Zhao, Binxia

    2017-12-13

    Triton X-100 was covalently bound to a surface of silica and acted as an anchor molecule to facilitate the adsorption of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in a purely aqueous solution. The silica-adsorbed PC obtained was successfully used for phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated transphosphatidylation in the production of phosphatidylserine (PS). Organic solvents were completely avoided in the whole production process. The PC loading and PS yield reached 98.9 and 99.0%, respectively. Two adsorption models were studied, and the relevant parameters were calculated to help us understand the adsorption and reaction processes deeply. In addition, the silica-adsorbed PC provides a promising way to continuously biosynthesize PS. A packed-bed reactor was employed to demonstrate the process flow of the continuous production of PS. The recyclability and stability of the Triton-X-100-modified silica were excellent, as demonstrated by its use 30 times during continuous operation without any loss of the productivity.

  19. Rho-kinase inhibition attenuates calcium-induced contraction in β-escin but not Triton X-100 permeabilized rabbit femoral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clelland, Lyndsay J; Browne, Brendan M; Alvarez, Silvina M; Miner, Amy S; Ratz, Paul H

    2011-09-01

    K+-depolarization (KCl) of smooth muscle has long been known to cause Ca2+-dependent contraction, but only recently has this G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-independent stimulus been associated with rhoA kinase (ROCK)-dependent myosin light chain (MLC) phosphatase inhibition and Ca2+ sensitization. This study examined effects of ROCK inhibition on the concentration-response curves (CRCs) generated in femoral artery by incrementally adding increasing concentrations of KCl to intact tissues, and Ca2+ to tissues permeabilized with Triton X-100, β-escin and α-toxin. For a comparison, tissue responses were assessed also in the presence of protein kinase C (PKC) and MLC kinase inhibition. The ROCK inhibitor H-1152 induced a strong concentration-dependent inhibition of a KCl CRC. A relatively low GF-109203X concentration (1 μM) sufficient to inhibit conventional PKC isotypes also inhibited the KCl CRC but did not affect the maximum tension. ROCK inhibitors had no effect on the Ca2+ CRC induced in Triton X-100 or α-toxin permeabilized tissues, but depressed the maximum contraction induced in β-escin permeabilized tissue. GF-109203X at 1 μM depressed the maximum Ca2+-dependent contraction induced in α-toxin permeabilized tissue and had no effect on the Ca2+ CRC induced in Triton X-100 permeabilized tissue. The MLC kinase inhibitor wortmannin (1 μM) strongly depression the Ca2+ CRCs in tissues permeabilized with Triton X-100, α-toxin and β-escin. H-1152 inhibited contractions induced by a single exposure to a submaximum [Ca2+] (pCa 6) in both rabbit and mouse femoral arteries. These data indicate that β-escin permeabilized muscle preserves GPCR-independent, Ca2+- and ROCK-dependent, Ca2+ sensitization.

  20. ISR beam scrapers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Beam scrapers seen in the direction of the beam. The two horizontal scraper foils are near the centre of the beam pipe andthe two scrapers for protection of the vacuum chamber are further outside. In the lower part of the beam pipe is the vertical halo scraping blade.

  1. Telecommunication using muon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location

  2. Analysis of orthotropic beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen Y. Liu; S. Cheng

    1979-01-01

    A plane-stress analysis of orthotropic or isotropic beams is presented. The loading conditions considered are: (1) a concentrated normal load arbitrarily located on the beam, and (2) a distributed normal load covering an arbitrary length of the beam. exhibit close agreement with existing experimental data from Sitka spruce beams. Other loading conditions can similarly...

  3. Telecommunication using muon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Richard C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location.

  4. Beam Cleaning and Collimation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S

    2016-01-01

    Collimation systems in particle accelerators are designed to dispose of unavoidable losses safely and efficiently during beam operation. Different roles are required for different types of accelerator. The present state of the art in beam collimation is exemplified in high-intensity, high-energy superconducting hadron colliders, like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where stored beam energies reach levels up to several orders of magnitude higher than the tiny energies required to quench cold magnets. Collimation systems are essential systems for the daily operation of these modern machines. In this document, the design of a multistage collimation system is reviewed, taking the LHC as an example case study. In this case, unprecedented cleaning performance has been achieved, together with a system complexity comparable to no other accelerator. Aspects related to collimator design and operational challenges of large collimation systems are also addressed.

  5. Study on shear behavior of FRP strengthened concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J. K.; Xu, X. S.

    2017-04-01

    There are many researches on concrete bending beams reinforced with FRP, and the beam section of the bending strength is enhanced, it is necessary to carry out an oblique section bearing capacity review, if the bearing capacity is insufficient, it is also necessary to strengthen, so as to ensure the ductility of the beam and meet the needs of Engineering safety. In this paper, four concrete beams strengthened with different fibers (CFRP, HFRP and GFRP) were used to study the stress characteristics, failure forms, reasonable reinforcement methods, beam strain conditions, bearing capacity, stiffness and deformation capacity of shear behavior of concrete beams strengthened with different fibers and different forms of reinforcement. The experimental results showed that the FRP reinforcement can not only improve the shear bearing capacity and ultimate deformation of beam, but also increase the stiffness of the beam, reduce the bending deformation under the same load beam, and delay the extension of diagonal cracks.

  6. LANSCE beam current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described

  7. Nonlinear interaction of colliding beams in particle storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, J C; Month, M

    1979-01-01

    When two beams of high energy particles moving in opposite directions are brought into collision, a large amount of energy is available for the production of new particles. However to obtain a sufficiently high event rate for rare processes, such as the production of the intermediate vector boson (Z/sub 0/ and W/sup + -/), large beam currents are also required. Under this circumstance, the high charge density of one beam results in a classical electromagnetic interaction on the particles in the other beam. This very nonlinear space charge force, caled the beam-beam force, limits the total circulating charge and, thereby, the ultimate performance of the colliding ring system. The basic nature of the beam-beam force is discussed, indicating how it is quite different in the case of continuous beams, which cross each other at an angle as compared to the case of bunched beams which collide head-on. Some experimental observations on the beam-beam interaction in proton-proton and electron-positron beams are then reviewed and interpreted. An important aspect of the beam-beam problem in storage rings is to determine at what point in the analysis of the particle dynamics is it relevant to bring in the concepts of stochasticity, slow diffusion, and resonance overlap. These ideas are briefly discussed.

  8. The influence of Triton X-100 surfactant on the morphology and properties of zinc sulfide nanoparticles for applications in azo dyes degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumbrava, Anca; Berger, Daniela; Prodan, Gabriel; Matei, Cristian; Moscalu, Florin; Diacon, Aurel

    2017-01-01

    Herein we report the synthesis, by two different routes, of ZnS nanoparticles capped with Triton X-100 (TX), which were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and surface area measurements. The TX-capped ZnS nanopowders have a very good photocatalytic activity and high specific surface area, depending on the synthesis route; e.g. an azo dye solution is almost complete photobleached in only 60 min (a photocatalytic activity of 97.79%) using TX-capped ZnS nanopowder, with specific surface area of 191 m 2 /g, and further a photocatalytic activity of 99.75% was achieved in 120 min. Based on the photocatalytic results, the ZnS nanopowders can be considered suitable catalysts for a green, very efficient and quick strategy for removing of organic pollutants from wastewaters. - Highlights: • Triton X-100 was used as surfactant in ZnS nanopowders synthesis by two methods. • Triton X-capped ZnS nanoparticles with high specific surface area were synthesized. • A very high capacity for bleaching an azo dye solution was evidenced. • Some of ZnS powders properties were crucially modified by the synthesis technique.

  9. Phase behaviour and microstructure of the micro-emulsions composed of cholinium-based ionic liquid, Triton X-100 and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Yuanchao; Huang, Yanjie; Li, Lin; Wang, Jianji

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The microemulsions composed of cholinium-based ionic liquid, Triton X-100 and water have been prepared and characterised. • Ternary phase diagrams of the microemulsions have been established at T = 298.15 K. • The microemulsions exhibit IL-in-water, bicontinuous and water-in-IL microstructures. • Droplets with the size smaller than 20 nm are formed in these IL-based microemulsions. - Abstract: In this paper, micro-emulsions composed of cholinium-based ionic liquids (ILs), octylphenol ethoxylate (Triton X-100) and water were prepared. These ternary systems were found to be stable over 12 months at room temperature. Their phase behaviour was investigated by using cloud titrations, and their microstructures were characterised by means of cyclic voltammetry and electrical conductance measurements at T = 298.15 K. It was shown that the micro-emulsions exhibited IL-in-water, bi-continuous and water-in-IL microstructures. Dynamic light scattering data suggest that Triton X-100 forms micelles in water, which were swelled by the ILs added. Droplets with the size about 20 nm were formed in these IL-based micro-emulsions, and the droplet size increased with the increase of the IL concentrations. These IL-based micro-emulsions may have potential in drug delivery, chemical reactions and nanomaterial preparation as a new type of nanoreactors

  10. The influence of Triton X-100 surfactant on the morphology and properties of zinc sulfide nanoparticles for applications in azo dyes degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumbrava, Anca, E-mail: adumbrava@univ-ovidius.ro [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ovidius University of Constanta, 124 Mamaia Blvd., Constanta 900527 (Romania); Berger, Daniela, E-mail: danaberger01@yahoo.com [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Polizu Street 1-7, Bucharest 011061 (Romania); Prodan, Gabriel [Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Ovidius University of Constanta, 124 Mamaia Blvd., Constanta 900527 (Romania); Matei, Cristian [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Polizu Street 1-7, Bucharest 011061 (Romania); Moscalu, Florin [Department of Physics, Ovidius University of Constanta, 124 Mamaia Blvd., Constanta 900527 (Romania); Diacon, Aurel [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Bioresources and Polymer Science, Polizu Street 1-7, Bucharest 011061 (Romania)

    2017-06-01

    Herein we report the synthesis, by two different routes, of ZnS nanoparticles capped with Triton X-100 (TX), which were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and surface area measurements. The TX-capped ZnS nanopowders have a very good photocatalytic activity and high specific surface area, depending on the synthesis route; e.g. an azo dye solution is almost complete photobleached in only 60 min (a photocatalytic activity of 97.79%) using TX-capped ZnS nanopowder, with specific surface area of 191 m{sup 2}/g, and further a photocatalytic activity of 99.75% was achieved in 120 min. Based on the photocatalytic results, the ZnS nanopowders can be considered suitable catalysts for a green, very efficient and quick strategy for removing of organic pollutants from wastewaters. - Highlights: • Triton X-100 was used as surfactant in ZnS nanopowders synthesis by two methods. • Triton X-capped ZnS nanoparticles with high specific surface area were synthesized. • A very high capacity for bleaching an azo dye solution was evidenced. • Some of ZnS powders properties were crucially modified by the synthesis technique.

  11. Streamlined Membrane Proteome Preparation for Shotgun Proteomics Analysis with Triton X-100 Cloud Point Extraction and Nanodiamond Solid Phase Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh D. Pham

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available While mass spectrometry (MS plays a key role in proteomics research, characterization of membrane proteins (MP by MS has been a challenging task because of the presence of a host of interfering chemicals in the hydrophobic protein extraction process, and the low protease digestion efficiency. We report a sample preparation protocol, two-phase separation with Triton X-100, induced by NaCl, with coomassie blue added for visualizing the detergent-rich phase, which streamlines MP preparation for SDS-PAGE analysis of intact MP and shot-gun proteomic analyses. MP solubilized in the detergent-rich milieu were then sequentially extracted and fractionated by surface-oxidized nanodiamond (ND at three pHs. The high MP affinity of ND enabled extensive washes for removal of salts, detergents, lipids, and other impurities to ensure uncompromised ensuing purposes, notably enhanced proteolytic digestion and down-stream mass spectrometric (MS analyses. Starting with a typical membranous cellular lysate fraction harvested with centrifugation/ultracentrifugation, MP purities of 70%, based on number (not weight of proteins identified by MS, was achieved; the weight-based purity can be expected to be much higher.

  12. Solvent extraction of lanthanoid, yttrium and some polyvalent metal ions with phosphoric acid esters of Triton X-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Isao; Hirasawa, Jun'ichi; Tsumagari, Hiroto; Ueno, Keihei; Takagi, Makoto.

    1986-01-01

    Polyoxyethylene chain-containing nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100 (decaethyleneglycol mono(4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenyl) ether; ROH) was derived to phosphate mono-, di-, and tri-esters RH 2 PO 4 , R 2 HPO 4 and R 3 PO 4 ; abbreviated as MTP, DTP and TTP, respectively) and the metal extraction behavior of these phosphate esters was studied in 1,2-dichloroethane-water system with particular emphasis on lanthanoid(III), yttrium(III), and some other polyvalent metal ions. The extraction was carried out at pH 2 in the presence (for TTP) or in the absence (for MTP and DTP) of picric acid. The metal extraction ability of these extractants followed the order of MTP > DTP > TTP under these extraction conditions. In the extraction by MTP and DTP, the extractability of lanthanoid ions increased with the increase in their atomic number. Mean separation factor of thirteen pairs of adjacent lanthanoids was evaluated to be 1.7 for MTP and 1.4 for DTP. On the other hand, the corresponding values for TTP was almost unity. None of these compounds practically extracted other polyvalent metal ions except iron ion. Iron(III) ion was extracted with MTP and with DTP to a similar level to those of lanthanoid ions. (author)

  13. UV-A photooxidation of β-carotene in Triton X-100 micelles by nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, G.L.; Hogan, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Photooxidation of β-carotene in Triton X-100 micelles was stimulated by lipophilic nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides at concentrations as low as 5 μM after 15 min in UV radiation (UV-A between 315 and 400 nm). Bleaching of β-carotene by acifluorfen-methyl [methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoate] was proportional to UV-A intensity and independent of pH. White light (400-700 nm) alone was without effect. At pH 6.5, 100 μM acifluorfen [sodium 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoate], a water-soluble nitrodiphenyl ether, stimulated photooxidation of β-carotene after 15 min in UV-A radiation. Activity of 200 μM acifluorfen was enhanced at pHs between 3.5 and 6.5. The chlorodiphenyl ether analogue of acifluorfen-methyl, methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-chlorobenzoate, exhibited little activity at 200 μM and 200 μM phenyl ether was without effect. Activation energy for acifluorfen-methyl stimulated β-carotene photooxidation near 20 and 30 0 C was 40.3 and 5.6 kJ mol -1 , respectively. Subsequent to UV-A exposure and placement into darkness no further bleaching of β-carotene was detected, indicating that reactive species were generated only in light and consumed quickly in darkness

  14. Effects of gamma radiation on phase behaviour and critical micelle concentration of Triton X-100 aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Diaz, G.; Rodriguez-Calvo, S.; Perez-Gramatges, A.; Rapado-Paneque, M.; Fernandez-Lima, F. A.; Ponciano, C. R.; Silveira, E. F. . E-mail. apgram@instec.cu

    2007-01-01

    Ionising radiation used for sterilisation can have an effect on the physico-chemical properties of pharmaceutically relevant excipient systems, affecting therefore the stability of the formulation. The effect of gamma irradiation on the phase behaviour (cloud point - CP) and critical micelle concentration (CMC) of aqueous solutions of Triton X-100, used as a model nonionic surfactant, is investigated in this paper. Micellar solutions irradiated with ?-rays in a dose range between 0 and 70 kGy, including the sterilisation range of pharmaceutical preparations, were analysed using mass spectrometry. Results show a slight shift in molecular mass distribution of ethoxylated surfactant, which indicates degradation of polyethoxylated chains by water radical attacks. This fact, combined with the formation of cross-linked species, is considered to be responsible for the decrease observed in CP and CMC values of micellar solutions at all absorbed doses. There is no spectroscopic evidence of radiation damage to aromatic ring or hydrocarbon tail of surfactant. Models based on Flory-Huggins theory were employed to estimate CP from changes in mass distribution and to obtain cross-linking fractions. (Author)

  15. Design and operation of the pellet charge exchange diagnostic for measurement of energetic confined alphas and tritons on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Duong, H.H.

    1996-05-01

    Radially-resolved energy and density distributions of the energetic confined alpha particles in D-T experiments on TFTR are being measured by active neutral particle analysis using low-Z impurity pellet injection. When injected into a high temperature plasma, an impurity pellet (e.g. Lithium or Boron) rapidly ablates forming an elongated cloud which is aligned with the magnetic field and moves with the pellet. This ablation cloud provides a dense target with which the alpha particles produced in D-T fusion reactions can charge exchange. A small fraction of the alpha particles incident on the pellet ablation cloud will be converted to helium neutrals whose energy is essentially unchanged by the charge transfer process. By measuring the resultant helium neutrals escaping from the plasma using a mass and energy resolving charge exchange analyzer, this technique offers a direct measurement of the energy distribution of the incident high-energy alpha particles. Other energetic ion species can be detected as well, such as tritons generated in D-D plasmas and H or He 3 RF-driven minority ion tails. The diagnostic technique and its application on TFTR are described in detail

  16. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  17. Ion beam diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strehl, P.

    1994-04-01

    This report is an introduction to ion beam diagnosis. After a short description of the most important ion beam parameters measurements of the beam current by means of Faraday cups, calorimetry, and beam current transformers and measurements of the beam profile by means of viewing screens, profile grids and scanning devices, and residual gas ionization monitors are described. Finally measurements in the transverse and longitudinal phase space are considered. (HSI)

  18. Beam diagnostics for low energy beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Harasimowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Low-energetic ion and antimatter beams are very attractive for a number of fundamental studies. The diagnostics of such beams, however, is a challenge due to low currents down to only a few thousands of particles per second and significant fraction of energy loss in matter at keV beam energies. A modular set of particle detectors has been developed to suit the particular beam diagnostic needs of the ultralow-energy storage ring (USR at the future facility for low-energy antiproton and ion research, accommodating very low beam intensities at energies down to 20 keV. The detectors include beam-profile monitors based on scintillating screens and secondary electron emission, sensitive Faraday cups for absolute intensity measurements, and capacitive pickups for beam position monitoring. In this paper, the design of all detectors is presented in detail and results from beam measurements are shown. The resolution limits of all detectors are described and options for further improvement summarized. Whilst initially developed for the USR, the instrumentation described in this paper is also well suited for use in other low-intensity, low-energy accelerators, storage rings, and beam lines.

  19. Review of data and methods recommended in the international code of practice for dosimetry IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 381, The Use of Plane Parallel Ionization Chambers in High Energy Electron and Photon beams. Final report of the co-ordinated research project on dose determination with plane parallel ionization chambers in therapeutic electron and photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusautoy, A.; Roos, M.; Svensson, H.; Andreo, P.

    2000-01-01

    An IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project was designed to validate the data and procedures included in the International Code of Practice Technical Reports Series (TRS) No. 381, ''The Use of Plane Parallel Ionization Chambers in High Energy Electron and Photon Beams''. This work reviews and analyses the procedures used and the data obtained by the participants of the project. The analysis shows that applying TRS-381 generally produces reliable results. The determination of absorbed dose to water using the electron method in reference conditions is within the stated uncertainties (2.9%). Comparisons have shown TRS-381 is consistent with the AAPM TG-39 protocol within 1% for measurements made in water. Based on the analysis, recommendations are given with respect to: (i) the use of plane parallel ionization chambers of the Markus type, (ii) the values for the fluence correction factor for cylindrical chambers, (iii) the value of the wall correction factor for the Roos chamber in 60 Co beams, and (iv) the use of plastic phantoms and the values of the fluence correction factors. (author)

  20. Revisit of combined parallel-beam/cone-beam or fan-beam/cone-beam imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Gengsheng L

    2013-10-01

    This aim of this paper is to revisit the parallel-beam/cone-beam or fan-beam/cone-beam imaging configuration, and to investigate whether this configuration has any advantages. Twenty years ago, it was suggested to simultaneously use a parallel-beam (or a fan-beam) collimator and a cone-beam collimator to acquire single photon emission computed tomography data. The motivation was that the parallel-beam (or the fan-beam) collimator can provide sufficient sampling, while the cone-beam collimator is able to provide higher photon counts. Even with higher total counts, this hybrid system does not give significant improvement (if any) in terms of image noise and artifacts reduction. If a conventional iterative maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization algorithm is used to reconstruct the image, the resultant reconstruction may be worse than the parallel-beam-only (or fan-beam-only) system. This paper uses the singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis to explain this phenomenon. The SVD results indicate that the parallel-beam-only and the fan-beam-only system outperform the combined systems. The optimal imaging system does not necessary to be the one that generates the projections with highest signal-to-noise ratio and best resolution.

  1. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Test Beam Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanski, R.; Anderson, D.; Childress, S.

    1989-01-01

    This document was developed at the request of the Physics Advisory Committee of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to review the general subject of test beams with the purpose of establishing general policy and guidelines for consideration of future test beam requests. The recommendations stated here should be subject to periodic review, since the Laboratory position must change as needs and available resources change

  2. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Industrial applications of electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The review of industrial applications with use of electron beams has been done. Especially the radiation technologies being developed in Poland have been shown. Industrial installations with electron accelerators as radiation source have been applied for: modification of polymers; modification of thyristors; sterilization of health care materials; radiopreservation of food and other consumer products; purification of combustion flue gases in heat and power plants. 14 refs, 6 tabs, 7 figs

  4. Applications of focused ion beams in microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, C.; Beale, M.I.J.; Deshmukh, V.G.I.

    1986-04-01

    We present the conclusions of the RSRE programme on the application of focused ion beams in microelectronics and review the literature published in this field. We discuss the design and performance of focused beam implanters and the viability of their application to semiconductor device fabrication. Applications in the areas of lithography, direct implantation and micromachining are discussed in detail. Comparisons are made between the use of focused ion beams and existing techniques for these fabrication processes with a strong emphasis placed on the relative throughputs. We present results on a novel spot size measurement technique and the effect of beam heating on resist. We also present the results of studies into implantation passivation of resist to oxygen plasma attack as basis for a dry development lithography scheme. A novel lithography system employing flood electron exposure from a photocathode which is patterned by a focused ion beam which can also be used to repair mask defects is considered. (author)

  5. Beam Dynamics and Beam Losses - Circular Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    A basic introduction to transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics as well as the most relevant beam loss mechanisms in circular machines will be presented in this lecture. This lecture is intended for physicists and engineers with little or no knowledge of this subject.

  6. T10 Beam Studies & Beam Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, Michael Georges; Van Dijk, Maarten; CERN. Geneva. EN Department

    2017-01-01

    In order to test detector components before their installation in actual experiments, one uses test beams in which one can control particle typ, momentum and size to high degree. For this project the focus of a secondary beam at T10 in the East Area at CERN was analysed using an AZALEA telescope from DESY.

  7. Trichobothrial mediation of an aquatic escape response: Directional jumps by the fishing spider, Dolomedes triton, foil frog attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Suter

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Fishing spiders (Pisauridae frequent the surfaces of ponds and streams and thereby expose themselves to predation by a variety of aquatic and semi-aquatic vertebrates. To assess the possibility that the impressive jumps of fishing spiders from the water surface function in evading attacks by frogs, attacks by bullfrogs (Rana catesbiana and green frogs (R. clamitans on Dolomedes triton were studied. Both the attack dynamics of the frogs and the evasive behaviors of the spiders were recorded at 250 frames per second. A freeze-dried bullfrog, propelled toward spiders with acceleration, posture, and position that approximated the natural attack posture and dynamics, was used to assess the spiders' behavior. Qualitatively, the spiders responded to these mock-attacks just as they had to attacks by live frogs: jumping (N=29 jumps, 56.9% of instances, rearing the legs nearest the attacking frog (N=15, 29.4%, or showing no visible response (N=7, 13.7%. Spiders that jumped always did so away (in the vertical plane from the attack (mean =137° vs. vertical at 90° or horizontally toward the frog at 0°. The involvement of the trichobothria (leg hairs sensitive to air movements, and the eyes as sensory mediators of the evasion response was assessed. Spiders with deactivated trichobothria were significantly impaired relative to intact and sham-deactivated spiders, and relative to spiders in total darkness. Thus, functional trichobothria, unlike the eyes, are both necessary and sufficient mediators of the evasion response. Measurements of air flow during frog attacks suggest that an exponential rise in flow velocity is the airborne signature of an attack.

  8. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  9. Successful Beam-Beam Tuneshift Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishofberger, Kip Aaron [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The performance of synchrotron colliders has been limited by the beam-beam limit, a maximum tuneshift that colliding bunches could sustain. Due to bunch-to-bunch tune variation and intra-bunch tune spread, larger tuneshifts produce severe emittance growth. Breaking through this constraint has been viewed as impossible for several decades. This dissertation introduces the physics of ultra-relativistic synchrotrons and low-energy electron beams, with emphasis placed on the limits of the Tevatron and the needs of a tuneshift-compensation device. A detailed analysis of the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL) is given, comparing theoretical models to experimental data whenever possible. Finally, results of Tevatron operations with inclusion of the TEL are presented and analyzed. It is shown that the TEL provides a way to shatter the previously inescapable beam-beam limit.

  10. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  11. Beam scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enge, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    A system for deflecting a beam of particles having different momenta, preferably through a 90 0 angle, so as to cause the beam to impinge upon a moving target and to scan across the target is described. The system includes a means responsive to a beam from a suitable source for causing the beam to periodically scan in a scanning plane and further means for deflecting the periodically scanned beam through the desired angle in a deflection plane so that the deflected beam impinges on the target. Means are included in the system for reducing the momentum dispersion at the target in both the deflection and the scanning planes and for spatially focussing the beam so as to produce a desired beam diameter at the target

  12. Beam diagnostics and control for SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    Construction of the SLAC Linear Collider has posed some new problems in beam diagnostic device design. Typical beam sizes are small when compared with conventional storage rings, orbit tolerances are tighter and the pulsed nature of the machine means that signal to noise enhancement by averaging is not always possible. Thus the diagnostics must have high resolution, high absolute accuracy and must deliver data from a single pulse. In practice the required performance level depends on the function and dynamics of a given region in the collider. This paper reviews the major beam diagnostic systems and then discusses the global data acquisition schemes. Each system is described only in a very cursory fashion

  13. Crossed beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolder, K.T.

    1976-01-01

    Many natural phenomena can only be properly understood if one has a detailed knowledge of interactions involving atoms, molecules, ions, electrons or photons. In the laboratory these processes are often studied by preparing beams of two types of particle and observing the reactions which occur when the beams intersect. Some of the more interesting of these crossed beam experiments and their results are discussed. Proposals to extend colliding beam techniques to high energy particle physics are also outlined. (author)

  14. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  15. Beams 92: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, D.; Cooperstein, G.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Ion beam papers; electron beam, bremsstrahlung, and diagnostics papers; radiating Z- pinch papers; microwave papers; electron laser papers; advanced accelerator papers; beam and pulsed power applications papers; pulsed power papers; and these papers have been indexed separately elsewhere

  16. Plasma focusing and diagnosis of high energy particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pisin.

    1990-09-01

    Various novel concepts of focusing and diagnosis of high energy charged particle beams, based on the interaction between the relativistic particle beam and the plasma, are reviewed. This includes overdense thin plasma lenses, and (underdense) adiabatic plasma lens, and two beam size monitor concepts. In addition, we introduce another mechanism for measuring flat beams based on the impulse received by heavy ions in an underdense plasma. Theoretical investigations show promise of focusing and diagnosing beams down to sizes where conventional methods are not possible to provide. 21 refs

  17. Applications of ion beam analysis workshop. Workshop handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    A workshop on applications of ion beam analysis was held at ANSTO, immediate prior to the IBMM-95 Conference in Canberra. It aims was to review developments and current status on use of ion beams for analysis, emphasizing the following aspects: fundamental ion beam research and secondary effects of ion beams; material sciences, geological, life sciences, environmental and industrial applications; computing codes for use in accelerator research; high energy heavy ion scattering and recoil; recent technological development using ion beams. The handbook contains the workshop`s program, 29 abstracts and a list of participants.

  18. Applications of ion beam analysis workshop. Workshop handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A workshop on applications of ion beam analysis was held at ANSTO, immediate prior to the IBMM-95 Conference in Canberra. It aims was to review developments and current status on use of ion beams for analysis, emphasizing the following aspects: fundamental ion beam research and secondary effects of ion beams; material sciences, geological, life sciences, environmental and industrial applications; computing codes for use in accelerator research; high energy heavy ion scattering and recoil; recent technological development using ion beams. The handbook contains the workshop's program, 29 abstracts and a list of participants

  19. Comparative proteomics of Staphylococcus aureus and the response of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive strains to Triton X-100

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordwell, Stuart J; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Cole, Rebecca T

    2002-01-01

    profiles of S. aureus strains COL (methicillin-resistant) and 8325 (methicillin-sensitive). Reference mapping via this approach identified 377 proteins that corresponded to 266 distinct ORFs. Amongst these identified proteins were 14 potential virulence factors. The production of 41 'hypothetical' proteins....... Comparative maps were used to characterize the S. aureus response to treatment with Triton X-100 (TX-100), a detergent that has been shown to reduce methicillin resistance independently of an interaction with the mecA-encoded penicillin-binding protein 2a. In response to growth of the bacteria in the presence...

  20. 3D cone beam computed tomography reconstruction images in diagnosis of ameloblastomas of lower jaw: A case report and mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dize; Yang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Tao; Guan, Chao; Wang, Feilong; Matz, Ethan L; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ji, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has obvious advantages over regular radiography in diagnosis of complex diseases. Objective of this study is to report a case of a mandibular jaw ameloblastoma recurring cyst, which represents a benign tumor of odontogenic epithelium, using CBCT imaging technology. CBCT examination of the patient suffering with recurrent lower jaw cyst (relapsing four years after surgery) showed a decrease in irregular bone density and appearance of a honeycomb pattern (3.5 cm×2.5 cm×1.8 cm) in the right lower jaw. This suggests that the lesion is more likely to be an ameloblastoma. Preoperative tissue biopsy and pathological examination of surgical sample confirmed the diagnosis. Surgical resection of the diseased tissue and autogenous bone grafting in the mandible was performed. Postoperative CBCT examination showed that the bone defect healed well, without recurrence of the tumor 22 months postoperatively. In conclusion, the rotated 3D CBCT images clearly displays the exact size, location, borders and internal changes of the tumor in the jaw cyst itself and the adjacent tissues. Thus, the dental CBCT allows clinicians to better evaluate lesions, leading to better treatment outcomes.

  1. The Diagnostic Efficacy of Cone-beam Computed Tomography in Endodontics: A Systematic Review and Analysis by a Hierarchical Model of Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Eyal; Taschieri, Silvio; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Beitlitum, Ilan; Tsesis, Igor

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging in endodontics based on a systematic search and analysis of the literature using an efficacy model. A systematic search of the literature was performed to identify studies evaluating the use of CBCT imaging in endodontics. The identified studies were subjected to strict inclusion criteria followed by an analysis using a hierarchical model of efficacy (model) designed for appraisal of the literature on the levels of efficacy of a diagnostic imaging modality. Initially, 485 possible relevant articles were identified. After title and abstract screening and a full-text evaluation, 58 articles (12%) that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed and allocated to levels of efficacy. Most eligible articles (n = 52, 90%) evaluated technical characteristics or the accuracy of CBCT imaging, which was defined in this model as low levels of efficacy. Only 6 articles (10%) proclaimed to evaluate the efficacy of CBCT imaging to support the practitioner's decision making; treatment planning; and, ultimately, the treatment outcome, which was defined as higher levels of efficacy. The expected ultimate benefit of CBCT imaging to the endodontic patient as evaluated by its level of diagnostic efficacy is unclear and is mainly limited to its technical and diagnostic accuracy efficacies. Even for these low levels of efficacy, current knowledge is limited. Therefore, a cautious and rational approach is advised when considering CBCT imaging for endodontic purposes. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Review. J. Astrophys. Astr., Vol. 36, No. 4, December 2015, pp. 433–445. Line Shape Variability in a Sample of AGN with Broad Lines. D. Ilic1,∗, L. ˇC. Popovic1,2 ... ing from. We give here a comparative review of the line shape variability ..... using the mean continuum flux at 5100 Å and the online calculator for luminosity.

  3. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    BOOK REVIEWS (99) Complete A-Z Physics Handbook Science Magic in the Kitchen The Science of Cooking Science Experiments You Can Eat WEB WATCH (101) These journal themes are pasta joke Microwave oven Web links CD REVIEW (104) Electricity and Magnetism, KS3 Big Science Comics

  4. ATP-induced reactivation of ram testicular, cauda epididymal, and ejaculated spermatozoa extracted with Triton X-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, I G; Voglmayr, J K

    1986-02-01

    It was possible to demembrante and reactivate not only freshly collected testicular, cauda epididymal, and ejaculated ram sperm but also sperm that had been stored for several days at 0 degrees C and for several months at -196 degrees C in rete testis fluid or egg yolk citrate media. Sperm were usually washed free of seminal plasma before demembranation, but this was not essential for reactivation. Bovine serum albumin (1.0%) in the wash medium increased the survival of sperm, but more than 0.25% in the extraction medium decreased reactivation. A macro-molecular component of cauda epididymal fluid also inhibited the reactivation of testicular sperm. Triton X-100 concentrations between 0.01% and 1.00% in the extraction medium were satisfactory for demembranating the sperm. Rapid cooling (i.e., cold shock) mimicked the effect of detergent in making the sperm responsive to added ATP and demonstrated that damage to ram sperm in cold shock does not involve the axoneme. Ejaculated and cauda sperm were reactivated immediately on addition of ATP and activity persisted for up to 10 min. Testicular sperm, on the other hand, required about 4 min to become fully reactivated. The optimal ATP concentration for activation of sperm was 0.1-1.0 mM. Magnesium ions (0.1-1.0 mM) were important for reactivation, and testicular sperm required a higher magnesium concentration than did cauda or ejaculated sperm. Manganese ions were almost as effective as magnesium for reactivating cauda epididymal and ejaculated sperm. Cobalt and cadmium ions were much less active for cauda and ejaculated sperm and none of these ions were effective for testicular sperm. Fluoride (25-50 mM) inhibited reactivation. The presence of 50 microM cAMP in the extraction medium or preincubation of testicular sperm with theophylline or caffeine increased low levels of activation, but this was not evident with ejaculated or cauda sperm. We conclude that the motor apparatus is already functionally assembled in

  5. Department of Energy's High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), September 15--19, 1980: An independent on-site safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The intent of this on-site safety review was to make a broad management assessment of HFBR operations, rather than conduct a detailed in-depth audit. The result of the review should only be considered as having identified trends or indications. The Team's observations and recommendations for the most part are based upon licensed reactor facility practices used to meet industry standards. These standards form the basis for many of the comments in this report. The Team believes that a uniform minimum standard of performance should be achieved in the operation of DOE reactors. In order to assure that this is accomplished, clear standards are necessary. Consistent with the past AEC and ERDA policy, the team has used the standards of the commercial nuclear power industry. It is recognized that this approach is conservative in that the HFBR reactor has a significantly greater degree of inherent safety (low pressure, temperature, power, etc.) than a licensed reactor.

  6. Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Revista alicantina de estudios ingleses

    1996-01-01

    Contiene: Jan Pilditch, ed. The Critical Response to Katherine Mansfield. Critical Responses in Arts and Letters. 21. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996 / reviewed by Ana Belén López Pérez; Edith Wharton. Cartas a Morton Fullerton (1907-1931), (Barcelona, Grijalbo Mondadori, 1995). Ed. Marina Premoli. Translation: Esther Gómez / reviewed by Teresa Gómez Reus; Elizabeth Deeds Ermarth. The English Novel in History: 1840-1895. London and New York: Routledge, 1997 / reviewed by Ángel Pé...

  7. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  8. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  9. Cardiac cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzke, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This doctoral thesis addresses imaging of the heart with retrospectively gated helical cone-beam computed tomography (CT). A thorough review of the CT reconstruction literature is presented in combination with a historic overview of cardiac CT imaging and a brief introduction to other cardiac imaging modalities. The thesis includes a comprehensive chapter about the theory of CT reconstruction, familiarizing the reader with the problem of cone-beam reconstruction. The anatomic and dynamic properties of the heart are outlined and techniques to derive the gating information are reviewed. With the extended cardiac reconstruction (ECR) framework, a new approach is presented for the heart-rate-adaptive gated helical cardiac cone-beam CT reconstruction. Reconstruction assessment criteria such as the temporal resolution, the homogeneity in terms of the cardiac phase, and the smoothness at cycle-to-cycle transitions are developed. Several reconstruction optimization approaches are described: An approach for the heart-rate-adaptive optimization of the temporal resolution is presented. Streak artifacts at cycle-to-cycle transitions can be minimized by using an improved cardiac weighting scheme. The optimal quiescent cardiac phase for the reconstruction can be determined automatically with the motion map technique. Results for all optimization procedures applied to ECR are presented and discussed based on patient and phantom data. The ECR algorithm is analyzed for larger detector arrays of future cone-beam systems throughout an extensive simulation study based on a four-dimensional cardiac CT phantom. The results of the scientific work are summarized and an outlook proposing future directions is given. The presented thesis is available for public download at www.cardiac-ct.net

  10. Review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-04-18

    jbiosci. J. Biosci. 42(2), June 2017, 345–353 * Indian Academy of Sciences. 345. DOI: 10.1007/s12038-017-9681-x. Keywords. Angiogenesis; FRG1; FSHD; neuromuscular disorder; RNA biogenesis. Review. Published online: ...

  11. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, George; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews three software packages: 1) a package containing 68 programs covering general topics in chemistry; 2) a package dealing with acid-base titration curves and allows for variables to be changed; 3) a chemistry tutorial and drill package. (MVL)

  12. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Floyd; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews eight textbooks, readers, and books. Topics include Latin America, colonial America, the Carolinians, women in French textbooks, the Vikings, the Soviet Union, nineteenth-century Black America, and Ernest Rutherford. (TRS)

  13. Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , complications are relatively common and this needs to be considered in patient counseling and clinical decision making. Review: Fertility generally returns after renal transplantation. Approximately 74% of pregnancies in kidney transplant ...

  14. Laser beam propagation in atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, S. S. R.

    1979-01-01

    The optical effects of atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of low power laser beams are reviewed in this paper. The optical effects are produced by the temperature fluctuations which result in fluctuations of the refractive index of air. The commonly-used models of index-of-refraction fluctuations are presented. Laser beams experience fluctuations of beam size, beam position, and intensity distribution within the beam due to refractive turbulence. Some of the observed effects are qualitatively explained by treating the turbulent atmosphere as a collection of moving gaseous lenses of various sizes. Analytical results and experimental verifications of the variance, covariance and probability distribution of intensity fluctuations in weak turbulence are presented. For stronger turbulence, a saturation of the optical scintillations is observed. The saturation of scintillations involves a progressive break-up of the beam into multiple patches; the beam loses some of its lateral coherence. Heterodyne systems operating in a turbulent atmosphere experience a loss of heterodyne signal due to the destruction of coherence.

  15. Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Revista alicantina de estudios ingleses

    2000-01-01

    Contiene: Villalba, Estefanía. Claves para interpretar la literatura inglesa. Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1999,211 p. / reviewed by Eva M. Pérez Rodríguez; Dieter Stein & Rosanna Sornicola (ed.) The Virtues of Language. History in Language, Linguistics and Texts. Number 87. Amsterdam: John Benjamin Pub. Co., 1998 / reviewed by José Manuel Belda Medina; Antonia Sánchez-Macarro and R. Carter (eds.) (1998): Linguistic Choice across Genres: Variation in Spoken and Written English. Amsterd...

  16. Intense pulsed ion beams for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.

    1980-04-01

    The subject of this review paper is the field of intense pulsed ion beam generation and the potential application of the beams to fusion research. Considerable progress has been made over the past six years. The ion injectors discussed utilize the introduction of electrons into vacuum acceleration gaps in conjunction with high voltage pulsed power technology to achieve high output current. Power levels from injectors exceeding 1000 MW/cm 2 have been obtained for pulse lengths on the order of 10 -7 sec. The first part of the paper treats the physics and technology of intense ion beams. The second part is devoted to applications of intense ion beams in fusion research. A number of potential uses in magnetic confinement systems have been proposed

  17. Beam induced RF heating

    CERN Document Server

    Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Berrig, O; Bracco, C; Bravin, E; Bregliozzi, G; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Garlasche, M; Gentini, L; Goddard, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Kononenko, O; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Mertens, V; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Muller, J E; Nosych, A A; Nougaret, J L; Persichelli, S; Piguiet, A M; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Salvachua, B; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, R; Shaposhnikova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wenninger, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M

    2012-01-01

    After the 2011 run, actions were put in place during the 2011/2012 winter stop to limit beam induced radio frequency (RF) heating of LHC components. However, some components could not be changed during this short stop and continued to represent a limitation throughout 2012. In addition, the stored beam intensity increased in 2012 and the temperature of certain components became critical. In this contribution, the beam induced heating limitations for 2012 and the expected beam induced heating limitations for the restart after the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) will be compiled. The expected consequences of running with 25 ns or 50 ns bunch spacing will be detailed, as well as the consequences of running with shorter bunch length. Finally, actions on hardware or beam parameters to monitor and mitigate the impact of beam induced heating to LHC operation after LS1 will be discussed.

  18. Craft Stick Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karplus, Alan K.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this exercise is to provide a phenomenological 'hands-on' experience that shows how geometry can affect the load carrying capacity of a material used in construction, how different materials have different failure characteristics, and how construction affects the performance of a composite material. This will be accomplished by building beams of a single material and composite beams of a mixture of materials (popsicle sticks, fiberboard sheets, and tongue depressors); testing these layered beams to determine how and where they fail; and based on the failure analysis, designing a layered beam that will fail in a predicted manner. The students will learn the effects of lamination, adhesion, and geometry in layered beam construction on beam strength and failure location.

  19. Physical properties of charged particle beams for use in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The physical properties of the possible charged particle beams used for cancer radiotherapy are reviewed. Each property is discussed for all interesting particles (π, p, α, Ne ion) and the differences are emphasized. This is followed by a short discussion of the several beam delivery systems used in particle therapy today, emphasizing the differences in the problems for the several different radiations, particularly the differences between the accelerated particle beams and those of a secondary nature. Dose calculation techniques are described

  20. A beam expander facility for studying x-ray optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Frederiksen, P.

    1992-01-01

    The detailed study of the performance of full scale x-ray optics often requires the illumination of large areas. This paper describes a beam expander facility at the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Facility. It combines monochromatization and beam expansion in one dimension. The beam expansion...... x-ray telescope will be studied, is described in detail. Review of Scientific Instruments is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  1. Beam Extraction and Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Kalvas, T.

    2013-12-16

    This chapter gives an introduction to low-energy beam transport systems, and discusses the typically used magnetostatic elements (solenoid, dipoles and quadrupoles) and electrostatic elements (einzel lens, dipoles and quadrupoles). The ion beam emittance, beam space-charge effects and the physics of ion source extraction are introduced. Typical computer codes for analysing and designing ion optical systems are mentioned, and the trajectory tracking method most often used for extraction simulations is described in more detail.

  2. Mechanical beam isolator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.; Vann, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    Back-reflections from a target, lenses, etc. can gain energy passing backwards through a laser just like the main beam gains energy passing forwards. Unless something blocks these back-reflections early in their path, they can seriously damage the laser. A Mechanical Beam Isolator is a device that blocks back-reflections early, relatively inexpensively, and without introducing aberrations to the laser beam

  3. Cyclotron radiation beam control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominke, P.

    1983-01-01

    This patent application describes an apparatus for attenuating a beam of particulate radiation comprising a series of modules, each module being constituted by a sphere having a passage, a cupola covering said sphere and a base supporting said sphere, and means for causing movement of the spheres for aligning said passages with an axis of a beam line and arranging said passages out of alignment so as to attenuate the beam. (author)

  4. Chilled beam application guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, David; Gräslund, Jonas; Hogeling, Jaap; Lund Kristiansen, Erik; Reinikanen, Mika; Svensson, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Chilled beam systems are primarily used for cooling and ventilation in spaces, which appreciate good indoor environmental quality and individual space control. Active chilled beams are connected to the ventilation ductwork, high temperature cold water, and when desired, low temperature hot water system. Primary air supply induces room air to be recirculated through the heat exchanger of the chilled beam. In order to cool or heat the room either cold or warm water is cycled through the heat exchanger.

  5. Who needs hyperon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    Hyperon beams can provide new interesting information about hadron structure and their strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions. The dependence of hadron interactions on strangeness and baryon number is not understood, and data from hyperon beams can provide new clues to paradoxes which arise in the interpretation of data from conventional beams. Examples of interesting data are total and differential cross sections, magnetic moments and values of Gsub(A)/Gsub(V) for weak semileptonic decays. (author)

  6. Instability of compensated beam-beam collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.B.; Autin, B.; Chen, Pisin.

    1989-01-01

    The beam-beam disruption phenomena in linear colliders are increasingly seen as a source of serious problems for these machines. A plasma compensation scheme, in which the motion of the plasma electrons in the presence of the colliding beams provides neutralizing charge and current densities, has been proposed and studied. But natural alternative to this scheme is to consider the overlapping of nearly identical high energy e + and e/sup /minus// bunches, and the collision of two such pairs - in other words, collision of two opposing relativistic positronium plasmas. It should be noticed that while the luminosity for all collisions is increased by a factor of four in this scheme, the event rate for e + e/sup /minus// collisions is only increased by a factor of two. The other factor of two corresponds to the addition of e + e + and e/sup /minus//e/sup /minus// collisions to the interaction point. This beam compensation scheme, which has been examined through computer simulation by Balakin and Solyak in the Soviet Union, promises full neutralization of beam charges and currents. These numerical investigations have shown that plasma instabilities exist in this nominally neutral system. Although the implementation of this idea seems technically daunting, the potential benefits (beamstrahlung and disruption suppression, relaxation of final focus system constraints) are such that we should consider the physics of these collisions further. In the remainder of this paper, we theoretically analyze the issues of stability and bunch parameter tolerances in this scheme. 11 refs

  7. Dual-beam CRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A dual-beam cathode-ray tube having a pair of electron guns and associated deflection means disposed side-by-side on each side of a central axis is described. The electron guns are parallel and the deflection means includes beam centering plates and angled horizontal deflection plates to direct the electron beams toward the central axis, precluding the need for a large-diameter tube neck in which the entire gun structures are angled. Bowing control plates are disposed adjacent to the beam centering plates to minimize trace bowing, and an intergun shield is disposed between the horizontal deflection plates to control and correct display pattern geometry distortion

  8. GANIL beam profile detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribouillard, C.

    1997-01-01

    In the design phase of GANIL which started in 1977, one of the priorities of the project management was equipping the beamlines with a fast and efficient system for visualizing the beam position, thus making possible adjustment of the beam transport lines optics and facilitating beam control. The implantation of some thirty detectors was foreseen in the initial design. The assembly of installed detectors (around 190) proves the advantages of these detectors for displaying all the beams extracted from GANIL: transfer and transport lines, beam extracted from SISSI, very high intensity beam, secondary ion beams from the production target of the LISE and SPEG spectrometers, different SPIRAL project lines. All of these detectors are based on standard characteristics: - standard flange diameter (DN 160) with a standard booster for all the sensors; - identical analog electronics for all the detectors, with networking; - unique display system. The new micro-channel plate non-interceptive detectors (beam profile and ion packet lengths) make possible in-line control of the beam quality and accelerator stability. (author)

  9. ALFA beam halo

    CERN Document Server

    Komarek, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This note serves as a final report about CERN Summer Student Programme 2014 project. The beam halo is an undesired phenomenon for physics analyses on particle accelerators. It surrounds the beam core and constitutes an important part of background for signal measurements on some detectors, eg. in the forward region. In this study, the data from the ALFA detector were used, specifically from the run 191373 ($\\beta^*=90\\unit{m}$) and the run 213268 ($\\beta^*=1\\unit{km}$). Using the ROOT framework, a software for beam halo events selection was created and beam halo properties were examined. In the run 213268, excessive beam halo is suspected to be the reason for multiple beam scrapings that occurred. A kinematic reconstruction of beam halo particles is attempted in order to understand beam halo properties in the interaction point. Some further simulations are employed to find constraints for beam halo particles in order to survive in the accelerator for a longer time/many revolutions. This work represents a st...

  10. Simulation of Beam-Beam Background at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, Andre

    2010-01-01

    The dense beams used at CLIC to achieve a high luminosity will cause a large amount of background particles through beam-beam interactions. Generator level studies with GuineaPig and full detector simulation studies with an ILD based CLIC detector have been performed to evaluate the amount of beam-beam background hitting the vertex detector.

  11. Simulation of Beam-Beam Background at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, A

    2010-01-01

    The dense beams used at CLIC to achieve a high luminosity will cause a large amount of background particles through beam-beam interactions. Generator level studies with GUINEAPIG and full detector simulation studies with an ILD based CLIC detector have been performed to evaluate the amount of beam-beam back- ground hitting the vertex detector.

  12. Rf beam control for the AGS Booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, J.M.

    1994-09-26

    RF beam control systems for hadron synchrotrons have evolved over the past three decades into an essentially standard design. The key difference between hadron and lepton machines is the absence of radiation damping and existence of significant frequency variation in the case of hadrons. Although the motion of the hadron in the potential well of the rf wave is inherently stable it is not strongly damped. Damping must be provided by electronic feedback through the accelerating system. This feedback is typically called the phase loop. The technology of the rf beam control system for the AGS Booster synchrotron is described. First, the overall philosophy of the design is explained in terms of a conventional servo system that regulates the beam horizontal position in the vacuum chamber. The concept of beam transfer functions is fundamental to the mathematics of the design process and is reviewed. The beam transfer functions required for this design are derived from first principles. An overview of the beam signal pick-ups and high level rf equipment is given. The major subsystems, the frequency program, the heterodyne system, and beam feedback loops, are described in detail. Beyond accelerating the beam, the rf system must also synchronize the bunches in the Booster to the buckets in the AGS before transfer. The technical challenge in this process is heightened by the need to accomplish synchronization while the frequency is still changing. Details of the synchronization system are given. This report is intended to serve two purposes. One is to document the hardware and performance of the systems that have been built. The other is to serve as a tutorial vehicle from which the non-expert can not only learn the details of this system but also learn the principles of beam control that have led to the particular design choices made.

  13. Rf beam control for the AGS Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    RF beam control systems for hadron synchrotrons have evolved over the past three decades into an essentially standard design. The key difference between hadron and lepton machines is the absence of radiation damping and existence of significant frequency variation in the case of hadrons. Although the motion of the hadron in the potential well of the rf wave is inherently stable it is not strongly damped. Damping must be provided by electronic feedback through the accelerating system. This feedback is typically called the phase loop. The technology of the rf beam control system for the AGS Booster synchrotron is described. First, the overall philosophy of the design is explained in terms of a conventional servo system that regulates the beam horizontal position in the vacuum chamber. The concept of beam transfer functions is fundamental to the mathematics of the design process and is reviewed. The beam transfer functions required for this design are derived from first principles. An overview of the beam signal pick-ups and high level rf equipment is given. The major subsystems, the frequency program, the heterodyne system, and beam feedback loops, are described in detail. Beyond accelerating the beam, the rf system must also synchronize the bunches in the Booster to the buckets in the AGS before transfer. The technical challenge in this process is heightened by the need to accomplish synchronization while the frequency is still changing. Details of the synchronization system are given. This report is intended to serve two purposes. One is to document the hardware and performance of the systems that have been built. The other is to serve as a tutorial vehicle from which the non-expert can not only learn the details of this system but also learn the principles of beam control that have led to the particular design choices made

  14. Beam transport through electrostatic accelerators and matching into post accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Ion beam transport through electrostatic acceleration is briefly reviewed. Topics discussed include injection, matching into the low-energy acceleration stage, matching from the terminal stripper into the high-energy stage, transport to a post accelerator, space charge, bunching isochronism, dispersion and charge selection. Beam transport plans for the proposed Vivitron accelerator are described. (orig.)

  15. Beam finding algorithms at the interaction point of B factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozanecki, W.

    1992-10-01

    We review existing methods to bring beams in collision in circular machines, and examine collision alignment strategies proposed for e + e - B-factories. The two-ring feature of such machines, while imposing more stringent demands on beam control, also opens up new diagnostic possibilities

  16. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    1998-01-01

    The two published parts of the Desmid Flora of Austria are well-illustrated review volumes on a group of precious freshwater microalgae. Volume 1 contains a pretty, visual key to the genera, completed by figures of one or more characteristic species. In all keys of the separate genera many visual

  17. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, C.

    1996-01-01

    The first volume of this series was published in 1991, and reviewed in Blumea 38, p. 216. The treatments of volumes 2 and 3 are each based on a doctor’s thesis by the first author, elaborated under supervision of Dr. Panigrahi. Volume 2 contains regional revisions of six genera: Prunus, Prinsepia,

  18. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments...

  19. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1995-01-01

    This is the second volume of a revision of Tabernaemontana (Apocynaceae). The volume covers the New World species (44) and the genus Stemmadenia (10 species). This part of the revision of Tabernaemontana comes up to the high standards set in the first volume [see the review by Leenhouts, Blumea 38

  20. Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-19

    Dave Richards and Brian Finch. March 19, 2016, Penguin Random House South Africa, ISBN 978-1775842514, pp. 64, full colour. Price US$10.00/GB£6.70. In this review, I shall attempt to convince readers that ... head and slams her book down as the memory arrives. “Oh no. That bird still sends shivers through me!

  1. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, C.; Adema, F.

    1998-01-01

    This book intends (according to the preface) to afford at once a review, a general outline of what has been accomplished, and a set of signposts for the future. It attempts to do so in three sections on Origin and Diversification of Primitive Land Plants (4 papers), Origin and Diversification of

  2. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1994-01-01

    This review marks the appearance of Volume II, after the publication of Volume I, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, in 1990; several more volumes are expected in the future before completion of the Vascular plants as a whole. The present volume contains 73 families out of some 250-500 families which

  3. Electron beam diagnostics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garganne, P.

    1989-08-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study on beam diagnostics, using carbon wire scanners and optical transition radiation (DTR) monitors. The main consideration consists in the material selection, taking their thermal properties and their effect on the beam into account [fr

  4. Atomic Ferris wheel beams

    OpenAIRE

    Lembessis, Vasileios E.

    2017-01-01

    We study the generation of atom vortex beams in the case where an atomic wave-packet, moving in free space, is diffracted from a properly tailored light mask with a spiral transverse profile. We show how such a diffraction scheme could lead to the production of an atomic Ferris wheel beam.

  5. Atomic Ferris wheel beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembessis, Vasileios E.

    2017-07-01

    We study the generation of atom vortex beams in the case where a Bose-Einstein condensate, released from a trap and moving in free space, is diffracted from a properly tailored light mask with a spiral transverse profile. We show how such a diffraction scheme could lead to the production of an atomic Ferris wheel beam.

  6. Ionization beam scanner

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Inner structure of an ionization beam scanner, a rather intricate piece of apparatus which permits one to measure the density distribution of the proton beam passing through it. On the outside of the tank wall there is the coil for the longitudinal magnetic field, on the inside, one can see the arrangement of electrodes creating a highly homogeneous transverse electric field.

  7. Experimental study of the molecular beam destruction by beam-beam and beam-background scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossel, U.; Dettleff, G.

    1974-01-01

    The extraction of flow properties related to the molecular motion normal to stream lines of an expanding gas jet from observed intensity profiles of supersonic beams is critically assessed. The perturbation of the profile curves by various effects is studied for a helium beam. Exponential laws appear to describe scattering effects to a satisfactory degree

  8. Electron beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudjak, Yu.V.; Vladyko, V.B.

    1993-01-01

    The electron beam transport in ion channel has been investigated. The influence of the external longitudinal magnetic field and self beam magnetic field on the charge neutralization process was defined. Beam head erosion under channel is curved or the availability of transverse external magnetic field was numerically simulated. The numerical investigation of the ion-hose instability was performed. The conditions, when as a result of ion-hose instability development may be coming out of the channel by beam tail, were founded. It was shown, that supplementary creation of plasma by electron beam and ions did not lead to the reduction of ion-hose instability. Sufficient slowing down of ion-hose instability development could be achieved if betatron length increased to impulse tail. In the case of a weak initial nonsymmetrical perturbation, sausage instability was investigated. Numerical simulation showed that this instability could lead to beam radius increasing in order. The electron beam guiding by low conductive plasma channel was considered. The attractive force of beam to this channel under nonsymmetrical injection was defined analytically

  9. Durnin-Whitney beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesús Cabrera-Rosas, Omar; Espíndola-Ramos, Ernesto; Alejandro Juárez-Reyes, Salvador; Julián-Macías, Israel; Ortega-Vidals, Paula; Rickenstorff-Parrao, Carolina; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Sosa-Sánchez, Citlalli Teresa

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present work is to define a Durnin-Whitney beam as a nondiffracting beam such that its associated caustic locally only has singularities of the fold and cusp types. Since the caustic is structurally stable then the intensity pattern of this beam is also stable and this property is what makes its definition and its theoretical and experimental study worthwhile. These properties are important in applications such as uniform optical drilling in waveguides and communications through weak turbulent atmosphere. We find that in accordance with Whitney's theorem on the stability of maps from a two-dimensional manifold to a two-dimensional manifold the phase g({{Φ }}), of the complex function A({{Φ }}) characterizing the beam, locally is given by g({{Φ }})=a{{Φ }} for a fold and g({{Φ }})=b{{{Φ }}}2 for a cusp. This result implies that the Bessel beam of order zero is not stable and that any other Bessel beam is stable because locally it has a caustic of fold type. Finally, we present an example of a Durnin-Whitney beam given by g({{Φ }})=m{{Φ }}+b{{{Φ }}}2, which is a natural generalization of the Bessel beam of order m with a singularity of cusp ridge type.

  10. Dosimetry of pion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicello, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Negative pion beams are probably the most esoteric and most complicated type of radiation which has been suggested for use in clinical radiotherapy. Because of the limited availability of pion beams in the past, even to nuclear physicists, there exist relatively fewer basic data for this modality. Pion dosimetry is discussed

  11. Beaming teaching application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Madsen, Esben; Olesen, Søren Krarup

    2012-01-01

    BEAMING is a telepresence research project aiming at providing a multimodal interaction between two or more participants located at distant locations. One of the BEAMING applications allows a distant teacher to give a xylophone playing lecture to the students. Therefore, rendering of the xylophon...

  12. Experiments with neutron-rich isomeric beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykaczewski, K.; Lewitowicz, M.; Pfuetzner, M.

    1998-01-01

    A review of experimental results obtained on microsecond-isomeric states in neutron-rich nuclei produced in fragmentation reactions and studied with SISSI-Alpha-LISE3 spectrometer system at GANIL Caen is given. The perspectives of experiments based on secondary reactions with isomeric beams are presented

  13. Recent advances in exotic nuclear beams

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, A C

    2000-01-01

    Not intended to be a review of the field, the present paper is the written version of a talk given at the APAC 1999 conference. It only aims at an outline of the important effort nowadays made for experiments with exotic beams. A comparatively long list of references is given where more complete information can be found. (49 refs).

  14. Scattering of ion beams from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiland, W.; Taglauer, E.

    1978-01-01

    A review is presented of the scattering of ion beams from surfaces and the physical phenomena which are probably most important for the formation of the final state (charge and excitation) of the secondary particles. The subject is treated under the headings: ion scattering, desorption by ion impact, and neutralization. (U.K.)

  15. Polarisation measurements on e sup+- beams

    CERN Document Server

    Long, K

    2002-01-01

    The current status of e sup+--beam polarimetry at the HERA ep collider is reviewed, giving the performance achieved to date and the status of the various upgrade projects together with a summary of the expected performance. In addition, the polarimeter that has been proposed for the TESLA e sup + e sup - collider is described.

  16. Beam director design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younger, F.C.

    1986-08-01

    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 30 0 beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project

  17. Vortices in Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available , t0)} = P(du, dv) {FR{g(u, v, t0)}} Replacement: u→ du = t− t0 i2 ∂ ∂u′ v → dv = t− t0 i2 ∂ ∂v′ CSIR National Laser Centre – p.13/30 Differentiation i.s.o integration Evaluate the integral over the Gaussian beam (once and for all). Then, instead... . Gaussian beams with vortex dipoles CSIR National Laser Centre – p.2/30 Gaussian beam notation Gaussian beam in normalised coordinates: g(u, v, t) = exp ( −u 2 + v2 1− it ) u = xω0 v = yω0 t = zρ ρ = piω20 λ ω0 — 1/e2 beam waist radius; ρ— Rayleigh range ω ω...

  18. Bunched beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    There is a remarkable diversity in the field of accelerator physics. Look at the proceedings of any conference. Papers range from Hamiltonian dynamics to the latest improvements of performance in accelerator X to the engineering of specialized equipment. Beam diagnostics is somewhere in the middle of this. Diagnostic instruments make the connection between theories and observations, and the capabilities of these instruments influence strongly our ability to improve performance. The gave a series of lectures in 1987 on the general topic of Principles of Beam Observation. The emphasis was on frequency domain analysis of beam generated signals in storage rings, and that is the subject of this paper. The goal is to connect spectrum analyzer observations to what the beam is doing. In addition, understanding beam spectra is essential for understanding coherent effects and instabilities in storage rings, and this is discussed extensively. 23 figures, 4 tables

  19. Atom beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, J.

    1984-01-01

    Ion beam V etching may give rise to undesirable effects such as uneven erosion and ion migration in dielectrics, even when the surface is neutralized by electron flooding. The effects appear due to a remaining charge imbalance on a microscopic scale, which is absent when bombarding with an uncharged beam. Saddle field sources provide a convenient means of producing energetic neutral beams of inert and reactive gases (which may be dissociated into radicals). The construction and characteristics of the sources are described and a mechanism of internal neutralization proposed. Evidence is given that uncharged beams introduce less damage than equivalent ion beams. Disruptive effects may be initiated by charge accumulation or possibly by neutralization processes which occur when ions closely approach the target surface. (author)

  20. Ion beam monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    An ion beam analyzer is specified, having an ion source for generating ions of a sample to be analyzed, means for extracting the sample ions, means for focusing the sample ions into a beam, separation means positioned along the ion beam for selectively deflecting species of ions, and means for detecting the selected species of ions. According to the specification, the analyzer further comprises (a) means for disabling at least a portion of the separation means, such that the ion beam from the source remains undeflected; (b) means located along the path of the undeflected ion beam for sensing the sample ions; and (c) enabling means responsive to the sensing means for automatically re-enabling the separation means when the sample ions reach a predetermined intensity level. (author)

  1. Beam director design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, F.C.

    1986-08-01

    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 30/sup 0/ beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project. (LEW)

  2. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Interdisciplinary Dentofacial Therapy: An American Academy of Periodontology Best Evidence Review Focusing on Risk Assessment of the Dentoalveolar Bone Changes Influenced by Tooth Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelaris, George A; Neiva, Rodrigo; Chambrone, Leandro

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate whether cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging can be used to assess dentoalveolar anatomy critical to the periodontist when determining risk assessment for patients undergoing orthodontic therapy using fixed or removable appliances. Both observational and interventional trials reporting on the use of CBCT imaging assessing the impact of orthodontic/dentofacial orthopedic treatment on periodontal tissues (i.e., alveolar bone) were included. Changes in the alveolar bone thickness and height around natural teeth as well as treatment costs were evaluated. MEDLINE (via PubMed) and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published in the English language, up to and including July 2016, and extracted data were organized into evidence tables. Thirteen studies were included in this systematic review describing the positive or deleterious changes on the alveolar bone surrounding natural teeth undergoing orthodontic tooth movement or influenced by orthopedic forces through fixed appliances. Clinical recommendation summaries presenting the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence in terms of benefits and harms were generated. CBCT imaging can improve the periodontal diagnostic acumen regarding alveolar bone alterations influenced by orthodontic tooth movement and can help determine risk assessment prior to such intervention. Clinicians are also better informed to determine risk assessment and develop preventative or plan interceptive periodontal augmentation (soft tissue and/or bone augmentation) therapies for patients undergoing orthodontic tooth movement. These considerations are recognized as being especially critical for treatment approaches in patients where buccal tooth movement (expansion) is planned in the anterior mandible or involving the maxillary premolars.

  3. Survey of beam-beam limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.; Cornacchia, M.; Donald, M.M.R.; Evans, L.R.; Tazzari, S.; Wilson, E.J.N.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of beam-beam interaction is known to limit the luminosity of electron-positron storage rings and will, no doubt, limit the proton-antiproton collision scheme for the SPS. While theorists are struggling to explain this phenomenon it is more instructive to list their failures than their rather limited successes, in the hope that experiments may emerge which will direct their endeavors. The search for a description of a nonlinear system as it approaches the limit in which ordered motion breaks down, is the nub of the problem. It has engaged many fine mathematical intellects for decades and will no doubt continue to do so long after ISABELLE, the p antip and LEP are past achievements. Empirical scaling laws are emerging which relate electron machines to each other but their extrapolation to proton machines remain a very speculative exercise. Experimental data on proton limits is confined to one machine, the ISR, which does not normally suffer the beam-beam effect and where it must be artificially induced or simulated. This machine is also very different in important ways from the p antip collider. The gloomy picture which has emerged recently is that the fixed limits which were conventionally assumed for proton and electron machines can only be said to be valid for the machines which engendered them - the best guess that could be made at the time. They are very difficult to extrapolate to other sets of parameters

  4. Beam-width spreading of vortex beams in free space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Li, Jinhong; Duan, Meiling

    2018-01-01

    Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the definition of second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function, the analytical expression for the beam-width spreading of Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) vortex beams in free space are derived, and used to study the influence of beam parameters on the beam-width spreading of GSM vortex beams. With the increment of the propagation distance, the beam-width spreading of GSM vortex beams will increase; the bigger the topological charge, spatial correlation length, wavelength and waist width are, the smaller the beam-width spreading is.

  5. Use of energetic ion beams in materials synthesis and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, B.R.

    1992-01-01

    A brief review of the use energetic ion beams and related techniques for the synthesis, processing, and characterization of materials is presented. Selected opportunity areas are emphasized with examples, and references are provided for more extensive coverage. (author)

  6. Status of positron beams for dark photons experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High energy positron beams are an important tool for fixed-target experiments searching for new particles produced in the annihilation on atomic electrons of a target. The status of existing or planned infrastructures is reviewed.

  7. Intense ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhorn, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    Intense beams of light of heavy ions are being studied as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) drivers for high yield and energy. Heavy and light ions have common interests in beam transport, targets, and alternative accelerators. Self-pinched transport is being jointly studied. This article reviews the development of intense ion beams for ICF. Light-ion drivers are highlighted because they are compact, modular, efficient and low cost. Issues facing light ions are: (1) decreasing beam divergence; (2) increasing beam brightness; and (3) demonstrating self-pinched transport. Applied-B ion diodes are favored because of efficiency, beam brightness, perceived scalability, achievable focal intensity, and multistage capability. A light-ion concept addressing these issues uses: (1) an injector divergence of ≤ 24 mrad at 9 MeV; (2) two-stage acceleration to reduce divergence to ≤ 12 mrad at 35 MeV; and (3) self-pinched transport accepting divergences up to 12 mrad. Substantial progress in ion-driven target physics and repetitive ion diode technology is also presented. Z-pinch drivers are being pursued as the shortest pulsed power path to target physics experiments and high-yield fusion. However, light ions remain the pulsed power ICF driver of choice for high-yield fusion energy applications that require driver standoff and repetitive operation. 100 refs

  8. Electron Beam Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriott, Lloyd R.

    1997-04-01

    Electron beams have played a significant role in semiconductor technology for more than twenty years. Early electron beam machines used a raster scanned beam spot to write patterns in electron-sensitive polymer resist materials. The main application of electron beam lithography has been in mask making. Despite the inherently high spatial resolution and wide process margins of electron beam lithography, the writing rate for semiconductor wafers has been too slow to be economically viable on a large scale. In the late 1970's, variable shape electron beam writing was developed, projecting a rectangular beam whose size can be varied for each "shot" exposure of a particular pattern, allowing some integrated circuits to be made economically where a variety of "customized" patterns are desired. In the cell or block projection electron beam exposure technique, a unit cell of a repetitive pattern is projected repeatedly to increase the level of parallelism. This can work well for highly repetitive patterns such as memory chips but is not well suited to complex varying patterns such as microprocessors. The rapid progress in the performance of integrated circuits has been largely driven by progress in optical lithography, through improvements in lens design and fabrication as well as the use of shorter wavelengths for the exposure radiation. Due to limitations from the opacity of lens and mask materials, it is unlikely that conventional optical printing methods can be used at wavelengths below 193 nm or feature sizes much below 180 nm. One candidate technology for a post-optical era is the Scattering with Angular Limitation Projection Electron-beam Lithography (SCALPEL) approach, which combines the high resolution and wide process latitude inherent in electron beam lithography with the throughput of a parallel projection system. A mask consisting of a low atomic number membrane and a high atomic number pattern layer is uniformly illuminated with high energy (100 ke

  9. High bandwidth beam current monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltrusaitis, R.M.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Cooper, R.G.; Peterson, E.; Warn, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    A stripline directional coupler beam current monitor capable of measuring the time structure of a 30-ps electron beam bunch has been developed. The time response performance of the monitor compares very well with Cherenkov light produced in quartz by the electron beam. The four-pickup monitor is now used on a routine basis for measuring the beam duration, tuning for optimized beam bunching, and centering the bunch in the beam pipe

  10. The rise of colliding beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1992-06-01

    It is a particular pleasure for me to have this opportunity to review for you the rise of colliding beams as the standard technology for high-energy-physics accelerators. My own career in science has been intimately tied up in the transition from the old fixed-target technique to colliding-beam work. I have led a kind of double life both as a machine builder and as an experimenter, taking part in building and using the first of the colliding-beam machines, the Princeton-Stanford Electron-Electron Collider, and building the most recent advance in the technology, the Stanford Linear Collider. The beginning was in 1958, and in the 34 years since there has been a succession of both electron and proton colliders that have increased the available center-of-mass energy for hard collisions by more than a factor of 1000. For the historians here, I regret to say that very little of this story can be found in the conventional literature. Standard operating procedure for the accelerator physics community has been publication in conference proceedings, which can be obtained with some difficulty, but even more of the critical papers are in internal laboratory reports that were circulated informally and that may not even have been preserved. In this presentation I shall review what happened based on my personal experiences and what literature is available. I can speak from considerable experience on the electron colliders, for that is the topic in which I was most intimately involved. On proton colliders my perspective is more than of an observer than of a participant, but I have dug into the literature and have been close to many of the participants

  11. Beam-beam limit in e+e- circular colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmi, K.; Tawada, M.; Kamada, S.; Oide, K.; Cai, Y.; Qiang, J.

    2004-01-01

    Beam-beam effects limit the luminosity of circular colliders. Once the bunch population exceeds a threshold, the luminosity increases at a slower rate. This phenomenon is called the beam-beam limit. Onset of the beam-beam limit has been analyzed with various simulation methods based on the weak-strong and strong-strong models. We have observed that an incoherent phenomenon is mainly concerned in the beam-beam limit. The simulation have shown that equilibrium distributions of the two colliding beams are distorted from Gaussians when the luminosity is limited. The beam-beam limit is estimated to be ξ∼0.1 for a B factory with damping time of several thousand turns

  12. 3D Terahertz Beam Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D beam...... profiles. For the two-color air-plasma, we measure a conical beam profile that is focused to a bell-shape at the beam waist, whereas we observe a Gaussian beam profile for the THz beam generated from the LiNbO3 crystal....

  13. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Copper, Nickel, and Zinc Using 1-(2-Thiazolylazo)-2-Naphthol in the Presence of Triton X-100 Using Chemometric Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Kah Hin; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Abas, Mhd. Radzi; Misran, Misni; Mohd, Mustafa Ali

    2009-01-01

    Multivariate models were developed for the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of copper (II), nickel (II) and zinc (II) in water with 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol as chromogenic reagent in the presence of Triton X-100. To overcome the drawback of spectral interferences, principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square (PLS) multivariate calibration approaches were applied. Performances were validated with several test sets, and their results were then compared. In general, no significant difference in analytical performance between PLS and PCR models. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) using three components for Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ were 0.018, 0.010, 0.011 ppm, respectively. Figures of merit such as sensitivity, analytical sensitivity, limit of detection (LOD) were also estimated. High reliability was achieved when the proposed procedure was applied to simultaneous determination of Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ in synthetic mixture and tap water

  14. Cloud point extraction and speciation of iron(3) of 10-7-10-6 M level using 8-quinolinol derivatives and triton X-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, K.; Ougiyanagi, J.; Choi, S.Y.; Ito, H.; Imura, H.

    2001-01-01

    The cloud point extraction behaviour, specification, and determination of traces of iron(III) with 8-quinolinol derivatives (HA), such as 8-quinolinol (HQ), 2-methyl-8-quinolinol (HMQ), and 2-methyl-5-octyl-oxy-methyl-8-quinolinol (HMO 8 Q) were investigated. Above pH 4.0, more than 95% of iron(III) was extracted with 5.00 x 10 -2 M HQ, HMQ, and HMO 8 Q in 4 (v/v)% Triton X-100. The proposed method was applied to the determination of iron(III) in the Riverine Water Reference (JAC 0031 and JAC 0032) by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The results agreed well with the certified values within 2% of the RSD. (authors)

  15. Separation of Cr(III) from Cr(VI) by Triton X-100 Cerium (Iv) Phosphate as a Surface Active Ion Exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Azony, K.M.; Ismail Aydia, M.; El-Mohty, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new and simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet (UV) detection has been developed for the determination of both Cr (III) and Cr (VI) ions. Chromium species were determined by HPLC using a stationary phase consisting of a reversed phase column (Nucleosil phenyl column; 250 mm x 4.6 mm,5 μm), and a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of methanol: water(70 : 30 v/v), in which the complexing agent di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEHPA) was dissolved. The UV detection was carried out at wavelength 650 nm. Separation of Cr (III) from Cr (VI) on Triton X-100 cerium(IV) phosphate(TX-100 CeP) as a surface active ion exchanger was investigated. TX-100 CeP has been synthesized, characterized using IR, X-Ray, TGA/DTA and elemental analysis. The ion exchange capacity and chemical stability in different HCl concentration have been studied

  16. Conductometric study of sodium dodecyl sulfate - nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85 mixed micelles in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirin Dejan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the determination of the critical micelle concentration (cmc of mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate with one of five nonionic surfactants (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85 from conductance measurements. Based on the calculated values of the β parameters we have noticed that SDS-nonionic surfactants mostly showed strong synergistic effect. It was found that nonionic surfactants with mainly longer and more hydrophobic tail show stronger interactions with hydrophobic part of SDS, thus expressing stronger synergism. In SDS-Tween 80 binary system the strongest synergistic effect was noticed. SDS-Tween 85 micellar system showed antagonistic effect, most probably because the presence of the double bond in its three hydrophobic tails (three C18 tails makes it sterically rigid.

  17. Obtaining Soluble Folded Proteins from Inclusion Bodies Using Sarkosyl, Triton X-100, and CHAPS: Application to LB and M9 Minimal Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massiah, Michael A; Wright, Katharine M; Du, Haijuan

    2016-04-01

    This unit describes a straightforward and efficient method of using sarkosyl to solubilize and recover difficult recombinant proteins, such as GST- and His6 -tagged fusion proteins, that are overexpressed in E. coli. This protocol is especially useful for rescuing recombinant proteins overexpressed in M9 minimal medium. Sarkosyl added to lysis buffers helps with both protein solubility and cell lysis. Higher percentage sarkosyl (up to 10%) can extract >95% of soluble protein from inclusion bodies. In the case of sarkosyl-solubilized GST-fusion proteins, batch-mode affinity purification requires addition of a specific ratio of Triton X-100 and CHAPS, while sarkosyl-solubilized His6 -tagged fusion proteins can be directly purified on Ni(2+) resin columns. Proteins purified by this method could be widely used in biological assays, structure analysis and mass spectrum assay. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments...... of the secretory pathway and the endosome, while one of them is directly imported from the cytoplasm. The proteases are synthesized as precursors which undergo many post-translational modifications before the final active form is generated. Proteolytic activation by developments in the analysis of the functions...

  19. Luminescent beam stop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Diane; Morton, Simon A.

    2017-10-25

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to beam stops. In one aspect, a device comprises a luminescent material, a beam stop plate, and an optical fiber. The luminescent material is a parallelepiped having a first side and a second side that are squares and having a third side that is a rectangle or a square. The first side and the second side are perpendicular to the third side. The beam stop plate is attached to the first side of the luminescent material. The optical fiber has a first end and a second end, with the first end of the optical fiber attached to the third side of the luminescent material.

  20. WORKSHOP: Crystalline beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Following pioneer work by specialists at the Soviet Novosibirsk Laboratory some ten years ago, interest developed in the possibility of 'freezing' ion beams in storage rings by pushing cooling (to smooth out beam behaviour) to its limits, the final goal being to lock the ions into a neat crystal pattern. After advances by groups working on laser cooled ions in traps, and with several cooling rings now in operation, a workshop on crystalline ion beams was organized recently by the GSI (Darmstadt) Laboratory and held at Wertheim in Germany