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Sample records for triticum aestivum-leymus racemosus

  1. Anticandidal Activity of Asparagus racemosus

    OpenAIRE

    Uma, B.; Prabhakar, K.; Rajendran, S.

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro anticandidal activity of Asparagus racemosus roots and tubers extract was investigated against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guillermondii, Candida parapsilosis and Candida stellatoida, which are isolated from vaginal thrush patients. The extract of Asparagus racemosus showed high degree of activity against all the Candida strains. The inhibitory effect of the extract against all the Candida tested was found comparable with that of standard antibio...

  2. Phytochemical Screening and Aphrodisiac Activity of Asparagus racemosus

    OpenAIRE

    Javeed Ahmed Wani; Rajeshwara N. Achur; R. K. Nema

    2011-01-01

    The plant Asparagus racemosus is widely distributed in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions of India. Based on preliminary reports, there is a lot of interest in using the roots of this plant for treating sexual disorders. In this study, the hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the roots of Asparagus racemosus were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening which showed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, glycosides and mucilages. The total extracts were tested for their aphr...

  3. Asparagus racemosus: a review on its phytochemical and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram

    2016-09-01

    Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) is a widely found medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical parts of India. The therapeutic applications of this plant have been reported in Indian and British Pharmacopoeias and in traditional system of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. The crude, semi-purified and purified extracts obtained from different parts of this plant have been useful in therapeutic applications. Numerous bioactive phytochemicals mostly saponins and flavonoids have been isolated and identified from this plant which are responsible alone or in combination for various pharmacological activities. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview of traditional applications, current knowledge on the phytochemistry, pharmacology and overuse of A. racemosus.

  4. Genetic variability in Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) from Madhya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess genetic diversity in Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) an important medicinal plant collected from 7 different locations covering Madhya Pradesh. High level of genetic similarity was observed in the collected accessions. 4 random primers generated a ...

  5. Genetic variability in Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) from Madhya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... ... of Asparagus racemosus against damage induced by gamma radiation in rat liver mitochondria. J. Ethnopharmacol. 71: 425-435. Laia ML, Gomes EA, Esbrisse EJ (2000). Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of genotypic identities in. Eucalyptus clones. Silvae Genetica, Hamburg, 49: ...

  6. Immunotherapeutic modulation of intraperitoneal adhesions by Asparagus racemosus.

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    Rege N

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that macrophages appear to play a pivotal role in the development of intraperitoneal adhesions and that modulation of macrophage activity, therefore, is likely to provide a tool for prevention of adhesions, was tested in the present study. Effect of Asparagus racemosus, an indigenous agent with immunostimulant properties, was evaluated in an animal model of intraperitoneal adhesions induced by caecal rubbing. Animals were sacrificed 15 days following surgery. The peritoneal macrophages were collected to assess their activity. At the same time, peritoneal cavity was examined for the presence of adhesions, which were graded. A significant decrease was observed in the adhesion scores attained by animals receiving Asparagus racemosus. This was associated with significant increase in the activity of macrophages (70.1 +/- 2.52, compared to that in surgical controls (53.77 +/- 10.8. These findings support our hypothesis and provide a novel approach for the prevention and management of post-operative adhesions.

  7. Antibacterial activity of chemical constituents isolated from Asparagus racemosus

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    Muhammad Abdullah Shah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus racemosus is a medical extensively used in traditional medicine for various disorders including its use in infectious. So far work has been done to identify its active constituents responsible for antiseptic folk use of this plant. In the current investigation, we have made an effort to identify its chemical constituents that might be partly responsible for antimicrobial properties. Extraction and isolation of plant extract lead to isolation of two nor-lignans and two steroidal triterpenes (compound 1 to 4. All compound showed considerable antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus while no significant activity was observed against S. typhi. This study highlighted the potential of A. racemosus to be further explored as a source of bioactive natural products.

  8. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari: A review

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    Shashi Alok

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus racemosus (A. racemosus belongs to family Liliaceae and commonly known as Satawar, Satamuli, Satavari found at low altitudes throughout India. The dried roots of the plant are used as drug. The roots are said to be tonic and diuretic and galactgogue, the drug has ulcer healing effect probably via strenthening the mucosal resistance or cytoprotection. It has also been identified as one of the drugs to control the symotoms of AIDS. A. racemosus has also been successfully by some Ayurvedic practitioner for nervous disorder, inflammation and certain infectious disease. However, no scintific proof justify aborementioned uses of root extract of A. racemosus is available so far. Recently few reports are available demonstrating beneficial effects of alcoholic and water extract of the roots of A. racemosus in some clinical conditions and experimentally indused disease e.g. galactogougue affects, antihepatotoxic, immunomodulatory effects, immunoadjuvant effect, antilithiatic effect and teratogenicity of A. racemosus. The present artical includes the detailed exploration of pharmacological properties of the root extract of A. racemosus reported so far.

  9. A study Antiurolithiatic Activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus in animal models

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    Jagannath N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the Antiurolithiatic Activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus in animal models.Materials and Methods: The study includes performing on healthy albino rats of either sex weighing 220 – 270gms and urolithiasis was induced by oral administration of ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride water. The parameters studied are serum analysis for Urea, Creatinine, Calcium and Phosphorus, Body Weight of animals included in the study group and Histopathological Study of kidney for the presences crystals.  Results In our study the Ethanolic extract of Asparagus Racemosus with doses of 800mg/kg and 1600mg/kg per orally to rats showed significant reduction in serum urea, creatinine, calcium and phosphorus levels in urolithiatic rats when compared to the positive control rats (Group II. These results were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05.Conclusion: Ethanol Extract of Asparagus racemosus has a significant antiurolithiatic activity.

  10. Effect of methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. on lipopolysaccharide induced-oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad Parwez; Hussain, Arshad; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Wahab, Shadma; Adak, Manoranjan

    2015-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress and impairment of normal physiological function generally categorized by increased anxiety and reduced mobility. Therefore, the present study was to find out the effect Methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus (MEAR ) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress in rats . LPS-induced oxidative stress in rats was measured by locomotor activity by photoactometer test, anxiety with elevated plus maze test and also studied the oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide and cytokines. The obtained data shows that LPS markedly exhausted (pAsparagus racemosus Willd. is a functionally newer type of cerebroprotective agent.

  11. Chemical analysis reveals the botanical origin of shatavari products and confirms the absence of alkaloid asparagamine A in Asparagus racemosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumeta, Yukie; Maruyama, Takuro; Wakana, Daigo; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Goda, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    Shatavari-a famous Ayurveda materia medica used mainly as a tonic for women-is distributed in health food products all over the world. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India identifies the botanical origin of shatavari as the tuberous root of Asparagus racemosus. We recently investigated by DNA analysis the botanical origin of shatavari products on the Japanese market. The results suggested that their botanical origin was Asparagus; however, species identification was difficult. In this study, we analyzed steroidal saponins, including those specific to this plant, in these products and confirmed their origin as A. racemosus. Next, alkaloid analyses of an authentic A. racemosus plant and these products were performed, because several papers have reported the isolation of a pyrrolo[1,2-a]azepine alkaloid, asparagamine A, from this plant. Our results suggest that neither plant material nor products contained asparagamine A. It has been pointed out that Stemona plants are sometimes mistaken for shatavari, because their tuberous roots have a similar shape to that of A. racemosus, and pyrrolo[1,2-a]azepine alkaloids are thought to be Stemona-specific. These data strongly suggest that A. racemosus does not contain asparagamine A, and that previous isolation of asparagamine A from materials claimed as originating from A. racemosus was likely caused by misidentification of Stemona plants as A. racemosus.

  12. Biotransformation of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol by Mucor racemosus and the anti-cancer activities of some products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangtong; Ge, Hongjuan; Song, Yan; Li, Jianlin; Zhai, Xuguang; Wu, Juanjuan; Ling, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    To produce new derivatives of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol by fungal biotransformation. Biotransformation of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (1) by Mucor racemosus AS 3.205 afforded six products. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. M. racemosus could selectively catalyze dehydrogenation at C-12 and further hydroxylation at C-7, C-11, and C-15, as well as rearrangement of double bond at C-26. Two of these new compounds exhibited potent inhibitory activity against SH-SY5Y and HepG2 cell lines. Biotransformation by M. racemosus AS 3.205 was an effective approach to produce new derivatives of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol.

  13. "Asparagus Racemosus" Enhances Memory and Protects against Amnesia in Rodent Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Rakesh; Sahu, Alakh N.; Muruganandam, A. V.; Singh, Gireesh Kumar; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2010-01-01

    "Asparagus Racemosus" (AR) is an Ayurvedic rasayana possessing multiple neuropharmacological activities. The adpatogenic and antidepressant activity of AR is well documented. The present study was undertaken to assess nootropic and anti-amnesic activities of MAR in rats. The Morris water maze (MWM) and elevated plus maze (EPM) models were employed…

  14. Effect of Asparagus racemosus, Sida cordifolia and Levamisole on immunological parameters in experimentally induced mmunosuppressed broilers.

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    Tekade S. H.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In birds treated with Cyclophosphamide @ 150 mg/kg body weight I/V on 21st day of age produced marked immunosuppression. Administration of A. racemosus, Sida cordifolia in combination with Levamisole was the more effective in producing immunomodulatory effect in immunosuppressed birds. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(2.000: 49-50

  15. Immunoaffinity Knockout of Saponin Glycosides from Asparagus racemosus to Assess Anti-lipid Peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onlom, Churanya; Phrompittayarat, Watoo; Putalun, Waraporn; Waranuch, Neti; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2017-07-01

    Asparagus racemosus Willd (Asparagaceae family), known as Shatavari, is important in Ayurveda and traditional Thai medicines. The saponin glycosides, shatavarin I and IV are major constituents in its roots and may be responsible for their actions including protection against lipid peroxidation and carcinogenesis. To develop an immunoaffinity column for isolating compounds with structures related to shatavarin IV from crude extracts of A. racemosus root. The monoclonal antibody recognising shatavarin IV (mAbShavIV) was coupled to an Affi-Gel Hz gel to isolate compounds with structures related to shatavarin IV from the other components of crude extracts of A. racemosus root. The saponin glycosides in each fraction were analysed by mAbShavIV ELISA and LC-MS/MS. The pooled wash-through fractions contained 3% of loaded mAbShavIV reactive saponin glycosides, while eluted fractions released ~ 90% of shatavarin saponin glycosides in a single step. Using thiobarbiturate (TBARs) to measure lipid-peroxidation, the extract, and the pooled wash-through fractions showed moderate protection against Cu + -induced oxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) (IC 50 11.3 ± 1.4 and 12.6 ± 0.9 μg/mL, respectively). In contrast, the saponin glycosides eluted from the mAbShavIV-column had weaker protectant (IC 50 29.7 ± 1.8 μg/mL) suggesting that A. racemosus shatavarins do not inhibit carcinogenesis through preventing lipid peroxidation. The strategy described here demonstrates its utility for isolating a group of related compounds from the rest of the extract with selectivity and recovery rate. Pharmacological efficacy and synergistic effects of the components obtained can be further investigated. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Radioprotective effects of Asparagus racemosus extracts against free radical damage in rat liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boloor, K.K.; Kamat, J.P.; Devasagayam, T.P.A.; Venkatachalam, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    The possible antioxidant effect of the extracts of Asparagus racemosus against membrane damage induced by free radicals generated during γ-radiation was examined in rat liver/brain mitochondria. These extracts displayed significant antioxidant properties in mitochondria against oxidation of both lipids and proteins as assessed by lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and depletion of thiols. The inhibitory effect of the extracts, rich in polysaccharides like galactose, was more than that of the established antioxidants glutathione and ascorbic acid. (author)

  17. Optimization of Lipase Synthesis by Mucor racemosus - Production in a Triple Impeller Bioreactor

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    Nadia, N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal cultures were screened for their ability to produce extracellular lipase through different incubation periods, in spite of some Aspergillus niger gave highest lipolytic activities, Mucor racemosus was selected in this study due to its non-pathogenicity. Optimum lipase activity was obtained after 3 days incubation period at 35 °C using submerged culture technique. Using a modified complex medium (3% peptone; 0.2% KH2PO4; 0.05% KCl; 0.05% MgSO4.7H2O; 1% glucose; 1% olive oil and 0.01 M barium acetate as additives; pH was adjusted to 7.0 using 0.2 M phosphate buffer stimulated M. racemosus lipase by 114.3%. The production of lipolytic enzyme by M. racemosus was up-scaled to 5 L stirred-tank bioreactor. Under optimized conditions, lipase and specific enzyme activities were improved by 2 folds (1211 U/mL and 28 U/mg protein as compared to shake flask studies.

  18. Molecular analysis of the genus Asparagus based on matK sequences and its application to identify A. racemosus, a medicinally phytoestrogenic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsom, Teerawat; Waranuch, Neti; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Denduangboripant, Jessada; Sukrong, Suchada

    2012-07-01

    The plant Asparagus racemosus is one of the most widely used sources of phytoestrogens because of its high content of the steroidal saponins, shatavarins I-IV, in roots. The dry root of A. racemosus, known as "Rak-Sam-Sip" in Thai, is one of the most popular herbal medicines, used as an anti-inflammatory, an aphrodisiac and a galactagogue. Recently, the interest in plant-derived estrogens has increased tremendously, making A. racemosus particularly important and a possible target for fraudulent labeling. However, the identification of A. racemosus is generally difficult due to its similar morphology to other Asparagus spp. Thus, accurate authentication of A. racemosus is essential. In this study, 1557-bp nucleotide sequences of the maturase K (matK) gene of eight Asparagus taxa were analyzed. A phylogenetic relationship based on the matK gene was also constructed. Ten polymorphic sites of nucleotide substitutions were found within the matK sequences. A. racemosus showed different nucleotide substitutions to the other species. A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the matK gene was developed to discriminate A. racemosus from others. Only the 650-bp PCR product from A. racemosus could be digested with BssKI into two fragments of 397 and 253-bp while the products of other species remained undigested. Ten commercially crude drugs were analyzed and revealed that eight samples were derived from A. racemosus while two samples of that were not. Thus, the PCR-RFLP analysis of matK gene was shown to be an effective method for authentication of the medicinally phytoestrogenic species, A. racemosus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficient anchoring of alien chromosome segments introgressed into bread wheat by new Leymus racemosus genome-based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edet, Offiong Ukpong; Kim, June-Sik; Okamoto, Masanori; Hanada, Kousuke; Takeda, Tomoyuki; Kishii, Masahiro; Gorafi, Yasir Serag Alnor; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

    2018-03-27

    The tertiary gene pool of bread wheat, to which Leymus racemosus belongs, has remained underutilized due to the current limited genomic resources of the species that constitute it. Continuous enrichment of public databases with useful information regarding these species is, therefore, needed to provide insights on their genome structures and aid successful utilization of their genes to develop improved wheat cultivars for effective management of environmental stresses. We generated de novo DNA and mRNA sequence information of L. racemosus and developed 110 polymorphic PCR-based markers from the data, and to complement the PCR markers, DArT-seq genotyping was applied to develop additional 9990 SNP markers. Approximately 52% of all the markers enabled us to clearly genotype 22 wheat-L. racemosus chromosome introgression lines, and L. racemosus chromosome-specific markers were highly efficient in detailed characterization of the translocation and recombination lines analyzed. A further analysis revealed remarkable transferability of the PCR markers to three other important Triticeae perennial species: L. mollis, Psathyrostachys huashanica and Elymus ciliaris, indicating their suitability for characterizing wheat-alien chromosome introgressions carrying chromosomes of these genomes. The efficiency of the markers in characterizing wheat-L. racemosus chromosome introgression lines proves their reliability, and their high transferability further broadens their scope of application. This is the first report on sequencing and development of markers from L. racemosus genome and the application of DArT-seq to develop markers from a perennial wild relative of wheat, marking a paradigm shift from the seeming concentration of the technology on cultivated species. Integration of these markers with appropriate cytogenetic methods would accelerate development and characterization of wheat-alien chromosome introgression lines.

  20. Obtención de pilocarpina a partir de Pilocarpus racemosus Vahl.

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    Armando Payo Hill

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Se inicia el trabajo fitoquímico en Pilocarpus racemosus Vahl. (Rutaceae con la finalidad de conocer el contenido de pilocarpina en esta especie. Se extrajeron 1,4 kg de tallos y 1 kg de hojas por los métodos convencionales, y se cromatografiaron los crudos alcaloidales en columnas, de las cuales se obtuvo 2,3036 y 0,6871 g de pilocarpina pura respectivamente. La identificación del alcaloide se realizó por espectroscopia infrarroja contra patrón y cromatografía de capa fina.

  1. Effect of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy and Asparagus racemosus Willd on learning and memory in young and old mice: a comparative evaluation.

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    Sharma, Komal; Bhatnagar, Maheep; Kulkarni, S K

    2010-05-01

    A dose dependent enhancement of memory was observed with A. racemosus and C. pluricaulis treatment as compared to control group when tested on second day. A. racemosus and C. pluricaulis at the dose of 200 mg/kg, po showed significantly higher percent retentions, than piracetam. Multiple treatment with A. racemosus and C. pluricaulis for three days also demonstrated significant dose dependent increase in percent retentions as compared to control group. The effect was more prominent with C. pluricaulis as compared with piracetam and A. racemosus. A significantly lower percent retention in aged mice was observed as compared to young mice. Aged mice (18-20 months) showed higher transfer latency (TL) values on first and second day (after 24 h) as compared to young mice, indicating impairment in learning and memory. Pretreatment with A. racemosus and C. pluricaulis for 7 days enhanced memory in aged mice, as significant increase in percent retention was observed. Significantly higher retention was observed with C. pluricaulis (200 mg/kg; po) as compared with piracetam (10 mg/kg/; po). Post-trial administration of C. pluricaulis and A. racemosus extract demonstrated significant decrease in latency time during retention trials. Hippocampal regions associated with the learning and memory functions showed dose dependent increase in AChE activity in CA 1 with A. reacemosus and CA3 area with C. pluracaulis treatment. The underlying mechanism of these actions of A. racemosus and C. pluricaulis may be attributed to their antioxidant, neuroprotective and cholinergic properties.

  2. Shatavarins (containing Shatavarin IV) with anticancer activity from the roots of Asparagus racemosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Shankar K.; Prakash, Neswi S.; Sundaram, Ramachandran

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The anticancer activity of shatavarins (containing shatavarin IV) isolated from the roots of Asparagus racemosus (Wild) was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Material and Methods: The shatavarin IV was isolated from ethyl acetate insoluble fraction (AR-2B) of chloroform:methanol (2:1) (AR-2) extract of A. racemosus roots. The cytotoxicity (in vitro) of shatavarin IV and other shatavarins rich fraction was carried out using of MTT assay using MCF-7 (human breast cancer), HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma), and A-498 (human kidney carcinoma) cell lines. The in vivo anticancer activity of shatavarins (containing shatavarin IV) was evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor bearing mice. Results: The isolated shatavarin IV (84.69 %) along with shatavarins rich fraction, coded AR-2B containing 5.05% shatavarin IV showed potent cytotoxicity. Oral administration of AR-2B to tumor bearing mice at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 10 days, showed significant reduction in percent increase in body weight, tumor volume, packed cell volume, viable tumor cell count, and increased non-viable cell count when compared to the untreated mice of the EAC control group. The restoration of hematological parameters towards normalcy was also observed. Conclusion: The result suggests that the shatavarins (containing shatavarin IV) rich fraction (AR-2B) exhibits significant anticancer activity in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. PMID:23248403

  3. Effect of Asparagus racemosus on fracture healing in rabbits: a radiographic and angiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sunil; Singh, H.N.; Gangwar, A.K.; Devi, Kh. Sangeeta; Waghay, J.Y.

    2009-01-01

    New Zealand white rabbits (18) were randomly divided into groups I and II (control) having 9 animals in each group. The fracture of ulna was created in each animal under general anaesthesia using thiopental sodium (2.5%). Radius acted as a natural splint. The animals of group I were fed with powdered Asparagus racemosus along with rabbit feed throughout the study period. However, in group II animals only powdered rabbit feed was given. Healing at the fracture site was assessed by plain radiography and angiography at 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day interval. Radiographical observation revealed a well organized and dense callus at 21st day in animals of group I whereas in animals of group II, callus of slightly less radiographic density was observed at this interval. Angiographic observation revealed hypervascularity at the fracture site at 7th and 14th day interval in group I animals. On day 14, in group II animals major vessels lack continuity along with reduced vascularity around the fracture site. The results of present study suggest that feeding of dry root powder of Asparagus racemosus promotes early fracture healing in rabbits

  4. Effect of oxygen on morphogenesis and polypeptide expression by Mucor racemosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.J.; Borgia, P.T.

    1985-01-01

    The morphology of Mucor racemosus in cultures continuously sparged with nitrogen gas was investigated. When appropriate precautions were taken to prevent oxygen from entering the cultures, the morphology of the cells was uniformly yeastlike irrespective of the N 2 flow rate. When small amounts of oxygen entered the cultures the resulting microaerobic conditions evoked mycelial development. Polypeptides synthesized by aerobic mycelia, microaerobic mycelia, anaerobic yeasts, and yeasts grown in a CO 2 atmosphere were compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that a large number of differences in polypeptide expression exist when microaerobic mycelia or anaerobic yeasts are compared with aerobic mycelia and that these alterations correlate with a change from an oxidative to a fermentative metabolic mode. The authors hypothesize that oxygen regulates the expression of polypeptides involved in both the metabolic mode and in morphogenesis

  5. In vitro anti-Malassezia activity and potential use in anti-dandruff formulation of Asparagus racemosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onlom, C; Khanthawong, S; Waranuch, N; Ingkaninan, K

    2014-02-01

    Malassezia species are frequently associated with dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis. The study was conducted to evaluate anti-fungal activities of the extracts obtained from the roots of Asparagus racemosus Willd against Malassezia furfur and M. globosa. Asparagus racemosus roots were successively extracted with the series of solvents, that is, hexane, ethanol and water, and also a saponin-enriched fraction was prepared. The amounts of saponin (equivalent to shatavarin IV) in the extracts were determined using ELISA. The extracts were tested for anti-fungal activity by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. By disc diffusion, only the ethanolic and saponin-enriched extracts demonstrated anti-fungal activity against M. furfur and M. globosa at the concentration of 1 mg per disc whereas the extracts with other solvents were ineffective. Multiple concentrations using the broth microdilution method against M. furfur and M. globosa yielded minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 25 mg mL(-1) for the ethanolic extract but much higher potency for the saponin-enriched extract: MICs to 0.20 and 0.40 mg mL(-1) for M. furfur and M. globosa, respectively. These extracts showed no antagonist effect with the anti-fungal agents, ketoconazole and zinc pyrithione. These studies revealed the antifungal activity of A. racemosus roots extracts. Because A. racemosus is also anti-inflammatory agent, it has the potential use as an active ingredient in an anti-dandruff formulation. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  6. Ameliorative effect of Asparagus racemosus root extract against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling and associated depression and memory deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Priyanka; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Asparagus racemosus (A. racemosus) roots are extensively used in traditional medicine for the management of epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of A. racemosus root extract (ARE) against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling and associated depression and memory deficit. Kindling was successfully induced by repeated administration of a subconvulsant dose of PTZ (35 mg/kg; i.p.) at an interval of 48 ± 2 h in 43 days (21 injections). Pretreatment with valproate (300 mg/kg; i.p.), a major antiepileptic drug as well as ARE significantly suppressed the progression of kindling. Moreover, ARE also ameliorated the kindling-associated depression and memory deficit as indicated by decreased immobility time and increased step-down latency, respectively, as compared to vehicle control animals. Further, these behavioral observations were complemented with analogous neurochemical changes. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that ARE treatment has an ameliorative effect against PTZ-induced kindling and associated behavioral comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Biopolymer production using fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius and glycerol as substrate

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    Thaíssa Rodrigues Araújo

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated extracellular production of biopolymer using fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius and glycerol as a carbon source. Initially employing conical flasks of 500 mL containing 100 mL of cultive medium with 0.18 ± 0.03 g.L–1 of microorganisms, the results showed that the best conditions of the variables studied were: initial concentration of glycerol 50 g.L–1, fermentation time of 96 h, inoculum cultivation time of 120 h, and aeration in two stages–the first 24 hours without aeration and 72 hours fermentation with aeration of 2 vvm and 2 g.L–1 of yeast extract. The experiments conducted in a Biostat B fermenter with a 2.0 L capacity that contained 1.0 L of medium showed production of 16.35 g.L–1 gum formed and 75% glycerol consumption. These conditions produced a biopolymer with the molecular weight and total sugar content of 4.607×106 g.mol–1 (Da and 89.5%, respectively.

  8. Preservative effect of Asparagus racemosus: A novel additive for bioactive edible films for improved lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Sabahu; Bhat, Z F; Kumar, Sunil; Mudiyanselage, Reshan J

    2018-02-02

    Asparagus racemosus was used as a bioactive ingredient for the development of a novel calcium alginate edible film with preservative potential for improved lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of meat products. Chevon sausages were used as a model system and were aerobically packaged in the edible films incorporated with A. racemosus viz. T 0 (0.0%), T 1 (1.0%) and T 2 (2.0%) and were stored under refrigerated (4 ± 1 °C) conditions. Products packaged in T 1 and T 2 edible films exhibited significantly (P films. Significantly (P films. A. racemosus added antioxidant and antimicrobial properties to the developed films which improved the lipid oxidative stability and storage quality of the model meat product. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of genetic diversity in Triticum spp. and Aegilops spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity among some wild relatives of wheat was estimated using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and morphological markers. Thirty one Triticum and Aegilops genotypes including twenty-four Triticum and Aegilops accessions belonging to five diploid (Triticum baeoticum, Triticum monococcum, ...

  10. De reductiedeeling bij eenige Triticum-soorten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de W.

    1924-01-01

    Reduction division and haploid chromosome number of several species and varieties of Triticum were studied in haematoxylin-stained microtome sections (16- 18 μ) after Bouin Allen fixation. Five stages of nuclear contraction ('ball') could usually be distinguished: preleptotene, prezygotene,

  11. Protective effect of Asparagus racemosus root extract against lethal total - body electron beam radiation induced damage in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharmila, K.P.; Bhandary, B. Satheesh Kumar; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Bhat, Vadish S.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the protective effect of Asparagus Racemosus Root ethanolic extract (ARE) in Swiss albino mice against acute lethal total - body Electron beam irradiation. Swiss Albino mice were used for the assessment of radiation induced sickness and 30 day survival analysis. Survival studies were determined using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The maximum survival was observed in the experimental mice pretreated with 200 mg/kg.b.wt. of ARE which also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics. This dose was considered as an optimal dose for radioprotection. Treatment of mice with ARE before irradiation delayed the onset of mortality as compared with the untreated irradiated controls. Present findings demonstrate the potential of ARE in mitigating radiation-induced mortality, which may be attributed to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant potential

  12. Antigenotoxic potential of Asparagus racemosus root extract against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandary, B. Satheesh Kumar; Sharmila, K.P.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Bhat, Vadish S.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the antigenotoxic potential of Asparagus Racemosus Root ethanolic extract (ARE) against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation in Swiss albino mice. Micronucleus assay was performed in the bone marrow of Swiss albino mice according to the method of Hosseinimehr et al., 2003. The experimental animals were orally administered 200 mg/kg body weight of ARE once daily for 15 consecutive days. At the end of experimental period, the animals were euthanized and the bone marrow was collected from the femur. Control (C), Radiation control (RC) and drug control (DC) group was also maintained. The number of radiation induced Micronucleated Polychromatic Erythrocytes (MnPCE) and Micronucleated Normochromatic Erythrocytes were decreased in the ARE treated mice which was statistically significant (p<0.05) compared to radiation control group. Present findings demonstrate the antigenotoxic potential of ARE against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation which may be attributed to scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals

  13. Biotransformation of 20(R)-panaxatriol by Mucor racemosus and the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of some products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangtong; Li, Jie; Yan, Sensen; Lin, Haijun; Wu, Juanjuan; Zhai, Xuguang; Song, Yan; Li, Jianlin

    2017-08-01

    Biocatalysis of 20(R)-panaxatriol (PT) was performed by the fungus Mucor racemosus. Six metabolites (1-6) including five new compounds were obtained, and their structures were elucidated as 20(R),25-epoxy-12β,24β-dihydroxydammaran-3,6-dione (2), 20(R),25-epoxy-12β,22β-dihydroxydammaran-3,6-dione (3), 20(R),25-epoxy-23β-hydroxydammaran-3,6,12-trione (4), 20(R),25-epoxy-12β,23α- dihydroxydammaran-3,6-dione (5), and 20(R),25-epoxy-12β-hydroxydammaran-3,6,23-trione (6) by spectroscopic analysis. Pharmacological studies revealed that compounds 2, 3 and 5 exhibited significant antihepatic fibrosis activity, while 4 and 6 showed cytotoxicity against HSC-T6 cells.

  14. Adjuvant effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd. derived saponins in antibody production, allergic response and pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Nimisha; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Pandey, Pallavi; Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Banerjee, Suchitra; Darokar, Mahendra Pandurang; Pal, Anirban

    2017-02-01

    The study manifests the immunoadjuvant potential of saponin rich fraction from Asparagus racemosus in terms of cellular and humoral immune response that can be exploited against microbial infections. Asparagus racemosus (AR) has been attributed as an adaptogen and rasayana in traditional medication systems for enhancing the host defence mechanism. Spectrophotometric and HPTLC analysis ensured the presence of saponins. The saponin rich fractions were tested for immunoadjuvant property in ovalbumin immunised mice for the humoral response, quantified in terms of prolonged antibody production upto a duration of 56days. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) were estimated for the cellular immune response in LPS stimulated primary murine macrophages. The safety evaluation in terms of cytotoxicity and allergic response has also been evaluated through in-vitro (MTT) and in-vivo (IgE) respectively. ARS significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines, in LPS stimulated murine macrophages with no intrinsic cytotoxicity. The significant increase in IgG production infers the utility of ARS for prolonged humoral response. Further, the antigen specific response of IL-12 at early stage and IgE titres also suggests the generation of cellular immune response and low allergic reaction respectively, as compared to conventional adjuvants. IL-6 and TNF fluctuations in LPS stimulated and non-stimulated macrophages along with IgG and IL-12 also confirmed the Th1/Th2 modulating effect of ARS. The study indicates potential effect of ARS as an adjuvant for the stimulation of cellular immune response in addition to generating a sustained adaptive response without any adverse effects paving way for further validation with pathogenic organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MSS

    2012-11-13

    Nov 13, 2012 ... The effect of the use of different lime rates on the pH values and subsequently on the quantitative traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum ... biological potential of the wheat variety ('Novosadska rana 5'), if adequately treated with lime along with .... stage with 300 kg/ha NPK fertilizer with microelements ratio of 10-.

  16. Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal properties of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) (Family: Asparagaceae) root extracts against filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus), dengue (Aedes aegypti) and malaria (Anopheles stephensi) vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2014-04-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present investigation was undertaken to study the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extracts of root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed 99-100% hatchability. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of root of Asparagus racemosus against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with the LC50 and LC90 values were 115.13, 97.71 and 90.97 ppm and 210.96, 179.92, and 168.82 ppm, respectively. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in

  17. [Comparative Characteristic of Triticum aestivum/Triticum durum and Triticum aestivum/Triticum dicoccum hybrid lines by genomic composition and resistance to fungal diseases under different environmental conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonova, I N; Badaeva, E D; Orlovskaya, O A; Roder, M S; Khotyleva, L V; Salina, E A; Shumny, V K

    2013-11-01

    The genetic diversity of common wheat hybrid lines Triticum aestivum/Triticum durum and Triticum aestivum/Triticum dicoccum (2n = 42, F(6-7)) using chromosome-specific microsatellite (SSR) markers and C-staining of chromosomes was studied. Cluster analysis of data obtained by 42 SSR markers indicated that the hybrid lines can be broken into three groups according to their origin. There were two cases of complete genetic similarity between lines 183(2)-2/184(1)-6 and-208-3/213-1, which were obtained using common wheat as the parental plants. In cross combinations, when the stabilization of the nuclear genome of hexaploid lines occurred against a background of the cytoplasmic genome of tetraploid wheats, there was a high level of divergence between sister lines, in some cases exceeding 50%. The evaluation of the degree of susceptibility of the lines to powdery mildew, leaf and stem rust, and septoria leafblotch was performed under different environmental conditions. It was shown that resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust significantly depended on the region where assays were conducted. An evaluation of the field data showed that he lines 195-3, 196-1, and 221-1 with T. durum genetic material displayed complex resistance to fungal pathogens in Western Siberia and the Republic of Belarus. For lines 195-3 and 196-1, one shows a possible contribution of chromosomes 4B and 5B in the formation of complex resistance to diseases. Hybrid lines with complex resistance can be used to expand the genetic diversity of modern common wheat cultivars for genes of immunity.

  18. EVALUACIÓN DE UNA COLECCIÓN DEL GÉNERO Triticum: TRIGO HARINERO (Triticum aestivum ssp aestivum), TRIGO DURO (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Y TRITICALE (X Triticum secale Wittmack) EN LAS CONDICIONES DEL OCCIDENTE DE CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    R. Plana; Marta Álvarez; M. Varela

    2006-01-01

    En el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA) se evaluó una colección del género Triticum, con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de diferentes especies en las condiciones del occidente de Cuba. Las especies estudiadas fueron: Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum y X Triticum secale Wittmack. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los caracteres analizados fueron altura de la planta (cm), longitud de las espigas (cm...

  19. EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. AND TRITICUM DURUM L. VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the evaluation of technological and antioxidant characteristics of selected varieties of Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum grown in Slovakia and Serbia. Research was conducted during the two years 2009 and 2010. Measured values of water activity were in the range 0.4 - 0.5. Optimal activity of alpha-amylase was measured in Serbian varieties Etida (210 seconds, Pobeda (218 seconds and Renesansa (272 seconds. The highest sedimentation capacity expressed as sedimentation index by Zeleny had variety Karpatia (60 cm3. The high content of insoluble protein (gluten was measured in a variety Rusija (36.6%. Nitrogen content was in the range 12.7 - 13.9% of dry matter, starch content in the range 56.6 - 61.6% of dry matter. Antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method ranged in wheat varieties from 44 to 49%. The highest content of polyphenols was measured in a variety Etida (0.464 mg of catechin/g of sample. Durum wheat varieties have a higher content of polyphenols in general. The production of semolina flour from durum wheat may have the positive antioxidant effect according to gained measurements.

  20. et de blé dur (Triticum durum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 mai 2017 ... remarquer la courte durée du cycle biologique de l'espèce Triticum aestivum L. par rapport à l'espèce Triticum durum Desf. Ces résultats nous permettent de choisir les variétés selon les conditions agro- écologiques de la région considérée. L'élaboration des fiches descriptives des deux espèces étudiées ...

  1. A haplotype specific to North European wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsombalova, J.; Karafiátová, Miroslava; Vrána, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Peusa, H.; Jakobson, I.; Jarve, M.; Valárik, Miroslav; Doležel, Jaroslav; Jarve, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 4 (2017), s. 653-664 ISSN 0925-9864 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07164S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : bread wheat * genetic diversity * polyploid wheat * introgression lines * molecular analysis * tetraploid wheat * hexaploid wheat * powdery mildew * spelta l. * map * Common wheat * Triticum aestivum L * Spelt * Triticum spelta L * Chromosome 4A * Zeroalleles * Haplotype * Linkage disequilibrium Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.294, year: 2016

  2. Efficacy of various herbicides against weeds in wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weeds are one of the most important factors that impose a great threat to the crop yield. In order to alleviate the weeds infestation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the efficacy of various pre and post-emergence herbicides were tested during Rabi 2009 to 2010 at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, ...

  3. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 91; Issue 1. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum: complementary interaction between vernalization-insensitive and photoperiod-insensitive mutations imparts very early flowering habit to spring wheat. Sushil Kumar Vishakha Sharma Swati Chaudhary ...

  4. Seed-borne mycoflora of local and improved wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three varieties each of local and improved wheat (Triticum sativum) cultivars were investigated for seed-borne pathogenic mycoflora using the plate technique and laid on completely randomized design. A total 99 fungal isolate grouped into five fungal species namely; Rhizopus nigricans, Mucor spp, Penillium jenseni, ...

  5. Effect Of Irrigation Regime On Wheat ( Triticum Aestivum L.) Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect Of Irrigation Regime On Wheat ( Triticum Aestivum L.) Growth And Yield In Semi-Arid Tropics. ... Positive and highly significant correlations between grain yield and attribute such as number of spike/m2, grain weight/spike, plant height and harvest index were found. Des essais en champ ont été conduits dans les ...

  6. Intercropping of wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) and bean ( Vicia faba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and bean (Vicia faba L.) sole crops and their mixture in three planting pattern (M1: alternate-row intercrop, M2: within-row intercrop, M3: mixed intercrop) were used to investigate the amount of resource consumption in terms of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) interception, water and ...

  7. Genotype-dependent responses of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions to investigate the growth and physiological - biochemical responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings to UV-B, drought, and their combined stresses. Both UV-B and drought treatments retarded seedling growth with UV-B having worse impact on wheat plants ...

  8. Assessment of genetic diversity in Triticum spp. and Aegilops spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... polymorphism (AFLP) and morphological markers. Thirty one Triticum and Aegilops genotypes ..... modern breeding would go hand in hand with a large decrease in diversity, which could threaten ... Aegilops tauschii genepool and the evolution of hexaploid wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 97: 657–670. Friebe B ...

  9. Diallel analysis of anther culture response in wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes differing in their ability to produce embryogenic callus from anther culture were reciprocally crossed and inheritance of anther culture response [callus induction frequency (CIF, %), embryogenic callus induction frequency (ECIF, %), regeneration capacity of callus (RCC, %) ...

  10. Influence of sulfur on cadmium (Cd) stress tolerance in Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (TSC) accumulation, and decreased MDA content in wheat plants. The results indicate that application of S mitigated the adverse effects of Cd stress by enhancing TSC, photosynthetic pigments and antioxidant enzymes. Key words: Antioxidant, cadmium stress, carbohydrates, photosynthetic pigments, Triticum aestivum.

  11. Meiotic behaviour of tetraploid wheats (Triticum turgidum L.) and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RESEARCH ARTICLE. Meiotic behaviour of tetraploid wheats (Triticum turgidum L.) .... a Nikon Eclipse E600(Tokyo, Japan) light microscope using. Photo grab 300Z software Fujix TM 300 z sh-3z version 2.1 ..... SAS Institute 2003 SAS/STAT User's Guide, version 9. 1. SAS In- stitute, Cary, USA. Sato S., Peet M. M. and ...

  12. Microgravity effect on endophytic bacteria communities of Triticum aestivum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Youcai; Fu, Yuming; Chen, Huiwen; Liu, Hong; Sun, Yi

    2018-02-01

    Under normal gravity conditions, endophytic bacteria, one of the key bacterial community that inhabit in plant tissues, are well-known in promoting the plant growth and health, which are essential for long-term and long-distance manned microgravity space exploration. Here, we report how the Triticum aestivum endophytic bacterial communities behave differently under the simulated microgravity conditions. We demonstrate that, under simulated microgravity conditions, the microbial diversity in wheat seedling leaf increases while that in root decreases, compared to that cultivated under normal gravity conditions. We found that the dominant bacteria genus such as Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus and Bacillus significantly changes with gravity. The findings of this study provide important insight for space research, especially in terms of the Triticum aestivum cultivation in space.

  13. [Analysis of storage proteins (prolamines, puroindolines and waxy) in common wheat lines Triticum aestivum L. x (Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. x Triticum tauschii) with complex resistance to fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhova, L V; Laĭkova, L I; Shumnyĭ, V K

    2010-06-01

    Storage proteins (prolamines, puroindolines, and Waxy) were studied in common wheat introgression lines obtained with the use of the Saratovskaya 29 (S29) cultivar line and synthetic hexaploid wheat (Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. x T. tauschii) (Sintetik, Sin.) and displaying complex resistance to fungal infections. Comparative analysis of storage proteins in the introgression lines of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. and in the parental forms revealed the only line (BC5) having a substitution at the Gli-B2 locus from Sintetik. Hybrid lines subjected to nine back crosses with the recurrent parental form S29 and selections for resistance to pathogens can be considered as nearly isogenic for the selected trait and retaining the allelic composition of (1) prolamines responsible for the bread-making qualitiy, (2) puroindolines associated with grain texture, and (3) Waxy proteins responsible for nutritive qualities. These lines are valuable as donors of immunity in breeding programs without the loss of the quality of flour and grain as compared to the S29 line and are also important in searching for genes determining resistance to leaf and stem rust and to powdery mildew. The amphiploid has a number of characters (silent Glu-A 1 locus and Ha genotype) that can negatively affect the quality of flour and grain and thus should be taken into account when choosing this donor.

  14. Morphological and molecular characterisation confirm that Triticum monococcum s.s. is resistant to wheat leaf rust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anker, C.C.; Buntjer, J.B.; Niks, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The three diploid wheat species Triticum monococcum, Triticum boeoticum and Triticum urartu differ in their reaction to wheat leaf rust, Puccinia triticina. In general, T. monococcum is resistant while T. boeoticum and T. urartu are susceptible. However, upon screening a large collection of diploid

  15. Molecular cloning of a novel GSK3/shaggy-like gene from Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high homology with shaggy-like kinases from Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Trifolium repens, Nicotine tabacum, Medicago sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana; therefore, the gene was named TmGSK1 (Triticum monococcum Glycogen Synthase Kinase 1,GenBank Accession No.

  16. Genetics and mapping of a new leaf rust resistance gene in Triticum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 96; Issue 2. Genetics and mapping of a new leaf rust resistance gene in Triticum aestivum L. × Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. derivative 'Selection G12'. AMIT KUMAR SINGH JAI BHAGWAN SHARMA VINOD PRADEEP KUMAR SINGH ANUPAM SINGH NIHARIKA MALLICK.

  17. Genetics and mapping of a new leaf rust resistance gene in Triticum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMIT KUMAR SINGH

    RESEARCH ARTICLE. Genetics and mapping of a new leaf rust resistance gene in Triticum aestivum L. × Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. derivative 'Selection G12'. AMIT KUMAR SINGH1,2∗, JAI BHAGWAN SHARMA1, VINOD1, PRADEEP KUMAR SINGH1,. ANUPAM SINGH1 and NIHARIKA MALLICK1. 1Indian Agricultural ...

  18. Economical factors of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. diversity: econometric stimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Hamraz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study tried to calculate attributed-based index and measurement of farmer’s attention to wheat (Triticum aestivum L. seed environmental, cropping and marketing attribute and evaluate social– economical factors influencing on this index. After this estimation, effective factors have selected. Related data to 102 Mashhad wheat producers, Iran were used for estimations Poisson regression. Results showed that in seed characteristics set; marketability and taste were more important factors. Also, results of this study corroborant previews study and only variables age and family number make difference. Also, education, farming and non–farming income, farming experience, farm area and loan receive have positive effect on these characteristics.

  19. PCR-Based EST Mapping in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. PERRY GUSTAFSON

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mapping expressed sequence tags (ESTs to hexaploid wheat is aimed to reveal the structure and function of the hexaploid wheat genome. Sixty eight ESTs representing 26 genes were mapped into all seven homologous chromosome groups of wheat (Triticum aestivum L using a polymerase chain reaction technique. The majority of the ESTs were mapped to homologous chromosome group 2, and the least were mapped to homologous chromosome group 6. Comparative analysis between the EST map from this study and the EST map based on RFLPs showed 14 genes that have been mapped by both approaches were mapped to the same arm of the same homologous chromosome, which indicated that using PCR-based ESTs was a reliable approach in mapping ESTs in hexaploid wheat.

  20. Genetic diversity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degewione, A; Alamerew, S

    2013-11-01

    Wheat is one most important cereal crops grown in Ethiopia. Yet, keeping in view insufficient information on exotic bread wheat genotypes is limiting the access to useful traits present among the genotypes in the Somali region of Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to assess the extent of genetic diversity among bread wheat genotypes. Twenty six bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes obtained from ICARDA-CIMMYT were tested at Gode and Kelafo research sites at three cropping seasons (2009/10, 2010/11 and 2011/12) under irrigation. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications. Ten agronomic traits were included in the study. The mean values, ranges and the coefficient of variation of the 10 characters indicated the existence of sufficient variability among genotypes. Multivariate techniques were used to classify 26 bread wheat genotypes. Principal component analysis showed that the first six principal components explained about 91.87% of the total variation. D2 analysis showed the 26 bread wheat genotypes grouped into six clusters. This made to become moderate diversity among the genotypes. The crosses between genotypes selected from cluster-III with cluster-VI and cluster V with cluster VI are expected to produce better genetic recombination and segregation in their progenies. Therefore, these bread wheat genotypes need to be crossed and selected to develop high yielding pure line variety.

  1. Genetics of mycorrhizal symbiosis in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Heike; Serfling, Albrecht; Enders, Matthias; Friedt, Wolfgang; Ordon, Frank

    2017-07-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a major staple food and therefore of prime importance for feeding the Earth's growing population. Mycorrhiza is known to improve plant growth, but although extensive knowledge concerning the interaction between mycorrhizal fungi and plants is available, genotypic differences concerning the ability of wheat to form mycorrhizal symbiosis and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved in mycorrhization are largely unknown. Therefore, a diverse set of 94 bread wheat genotypes was evaluated with regard to root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In order to identify genomic regions involved in mycorrhization, these genotypes were analyzed using the wheat 90k iSelect chip, resulting in 17 823 polymorphic mapped markers, which were used in a genome-wide association study. Significant genotypic differences (P colonization, representing six QTL regions, were detected on chromosomes 3A, 4A and 7A, and candidate genes located in these QTL regions were proposed. The results reported here provide key insights into the genetics of root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi in wheat. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Effects of Radiofrequency Waves on the Catalase Content in Triticum Aestivum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goiceanu, C.; Artenie, A.; Artenie, V.; Creanga, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible effects on enzyme biosynthesis in Triticum aestivum cariopsydes due to exposure to traveling radiofrequency (RF) waves. Triticum cariopsydes have been exposed to traveling RF waves inside a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell fed by a RF Power Generator. The frequency of the exposure field was 400 MHz. The TEM cell was excited with 2W RF power in order to obtain a power density of about 1 mW/cm2. Four sets of Triticum aestivum samples were placed in four Petri dishes. For each set of Triticum cariopsydes there has been chosen a daily exposure duration of 1, 2, 4 and 8 hours respectively. Experimental exposure was carried out for five consecutive days. After the electromagnetic treatment cariopsydes were let to germinate in Petri dishes on porous filter paper support. A couple of days later the catalase assay was performed. In comparison to the control samples, exposed samples revealed modified catalase content, significantly over the error level (five replays of every sample were assayed in identical experimental conditions in order to provide a reliable statistic result). All exposed samples presented higher catalase levels in comparison to the control samples. However, the experimental data do not suggest an evident analytical dependence between the catalase content and the exposure time duration. We presume that exposure to traveling RF waves seems to be a stimulatory factor of the enzyme biosynthesis being able to improve Triticum capacity of enzyme biosynthesis in the described experimental conditions. (author)

  3. Nutritional characteristics of ancient Tuscan varieties of Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisetta Ghiselli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is an important cereal in human consumption. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in ancient wheat varieties. The latter represent an important source of germplasm, characterised by a broader genetic base and, therefore, a potential source of biodiversity. The objective of the study was to ascertain the optimal balance between the presence of secondary metabolites having beneficial effects on health and technological features that ensure successful baking quality. The experimental trial was performed in 2011-2012 on three organic farms located in three different areas within the province of Siena (Tuscany. In each location, an overall evaluation of the commercial, rheological and functional properties of five ancient Tuscan bread wheat varieties (Andriolo, Frassineto, Gentil rosso, Inallettabile 96, Verna as compared with a commercial modern variety (Palesio was carried out. The ancient varieties were compared both singularly (pure and in combination (mixtures of two varieties in equal proportion, respectively. Biometric and productive parameters were detected for each plot (32 plots in each farm. Macro- and trace elements, polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity (antiradical power, ARP were similarly determined on representative whole grain samples. Rheological analysis was carried out on flour samples. The multivariate statistical analysis using principal components analysis was performed on all variables analysed. The results showed a significant environment effect on the different parameters measured and did not reveal significant improvements in the variables measured when varieties were cultivated in mixtures. However, the study did reveal various interesting trends that are warranting of further investigation. The most interesting effect from a nutritional and functional point of view is the relationship between ARP, rheological properties, protein content and gluten content. These

  4. Heat-shock effects on photosynthesis and sink-source dynamics in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.; Xu, H.Y.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the mechanisms causing genotypic differences in heat tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), physiological responses to a heat shock in a vegetative (`end of tillering¿) or a reproductive (`early grain filling¿) stage were studied. Three cultivars ¿ Lavett, Ciano-79 and Attila ¿

  5. Potassium applied under drought improves physiological and nutrient uptake performances of wheat (Triticum Aestivun L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raza, M.A.S.; Saleem, M.F.; Shah, G.M.; Jamil, M.; Khan, I.H.

    2013-01-01

    The physiological and nutrient uptake performance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Lasani-2008 and Auqab-2000) to foliar application of 1% potassium (K) at three different growth stages (tillering, flower initiation and grain filling) was investigated under water limited environment in

  6. Silicon alleviates Cd stress of wheat seedlings (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio) grown in hydroponics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, M.; Meunier, J. D.; Davidian, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the potential role of silicon in improving tolerance and decreasing cadmium (Cd) toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. durum) either through a reduced Cd uptake or exclusion/sequestration in non-metabolic tissues. For this, plants were grown in hydroponic conditions for 10...

  7. Differentiation among Israeli Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici isolates originating from wild vs. domesticated Triticum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel and its vicinity constitute a center of diversity of domesticated wheat species (Triticum aestivum and T. durum) and their sympatrically growing wild relatives, including wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides). The present study explored differentiation within the forma specialis of their obligat...

  8. Genes for resistance to wheat powdery mildew in derivatives of Triticum Timopheevi and T. Carthlicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Jensen, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    and/or Ml designated genes; a temporary designation, Ml f ,is proposed for this gene. Gene Ml f is closely associated with a gene conditioning resistance to the stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici), probably gene Sr9c. The winter wheat line TP 229 derived from Triticum carthlicum has...

  9. Heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) : Effects on grain growth and quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Xu, H.; Primo Martin, C.; Don, C.; Putten, van der P.E.L.

    2006-01-01

    Heat stress effects on grain dry mass and quality were studied in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Three cultivars were chosen with respect to heat tolerance: Lavett (genotype 1), selected for temperate growing conditions and two CIMMYT cultivars, Ciano-79 (genotype 2) and Attila

  10. Heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Effects on grain growth and quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Xu, H.; Primo-Martin, C.; Don, C.; Putten, P.E.L. van der

    2006-01-01

    Heat stress effects on grain dry mass and quality were studied in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Three cultivars were chosen with respect to heat tolerance: Lavett (genotype 1), selected for temperate growing conditions and two CIMMYT cultivars, Ciano-79 (genotype 2) and Attila

  11. Distribution of cadmium, iron and zinc in millstreams of hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in the Great Plains of the United 14 States, and our previous work demonstrated that wheat genotypes vary for grain cadmium 15 accumulation, with some exceeding the CODEX standard (0.2 mg kg-1). Previous reports of 16 cadmium distribution in ...

  12. Genetics and mapping of a new leaf rust resistance gene in Triticum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMIT KUMAR SINGH

    Abstract. A Triticum timopheevii-derived bread wheat line, Selection G12, was screened with 40 pathotypes of leaf rust pathogen,. Puccinia triticina at seedling stage and with two most commonly prevalent pathotypes 77-5 and 104-2 at adult plant stage. Selection G12 showed resistance at both seedling and adult plant ...

  13. Prehaustorial resistance to the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina, in Triticum monococcum (s.s.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anker, C.C.; Niks, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    Diploid wheat, Triticum monococcum s.l., is a host for the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina. Some accessions have been reported to show a high degree of prehaustorial resistance. This is non-hypersensitivity resistance, which acts before the formation of haustoria by the pathogen. To

  14. CLASSIFICATION OF GENUS Triticum, SENSU LATO AND SENSU STRICTO, BASED ON SPIKE AND GRAIN MORPHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo P. STOYANOV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of the present classifications of species of the genus Triticum associates mainly with several plant morphological factors such as fragility of the spikes spindle, grains threshability, grain sphericity, shape and position of glumes, lemmas and paleas and awns, compactness, etc. Special attention is paid to the factor "cultural/wild" form, the ploidy and the genomic constitution of the species, often supported by molecular data which provides considerable comfort in disclosing phylogenetic features in a particular taxonomic unit. Such taxonomic determination is associated with certain disadvantages. It is not sufficiently focused on the spike morphology related to the reproductive apparatus of the plant, and also the causes of phylogenetic differentiation of certain parameters, such as spike branching, multiple spikelets, as well as the ratios of quantitative properties. The existing classifications do not give a precise answer to the taxonomic position of amphidiploids in the genus Triticum, and also for those obtained from hybrid combinations with genera Aegilops, Secale, Haynaldia, Hordeum, Elymus, Leymus, Elytrigia, Agropyron, as transitional and similar forms. Based on studies of spike and grain morphology of a large number of representatives of the genus Triticum and other interspecific and intergeneric amphidiploid forms, a classification of the genus sensu lato and sensu stricto is composed. Sensu stricto, genus Triticum covers all existing wild and cultivated known wheat forms, together with interspecific artificial synthetic forms. Sensu lato, the genus includes intergeneric hybrids, for which a specific generic epithet was coined - ×Triticum, and also a specific epithet, consistent with the originator of the amphidiploid. Special attention was paid to species and amphidiploids with the genus Aegilops. Classification sensu strictissimo was also formulated where the genus Triticum brings together only diploid species

  15. Molecular Phylogeny of Triticum and Aegilops Genera Based on ITS and MATK Sequence Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizkirici, A.; Kansu, C.; Onde, S.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the phylogenetic relationship between Triticum and Aegilops species, which form a vast gene pool of wheat, is very important for breeding new cultivated wheat varieties. In the present study, phylogenetic relationships between Triticum (12 samples from 4 species) and Aegilops (24 samples from 8 species) were investigated using sequences of the nuclear ITS rDNA gene and partial sequences of the matK gene of chloroplast genome. The phylogenetic relationships among species were reconstructed using Maximum Likelihood method. The constructed tree based on the sequences of the nuclear component (ITS) displayed a close relationship between polyploid wheats and Aegilops speltoides species which provided new evidence for the source of the enigmatic B genome donor as Ae. speltoides. Concurrent clustering of Ae. cylindrica and Ae. tauschii and their close positioning to polyploid wheats pointed the source of the D genome as one of these species. As reported before, diploid Triticum species (i.e. T. urartu) were identified as the A genome donors and the positioning of these diploid wheats on the constructed tree are meaningful. The constructed tree based on the chloroplastic matK sequences displayed same relationship between polyploid wheats and Ae. speltoides species providing evidence for the later species being the chloroplast donors for polyploid wheats. Therefore, our results supported the idea of coinheritance of nuclear and chloroplast genomes where Ae. speltoides was the maternal donor. For both trees the remaining Aegilops species produced a distinct cluster whereas with the exception of T. urartu, diploid Triticum species displayed a monophyletic structure. (author)

  16. Pest development possibility in storage on the kernels and spikes of spelt wheat (Triticum spelta)

    OpenAIRE

    Almaši, Radmila; Poslončec, Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Storing the spelt wheat (Triticum spelta) depends of the type of storage. If we stored spikes, which contains two kernel of spelt tightly wrapped with tailings, development and reproduction of the most important pests is limited or impossible. Great impacts on the stored pests progeny and percentage of damaged kernels have the number of available kernel and the way of storage (kernels-spikes). Grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella Oliv.) developed more numerous progeny when spelt wheat stores in k...

  17. Protective effects of ID331 Triticum monococcum gliadin on in vitro models of the intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacomino, Giuseppe; Di Stasio, Luigia; Fierro, Olga; Picariello, Gianluca; Venezia, Antonella; Gazza, Laura; Ferranti, Pasquale; Mamone, Gianfranco

    2016-12-01

    A growing interest in developing new strategies for preventing coeliac disease has motivated efforts to identify cereals with null or reduced toxicity. In the current study, we investigate the biological effects of ID331 Triticum monococcum gliadin-derived peptides in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Triticum aestivum gliadin derived peptides were employed as a positive control. The effects on epithelial permeability, zonulin release, viability, and cytoskeleton reorganization were investigated. Our findings confirmed that ID331 gliadin did not enhance permeability and did not induce zonulin release, cytotoxicity or cytoskeleton reorganization of Caco-2 cell monolayers. We also demonstrated that ID331 ω-gliadin and its derived peptide ω(105-123) exerted a protective action, mitigating the injury of Triticum aestivum gliadin on cell viability and cytoskeleton reorganization. These results may represent a new opportunity for the future development of innovative strategies to reduce gluten toxicity in the diet of patients with gluten intolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Sodium Cyanide on Wheat (Triticum durum cv. Altar and T. aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Meliha; Karshenass, A.M.; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    The effect of sodium cyanide on the morphology of stem, leaves and grain yields of Triticum durum cv. Altar and Triticum aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet grown under glass was studied. Seeds were planted in six different sets of pots containing ordinary garden soil. After formation of the first leaves...

  19. Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of a new fertility restorer gene Rf8 for Triticum timopheevi cytoplasm in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Pallavi; Tomar, S M S; Vinod; Singh, Vikas K; Balyan, H S

    2013-12-01

    A study on mode of inheritance and mapping of fertility restorer (Rf) gene(s) using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was conducted in a cross of male sterile line 2041A having Triticum timopheevi cytoplasm and a restorer line PWR4099 of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The F1 hybrid was completely fertile indicating that fertility restoration is a dominant trait. Based on the pollen fertility and seed set of bagged spikes in F2 generation, the individual plants were classified into fertile and sterile groups. Out of 120 F2 plants, 97 were fertile and 23 sterile (based on pollen fertility) while 98 plants set ≥ 5 seeds/spike and 22 produced ≤ 4 or no seed. The observed frequency fits well into Mendelian ratio of 3 fertile: 1 sterile with χ(2) value of 2.84 for pollen fertility and 2.17 for seed setting indicating that the fertility restoration is governed by a single dominant gene in PWR4099. The three linked SSR markers, Xwmc503, Xgwm296 and Xwmc112 located on the chromosome 2DS were placed at a distance of 3.3, 5.8 and 6.7 cM, respectively, from the Rf gene. Since, no known Rf gene is located on the chromosome arm 2DS, the Rf gene in PWR4099 is a new gene and proposed as Rf8. The closest SSR marker, Xwmc503, linked to the Rf8 was validated in a set of Rf, maintainer and cytoplasmic male sterile lines. The closely linked SSR marker Xwmc503 may be used in marker-assisted backcross breeding facilitating the transfer of fertility restoration gene Rf8 into elite backgrounds with ease.

  20. Agronomic traits and deoxynivalenol contamination of two tetraploid wheat species (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum grown strictly under low input conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dinelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the agronomic performance of two tetraploid wheat varieties (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Claudio; Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum, Kamut® grown strictly under low input conditions was carried out over three consecutive cropping years. The study reported grain yield values ranging from 1.8 to 2.6 t ha-1. Productivity showed to be primarily affected by environmental conditions, while no differences were observed between the two genotypes. The study of the yield components highlighted that the durum wheat variety had a higher plant density than Kamut®, but this discrepancy was offset by a greater number of kernels per spike and the kernel weight of khorasan wheat. The investigated wheat genotypes were also analysed to assess the mycotoxin (DON levels of wholegrain semolina and the efficiency of cleaning treatments to reduce contamination. Results showed that both wheat varieties had a good hygienic and sanitary quality with a DON content ranging from 0.35 to 1.31 mg kg-1, which was lower than the maximum acceptable level set by the European regulation at 1.75 mg kg-1. In addition, our research work investigated the effects of premilling cleaning procedures, such as water washing and brushing, on mycotoxin levels, which yielded interesting results in terms of decontamination efficiency. These methods were particularly efficient with Kamut® semolina (46-93% DON reduction, suggesting that mycotoxins accumulate in this variety at more superficial levels than in the durum wheat variety. On the whole, our study provided additional knowledge on the traits to be further improved to respond to low input requirements and to enhance the potential adaptability of wheat genotypes to organic agriculture. Our results emphasized the need to develop wheat varieties that can provide adequate performance without high levels of nitrogen inputs by selecting specific traits, such as kernel weight, spike length and kernel/spike. This may help

  1. The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Title: The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Session: Plant response and adaptation to abiotic stress Sindhuja Shanmugam1, Katrine Heinsvig Kjaer2*, Carl-Otto Ottosen2, Eva Rosenqvist3, Dew Kumari Sharma3 and Bernd Wolle...... crop performance under various climatic stresses.......Title: The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Session: Plant response and adaptation to abiotic stress Sindhuja Shanmugam1, Katrine Heinsvig Kjaer2*, Carl-Otto Ottosen2, Eva Rosenqvist3, Dew Kumari Sharma3 and Bernd......Institute for Agroecology, Aarhus University, Forsøgsvej 1, 4200 Slagelse, Denmark *Presenting author This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different...

  2. The effect of foliar fungicides on the mycoflora of seeds of Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Błaszkowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three foliar fungicides. i.e., Bayloton 25 WP, Dithane M-45, and Funaben K. on the mycoflora associated with the seeds of spring Triticum aestivum cv. Kolibri cultivated in the field was investigated. The fungicide which highly reduced the number of both fungal colonies and species was Funaben K. Of the fungi most frequently occurring. Only Funaben K applied on the seeds reduced the proportion of seeds with Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium spp.. and Septoria nodorum. In contrast. seeds from plants traeted with Funaben K harboured significantly more colonies of non-sporulating fungi.

  3. BORON-NITROGEN RELATIONSHIP IN WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) GROWN WITH THE NUTRIENT SOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet ALPASLAN; Süleyman TABAN; Ali İNAL; A. Cihat KÜTÜK; İbrahim ERDAL

    1996-01-01

    The effects of boron applied 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 µg B/ml levels as boric acid (H3 BO3), and nitrogen applied 25, 100, 200, and 400 µg N/ml as ammonium nitrate (NH4 NO3), respectively, on the amount of dry matter yield, and boron, nitrogen and nitrate contents of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in perlite medium with Ruakura nutrient solution under greenhouse conditions were investigated. Dry matter yield and nitrate contents of wheat were decreased and boron content was increased with...

  4. Triticum durum var KEBIR | Boutlelis | Synthèse: Revue des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif de cette recherche est d'étudier l'effet de la salinité du sol par différents niveaux de NaCl (0, 10, 15 g/L) sur certaines propriétés morphologiques et physiologiques du blé dur Triticum durum var KEBIR au stade de la croissance, et la possibilité de le réduire en appliquant une phytohormone la kinétine avec des ...

  5. Identification of differentially expressed proteins between hybrid and parents in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedling leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Ni, Zhongfu; Yao, Yingyin; Zhang, Yinhong; Sun, Qixin

    2009-01-01

    In spite of commercial use of heterosis in agriculture, the molecular basis of heterosis is poorly understood. To gain a better understanding of the molecular basis of wheat heterosis, we carried out a comparative proteomic analysis in seedling leaves between wheat hybrid and parents. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) Line 3338 and spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) Line 2463 were used to produce a heterotic F(1) hybrid. The expression patterns of the total proteins were compared in seedling leaves between hybrid and its parents by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with two pH ranges for the first dimension separation. Among ~900 protein spots reproducibly detected, 49 protein spots were identified as being differentially expressed between hybrid and its parental lines (P wheat hybridization can cause protein expression differences between hybrid and its parents; these proteins were involved in diverse physiological process pathways, which might be responsible for the observed heterosis.

  6. The effect of sewage sludge on heavy metal concentrations in wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Ghasemi, Somayeh; Sodaiezadeh, Hamid; Ayaseh, Kobra; Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, Rasool

    2017-06-01

    The use of sewage sludge in agricultural soils can improve soil physical and chemical properties and soil fertility by increasing organic materials; however, the presence of heavy metals in sewage sludge is a significant problem for the quality of agricultural products and the environment. Most heavy metals, due to their inactive nature, are stable and can affect human health. This study investigates the effect of sewage sludge on the concentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, iron, and manganese in two varieties of wheat, i.e., Sivand (Triticum aestivum cv. Sivand) and Roshan (Triticum aestivum cv. Roshan). Results were obtained from a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications and at three levels (0, 60, and 120 kg soil) and were carried out in a research greenhouse. This research concluded that in the treated seed and stem of Sivand variety, concentrations of Zn, Cd, Fe, and Mn were below the standard toxicity limit, and concentrations of Cu and Pb were above the standard limit. In the Roshan variety, the concentrations of Zn, Cd, Pb, Fe, and Mn were below the standard limit, and Cu concentration was above the standard. The results of this study lead to the recommendation that farmers avoid using sewage sludge in farming, as much as possible. Instead, it is far more appropriately employed as a fertilizer for green space, ornamental trees, and parks, where edible products for human consumption are not grown.

  7. Gene expression, cellular localisation and function of glutamine synthetase isozymes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Stéphanie M.; Møller, Anders Laurell Blom; Dionisio, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    We present the first cloning and study of glutamine synthetase (GS) genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Based on sequence analysis, phylogenetic studies and mapping data, ten GS sequences were classified into four sub-families: GS2 (a, b and c), GS1 (a, b and c), GSr (1 and 2) and GSe (1 and 2...

  8. Mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) landraces in the central highlands of Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldeamlak, A.

    2001-01-01

    A common cropping system in the central highlands of Eritrea is mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum); it is called hanfetz (Tigrigna word). Mixtures may give higher yield, better yield stability, better food quality and more animal feed. Factors affecting

  9. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  10. Soil nutrient patchiness and genotypes interact on the quantity, quality and decomposition of roots versus shoots of Triticum aestivum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, W.M.; Shen, Y.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that soil nutrient patchiness can differentially benefit the decomposition of root and shoot litters and that this facilitation depends on plant genotypes. Methods: We grew 15 cultivars (i. e. genotypes) of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum

  11. Vacuole/extravacuole distribution of soluble protease in Hippeastrum petal and Triticum leaf protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, G.J.; Mulready, P.; Cutt, J.

    1981-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of soluble protease in anthesis-stage, anthocyanin-containing Hippeastrum cv. Dutch Red Hybrid petal protoplasts has been reevaluated and that of Triticum aestivum L. var. Red Coat leaf protoplasts determined using 125 I-fibrin as a protease substrate and improved methods for protoplast and vacuole volume estimation. Results indicate that about 20% of the Hippeastrum petal-soluble protease and about 90% of the wheat leaf-soluble protease can be assigned to the vacuole. Protoplast isolation enzyme labeled with 125 I has been used to assess the efficiency of removing isolation enzyme from protoplasts by repeated washing and by separation of protoplasts from debris using density centrifugation. Results of these studies suggest that protoplasts prepared by both methods retain low levels of isolation enzyme. However, when protoplasts prepared by either method were lysed with washing medium lacking osmoticum, little isolation enzyme contaminated the lysates

  12. Comparison of foliar anatomy of ten bread wheat (triticum, poaceae) and ten barley (hordeum, poaceae) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardic, M.; Sezer, O.; Ozgdsd, K.; Yaylaci, O. K.; Koyuncu, O.; Olgun, M.; Bascdftcd, Z. B.; Ayter, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine anatomical differences and classification of leaf and leaf cell characteristics (cuticle thickness, upper epidermis thickness, lower epidermis thickness, mesophyll thickness, parenchyma thickness and leaf thickness) between 10 bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 10 barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.). Classification of leaf characteristics in bread wheat and barley cultivars and relationship between leaf characteristics are made by principal component and correlation analyses. Highest thickness belongs to W8 Mufitbey cultivar in mesophyll and lower epidermis and W1 Sonmez 01 cultivar have the lowest thickness of upper epidermis in bread wheat. In Barley, B1 Ince cultivar has highest leaf thickness mesophyll and parenchyma; lowest thickness of cuticle is included B7 Cumhuriyet 50 cultivar. All other cultivars have homogenous contents of leaf characteristics. (author)

  13. Amelioration of salt stress in wheat (triticum aestivum l.) by foliar application of nitrogen and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odusote, O.O.; Alausa, S.K.; Gyang, B.N.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in the Department of Biological Sciences, University of Sargodha, Pakistan. Different levels, viz. 0, 250, 500 mg/L, of nitrogen (N) and 0, 200, 400 mg/L of potassium (K) were applied exogenously as a foliar spray to determine whether application of N and K could ameliorate the effect of salinity stress on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It was composed of three replications. Each pot was filled with 8kg of well-mixed soil. Different salinity levels were adjusted in accordance with saturation percentage of soil. Salinity reduced the growth of wheat plants. When K and N were applied as foliar spray on the wheat plant, it reduced the effect of salinity and increased the plant growth and physiological attributes of wheat plants. Similarly, grains yield is also decreased by salinity but foliar application of K and N mitigated the salinity effect on grains yield. (author)

  14. Nutritional and Nutraceutical Properties of Triticum dicoccum Wheat and Its Health Benefits: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanavath, Srinu; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2017-10-01

    Triticum dicoccum wheat is one of the ancient wheat species and is gaining popularity due to its suggested health benefits as well as its suitability for organic farming. In some parts of the world, certain traditional foods prepared with dicoccum wheat are preferred due to their better taste, texture, and flavor. It is rich in bioactive compounds and its starch has been reported to have slow digestibility. However, content and composition of bioactive compounds is reported to vary depending on the geographical location, seasonal variations, varieties used, and the analytical methods followed. Therefore, in the present study, we report the food uses, digestibility of starch, nutritional and nutraceutical compositions of dicoccum wheat grown in different parts of the world, and also its health benefits in ameliorating diabetes and celiac disease. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. BORON-NITROGEN RELATIONSHIP IN WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L. GROWN WITH THE NUTRIENT SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ALPASLAN

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of boron applied 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 µg B/ml levels as boric acid (H3 BO3, and nitrogen applied 25, 100, 200, and 400 µg N/ml as ammonium nitrate (NH4 NO3, respectively, on the amount of dry matter yield, and boron, nitrogen and nitrate contents of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in perlite medium with Ruakura nutrient solution under greenhouse conditions were investigated. Dry matter yield and nitrate contents of wheat were decreased and boron content was increased with increasing boron application. Controversially, application of nitrogen increased dry matter yield, nitrogen and nitrate contents of wheat, while decreases in boron contents. Those effects of boron and nitrogen were found to be statistically significant (P

  16. Improved fluorimetric measurement of uranium uptake and distribution in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borcia, Catalin [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Physics; Popa, Karin; Cecal, Alexandru [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Chemistry; Murariu, Manuela [' ' Petru Poni' ' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi (Romania)

    2016-08-01

    Uranium uptake and (radio)toxicity was tested on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a laboratory study using differently concentrated uranium nitrate solutions. Within these experiments, two analytical assays of uranium were comparatively tested: a fast and improved fluorimetric assay and the classical colorimetric (U(IV)-arsenazo(III) complexation) one. During the germination, the wheat seeds and plantlets supported well the uranium solutions of treatment within the entire concentration range (1 x 10{sup -4} -5 x 10{sup -3} M). Uranium proved to be non (radio)toxic to wheat as compared with other natural and anthropogenic radiocations, probably because its uptake by spring wheat during the germination is low. Indeed, only a small fraction of uranium administered was located within the roots, whereas the uranium content of the stems was negligible. A high correlation between the results obtained by two analytical methods was found. However, the fluorimetric assay proved to be more reliable and fast, and accurate.

  17. Vacuole/extravacuole distribution of soluble protease in Hippeastrum petal and Triticum leaf protoplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.J.; Mulready, P.; Cutt, J.

    1981-11-01

    The subcellular distribution of soluble protease in anthesis-stage, anthocyanin-containing Hippeastrum cv. Dutch Red Hybrid petal protoplasts has been reevaluated and that of Triticum aestivum L. var. Red Coat leaf protoplasts determined using /sup 125/I-fibrin as a protease substrate and improved methods for protoplast and vacuole volume estimation. Results indicate that about 20% of the Hippeastrum petal-soluble protease and about 90% of the wheat leaf-soluble protease can be assigned to the vacuole. Protoplast isolation enzyme labeled with /sup 125/I has been used to assess the efficiency of removing isolation enzyme from protoplasts by repeated washing and by separation of protoplasts from debris using density centrifugation. Results of these studies suggest that protoplasts prepared by both methods retain low levels of isolation enzyme. However, when protoplasts prepared by either method were lysed with washing medium lacking osmoticum, little isolation enzyme contaminated the lysates.

  18. Molecular cytogenetic characterization and stripe rust response of a trigeneric hybrid involving Triticum, Psathyrostachys, and Thinopyrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Houyang; Zeng, Jian; Xie, Quan; Tao, Shan; Zhong, Meiyu; Zhang, Haiqin; Fan, Xing; Sha, Lina; Xu, Lili; Zhou, Yonghong

    2012-05-01

    Trigeneric hybrids offer opportunities to transfer alien traits into cultivated wheat. In this study, a new trigeneric hybrid involving species of Triticum, Psathyrostachys, and Thinopyrum was synthesized by crossing Triticum aestivum L. (wheat)--Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey amphiploid Zhong 3 with wheat--Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng ex Kuo amphiploid PHW-SA. Crossability of the two amphiploids was 19.74%, and the fertility of the hybrid was 16.20%. The mean meiotic configuration of the trigeneric hybrid (2n=56) was 13.06 I+17.24 IIring+3.73 IIrod+0.28 III+0.04 IV. GISH analysis indicated that the trigeneric F1 had seven P. huashanica chromosomes and seven Th. intermedium chromosomes. The mean chromosome numbers of F2, F3, and F4 progenies were 2n=49.24, 2n=48.13, and 2n=46.78, respectively, a gradual decrease. GISH analysis revealed that most F2 and F3 plants had 2–10 Th. intermedium chromosomes and 0–4 P. huashanica chromosomes. In the F4 progenies, 1–7 Th. intermedium chromosomes were labeled, but no P. huashanica chromosomes were detected. It seems that Th. intermedium chromosomes are more likely than P. huashanica chromosomes to be transmitted to the progenies. The stripe rust response of PHW-SA was expressed in the F1 and some F2 and F3 progenies. The trigeneric hybrid could be a useful bridge for transfering P. huashanica and Th. intermedium chromosomes to common wheat.

  19. Comparative study of proline accumulation of Some varieties of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf. under water Stress Conditions.

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    Yasmina Semiani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Proline accumulation, as a marker of resistance to the abiotic constraints, was evaluated on seventeen genotypes of Durum wheat (Triticum Durum Desf under water stress conditions. An experiment was implemented at INRAA research station located at Baraki, Algiers. The experimental design adopted is that of split plot design with water regime (irrigated and non irrigated treatments as main plots and varieties as sub plots and three repetitions. Proline accumulation was significantly increased under water stress (p<0.01. There was differences between varieties and their interaction with water regimes (p<0.001 and 04 groups were identified. When plants are subjected to water stress they increase their rate of proline, this enables to improve the capacity of the cell to maintain it turgor pressure at low water potential.   Key words: Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., Proline accumulation, resistance, water stress.

  20. Biostimulation effects on wheat seeds (Triticum Aestivum L) caused by low level red laser radiation with λ = 660 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, M.; Michtchenko, A.

    2009-01-01

    The principal objective is to study the biostimulation effects caused by a semiconductor low level laser radiation with ? = 660 nm on wheat seeds (Triticum Aestivum L). Seeds were treated before sowing with this laser light source. An increase in the growth of the stem of 12% with respect to control seeds was registered for seeds radiated by an intensity of 15mW/cm 2 and an irradiation time of 60 seconds. (Author)

  1. Signal function of cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine in the reaction of Triticum aestivum L. mesophyll cells to hyperthermia

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    M. M. Musienko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The signaling effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP on leaf mesophyll cells of Triticum aestivum L. under hyperthermic conditions was studied­. It was found that BAP regulated photosynthetic pigment, hydrogen peroxide content and activity of antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase under high-temperature conditions. The additive effect of BAP and high temperature on the activation of cell antioxidant systems was demonstrated. BAP regulated reducing processes in mesophyll leaf cells under high-temperature conditions.

  2. Cytoplasmic effects on DNA methylation between male sterile lines and the maintainer in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Qingsong; Zhang, Gaisheng; Niu, Na; Ma, Shoucai; Wang, Junwei

    2014-10-01

    Male sterile cytoplasm plays an important role in hybrid wheat, and three-line system including male sterile (A line), its maintainer (B line) and restoring (R line) has played a major role in wheat hybrid production. It is well known that DNA methylation plays an important role in gene expression regulation during biological development in wheat. However, no reports are available on DNA methylation affected by different male sterile cytoplasms in hybrid wheat. We employed a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique to characterize nuclear DNA methylation in three male sterile cytoplasms. A and B lines share the same nucleus, but have different cytoplasms which is male sterile for the A and fertile for the B. The results revealed a relationship of DNA methylation at these sites specifically with male sterile cytoplasms, as well as male sterility, since the only difference between the A lines and B line was the cytoplasm. The DNA methylation was markedly affected by male sterile cytoplasms. K-type cytoplasm affected the methylation to a much greater degree than T-type and S-type cytoplasms, as indicated by the ratio of methylated sites, ratio of fully methylated sites, and polymorphism between A lines and B line for these cytoplasms. The genetic distance between the cytoplasm and nucleus for the K-type is much greater than for the T- and S-types because the former is between Aegilops genus and Triticum genus and the latter is within Triticum genus between Triticum spelta and Triticum timopheevii species. Thus, this difference in genetic distance may be responsible for the variation in methylation that we observed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Global transgenerational gene expression dynamics in two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum lines

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    Qi Bao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration in gene expression resulting from allopolyploidization is a prominent feature in plants, but its spectrum and extent are not fully known. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum was formed via allohexaploidization about 10,000 years ago, and became the most important crop plant. To gain further insights into the genome-wide transcriptional dynamics associated with the onset of common wheat formation, we conducted microarray-based genome-wide gene expression analysis on two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat lines with chromosomal stability and a genome constitution analogous to that of the present-day common wheat. Results Multi-color GISH (genomic in situ hybridization was used to identify individual plants from two nascent allohexaploid wheat lines between Triticum turgidum (2n = 4x = 28; genome BBAA and Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14; genome DD, which had a stable chromosomal constitution analogous to that of common wheat (2n = 6x = 42; genome BBAADD. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression was performed for these allohexaploid lines along with their parental plants from T. turgidum and Ae. tauschii, using the Affymetrix Gene Chip Wheat Genome-Array. Comparison with the parental plants coupled with inclusion of empirical mid-parent values (MPVs revealed that whereas the great majority of genes showed the expected parental additivity, two major patterns of alteration in gene expression in the allohexaploid lines were identified: parental dominance expression and non-additive expression. Genes involved in each of the two altered expression patterns could be classified into three distinct groups, stochastic, heritable and persistent, based on their transgenerational heritability and inter-line conservation. Strikingly, whereas both altered patterns of gene expression showed a propensity of inheritance, identity of the involved genes was highly stochastic, consistent with the involvement of diverse Gene Ontology (GO

  4. CuO Nanoparticle Dissolution and Toxicity to Wheat ( Triticum aestivum) in Rhizosphere Soil.

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    Gao, Xiaoyu; Avellan, Astrid; Laughton, Stephanie; Vaidya, Rucha; Rodrigues, Sónia M; Casman, Elizabeth A; Lowry, Gregory V

    2018-03-06

    It has been suggested, but not previously measured, that dissolution kinetics of soluble nanoparticles such as CuO nanoparticles (NPs) in soil affect their phytotoxicity. An added complexity is that such dissolution is also affected by the presence of plant roots. Here, we measured the rate of dissolution of CuO NPs in bulk soil, and in soil in which wheat plants ( Triticum aestivum) were grown under two soil NP dosing conditions: (a) freshly added CuO NPs (500 mg Cu/kg soil) and (b) CuO NPs aged for 28 d before planting. At the end of the plant growth period (14 d), available Cu was measured in three different soil compartments: bulk (not associated with roots), loosely attached to roots, and rhizosphere (soil firmly attached to roots). The labile Cu fraction increased from 17 mg/kg to 223 mg/kg in fresh treatments and from 283 mg/kg to 305 mg/kg in aged treatments over the growth period due to dissolution. Aging CuO NPs increased the toxicity to Triticum aestivum (reduction in root maximal length). The presence of roots in the soil had opposite and somewhat compensatory effects on NP dissolution, as measured in rhizosphere soil. pH increased 0.4 pH units for fresh NP treatments and 0.6 pH units for aged NPs. This lowered CuO NP dissolution in rhizosphere soil. Exudates from T. aestivum roots also increased soluble Cu in pore water. CaCl 2 extractable Cu concentrations increaed in rhizosphere soil compared to bulk soil, from 1.8 mg/kg to 6.2 mg/kg in fresh treatment and from 3.4 mg/kg to 5.4 mg/kg in aged treatments. Our study correlated CuO NP dissolution and the resulting Cu ion exposure profile to phytotoxicity, and showed that plant-induced changes in rhizosphere conditions should be considered when measuring the dissolution of CuO NPs near roots.

  5. Functional food: role of gamma irradiation in the improvement of Triticum dicoccum (schrank)) schulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikas, V.K.; Sivasamy, M.; Kumar, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    Importance of Triticum dicoccum as functional/therapeutic food is on rise because of the low glycemic value, slow digestability, high satiety value coupled with resistant starch, high protein and fibre. These quality attributes are considered vital for the dietary management of diabetes and cardiovascular risks. Most of the dicoccum cultivars in India are either tall local land races/traditional varieties with high quality but low yield or modern semi dwarf cultivars with low quality but high yield. Most of the semi dwarf dicoccum cultivars derived their dwarfing genes from Triticum durum and it has strong linkage drag in altering the quality traits. Further the scope of exploiting genetic diversity/variability in dicoccum wheat, largely created using T. durum is limited. This necessitates the need to search for new sources to create variability among the dicoccum gene pool wherein mutation provides a helping hand. One thousand fresh, dry and healthy matured seeds of tall traditional variety, NP201 were irradiated with 200, 250 and 300 Gy doses of gamma rays using Cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) gamma source (Dose rate : ∼ 50 Gy/min; GC5000 irradiator) at BARC, Mumbai. Semi-dwarf line with high yield and stable in performance (HW 1098) were selected at M5 generation in the treatment dose of 200 Gy. The stable line was evaluated in multi location trials in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka and Tamilnadu through All India Coordinated Wheat and Barley Improvement Project (AICW and BIP) for yield, quality and rust disease reaction for three years (2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12). Radiomutant genotype, HW1098 recorded an overall yield advantage of +14.9% and +8.3% over dicoccum checks, DDK1009 and MACS2971 respectively along with resistance to stem and leaf rusts. HW1098 produced bold grain (46.5 g) with par values for protein content (16.8%) and beta carotene (3.39 ppm) compared to parent variety NP201. HW1098 was released for cultivation for the farmers of dicoccum cultivating areas

  6. Joint stress of chlorimuron-ethyl and cadmium on wheat Triticum aestivum at biochemical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.-E; Zhou, Q.-X.

    2006-01-01

    Biochemical responses to joint stress of chlorimuron-ethyl and cadmium (Cd) in wheat Triticum aestivum were examined. The joint action of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd weakened the inhibition of Cd or chlorimuron-ethyl on the formation of chlorophyll. It was deduced that wheat plants had the capability to protect themselves by increasing the activity of the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase (POD) with the exposure time. The joint effect of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd on the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in leaves was additive, while the joint effect on the SOD activity in roots was determined by the interaction of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd in wheat. It was also concluded that the change of malondialdehyde (MDA) content in wheat might not be a good biomarker in the oxidative damage by chlorimuron-ethyl, while a decrease in the soluble protein content and POD activity in roots could be considered as a biomarker in the damage of wheat by chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd. - Soluble protein content and peroxidase activity in seedlings were the biomarkers indicating joint stress of chemicals

  7. Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Emmer Wheat (Triticum dicoccon Schrank: a Review

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    Veronika ČURNÁ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cereals represent the most important group of crops in the structure of plant production from the economic and agronomic point of view. Cereals are widely consumed and are a valuable sources of delivering components with biological activity to humans. They are one of the most abundant sources of protein and energy and are consumed as bread – a major staple food – in most countries throughout the world. The cultivated hulled wheats emmer, einkorn, and spelt, are among the most ancient Triticeae cultivated in the world and have long represented a staple food. However, the move in recent years toward more natural foods and sustainable agriculture and the rediscovery of ancient foods and flavours have brought renewed interest in these neglected species. Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccon Schrank is rich in resistant starch, minerals, fibre, carotenoids, antioxidant compounds, and poor in fats; it has been recognized as a very healthy cereal and is recommended in the diet for people suffering from allergies, colitis, diabetes and high blood cholesterol. For these reasons, research activities and selection programs are being conducted to assess the genetic, agronomic, nutritional and technological properties of emmer wheat. The main results of studies and the knowledge acquired about the chemical and nutritional composition (protein content, digestible carbohydrates, dietary fibre, lipids, vitamins, and minerals are reviewed in this paper.

  8. The cytogenetics of a Triticum turgidum x Psathyrostachys juncea hybrid and its backcross derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujeeb-Kazi, A; Cortes, A; Riera-Lizarazu, O

    1995-03-01

    Psathyrostachys juncea (2n = 2x = 14, NN), a source of barley yellow dwarf (BYDV) virus resistance with tolerance to drought and salinity, has been successfully hybridized in its autotetraploid form (2n = 4x = 28, NNNN) as the pollen parent to durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.). The 2n = 4x = 28 (ABNN) F1 hybrid has a mean meiotic metaphase-I configuration of 20.29 univalents + 0.29 ring bivalents + 3.36 rod bivalents + 0.14 trivalents. Spike length, internode length, glume awn length and lemma awn length, as well as the general spike morphology of the F1 hybrid, are intermediate with those of the two parents. Pollinating the ABNN F1 hybrid has given backcross (BC)-I derivatives of an amphiploid (AABBNN) that expresses limited self-fertility. BC-2 derivatives have been obtained from these plants. Direct transfers of useful genes from Ps. juncea to wheat would require substantial genetic manipulation strategies. Both conventional and novel methodologies, which may complement each other, and so facilitate reaching an agricultural objective end point, are addressed.

  9. Uptake, localization, and speciation of cobalt in Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) and Lycopersicon esculentum M. (tomato).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Richard N; Bakkaus, Estelle; Carrière, Marie; Khodja, Hicham; Proux, Olivier; Morel, Jean-Louis; Gouget, Barbara

    2010-04-15

    The root-to-shoot transfer, localization, and chemical speciation of Co were investigated in a monocotyledon (Triticum aestivum L., wheat) and a dicotyledon (Lycopersicon esculentum M., tomato) plant species grown in nutrient solution at low (5 muM) and high (20 muM) Co(II) concentrations. Cobalt was measured in the roots and shoots by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements were used to identify the chemical structure of Co within the plants and Co distribution in the leaves was determined by micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission). Although the root-to-shoot transport was higher for tomato plants exposed to excess Co, both plants appeared as excluders. The oxidation state of Co(II) was not transformed by either plant in the roots or shoots and Co appeared to be present as Co(II) in a complex with carboxylate containing organic acids. Cobalt was also essentially located in the vascular system of both plant species indicating that neither responded to Co toxicity via sequestration in epidermal or trichome tissues as has been observed for other metals in metal hyperaccumulating plants.

  10. Environmental and economic aspects of Triticum aestivum L. and Avena sativa growing

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    Jelínková Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the assessment of cultivation of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and oat (Avena sativa grown in Central Europe within the conventional and organic farming systems in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and economic profitability. Organic farming may be one of the tools for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural production. In the context of crop production, cereals rank among the most commonly grown crops and therefore bread wheat and oat were chosen. The Climate change impact category was assessed within the simplified LCA method and the production of greenhouse gas emissions expressed in CO2e per the production unit was calculated. Economic balance of the cultivation of monitored cereals was compiled based on the yields, farm gate prices and costs. On its basis, the cultivation of wheat within the organic farming system appears to be the most profitable. From an environmental point of view, the emission load of the organic farming system is reduced by 8.04 % within the wheat production and by 15.46 % within the oat cultivation. Therefore, the organic farming system in the Czech Republic appears to be more environmentally friendly and economically efficient within the cereals production.

  11. Effects of Short-Term Hypergravity Exposure are Reversible in Triticum aestivum L. Caryopses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Jyotsana P.; Jagtap, Sagar S.; Kamble, Shailendra M.; Vidyasagar, Pandit B.

    2017-10-01

    Short-term hypergravity exposure is shown to retard seed germination, growth and photosynthesis in wheat caryopses. This study investigates the reversibility of effects of short-term hypergravity on imbibed wheat ( Triticum aestivum var L.) caryopses. After hypergravity exposure (500 × g - 2500 × g for 10 min) on a centrifuge, exposed caryopses were kept under normal gravity (1 × g) up to six days and then sown on agar. Results of the present study showed that percentage germination and growth were completely restored for DAY 6 compared to DAY 0. Restoration of germination and growth was accompanied by increased α-amylase activity. The specific activity of antioxidative enzyme viz. catalase and guaiacol peroxidase was lowered on DAY 6 compared to DAY 0 suggesting an alleviation of oxidative cellular damage against hypergravity stress. Chlorophyll pigment recovery along with chlorophyll fluorescence (PI and Fv/Fm) on DAY 6 indicates a transient rather than permanent damage of the photosynthetic apparatus. Thus, our findings demonstrate that short-term hypergravity effects are reversible in wheat caryopses. The metabolic cause of restoration of seed germination and growth upon transferring the caryopses to normal gravity is performed by a reactivation of carbohydrate- metabolizing enzymes, α-amylase and alleviation of oxidative stress damage with subsequent recovery of chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthetic activity.

  12. IMPROVING WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. BY INTERSPECIFIC AND INTERGENERIC HYBRIDIZATION WITH POACEAE FAMILY SPECIES

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    Czaplicki A.Z.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The related species of the family Poaceae (Triticeae are the source of unprecedented new genes that allow the extension of genetic variation of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. These species have similar homoeologous chromosomes and rDNA sequences very similar to T. aestivum L. [1-3]. This allows the introgression of alien genes and their incorporation into the genomes A, B and D of wheat, where they can function permanently in the wheat genetic systems. Many of them have already been transferred to the varieties of T. aestivum L. [4].The experimental material consisted of 28 lines of winter wheat obtained using the interspecific and intergeneric hybridization of T. aestivum L. with alien species T. durum Desf., T. timopheevii Zhuk., Lolium perenne L. and Aegilops speltoides Taush. Among them, 15 lines were developed from the cross-combination with tetraploid species (AABB T. durum Desf., 4 lines from the combination with other tetraploid species of different genome composition (AAGG T. timopheevii Zhuk., 4 lines from cross with L. perenne L. and 5 lines were the double hybrids (three-generic derived with two related species, T. durum Desf. (AABB and Ae. speltoides Taush (BB.The anther culture method was used for obtaining DH lines from these interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. In in vitro culture 124 green plants were regenerated. The method of cluster analysis grouped hybrids in terms of comprehensive general similarity of the studied traits.

  13. Biochemical and Physiological Studies on the Effects of Senescence Leaves of Populus deltoides on Triticum vulgare

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    Tejinder Pal Khaket

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triticum vulgare (Wheat based products are the major dietary source of food in developing countries. In India, it grows in association with boundary plantations of Populus deltoids (poplar. During winter, poplar enters in dormancy which cause a heavy leaf fall at the time of wheat seed germination. Large number of poplar senescence leaves may adversely affect the wheat. Therefore, the present study was performed to examine the effect of senescence poplar leaves on wheat germ and some other biochemical parameters. Seed’s germination rate was determined by measuring root and shoot lengths, percent germination, germination index, and inhibition percentage. Biochemical parameters, namely, pigment, carbohydrate, protein, and phenol content, were estimated. Activities of catalase and polyphenol oxidase which are stress marker enzymes were also measured. Results revealed that germination and other biochemical parameters of wheat were severely affected by senescence poplar leaves even at very low concentration. So, intercropping of poplar along with wheat may be chosen carefully as wheat is the major dietary staple.

  14. A review of the occurrence of Grain softness protein-1 genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Craig F; Geng, Hongwei; Beecher, Brian S; Ma, Dongyun

    2013-12-01

    Grain softness protein-1 (Gsp-1) is a small, 495-bp intronless gene found throughout the Triticeae tribe at the distal end of group 5 chromosomes. With the Puroindolines, it constitutes a key component of the Hardness locus. Gsp-1 likely plays little role in grain hardness, but has direct interest due to its utility in phylogeny and its role in arabinogalactan peptides. Further role(s) remain to be identified. In the polyploid wheats, Triticum aestivum and T. turgidum, the gene is present in a homoeologous series. Since its discovery, there have been conflicting reports and data as to the number of Gsp-1 genes and the level of sequence polymorphism. Little is known about allelic variation within a species. In the simplest model, a single Gsp-1 gene is present in each wheat and Aegilops tauschii genome. The present review critically re-examines the published and some unpublished data (sequence available in the NCBI nucleotide and MIPS Wheat Genome Databases). A number of testable hypotheses are identified, and include the level of polymorphism that may represent (and define) different Gsp-1 alleles, the existence of a fourth Gsp-1 gene, and the apparent, at times, high level of naturally-occurring or artifactual gene chimeras. In summary, the present data provide firm evidence for at most, three Gsp-1 genes in wheat, although there are numerous data that suggest a more complex model.

  15. Metabolite profiling of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) from organic and conventional agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zörb, Christian; Langenkämper, Georg; Betsche, Thomas; Niehaus, Karsten; Barsch, Aiko

    2006-10-18

    In some European community countries up to 8% of the agricultural area is managed organically. The aim was to obtain a metabolite profile for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains grown under comparable organic and conventional conditions. These conditions cannot be found in plant material originating from different farms or from products purchased in supermarkets. Wheat grains from a long-term biodynamic, bioorganic, and conventional farming system from the harvest 2003 from Switzerland were analyzed. The presented data show that using a high throughput GC-MS technique, it was possible to determine relative levels of a set of 52 different metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar phosphates, and nucleotides from wheat grains. Within the metabolites from all field trials, there was at the most a 50% reduction comparing highest and lowest mean values. The statistical analysis of the data shows that the metabolite status of the wheat grain from organic and mineralic farming did not differ in concentrations of 44 metabolites. This result indicates no impact or a small impact of the different farming systems. In consequence, we did not detect extreme differences in metabolite composition and quality of wheat grains.

  16. Anatomical Peculiarities in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) varieties Under Copper Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atabayeva, S.; Nurmahanova, A.; Akhmetova, A.; Narmuratova, M.; Asrandina, S.; Alybayeva, R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations (0.25 mM, 0.5 mM) of Cu/sup 2+/ on anatomical parameters of leaves and roots was investigated in hydroponically grown five wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (Kazakhstanskaya rannaya, Kazakhstanskaya-3, Melturn, Kaiyr and Shagala). The results showed that wheat varieties exposed to 0.5 mM Cu/sup 2+/ exhibited significant alterations in anatomical structure of leaves and roots. The thickness of the upper and lower epidermis, diameter of vascular bundles of leaves of almost all varieties showed a tendency to decrease under copper stress. Our experiments showed an activation of defense responses in the root anatomical structure like exodermis thickening in some varieties in the presence of copper in growth medium as compared to the control. This indicates that copper ions increase the thickness of exodermis, which reduce the absorption of toxic elements by root cells. Copper stress caused a decrease in the thickness of the lower and upper epidermis to varying degrees and reduction in the diameter of vascular bundles of wheat leaves. Copper stress caused a reduction in endodermis thickness thereby decreasing the diameter of the central cylinder of wheat roots. (author)

  17. Evolutionary agroecology: individual fitness and population yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Jacob; Du, Yan-Lei; Zhang, Cong; Qin, Xiao-Liang; Li, Feng-Min

    2017-09-01

    Although the importance of group selection in nature is highly controversial, several researchers have argued that plant breeding for agriculture should be based on group selection, because the goal in agriculture is to optimize population production, not individual fitness. A core hypothesis behind this claim is that crop genotypes with the highest individual fitness in a mixture of genotypes will not produce the highest population yield, because fitness is often increased by "selfish" behaviors, which reduce population performance. We tested this hypothesis by growing 35 cultivars of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in mixtures and monocultures, and analyzing the relationship between population yield in monoculture and individual yield in mixture. The relationship was unimodal, as predicted. The highest-yielding populations were from cultivars that had intermediate fitness, and these produced, on average, 35% higher yields than cultivars with the highest fitness. It is unlikely that plant breeding or genetic engineering can improve traits that natural selection has been optimizing for millions of years, but there is unutilized potential in traits that increase crop yield by decreasing individual fitness. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Cysteine proteases and wheat (Triticum aestivum L) under drought: A still greatly unexplored association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Anna-Maria; Kunert, Karl J; Cullis, Christopher A

    2017-09-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) provides about 19% of global dietary energy. Environmental stress, such as drought, affects wheat growth causing premature plant senescence and ultimately plant death. A plant response to drought is an increase in protease-mediated proteolysis with rapid degradation of proteins required for metabolic processes. Among the plant proteases that are increased in their activity following stress, cysteine proteases are the best characterized. Very little is known about particular wheat cysteine protease sequences, their expression and also localization. The current knowledge on wheat cysteine proteases belonging to the five clans (CA, CD, CE, CF and CP) is outlined, in particular their expression and possible function under drought. The first successes in establishing an annotated wheat genome database are further highlighted which has allowed more detailed mining of cysteine proteases. We also share our thoughts on future research directions considering the growing availability of genomic resources of this very important food crop. Finally, we also outline future application of developed knowledge in transgenic wheat plants for environmental stress protection and also as senescence markers to monitor wheat growth under environmental stress conditions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Impact of Triticum mosaic virus infection on hard winter wheat milling and bread baking quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rebecca A; Martin, T Joe; Seifers, Dallas L

    2012-03-15

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a newly discovered wheat virus. Information regarding the effect of wheat viruses on milling and baking quality is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of TriMV infection on the kernel characteristics, milling yield and bread baking quality of wheat. Commercial hard winter varieties evaluated included RonL, Danby and Jagalene. The TriMV resistance of RonL is low, while that of Danby and Jagalene is unknown. KS96HW10-3, a germplasm with high TriMV resistance, was included as a control. Plots of each variety were inoculated with TriMV at the two- to three-leaf stage. Trials were conducted at two locations in two crop years. TriMV infection had no effect on the kernel characteristics, flour yield or baking properties of KS96HW10-3. The effect of TriMV on the kernel characteristics of RonL, Danby and Jagalene was not consistent between crop years and presumably an environmental effect. The flour milling and bread baking properties of these three varieties were not significantly affected by TriMV infection. TriMV infection of wheat plants did not affect harvested wheat kernel characteristics, flour milling properties or white pan bread baking quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Metabolic pathways of the wheat (Triticum aestivum endosperm amyloplast revealed by proteomics

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    Dupont Frances M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By definition, amyloplasts are plastids specialized for starch production. However, a proteomic study of amyloplasts isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum Butte 86 endosperm at 10 days after anthesis (DPA detected enzymes from many other metabolic and biosynthetic pathways. To better understand the role of amyloplasts in food production, the data from that study were evaluated in detail and an amyloplast metabolic map was outlined. Results Analysis of 288 proteins detected in an amyloplast preparation predicted that 178 were amyloplast proteins. Criteria included homology with known plastid proteins, prediction of a plastid transit peptide for the wheat gene product or a close homolog, known plastid location of the pathway, and predicted plastid location for other members of the same pathway. Of these, 135 enzymes were arranged into 18 pathways for carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid, nucleic acid and other biosynthetic processes that are critical for grain-fill. Functions of the other proteins are also discussed. Conclusion The pathways outlined in this paper suggest that amyloplasts play a central role in endosperm metabolism. The interacting effects of genetics and environment on starch and protein production may be mediated in part by regulatory mechanisms within this organelle.

  1. Proteomic analysis reveals key proteins and phosphoproteins upon seed germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun eDong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is one of the oldest cultivated crops and the second most important food crop in the world. Seed germination is the key developmental process in plant growth and development, and poor germination directly affects plant growth and subsequent grain yield. In this study, we performed the first dynamic proteome analysis of wheat seed germination using a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE-based proteomic approach. A total of 166 differentially expressed protein (DEP spots representing 73 unique proteins were identified, which are mainly involved in storage, stress/defense/detoxification, carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, cell metabolism, and transcription/translation/ transposition. The identified DEPs and their dynamic expression profiles generally correspond to three distinct seed germination phases after imbibition: storage degradation, physiological processes/morphogenesis, and photosynthesis. Some key DEPs involved in storage substance degradation and plant defense mechanisms, such as globulin 3, sucrose synthase type I, serpin, beta-amylase, and plastid ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase small subunit, were found to be phosphorylated during seed germination. Particularly, the phosphorylation site Ser355 was found to be located in the enzyme active region of beta-amylase, which promotes substrate binding. Phosphorylated modification of several proteins could promote storage substance degradation and environmental stress defense during seed germination. The central metabolic pathways involved in wheat seed germination are proposed herein, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cereal seed germination.

  2. Screening commercial wheat (triticum aestivum l.) varieties for agrobacterium mediated transformation ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, N.; Maqbool, A.; Mlaik, K.

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is staple food crop of many countries including Pakistan. It has a large number of cultivars and genotypes. All genotypes have different tissue culture response that includes callus induction, regeneration and transformation efficiency. For transgenic plant production it is crucial to know tissue culture efficiency of a selected variety. Therefore, in the present study mature embryos of thirteen elite wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties were evaluated for tissue culture response and their amenability to transformation. Each variety responded differently for callogenesis, transient GUS (glucuronidase) expression and regeneration. The results for callus induction and transient GUS expression ranged from 30-100% and 13-100%, respectively whereas regeneration response was quite different in tested varieties that ranged from 0-44%. Good quality callus was observed in all varieties except Dhurabi-11, Lasani-08, Millat and Pak-81. Maximum transient GUS expression (100%) was found in Faisalabad-2008. Highest regeneration (44%) was noticed in Pak-81. Results indicated that three varieties VIII-83, Faisalabad-2008 and Aas-11 are suitable for transformation in comparison to others. (author)

  3. Ractopamine up take by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelver, Weilin L; DeSutter, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    Ractopamine is a beta adrenergic agonist used as a growth promoter in swine, cattle and turkeys. To test whether ractopamine has the potential to accumulate in plants grown in contaminated soil, a greenhouse study was conducted with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in two soils having different concentrations of organic matter (1.3% and 2.1%), amended with 0, 0.5, and 10 μg/g of ractopamine. Plant growth ranged from 2.7 to 8.8 g dry weight (dw) for alfalfa, and 8.7 to 40 g dw for wheat and was generally greater in the higher organic matter content soil. The uptake of ractopamine in plant tissues ranged from non-detectable to 897 ng/g and was strongly dependent on soil ractopamine concentration across soil and plant tissue. When adjusted to the total fortified quantities, the amount of ractopamine taken up by the plant tissue was low, <0.01% for either soil. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Water movement into dormant and non-dormant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathjen, Judith R; Strounina, Ekaterina V; Mares, Daryl J

    2009-01-01

    The movement of water into harvest-ripe grains of dormant and non-dormant genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was investigated using Magnetic Resonance Micro-Imaging (MRMI). Images of virtual sections, both longitudinal and transverse, throughout the grain were collected at intervals after the start of imbibition and used to reconstruct a picture of water location within the different grain tissues and changes over time. The observations were supplemented by the weighing measurements of water content and imbibition of grains in water containing I(2)/KI which stains starch and lipid, thereby acting as a marker for water. In closely related genotypes, with either a dormant or a non-dormant phenotype, neither the rate of increase in water content nor the pattern of water distribution within the grain was significantly different until 18 h, when germination became apparent in the non-dormant genotype. Water entered the embryo and scutellum during the very early stages of imbibition through the micropyle and by 2 h water was clearly evident in the micropyle channel. After 12 h of imbibition, embryo structures such as the coleoptile and radicle were clearly distinguished. Although water accumulated between the inner (seed coat) and outer (pericarp) layers of the coat surrounding the grain, there was no evidence for movement of water directly across the coat and into the underlying starchy endosperm.

  5. Breeding bread wheat cultivars for high protein content by transfer of protein genes from Triticum dicoccoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grama, A.; Gerechter-Amitai, Z.K.; Blum, A.; Rubenthaler, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Triticum dicoccoides sel. G-25, a selection of wild emmer with a protein content of 20.5% and a kernel weight of 31.5 mg, was used as the donor of protein genes. Since this selection is highly resistant to stripe rust, the object of the crossing programme was to transfer this resistance, together with the high protein potential, to durum and bread wheat cultivars susceptible to the disease. In the tetraploid lines obtained from the T. dicoccoides/T. durum cross, the protein values ranged from 17 to 22%. These lines had resistance to stripe rust from the wild emmer and to stem rust from the durum. After two further crosses between these tetraploid lines and T. aestivum cultivars, several lines were selected which combined good yield, high protein level and resistance to rust diseases. These lines attained protein levels of 14 to 19% in the whole grain and 14 to 17% in the flour, combined with yields of 4.5 to 6.0 t/ha. They had also inherited resistance to stem rust, and in some instances also to leaf rust, from the cultivated wheat parental lines. (author)

  6. Molecular markers validation to drought resistance in wheat meal (Triticum aestivum L. under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Julio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the genetic resistance to drought and validate molecular markers co-localized with genes/QTLs for this factor, 16 varieties were evaluated as well as advanced lines of wheat meal (Triticum aestivum in two stages of crop development. Physiological parameters were considered: amount of chlorophyll (clo, wilting or severity degree (SEV and recovery (reco, morphological parameters: foliage dry matter (FDM and root dry matter (RDM, the integrated resistance mechanisms: water use efficiency (WUE, other parameters: number of grains (Ngrain and grain weight (Wgrain, biochemical parameters: Catalaza (CAT, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX and Guaiacol Peroxidase (POX and three microsatellite markers (Xwmc603, Xwmc596, Xwmc9. Results showed significant differences for MSR and Ngrain. It was observed that Anzaldo, ERR2V.L-20, EARII2V.L-5, EARIZV.L-11, ERR2V.L-11 and EE2V.L-19 were the most resistant to drough water stress. There was a highly significant negative correlation between the MSR and Ngrain. All other variables showed low and non-significant correlations. In biochemical analyzes, the Anzaldo variety showed an increased enzymatic activity compared to controls in all cases (CAT-APX and POX, being the most resistant to water stress by drought. Finally, it was found that SSR markers (Xwmc596 and Xwmc9 are co-located with the gene / QTL of drought resistance and can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  7. Identification of Alleles of Puroindoline Genes and Their Effect on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Grain Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Štiasna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain hardness is one of the most important quality characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. It is a significant property of wheat grains and relates to milling quality and end product quality. Grain hardness is caused by the presence of puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb. A collection of 25 genotypes of wheat with unusual grain colour (blue aleurone, purple and white pericarp, yellow endosperm was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the diversity within Pina and Pinb (alleles: Pina-D1a, Pina-D1b, Pinb-D1a, Pinb- -D1b, Pinb-D1c and Pinb-D1d. The endosperm structure was determined by a non-destructive method using light transfl ectance meter and grain hardness by a texture analyser. Genotype Novosibirskaya 67 and isogenic ANK lines revealed hitherto unknown alleles at the locus for the annealing of primers of Pinb-D1. Allele Pinb-D1c was found to be absent from each genotype. The mealy endosperm ranged from 0 to 100 % and grain hardness from 15.10 to 26.87 N per sample.

  8. TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 Regulates Inflorescence Architecture and Development in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Laura E; Greenwood, Julian R; Bencivenga, Stefano; Zhang, Peng; Cockram, James; Mellers, Gregory; Ramm, Kerrie; Cavanagh, Colin; Swain, Steve M; Boden, Scott A

    2018-03-01

    The flowers of major cereals are arranged on reproductive branches known as spikelets, which group together to form an inflorescence. Diversity for inflorescence architecture has been exploited during domestication to increase crop yields, and genetic variation for this trait has potential to further boost grain production. Multiple genes that regulate inflorescence architecture have been identified by studying alleles that modify gene activity or dosage; however, little is known in wheat. Here, we show TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 ( TB1 ) regulates inflorescence architecture in bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) by investigating lines that display a form of inflorescence branching known as "paired spikelets." We show that TB1 interacts with FLOWERING LOCUS T1 and that increased dosage of TB1 alters inflorescence architecture and growth rate in a process that includes reduced expression of meristem identity genes, with allelic diversity for TB1 found to associate genetically with paired spikelet development in modern cultivars. We propose TB1 coordinates formation of axillary spikelets during the vegetative to floral transition and that alleles known to modify dosage or function of TB1 could help increase wheat yields. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  9. TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 Regulates Inflorescence Architecture and Development in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum)[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Julian R.; Bencivenga, Stefano; Cockram, James; Cavanagh, Colin; Swain, Steve M.

    2018-01-01

    The flowers of major cereals are arranged on reproductive branches known as spikelets, which group together to form an inflorescence. Diversity for inflorescence architecture has been exploited during domestication to increase crop yields, and genetic variation for this trait has potential to further boost grain production. Multiple genes that regulate inflorescence architecture have been identified by studying alleles that modify gene activity or dosage; however, little is known in wheat. Here, we show TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (TB1) regulates inflorescence architecture in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) by investigating lines that display a form of inflorescence branching known as “paired spikelets.” We show that TB1 interacts with FLOWERING LOCUS T1 and that increased dosage of TB1 alters inflorescence architecture and growth rate in a process that includes reduced expression of meristem identity genes, with allelic diversity for TB1 found to associate genetically with paired spikelet development in modern cultivars. We propose TB1 coordinates formation of axillary spikelets during the vegetative to floral transition and that alleles known to modify dosage or function of TB1 could help increase wheat yields. PMID:29444813

  10. Protein association of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine in Triticum aestivum via irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Schwanemann, Torsten; Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    Bioaccumulation of several cyanotoxins has been observed in numerous food webs. More recently, the neurotoxic, non-proteinogenic amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) was shown to biomagnify in marine food webs. It was thus necessary to assess whether a human exposure risk via a terrestrial food source could exist. As shown for other cyanotoxins, spray irrigation of crop plants with cyanobacterial bloom-contaminated surface water poses the risk of toxin transfer into edible plant parts. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated a possible transfer of BMAA via spray irrigation into the seeds of one of the world's most widely cultivated crop plants, Triticum aestivum. Wheat plants were irrigated with water containing 10 µg L -1 BMAA until they reached maturity and seed-bearing stage (205 days). Several morphological characteristics, such as germination rate, number of roots per seedling, length of primary root and cotyledon, and diameter of the stems were evaluated to assess the effects of chronic exposure. After 205 days, BMAA bioaccumulation was quantified in roots, shoots, and mature seeds of T. aestivum. No adverse morphology effects were observed and no free intracellular BMAA was detected in any of the exposed plants. However, in mature seeds, protein-associated BMAA was detected at 217 ± 150 ng g FW -1 ; significantly more than in roots and shoots. This result demonstrates the unexpected bioaccumulation of a hydrophilic compound and highlights the demand to specify in addition to limit values for drinking water, tolerable daily intake rates for the cyanobacterial-neurotoxin BMAA.

  11. Silicon nanoparticles more effectively alleviated UV-B stress than silicon in wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Durgesh Kumar; Singh, Swati; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Dubey, Nawal Kishore; Chauhan, Devendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The role of silicon (Si) in alleviating biotic as well as abiotic stresses is well known. However, the potential of silicon nanoparticle (SiNP) in regulating abiotic stress and associated mechanisms have not yet been explored. Therefore, in the present study hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate whether Si or SiNp are more effective in the regulation of UV-B stress. UV-B (ambient and enhanced) radiation caused adverse effect on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings, which was accompanied by declined photosynthetic performance and altered vital leaf structures. Levels of superoxide radical and H 2 O 2 were enhanced by UV-B as also evident from their histochemical stainings, which was accompanied by increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and electrolyte leakage. Activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were inhibited by UV-B while catalase and guaiacol peroxidase, and all non-enzymatic antioxidants were stimulated by UV-B. Although, nitric oxide (NO) content was increased at all tested combinations, but its maximum content was observed under SiNps together with UV-B enhanced treatment. Pre-additions of SiNp as well as Si protected wheat seedlings against UV-B by regulating oxidative stress through enhanced antioxidants. Data indicate that SiNp might have protected wheat seedlings through NO-mediated triggering of antioxidant defense system, which subsequently counterbalance reactive oxygen species-induced damage to photosynthesis. Further, SiNp appear to be more effective in reducing UV-B stress than Si, which is related to its greater availability to wheat seedlings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Chromosomal Behavior during Meiosis in the Progeny of Triticum timopheevii × Hexaploid Wild Oat

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hongzhou; Hu, Mei; Li, Pengfei; Geng, Guangdong; Zhang, Qingqin; Zhang, Suqin

    2015-01-01

    The meiotic behavior of pollen mother cells (PMCs) of the F2 and F3 progeny from Triticum timopheevii × hexaploid wild oat was investigated by cytological analysis and sequential C-banding-genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) in the present study. A cytological analysis showed that the chromosome numbers of the F2 and F3 progeny ranged from 28 to 41. A large number of univalents, lagging chromosomes, chromosome bridges and micronuclei were found at the metaphase I, anaphase I, anaphase II and tetrad stages in the F2 and F3 progeny. The averages of univalents were 3.50 and 2.73 per cell, and those of lagging chromosomes were 3.37 and 1.87 in the F2 and F3 progeny, respectively. The PMC meiotic indices of the F2 and F3 progeny were 12.22 and 20.34, respectively, indicating considerable genetic instability. A sequential C-banding-GISH analysis revealed that some chromosomes and fragments from the hexaploid wild oat were detected at metaphase I and anaphase I in the progeny, showing that the progeny were of true intergeneric hybrid origin. The alien chromosomes 6A, 7A, 3C and 2D were lost during transmission from F2 to F3. In addition, partial T. timopheevii chromosomes appeared in the form of univalents or lagging chromosomes, which might result from large genome differences between the parents, and the wild oat chromosome introgression interfered with the wheat homologues’ normally pairing. PMID:25950431

  13. Identification and comprehensive analyses of the CBL and CIPK gene families in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Wang, Yan; Wang, Meng; Li, Tingting; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Xiatian; Wei, Shuya; He, Guangyuan; Yang, Guangxiao

    2015-11-04

    Calcineurin B-like (CBL) proteins belong to a unique group of calcium sensors in plant that decode the Ca(2+) signature by interacting with CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs). Although CBL-CIPK complexes have been shown to play important roles in the responses to various stresses in plants, little is known about their functions in wheat. A total of seven TaCBL and 20 TaCIPK genes were amplified from bread wheat, Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring. Reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in silico expression analyses showed that TaCBL and TaCIPK genes were expressed at different levels in different tissues, or maintained at nearly constant expression levels during the whole life cycle of the wheat plant. Some TaCBL and TaCIPK genes showed up- or down-regulated expressions during seed germination. Preferential interactions between TaCBLs and TaCIPKs were observed in yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments. Analyses of a deletion series of TaCIPK proteins with amino acid variations at the C-terminus provided new insights into the specificity of the interactions between TaCIPKs and TaCBLs, and indicated that the TaCBL-TaCIPK signaling pathway is very complex in wheat because of its hexaploid genome. The expressions of many TaCBLs and TaCIPKs were responsive to abiotic stresses (salt, cold, and simulated drought) and abscisic acid treatment. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaCIPK24 exhibited improved salt tolerance through increased Na(+) efflux and an enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity. These results contribute to our understanding of the functions of CBL-CIPK complexes and provide the basis for selecting appropriate genes for in-depth functional studies of CBL-CIPK in wheat.

  14. Chromosomal Behavior during Meiosis in the Progeny of Triticum timopheevii × Hexaploid Wild Oat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhou An

    Full Text Available The meiotic behavior of pollen mother cells (PMCs of the F2 and F3 progeny from Triticum timopheevii × hexaploid wild oat was investigated by cytological analysis and sequential C-banding-genomic in situ hybridization (GISH in the present study. A cytological analysis showed that the chromosome numbers of the F2 and F3 progeny ranged from 28 to 41. A large number of univalents, lagging chromosomes, chromosome bridges and micronuclei were found at the metaphase I, anaphase I, anaphase II and tetrad stages in the F2 and F3 progeny. The averages of univalents were 3.50 and 2.73 per cell, and those of lagging chromosomes were 3.37 and 1.87 in the F2 and F3 progeny, respectively. The PMC meiotic indices of the F2 and F3 progeny were 12.22 and 20.34, respectively, indicating considerable genetic instability. A sequential C-banding-GISH analysis revealed that some chromosomes and fragments from the hexaploid wild oat were detected at metaphase I and anaphase I in the progeny, showing that the progeny were of true intergeneric hybrid origin. The alien chromosomes 6A, 7A, 3C and 2D were lost during transmission from F2 to F3. In addition, partial T. timopheevii chromosomes appeared in the form of univalents or lagging chromosomes, which might result from large genome differences between the parents, and the wild oat chromosome introgression interfered with the wheat homologues' normally pairing.

  15. Development and Characterization of a New TILLING Population of Common Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Huang, Linzhou; Min, Donghong; Phillips, Andy; Wang, Shiqiang; Madgwick, Pippa J.; Parry, Martin A. J.; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Mutagenesis is an important tool in crop improvement. However, the hexaploid genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) presents problems in identifying desirable genetic changes based on phenotypic screening due to gene redundancy. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes), a powerful reverse genetic strategy that allows the detection of induced point mutations in individuals of the mutagenized populations, can address the major challenge of linking sequence information to the biological function of genes and can also identify novel variation for crop breeding. Wheat is especially well-suited for TILLING due to the high mutation densities tolerated by polyploids. However, only a few wheat TILLING populations are currently available in the world, which is far from satisfying the requirement of researchers and breeders in different growing environments. In addition, current TILLING screening protocols require costly fluorescence detection systems, limiting their use, especially in developing countries. We developed a new TILLING resource comprising 2610 M2 mutants in a common wheat cultivar ‘Jinmai 47’. Numerous phenotypes with altered morphological and agronomic traits were observed from the M2 and M3 lines in the field. To simplify the procedure and decrease costs, we use unlabeled primers and either non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels or agarose gels for mutation detection. The value of this new resource was tested using PCR with RAPD and Intron-spliced junction (ISJ) primers, and also TILLING in three selected candidate genes, in 300 and 512 mutant lines, revealing high mutation densities of 1/34 kb by RAPD/ISJ analysis and 1/47 kb by TILLING. In total, 31 novel alleles were identified in the 3 targeted genes and confirmed by sequencing. The results indicate that this mutant population represents a useful resource for the wheat research community. We hope that the use of this reverse genetics resource will provide novel allelic diversity for wheat

  16. Cellular and Subcellular Immunohistochemical Localization and Quantification of Cadmium Ions in Wheat (Triticum aestivum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available The distribution of metallic ions in plant tissues is associated with their toxicity and is important for understanding mechanisms of toxicity tolerance. A quantitative histochemical method can help advance knowledge of cellular and subcellular localization and distribution of heavy metals in plant tissues. An immunohistochemical (IHC imaging method for cadmium ions (Cd2+ was developed for the first time for the wheat Triticum aestivum grown in Cd2+-fortified soils. Also, 1-(4-Isothiocyanobenzyl-ethylenediamine-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (ITCB-EDTA was used to chelate the mobile Cd2+. The ITCB-EDTA/Cd2+ complex was fixed with proteins in situ via the isothiocyano group. A new Cd2+-EDTA specific monoclonal antibody, 4F3B6D9A1, was used to locate the Cd2+-EDTA protein complex. After staining, the fluorescence intensities of sections of Cd2+-positive roots were compared with those of Cd2+-negative roots under a laser confocal scanning microscope, and the location of colloidal gold particles was determined with a transmission electron microscope. The results enable quantification of the Cd2+ content in plant tissues and illustrate Cd2+ translocation and cellular and subcellular responses of T. aestivum to Cd2+ stress. Compared to the conventional metal-S coprecipitation histochemical method, this new IHC method is quantitative, more specific and has less background interference. The subcellular location of Cd2+ was also confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The IHC method is suitable for locating and quantifying Cd2+ in plant tissues and can be extended to other heavy metallic ions.

  17. Cellular and Subcellular Immunohistochemical Localization and Quantification of Cadmium Ions in Wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Nan, Tiegui; Tan, Guiyu; Zhao, Hongwei; Tan, Weiming; Meng, Fanyun; Li, Zhaohu; Li, Qing X; Wang, Baomin

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of metallic ions in plant tissues is associated with their toxicity and is important for understanding mechanisms of toxicity tolerance. A quantitative histochemical method can help advance knowledge of cellular and subcellular localization and distribution of heavy metals in plant tissues. An immunohistochemical (IHC) imaging method for cadmium ions (Cd2+) was developed for the first time for the wheat Triticum aestivum grown in Cd2+-fortified soils. Also, 1-(4-Isothiocyanobenzyl)-ethylenediamine-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (ITCB-EDTA) was used to chelate the mobile Cd2+. The ITCB-EDTA/Cd2+ complex was fixed with proteins in situ via the isothiocyano group. A new Cd2+-EDTA specific monoclonal antibody, 4F3B6D9A1, was used to locate the Cd2+-EDTA protein complex. After staining, the fluorescence intensities of sections of Cd2+-positive roots were compared with those of Cd2+-negative roots under a laser confocal scanning microscope, and the location of colloidal gold particles was determined with a transmission electron microscope. The results enable quantification of the Cd2+ content in plant tissues and illustrate Cd2+ translocation and cellular and subcellular responses of T. aestivum to Cd2+ stress. Compared to the conventional metal-S coprecipitation histochemical method, this new IHC method is quantitative, more specific and has less background interference. The subcellular location of Cd2+ was also confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The IHC method is suitable for locating and quantifying Cd2+ in plant tissues and can be extended to other heavy metallic ions.

  18. Earthworms, Collembola and residue management change wheat (Triticum aestivum) and herbivore pest performance (Aphidina: Rhophalosiphum padi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xin; Scheu, Stefan

    2008-10-01

    Management practices of arable systems determine the distribution of soil organic matter thereby changing decomposer animal activity and their impact on nutrient mineralization, plant growth and plant-herbivore interactions. Decomposer-mediated changes in plant growth and insect pest performance were investigated in wheat-aphid model systems in the greenhouse. Three types of litter distribution were established: litter patch at the soil surface (simulating mulching), litter patch deeper in soil (simulating ploughing) and litter homogeneously mixed into soil (simulating disk cultivation). The litter was labelled with (15)N to follow the mineralization and uptake of nutrients by the plants. Earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) and Collembola (Protaphorura armata) were included as representatives of major functional groups of decomposers. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) was planted and aphids (Rhophalosiphum padi) were introduced to leaves as one of the most important pests. Earthworms, Collembola and litter distribution affected plant growth, N acquisition and aphid development in an interactive way. Earthworms and Collembola increased biomass of seeds, shoots and roots of wheat. Increased plant growth by earthworms and Collembola was mainly due to increased transfer of N from soil (rather than litter) into plants. Despite increasing plant growth, earthworms reduced aphid reproduction. Aphid reproduction was not correlated closely with plant N concentrations, but rather with the concentration of litter N in wheat. Unexpectedly, both Collembola and earthworms predominantly affected the mobilization of N from soil organic matter, and by altering the distribution of litter earthworms reduced infestation of crops by aphids via reducing plant capture of litter N, in particular if the litter was concentrated deeper in soil. The results suggest that management practices stimulating a continuous moderate increase in nutrient mobilization from soil organic matter rather than

  19. Development and characterization of a new TILLING population of common bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    Full Text Available Mutagenesis is an important tool in crop improvement. However, the hexaploid genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. presents problems in identifying desirable genetic changes based on phenotypic screening due to gene redundancy. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes, a powerful reverse genetic strategy that allows the detection of induced point mutations in individuals of the mutagenized populations, can address the major challenge of linking sequence information to the biological function of genes and can also identify novel variation for crop breeding. Wheat is especially well-suited for TILLING due to the high mutation densities tolerated by polyploids. However, only a few wheat TILLING populations are currently available in the world, which is far from satisfying the requirement of researchers and breeders in different growing environments. In addition, current TILLING screening protocols require costly fluorescence detection systems, limiting their use, especially in developing countries. We developed a new TILLING resource comprising 2610 M(2 mutants in a common wheat cultivar 'Jinmai 47'. Numerous phenotypes with altered morphological and agronomic traits were observed from the M(2 and M(3 lines in the field. To simplify the procedure and decrease costs, we use unlabeled primers and either non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels or agarose gels for mutation detection. The value of this new resource was tested using PCR with RAPD and Intron-spliced junction (ISJ primers, and also TILLING in three selected candidate genes, in 300 and 512 mutant lines, revealing high mutation densities of 1/34 kb by RAPD/ISJ analysis and 1/47 kb by TILLING. In total, 31 novel alleles were identified in the 3 targeted genes and confirmed by sequencing. The results indicate that this mutant population represents a useful resource for the wheat research community. We hope that the use of this reverse genetics resource will provide novel allelic

  20. Quantification of benzoxazinone derivatives in wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties grown under contrasting conditions in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Betty B; Krongaard, Teddy; Mathiassen, Solvejg K; Kudsk, Per

    2006-02-22

    Three varieties of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) were grown in both conventional and organic farming systems. The contents of the benzoxazinone derivatives 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA), 2-beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA-Glc), 6-methoxybenzoxazolin-2-one (MBOA), 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (HMBOA), benzoxazolin-2-one (BOA), and 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (HBOA) were analyzed at five growth stages (BBCH 9-10, 12, 21, 31, and 53). Major differences were found between the varieties, with Stakado exhibiting the highest contents. In contrast, only minor and erratic differences were found between the two farming systems, suggesting that the inherent differences in the content of benzoxazinone derivatives of the varieties were not significantly affected by the use of pesticides and synthetic fertilizers. The concentration of benzoxazinone derivatives in the foliage was considerably higher at the early growth stages than later in the growing season, with DIMBOA being the most abundant of the benzoxazinone derivatives. An increase in the concentration was observed in early spring compared to late autumn, suggesting that plants synthesized benzoxazinone derivatives at the commencement of growth in early spring. The concentrations in the roots were considerably lower than in the foliage at the early growth stages but remained relatively constant over time, resulting in a higher concentration than in the foliage at the late growth stages. The results are discussed in relation to previous findings that predominantly originate from experiments done under controlled conditions in either growth cabinets or greenhouses.

  1. Silicon alleviates Cd stress of wheat seedlings (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, M; Meunier, J-D; Davidian, J-C; Pokrovsky, O S; Bovet, N; Keller, C

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the potential role of silicon in improving tolerance and decreasing cadmium (Cd) toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. durum) either through a reduced Cd uptake or exclusion/sequestration in non-metabolic tissues. For this, plants were grown in hydroponic conditions for 10 days either in presence or absence of 1 mM Si and for 11 additional days in various Cd concentrations (0, 0.5, 5.0 and 50 μM). After harvesting, morphological and physiological parameters as well as elemental concentrations were recorded. Cadmium caused reduction in growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments and mineral nutrient concentrations both in shoots and roots. Shoot and root contents of malate, citrate and aconitate increased, while contents of phosphate, nitrate and sulphate decreased with increasing Cd concentrations in plants. Addition of Si to the nutrient solution mitigated these adverse effects: Cd concentration in shoots decreased while concentration of Cd adsorbed at the root cell apoplasmic level increased together with Zn uptake by roots. Overall, total Cd uptake decreased in presence of Si. There was no co-localisation of Cd and Si either at the shoot or at the root levels. No Cd was detected in leaf phytoliths. In roots, Cd was mainly detected in the cortical parenchyma and Si at the endodermis level, while analysis of the outer thin root surface of the plants grown in the 50 μM Cd + 1 mM Si treatment highlighted non-homogeneous Cd and Si enrichments. These data strongly suggest the existence of a root localised protection mechanism consisting in armoring the root surface by Si- and Cd-bearing compounds and in limiting root-shoot translocation.

  2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF WHEAT (Triticum aestevum L. STRAW SODA-OXYGEN PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Gümüşkaya

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study; pulp was produced with soda-oxygen process by using wheat (Triticum aestevum L. straw as raw material and this pulp bleached with hypocholoride (H and peroxyde (P stages. It was found that crystalline properties of unbleached and bleached pulp samples increased by removing amorphous components. In addition, paper sheets made from unbleached and bleached soda-oxygen pulp and determined their optical properties. Consequently; while crystalline properties of pulp samples was rising with HP bleaching, it was determined that optical properties of paper sheets improved with bleaching.

  3. Effect of mechanical weeding on wild chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) populations in winter wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaunard, D; Bizoux, J P; Monty, A; Henriet, F; De Proft, M; Vancutsem, F; Mahy, G; Bodson, B

    2012-01-01

    Currently, economic, agronomic and environmental concerns lead to reduce the use of herbicides. Mechanical weeding can help to reach this objective. Dynamics and biology of wild chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) populations were assessed as well as dynamic of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for four level of application of a weeder-harrow (0, 1, 2, 3 treatment(s)). After each treatment, an effect of mechanical weeding on wild chamomile density was observed. Density of wild chamomile decreased significantly with intensification of mechanical weeding. A third treatment allowed eliminating late emerged plants.

  4. Allometric analysis of the effects of density on reproductive allocation and Harvest Index in 6 varieties of wheat (Triticum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Xiao-liang; Weiner, Jacob; Qi, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce biomass and then allocate some of this biomass to reproduction. The pattern of reproductive allocation is an important aspect of a plant’s reproductive strategy in nature and is closely linked to yield and Harvest Index in cereal crops. Recent research has concluded that reproductive...... allocation should be analyzed and interpreted allometrically because ratios or fractions such as Reproductive Effort or Harvest Index are size dependent. We investigated reproductive allocation of individuals in 6 varieties of Triticum (wheat) grown at a wide range of densities. We harvested leaves, stems...... when there is large variation in productivity among individuals, locations or years....

  5. Effect of Sodium Cyanide on Wheat (Triticum durum cv. Altar and T. aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Meliha; Karshenass, A.M.; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    The effect of sodium cyanide on the morphology of stem, leaves and grain yields of Triticum durum cv. Altar and Triticum aestivum cv. Cumhuriyet grown under glass was studied. Seeds were planted in six different sets of pots containing ordinary garden soil. After formation of the first leaves...... of individual plants was monitored until grain production. It was found that the sodium cyanide concentrations in the feed solutions affected plant stature, with the plants becoming progressively dwarfed with increasing dosage. Anomalies in the morphological and anatomical structure of the plant were also noted...

  6. Identification of superior parents and hybrids from diallel crosses of bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.J.; Rajper, T.A.; Jatoi, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Five parents of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) viz. TD-1, SKD-1, Marvi, Moomal and Mehran were crossed in a half diallel design; hence 10 F 1 hybrids were developed. Parents alongwith hybrids were evaluated for combining ability and heterosis for tillers/plant, spike length, spike density, grains/spike, grain yield/plant and seed index. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications at Botanical Garden, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Sindh Agriculture University,Tandojam, during 2010. The analysis of variance due to genotypes, parents, hybrids and parents vs. hybrids was significant for all the characters which revealed presence of significant amount of genetic variability in the material. The results also indicated significant differences among the parents for their general combining ability (GCA) and hybrids for specific combining ability (SCA) suggesting the importance of both additive and non-additive genes in the expression of traits studied. The greater magnitude of SCA variances over GCA were recorded for tillers/plant, grains/spike and grain yield/plant which indicated the importance of additive gene action while the involvement of non-additive genes was evident in the inheritance of spike length, spike density and seed index. Among the parents, generally TD-I, Mehran, Moomal and Marvi were the best general combiners for tillers/plant, spike length, spike density, grains/spike, grain yield/plant and seed index. Whereas, the hybrids like SKD-1 x Mehran, Marvi x Mehran, Marvix Moomal and TD-I x SKD-I were the best specific combiners for majority of yield traits. Positive heterosis was expressed by the hybrid SKD-1 x Moomal for tillers per plant; TD-I x Moomal for spike length; TD-1 x SKD-I for grains per spike; Marvi x Mehran for spike density and Marvi x Moomal for seed index. The best parents and hybrids could be effectively utilized in hybridization and selection programmes and also for hybrid crop

  7. DNA repair and crossing over favor similar chromosome regions as discovered in radiation hybrid of Triticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ajay

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The uneven distribution of recombination across the length of chromosomes results in inaccurate estimates of genetic to physical distances. In wheat (Triticum aestivum L. chromosome 3B, it has been estimated that 90% of the cross over events occur in distal sub-telomeric regions representing 40% of the chromosome. Radiation hybrid (RH mapping which does not rely on recombination is a strategy to map genomes and has been widely employed in animal species and more recently in some plants. RH maps have been proposed to provide i higher and ii more uniform resolution than genetic maps, and iii to be independent of the distribution patterns observed for meiotic recombination. An in vivo RH panel was generated for mapping chromosome 3B of wheat in an attempt to provide a complete scaffold for this ~1 Gb segment of the genome and compare the resolution to previous genetic maps. Results A high density RH map with 541 marker loci anchored to chromosome 3B spanning a total distance of 1871.9 cR was generated. Detailed comparisons with a genetic map of similar quality confirmed that i the overall resolution of the RH map was 10.5 fold higher and ii six fold more uniform. A significant interaction (r = 0.879 at p = 0.01 was observed between the DNA repair mechanism and the distribution of crossing-over events. This observation could be explained by accepting the possibility that the DNA repair mechanism in somatic cells is affected by the chromatin state in a way similar to the effect that chromatin state has on recombination frequencies in gametic cells. Conclusions The RH data presented here support for the first time in vivo the hypothesis of non-casual interaction between recombination hot-spots and DNA repair. Further, two major hypotheses are presented on how chromatin compactness could affect the DNA repair mechanism. Since the initial RH application 37 years ago, we were able to show for the first time that the iii

  8. Heavy Metal Uptake, Translocation, and Bioaccumulation Studies of Triticum aestivum Cultivated in Contaminated Dredged Materials

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    Gregorio Begonia

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is a potential accumulator for heavy metals such as lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd in hydroponic systems. Based on these findings, a laboratory study was conducted with the primary objective of determining the phytoaccumulation capability of this plant species for heavy metals from contaminated dredged materials (DMs originating from two confined disposal facilities (CDF. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE manages several hundred million cubic meters of DMs each year, and 5 to 10 % of these DMs require special handling because they are contaminated with hazardous substances that can move from the substrates into food webs causing unacceptable risk outside CDFs. Phytoremediation may offer an alternative to decrease this risk. Chemical analyses by USACE personnel identified 17 metals in various DMs, but in this present study, only zinc (Zn and Cd were investigated. Pre-germinated seeds of the test plants were planted under laboratory conditions in pots containing the various DMs and reference soil. Four weeks after planting, plants were harvested and separated into roots and shoots for biomass production and tissue metal concentrations analyses. Results showed that T. aestivum plants have the capacity to tolerate and grow in multiple-metal contaminated DMs with the potential of accumulating various amounts of Zn and Cd. Root and shoot biomass of T. aestivum were not significantly affected by the DMs on which the plants were grown suggesting that this plant species can grow just as well on DMs contaminated by various metals as in the reference soil. No significant differences in the Zn

  9. Potentially toxic elements in foodcrops: Triticum aestivum L., Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Fontana, Silvia; Squizzato, Stefania; Minello, Fabiola; Fornasier, Flavio; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Soil is the basis of the ecosystems and of our system of food production. Crops can uptake heavy metals and potentially toxic elements from the soil and store them in the roots or translocate them to the aerial parts. Excessive content of these elements in edible parts can produce toxic effects and, through the food chain and food consumption, result in a potential hazard for human health. In this study soils and plants (spring wheat, Triticum aestivum L. and maize, Zea mays L.) from a tannery district in North-East Italy were analyzed to determine pedological characters, soil microbial indicators and the content of some major and micro-nutrients and potentially toxic elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S, Zn, V). The soils of the area are moderately polluted; Cr is the most important inorganic contaminant, followed by Ni, Cu and V. Factor analysis evidenced that the contaminants are in part anthropogenic and in part geogenic. Major anthropogenic origin was detected for Cr, Ni (from industrial activities), Zn, Cu, Cd (from agriculture practices). Biological Absorption Coefficient (BAC) from soil to plant roots and Translocation factor (TF) within the plant were calculated; major nutrients (K, P, S) and some micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mg, Mn) are easily absorbed and translocated, whilst other nutrients (Ca, Fe) and potentially toxic elements or micronutrients (Al, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V) are not accumulated in the seeds of the two considered species. However, the two edible species proved differently able to absorb and translocate elements, and this suggests to consider separately every species as potential PHEs transporter to the food chain and to humans. Cr concentrations in seeds and other aerial parts (stem and leaves) of the examined plants are higher than the values found for the same species and for other cereals grown on unpolluted soils. Comparing the Cr levels in edible parts with recommended dietary intake, besides other possible Cr sources

  10. Heavy metal uptake, translocation, and bioaccumulation studies of Triticum aestivum cultivated in contaminated dredged materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumaker, Ketia L; Begonia, Gregorio

    2005-08-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a potential accumulator for heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in hydroponic systems. Based on these findings, a laboratory study was conducted with the primary objective of determining the phytoaccumulation capability of this plant species for heavy metals from contaminated dredged materials (DMs) originating from two confined disposal facilities (CDF). The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) manages several hundred million cubic meters of DMs each year, and 5 to 10 % of these DMs require special handling because they are contaminated with hazardous substances that can move from the substrates into food webs causing unacceptable risk outside CDFs. Phytoremediation may offer an alternative to decrease this risk. Chemical analyses by USACE personnel identified 17 metals in various DMs, but in this present study, only zinc (Zn) and Cd were investigated. Pre-germinated seeds of the test plants were planted under laboratory conditions in pots containing the various DMs and reference soil. Four weeks after planting, plants were harvested and separated into roots and shoots for biomass production and tissue metal concentrations analyses. Results showed that T. aestivum plants have the capacity to tolerate and grow in multiple-metal contaminated DMs with the potential of accumulating various amounts of Zn and Cd. Root and shoot biomass of T. aestivum were not significantly affected by the DMs on which the plants were grown suggesting that this plant species can grow just as well on DMs contaminated by various metals as in the reference soil. No significant differences in the Zn tissue

  11. Accumulation of phenanthrene by roots of intact wheat (Triticum acstivnm L. seedlings: passive or active uptake?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Ting-Hui

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are of particular concern due to their hydrophobic, recalcitrant, persistent, potentially carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic properties, and their ubiquitous occurrence in the environment. Most of the PAHs in the environment are present in surface soil. Plants grown in PAH-contaminated soils or water can become contaminated with PAHs because of their uptake. Therefore, they may threaten human and animal health. However, the mechanism for PAHs uptake by crop roots is little understood. It is important to understand exactly how PAHs are transported into the plant root system and into the human food chain, since it is beneficial in governing crop contamination by PAHs, remedying soils or waters polluted by PAHs with plants, and modeling potential uptake for risk assessment. Results The possibility that plant roots may take up phenanthrene (PHE, a representative of PAHs, via active process was investigated using intact wheat (Triticum acstivnm L. seedlings in a series of hydroponic experiments. The time course for PHE uptake into wheat roots grown in Hoagland solution containing 5.62 μM PHE for 36 h could be separated into two periods: a fast uptake process during the initial 2 h and a slow uptake component thereafter. Concentration-dependent PHE uptake was characterized by a smooth, saturable curve with an apparent Km of 23.7 μM and a Vmax of 208 nmol g-1 fresh weight h-1, suggesting a carrier-mediated uptake system. Competition between PHE and naphthalene for their uptake by the roots further supported the carrier-mediated uptake system. Low temperature and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP could inhibit PHE uptake equally, indicating that metabolism plays a role in PHE uptake. The inhibitions by low temperature and DNP were strengthened with increasing concentration of PHE in external solution within PHE water solubility (7.3 μM. The contribution of active uptake to total absorption was almost 40

  12. Effect of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed color and hardness genes on the consumption preference of the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain is a staple food and provides necessary nutrients for human health and nutrition. Yet, flavor differences among wheat varieties are not well understood. Grain flavor and consumption preference can be examined using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) as a...

  13. Effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  14. The effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  15. Gluten of spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum subspecies spelta) as a source of peptides promoting viability and product yield of mouse hybridoma cell cultures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franěk, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 13 (2004), s. 4097-4100 ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum subsp spelta) * gluten * peptides Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2004

  16. The mvp2 mutation affects the generative transition through the modification of transcriptome pattern, salicylic acid and cytokinin metabolism in Triticum monococcum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boldizsár, A.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Novák, A.; Kalapos, S.; Gulyás, Z.; Pál, M.; Floková, Kristýna; Janda, T.; Galiba, G.; Kocsy, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 202, SEP 1 (2016), s. 21-33 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cytokinin * mvp2 mutation * Triticum monococcum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  17. CanTriticum urartu(Poaceae) be identified by pollen analysis? Implications for detecting the ancestor of the extinct two-grained einkorn-like wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Merino, Lourdes; Leroy, Suzanne A G; Haldorsen, Sylvi; Heun, Manfred; Reynolds, Alan

    2015-02-01

    The domestication of the one-grained einkorn ( Triticum monococcum ) in the Near East is relatively well known. However, an independent two-grained einkorn-like domestication has been archaeobotanically detected and scarce information is available. Triticum urartu , a wild wheat, was not fully described until the 1970s because the phenology does not allow it to be distinguished easily from wild einkorn ( Triticum boeoticum subsp. thaoudar ), although a genetic separation exists. Both species are mostly two grained and could potentially be the relatives of the extinct two-grained form. Pollen grains of several genetically well-identified wheat species, including T. urartu and T. boeoticum subsp. thaoudar , were studied by measuring the grain diameter and examining the exine sculpturing with phase-contrast microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to gain an insight into differences enabling taxonomic identification. This work showed that, although T. urartu pollen is smaller on average, grain diameter is not sufficient because of the size overlap between the species, but T. urartu presents a different exine sculpturing (scabrate) from other Triticum spp. (aerolate). This outcome is useful for taxonomists and archaeobotanists. First, it will allow a simple re-classification of herbarium materials. Second, further research could establish whether T. urartu was cultivated. © 2015 The Linnean Society of London, 2015, 278-289.

  18. Modulation of nonessential amino acid biosynthetic pathways in virulent Hessian fly larvae (Mayetiola destructor), feeding on susceptible host wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), an obligate plant-parasitic gall midge, is an important dipteran pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum). The insect employs an effector-based feeding strategy to reprogram the host plant to be nutritionally beneficial for the developing larva by inducing formation of p...

  19. The role of leaf epicuticular wax in the adaptation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to high temperatures and moisture deficit conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water deficit is one of the primary causes of decreasing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yields globally, resulting in 50–90% yield reduction for at least 60 Mha of cropland in developing countries (Reynolds et al. 2000). Previous studies have identified associations in genomic regions with cooler cano...

  20. Response of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) and pea (Pisum sativum l.) to salinity stress under changing climate conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Petraitytė, Skaistė

    2017-01-01

    Šio darbo tikslas buvo ištirti žieminio kviečio (Triticum aestivum cv. ʼAdaʼ) bei sėjamojo žirnio (Pisum sativum cv. ʼEarly onwardʼ) morfometrinių, fiziologinių ir biocheminių rodiklių atsaką į druskingumo stresą kintančio klimato sąlygomis bei įvertinti augalų atsparumą. Tiriamieji augalai buvo auginami fitokamerose, dabartinio ir atšilusio klimato sąlygomis bei veikiami skirtingo stiprumo druskingumo stresu. Dabartinio klimato sąlygos imituotos fitokameroje palaikant 21/14 OC temperatūrą be...

  1. Structural and functional peculiarities of the lipopolysaccharide of Azospirillum brasilense SR55, isolated from the roots of Triticum durum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Alevtina S; Konnova, Svetlana A; Fedonenko, Yulia P; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Smol'kina, Olga N; Kachala, Vadim V; Ignatov, Vladimir V

    2011-10-20

    Azospirillum brasilense SR55, isolated from the rhizosphere of Triticum durum, was classified as serogroup II on the basis of serological tests. Such serogroup affiliation is uncharacteristic of wheat-associated Azospirillum species. The lipid A of A. brasilense SR55 lipopolysaccharide contained 3-hydroxytetradecanoic, 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic, hexadecanoic and octadecenoic fatty acids. The structure of the lipopolysaccharide's O polysaccharide was established, with the branched octasaccharide repeating unit being represented by l-rhamnose, l-3-O-Me-rhamnose, d-galactose and d-glucuronic acid. The SR55 lipopolysaccharide induced deformations of wheat root hairs. The lipopolysaccharide was not involved in bacterial cell aggregation, but its use to pretreat wheat roots was conducive to cell adsorption. This study shows that Azospirillum bacteria can utilise their own lipopolysaccharide as a carbon source, which may give them an advantage in competitive natural environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic mechanisms of allopolyploid speciation through hybrid genome doubling: novel insights from wheat (Triticum and Aegilops) studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Takumi, Shigeo; Nasuda, Shuhei

    2014-01-01

    Polyploidy, which arises through complex genetic and ecological processes, is an important mode of plant speciation. This review provides an overview of recent advances in understanding why plant polyploid species are so ubiquitous and diverse. We consider how the modern framework for understanding genetic mechanisms of speciation could be used to study allopolyploid speciation that occurs through hybrid genome doubling, that is, whole genome doubling of interspecific F1 hybrids by the union of male and female unreduced gametes. We outline genetic and ecological mechanisms that may have positive or negative impacts on the process of allopolyploid speciation through hybrid genome doubling. We also discuss the current status of studies on the underlying genetic mechanisms focusing on the wheat (Triticum and Aegilops) hybrid-specific reproductive phenomena that are well known but deserve renewed attention from an evolutionary viewpoint. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Physiological effects induced by the hydroalcoholic extract of Violae tricoloris herba (wild pansy aerial parts on Triticum aestivum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Cretu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild pansy (Viola tricolor hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by extraction of powdered dried – flowering aerial parts with ethanol 70% v/v (1:10, by reflux for two hours. This was diluted with distilled water to give the final concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 5% (v/v (VTEx1, VTEx2 and VTEx3. These extracts were tested for their effects on seed germination and seedlings growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum in a laboratory experiment. Distilled water was used as a control (C. After the 10 days of experiment, we evaluated seed germination of wheat and seedlings growth (roots and shoots lengths, their fresh and dry biomass.

  4. Accumulation and translocation of toxic heavy metals in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growing in agricultural soil of Zhengzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W-X; Liu, J-W; Wu, M-Z; Li, Y; Zhao, Y; Li, S-R

    2009-03-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the accumulation of toxic heavy metals by winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in the agricultural soil in the suburb of Zhengzhou City, China. The quantities of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, As, Hg) were determined in different parts of wheat plant. The content of five toxic metals was found significantly higher in roots than in the aerial parts of wheat (stems and leaves, and grains). Additionally, wheat roots were enriched in Cd, Pb, and Hg from the soil, while Cr and As were hardly taken up by the roots. On the other hand, the winter wheat transported five toxic heavy metals very weakly from root to grain in the various irrigation regions.

  5. Environmental Resource Consumption in Wheat (Triticum aestivum and Bean (Vicia faba Intercropping: Comparison of Nutrient Uptake and Light Interception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum and bean (Vicia faba L. sole crops and their mixture in three planting pattern (M1: alternate-row intercrop, M2: within-row intercrop, M3: mixed intercrop were used to investigate the amount of resource consumption in terms of PAR interception and nutrient uptake. The experiment was carried out as randomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed that intercropping systems had a significant effect on environmental resources consumption, where intercropping systems had more nutrient uptake and light interception compared to sole crops, suggesting the complementarity effect of intercropping components in resources consumption. The ability of wheat and bean was different in intercropping systems in absorbing nutrients because of their differences in root morphology and cation exchange capacity.

  6. Growth Responses of Wheat (Triticum aestivumL. var. HD 2329 Exposed to Ambient Air Pollution under Varying Fertility Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Singh

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of urban air pollution has attracted special attention in India due to a tremendous increase in the urban population; motor vehicles vis a vis the extent of energy utilization. Field studies were conducted on wheat crops (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD 2329 by keeping the pot-grown plants in similar edaphic conditions at nine different sites in Allahabad City to quantify the effects of ambient air pollution levels on selected growth and yield parameters. Air quality monitoring was done at all the sites for gaseous pollutants viz. SO2, NO2, and O3. Various growth parameters (plant height, biomass, leaf area, NPP, etc. showed adverse effects at sites receiving higher pollution load. Reduction in test weight and harvest index was found to be directly correlated with the levels of pollutant concentrations. The study clearly showed the negative impact of air pollution on periurban agriculture.

  7. Plant availability of nutrients recovered as solids from human urine tested in climate chamber on Triticum aestivum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganrot, Zsófia; Dave, Göran; Nilsson, Eva; Li, Bo

    2007-11-01

    Recovered nutrients by freezing-thawing from human urine in combination with struvite precipitation and nitrogen adsorption on zeolite and activated carbon have been tested in pot trials with wheat, Triticum aestivum L., in a climate chamber during 21 days. A simple test design using sand as substrate was chosen to give a first, general evaluation of the nutrient (P and N) availability from these sources. Dry weight, plant growth morphology, total-P and total-N were analysed. The tests show a slow-release of nutrients (P and N) from struvite and from N-adsorbents. The nitrogen in all treatments was in the deficiency range for optimum yield for wheat. Higher pH than usual for soil tests contributed to the difficulties in plant uptake, especially in the pots with only struvite (with highest MgO addition) as nutrient source.

  8. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Tetraploid Wheats (Triticum turgidum L. Estimated by SSR, DArT and Pedigree Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Laidò

    Full Text Available Levels of genetic diversity and population genetic structure of a collection of 230 accessions of seven tetraploid Triticum turgidum L. subspecies were investigated using six morphological, nine seed storage protein loci, 26 SSRs and 970 DArT markers. The genetic diversity of the morphological traits and seed storage proteins was always lower in the durum wheat compared to the wild and domesticated emmer. Using Bayesian clustering (K = 2, both of the sets of molecular markers distinguished the durum wheat cultivars from the other tetraploid subspecies, and two distinct subgroups were detected within the durum wheat subspecies, which is in agreement with their origin and year of release. The genetic diversity of morphological traits and seed storage proteins was always lower in the improved durum cultivars registered after 1990, than in the intermediate and older ones. This marked effect on diversity was not observed for molecular markers, where there was only a weak reduction. At K >2, the SSR markers showed a greater degree of resolution than for DArT, with their identification of a greater number of groups within each subspecies. Analysis of DArT marker differentiation between the wheat subspecies indicated outlier loci that are potentially linked to genes controlling some important agronomic traits. Among the 211 loci identified under selection, 109 markers were recently mapped, and some of these markers were clustered into specific regions on chromosome arms 2BL, 3BS and 4AL, where several genes/quantitative trait loci (QTLs are involved in the domestication of tetraploid wheats, such as the tenacious glumes (Tg and brittle rachis (Br characteristics. On the basis of these results, it can be assumed that the population structure of the tetraploid wheat collection partially reflects the evolutionary history of Triticum turgidum L. subspecies and the genetic potential of landraces and wild accessions for the detection of unexplored alleles.

  9. A Study of the Protective Effect of Triticum aestivum L. in an Experimental Animal Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Mukundam; Sarma, Phulen; Das, Swarnamoni

    2014-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Keeping in view the proven antioxidant activity of Triticum aestivum L., this study has been undertaken to explore the potential therapeutic benefit of this plant in the treatment of CFS. To study the protective effect of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Triticum aestivum (EETA) in an experimental mice model of CFS. Five groups of albino mice (20-25 g) were selected for the study, with five animals in each group. Group A served as the naïve control and Group B served as the stressed control. Groups C and D received EETA (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg b.w.). Group E received imipramine (20 mg/kg b.w.). Except for Group A, mice in each group were forced to swim 6 min each for 7 days to induce a state of chronic fatigue. Duration of immobility was measured on every alternate day. After 7 days, various behavioral tests (mirror chamber and elevated plus maize test for anxiety, open field test for locomotor activity) and biochemical estimations (malondialdehyde [MDA] and catalase activity) in mice brain were performed. Forced swimming in the stressed group resulted in a significant increase in immobility period, decrease in locomotor activity and elevated anxiety level. The brain homogenate showed significantly increased MDA and decreased catalase levels. The extract-treated groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) improved locomotor activity, decreased anxiety level, elevated catalase levels and reduction of MDA. The study confirms the protective effects of EETA in CFS.

  10. Molecular diversity and phylogeny of Triticum-Aegilops species possessing D genome revealed by SSR and ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradkhani Hoda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigation the applicability of SSR and ISSR markers in evaluating the genetic relationships in twenty accessions of Aegilops and Triticum species with D genome in different ploidy levels. Totally, 119 bands and 46 alleles were detected using ten primers for ISSR and SSR markers, respectively. Polymorphism Information Content values for all primers ranged from 0.345 to 0.375 with an average of 0.367 for SSR, and varied from 0.29 to 0.44 with the average 0.37 for ISSR marker. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed that 81% (ISSR and 84% (SSR of variability was partitioned among individuals within populations. Comparing the genetic diversity of Aegilops and Triticum accessions, based on genetic parameters, shows that genetic variation of Ae. crassa and Ae. tauschii species are higher than other species, especially in terms of Nei’s gene diversity. Cluster analysis, based on both markers, separated total accessions in three groups. However, classification based on SSR marker data was not conformed to classification according to ISSR marker data. Principal co-ordinate analysis (PCoA for SSR and ISSR data showed that, the first two components clarified 53.48% and 49.91% of the total variation, respectively. This analysis (PCoA, also, indicated consistent patterns of genetic relationships for ISSR data sets, however, the grouping of accessions was not completely accorded to their own geographical origins. Consequently, a high level of genetic diversity was revealed from the accessions sampled from different eco-geographical regions of Iran.

  11. Characterization of N-type glycosylation sites and glycan structures of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Welinder, Karen Gjesing

    2011-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses preformed phytase activity in the grain that is essential to make phosphate available to cell metabolism and in food and feed (Brejnholt S. et al., 2011). Cereals contain the purple acid phosphatase type of phytases, PAPhy (Dionisio G. et al., 2011a). Mature......., Skov L. Brinch-Pedersen H. (2011). The degradation of phytate by microbial and wheat phytases is dependent on the phytate matrix and the phytase origin. J. Sci. Food Agri. (in press). Dionisio G., Madsen C.K., Holm P.B., Welinder K.G., Jørgensen M., Stoger E., Arcalis E., Brinch-Pedersen H. (2011a......) Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), Maize (Zea maize L.) and Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Physiol. [in press, Jan 10, Epub ahead of print] Dionisio G., Brinch-Pedersen H., Welinder K.G., Jørgensen M. (2011b...

  12. Multifunctionalised benzoxazinones in the systems Oryza sativa-Echinochloa crus-galli and Triticum aestivum-Avena fatua as natural-product-based herbicide leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, Francisco A; Chinchilla, Nuria; Arroyo, Elena; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Marín, David

    2010-10-01

    Fifteen novel derivatives of D-DIBOA, including aromatic ring modifications and the addition of side chains in positions C-2 and N-4, had previously been synthesised and their phytotoxicity on standard target species (STS) evaluated. This strategy combined steric, electronic, solubility and lipophilicity requirements to achieve the maximum phytotoxic activity. An evaluation of the bioactivity of these compounds on the systems Oryza sativa-Echinochloa crus-galli and Triticum aestivum-Avena fatua is reported here. All compounds showed inhibition profiles on the two species Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. and Avena fatua L. The most marked effects were caused by 6F-4Pr-D-DIBOA, 6F-4Val-D-DIBOA, 6Cl-4Pr-D-DIBOA and 6Cl-4Val-D-DIBOA. The IC(50) values for the systems Echinochloa crus-galli-Oryza sativa and Avena fatua-Triticum aestivum for all compounds were compared. The compound that showed the greatest selectivity for the system Echinochloa crus-galli-Oryza sativa was 8Cl-4Pr-D-DIBOA, which was 15 times more selective than the commercial herbicide propanil (Cotanil-35). With regard to the system Avena fatua-Triticum aestivum, the compounds that showed the highest selectivities were 8Cl-4Val-D-DIBOA and 6F-4Pr-D-DIBOA. The results obtained for 6F-4Pr-D-DIBOA are of great interest because of the high phytotoxicity to Avena fatua (IC(50) = 6 µM, r(2) = 0.9616). The in vitro phytotoxicity profiles and selectivities shown by the compounds described here make them candidates for higher-level studies. 8Cl-4Pr-D-DIBOA for the system Echinochloa crus-galli-Oryza sativa and 6F-4Pr-D-DIBOA for Avena fatua-Triticum aestivum were the most interesting compounds.

  13. [Intergenomic chromosome substitutions in wheat interspecific hybrids and their use in the development of a genetic nomenclature of Triticum timopheevii chromosomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaeva, E D; Budashkina, E B; Bilinskaia, E N; Pukhal'skiĭ, V A

    2010-07-01

    The results of analysis of the genome formation in interspecific hybrids of Triticum aestivum with T. timopheevii are reviewed. The spectra of substitutions and rearrangements are shown to depend on the genotypes of the parental forms and on the direction of selection. The frequencies of substitutions of individual T. timopheevii chromosomes significantly vary and reflect the level of their divergence relative to the common wheat chromosomes. Some aspects of classification of the A(t)- and G-genome chromosomes are discussed.

  14. Simultaneous profiling of seed-associated bacteria and fungi reveals antagonistic interactions between microorganisms within a shared epiphytic microbiome on Triticum and Brassica seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Matthew G; Demeke, Tigst; Gräfenhan, Tom; Hill, Janet E; Hemmingsen, Sean M; Dumonceaux, Tim J

    2014-01-01

    In order to address the hypothesis that seeds from ecologically and geographically diverse plants harbor characteristic epiphytic microbiota, we characterized the bacterial and fungal microbiota associated with Triticum and Brassica seed surfaces. The total microbial complement was determined by amplification and sequencing of a fragment of chaperonin 60 (cpn60). Specific microorganisms were quantified by qPCR. Bacteria and fungi corresponding to operational taxonomic units (OTU) that were identified in the sequencing study were isolated and their interactions examined. A total of 5477 OTU were observed from seed washes. Neither total epiphytic bacterial load nor community richness/evenness was significantly different between the seed types; 578 OTU were shared among all samples at a variety of abundances. Hierarchical clustering revealed that 203 were significantly different in abundance on Triticum seeds compared with Brassica. Microorganisms isolated from seeds showed 99–100% identity between the cpn60 sequences of the isolates and the OTU sequences from this shared microbiome. Bacterial strains identified as Pantoea agglomerans had antagonistic properties toward one of the fungal isolates (Alternaria sp.), providing a possible explanation for their reciprocal abundances on both Triticum and Brassica seeds. cpn60 enabled the simultaneous profiling of bacterial and fungal microbiota and revealed a core seed-associated microbiota shared between diverse plant genera. PMID:24444052

  15. Simultaneous profiling of seed-associated bacteria and fungi reveals antagonistic interactions between microorganisms within a shared epiphytic microbiome on Triticum and Brassica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Matthew G; Demeke, Tigst; Gräfenhan, Tom; Hill, Janet E; Hemmingsen, Sean M; Dumonceaux, Tim J

    2014-04-01

    In order to address the hypothesis that seeds from ecologically and geographically diverse plants harbor characteristic epiphytic microbiota, we characterized the bacterial and fungal microbiota associated with Triticum and Brassica seed surfaces. The total microbial complement was determined by amplification and sequencing of a fragment of chaperonin 60 (cpn60). Specific microorganisms were quantified by qPCR. Bacteria and fungi corresponding to operational taxonomic units (OTU) that were identified in the sequencing study were isolated and their interactions examined. A total of 5477 OTU were observed from seed washes. Neither total epiphytic bacterial load nor community richness/evenness was significantly different between the seed types; 578 OTU were shared among all samples at a variety of abundances. Hierarchical clustering revealed that 203 were significantly different in abundance on Triticum seeds compared with Brassica. Microorganisms isolated from seeds showed 99-100% identity between the cpn60 sequences of the isolates and the OTU sequences from this shared microbiome. Bacterial strains identified as Pantoea agglomerans had antagonistic properties toward one of the fungal isolates (Alternaria sp.), providing a possible explanation for their reciprocal abundances on both Triticum and Brassica seeds. cpn60 enabled the simultaneous profiling of bacterial and fungal microbiota and revealed a core seed-associated microbiota shared between diverse plant genera. © 2014 AAFC. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. The occurrence of fungi on roots and stem bases of common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare L. and durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. grown under two levels of chemical protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kiecana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 2007-2009 on the plots of the Felin Experimental Station belonging to the University of Life Science in Lublin. The studies comprised two cultivation lines of durum wheat (Triticum durum L.: STH 716 and STH 717, as well as the 'Tonacja' cultivar of common wheat (T. aestivum ssp. vulgare L.. Two levels of chemical protection were applied in the cultivation: minimal and complex protection. Infection of wheat roots and stem bases was recorded in each growing season at hard dough stage (87 in Tottman's scale, 1987. After three years of study, the mean disease indexes for the analyzed wheat genotypes in the experimental treatment with minimal protection were 31.13, 30.43 and 38.83 for, respectively, the 'Tonacja' cultivar and the cultivation lines of T. durum STH 716 and STH 717. In the experimental combination with complex protection, after three years of study the disease indexes ranged from 25.26 (T. durum STH 716 to 30.83 (T. durum STH 717. The results of mycological analysis of diseased plants showed that Fusarium spp., especially F. culmorum, F. avenaceum as well as Bipolaris sorokiniana and Rhizoctonia solani, caused root rot and necrosis of wheat stem bases. The analyzed chemical protection levels did not significantly influence grain yield of the investigated genotypes of T. aestivum and T. durum.

  17. Gaseous pollutants from brick kiln industry decreased the growth, photosynthesis, and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrees, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Shah, Aamir Mehmood; Abbas, Farhat; Saleem, Farhan; Rizwan, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Jabeen, Fariha; Ali, Shafaqat

    2016-05-01

    Gaseous pollutant emissions from brick kiln industries deteriorate the current state of ambient air quality in Pakistan and worldwide. These gaseous pollutants affect the health of plants and may decrease plant growth and yield. A field experiment that was conducted to monitor the concentration of gaseous pollutants emitted mainly from brick kilns in the ambient air and associated impacts on the growth and physiological attributes of the two wheat (Triticum spp.) cultivars. Plants were grown at three sites, including control (Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, AARI), low pollution (LP) site (Small Estate Industry), and high pollution (HP) site (Sidar Bypass), of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Monitoring of ambient air pollution at experimental sites was carried out using the state-of-art ambient air analyzers. Plants were harvested after 120 days of germination and were analyzed for different growth attributes. Results showed that the hourly average concentration of gaseous air pollutants CO, NO2, SO2, and PM10 at HP site were significantly higher than the LP and control sites. Similarly, gaseous pollutants decreased plant height, straw and grain yield, photosynthesis and increased physical injury, and metal concentrations in the grains. However, wheat response toward gaseous pollutants did not differ between cultivars (Galaxy and 8173) studied. Overall, the results indicated that brick kiln emissions could reduce the performance of wheat grown in the soils around kilns and confirm the adverse impacts of pollutants on the growth, yield, and quality of the wheat.

  18. ThMYC4E, candidate Blue aleurone 1 gene controlling the associated trait in Triticum aestivum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    Full Text Available Blue aleurone is a useful and interesting trait in common wheat that was derived from related species. Here, transcriptomes of blue and white aleurone were compared for isolating Blue aleurone 1 (Ba1 transferred from Thinopyrum ponticum. In the genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, only a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factor, ThMYC4E, had a higher transcript level in blue aleurone phenotype, and was homologous to the genes on chromosome 4 of Triticum aestivum. ThMYC4E carried the characteristic domains (bHLH-MYC_N, HLH and ACT-like of a bHLH transcription factor, and clustered with genes regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis upon phylogenetic analysis. The over-expression of ThMYC4E regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis with the coexpression of the MYB transcription factor ZmC1 from maize. ThMYC4E existed in the genomes of the addition, substitution and near isogenic lines with the blue aleurone trait derived from Th. ponticum, and could not be detected in any germplasm of T. urartu, T. monococcum, T. turgidum, Aegilops tauschii or T. aestivum, with white aleurone. These results suggested that ThMYC4E was candidate Ba1 gene controlling the blue aleurone trait in T. aestivum genotypes carrying Th. ponticum introgression. The ThMYC4E isolation aids in better understanding the genetic mechanisms of the blue aleurone trait and in its more effective use during wheat breeding.

  19. Aluminium tolerance of root hairs underlies genotypic differences in rhizosheath size of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown on acid soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; James, Richard A; Ryan, Peter R

    2012-08-01

    We found significant genetic variation in the ability of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to form rhizosheaths on acid soil and assessed whether differences in aluminium (Al(3+) ) tolerance of root hairs between genotypes was the physiological basis for this genetic variation. A method was developed to rapidly screen rhizosheath size in a range of wheat genotypes. Backcrossed populations were generated from cv Fronteira (large rhizosheath) using cv EGA-Burke (small rhizosheath) as the recurrent parent. A positive correlation existed between rhizosheath size on acid soil and root hair length. In hydroponic experiments, root hairs of the backcrossed lines with large rhizosheaths were more tolerant of Al(3+) toxicity than the backcrossed lines with small rhizosheaths. We conclude that greater Al(3+) tolerance of root hairs underlies the larger rhizosheath of wheat grown on acid soil. Tolerance of the root hairs to Al(3+) was largely independent of the TaALMT1 gene which suggests that different genes encode the Al(3+) tolerance of root hairs. The maintenance of longer root hairs in acid soils is important for the efficient uptake of water and nutrients. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Use of Triticum aestivum in open wound healing: a clinical, pathological, and tensiometric assessment in the rabbit model

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    M.T. Tillmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While Triticum sp. has been shown to act in wound healing, stimulating collagen synthesis by fibroblasts, the use of this plant extract has yet to be assessed in vivo, in commercially viable presentations. This study used rabbits and assessed, on days seven, 14, and 21, the presence or absence of granulation tissue and epithelialization, histopathological structures, and scar quality through the breaking and tension strength. Treatments, performed for 21 days, were aqueous extract of T. aestivum at a concentration of 2mg/mL (group I and 10mg/mL (group II and a nonionic cream (control group. We demonstrate that the formation of granulation tissue was not significantly different between treatments. In the analysis of epithelial tissue, wounds in group II differed from other treatments by day 7. On days 14 and 21 there was no significant clinical difference between groups. In the histopathological evaluation, scar quality and rupture strength did not differ between the groups in the studied period. In the tension strength evaluation, group I differed from the others, presenting a higher tension strength overall. The studied treatments did not differ regarding healing evolution of the skin wounds, but T. aestivum extract, at 2mg/mL, presents better results in the tension strength evaluation.

  1. Impacts of phosphorus and zinc levels on phosphorus and zinc nutrition and phytic acid concentration in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi-wen; Tian, Xiao-hong; Lu, Xin-chun; Cao, Yu-xian; Chen, Zi-hui

    2011-10-01

    Zinc (Zn) and phytic acid content in grain crops are directly related to their nutritional quality and therefore human health. To investigate the nutritional influences of phosphorus (P) and Zn levels on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), plants were grown hydroponically to maturity in chelator-buffered solutions. Appropriate amounts of P, coupled with sufficient Zn, increased P and Zn concentrations in wheat grain. The Zn supply decreased both phytic acid and the molar ratios of phytic acid to Zn in wheat grain with respect to the Zn(0) treatment. Furthermore, proportions of Zn and P content in the grain relative to that of the whole plant were improved. With increasing P, the proportion of Zn and P content in the grain relative to the whole plant decreased. P and Zn acted antagonistically in roots. Excess P inhibited Zn uptake in roots, while Zn decreased the transfer of P from roots to shoots. For P that had been transported to the shoots, supplemental Zn facilitated its transfer to the grain. Excess P decreased the distribution of Zn in grain, while Zn enhanced the uptake of Zn and P in grain, The combined application of Zn fertilizer with the extensive use of P fertilizer can effectively increase the P and Zn concentration and Zn bioavailability of wheat grain, and hence Zn nutritional quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Alleviation of salt stress by halotolerant and halophilic plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat (Triticum aestivum

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    Furkan Orhan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the current study, 18 halotolerant and halophilic bacteria have been investigated for their plant growth promoting abilities in vitro and in a hydroponic culture. The bacterial strains have been investigated for ammonia, indole-3-acetic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase production, phosphate solubilisation and nitrogen fixation activities. Of the tested bacteria, eight were inoculated with Triticum aestivum in a hydroponic culture. The investigated bacterial strains were found to have different plant-growth promoting activities in vitro. Under salt stress (200 mM NaCl, the investigated bacterial strains significantly increased the root and shoot length and total fresh weight of the plants. The growth rates of the plants inoculated with bacterial strains ranged from 62.2% to 78.1%.Identifying of novel halophilic and halotolerant bacteria that promote plant growth can be used as alternatives for salt sensitive plants. Extensive research has been conducted on several halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains to investigate their plant growth promoting activities. However, to the best of my knowledge, this is the first study to inoculate these bacterial strains with wheat.

  3. Production of intergeneric hybrid between dwarfing polish wheat (Triticum polonicum L.) and Aegilops tauschii Cosson. with reference to wheat origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H Y; Wang, Y; Yuan, H J; Jiang, Y; Zhou, Y H

    2009-06-01

    Dwarfing polish wheat is a dwarfing accession of Triticum polonicum L. from Xinjiang of China. In the present study, the artificial hybridization between dwarfing polish wheat and two accessions of Aegilops tauschii Cosson. (AS60 and AS65) was carried out, and the F1 hybrids were obtained successfully without using embryo rescue techniques for the first time. The crossabilities of hybrids T. polonicum x Ae. tauschii (AS60) and T. polonicum x Ae. tauschii (AS65) were 1.67% and 0.60% respectively. Only the hybrids of T. polonicum x Ae. tauschii (AS60) germinated well, and 24 Fl hybrid plants were obtained. All the F1 hybrid plants grew vigorously, and the morphological traits were similar to bread wheat. The F1 plants had some obvious traits inherited from T. polonicum and Ae. tauschii and were completely sterile. Chromosome pairing in the hybrid was characterized by a large number of univalents, with an average of 20.56 and 0.22 bivalents per PMC, and no ring bivalents and multivalents were observed. Furthermore, the potential value of the F1 hybrids between T. polonicum and Ae. tauschii for studying wheat origin and breeding are discussed.

  4. Comparative studies of mitochondrial proteomics reveal an intimate protein network of male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Zhang, Yingxin; Song, Qilu; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Junsheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant male sterility has often been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the mechanism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has not been elucidated. This study set out to probe the mechanism of physiological male sterility (PHYMS) induced by the chemical hybridizing agent (CHA)-SQ-1, and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of wheat at the proteomic level. A total of 71 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins were found to be involved in pollen abortion and further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of fight/time of flight mass spectrometry). These proteins were implicated in different cellular responses and metabolic processes, with obvious functional tendencies toward the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, protein synthesis and degradation, oxidation stress, the cell division cycle, and epigenetics. Interactions between identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, enabling a more complete insight into biological pathways involved in anther abortion and pollen defects. Accordingly, a mitochondria-mediated male sterility protein network in wheat is proposed; this network was further confirmed by physiological data, RT-PCR (real-time PCR), and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assay. The results provide intriguing insights into the metabolic pathway of anther abortion induced by CHA-SQ-1 and also give useful clues to identify the crucial proteins of PHYMS and CMS in wheat. PMID:26136264

  5. [Comparative cytological and molecular analysis of introgressive common wheat lines containing genetic material of Triticum timopheevii Zhur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeeva, E I; Leonova, I N; Kalinina, N P; Salina, E A; Budashkina, E b

    2009-12-01

    A total of 40 introgressive lines of common wheat (2n = 42) Triticum aestivum L x T. timopheevii Zhuk., resistant to brown rust and partly to powdery mildew, were examined. Based on cytological analysis of meiosis in pollen mother cells (PMC), hybrid lines were subdivided into two groups characterized by either stable or unstable meiosis. In cytologically stable lines, chromosome configuration at the MI stage of meiosis was mostly bivalent (21II) with small proportion of defect cells (almost 10%), which at most contained two univalents (20II + + 21). Cytologically unstable group was comprised of the lines, containing high proportions of cells with abnormal chromosome pairing in meiotic PMC, as well as the cells with multivalents, and the lines containing aneuploid plants. Localization of the T. timopheevii fragments performed with the use of SSR markers showed that the lines with unstable meiosis were characterized by higher numbers of introgressions compared to stable lines. The influence of certain chromosomes of T. timopheevii on chromosome pairing stability was also demonstrated. In cytologically unstable lines, the increased frequency of 2A substitutions along with the high frequency of introgression of T. timopheevii genetic material into chromosome 7A was observed. Multivalents were scored in all cases of introgression in chromosome 7A. It was suggested that the reason for the genome instability in hybrid forms lied in insufficient compensating ability of certain T. timopheevii chromosomes and/or their parts, involved into recombination processes.

  6. The effect of selenium and UV radiation on leaf traits and biomass production in Triticum aestivum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Aleksandra; Kavčič, Jan; Stibilj, Vekoslava; Gaberščik, Alenka; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Germ, Mateja

    2017-02-01

    UV radiation as an evolutionarily important environmental factor, significantly affects plants traits and alters the effects of other environmental factors. Single and combined effects of ambient UV radiation, its exclusion, and Se foliar treatments on Si concentrations and production of Si phytoliths in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. 'Reska' were studied. The effects of these treatments on growth parameters of the plants, structural and biochemical traits of the leaves, and interactions of the leaves with light, as Si incrustation is the first barrier to light at the leaf surface were also examined. Under ambient UV radiation and foliar treatment with 10mgL -1 sodium selenate solution, there was a trade-off between the plant investment in primary and secondary metabolism, as the production of UV-absorbing compounds was enhanced while photosynthetic pigment levels were reduced. Independent of Se treatment, ambient UV radiation lowered respiratory potential, Ca concentration, and leaf thickness, and increased Si concentration, Si phytoliths formation, and cuticle thickness. The Se treatment has little effect on plant traits and biomass production but it increased Se concentrations in the plants by >100-fold, independent of UV radiation. In combination with UV radiation Se strengthen the protection of plants against stress by increasing the amount of UV absorbing compounds, light reflectance and transmittance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of MAPK and MAPKK Gene Families in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoshuang Zhan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascade is a universal signal transduction module that plays a vital role in regulating growth and development, as well as environmental stress responses in plants. Wheat is one of the most important crops worldwide. Although the MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K family in wheat has been investigated, the MAPK and MAPK kinase (MAP2K gene families remain unknown at present. Here, 54 MAPK and 18 MAPKK genes were identified in wheat using recent genomic information. Phylogenetic analysis of Triticum aestivum L. MAPKs and MAPKKs (TaMAPKs and TaMAPKKs together with homologous genes from other species classified them into four groups, and the clustering was consistent with the genomic exon/intron structures. Conserved motif analysis found that MAPK proteins contained a typical TXY phosphorylation site and MAPKK proteins contained an S/T-X5-S/T motif. RNA-seq data mapping analysis showed that MAPK and MAPKK genes in group IV had tissue-specific expression profiles, whereas each group I member showed relatively high expression in all organs. Expression patterns of TaMAPK and TaMAPKK genes under stress conditions were also investigated and stress-responsive candidates were identified. Co-expression network analysis identified 11 TaMAPK genes and 6 TaMAPKK genes involved in the interaction network pathway. Overall, this study provided useful information for evolutionary and functional surveys of MAPK and MAPKK gene families in wheat and beyond.

  8. Effect of planting date and crop density of autumn wheat (Triticum aestivum L. on density and biomass of weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghorbani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Weeds in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. fields have always been a big problem in Iran and worldwide and must be managed by non-chemical especially cultural methods. A field experiment as factorial based on a randomized complete block design with four replications in a 1000 m2 field in Research Farm of Shirvan College of Agriculture was conducted during 2007-2008. Treatments included wheat densities of 400, 600 and 800 plants.m-2and planting dates of 1st of Nov., 20th of Nov., and 1st of Dec 2007. The results represented that the presence of Rapistrum rogusum, Phalaris spp., Descurainia sophia, Alopecurus myosurides and Hordeum murinum dominance. Delay in planting of wheat increased relative density of weeds. The lowest relative frequency of weeds was observed in planting date of 1st of November. Increase in crop density significantly decreased weed biomass, while it showed little effect on weed density trend. Effect of planting date was also significant on weed biomass. The highest weed biomass occurred in the planting date of Dec. the 1st. In conclusion, delay in planting of wheat create more chance and space for weed establishment, and therefore planting dense (600 plants.m-2 and early in season of wheat is recommended for lower weed damage.

  9. The genetic characteristics in cytology and plant physiology of two wheat (Triticum aestivum) near isogenic lines with different freezing tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqiang; Hao, Qunqun; Wang, Wenlong; Li, Qinxue; Wang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Freezing tolerance in taft plants relied more upon an ABA-independent- than an ABA-dependent antifreeze signaling pathway. Two wheat (Triticum aestivum) near isogenic lines (NIL) named tafs (freezing sensitivity) and taft (freezing tolerance) were isolated in the laboratory and their various cytological and physiological characteristics under freezing conditions were studied. Proplastid, cell membrane, and mitochondrial ultrastructure were less damaged by freezing treatment in taft than tafs plants. Chlorophyll, ATP, and thylakoid membrane protein contents were significantly higher, but malondialdehyde content was significantly lower in taft than tafs plants under freezing condition. Antioxidant capacity, as indicated by reactive oxygen species accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activity, and the relative gene expression were significantly greater in taft than tafs plants. Soluble sugars and abscisic acid (ABA) contents were significantly higher in taft plants than in tafs plants under both normal and freezing conditions. The upregulated expression levels of certain freezing tolerance-related genes were greater in taft than tafs plants under freezing treatment. The addition of sodium tungstate, an ABA synthesis inhibitor, led to only partial freezing tolerance inhibition in taft plants and the down-regulated expression of some ABA-dependent genes. Thus, both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent signaling pathways are involved in the freezing tolerance of taft plants. At the same time, freezing tolerance in taft plants relied more upon an ABA-independent- than an ABA-dependent antifreeze signaling pathway.

  10. Near-isogenic lines of Triticum aestivum with distinct modes of resistance exhibit dissimilar transcriptional regulation during Diuraphis noxia feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Botha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia, Kurdjumov feeding on susceptible Triticum aestivum L. leads to leaf rolling, chlorosis and plant death – symptoms not present in resistant lines. Although the effects of several D. noxia (Dn resistance genes are known, none have been isolated or characterized. Wheat varieties expressing different Dn genes exhibit distinct modes of D. noxia resistance, such as antibiosis (Dn1, tolerance (Dn2, and antixenosis (Dn5. However, the mechanism whereby feeding aphids are perceived, and how subsequent transcriptional responses are partitioned into resistance categories, remains unclear. Here we report on downstream events in near-isogenic wheat lines containing different Dn genes after D. noxia biotype SA1 feeding. Transcripts involved in stress, signal transduction, photosynthesis, metabolism and gene regulation were differentially regulated during D. noxia feeding. Expression analyses using RT-qPCR and RNA hybridization, as well as enzyme activity profiling, provide evidence that the timing and intensity of pathways induced are critical in the development of particular modes of resistance. Pathways involved include the generation of kinase signalling cascades that lead to a sustained oxidative burst, and a hypersensitive response that is active during antibiosis. Tolerance is a passive resistance mechanism that acts through repair or de novo synthesis of photosystem proteins. Results further suggest that ethylene-mediated pathways are possibly involved in generating volatile compounds and cell wall fortification during the antixenosic response.

  11. Effect of silicon application on physiological characteristics and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under drought stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmollachaab

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on some physiological characteristics and growth of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under late drought stress condition, an experiment was conducted at the Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Ramin, Khuzestan during year 2012. The experiment was conducted in the open environment as factorial randomized complete block design with three levels of drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of available water content as the first factor and four levels of silicon (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg Si.kg-1 soil as the second factor with three replications. The results showed that drought stress imposed a negative significant effect on all traits. The drought stress led to increased electrolyte leakage and proline content, cuticular wax, leaf silicon concentration, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD and grain potassium were decreased. The severe drought stress has most effect on electrolyte leakage (up to 53%. The application of silicon except the shoot/root parameter, on all characters have been affected so that application of 30 mg Si.kg-1 soil led to decrease electrolyte leakage up to 22.5% and increased SOD activity, proline content, cuticular wax grain K and flag leaf Si concentration, 25, 12.8, 21, 17 and 30% compared to control, respectively. In general, the results showed a positive effect of silicon on wheat plant under stress conditions that were higher than no stress condition.

  12. Production and meiotic pairing behaviour of new hybrids of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) x winter barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár-Láng, M; Linc, G; Logojan, A; Sutka, J

    2000-12-01

    New winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) x winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) hybrids produced using cultivated varieties (wheat 'Martonvásári 9 krl'(Mv9 krl) x barley 'Igri', Mv9 krl x 'Osnova', 'Asakazekomugi' x 'Manas') were multiplied in tissue culture because of the high degree of sterility and then pollinated with wheat to obtain backcross progenies. Meiotic analysis of the hybrids Mv9 krl x 'Igri' and 'Asakazekomugi' x 'Manas' and their in vitro regenerated progenies with the Feulgen method revealed 1.59 chromosome arm associations per cell in both initial hybrids. The number of chromosome arm associations increased after in vitro culture to 4.72 and 2.67, respectively, in the two combinations. According to the genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis, wheat-barley chromosome arm associations made up 3.6% of the total in the initial Mv9 krl x 'Igri' hybrid and 6.6% and 16.5% of the total in in vitro regenerated progenies of the 'Asakazekomugi' x 'Manas' and Mv9 krl x 'Igri' hybrids, respectively. The demonstration by GISH of wheat-barley chromosome pairing in the hybrids and especially in their in vitro regenerated progenies proves the possibility of producing recombinants between these two genera, and thus of transferring useful characters from barley into wheat. In vitro conditions caused an increase in chromosome arm association frequency in both combinations and in fertility in some regenerants.

  13. Comparative study of wild and transformed salt tolerant bacterial strains on Triticum aestivum growth under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Afrasayab

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven salt tolerant bacteria isolated from different sources (soil, plants and their transformed strains were used to study their influence on Triticum aestivum var. Inqlab-91 growth under salt (100 mM NaCl stress. Salt stress caused reduction in germination (19.4%, seedling growth (46% and fresh weight (39% in non-inoculated plants. In general, both wild and transformed strains stimulated germination, seedling growth and fresh weight in salt free and salt stressed conditions. At 100 mM NaCl, Staphylococcus xylosus ST-1 caused 25% increments in seedling length over respective control. Soluble protein content significantly enhanced (49% under salt stress as compared to salt free control. At 100 mM NaCl parental strain PT-5 resulted about 32% enhancement in protein content over respective control treatment. Salt stress induced the promotion of auxin content in seedlings. Overall, Bacillus subtilis HAa2 and transformed E. coli-SP-7-T, caused 33% and 30% increases in auxin content, respectively, were recorded under salt stress in comparison to control.

  14. Effect of zinc-lysine on growth, yield and cadmium uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Hussain, Afzal; Ali, Qasim; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Farid, Mujahid; Asma, Maliha

    2017-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is among the most widespread toxic trace elements found in agricultural soils due to various anthropogenic activities. The role of micronutrient-amino chelates on reducing Cd toxicity in crop plants is recently introduced. The current study was conducted to highlight the role of foliar application of zinc-lysine (Zn-lys) complex on biochemical and growth parameters and Cd uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in aged Cd-contaminated soil. Foliar concentration of Zn-lys (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg L -1 ) was applied at different time intervals (2nd, 3rd, 5th and 7th week of sowing) and plants were harvested at maturity. Folliar application of Zinc-lys significantly increased the photosynthesis, grain yield, enzyme activities and Zn contents in different plant tissues. Zinc-lys reduced Cd contents in grains, shoot and root as well as reduced the oxidative stress in wheat linearly in a dose-additive manner. Taken together, Zn-lys chelate efficiently improved wheat growth and fortified Zn contents while reduced Cd concentration in plant in a Zn-deficient Cd-contaminated soil. Although, health risk index (HRI) from the soil sampling area seems to be lower than <1 for Cd but may exceed due to long-term consumption of grains produced from such contaminated soil. Foliar applied Zn-lys reduced HRI which may help to reduce health risks associated with Cd. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases from Sus scrofa, Cydia pomonella and Triticum aestivum: their responses to cantharidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics in organisms. However, their other functions, especially response to the natural toxin cantharidin produced by beetles in the Meloidae and Oedemeridae families, are less known. We obtained GST cDNAs from three sources: Cydia pomonella (CpGSTd1), Sus scrofa (SsGSTα1), and Triticum aestivum (TaGSTf3). The predicted molecular mass is 24.19, 25.28 and 24.49 kDa, respectively. These proteins contain typical N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Recombinant GSTs were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins. Their optimal activities are exhibited at pH 7.0-7.5 at 30 °C. Activity of CpGSTd1 is strongly inhibited by cantharidin and cantharidic acid, but is only slightly suppressed by the demethylated analog of cantharidin and cantharidic acid. Enzymatic assays revealed that cantharidin has no effect on SsGSTα1 activity, while it significantly stimulates TaGSTf3 activity, with an EC50 value of 0.3852 mM. Activities of these proteins are potently inhibited by the known GST competitive inhibitor: S-hexylglutathione (GTX). Our results suggest that these GSTs from different sources share similar structural and biochemical characteristics. Our results also suggest that CpGSTd1 might act as a binding protein with cantharidin and its analogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Differentiation Among Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici Isolates Originating from Wild Versus Domesticated Triticum Species in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Roi; Parks, Ryan; Dinoor, Amos; Kosman, Evsey; Wicker, Thomas; Keller, Beat; Cowger, Christina

    2016-08-01

    Israel and its vicinity constitute a center of diversity of domesticated wheat species (Triticum aestivum and T. durum) and their sympatrically growing wild relatives, including wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides). We investigated differentiation within the forma specialis of their obligate powdery mildew pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici. A total of 61 B. graminis f. sp. tritici isolates were collected from the three host species in four geographic regions of Israel. Genetic relatedness of the isolates was characterized using both virulence patterns on 38 wheat lines (including 21 resistance gene differentials) and presumptively neutral molecular markers (simple-sequence repeats and single-nucleotide polymorphisms). All isolates were virulent on at least some genotypes of all three wheat species tested. All assays divided the B. graminis f. sp. tritici collection into two distinct groups, those from domesticated hosts and those from wild emmer wheat. One-way migration was detected from the domestic wheat B. graminis f. sp. tritici population to the wild emmer B. graminis f. sp. tritici population at a rate of five to six migrants per generation. This gene flow may help explain the overlap between the distinct domestic and wild B. graminis f. sp. tritici groups. Overall, B. graminis f. sp. tritici is significantly differentiated into wild-emmer and domesticated-wheat populations, although the results do not support the existence of a separate f. sp. dicocci.

  17. Combining ability analysis for grain filling duration and yield traits in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaluddin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A diallel analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell parents (n = 11 and their F1 (n = 55 and F2 (n = 55 offspring was carried out for the following four traits: grain filling duration (GFD, GFD for growing degree days (GDD, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. Analysis of variance for general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA displayed significant F1 and F2 general and specific combining ability effects for the four traits studied. For all the traits the GCA effects were relatively more important than the SCA effects, indicating that additive genetic effects were predominant. Crosses displaying high SCA effects for grain filling duration, seed weight and yield were observed to be derived from parents having various types of GCA effects (high x high, high x low, low x low and medium x low. The single seed descent method can be applied to exploit additive gene effects whereas dominance gene effects could be valuable in hybrid wheat breeding programs. Among the parents, genotypes from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo, CIMMYT as well as South Asia were found to be superior general combiners for grain filling duration. Likewise, crosses involving diverse parents from CIMMYT and South Asia showed significant SCA effects for grain filling duration and other traits.

  18. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes by cDNA-AFLP Technique in Response to Drought Stress in Triticum durum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marouane Melloul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the single largest abiotic stress factor leading to reduced crop yields. The identification of diff erentially expressed genes and the understanding of their functions in environmentally stressful conditions are essential to improve drought tolerance. Transcriptomics is a powerful approach for the global analysis of molecular mechanisms under abiotic stress. To identify genes that are important for drought tolerance, we analyzed mRNA populations from untreated and drought-stressed leaves of Triticum durum by cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP technique. Overall, 76 transcript-derived fragments corresponding to differentially induced transcripts were successfully sequenced. Most of the transcripts identified here, using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST database, were genes belonging to different functional categories related to metabolism, energy, cellular biosynthesis, cell defense, signal transduction, transcription regulation, protein degradation and transport. The expression patterns of these genes were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR based on ten selected genes representing different patterns. These results could facilitate the understanding of cellular mechanisms involving groups of genes that act in coordination in response to stimuli of water deficit. The identification of novel stress-responsive genes will provide useful data that could help develop breeding strategies aimed at improving durum wheat tolerance to field stress.

  19. Salt-Induced Tissue-Specific Cytosine Methylation Downregulates Expression of HKT Genes in Contrasting Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Beena, Ananda Sankara; Awana, Monika; Singh, Archana

    2017-04-01

    Plants have evolved several strategies, including regulation of genes through epigenetic modifications, to cope with environmental stresses. DNA methylation is dynamically regulated through the methylation and demethylation of cytosine in response to environmental perturbations. High-affinity potassium transporters (HKTs) have accounted for the homeostasis of sodium and potassium ions in plants under salt stress. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is sensitive to soil salinity, which impedes its growth and development, resulting in decreased productivity. The differential expression of HKTs has been reported to confer tolerance to salt stress in plants. In this study, we investigated variations in cytosine methylation and their effects on the expression of HKT genes in contrasting wheat genotypes under salt stress. We observed a genotype- and tissue-specific increase in cytosine methylation induced by NaCl stress that downregulated the expression of TaHKT2;1 and TaHKT2;3 in the shoot and root tissues of Kharchia-65, thereby contributing to its improved salt-tolerance ability. Although TaHKT1;4 was expressed only in roots and was downregulated under the stress in salt-tolerant genotypes, it was not regulated through variations in cytosine methylation. Thus, understanding epigenetic regulation and the function of HKTs would enable an improvement in salt tolerance and the development of salt-tolerant crops.

  20. Genetic diversity, population structure and marker-trait associations for agronomic and grain traits in wild diploid wheat Triticum urartu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Luo, Guangbin; Yang, Wenlong; Li, Yiwen; Sun, Jiazhu; Zhan, Kehui; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Aimin

    2017-07-01

    Wild diploid wheat, Triticum urartu (T. urartu) is the progenitor of bread wheat, and understanding its genetic diversity and genome function will provide considerable reference for dissecting genomic information of common wheat. In this study, we investigated the morphological and genetic diversity and population structure of 238 T. urartu accessions collected from different geographic regions. This collection had 19.37 alleles per SSR locus and its polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.76, and the PIC and Nei's gene diversity (GD) of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) were 0.86 and 0.88, respectively. UPGMA clustering analysis indicated that the 238 T. urartu accessions could be classified into two subpopulations, of which Cluster I contained accessions from Eastern Mediterranean coast and those from Mesopotamia and Transcaucasia belonged to Cluster II. The wide range of genetic diversity along with the manageable number of accessions makes it one of the best collections for mining valuable genes based on marker-trait association. Significant associations were observed between simple sequence repeats (SSR) or HMW-GSs and six morphological traits: heading date (HD), plant height (PH), spike length (SPL), spikelet number per spike (SPLN), tiller angle (TA) and grain length (GL). Our data demonstrated that SSRs and HMW-GSs were useful markers for identification of beneficial genes controlling important traits in T. urartu, and subsequently for their conservation and future utilization, which may be useful for genetic improvement of the cultivated hexaploid wheat.

  1. Seed priming with sorghum extracts and benzyl aminopurine improves the tolerance against salt stress in wheat (Triticum aestivumL.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Farooq, Muhammad; Nawaz, Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    Salt stress impedes the productivity of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) in many parts of the world. This study evaluated the potential role of benzyl aminopurine (BAP) and sorghum water extract (SWE) in improving the wheat performance under saline conditions. Seeds were primed with BAP (5 mg L -1 ), SWE (5% v/v), BAP + SWE, and distilled water (hydropriming). Soil filled pots maintained at the soil salinity levels of 4 and 10 dS m -1 were used for the sowing of primed and non-primed seeds. Salt stress suppressed the wheat growth; seed priming treatments significantly improved the wheat growth under optimal and suboptimal conditions. Total phenolics, total soluble sugars and proteins, α-amylase activity, chlorophyll contents, and tissue potassium ion (K + ) contents were increased by seed priming under salt stress; while, tissue sodium ion (Na + ) contents were decreased. Seed priming with SWE + BAP was the most effective in this regard. Under salt stress, the tissue Na + contents were reduced by 5.78, 28.3, 32.2, 36.7% by hydropriming, seed priming with SWE, seed priming with BAP, and seed priming with SWE + BAP, respectively over the non-primed control. Effectiveness of seed priming techniques followed the order SWE + BAP > BAP > SWE > Hydropriming. In conclusion, seed priming with SWE + BAP may be opted to improve the tolerance against salt stress in wheat.

  2. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of sunflower on wheat (triticum aestivum l.) and maize (zea mays l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Z.; Mujeed, A.

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower is a potent allelopathic plant which possesses important allelochemicals with known allelopathic activity on other plants. In this study, allelopathic effects of fresh aqueous extracts (FAE) and air dried aqueous extracts (DAE) of root, shoot and leaves of sunflower (Halianthus annuus L.) were investigated on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) in seed bioassay experiments carried out at Botany Department of Peshawar University during 2010. Results showed significantly inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts on seed germination, growth and dry biomass of seedlings of wheat and maize. In wheat seedlings, significant germination inhibition (15.21%), increased mean germination time (MGT) (57.76%), reduced plumule and radical growth (21.66 and 28.44%) and lowered seedlings dry biomass (31.05%) were recorded under dry aqueous extracts of leaf when compared to control. Germination percentage of maize was inhibited by dry aqueous extracts of leaf by 7.81%, germination index by 16.51%, increased MGT by 25.53%, decreased plumule and radical lengths by 29.00 and 36.12% respectively, and lowered maize seedling dry biomass by 34.02 %. In both experiments, dry aqueous extracts (DAE) were more phytotoxic than fresh aqueous extracts (FAE). Similarly, inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of different parts of sunflower were recorded in the order leaf > shoot > root for both tested plants. (author)

  3. Immunoblot quantification of three classes of proteinaceous xylanase inhibitors in different wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) cultivars and milling fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, Evi; Gebruers, Kurt; Luyten, Nikkie; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2009-02-11

    In wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) grains, TAXI- (T. aestivum xylanase inhibitor), XIP- (xylanase inhibiting protein), and TLXI-type (thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor) xylanase inhibitors (XIs) are expressed in considerable levels and under different forms. As these proteins have a significant impact on microbial xylanases frequently used in cereal-based biotechnological processes, knowledge of their quantitative and qualitative variability in wheat is of great interest. This paper reports the successful use of immunoquantification by Western blotting to determine the intercultivar variation in the three structurally different classes of XIs, as well as their distribution among various industrial milling fractions. TAXI and XIP protein levels in eight wheat cultivars ranged from 81 to 190 ppm and from 156 to 371 ppm, with average values of 133 and 235 ppm, respectively. Using immunoblotting, TLXI protein levels could be measured directly for the first time. They ranged from 51 to 150 ppm and amounted to 112 ppm on average. The three classes of XIs were distributed among different wheat milling fractions in a similar way, with 4 and 10 times higher concentrations in the aleurone-enriched fraction than in white flour and pericarp fractions, respectively. Immunoblot patterns suggested that the observed intercultivar and spatial variabilities within the wheat grain are not due to the presence or absence of specific members of the large polymorphic XI families but to differences in the overall level and/or proportions of the specific members.

  4. Auxin secretion by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 both stimulates root exudation and limits phosphorus uptake in Triticum aestivum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of auxin-producing rhizosphere bacteria as agricultural products promises increased root production and therefore greater phosphate (Pi) uptake. Whilst such bacteria promote root production in vitro, the nature of the bacteria-plant interaction in live soil, particularly concerning any effects on nutrient uptake, are not known. This study uses Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42, an auxin-producing rhizobacterium, as a dressing on Triticum aestivum seeds. It then examines the effects on root production, Pi uptake, Pi-related gene expression and organic carbon (C) exudation. Results Seed treatment with B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 increased root production at low environmental Pi concentrations, but significantly repressed root Pi uptake. This coincided with an auxin-mediated reduction in expression of the Pi transporters TaPHT1.8 and TaPHT1.10. Applied exogenous auxin also triggered an increase in root C exudation. At high external Pi concentrations, root production was promoted by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42, but Pi uptake was unaffected. Conclusions We conclude that, alongside promoting root production, auxin biosynthesis by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 both re-models Pi transporter expression and elevates organic C exudation. This shows the potential importance of rhizobacterial-derived auxin following colonisation of root surfaces, and the nature of this bacteria-plant interaction in soil. PMID:24558978

  5. Identification of In-Chain-Functionalized Compounds and Methyl-Branched Alkanes in Cuticular Waxes of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu C Racovita

    Full Text Available In this work, cuticular waxes from flag leaf blades and peduncles of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem were investigated in search for novel wax compounds. Seven wax compound classes were detected that had previously not been reported, and their structures were elucidated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of various derivatives. Six of the classes were identified as series of homologs differing by two methylene units, while the seventh was a homologous series with homologs with single methylene unit differences. In the waxes of flag leaf blades, secondary alcohols (predominantly C27 and C33, primary/secondary diols (predominantly C28 and esters of primary/secondary diols (predominantly C50, combining C28 diol with C22 acid were found, all sharing similar secondary hydroxyl group positions at and around C-12 or ω-12. 7- and 8-hydroxy-2-alkanol esters (predominantly C35, 7- and 8-oxo-2-alkanol esters (predominantly C35, and 4-alkylbutan-4-olides (predominantly C28 were found both in flag leaf and peduncle wax mixtures. Finally, a series of even- and odd-numbered alkane homologs was identified in both leaf and peduncle waxes, with an internal methyl branch preferentially on C-11 and C-13 of homologs with even total carbon number and on C-12 of odd-numbered homologs. Biosynthetic pathways are suggested for all compounds, based on common structural features and matching chain length profiles with other wheat wax compound classes.

  6. Seed coating with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as an ecotechnologicalapproach for sustainable agricultural production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui S; Rocha, Inês; Ma, Ying; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has become of great interest in agriculture due to their potential roles in reducing the need for agrochemicals, while improving plant growth and nutrition. Nevertheless, the application of AM fungi by dispersing inocula in granular form to open agricultural fields is not feasible because nontargeted spreading of inocula over large surface areas results in high cost per plant. Seed coating has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of inoculum needed, resulting in cost reduction and increased efficiency. The aim of this study was to assess whether seed coating with AM fungal inoculum is a feasible delivery system for production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat seeds were coated with inoculum of Rhizophagus irregularis BEG140 and grown under different fertilization conditions: (1) none, (2) partial, or (3) complete. Data indicated that mycorrhizal inoculation via seed coating significantly increased the dry weight of shoot and seed spikes of wheat associated with reduced fertilization. Assessment of nutritional status of wheat showed that plants inoculated with R. irregularis via seed coating displayed enhanced stem concentrations of potassium (K), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). There were no significant differences in root colonization between plants conventionally inoculated with R. irregularis in soil and those inoculated via seed coating. Seed coating with AM fungi may be as effective as conventional soil inoculation and may contribute to reduce the utilization of chemical fertilizers. The application of AM via seed coating is proposed as an ecotechnological approach for sustainable agricultural wheat production.

  7. Potassium up-regulates antioxidant metabolism and alleviates growth inhibition under water and osmotic stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanger, Mohammad Abass; Agarwal, R M

    2017-07-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to find out the effectivity of K on Triticum aestivum L cultivars. Polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) was used as an osmoticum to induce osmotic stress under sand culture setting up the water potential of external solution at -3 and -5 bars. In pots, plants were raised under restricted and normal irrigation and K was applied in varying doses (0, 20, 40, 60 kg ha -1 ) and estimation of different physiological and biochemical parameters was done at two developmental stages, i.e., preflowering and flowering. Supplementation of K resulted in obvious increase in growth and activity of antioxidant enzymes in both normal and stressed plants. Added potassium increased total phenols and tannins thereby strengthening the components of both the enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant system. Under both normal and stressed conditions, K-fed plants experienced significant increase in the synthesis of osmolytes like free proline, amino acids, and sugars which assumes special significance in growth under water stress conditions. Wheat plants accumulating greater K were able to counteract the water stress-induced changes by maintaining lower Na/K ratio.

  8. Effect of green manure crops and nitrogen fertilizer levels on dry matter remobilization efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. internodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gerami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of nitrogen rates and green manure crops on dry matter mobilization and mobilization efficiency indices of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. a field experiment was conducted in Agricultural Faculty of Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz during growing season of 2010-2011. The experimental design was split-plot based on randomized complete block with three replications. Main plot included four nitrogen rates (i.e. 0, 50, 100 and 150 kgN.ha-1 and sub-plot included six green manure crops containing millet (Pennisetum sp., amaranth (Amaranthus sp., sesbania (Sesbania sp., cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and fallow. This experiment was done at two stages. First, planting and turn down of green manure crops and then planting of wheat. The results showed that the maximum weight and specific weight of all stem internodes obtained from 0 to 20 days after wheat anthesis. Then, this trend decreased from 20 to 50 days after wheat anthesis due to remobilization of dry matter to grain. Mobilized dry matter was more in control (0 kg.N.h-1 than in high N application for peduncle (219 vs. 181 mg and penultimate (203 vs. 165 mg, while, was less in the lower internodes (403 vs. 407 mg. Generally, with increasing of nitrogen levels, dry matter mobilization efficiency was decreased by. So, the effect of green manure crops not limited only by soil properties, while influences the relationship between physiological sources and sink.

  9. Alleviation of salt stress by halotolerant and halophilic plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Furkan

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, 18 halotolerant and halophilic bacteria have been investigated for their plant growth promoting abilities in vitro and in a hydroponic culture. The bacterial strains have been investigated for ammonia, indole-3-acetic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase production, phosphate solubilisation and nitrogen fixation activities. Of the tested bacteria, eight were inoculated with Triticum aestivum in a hydroponic culture. The investigated bacterial strains were found to have different plant-growth promoting activities in vitro. Under salt stress (200mM NaCl), the investigated bacterial strains significantly increased the root and shoot length and total fresh weight of the plants. The growth rates of the plants inoculated with bacterial strains ranged from 62.2% to 78.1%. Identifying of novel halophilic and halotolerant bacteria that promote plant growth can be used as alternatives for salt sensitive plants. Extensive research has been conducted on several halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains to investigate their plant growth promoting activities. However, to the best of my knowledge, this is the first study to inoculate these bacterial strains with wheat. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical Composition of Asparagus racemosus Root by GC–MS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 4 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Inoculación de trigo (Triticum aestivum, L. con rizobios adaptados a ecosistemas ganaderos de Alberta, Canadá Inoculation of wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. with rhizobia adapted to livestock ecosystems of Alberta, Canadá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J Bécquer

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un ensayo en invernadero con el objetivo de seleccionar cepas de rizobio inoculadas en trigo (Triticum aestivum, L., var. CDC Teal. Para ello se utilizaron 16 cepas nativas canadienses pertenecientes a Sinorhizobium medicae, así como 12 cepas comerciales. Los inóculos se confeccionaron en medio CLM y fueron agitados hasta alcanzar un título de 10(6-10(8 cél./mL. Se utilizaron los métodos estándar para la inoculación de cereales. Se construyó un dendrograma mediante el método de Ward (distancia euclidiana al cuadrado. Se evaluaron las variables: peso seco aéreo (PSA, peso seco raíz (PSR, longitud del tallo (LT, peso seco espigas (PSE y número de hijos (NH. Se constató un incremento significativo en todas las variables en los tratamientos inoculados con las cepas nativas y las cepas comerciales de rizobio, comparados con el testigo absoluto. En peso seco aéreo, peso seco espigas y peso seco raíz, la mayor parte de los tratamientos no difirieron significativamente del control fertilizado. En longitud del tallo existieron 17 tratamientos superiores estadísticamente con respecto al control fertilizado. Se seleccionaron 10 cepas del total. Los tratamientos seleccionados en el dendrograma constituyeron el 31% para las cepas nativas y el 42% para las comerciales. Se recomienda efectuar ensayos de campo con las cepas seleccionadas inoculadas en cereales de interés económico para Cuba.A greenhouse experiment was carried out in order to select rhizobium strains inoculated on wheat (Triticum aestivum, L., var. CDC Teal. For that 16 Canadian native strains, belonging to Sinorhizobium medicae, as well as 12 commercial strains, were used. The inocula were prepared in YMB medium and shaken up to obtain a title of 106-108 cells/mL. The standard methods for the inoculation of cereals were used. A dendrogram was constructed by means of the Ward's method (square Euclidian distance. The variables: aerial dry weight (ADW, dry weight of

  12. Evaluation of yielding of mixtures of Pisum sativum L. with Triticum aestivum L. grown in organic farming

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    Jerzy Księżak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the productivity and quality of feed obtained from the mixtures of field pea (Pisum sativum L. with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L., depending on the pea cultivar and its percentage in the weight of sown seeds under the conditions of organic farming. A field experiment was carried out in the years 2011–2013 in a randomized split-plot design with four replications. The first factor was a pea ‘Wiato’ or ‘Tarchalska’. The secondary factor was density of a pea mixture sown: 40, 60, and 80%. The yield of mixture seeds as well as the yield and structure of individual components were evaluated. The contents of crude protein and crude fiber, fat, ash, phosphorus, and potassium were determined in cereal grain and pea seeds. The examined factors and weather conditions during the growing season had a significant impact on the growth and yield of pea–spring wheat mixtures. The seed yields of the mixtures with the semi-leafless ‘Tarchalska’ were lower than with ‘Wiato’ (with bipinnate leaves. Increasing the pea percentage in seed material resulted in lower mixture yields. The percentage of pea seeds (regardless of foliage type in the mixture yields was significantly lower than the weight of sown seeds. Increasing the pea percentage in the mixture yield positively influenced the contents of protein, fat, and ash but it caused a decrease in the content of fiber. The pea percentage at sowing had little influence on the content of phosphorus in the mixture seed yields, but it slightly increased the content of potassium, regardless of the pea cultivar. The mixtures with the ‘Wiato’ and ‘Tarchalska’ cultivars contained a similar amount of protein, fiber, and fat, while the mixtures with ‘Tarchalska’ accumulated more ash.

  13. Genomic dissection and expression profiling revealed functional divergence in Triticum aestivum leucine rich repeat receptor like kinases (TaLRRKs

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    Shumayla .

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The leucine rich repeat receptor like kinases (LRRK constitute the largest subfamily of receptor like kinases (RLK, which play critical roles in plant development and stress responses. Herein, we identified 531 TaLRRK genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat, which were distributed throughout the A, B, and D sub-genomes and chromosomes. These were clustered into 233 homologous groups, which were mostly located on either homeologous chromosomes from various sub-genomes or in proximity on the same chromosome. A total of 255 paralogous genes were predicted which depicted the role of duplication events in expansion of this gene family. Majority of TaLRRKs consisted of trans-membrane region and localized on plasma-membrane. The TaLRRKs were further categorized into eight phylogenetic groups with numerous subgroups on the basis of sequence homology. The gene and protein structure in terms of exon/intron ratio, domains and motifs organization were found to be variably conserved across the different phylogenetic groups/subgroups, which indicated a potential divergence and neofunctionalization during evolution. High-throughput transcriptome data and quantitative real time PCR analyses in various developmental stages, and biotic and abiotic (heat, drought and salt stresses provided insight into modus operandi of TaLRRKs during these conditions. Distinct expression of majority of stress responsive TaLRRKs homologous genes suggested their specified role in a particular condition. These results provided a comprehensive analysis of various characteristic features including functional divergence, which may provide the way for future functional characterization of this important gene family in bread wheat.

  14. Fine physical and genetic mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW172 originating from wild emmer (Triticum dicoccoides.

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    Shuhong Ouyang

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most important wheat diseases in the world. In this study, a single dominant powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW172 was identified in the IW172 wild emmer accession and mapped to the distal region of chromosome arm 7AL (bin7AL-16-0.86-0.90 via molecular marker analysis. MlIW172 was closely linked with the RFLP probe Xpsr680-derived STS marker Xmag2185 and the EST markers BE405531 and BE637476. This suggested that MlIW172 might be allelic to the Pm1 locus or a new locus closely linked to Pm1. By screening genomic BAC library of durum wheat cv. Langdon and 7AL-specific BAC library of hexaploid wheat cv. Chinese Spring, and after analyzing genome scaffolds of Triticum urartu containing the marker sequences, additional markers were developed to construct a fine genetic linkage map on the MlIW172 locus region and to delineate the resistance gene within a 0.48 cM interval. Comparative genetics analyses using ESTs and RFLP probe sequences flanking the MlIW172 region against other grass species revealed a general co-linearity in this region with the orthologous genomic regions of rice chromosome 6, Brachypodium chromosome 1, and sorghum chromosome 10. However, orthologous resistance gene-like RGA sequences were only present in wheat and Brachypodium. The BAC contigs and sequence scaffolds that we have developed provide a framework for the physical mapping and map-based cloning of MlIW172.

  15. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Gao, Jingwen; Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  16. Impact of humic acid and chemical fertilizer application on growth and grain yield of rainfed wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.U.; Khan, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The high cost of inorganic fertilizer, use of natural fertilizer resources for increasing crop production on sustainable basis has become imperative. Two field experiments were conducted to study the potential of humic acid (HA) as a low-cost natural fertilizer and to determine its effect on the yield of rainfed wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Naseer) at the research farm of Arid Zone Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan during two successive winter seasons, 2007-08 and 2008-09. The treatments consisted of HA alone (3 kg ha/sup -1/ or 1.5 kg ha/sup -1/) and in combination with full (60:40 kg ha/sup -1/) and half (30:20 kg ha/sup -1/) the recommended rates of NP fertilizers. Results showed that in the first growing season (2007-08), the combination of 3 kg ha/sup -1/ HA with half (30:20 kg ha-1) rate of NP produced the highest grain yield (1314 kg ha/sup -1/) and increased the yield by 46.9% over the control. In the second growing season (2008-09), application of 3 kg ha/sup -1/ HA alone produced significantly (P<0.05) higher grain yield (2999.9 kg ha/sup -1/) and increased the yield by 24% over the control and saved 100% cost of the chemical fertilizer. Results suggested that HA applied alone at 3 kg ha/sup -1/ or in combination with half (30:20 kg ha/sup -1/) rate of NP fertilizers appeared to be the most economical rate to obtain the maximum yield of wheat under the rainfed conditions of Dera Ismail Khan. HA has great potential as a low cost natural fertilizer to improve soil fertility on sustainable basis. (author)

  17. A method to produce radiation hybrids for the D-genome chromosomes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera-Lizarazu, O; Leonard, J M; Tiwari, V K; Kianian, S F

    2010-07-01

    Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping is based on radiation-induced chromosome breakage rather than meiotic recombination, as a means to induce marker segregation for mapping. To date, the implementation of this mapping approach in hexaploid (Triticum aestivum L.; 2n = 6x = 42; AABBDD) and tetraploid (T. turgidum L.; 2n = 4x = 28; AABB) wheat has concentrated on the production of mapping panels for individual chromosomes. In order to extend the usefulness of this approach, we have devised a method to produce panels for the simultaneous mapping of all chromosomes of the D subgenome of hexaploid wheat. In this approach, seeds of hexaploid wheat (AABBDD) are irradiated and the surviving plants are crossed to tetraploid wheat (AABB) to produce a mapping panel based on quasi-pentaploids (AABBD). Chromosome lesions in the A and B genomes are largely masked in the quasi-pentaploids due to the presence of A- and B-genome chromosomes from the tetraploid parent. On the other hand, the chromosomes from the D-genome are present in one copy (hemizygous) and allow radiation hybrid mapping of all D-genome chromosomes simultaneously. Our analyses showed that transmission of D-genome chromosomes was apparently normal and that radiation-induced chromosome breakage along D-genome chromosomes was homogeneous. Chromosome breakage levels between D-genome chromosomes were comparable except for chromosome 6D which suffered greater chromosome breakage. These results demonstrate the feasibility of constructing D-genome radiation hybrids (DGRHs) in wheat. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL TANAMAN GANDUM (Triticum aestivum L. VARIETAS DEWATA DALAM POLYBAG PADA BERBAGAI POPULASI DAN KOMPOSISI MEDIA TANAM

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    Nugraheni Widyawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the growth and yield performance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. variety of Dewata planted in polybag with various populations and media compositions, had been conducted in Faculty of Agriculture Satya Wacana Christian University field research, located at Salaran – Kopeng village, Semarang district, from April 2012 to August 2012. Location of the study lies at an altitude of 900 meters above the sea level. Purpose of this study were to determine the appearance of both the growth and yield of wheat grown in polybag with a various population densities and media composition, as well as to determine the combination of treatments that producing the highest yield of wheat. Factorial design used that was consisted of two factors, i.e: (1 growing gedia composition with four different volume ratio of sand, soil and manure (1:1:1, (1:1:0, (1:0:1 and (0:1:1, and (2 population densities consisted of four: 1 seeds per polybag; 2 seeds per polybag; 3 seeds per polybag and 4 seeds per polybag, so that there were 16 combinations of treatments. Each combination was repeated three times. Basic design of the experiments used Randomized Block Design. Experimental data were analyzed by using analysis of variance (ANOVA and high significant difference (HSD test at 95% level of confidence. The conclusion of this study were: (1 Combination of treatment of population densities and composition of  growing media influence on plant height, number of plants per cluster, panicle length, seed weight per panicle, seed weight per cluster and seed weight per polybag and (2 the highest seed weight per polybag was resulted in the density of population of 4 seeds per polybag and planting on mixed media of sand, soil and manure in the volume ratio of 1:1:1.

  19. Effect of nitrogen levels and nitrogen ratios on lodging resistance and yield potential of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingwei; Wang, Hui; Yi, Yuan; Ding, Jinfeng; Zhu, Min; Li, Chunyan; Guo, Wenshan; Feng, Chaonian; Zhu, Xinkai

    2017-01-01

    Lodging is one of the constraints that limit wheat yields and quality due to the unexpected bending or breaking stems on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production worldwide. In addition to choosing lodging resistance varieties, husbandry practices also have a significant effect on lodging. Nitrogen management is one of the most common and efficient methods. A field experiment with Yangmai 20 as research material (a widely-used variety) was conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen levels and ratios on culm morphological, anatomical characters and chemical components and to explore the nitrogen application techniques for lodging tolerance and high yield. Results showed that some index of basal internodes, such as stem wall thickness, filling degree, lignin content, cellulose content, water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and WSC/N ratio, were positively and significantly correlated with culm lodging-resistant index (CLRI). As the increase of nitrogen level and basal nitrogen ratio, the basal internodes became slender and fragile with the thick stem wall, while filling degree, chemical components and the strength of the stem decreased gradually, which significantly increased the lodging risk. The response of grain yield to nitrogen doses was quadratic and grain yield reached the highest at the nitrogen ratio of 50%:10%:20%:20% (the ratio of nitrogen amount applied before sowing, at tillering stage, jointing stage and booting stage respectively, abbreviated as 5:1:2:2). These results suggested that for Yangmai 20, the planting density of 180×104ha-1, nitrogen level of 225 kg ha-1, and the ratio of 5: 1: 2: 2 effectively increased lodging resistance and grain yield. This combination of planting density and nitrogen level and ratio could effectively relieve the contradiction between high-yielding and anti-lodging.

  20. Effect of nitrogen levels and nitrogen ratios on lodging resistance and yield potential of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingwei Zhang

    Full Text Available Lodging is one of the constraints that limit wheat yields and quality due to the unexpected bending or breaking stems on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production worldwide. In addition to choosing lodging resistance varieties, husbandry practices also have a significant effect on lodging. Nitrogen management is one of the most common and efficient methods. A field experiment with Yangmai 20 as research material (a widely-used variety was conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen levels and ratios on culm morphological, anatomical characters and chemical components and to explore the nitrogen application techniques for lodging tolerance and high yield. Results showed that some index of basal internodes, such as stem wall thickness, filling degree, lignin content, cellulose content, water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC and WSC/N ratio, were positively and significantly correlated with culm lodging-resistant index (CLRI. As the increase of nitrogen level and basal nitrogen ratio, the basal internodes became slender and fragile with the thick stem wall, while filling degree, chemical components and the strength of the stem decreased gradually, which significantly increased the lodging risk. The response of grain yield to nitrogen doses was quadratic and grain yield reached the highest at the nitrogen ratio of 50%:10%:20%:20% (the ratio of nitrogen amount applied before sowing, at tillering stage, jointing stage and booting stage respectively, abbreviated as 5:1:2:2. These results suggested that for Yangmai 20, the planting density of 180×104ha-1, nitrogen level of 225 kg ha-1, and the ratio of 5: 1: 2: 2 effectively increased lodging resistance and grain yield. This combination of planting density and nitrogen level and ratio could effectively relieve the contradiction between high-yielding and anti-lodging.

  1. Efecto de vermicompuestos pecuarios en algunos indicadores fisiológicos de Triticum aestivum var. buck pingo

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    Hilda E. Pedranzani

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del uso de vermicompuestos de origen pecuario sobre algunos indicadores fisiológicos, se realizó un estudio en trigo. Para ello se utilizaron 50 semillas de Triticum aestivum var. buck pingo por tratamiento y veintiocho sustratos elaborados a partir de cuatro vermicompuestos provenientes de estiércoles de vaca (A, caballo (B, cabra (C y gallina (D, en seis concentraciones crecientes y mezclados con suelo (10:90; 20:80; 30:70; 40:60; 50:50 y 100:0, además de un testigo (100 g de suelo y ausencia de vermicompuesto, 0:100. El diseño fue de bloques completamente aleatorizados y la unidad experimental consistió en diez plantas en cada uno de los bloques. Los tratamientos se colocaron en condiciones de un fotoperiodo de 8 h luz a 30 °C y 16 h oscuridad a 20 °C, con riego a capacidad de campo. Se calculó el porcentaje de germinación (PG, y se evaluó la longitud foliar (LF y radical (LR; el peso fresco y seco del follaje (PFF y PSF, y el peso fresco y seco de las raíces (PFR y PSR. A, B y C produjeron incremento del PG respecto al control. La LF y LR se incrementaron con los sustratos A, C y D en casi todas las concentraciones, mientras que B solo lo hizo al 100 %. Los sustratos B, C y D produjeron incrementos en PFF, PFR, PSF y PSR para todas las concentraciones. Se concluye que los vermicompuestos influyeron, en general, de forma positiva en los principales indicadores fisiológicos de T. aestivum.

  2. Cultivate in vitro of wheat Anthers (Triticum Aestivum L.) In the ICA-TENZA and PAV -76 varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique O, Olga L.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the present work consisted, in determining the cultivation conditions under which it was possible to induce through the technique of the cultivation of anthers, the callus formation and possible regeneration of green plants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the varieties ICA-Tenza and Pav -76. With the purpose of identifying the but appropriate state of development of the grain of pollen for the inoculation of the anthers, a cytologic study was made in which was correlation among the moriolic parameters of the plant; (inter liguler distances, auricle-knot distances and longitude of the edges) and the state of development of the microspore; Of the parameters, it was recommended to keep in mind the longitude from the edges when harvesting the experimental material. The anthers of both genotypes were inoculated in the means bases Pope 4 and N6, with hormonal levels of ELL (naftalen acetic acid) of 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/I. the answers of the genotypes were evaluated before the means of basal cultivation, in connection with the induction of tripes and the plants regeneration. Of the two used genotypes, the Pav -76 it presented bigger capacity to induce the formation of tripes, while the ICA-Tenza genotype presented a bigger answer capacity in the regeneration of plants so much green as albino. The results obtained allowed to establish that a relationship exists between the means of cultivation and the capacity of the genotypes to regenerate as much tripes as plants. Due to the drop survival of the regenerated plants, it was not possible to settle down with clarity a relationship of the ploidia level

  3. Cytogenetic and molecular identification of a wheat-Leymus mollis alien multiple substitution line from octoploid Tritileymus x Triticum durum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Y H; Zhao, J X; Du, W L; Li, Y L; Wang, J; Wang, L M; Wu, J; Cheng, X N; Yang, Q H; Chen, X H

    2014-05-23

    Leymus mollis (Trin.) Pilger (NsNsXmXm, 2n = 28), a wild relative of common wheat, possesses many traits that are potentially valuable for wheat improvement. In order to exploit and utilize the useful genes of L. mollis, we developed a multiple alien substitution line, 10DM50, from the progenies of octoploid Tritileymus M842-16 x Triticum durum cv. D4286. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis of mitosis and meiosis (metaphase I), using labeled total DNA of Psathyrostachys huashanica as probe, showed that the substitution line 10DM50 was a cytogenetically stable alien substitution line with 36 chromosomes from wheat and three pairs of Ns genome chromosomes from L. mollis. Simple sequence repeat analysis showed that the chromosomes 3D, 6D, and 7D were absent in 10DM50. Expressed sequence tag-sequence tagged sites analysis showed that new chromatin from 3Ns, 6Ns, and 7Ns of L. mollis were detected in 10DM50. We deduced that the substitution line 10DM50 was a multiple alien substitution line with the 3D, 6D, and 7D chromosomes replaced by 3Ns, 6Ns, and 7Ns from L. mollis. 10DM50 showed high resistance to leaf rust and significantly improved spike length, spikes per plant, and kernels per spike, which are correlated with higher wheat yield. These results suggest that line 10DM50 could be used as intermediate material for transferring desirable traits from L. mollis into common wheat in breeding programs.

  4. Heat-induced regulation of antioxidant defense system and nutrient accumulation in hexaploid bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, M.A.; Ashraf, M.; Akram, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ten cultivars (five registered S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, and Lasani, and five candidate cultivars P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10, and G.A-20) of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined for high temperature stress tolerance. Plants were grown in soil filled pots in the Botanical Garden of the Department of Botany University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Three different temperature regimes (30, 40 and 50 degree C) were applied at two different growth stages (tillering and boot) for three temperature durations 30, 60 and 90 min in a growth chamber. The leaf and root samples were collected after two weeks of temperature treatment and then analyzed for enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as inorganic nutrients (N, P, K+, Ca2+). At the end, data obtained were statistically analyzed to distinguish heat tolerant from non-tolerant wheat cultivars. After appraisal of growth, antioxidant defense system and uptake of nutrients it was found that cvs. S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, Lasani and G.A-20 exhibited better thermo-tolerance capabilities than the other wheat cultivars (P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10). Among the thermo-tolerant wheat cultivars, G.A-20 and Lasani were superior in maintaining shoot fresh weights and shoot length, high antioxidant activities and better nutrient uptake at both tillering and boot stages. The response of all cultivars to heat stress applied at the tillering stage or boot stage was almost the same. (author)

  5. Complementary epistasis involving Sr12 explains adult plant resistance to stem rust in Thatcher wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Matthew N; Talbert, Luther E; Singh, Davinder; Sherman, Jamie D

    2014-07-01

    Quantitative trait loci conferring adult plant resistance to Ug99 stem rust in Thatcher wheat display complementary gene action suggesting multiple quantitative trait loci are needed for effective resistance. Adult plant resistance (APR) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), is desirable because this resistance can be Pgt race non-specific. Resistance derived from cultivar Thatcher can confer high levels of APR to the virulent Pgt race TTKSK (Ug99) when combined with stem rust resistance gene Sr57 (Lr34). To identify the loci conferring APR in Thatcher, we evaluated 160 RILs derived from Thatcher crossed to susceptible cultivar McNeal for field stem rust reaction in Kenya for two seasons and in St. Paul for one season. All RILs and parents were susceptible as seedlings to race TTKSK. However, adult plant stem rust severities in Kenya varied from 5 to 80 %. Composite interval mapping identified four quantitative trait loci (QTL). Three QTL were inherited from Thatcher and one, Sr57, was inherited from McNeal. The markers closest to the QTL peaks were used in an ANOVA to determine the additive and epistatic effects. A QTL on 3BS was detected in all three environments and explained 27-35 % of the variation. The peak of this QTL was at the same location as the Sr12 seedling resistance gene effective to race SCCSC. Epistatic interactions were significant between Sr12 and QTL on chromosome arms 1AL and 2BS. Though Sr12 cosegregated with the largest effect QTL, lines with Sr12 were not always resistant. The data suggest that Sr12 or a linked gene, though not effective to race TTKSK alone, confers APR when combined with other resistance loci.

  6. GC-MS Metabolomics to Evaluate the Composition of Plant Cuticular Waxes for Four Triticum aestivum Cultivars

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    Florent D. Lavergne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is an important food crop, and biotic and abiotic stresses significantly impact grain yield. Wheat leaf and stem surface waxes are associated with traits of biological importance, including stress resistance. Past studies have characterized the composition of wheat cuticular waxes, however protocols can be relatively low-throughput and narrow in the range of metabolites detected. Here, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS metabolomics methods were utilized to provide a comprehensive characterization of the chemical composition of cuticular waxes in wheat leaves and stems. Further, waxes from four wheat cultivars were assayed to evaluate the potential for GC-MS metabolomics to describe wax composition attributed to differences in wheat genotype. A total of 263 putative compounds were detected and included 58 wax compounds that can be classified (e.g., alkanes and fatty acids. Many of the detected wax metabolites have known associations to important biological functions. Principal component analysis and ANOVA were used to evaluate metabolite distribution, which was attributed to both tissue type (leaf, stem and cultivar differences. Leaves contained more primary alcohols than stems such as 6-methylheptacosan-1-ol and octacosan-1-ol. The metabolite data were validated using scanning electron microscopy of epicuticular wax crystals which detected wax tubules and platelets. Conan was the only cultivar to display alcohol-associated platelet-shaped crystals on its abaxial leaf surface. Taken together, application of GC-MS metabolomics enabled the characterization of cuticular wax content in wheat tissues and provided relative quantitative comparisons among sample types, thus contributing to the understanding of wax composition associated with important phenotypic traits in a major crop.

  7. The response of photosynthetic parameters of Triticum aestivum L. and Pisum sativum L. to different levels of salinity stress at different climate conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Januskaitiene, Irena; Petraitytė, Skaistė

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the response of physiological parameters of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. ʾAdaʾ) and pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. ’Early onward’) to different levels of salinity stress under changing climate conditions. Experimental plants were grown in growth chambers under the conditions of current climate (400 µmol mol-1 CO2 and day/night temperatures of 21/14 °C) and warmed climate (800 µmol mol-1 CO2 and day/night temperatures of 25/18 °C). Under both climat...

  8. Effect of black (stem rust (Puccinia Graminis F.SP. Tritici attack to the spike characteristics in Polish wheat (Triticum Polonicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Stoyanov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The obtaining of high yields of crops is directly dependent on the cultivated varieties. In their creation it is essential the selected initial breeding material to possess certain qualities that lead to overcoming the effects of biotic and abiotic stress factors. Common winter wheat is characterized by great diversity of possibilities for combining initial breeding material due to phylogenetic similarity to many species of the genera Triticum, Aegilops, Secale. In creation of synthetic hexaploids (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD, the choice of tetraploid component involved into the crosses is very important. The species Triticum polonicum (2n = 4x = 28, AABB possesses many valuable features related to its protein content, resistance to brown rust, powdery mildew and septoria leaf blight, but it is susceptible to varying levels of black rust attack. This is a prerequisite a correlation between the attack of the pathogen and some spike indicators that correlate with grain yield to be searched. To determine the relationship between the attack and the specific parameters, 52 accessions of the species Triticum polonicum have been studied in the financial 2012/2013 year, to the following indicators: length of spike, length of spike with awns, number of spikelets, weight of spike, weight of grains per spike, number of grains per spike, weight of 1000 grains, weight of spike after threshing. An evaluation of the infectious type of black rust attack on each accession is recorded according to 9-point scale, and correlation with the average values of each of the spike indicators is reported. To neutralize the influence of the factor 'accession' two specific indexes are calculated as a corrected value of the weight of 1000 grains. The highest and significant correlation was observed between the infectious type and both specific index (-43.2% and -44.6%, and less with the weight of 1000 grains (-41.9%. Insignificant or unreliable is the correlation of the

  9. Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of two Triticum-Secale-Thinopyrum Trigeneric Hybrids Exhibiting Superior Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight, Leaf Rust, and Stem Rust Race Ug99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yi; Duan, Yamei; Liu, Huiping; Chi, Dawn; Cao, Wenguang; Xue, Allen; Gao, Yong; Fedak, George; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), leaf rust, and stem rust are the most destructive fungal diseases in current world wheat production. The diploid wheatgrass, Thinopyrum elongatum (Host) Dewey (2 n = 2 x = 14, EE) is an excellent source of disease resistance genes. Two new Triticum-Secale-Thinopyrum trigeneric hybrids were derived from a cross between a hexaploid triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack, 2 n = 6 x = 42, AABBRR) and a hexaploid Triticum trititrigia (2 n = 6 x = 42, AABBEE), were produced and analyzed using genomic in situ hybridization and molecular markers. The results indicated that line RE21 contained 14 A-chromosomes, 14 B-chromosomes, three pairs of R-chromosomes (4R, 6R, and 7R), and four pairs of E-chromosomes (1E, 2E, 3E, and 5E) for a total chromosome number of 2 n = 42. Line RE62 contained 14 A-chromosomes, 14 B-chromosomes, six pairs of R-chromosomes, and one pair of translocation chromosomes between chromosome 5R and 5E, for a total chromosome number of 2 n = 42. At the seedling and adult growth stages under greenhouse conditions, line RE21 showed high levels of resistance to FHB, leaf rust, and stem rust race Ug99, and line RE62 was highly resistant to leaf rust and stem rust race Ug99. These two lines (RE21 and RE62) display superior disease resistance characteristics and have the potential to be utilized as valuable germplasm sources for future wheat improvement.

  10. Novos genótipos de triticum durum L.: rendimento, adaptabilidade e qualidade tecnológica New genotypes of triticum durum L.: grain yield, adaptability and technological quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO CARLOS FELICIO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se dezoito genótipos de Triticum durum L. e dois de Triticum aestivum L. em experimentos semeados em condições de irrigação por aspersão em diferentes regiões tritícolas paulistas, durante o período de 1995-97. Analisaram-se os seguintes parâmetros: rendimento de grãos, altura de plantas, ciclo da emergência à maturação, resistência às manchas foliares causadas por helmintosporiose, adaptabilidade, estabilidade, e qualidade tecnológica. O IAC 24 (T. aestivum foi o mais produtivo, não diferindo dos genótipos de T. durum ALTAR/STN (12, MEMOS "S"/YAV79/3/SAPI"S"/TEAL"S"//HUI"S" (17, STN"S"/3/TEZ"S"/YAV79//HUI"S" (6, ALTAR/STN (11 e WIN"S"/SBA81A//STIL"S" (14 na comparação das médias para rendimento de grãos. Verificou-se que, em Ribeirão Preto, o rendimento médio de grãos foi de 5.332 kg/ha no período. Observaram-se valores semelhantes do coeficiente de determinação (R2 para a maioria dos genótipos estudados, exceto para IAC 24 e IAC 1001. Este e o Anahuac apresentaram-se instáveis quanto à produção de grãos nos ambientes desfavoráveis e estável nos favoráveis, ao contrário do IAC 24. As infecções do agente causal de mancha-foliar foram baixas, sendo as ocorrências mais generalizadas em Tatuí. Os melhores genótipos de T. durum em relação à qualidade tecnológica foram os tratamentos IAC 1003 (1, SCO"S"/3/BD1814//BD708/BD1543/4/ROK"S" (13, Altar 84 (15 e MEMOS"S"/YAV79/3/SAPI"S"/TEAL"S"//HUI"S" (17, enquadrando-se os demais genótipos na classificação de farinha (sêmola médio-fraca, produzindo massa de má qualidade. Estimou-se que as variáveis: tempo de desenvolvimento, sedimentação, índice de tolerância à mistura, energia de deformação da massa, número de queda, tenacidade versus elasticidade (P/L e estabilidade seriam, em ordem de importância, parâmetros a considerar na seleção de cada genótipo, conjuntamente com o rendimento de grãos e sua adaptabilidade.Eighteen durum

  11. Molecular mapping of the novel powdery mildew resistance gene Pm36 introgressed from Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Antonio; Gadaleta, A; Cenci, A; Carluccio, A V; Abdelbacki, A M M; Simeone, R

    2008-06-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici, is one of the most important wheat diseases in many regions of the world. Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides (2n=4x=AABB), the progenitor of cultivated wheats, shows particular promises as a donor of useful genetic variation for several traits, including disease resistances. The wild emmer accession MG29896, resistant to powdery mildew, was backcrossed to the susceptible durum wheat cultivar Latino, and a set of backcross inbred lines (BC(5)F(5)) was produced. Genetic analysis of F(3) populations from two resistant introgression lines (5BIL-29 x Latino and 5BIL-42 x Latino) indicated that the powdery mildew resistance is controlled by a single dominant gene. Molecular markers and the bulked segregant analysis were used to characterize and map the powdery mildew resistance. Five AFLP markers (XP43M32((250)), XP46M31((410)), XP41M37((100)), XP41M39((250)), XP39M32((120))), three genomic SSR markers (Xcfd07, Xwmc75, Xgwm408) and one EST-derived SSR marker (BJ261635) were found to be linked to the resistance gene in 5BIL-29 and only the BJ261635 marker in 5BIL-42. By means of Chinese Spring nullisomic-tetrasomic, ditelosomic and deletion lines, the polymorphic markers and the resistance gene were assigned to chromosome bin 5BL6-0.29-0.76. These results indicated that the two lines had the same resistance gene and that the introgressed dicoccoides chromosome segment was longer (35.5 cM) in 5BIL-29 than that introgressed in 5BIL-42 (less than 1.5 cM). As no powdery mildew resistance gene has been reported on chromosome arm 5BL, the novel resistance gene derived from var. dicoccoides was designated Pm36. The 244 bp allele of BJ261635 in 5BIL-42 can be used for marker-assisted selection during the wheat resistance breeding process for facilitating gene pyramiding.

  12. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  13. Response of Chlorophyll, Carotenoid and SPAD-502 Measurement to Salinity and Nutrient Stress in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Haleem Shah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress can alter key physiological constituents and functions in green plants. Improving the capacity to monitor this response in a non-destructive manner is of considerable interest, as it would offer a direct means of initiating timely corrective action. Given the vital role that plant pigments play in the photosynthetic process and general plant physiological condition, their accurate estimation would provide a means to monitor plant health and indirectly determine stress response. The aim of this work is to evaluate the response of leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid (Ct content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. to changes in varying application levels of soil salinity and fertilizer applied over a complete growth cycle. The study also seeks to establish and analyze relationships between measurements from a SPAD-502 instrument and the leaf pigments, as extracted at the anthesis stage. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted in triplicate by employing distinct treatments of both soil salinity and fertilizer dose at three levels. Results showed that higher doses of fertilizer increased the content of leaf pigments across all levels of soil salinity. Likewise, increasing the level of soil salinity significantly increased the chlorophyll and Ct content per leaf area at all levels of applied fertilizer. However, as an adaptation process and defense mechanism under salinity stress, leaves were found to be thicker and narrower. Thus, on a per-plant basis, increasing salinity significantly reduced the chlorophyll (Chlt and Ct produced under each fertilizer treatment. In addition, interaction effects of soil salinity and fertilizer application on the photosynthetic pigment content were found to be significant, as the higher amounts of fertilizer augmented the detrimental effects of salinity. A strong positive (R2 = 0.93 and statistically significant (p < 0.001 relationship between SPAD-502 values and Chlt and between SPAD-502 values and Ct content

  14. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    Full Text Available Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+ conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3- nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT. With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots

  15. Comparative Analysis of WRKY Genes Potentially Involved in Salt Stress Responses in Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Makhloufi, Emna; Marande, William; Ghorbel, Abdel W.; Bouzayen, Mondher; Bergès, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. Although they have been found to play roles in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses, these roles still need to be explored, especially those pertaining to crops. Durum wheat is the second most widely produced cereal in the world. Complex, large and unsequenced genomes, in addition to a lack of genomic resources, hinder the molecular characterization of tolerance mechanisms. This paper describes the isolation and characterization of five TdWRKY genes from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum). A PCR-based screening of a T. turgidum BAC genomic library using primers within the conserved region of WRKY genes resulted in the isolation of five BAC clones. Following sequencing fully the five BACs, fine annotation through Triannot pipeline revealed 74.6% of the entire sequences as transposable elements and a 3.2% gene content with genes organized as islands within oceans of TEs. Each BAC clone harbored a TdWRKY gene. The study showed a very extensive conservation of genomic structure between TdWRKYs and their orthologs from Brachypodium, barley, and T. aestivum. The structural features of TdWRKY proteins suggested that they are novel members of the WRKY family in durum wheat. TdWRKY1/2/4, TdWRKY3, and TdWRKY5 belong to the group Ia, IIa, and IIc, respectively. Enrichment of cis-regulatory elements related to stress responses in the promoters of some TdWRKY genes indicated their potential roles in mediating plant responses to a wide variety of environmental stresses. TdWRKY genes displayed different expression patterns in response to salt stress that distinguishes two durum wheat genotypes with contrasting salt stress tolerance phenotypes. TdWRKY genes tended to react earlier with a down-regulation in sensitive genotype leaves and with an up-regulation in tolerant genotype leaves. The TdWRKY transcripts levels in roots increased

  16. Improving water use efficiency of wheat (triticum aestivum l. Giza 168) crop using 15N tracer technique under Egyptian environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaie Emara, Eman Ibrahim; Hamed, Lamy Mamdoh Mohamed; Bocchi, Stefano; Galal, Yehia

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean environment is characterized by low and erratic rainfall amount which varies between (200-600 mm.year-1), and characterized also by high temperature which increase the rate of evapotranspiration from the cultivated soil. Under these conditions which have a great influence on crop production, there is a great needing to increase the crop water use efficiency. In this context, two field experiments were carried out in northern Cairo-Egypt, during November and December 2012 and April 2013, with two different textured soils. The soil in the first location (30° 16' N latitude, 30° 56' E longitude) is clay soil, while in the second one (30° 24' N latitude, 31° 35' E longitude) is sandy soil. The interaction effect of soil types, soil water regimes, nitrogen fertilizer application rates and timing on nitrogen balance of soil were studied, in terms of nitrogen gained by plant portions, remained in soil and losses through different ways for the wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L. Giza 168). The aim of this research is to increase the water use efficiency of wheat crop, in addition to identify the most proper and effective combinations of above-studied variables that provide a satisfactory grain wheat yield and finally to minimize the use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers. Three water regimes (100%, 75% and 50% of crop water requirements) using drip irrigation system and the application methods of Nitrogen rates, 100%, 80% and 60% of recommended rates, which are 178 Kg of Nitrogen for the clay soil and 238 Kg of Nitrogen for sandy soil, were applied to the two experimental fields. Ineed, two modes of agricultural management, mode A and B, were applied. Each mode is different than the other in terms of seedling and tillering practices, where mode A performed with 25% at seedling, 25% at tillering and 50% at jointing while mode B performed with 35% at seedling and 65% at tillering. The greatest limitation to growth and Nitrogen use efficiency was the amount

  17. De novo assembly and comparative analysis of the transcriptome of embryogenic callus formation in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zongli; Chen, Junying; Sun, Junyan; Dong, Zhongdong; Yang, Xia; Wang, Ying; Xu, Haixia; Zhang, Xiaoke; Chen, Feng; Cui, Dangqun

    2017-12-19

    During asexual reproduction the embryogenic callus can differentiate into a new plantlet, offering great potential for fostering in vitro culture efficiency in plants. The immature embryos (IMEs) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are more easily able to generate embryogenic callus than mature embryos (MEs). To understand the molecular process of embryogenic callus formation in wheat, de novo transcriptome sequencing was used to generate transcriptome sequences from calli derived from IMEs and MEs after 3d, 6d, or 15d of culture (DC). In total, 155 million high quality paired-end reads were obtained from the 6 cDNA libraries. Our de novo assembly generated 142,221 unigenes, of which 59,976 (42.17%) were annotated with a significant Blastx against nr, Pfam, Swissprot, KOG, KEGG, GO and COG/KOG databases. Comparative transcriptome analysis indicated that a total of 5194 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the comparisons of IME vs. ME at the three stages, including 3181, 2085 and 1468 DEGs at 3, 6 and 15 DC, respectively. Of them, 283 overlapped in all the three comparisons. Furthermore, 4731 DEGs were identified in the comparisons between stages in IMEs and MEs. Functional analysis revealed that 271transcription factor (TF) genes (10 overlapped in all 3 comparisons of IME vs. ME) and 346 somatic embryogenesis related genes (SSEGs; 35 overlapped in all 3 comparisons of IME vs. ME) were differentially expressed in at least one comparison of IME vs. ME. In addition, of the 283 overlapped DEGs in the 3 comparisons of IME vs. ME, excluding the SSEGs and TFs, 39 possessed a higher rate of involvement in biological processes relating to response to stimuli, in multi-organism processes, reproductive processes and reproduction. Furthermore, 7 were simultaneously differentially expressed in the 2 comparisons between the stages in IMEs, but not MEs, suggesting that they may be related to embryogenic callus formation. The expression levels of genes, which

  18. Response of Chlorophyll, Carotenoid and SPAD-502 Measurement to Salinity and Nutrient Stress in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, Syed Haleem

    2017-09-12

    Abiotic stress can alter key physiological constituents and functions in green plants. Improving the capacity to monitor this response in a non-destructive manner is of considerable interest, as it would offer a direct means of initiating timely corrective action. Given the vital role that plant pigments play in the photosynthetic process and general plant physiological condition, their accurate estimation would provide a means to monitor plant health and indirectly determine stress response. The aim of this work is to evaluate the response of leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid (C-t) content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to changes in varying application levels of soil salinity and fertilizer applied over a complete growth cycle. The study also seeks to establish and analyze relationships between measurements from a SPAD-502 instrument and the leaf pigments, as extracted at the anthesis stage. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted in triplicate by employing distinct treatments of both soil salinity and fertilizer dose at three levels. Results showed that higher doses of fertilizer increased the content of leaf pigments across all levels of soil salinity. Likewise, increasing the level of soil salinity significantly increased the chlorophyll and Ct content per leaf area at all levels of applied fertilizer. However, as an adaptation process and defense mechanism under salinity stress, leaves were found to be thicker and narrower. Thus, on a per-plant basis, increasing salinity significantly reduced the chlorophyll (Chl(t)) and Ct produced under each fertilizer treatment. In addition, interaction effects of soil salinity and fertilizer application on the photosynthetic pigment content were found to be significant, as the higher amounts of fertilizer augmented the detrimental effects of salinity. A strong positive (R-2 = 0.93) and statistically significant (p < 0.001) relationship between SPAD-502 values and Chlt and between SPAD-502 values and Ct content (R-2 = 0

  19. Ca2+/cation antiporters (CaCA: Identification, characterization and expression profiling in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehak Taneja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ca2+/cation antiporters (CaCA superfamily proteins play vital function in Ca2+ ion homeostasis, which is an important event during development and defense response. Molecular characterization of these proteins has been performed in certain plants, but they are still not characterized in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat. Herein, we identified thirty four TaCaCA superfamily proteins, which were classified into TaCAX, TaCCX, TaNCL and TaMHX protein families based on their structural organization and evolutionary relation with earlier reported proteins. Since the T. aestivum comprises an allohexaploid genome, TaCaCA genes were derived from each A, B and D subgenome and homeologous chromosome (HC, except chromosome-group 1. Majority of genes were derived from more than one HCs in each family that were considered as homeologous genes (HGs due to their high similarity with each other. These HGs showed comparable gene and protein structures in terms of exon/intron organization and domain architecture. Majority of TaCaCA proteins comprised two Na_Ca_ex domains. However, TaNCLs consisted of an additional EF-hand domain with calcium binding motifs. Each TaCaCA protein family consisted of about ten transmembrane and two α-repeat regions with specifically conserved signature motifs except TaNCL, which had single α-repeat. Variable expression of most of the TaCaCA genes during various developmental stages suggested their specified role in development. However, constitutively high expression of a few genes like TaCAX1-A and TaNCL1-B indicated their role throughout the plant growth and development. The modulated expression of certain genes during biotic (fungal infections and abiotic stresses (heat, drought, salt suggested their role in stress response. Majority of TaCCX and TaNCL family genes were found highly affected during various abiotic stresses. However the role of individual gene needs to be established. The present study unfolded the opportunity

  20. Ca2+/Cation Antiporters (CaCA): Identification, Characterization and Expression Profiling in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Mehak; Tyagi, Shivi; Sharma, Shailesh; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The Ca 2+ /cation antiporters (CaCA) superfamily proteins play vital function in Ca 2+ ion homeostasis, which is an important event during development and defense response. Molecular characterization of these proteins has been performed in certain plants, but they are still not characterized in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat). Herein, we identified 34 TaCaCA superfamily proteins, which were classified into TaCAX, TaCCX, TaNCL, and TaMHX protein families based on their structural organization and evolutionary relation with earlier reported proteins. Since the T. aestivum comprises an allohexaploid genome, TaCaCA genes were derived from each A, B, and D subgenome and homeologous chromosome (HC), except chromosome-group 1. Majority of genes were derived from more than one HCs in each family that were considered as homeologous genes (HGs) due to their high similarity with each other. These HGs showed comparable gene and protein structures in terms of exon/intron organization and domain architecture. Majority of TaCaCA proteins comprised two Na_Ca_ex domains. However, TaNCLs consisted of an additional EF-hand domain with calcium binding motifs. Each TaCaCA protein family consisted of about 10 transmembrane and two α-repeat regions with specifically conserved signature motifs except TaNCL, which had single α-repeat. Variable expression of most of the TaCaCA genes during various developmental stages suggested their specified role in development. However, constitutively high expression of a few genes like TaCAX1-A and TaNCL1-B indicated their role throughout the plant growth and development. The modulated expression of certain genes during biotic (fungal infections) and abiotic stresses (heat, drought, salt) suggested their role in stress response. Majority of TaCCX and TaNCL family genes were found highly affected during various abiotic stresses. However, the role of individual gene needs to be established. The present study unfolded the opportunity for detail

  1. Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Augments Arsenic Tolerance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Strengthening Antioxidant Defense System and Thiol Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surbhi; Anand, Garima; Singh, Neeraja; Kapoor, Rupam

    2017-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) can help plants to tolerate arsenic (As) toxicity. However, plant responses are found to vary with the host plant and the AM fungal species. The present study compares the efficacy of two AM fungi Rhizoglomus intraradices (M1) and Glomus etunicatum (M2) in amelioration of As stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD-2967). Mycorrhizal (M) and non-mycorrhizal (NM) wheat plants were subjected to four levels of As (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg As kg-1 soil). Although As additions had variable effects on the percentage of root colonized by the two fungal inoculants, each mycobiont conferred benefits to the host plant. Mycorrhizal plants continued to display better growth than NM plants. Formation of AM helped the host plant to overcome As-induced P deficiency and maintained favorable P:As ratio. Inoculation of AMF had variable effects on the distribution of As in plant tissues. While As translocation factor decreased in low As (25 mg kg-1 soil), it increased under high As (50 and 100 mg As kg-1 soil). Further As translocation to grain was reduced (As grain:shoot ratio) in M plants compared with NM plants. Arsenic-induced oxidative stress (generation of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation) in plants reduced significantly by AMF inoculation. The alleviation potential of AM was more evident with increase in severity of As stress. Colonization of AMF resulted in higher activities of the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase). It increased the concentrations of the antioxidant molecules (carotenoids, proline, and α-tocopherol) than their NM counterparts at high As addition level. Comparatively higher activities of enzymes of glutathione-ascorbate cycle in M plants led to higher ascorbate:dehydroascorbate (AsA:DHA) and glutathione:glutathione disulphide (GSH:GSSG) ratios. Inoculation by AMF also augmented the glyoxalase system by increasing the activities of both glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II enzymes. Mycorrhizal

  2. Segregation analysis indicates that Puroindoline b-2 variants 2 and 3 are allelic in Triticum aestivum L. and that a revision to Puroindoline b-2 gene symbolization is indicated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conclusive genetic and kernel texture phenotypic relationships between Puroindoline b 2 variant sequences 2 and 3 have not been fully established in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In the present study, a total of 480 F2 plants, derived from three hard spring wheat populations WSU.HRS1×WSU.HWS1 (abbre...

  3. Triticum aestivum L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... NC, USA. Türk M, Çelik N (2005). Farklı sıra araları ve tohum miktarlarının korunga'nın (Onobrychis sativa L.) tohum verimi üzerine etkileri. Anadolu J. AARI, 15(2): 43-57. Türk M, Çelik N (2006). Correlation and path coefficient analyses of seed yield components in the Sainfoin (Onobrychis sativa L.). J. Biol.

  4. Triticum durum Desf.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SCIENCE

    interaction has been approached by biochemical analysis through the determination of soluble sugars and studying physiological ... graminis f.sp. tritici causes a significant accumulation of soluble sugars in leaves of the cultivar Waha compared to non inoculated ..... by a just modified anthrone method, Anal. Chem., Vol. 32,.

  5. triticum durum desf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L. Haddad, H. Bouzerzour, A. Benmahammed, H. Zerargui, A. Hannachi, A. Bachir, M. Salmi, A.

    1 sept. 2016 ... En effet les nouvelles variétés adoptées sont sélectionnées sur la base de leur potentiel de rendement sans tenir compte des caractères adaptatifs qui sont des régulateurs de la production en milieux variables [4]. De plus, dans ces milieux, La variation des performances génotypiques, engendrée par.

  6. Triticum durum Desf.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    et inter-annuelles, qui affectent sérieusement les rendements (Bouzerzour et al. 2002). Le manque d'eau .... A maturité, on a procédé à la récolte d'un segment de rang, long de 1 m, pour estimer le rendement, ... inter-sites sont aussi calculées pour étudier les similitudes de réponse des différentes variables mesurées et ...

  7. Triticum dicoccum Schrank

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    draculum

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... Not only potential yield but also stability of yield under a large range of climatic conditions have to be increasingly taken into account. In important crops such as wheat, a screen- ing of cultivars and landraces leading to an identification of potential donors of drought tolerance is relevant and. *Corresponding.

  8. Simulating Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. Response to Root Zone Salinity based on Statistics and Macroscopic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Reza Jalali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Salinity as an abiotic stress can cause excessive disturbance for seed germination and plant sustainable production. Salinity with three different mechanisms of osmotic potential reduction, ionic toxicity and disturbance of plant nutritional balance, can reduce performance of the final product. Planning for optimal use of available water and saline water with poor quality in agricultural activities is of great importance. Wheat is one of the eight main food sources including rice, corn, sugar beet, cattle, sorghum, millet and cassava which provide 70-90% of all calories and 66-90% of the protein consumed in developing countries. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. is an important crop grows in some arid and semi-arid areas of the world such as Middle East and North Africa. In these regions, in addition to soil salinity, sharp decline in rainfall and a sharp drop in groundwater levels in recent years has emphasized on the efficient use of limited soil and water resources. Consequently, in order to use brackish water for agricultural productions, it is required to analyze its quantitative response to salinity stress by simulation models in those regions. The objective of this study is to assess the capability of statistics and macro-simulation models of yield in saline conditions. Materials and methods In this study, two general approach of simulation includes process-physical models and statistical-experimental models were investigated. For this purpose, in order to quantify the salinity effect on seed relative yield of durum wheat (Behrang Variety at different levels of soil salinity, process-physical models of Maas & Hoffman, van Genuchten & Hoffman, Dirksen et al. and Homaee et al. models were used. Also, statistical-experimental models of Modified Gompertz Function, Bi-Exponential Function and Modified Weibull Function were used too. In order to get closer to real conditions of growth circumstances in saline soils, a natural saline

  9. Prediction and analysis of three gene families related to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fred Y; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2017-06-20

    The resistance to leaf rust (Lr) caused by Puccinia triticina in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been well studied over the past decades with over 70 Lr genes being mapped on different chromosomes and numerous QTLs (quantitative trait loci) being detected or mapped using DNA markers. Such resistance is often divided into race-specific and race-nonspecific resistance. The race-nonspecific resistance can be further divided into resistance to most or all races of the same pathogen and resistance to multiple pathogens. At the molecular level, these three types of resistance may cover across the whole spectrum of pathogen specificities that are controlled by genes encoding different protein families in wheat. The objective of this study is to predict and analyze genes in three such families: NBS-LRR (nucleotide-binding sites and leucine-rich repeats or NLR), START (Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein [STaR] related lipid-transfer) and ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporter. The focus of the analysis is on the patterns of relationships between these protein-coding genes within the gene families and QTLs detected for leaf rust resistance. We predicted 526 ABC, 1117 NLR and 144 START genes in the hexaploid wheat genome through a domain analysis of wheat proteome. Of the 1809 SNPs from leaf rust resistance QTLs in seedling and adult stages of wheat, 126 SNPs were found within coding regions of these genes or their neighborhood (5 Kb upstream from transcription start site [TSS] or downstream from transcription termination site [TTS] of the genes). Forty-three of these SNPs for adult resistance and 18 SNPs for seedling resistance reside within coding or neighboring regions of the ABC genes whereas 14 SNPs for adult resistance and 29 SNPs for seedling resistance reside within coding or neighboring regions of the NLR gene. Moreover, we found 17 nonsynonymous SNPs for adult resistance and five SNPs for seedling resistance in the ABC genes, and five nonsynonymous SNPs for

  10. Effect of Se application on photosynthesis, osmolytes and water relations in two durum wheat (Triticum durum L. genotypes under drought stress

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    Roghieh HAJIBOLAND

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Se (as Na2SeO4 at final concentration of 10 µg l-1 was studied in two durum wheat (Triticum durum L. genotypes in perlite under drought conditions. Se treatment increased slightly biomass of both genotypes under drought but not under control conditions. Photosynthetic rate was depressed by drought while increased by Se treatments in both genotypes up to 2.3 fold. However, transpirational water loss was also enhanced in Se-treated plants under both well-watered and drought conditions. Se application resulted in higher concentrations of soluble proteins and free α-amino acids under drought conditions, but not proline. Our results indicated that Se application improves some physiological parameters such as photosynthesis, accumulation of osmolyes and water use efficiency but did not change significantly plants biomass or water relation parameters.

  11. Changes in carbon and nitrogen allocation, growth and grain yield induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) subjected to a period of water deficit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qin; Ravnskov, Sabine; Jiang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major abiotic factor limiting agricultural crop production. One of the effective ways to increase drought resistance in plants could be to optimize the exploitation of symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Hypothesizing that alleviation of water deficits by AMF in wheat...... will help maintain photosynthetic carbon-use, we studied the role of AMF on gas-exchange, light-use efficiencies, carbon/nitrogen ratios and growth and yield parameters in the contrasting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars ‘Vinjett’ and ‘1110’ grown with/without AMF symbiosis. Water deficits applied...... rate and increased non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in ‘1110’ but not in ‘Vinjett’. With AMF, nitrogen concentrations increased in roots of both cultivars, but decreased in grains of ‘Vinjett’ and in side-tiller grains of ‘1110’ regardless of water status. With water deficits, AMF colonization...

  12. Effects of HMW-GS Ax1 or Dx2 absence on the glutenin polymerization and gluten micro structure of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Liu, Tianhong; Ding, Mengyun; Wang, Jun; Li, Chunlian; Wang, Zhonghua; Li, Xuejun

    2018-02-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) dough strength and extensibility are mainly determined by the polymerization of glutenin. The number of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) differs in various wheat varieties due to the silencing of some genes. The effects of Ax1 or Dx2 subunit absence on glutenin polymerization, dough mixing properties and gluten micro structure were investigated with two groups of near-isogenic lines. The results showed that Ax1 or Dx2 absence decreased the accumulation rate of glutenin polymers and thus delayed the rapid increase period for glutenin polymerization by at least ten days, which led to lower percentage of polymeric protein in mature grain. Ax1 or Dx2 absence significantly decreased the dough development time and dough stability, but increased the uniformity of micro structure. Lacunarity, derived from quantitative analysis of gluten network, is suggested as a new indicator for wheat quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intercambio de gases y relaciones hídricas durante el retraso de la senescencia foliar de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) por la citocinina bap

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Martínez-Gutiérrez

    2008-01-01

    Se estudió el efecto de la citocinina 6-bencilaminopurina (BAP) en el intercambio de gases y relaciones hídricas de Triticum aestivum L. durante el retraso de la senescencia foliar en invernadero. Plántulas de 21 días después de la siembra (DDS) fueron asperjadas con BAP 0,1mM o agua (testigo) cada 3 días por 20 días. El retraso de senescencia foliar en las plantas tratadas con BAP fue monitoreado mediante cuantificación de clorofila y proteína soluble total. El intercambio de gases se estimó...

  14. Photobiostimulation effects on germination and early growth of wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum L) produced by a semiconductor laser with λ=980nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michtchenko, A.; Hernandez, M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the exposure of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) seeds to a IR laser radiation with λ=980nm produced by a semiconductor laser on germination and early growth had been studied under laboratory conditions. Seeds were irradiated to one of two laser intensities 15 mWcm - ''2 or 30 mWcm -2 for different periods of time 30, 60 or 120 s. Seeds exposed to a light intensity of 15mWcm -2 and an exposition time of 30 s. showed an increase on the percentage of seeds germinated normally while the percentage of seeds germinated abnormally decreased. At the same time there is a stimulation effect on the growth of the stem and on the growth of the root of 10% on wheat seedlings over control seedlings. Significant differences (ρ < 0.001) were observed between the control and the above treatment. (Author)

  15. Over-expression of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. increases seed protein content and weight without augmenting nitrogen supplying.

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    Xiao-Qiang Zhao

    Full Text Available Heavy nitrogen (N application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, "Nongda146" and "Jimai6358", by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed, respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying.

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE CONTENT OF MINERAL COMPONENTS IN GRAIN OF WINTER SPELT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM SSP SPELLED L. DEPENDING ON: TILLAGE SYSTEM, FERTILIZATION NITROGEN AND VARIETY

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    Sławomir Stankowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the assessment of the influence of two cultivation systems and doses of nitrogen fertilization on the content of mineral elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and manganese in grain of three varieties of winter spelt (Triticum asetivum ssp spelta L.. The field experiment was conducted in the period 2009-2011 in the Agricultural Experimental Station in Lipnik (53º42'N, 14º97'S, administered by West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin. The experiment was set up on brown earth composed of loamy sands of slightly acidic pH – 6.5 in 1 mol KCl. The material for the analysis was the grain of winter spelt. Three factors were compared in the analysis: two methods of soil cultivation – simplified and conventional – (I factor, four doses of nitrogen: 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N • ha-1 (II factor and three varieties: Franckenkorn, Oberkulmer Rotkorn, STH 12 (III factor. The grain of spelt (Triticum spelta L. cultivated according to the simplified system was marked by increased content of mineral elements, yet it varied significantly only for two the elements: potassium and manganese. Depending on the analyzed element, the effect of nitrogen fertilization varied. The increase in the dose resulted in a significant linear increase in nitrogen content in spelt grain, and a proportional decrease in potassium and magnesium content with no differences in the content of phosphorus, calcium and manganese. The content of mineral elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese in spelt grain varied according to a given variety. The highest content of the analyzed elements was found in grain of Franckernkorn variety, and the lowest in STH12.

  17. The changes in the reproductive barrier between hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.): different states lead to different fates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhenko, Natalia; Rutten, Twan; Senula, Angelika; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Keller, E R Joachim; Börner, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    The changes in the reproductive barrier between hexaploid wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and rye ( Secale cereale L.) can be induced using in situ embryo rescue of abnormal embryos, yielding stable fertile amphidiploid plants. In intergeneric crosses between hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.), postzygotic barriers may occur at different stages of hybrid development. One such mechanism is embryo lethality, which is genetically determined by the interaction and expression of two incompatible genes in wheat (Eml-A1) and rye (Eml-R1). Using in vitro culture methods as stressors, we overcame this hybrid lethality. Normal and abnormal embryos were observed to build embryogenic calli and produce regenerated plantlets in a similar manner. The high regenerative capacity of the abnormal embryos led us to conclude that the reproductive barrier in these intergeneric hybrids may have an epigenetic origin that can be easily overcome by culturing immature embryos via callus induction. After colchicine treatment during callus culture, amphidiploid plants were obtained. However, most of these plants did not produce seeds, due mainly to sterility of the pollen but also of the embryo sacs. These findings demonstrate that hybrid sterility affects both male and female gametophytes in plants obtained from abnormal embryos. The key roles of double fertilization and stress factors in the implementation of the apical meristem formation program in embryos from incompatible intergeneric crosses between hexaploid wheat and rye during in vitro culture are discussed. We also propose a hypothetical model for a wheat-rye lethality system involving differential expression of incompatible wheat Eml-A1 and rye Eml-R1b alleles in an identical genetic background.

  18. Etude de l'influence du traitement hormonal et de la variété de maïs (Zea mays L. dans l'haplodiploïdisation de l'épeautre (Triticum spelta L.

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    Escarnot, E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the impact of growth substance treatment and maize (Zea mays L. variety in spelt (Triticum spelta L. haplodiploidization. So far as we know, this is the first study on spelt (Triticum spelta L. haplodiploidization. The technique used involved an inter-generic cross with maize (Zea mays L.. The rate of embryos/100 pollinated florets was 16.1. The spelt breeding line had no significant effect on embryo production, but the maize variety did, and an interaction between spelt breeding line and maize variety was found. The best rate was obtained with a maize variety of the popcorn type. The rate of caryopsis formation was low (66.2 caryopses/100 pollinated florets. The rate of plantlet regeneration was very low (38 plantlets/100 embryos, with the maize variety having an impact, but not the spelt line.

  19. Effects of rhizobial bacteria on K, Ca and Na concentration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in saline soils

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    S homayoon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soil salinity is one of the major agricultural problems and it is limiting crop productivity in many parts of the cultivated areas all over the world. Saline soils are differentiated by the presence of great ratios of Na/Ca, Na/K, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl/NO3 (Gratan & Catherine, 1993 and high levels of neutral salts in the surface layers, which are resulting from the capillary action (Al-Falih, 2002. Osmotic stress occurs when soluble salts increase in the soils and then results in specific ion toxicity (Agarwal & Ahmad, 2010. Therefore, one of the most important side effects of salinity is nutritional disorders. High concentration of NaCl in the root medium usually reduces nutrients uptake and affects the transportation of potassium and calcium ions in plant. (Gratan & Catherine, 1993 reported that the salinity of soils changes ionic strength of the substrate and it can influence mineral nutrient uptake and translocation. Salinity also changes the mineral nutrient availability and disrupts the mineral relations of plants. Hence, the main purpose of this research is to evaluate the effects of rhizobial bacteria inoculation on K, Ca and Na concentration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in saline soils. Material and methods Soil sample was collected from Astan Ghodse Razavi farm, Mashhad Iran, and then was dried and passed through a 12-mesh (approximately 2 mm screen. Soil sample was divided into three parts and then was placed into three containers. Each container was watered by a different proportion of saline water (EC= 10 dS.m-1. Salinity of soils was regularly monitored until three salinities (2, 6 and 10 dS.m-1 came out. Then, a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement was carried out in a greenhouse condition. The experimental factors included four levels of inoculation (Sinorhizobium meliloti, Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Rhizobium leguminosarum and control and three levels of soil salinity (2, 6 and 10 dS.m-1 with

  20. Cytogenetics and immature embryo culture at Embrapa Trigo breeding program: transfer of disease resistance from related species by artificial resynthesis of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell

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    Maria Irene Baggio de Moraes Fernandes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell, 2n = 6X = 42, AABBDD breeding programs aim to reorganize genotypes to achieve better yields, environmental adaptation and food quality. The necessary interdisciplinarity for breeding purposes requires an accurate choice of the most appropriate cellular and/or molecular strategies available to be integrated with agronomic approaches in order to overcome the genetic limitation of each cultivated species, at each agroecosystem. Cytogenetics has given a great contribution to wheat genetic studies and breeding, due to viability of chromosomal variants because of homoeology among genomes in this allohexaploid species and the genus Triticum. The level of development of cytogenetic techniques achieved over the last 60 years has set wheat apart from other cereal crops in terms of possibilities to introduce genetic material from other species. Cytogenetic approaches have been extensively used in chromosomal mapping and/or resistance gene transference from tribe Triticeae-related species. Monosomic analysis, entire chromosomes engineered through single additions and/or substitutions, reciprocal translocation through radiation or manipulation of homoeologous pairing, as well as synthesis of new amphiploids to allow homologous recombination by chiasmata evolved considerably since the past decades. The association of tissue culture and molecular biology techniques provides bread wheat breeding programs with a powerful set of biotechnological tools. However, knowledge on genetic system components, cytotaxonomical relationships, cytogenetic structure and evolutionary history of wheat species cannot be neglected. This information indicates the appropriate strategy to avoid isolation mechanisms in interspecific or intergeneric crosses, according to the genome constitution of the species the desired gene is to be transferred from. The development of amphiploids as "bridge" species is one of the available procedures

  1. Resistance to wheat leaf rust and stem rust in Triticum tauschii and inheritance in hexaploid wheat of resistance transferred from T. tauschii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, R L; Kerber, E R

    1994-10-01

    Twelve accessions of Triticum tauschii (Coss.) Schmal. were genetically analyzed for resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm.) and stem rust (Puccinia graminis Pers. f.sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn.) of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Four genes conferring seedling resistance to leaf rust, one gene conferring seedling resistance to stem rust, and one gene conferring adult-plant resistance to stem rust were identified. These genes were genetically distinct from genes previously transferred to common wheat from T. tauschii and conferred resistance to a broad spectrum of pathogen races. Two of the four seedling leaf rust resistance genes were not expressed in synthetic hexaploids, produced by combining tetraploid wheat with the resistant T. tauschii accessions, probably owing to the action of one or more intergenomic suppressor loci on the A or B genome. The other two seedling leaf rust resistance genes were expressed at the hexaploid level as effectively as in the source diploids. One gene was mapped to the short arm of chromosome 2D more than 50 cM from the centromere and the other was mapped to chromosome 5D. Suppression of seedling resistance to leaf rust in synthetic hexaploids derived from three accessions of T. tauschii allowed the detection of three different genes conferring adult-plant resistance to a broad spectrum of leaf rust races. The gene for seedling resistance to stem rust was mapped to chromosome ID. The degree of expression of this gene at the hexaploid level was dependent on the genetic background in which it occurred and on environmental conditions. The expression of the adult-plant gene for resistance to stem rust was slightly diminished in hexaploids. The production of synthetic hexaploids was determined to be the most efficient and flexible method for transferring genes from T. tauschii to T. aestivum, but crossing success was determined by the genotypes of both parents. Although more laborious, the direct introgression

  2. [The efficacy and safety of testa triticum tricum purif in treatment of functional constipation in the late middle-aged and elderly patients: a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, X C; Zhang, J; Liu, S; Xin, H W; Wang, J; Ba, Y; Fan, W J; Han, S M; Wang, Z F; Xie, X P; Liu, X; Zhu, L M

    2017-08-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of testa triticum tricum purif for the treatment of functional constipation(FC) in the late middle-aged and elderly patients. Methods: This study was designed as a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Patients who met Rome Ⅲ diagnostic criteria of FC were enrolled, with age between 55-85 years old. Those with organic diseases were excluded. The patients were randomly allocated to receive testa triticum tricum purif (3.5 g bid) or polyethylene glycol 4000 powder (PEG4000, 10g bid) for 8 weeks, followed by single dose of maintenance therapy for 4 weeks. Follow-up visits were at 4 and 12 weeks after treatment discontinuation. The independent investigators in each center evaluated the constipation symptoms scores. The primary endpoints included rates of significant improvement, improvement and overall improvement at the end of 2, 4 and 8 weeks of therapy, which were calculated by the reduction of symptom scores ≥75%, 50%-74%, ≥25% respectively. Results: A total of 127 FC subjects were enrolled from 3 centers, and 122 cases valid for final analysis. The mean age was (69.4±6.9) years old, including 62 cases in testa triticum tricum purif group and 60 cases in PEG4000 group. The demographic data, constipated symptoms scores and proportion of FC subtypes at baseline were comparable. The rates of significant improvement, improvement and overall improvement in testa triticum tricum purif and PEG4000 groups at the end of 2, 4 and 8 weeks were 37.70% (23/61) vs 59.32% (35/59) ( P =0.018), 57.38% (35/61) vs 74.14% (43/58) ( P =0.054), and 64.41% (38/59) vs 79.31% (46/58) ( P =0.073) respectively. Testa triticum tricum purif therapy significantly improved the proportion of spontaneous bowel movement(SBM) ≥3 times/week from 43.55% (27/62) to 80.33% (49/61), 83.61% (51/61) and 93.22% (55/59) at 2, 4, and 8 weeks respectively (all P 0.05). The proportion of normalized stool forms in study group was significant higher than

  3. Atividade de glutationa S-transferase na metabolização de acetochlor, atrazine e oxyfluorfen em milho (Zea mays L., sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. e trigo (Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae Glutathione S-transferase activity in acetochlor, atrazine and oxyfluorfen metabolization in maize (Zea mays L., sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. and wheat (Triticum aestivumL. (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel Lourenzi Barbosa Novelli

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a seletividade em plantas dos herbicidas acetochlor, atrazine e oxyfluorfen em relação à atividade da glutationa S-transferase (GST em plantas de milho (Zea mays L., sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. e trigo (Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae. A atividade da GST foi detectada às 24, 48 e 72 horas após as aplicaç��es dos tratamentos. Os tratamentos do experimento consistiram de aplicação com água (controle, acetochlor (3 L.ha-1, atrazine (4 L.ha-1 e oxyfluorfen (1 L.ha-1. As maiores atividades de GST foram observadas na presença de acetochlor, principalmente às 48 horas após o tratamento. Esses aumentos foram 105, 148 e 118% em relação ao controle para milho, sorgo e trigo, respectivamente. É sugerido que a GST pode ter papel na degradação de acetochlor e pode ser uma das razões para a seletividade desse herbicida para essas culturas.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the acetochlor, atrazine and oxyfluorfen herbicides plant selectivity, in relation to glutathione S-transferase activity (GST in maize (Zea mays L., sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L (Poaceae plants. GST activity was detected 24, 48 and 72 hours after treatment applications. The experiment's treatments consisted of spraying plants with water (control, acetochlor (3 L.ha-1`, atrazine (4 L.ha-1 and oxyfluorfen (1 L.ha-1. The highest GST activities were observed in presence of acetochlor, mainly at 48 hours after treatment. These increments were 105, 148 and 118% when compared to maize, sorghum and wheat control groups, respectively. It is suggested that the GST may have a role in acetochlor degradation and it may be a reason for this herbicide's selectivity in these crops.

  4. Possible origin of Triticum petropavlovskyi based on cytological analyses of crosses between T. petropavlovskyi and tetraploid, hexaploid, and synthetic hexaploid (SHW-DPW) wheat accessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q.; Song, J.; Du, W.; Xu, L.Y.; Yu, G.R.

    2016-07-01

    Intraspecific hybridization between Triticum petropavlovskyi Udacz. et Migusch., synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW-DPW), and tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, was performed to collect data on seed set, fertility of F1 hybrid, and meiotic pairing configuration, aiming to evaluate the possible origin of T. petropavlovskyi. Our data showed that (1) seed set of crosses T. petropavlovskyi × T. polonicum and T. petropavlovskyi × T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring was significantly high; (2) fertility of hybrids T. petropavlovskyi × T. polonicum and T. petropavlovskyi × T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense was higher than that of the other hybrids; (3) fertility of F1 hybrids SHW-DPW × T. dicoccoides and SHW-DPW×T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum was significantly high; and (4) c-value of T. petropavlovskyi × T. polonicum and T. petropavlovskyi × T. aestivum cv. Changning white wheat was also significantly high. The results indicate that the probable origin of T. petropavlovskyi is divergence from a natural cross between T. aestivum and T. polonicum, via either spontaneous introgression or breeding effort.

  5. The Response of Selected Triticum spp. Genotypes with Different Ploidy Levels to Head Blight Caused by Fusarium culmorum (W.G.Smith) Sacc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwart, Marian; Suchowilska, Elżbieta; Kandler, Wolfang; Sulyok, Michael; Wachowska, Urszula; Krska, Rudolf

    2016-04-15

    Several cultivars and pure lines of Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon, T. polonicum, T. spelta and T. aestivum were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in wheat. During the three-year study, the infection decreased the values of the analyzed yield components: spike weight (by 5.6% to 15.8%), number of kernels per spike (by 2.8% to 11.8%) and one kernel weight (by 8.4% to 10.7%). T. spelta was characterized by the weakest average response to infection. The grain from inoculated spikes contained significantly higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its 3-β-D-glucoside (D3G) than control grain. The D3G/DON ratio ranged from 11.4% to 21.4% in control grain and from 8.1% to 11.6% in inoculated grain. The lowest levels of mycotoxins were found in spelt, and the highest in T. polonicum lines and Kamut. PCA revealed that the grain of T. polonicum was characterized by an entirely different mycotoxin profile. The weakest response to F. culmorum infections was noted in T. spelta, and the strongest response in T. polonicum breeding lines and Kamut.

  6. The Response of Selected Triticum spp. Genotypes with Different Ploidy Levels to Head Blight Caused by Fusarium culmorum (W.G.Smith Sacc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wiwart

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Several cultivars and pure lines of Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon, T. polonicum, T. spelta and T. aestivum were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in wheat. During the three-year study, the infection decreased the values of the analyzed yield components: spike weight (by 5.6% to 15.8%, number of kernels per spike (by 2.8% to 11.8% and one kernel weight (by 8.4% to 10.7%. T. spelta was characterized by the weakest average response to infection. The grain from inoculated spikes contained significantly higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON and its 3-β-d-glucoside (D3G than control grain. The D3G/DON ratio ranged from 11.4% to 21.4% in control grain and from 8.1% to 11.6% in inoculated grain. The lowest levels of mycotoxins were found in spelt, and the highest in T. polonicum lines and Kamut. PCA revealed that the grain of T. polonicum was characterized by an entirely different mycotoxin profile. The weakest response to F. culmorum infections was noted in T. spelta, and the strongest response in T. polonicum breeding lines and Kamut.

  7. Random chromosome elimination in synthetic Triticum-Aegilops amphiploids leads to development of a stable partial amphiploid with high grain micro- and macronutrient content and powdery mildew resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vijay K; Rawat, Nidhi; Neelam, Kumari; Kumar, Sundip; Randhawa, Gursharn S; Dhaliwal, Harcharan S

    2010-12-01

    Synthetic amphiploids are the immortal sources for studies on crop evolution, genome dissection, and introgression of useful variability from related species. Cytological analysis of synthetic decaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) - Aegilops kotschyi Boiss. amphiploids (AABBDDUkUkSkSk) showed some univalents from the C1 generation onward followed by chromosome elimination. Most of the univalents came to metaphase I plate after the reductional division of paired chromosomes and underwent equational division leading to their elimination through laggards and micronuclei. Substantial variation in the chromosome number of pollen mother cells from different tillers, spikelets, and anthers of some plants also indicated somatic chromosome elimination. Genomic in situ hybridization, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and simple sequence repeat markers analysis of two amphiploids with reduced chromosomes indicated random chromosome elimination of various genomes with higher sensitivity of D followed by the Sk and Uk genomes to elimination, whereas 1D chromosome was preferentially eliminated in both the amphiploids investigated. One of the partial amphiploids, C4 T. aestivum 'Chinese Spring' - Ae. kotschyi 396 (2n = 58), with 34 T. aestivum, 14 Uk, and 10 Sk had stable meiosis and high fertility. The partial amphiploids with white glumes, bold seeds, and tough rachis with high grain macro- and micronutrients and resistance to powdery mildew could be used for T. aestivum biofortification and transfer of powdery mildew resistance.

  8. PENAMPILAN PERTUMBUHANDAN HASIL DUA BELAS GENOTIPE GANDUM (Triticum aestivum L. DITANAM di DATARAN RENDAH DALAM RANGKA MENCARI CALON TETUA ADAPTIF DATARAN RENDAH

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    Yosep Chandra Puspita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to looking for some parent materials of wheat adaptif tropical lowland, there have been done an experimental field to study the phenotype of twelve wheat genotype (Triticum aestivum L. that cultivated in lowland from June 17, until October 17, 2011, at a field of PT. Sango Ceramics Indonesia, Mangkang -Wonosari, Ngalian, Semarang, Central of Java, about 13 meter above the sea level. The purpose of these research were to observe the phenotype performance of twelve wheat genotypes at tropical lowland and to determine the wheat genotype that are potential to be observe as parent materials which adaptif in tropical lowland. The research used Randomized Block Design with twelve treatments and three replications. The treatments were 1 OASIS/SKAUZ//4*BCN, 2 HP 1744, 3 LAJ3302/MO88, 4 RABE/MO88, 5 H-21, 6 G-21, 7 G-18, 8 Menemen, 9 Basribey, 10 Alibey, 11 Selayar and 12 Dewata. The result of this research were the growth and yield performance of twelve wheat genotypes at tropical lowland 13 m above the sea level were different in crop height, number of tiller, 1000 grain weight, number of grain/spikelet, grain weight of forth line but there werenot different in flowering time, harvest time and one liter weight of grain. The wheat genotypes that are potential performance to be observed as parent materials of tolerant lowland wheat are Basribey and Menemen genotype.

  9. Hybrid dwarfness in crosses between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.): a new look at an old phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhenko, N; Rutten, T; Tsvetkova, N; Voylokov, A; Börner, A

    2015-03-01

    The existence of hybrid dwarfs from intraspecific crosses in wheat (Triticum aestivum) was described 100 years ago, and the genetics underlying hybrid dwarfness are well understood. In this study, we report a dwarf phenotype in interspecific hybrids between wheat and rye (Secale cereale). We identified two rye lines that produce hybrid dwarfs with wheat and have none of the hitherto known hybrid dwarfing genes. Genetic analyses revealed that both rye lines carry a single allelic gene responsible for the dwarf phenotype. This gene was designated Hdw-R1 (Hybrid dwarf-R1). Application of gibberellic acid (GA3 ) to both intraspecific (wheat-wheat) and interspecific (wheat-rye) hybrids showed that hybrid dwarfness cannot be overcome by treatment with this phytohormone. Histological analysis of shoot apices showed that wheat-rye hybrids with the dwarf phenotype at 21 and 45 days after germination failed to develop further. Shoot apices of dwarf plants did not elongate, did not form new primordia and had a dome-shaped appearance in the seed. The possible relationship between hybrid dwarfness and the genes responsible for the transition from vegetative to generative growth stage is discussed. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Assessment of AquaCrop model in the simulation of durum wheat (Triticum aestivum L. growth and yield under different water regimes in Tadla- Morocco

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    Bassou BOUAZZAM

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulation models that clarify the effects of water on crop yield are useful tools for improving farm level water management and optimizing water use efficiency. In this study, AquaCrop was evaluated for Karim genotype which is the main durum winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. practiced in Tadla. AquaCrop is based on the water-driven growth module, in that transpiration is converted into biomass through a water productivity parameter. The model was calibrated on data from a full irrigation treatment in 2014/15 and validated on other stressed and unstressed treatments including rain-fed conditions in 2014/15 and 2015/16. Results showed that the model provided excellent simulations of canopy cover, biomass and grain yield. Overall, the relationship between observed and modeled wheat grain yield for all treatments combined produced an R2 of 0.79, a mean squared error of 1.01 t ha-1 and an efficiency coefficient of 0.68. The model satisfactory predicted the trend of soil water reserve. Consequently, AquaCrop can be a valuable tool for simulating wheat grain yield in Tadla plain, particularly considering the fact that the model requires a relatively small number of input data. However, the performance of the model has to be fine-tuned under a wider range of conditions.

  11. Investigation of dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Azar 2 plants response to symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhiza and mycorrhiza like fungi under different levels of drought stress

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    Y. Yaghoubian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate arbuscular mycorrhiza (Glomuss mossea and mycorrhiza-like (Piriformospora indica effects on yield, yield components and some morphological (cv. Azar 2 traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under water deficit stress, a pot experiment was conducted as factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with four replications. Treatments were drought stress at three levels (FC, -5 and -10 bar and fungi inoculation at four levels (mycorrhiza (AM, mycorrhiza-like (MLF and co-inoculation of AM+MLF and control. Results showed that the water stress significantly decreased 1000-grain weight, spike harvest index, fertility percent of spike, plant height, peduncle and extrusion length and colonization percent while grain density per spike markedly increased. Fungi inoculation significantly improved all studied traits except harvest index, 1000-grain weight and root colonization. Co-inoculation of AM and MLF had the best performance in terms of all mentioned parameters. Interaction effects of fungi and water stress was significant on grain and biological yield, spike and grain number and positively affected by fungi inoculation. Among fungi treatments, however, co-inoculation of AM+MLF had the best performance and recommended for both stress and non stress conditions.

  12. Novel fluorescent sequence-related amplified polymorphism(FSRAP markers for the construction of a genetic linkage map of wheat(Triticum aestivum L.

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    Zhao Lingbo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel fluorescent sequence-related amplified polymorphism (FSRAP markers were developed based on the SRAP molecular marker. Then, the FSRAP markers were used to construct the genetic map of a wheat (Triticum aestivumL. recombinant inbred line population derived from a Chuanmai 42×Chuannong 16 cross. Reproducibility and polymorphism tests indicated that the FSRAP markers have repeatability and better reflect the polymorphism of wheat varieties compared with SRAP markers. A total of 430 polymorphic loci between Chuanmai 42 and Chuannong 16 were detected with 189 FSRAP primer combinations. A total of 281 FSARP markers and 39 SSR markers re classified into 20 linkage groups. The maps spanned a total length of 2499.3cM with an average distance of 7.81cM between markers. A total of 201 markers were mapped on the B genome and covered a distance of 1013cM. On the A genome, 84 markers were mapped and covered a distance of 849.6cM. On the D genome, however, only 35 markers were mapped and covered a distance of 636.7cM. No FSRAP markers were distributed on the 7D chromosome. The results of the present study revealed that the novel FSRAP markers can be used to generate dense, uniform genetic maps of wheat.

  13. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing Pseudomonas isolates inhibit seed germination and α-amylase activity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)

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    Tabatabaei, S.; Ehsanzadeh, P.; Etesami, H.; Alikhani, H.A.; Glick, B.R.

    2016-11-01

    The role of plant-associated bacteria in plant physiology and metabolism is well documented, but little has been known about the roles played by Pseudomonas in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) growth and development. An in vitroexperiment was conducted to observe the effect of the inoculation of four indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-producing Pseudomonas isolates and exogenous IAA on seed germination traits and α-amylase activity of durum wheat. The results showed inoculation with all bacterial isolates led to a decrease in the germination percent, although the extent of the depression varied with the isolate. A significant relationship between concentrations of bacterial IAA and the germination inhibition percent in durum wheat seeds by different bacteria strains was observed. The results of this assay showed the effect of bacterial isolates on α-amylase activity after six and 8 days of inoculation was significant, while effect of these isolates on α-amylase activity after two and 4 days of inoculation was not meaningful. In addition, the exogenously applied IAA displayed a concentration-dependent effect on seed germination attributes and α-amylase activity, consistent with the possibility that the inhibitory effect of bacterial inoculation on seed germination was in consequence of bacteria-produced IAA. Therefore, it may suggested that the inhibitory role of IAA in seed germination and α-amylase activity should be taken into account during the screening of IAA-producing Pseudomonas isolates for durum wheat growth promoting agents. (Author)

  14. In Vitro Transcripts of Wild-Type and Fluorescent Protein-Tagged Triticum mosaic virus (Family Potyviridae) are Biologically Active in Wheat.

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    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; McMechan, Anthony J; Bartels, Melissa; Hein, Gary L; Graybosch, Robert A

    2015-11-01

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) (genus Poacevirus, family Potyviridae) is a recently described eriophyid mite-transmitted wheat virus. In vitro RNA transcripts generated from full-length cDNA clones of TriMV proved infectious on wheat. Wheat seedlings inoculated with in vitro transcripts elicited mosaic and mottling symptoms similar to the wild-type virus, and the progeny virus was efficiently transmitted by wheat curl mites, indicating that the cloned virus retained pathogenicity, movement, and wheat curl mite transmission characteristics. A series of TriMV-based expression vectors was constructed by engineering a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or red fluorescent protein (RFP) open reading frame with homologous NIa-Pro cleavage peptides between the P1 and HC-Pro cistrons. We found that GFP-tagged TriMV with seven or nine amino acid cleavage peptides efficiently processed GFP from HC-Pro. TriMV-GFP vectors were stable in wheat for more than 120 days and for six serial passages at 14-day intervals by mechanical inoculation and were transmitted by wheat curl mites similarly to the wild-type virus. Fluorescent protein-tagged TriMV was observed in wheat leaves, stems, and crowns. The availability of fluorescent protein-tagged TriMV will facilitate the examination of virus movement and distribution in cereal hosts and the mechanisms of cross protection and synergistic interactions between TriMV and Wheat streak mosaic virus.

  15. Impact of transgene genome location on gene migration from herbicide-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host).

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    Rehman, Maqsood; Hansen, Jennifer L; Mallory-Smith, Carol A; Zemetra, Robert S

    2017-08-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) (ABD) and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) (CD) can cross and produce hybrids that can backcross to either parent. Such backcrosses can result in progeny with chromosomes and/or chromosome segments retained from wheat. Thus, a herbicide resistance gene could migrate from wheat to jointed goatgrass. In theory, the risk of gene migration from herbicide-resistant wheat to jointed goatgrass is more likely if the gene is located on the D genome and less likely if the gene is located on the A or B genome of wheat. BC 1 populations (jointed goatgrass as a recurrent parent) were analyzed for chromosome numbers and transgene transmission rates under sprayed and non-sprayed conditions. Transgene retention in the non-sprayed BC 1 generation for the A, B and D genomes was 84, 60 and 64% respectively. In the sprayed populations, the retention was 81, 59 and 74% respectively. The gene transmission rates were higher than the expected 50% or less under sprayed and non-sprayed conditions, possibly owing to meiotic chromosome restitution and/or chromosome non-disjunction. Such high transmission rates in the BC 1 generation negates the benefits of gene placement for reducing the potential of gene migration from wheat to jointed goatgrass. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Generation of amphidiploids from hybrids of wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum as a source of genetic variation for wheat improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Csilla; Yang, Cai-yun; Kasprzak, Paul; Hubbart, Stella; Scholefield, Duncan; Mehra, Surbhi; Skipper, Emma; King, Ian; King, Julie

    2015-02-01

    We aim to improve diversity of domesticated wheat by transferring genetic variation for important target traits from related wild and cultivated grass species. The present study describes the development of F1 hybrids between wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum and production of new amphidiploids. Amphidiploid lines were produced from 20 different distant relatives. Both colchicine and caffeine were successfully used to double the chromosome numbers. The genomic constitution of the newly formed amphidiploids derived from seven distant relatives was determined using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Altogether, 42 different plants were analysed, 19 using multicolour GISH separating the chromosomes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat, as well as the distant relative, and 23 using single colour GISH. Restructuring of the allopolyploid genome, both chromosome losses and aneuploidy, was detected in all the genomes contained by the amphidiploids. From the observed chromosome numbers there is an indication that in amphidiploids the B genome of wheat suffers chromosome losses less frequently than the other wheat genomes. Phenotyping to realize the full potential of the wheat-related grass germplasm is underway, linking the analyzed genotypes to agronomically important target traits.

  17. Variation of the phytotoxicity of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination with leaching conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoungthong, Khamphe; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA) has long been regarded as an alternative building material in the construction industry. However, the pollutants contained in the bottom ash could potentially leach out and contaminate the local environment, which presents an obstacle to the reuse of the materials. To evaluate the environmental feasibility of using MSWIBA as a recycled material in construction, the leaching derived ecotoxicity was assessed. The leaching behavior of MSWIBA under various conditions, including the extractant type, leaching time, liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, and leachate pH were investigated, and the phytotoxicity of these leachates on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination was determined. Moreover, the correlation between the germination index and the concentrations of various chemical constituents in the MSWIBA leachates was assessed using multivariate statistics with principal component analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis. It was found that, heavy metal concentrations in the leachate were pH and L/S ratio dependent, but were less affected by leaching time. Heavy metals were the main pollutants present in wheat seeds. Heavy metals (especially Ba, Cr, Cu and Pb) had a substantial inhibitory effect on wheat seed germination and root elongation. To safely use MSWIBA in construction, the potential risk and ecotoxicity of leached materials must be addressed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for endogenous reference gene for specific detection and quantification of common wheat-derived DNA (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautrin, Sonia; Zhang, David

    2007-01-01

    A species-specific endogenous reference gene system was developed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by targeting the ALMT1 gene, an aluminium-activated malate transporter. The primers and probe were elaborated for real-time PCR-based qualitative and quantitative assay. The size of amplified product is 95 base pairs. The specificity was assessed on 17 monocot and dicot plant species. The established real-time PCR assay amplified only T. aestivum-derived DNA; no amplification occurred on other phylogenetically related species, including durum wheat (T. durum). The robustness of the system was tested on the DNA of 15 common wheat cultivars using 20 000 genomic copies per PCR the mean cycle threshold (Ct) values of 24.02 +/- 0.251 were obtained. The absolute limits of detection and quantification of the real-time PCR assay were estimated to 2 and 20 haploid genome copies of common wheat, respectively. The linearity was experimentally validated on 2-fold serial dilutions of DNA from 650 to 20 000 haploid genome copies. All these results show that the real-time PCR assay developed on the ALMT1 gene is suitable to be used as an endogenous reference gene for PCR-based specific detection and quantification of T. aestivum-derived DNA in various applications, in particular for the detection and quantification of genetically modified materials in common wheat.

  19. Identification of differentially regulated proteins in response to a compatible interaction between the pathogen Fusarium graminearum and its host, Triticum aestivum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenchun; Eudes, François; Laroche, André

    2006-08-01

    Using proteomic analyses, a study was carried out aimed at understanding the molecular mechanism of interaction between Fusarium graminearum and Triticum aestivum. Wheat spikelets were inoculated with H2O and conidia spores of F. graminearum. Proteins were extracted from spikelets harvested at three time points: 1, 2 and 3 days post inoculation. About 1380 protein spots were displayed on 2-D gels stained with Sypro Ruby. In total, 41 proteins were detected to be differentially regulated due to F. graminearum infection, and were analyzed with LC-MS/MS for their identification. The proteins involved in the antioxidant and jasmonic acid signaling pathways, pathogenesis-related response, amino acid synthesis and nitrogen metabolism were up-regulated, while those related to photosynthesis were less abundant following F. graminearum infection. The DNA-damage inducible protein was found to be induced and glycosylated in F. graminearum-infected spikelets. Using TargetP program, seven of the identified wheat proteins were predicted to be located in the chloroplast, implying that the chloroplast is the organelle mostly affected by F. graminearum infection. Eight identified fungal proteins possess possible functions such as antioxidant and acquiring carbon from wheat through glycolysis in a compatible interaction between F. graminearum and wheat.

  20. Interaction effects on uptake and toxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances and cadmium in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) from co-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuyan; Fan, Ziyan; Sun, Lihui; Zhou, Tao; Xing, Yuliang; Liu, Lifen

    2017-03-01

    A vegetation study was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and Cadmium (Cd) on soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity and bioaccumulation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) from co-contaminated soil. Soil urease activities were inhibited significantly but catalase activities were promoted significantly by interaction of PFASs and Cd which had few effects on sucrase activities. Joint stress with PFASs and Cd decreased the biomass of plants and chlorophyll (Chl) content in both wheat and rapeseed, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were increased in wheat but inhibited in rapeseed compared with single treatments. The bioconcentration abilities of PFASs in wheat and rapeseed were decreased, and the translocation factor of PFASs was decreased in wheat but increased in rapeseed with Cd addition. The bioaccumulation and translocation abilities of Cd were increased significantly in both wheat and rapeseed with PFASs addition. These findings suggested important evidence that the co-existence of PFASs and Cd reduced the bioavailability of PFASs while enhanced the bioavailability of Cd in soil, which increased the associated environmental risk for Cd but decreased for PFASs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A sampling system for estimating the cultivation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) from LANDSAT data. M.S. Thesis - 21 Jul. 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Moreira, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Using digitally processed MSS/LANDSAT data as auxiliary variable, a methodology to estimate wheat (Triticum aestivum L) area by means of sampling techniques was developed. To perform this research, aerial photographs covering 720 sq km in Cruz Alta test site at the NW of Rio Grande do Sul State, were visually analyzed. LANDSAT digital data were analyzed using non-supervised and supervised classification algorithms; as post-processing the classification was submitted to spatial filtering. To estimate wheat area, the regression estimation method was applied and different sample sizes and various sampling units (10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 sq km) were tested. Based on the four decision criteria established for this research, it was concluded that: (1) as the size of sampling units decreased the percentage of sampled area required to obtain similar estimation performance also decreased; (2) the lowest percentage of the area sampled for wheat estimation with relatively high precision and accuracy through regression estimation was 90% using 10 sq km s the sampling unit; and (3) wheat area estimation by direct expansion (using only aerial photographs) was less precise and accurate when compared to those obtained by means of regression estimation.

  2. Chemometric evaluation of different experimental conditions on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) development using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiles of benzoxazinone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrés, Mireia; Villagrasa, Marta; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Tauler, Romà

    2012-06-20

    Different chemometric techniques have been used to evaluate the effect of distinct experimental conditions and factors on Triticum aestivum L. plant development. The study was conducted using three wheat varieties, Astron, Ritmo and Stakado. These varieties were grown under organic and conventional cultivation systems. Samples were collected at five growth stages. Shoots and roots of each plant at these stages were analysed. Three replicates of each analysed sample were performed to improve representativeness and to allow for the evaluation of natural variability and interaction effects. All samples were analysed using Liquid Chromatography Mass-Spectrometry (LC-MS), and the Total Ion Current (TIC) profiles of benzoxazinone derivatives obtained for each sample were investigated. Qualitative and quantitative assessments of these TIC profiles and of their changes in the analysed samples were carried out using different chemometric techniques. Estimation of main effects, and of their possible interaction, was performed by means of Analysis of Variance combined to Principal Component Analysis (ANOVA-PCA) and of Analysis of Variance combined to Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in the water status and osmotic solute contents in response to drought and salicylic acid treatments in four different cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfy, Naglaa; El-Tayeb, Mohamed A; Hassanen, Ahmed M; Moustafa, Mahmoud F M; Sakuma, Yoh; Inouhe, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) controls growth and stress responses in plants. It also induces drought tolerance in plants. In this paper, four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars with different drought responses were treated with SA in three levels of drain (90, 60, 30% of maximum field capacity) to examine its interactive effects on drought responses and contents of osmotic solutes that may be involved in growth and osmotic adjustment. Under drought condition, the cultivars Geza 164 and Sakha 69 had the plant biomass and leaf relative water content (LRWC) greater than the cultivars Gemaza 1 and Gemaza 3. In all cultivars, drought stress decreased the biomass, LRWC, and the contents of inorganic solutes (Ca, K, Mg) and largely increased the contents of organic solutes (soluble sugars and proline). By contrast, SA increased the biomass, LRWC and the inorganic and organic solute contents, except proline. Correlation analysis revealed that the LRWC correlated positively with the inorganic solute contents but negatively with proline in all cultivars. SA caused maximum accumulations of soluble sugars in roots under drought. These results indicated that SA-enhanced tolerance might involve solute accumulations but independently of proline biosynthesis. Drought-sensitive cultivars had a trait lowering Ca and K levels especially in shoots. Possible functions of the ions and different traits of cultivars were discussed.

  4. Protective Effect of Nitric Oxide on High Temperature Induced Oxidative Stress in Wheat (Triticum aestivum Callus Culture

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    Hossam Saad EL-BELTAGI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High temperature (HT stress is a major environmental factor that limits plant growth, metabolism and productivity worldwide. Plant growth and development involve numerous biochemical reactions that are sensitive to temperature. Plants’ responses to HT vary with the degree and duration of HT and the plants’ adaptability. The protective effect of exogenous nitric oxide in alleviating high temperature induced damages of wheat (Triticum aestivum callus tissues was investigated. Heat treatment (35 and 40 °C alone or in combination with 0.5 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP; nitric oxide donor was applied for 72 h to callus tissues cultured on MS medium. Heat stress significantly increased lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radical levels, whereas ascorbate and total glutathione contents markedly decreased. In addition, heat stress increased the activities of antioxidant defense enzymes: superoxide distumase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase. In contrast, the addition of SNP in the culture media prevented the callus from the heat-induced oxidative damage as indicated by the decrease of MDA, H2O2 and O2.− contents, and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidant constituents. These results provided support for the hypothesis that the exogenous applications of NO confer tolerance to high temperature stress by reducing the oxidative damage in plants.

  5. An Efficient Approach for the Development of Locus Specific Primers in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Its Application to Re-Sequencing of Genes Involved in Frost Tolerance.

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    Steve Babben

    Full Text Available Recent declines in costs accelerated sequencing of many species with large genomes, including hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Although the draft sequence of bread wheat is known, it is still one of the major challenges to developlocus specific primers suitable to be used in marker assisted selection procedures, due to the high homology of the three genomes. In this study we describe an efficient approach for the development of locus specific primers comprising four steps, i.e. (i identification of genomic and coding sequences (CDS of candidate genes, (ii intron- and exon-structure reconstruction, (iii identification of wheat A, B and D sub-genome sequences and primer development based on sequence differences between the three sub-genomes, and (iv; testing of primers for functionality, correct size and localisation. This approach was applied to single, low and high copy genes involved in frost tolerance in wheat. In summary for 27 of these genes for which sequences were derived from Triticum aestivum, Triticum monococcum and Hordeum vulgare, a set of 119 primer pairs was developed and after testing on Nulli-tetrasomic (NT lines, a set of 65 primer pairs (54.6%, corresponding to 19 candidate genes, turned out to be specific. Out of these a set of 35 fragments was selected for validation via Sanger's amplicon re-sequencing. All fragments, with the exception of one, could be assigned to the original reference sequence. The approach presented here showed a much higher specificity in primer development in comparison to techniques used so far in bread wheat and can be applied to other polyploid species with a known draft sequence.

  6. EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS ON THE PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVITY OF WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L. OVER LAST 25 YEARS IN THE TERAI REGION OF NEPAL

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    Khet Raj Dahal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available  A study on the effect of climate change and associated factors on the production and productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. over last 25 years in the Terai region of Nepal was conducted. Three major wheat growing districts of Nepal (Kanchanpur, Rupandehi and Dhanusha were focused. Climate and wheat management data were deployed. Farmers' feedback was taken through a set of semi-structured questionnaire followed by one day workshop cum seminar. Focus Group Discussion (FGD was also conducted in the field. Comparison over 25 years showed that rainfall during wheat season declined significantly while maximum temperature increased by over 10C. Mean minimum temperature showed slight decline. Farmers' interaction indicated that growth period of wheat appeared to reduce over years, while new diseases/races and weeds have emerged. This led to increase in use of chemical pesticides. Use of inputs such as chemical fertilizers increased significantly leading to increased production cost by many folds. Despite limitations, wheat farming area and production has increased significantly in the past 25 years. The major issues for farmers were found to be a deficit of inorganic fertilizers, insufficient supply of quality seeds and an unsystematic market. The coping mechanism for climate change in wheat farming in all the three districts was not applied due to lack of knowledge, facilities and access to improved technologies. The farmers expected advanced technological know-how along with other facilities for climate resilient wheat farming.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page:

  7. Genome-wide association study and genetic diversity analysis on nitrogen use efficiency in a Central European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. collection.

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    István Monostori

    Full Text Available To satisfy future demands, the increase of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. yield is inevitable. Simultaneously, maintaining high crop productivity and efficient use of nutrients, especially nitrogen use efficiency (NUE, are essential for sustainable agriculture. NUE and its components are inherently complex and highly influenced by environmental factors, nitrogen management practices and genotypic variation. Therefore, a better understanding of their genetic basis and regulation is fundamental. To investigate NUE-related traits and their genetic and environmental regulation, field trials were evaluated in a Central European wheat collection of 93 cultivars at two nitrogen input levels across three seasons. This elite germplasm collection was genotyped on DArTseq® genotypic platform to identify loci affecting N-related complex agronomic traits. To conduct robust genome-wide association mapping, the genetic diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium were examined. Population structure was investigated by various methods and two subpopulations were identified. Their separation is based on the breeding history of the cultivars, while analysis of linkage disequilibrium suggested that selective pressures had acted on genomic regions bearing loci with remarkable agronomic importance. Besides NUE, genetic basis for variation in agronomic traits indirectly affecting NUE and its components, moreover genetic loci underlying response to nitrogen fertilisation were also determined. Altogether, 183 marker-trait associations (MTA were identified spreading over almost the entire genome. We found that most of the MTAs were environmental-dependent. The present study identified several associated markers in those genomic regions where previous reports had found genes or quantitative trait loci influencing the same traits, while most of the MTAs revealed new genomic regions. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat

  8. Characterization of genetic coefficients of durum wheat (Triticum turgidumL. ssp. durum'Llareta-INIA' and 'Corcolén-INIA'

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    Marco Garrido

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The genetic coefficients, representative of a crop, are necessary to use growth models; in many cases the range of the species is known, but there are no specific values for varieties. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidumL. ssp. durum'Llareta-INIA' and 'Corcolén-INIA' were sown under irrigation in the experiment station Antumapu of the Universidad de Chile on 29 June 2007, 19 May 2009, and 15 June 2010 in order to determinate four genetic coefficients: developmental thermal time, phyllochron (PHLN, extinction coefficient (k, and radiation use efficiency (RUE, and to evaluate the performance of these coefficients. Thermal times to anthesis and from anthesis to physiological maturity were 652 and 541 °C d, respectively. Two PHLN values were found, 46.6 °C d leaf-1 from emergence to fifth leaf and 102.9 °C d leaf-1 from fifth to eighth leaf. In both cases neither variety nor sowing date was significant. The value of kdid not vary among sowing dates for 'Llareta-INIA' and was not significantly different from that of 'Corcolén-INIA' for normal planting date, due to which a single fit for the two varieties was adjusted, obtaining a value of 0.46. However, 'Corcolén-INIA' had a lower value of kfor later sowing dates. RUE did not vary between varieties or sowing dates; its estimated value was 2.83 g MJ-1. The evaluation of the coefficients obtained showed coherent results, thus they can be used in model simulations.

  9. Using Ridge Regression Models to Estimate Grain Yield from Field Spectral Data in Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. Grown under Three Water Regimes

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    Javier Hernandez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeding based on grain yield (GY is an expensive and time-consuming method, so new indirect estimation techniques to evaluate the performance of crops represent an alternative method to improve grain yield. The present study evaluated the ability of canopy reflectance spectroscopy at the range from 350 to 2500 nm to predict GY in a large panel (368 genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. through multivariate ridge regression models. Plants were treated under three water regimes in the Mediterranean conditions of central Chile: severe water stress (SWS, rain fed, mild water stress (MWS; one irrigation event around booting and full irrigation (FI with mean GYs of 1655, 4739, and 7967 kg∙ha−1, respectively. Models developed from reflectance data during anthesis and grain filling under all water regimes explained between 77% and 91% of the GY variability, with the highest values in SWS condition. When individual models were used to predict yield in the rest of the trials assessed, models fitted during anthesis under MWS performed best. Combined models using data from different water regimes and each phenological stage were used to predict grain yield, and the coefficients of determination (R2 increased to 89.9% and 92.0% for anthesis and grain filling, respectively. The model generated during anthesis in MWS was the best at predicting yields when it was applied to other conditions. Comparisons against conventional reflectance indices were made, showing lower predictive abilities. It was concluded that a Ridge Regression Model using a data set based on spectral reflectance at anthesis or grain filling represents an effective method to predict grain yield in genotypes under different water regimes.

  10. Chemical, biochemical, and biological impact of untreated domestic sewage water use on Vertisol and its consequences on wheat (Triticum aestivum) productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, J K; Panwar, N; Srivastava, Ajay; Biswas, A K; Kundu, S; Rao, A Subba

    2010-02-01

    In the peri-urban areas of central India, sewage water is a valuable resource for agricultural production. In this study, impact of domestic sewage water irrigation for 5 years on Vertisol with no previous history of sewage irrigation was investigated in an ongoing field experiment at Bhopal (India) under subtropical monsoon type climate. The wheat (Triticum aestivum) crop was grown during post-rainy winter season with 30 cm of irrigation (groundwater or sewage water) and four nutrient treatments (T(1), 0; T(2), 100%; T(3), 50%; and T(4), 50% of general recommended doses of NPK + FYM at 10 Mg/ha). Results showed that sewage irrigation of about 150 cm over a period of 5 years resulted significant increases in salinity as well as available fractions of N, P, K, and micronutrients, viz., Zn, Fe, and Mn in soils. Carbon and phosphorus applied through sewage water were accumulated more in subsoil layer compared to topmost plough layer. Soil microbiological activity, as indicated by soil respiration, microbial biomass C, as well as dehydrogenase enzyme activity was higher in sewage water-irrigated soils. There was also significant increase in fungal and actinomycetes as well as total coliform population in such soils. Nutrients supplied through sewage water were not able to raise the productivity of wheat to the level that obtained through fertilizers at the recommended level which indicated that additional nutrients through fertilizers are required to obtain higher productivity of wheat under sewage farming. Protein and Zn content in wheat grains were more when the crop was grown with sewage irrigation. Overall results show that except for increase in coliform population, short duration (5 years) of municipal sewage water irrigation did not have any appreciable harmful effect on soil quality as well as crop productivity; rather, it proved beneficial in improving soil fertility, wheat productivity, and produce quality.

  11. Increase in growth, productivity and nutritional status of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711) and enrichment in soil fertility applied with organic matrix entrapped urea.

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    Kumar, Manoj; Bauddh, Kuldeep; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sainger, Manish; Sainger, Poonam A; Singh, Rana P

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during two consequent years in semi-arid, subtropical climate of Rohtak district situated in North-West Indian state Haryana to evaluate the effects of eco-friendly organic matrix entrapped urea (OMEU) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711). The OMEU prepared in granular form contained cow dung, rice bran (grain cover of Oryza sativa), neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves and clay soil (diameter of particles < 0.002 mm) in 1:1:1:1 ratios and saresh (plant gum of Acacia sp.) as binder entrapping half of the recommended dose of urea. A basal application of organic matrix entrapped urea showed increase in plant growth in terms of fresh and dry weights, root length, root number, leaf number, tillers, plant height earlet number, earlet length and productivity in terms of grain yield and straw yield over free form of urea (FU) and no fertilizer (NF) application. The OMEU increased total soluble proteins, organic N and free ammonium content in the leaves at 45 and 60 days. The nutritional status of wheat grains in OMEU applied plants was almost similar to that observed for FU applied plants. An increase in organic carbon and available phosphorus (P) was observed in OMEU applied plots on harvest whereas pH was slightly decreased over FU applied plots. The microbial population and activity in terms of fungal and bacterial colony count and activities soil dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher in OMEU applied plots as compared to the FU applied plots. Our data indicate that OMEU which are low cost, biodegradable and non-toxic can be used to replace the expensive chemical fertilizers for wheat cultivation in semi-arid, subtropical climate.

  12. UPLC-QTOF analysis reveals metabolomic changes in the flag leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under low-nitrogen stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Ma, Xin-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Liu, Ji-Hong; Huang, Bing-Yan; Guo, Xiao-Yang; Xiong, Shu-Ping; La, Gui-Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Wheat is one of the most important grain crop plants worldwide. Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient for the growth and development of wheat and exerts a marked influence on its metabolites. To investigate the influence of low nitrogen stress on various metabolites of the flag leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a metabolomic analysis of two wheat cultivars under different induced nitrogen levels was conducted during two important growth periods based on large-scale untargeted metabolomic analysis using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF). Multivariate analyses-such as principle components analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA)-were used for data analysis. PCA yielded distinctive clustering information among the samples, classifying the wheat flag samples into two categories: those under normal N treatment and low N treatment. By processing OPLS-DA, eleven secondary metabolites were shown to be responsible for classifying the two groups. The secondary metabolites may be considered potential biomarkers of low nitrogen stress. Chemical analyses showed that most of the identified secondary metabolites were flavonoids and their related derivatives, such as iso-vitexin, iso-orientin and methylisoorientin-2″-O-rhamnoside, etc. This study confirmed the effect of low nitrogen stress on the metabolism of wheat, and revealed that the accumulation of secondary metabolites is a response to abiotic stresses. Meanwhile, we aimed to identify markers which could be used to monitor the nitrogen status of wheat crops, presumably to guide appropriate fertilization regimens. Furthermore, the UPLC-QTOF metabolic platform technology can be used to study metabolomic variations of wheat under abiotic stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Lechevalieria rhizosphaerae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from rhizosphere soil of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and emended description of the genus Lechevalieria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junwei; Li, Wenchao; Shi, Linlin; Wang, Han; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Yue; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2017-11-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-A2 T , was isolated from rhizosphere soil of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain NEAU-A2 T should be assigned to the genus Lechevalieria and forms a distinct branch with its closest neighbour Lechevalieria aerocolonigenes DSM 40034 T (99.0 %). Moreover, key morphological and chemotaxonomic properties also confirmed the affiliation of strain NEAU-A2 T to the genus Lechevalieria. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the whole-cell hydrolysates were galactose, mannose, rhamnose, glucose and ribose. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositolmannoside and two glycolipids. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H6). The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω7c and anteiso-C17 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 68.2 mol%. The combination of the DNA-DNA hybridization result and some phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that strain NEAU-A2 T could be distinguished from its closest relative. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-A2 T represents a novel species of the genus Lechevalieria, for which the name Lechevalieriarhizosphaerae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-A2 T (=CGMCC 4.7405 T =DSM 104541 T ).

  14. Phosphorus availability to rice (Oriza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum estivum L.) in a Vertisol after eight years of inorganic and organic fertilizer additions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Muneshwar; Reddy, K Sammi; Singh, V P; Rupa, T R

    2007-05-01

    Integrated use of inorganic fertilizer N and well decomposed cattle manure (CM) or 30-35 days old Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), a weed grown off site as green manure (GM) under repeated applications of fertilizer P and urea N for eight years in a rice (Oriza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum estivum L.) sequence was studied on transformation of fertilizer P applied to soil at the National Research Center for Weed Science, Jabalpur, India. Based on the results, it appeared that, repeated applications of 52 kg super-phosphate P resulted in a marked increase in Olsen P linearly with time. Conjunctive use of urea fertilizer N with organic manure resulted in a larger increase in Olsen P in the Vertisol. Studies further revealed that the greater accumulation of fertilizer P applied in excess to crop removal occurred in inorganic P in the plots receiving only fertilizer N. However, plots receiving fertilizer N along with organic manures led to P accumulation predominantly in organic forms. The study suggests that these two pools of P acted as a sink when fertilizer P was applied in excess to crop removal and are bio-chemically active. The Olsen P status after 8 cycles of rice-wheat crops revealed that the average amount of fertilizer P required after adjusting for crop uptake to increase Olsen P by 1 mg kg(-1) soil was 7.2 kg Pha(-1) in the plots receiving only fertilizer N. Whereas, application of 5t FYM or 6t GM reduced it to 4.6 kg Pha(-1). The plots receiving manure always maintained a greater concentration of Olsen P. The application of CM or GM with fertilizer N enriched short-term inorganic P as well as long-term organic P fertility. After eight years, larger concentrations of organic P in the subsurface layer (16-30 cm), compared to initial values, indicates downward movement of P in organic forms.

  15. Response of growth characters and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. to co-inoculation of farmyard manure, Trichoderma spp. and Psudomunas spp.

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    A. Shahsavari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of cattle manure, benefit fungi of Trichoderma species and Psudomunas spp. bacteria on seedling emergence parameters, growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. a pot experiment was carried out in factorial (23 arrangement based on a randomized complete design with three replications. The treatments were three levels of cattle manure (10, 20 and 30 t.ha-1, three Trichoderma species (T. viridae, T. harzianum, T. hamatum and either application or non- application of Psudomunas bacteria. Analysis of data showed that control plants and 10 t.ha-1 cattle manure treatments had significantly effect on emergence percentage and field emergence rate compared to 20 and 30 t.ha-1 cattle manure. In the current experiment, the maximum grain yield was observed in 20 t.ha-1 inoculated with both T. viridae and T. harzianum. Application of 10 and 20 t.ha-1cattle manure markedly increased harvest index and biomass by 39.72 and 19.47%, respectively compared to control treatment (no manure application. Also, T. viridae fugues improved plant biomass compared to T. harzianum. The fungus of T. harzianum enhanced harvest index rather than T. viridae and T. hamatum. Application of Psudomunas bacteria significantly increased plant biomass and harvest index compared to pots without bacteria application. Results showed that colony counts of three Trichoderma species in the soil rhizosphere enhanced when rates of cattle manure application increased. The most of soil microbial population was observed in 30 t.ha-1 level of cattle manure inoculated with T. harzianum (74.68 × 108cfu mg-1 dry soil.

  16. Dynamics of the diazotroph Bacillus polymyxa in the rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) after inoculation and its effect on uptake of 15N-labelled fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouzou, L.; Cheneby, D.; Nicolardot, B.; Heulin, T.

    1995-01-01

    An experiment under glasshouse conditions with a sandy soil was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inoculation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots with Bacillus polymyxa on N uptake by plants and to investigate the effect of N fertilization on the dynamics of this strain. Different treatments were considered: (i) amended (100 kg N ha −1 ) or not with 15 N labelled ammonium nitrate; (ii) inoculated (2.5 10 7 spores per seed and 0.5 10 9 spores kg −1 soil) or not with B. polymyxa CF43. No promoting effect on wheat growth (dry yield) or N uptake was observed after inoculation under these experimental conditions; 62 per cent of the N fertilizer was assimilated by plants during the first 33 days. Inoculation had no effect on the quantity of soil adhering to the roots. Soluble organic C and inorganic N concentrations were higher in the soil adhering to the roots than in bulk soil. However, the nitrate concentration in soil adhering to the roots was influenced by inoculation at the beginning of plant growth, nitrate supply to the root system being delayed by its probable retention in the rhizosphere. Furthermore, total bacteria in roots, soil adhering to the roots and bulk soil was not affected by N fertilization. The number of B. polymyxa cells measured by an AB-ELISA method increased first in the bulk soil and later in the soil adhering to the roots after inoculation. Fertilization with N decreased the B. polymyxa population in adhering soil, competitive suppression of diazotrophs by non-fixing bacteria probably being induced by the presence of large amounts of nutrients in the rhizosphere when N was added. (author)

  17. Agro-ecological zoning for wheat (Triticum aestivum, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris and corn (Zea mays on the Mashhad plain, Khorasan Razavi province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Neamatollahi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate is the most important factor determining the sustainability of agricultural production systems. A qualitative land evaluation was carried out for the Mashhad plain, Khorasan Razavi province, Iran, to assess the suitability of the land to grow the locally most important crops, i.e. wheat (Triticum aestivum, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris and corn (Zea mays using a Geographical Information System (GIS. The possible growing seasons were defined as early (10 September–20 June and late (10 October–20 July season for wheat, early (15 March–15 October and late (15 April–15 November season for sugar beet, and early (1 May–1 November and late (15 May–15 November season for corn. The study area covered approximately 99.915 ha−1. Climate variables were taken into account including maximum, optimum and minimum daily average temperatures and were obtained from 30 years agro-meteorological data set from 12 synoptic stations. Growing Degree Days (GDDs were determined for wheat, sugar beet, and corn crops from sowing to harvest. To produce digital elevation model for Mashhad plain two sources were used on utilization of the IRS III satellite images with resolution that is 23.5 m, and topographic maps with scale of 1:25000. Aspect and slope layers were produced by Arc GIS 9.2 software. The study identified suitable elevation, slope, and GDDs for optimal growth and indicated that high yields are possible for wheat, sugar beet, and corn on the Mashhad plain. The study also identified the most suitable regions of the Mashhad plain for each crop.

  18. Genome-wide association mapping reveals a rich genetic architecture of stripe rust resistance loci in emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weizhen; Maccaferri, Marco; Chen, Xianming; Laghetti, Gaetano; Pignone, Domenico; Pumphrey, Michael; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    SNP-based genome scanning in worldwide domesticated emmer germplasm showed high genetic diversity, rapid linkage disequilibrium decay and 51 loci for stripe rust resistance, a large proportion of which were novel. Cultivated emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum), one of the oldest domesticated crops in the world, is a potentially rich reservoir of variation for improvement of resistance/tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in wheat. Resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in emmer wheat has been under-investigated. Here, we employed genome-wide association (GWAS) mapping with a mixed linear model to dissect effective stripe rust resistance loci in a worldwide collection of 176 cultivated emmer wheat accessions. Adult plants were tested in six environments and seedlings were evaluated with five races from the United States and one from Italy under greenhouse conditions. Five accessions were resistant across all experiments. The panel was genotyped with the wheat 90,000 Illumina iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and 5106 polymorphic SNP markers with mapped positions were obtained. A high level of genetic diversity and fast linkage disequilibrium decay were observed. In total, we identified 14 loci associated with field resistance in multiple environments. Thirty-seven loci were significantly associated with all-stage (seedling) resistance and six of them were effective against multiple races. Of the 51 total loci, 29 were mapped distantly from previously reported stripe rust resistance genes or quantitative trait loci and represent newly discovered resistance loci. Our results suggest that GWAS is an effective method for characterizing genes in cultivated emmer wheat and confirm that emmer wheat is a rich source of stripe rust resistance loci that can be used for wheat improvement.

  19. Genome-wide identification and characterization of NB-ARC resistant genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and their expression during leaf rust infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Saket; Kazmi, Andaleeb Z; Ahmed, Zainab; Roychowdhury, Gargi; Kumari, Veena; Kumar, Manish; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2017-07-01

    NB-ARC domain-containing resistance genes from the wheat genome were identified, characterized and localized on chromosome arms that displayed differential yet positive response during incompatible and compatible leaf rust interactions. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cereal crop; however, its production is affected severely by numerous diseases including rusts. An efficient, cost-effective and ecologically viable approach to control pathogens is through host resistance. In wheat, high numbers of resistance loci are present but only few have been identified and cloned. A comprehensive analysis of the NB-ARC-containing genes in complete wheat genome was accomplished in this study. Complete NB-ARC encoding genes were mined from the Ensembl Plants database to predict 604 NB-ARC containing sequences using the HMM approach. Genome-wide analysis of orthologous clusters in the NB-ARC-containing sequences of wheat and other members of the Poaceae family revealed maximum homology with Oryza sativa indica and Brachypodium distachyon. The identification of overlap between orthologous clusters enabled the elucidation of the function and evolution of resistance proteins. The distributions of the NB-ARC domain-containing sequences were found to be balanced among the three wheat sub-genomes. Wheat chromosome arms 4AL and 7BL had the most NB-ARC domain-containing contigs. The spatio-temporal expression profiling studies exemplified the positive role of these genes in resistant and susceptible wheat plants during incompatible and compatible interaction in response to the leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina. Two NB-ARC domain-containing sequences were modelled in silico, cloned and sequenced to analyze their fine structures. The data obtained in this study will augment isolation, characterization and application NB-ARC resistance genes in marker-assisted selection based breeding programs for improving rust resistance in wheat.

  20. Exploring the genetics of fertility restoration controlled by Rf1 in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using high-density linkage maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Manuel; Albrecht, Theresa; Hartl, Lorenz; Mohler, Volker

    2018-04-01

    Hybrid wheat breeding has the potential to significantly increase wheat productivity compared to line breeding. The induction of male sterility by the cytoplasm of Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. is a widely discussed approach to ensure cross-pollination between parental inbred lines in hybrid wheat seed production. As fertility restoration in hybrids with this cytoplasm is often incomplete, understanding the underlying genetics is a prerequisite to apply this technology. A promising component for fertility restoration is the restorer locus Rf1, which was first detected on chromosome 1A of the restorer accession R3. In the present study, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses to locate Rf1 and estimate its effect in populations involving the restorer lines R3, R113 and L19. Molecular markers linked to Rf1 in these populations were used to analyse the genomic target region in T. timopheevii accessions and common wheat breeding lines. The QTL analyses revealed that Rf1 interacted with a modifier locus on chromosome 1BS and the restorer locus Rf4 on chromosome 6B. The modifier locus significantly influenced both the penetrance and expressivity of Rf1. Whereas Rf1 exhibited expressivity higher than that of Rf4, the effects of these loci were not additive. Evaluating the marker haplotype for the Rf1 region, we propose that the restoring Rf1 allele may be derived exclusively from T. timopheevii. The present study demonstrates that interactions between restorer and modifier loci play a critical role in fertility restoration of common wheat with the cytoplasm of T. timopheevii.

  1. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Salinity Stress-Responsive miRNAs in Wild Emmer Wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides

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    Kewei Feng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of endogenous small noncoding RNAs which regulate diverse molecular and biochemical processes at a post-transcriptional level in plants. As the ancestor of domesticated wheat, wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides has great genetic potential for wheat improvement. However, little is known about miRNAs and their functions on salinity stress in wild emmer. To obtain more information on miRNAs in wild emmer, we systematically investigated and characterized the salinity-responsive miRNAs using deep sequencing technology. A total of 88 conserved and 124 novel miRNAs were identified, of which 50 were proven to be salinity-responsive miRNAs, with 32 significantly up-regulated and 18 down-regulated. miR172b and miR1120a, as well as mi393a, were the most significantly differently expressed. Targets of these miRNAs were computationally predicted, then Gene Ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis found that the targets of salinity-responsive miRNAs were enriched in transcription factors and stress-related proteins. Finally, we investigated the expression profiles of seven miRNAs ranging between salt-tolerant and sensitive genotypes, and found that they played critical roles in salinity tolerance in wild emmer. Our results systematically identified the salinity-responsive miRNAs in wild emmer, not only enriching the miRNA resource but also laying the foundation for further study on the biological functions and evolution of miRNAs in wild wheat and beyond.

  2. The influence of chemical protection on the content of heavy metals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growing on the soil enriched with granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołejko, E; Łozowicka, B; Kaczyński, P; Konecki, R; Grobela, M

    2017-08-01

    The presence of heavy metals in Triticum aestivum L. growing on the soil enriched with granular sludge after chemical protection was observed. The five variants of treatments using herbicide (Chwastox Turbo 340SL) and four fungicides (Topsin M 500SC, Amistar 250SC, Artea 330EC, and Falcon 460EC) were performed. On control and experimental plots, the concentration of Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cu in wheat leaves were in the range 0.32-0.99, 0.92-1.57, 0.89-6.31, and 7.08-12.59 mg/kg and in grains 0.03 to 0.11, 0.14-0.25, 0.11-0.76, and 1.06-1.46 mg/kg, respectively. The concentration of Pb in grain protected by MCPA and 2,4-D with thiophanate-methyl and azoxystrobin was higher than the maximum levels of 0.20 mg/kg D.M. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) differed and depended on chemical protection. The highest value of BCF was achieved for Cd. The statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between concentration of metals and quality parameters of wheat. One observed significant negative correlations between Ni/Zeleny sedimentation value (r = -0.51) and between Pb/starch content (r = -0.57). Positive correlations were observed between Cd/yield, the number of grains/ergosterol concentration (respectively, r = 0.41, r = 0.55, r = 0.56), and Zn/thousand grain weight (r = 0.50) at a p ≤ 0.05.

  3. Effect of silicon on wheat seedlings (Triticum turgidum L.) grown in hydroponics and exposed to 0 to 30 µM Cu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, C; Rizwan, M; Davidian, J-C; Pokrovsky, O S; Bovet, N; Chaurand, P; Meunier, J-D

    2015-04-01

    Aqueous Si limits Cu uptake by a Si-accumulating plant via physicochemical mechanisms occurring at the root level. Sufficient Si supply may alleviate Cu toxicity in Cu-contaminated soils. Little information is available on the role of silicon (Si) in copper (Cu) tolerance while Cu toxicity is widespread in crops grown on Cu-contaminated soils. A hydroponic study was set up to investigate the influence of Si on Cu tolerance in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) grown in 0, 0.7, 7.0 and 30 µM Cu without and with 1.0 mM Si, and to identify the mechanisms involved in mitigation of Cu toxicity. Si supply alleviated Cu toxicity in durum wheat at 30 µM Cu, while Cu significantly increased Si concentration in roots. Root length, photosynthetic pigments concentrations, macroelements, and organic anions (malate, acetate and aconitate) in roots, were also increased. Desorption experiments, XPS analysis of the outer thin root surface (≤100 Å) and µXRF analyses showed that Si increased adsorption of Cu at the root surface as well as Cu accumulation in the epidermis while Cu was localised in the central cylinder when Si was not applied. Copper was not detected in phytoliths. This study provides evidences for Si-mediated alleviation of Cu toxicity in durum wheat. It also shows that Si supplementation to plants exposed to increasing levels of Cu in solution induces non-simultaneous changes in physiological parameters. We propose a three-step mechanism occurring mainly at the root level and limiting Cu uptake and translocation to shoots: (i) increased Cu adsorption onto the outer thin layer root surface and immobilisation in the vicinity of root epidermis, (ii) increased Cu complexation by both inorganic and organic anions such as aconitate and, (iii) limitation of translocation through an enhanced thickening of a Si-loaded endodermis.

  4. Extended biotic ligand model for predicting combined Cu-Zn toxicity to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Incorporating the effects of concentration ratio, major cations and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuedong; Ji, Dongxue; Chen, Xiaolin; Ma, Yibing; Yang, Junxing; Ma, Jingxing; Li, Xiaoxiu

    2017-11-01

    Current risk assessment models for metals such as the biotic ligand model (BLM) are usually applied to individual metals, yet toxic metals are rarely found singly in the environment. In the present research, the toxicity of Cu and Zn alone and together were studied in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using different Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ concentrations, pH levels and Zn:Cu concentration ratios. The aim of the study was to better understand the toxicity effects of these two metals using BLMs and toxic units (TUs) from single and combined metal toxicity data. The results of single-metal toxicity tests showed that toxicity of Cu and Zn tended to decrease with increasing Ca 2+ or Mg 2+ concentrations, and that the effects of pH on Cu and Zn toxicity were related not only to free Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ activity, respectively, but also to other inorganic metal complex species. For the metal mixture, Cu-Zn interactions based on free ion activities were primarily additive for the different Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ concentrations and levels of pH. The toxicity data of individual metals derived by the BLM, which incorporated Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ competition and toxicity of inorganic metal complexes in a single-metal toxicity assessment, could predict the combined toxicity as a function of TU. There was good performance between the predicted and observed effects (root mean square error [RMSE] = 7.15, R 2  = 0.97) compared to that using a TU method with a model based on free ion activity (RMSE = 14.29, R 2  = 0.86). The overall findings indicated that bioavailability models that include those biochemistry processes may accurately predict the toxicity of metal mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome-wide association mapping for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis F. sp. tritici) in US Pacific Northwest winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruoka, Y; Garland-Campbell, K A; Carter, A H

    2015-06-01

    Potential novel and known QTL for race-specific all-stage and adult plant resistance to stripe rust were identified by genome-wide association mapping in the US PNW winter wheat accessions. Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis F. sp. tritici; also known as yellow rust) is a globally devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and a major threat to wheat production in the US Pacific Northwest (PNW), therefore both adult plant and all-stage resistance have been introduced into the winter wheat breeding programs in the PNW. The goal of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and molecular markers for these resistances through genome-wide association (GWAS) mapping in winter wheat accessions adapted to the PNW. Stripe rust response for adult plants was evaluated in naturally occurring epidemics in a total of nine environments in Washington State, USA. Seedling response was evaluated with three races under artificial inoculation in the greenhouse. The panel was genotyped with the 9K Illumina Wheat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and additional markers linked to previously reported genes and QTL for stripe rust resistance. The population was grouped into three sub-populations. Markers linked to Yr17 and previously reported QTL for stripe rust resistance were identified on chromosomes 1B, 2A, and 2B. Potentially novel QTL associated with race-specific seedling response were identified on chromosomes 1B and 1D. Potentially novel QTL associated with adult plant response were located on chromosomes 2A, 2B, 3B, 4A, and 4B. Stripe rust was reduced when multiple alleles for resistance were present. The resistant allele frequencies were different among sub-populations in the panel. This information provides breeders with germplasm and closely linked markers for stripe rust resistance to facilitate the transfer of multiple loci for durable stripe rust resistance into wheat breeding lines and cultivars.

  6. Uncovering leaf rust responsive miRNAs in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using high-throughput sequencing and prediction of their targets through degradome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhananjay; Dutta, Summi; Singh, Dharmendra; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod; Kumar, Manish; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2017-01-01

    Deep sequencing identified 497 conserved and 559 novel miRNAs in wheat, while degradome analysis revealed 701 targets genes. QRT-PCR demonstrated differential expression of miRNAs during stages of leaf rust progression. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cereal food crop feeding 30 % of the world population. Major threat to wheat production is the rust epidemics. This study was targeted towards identification and functional characterizations of micro(mi)RNAs and their target genes in wheat in response to leaf rust ingression. High-throughput sequencing was used for transcriptome-wide identification of miRNAs and their expression profiling in retort to leaf rust using mock and pathogen-inoculated resistant and susceptible near-isogenic wheat plants. A total of 1056 mature miRNAs were identified, of which 497 miRNAs were conserved and 559 miRNAs were novel. The pathogen-inoculated resistant plants manifested more miRNAs compared with the pathogen infected susceptible plants. The miRNA counts increased in susceptible isoline due to leaf rust, conversely, the counts decreased in the resistant isoline in response to pathogenesis illustrating precise spatial tuning of miRNAs during compatible and incompatible interaction. Stem-loop quantitative real-time PCR was used to profile 10 highly differentially expressed miRNAs obtained from high-throughput sequencing data. The spatio-temporal profiling validated the differential expression of miRNAs between the isolines as well as in retort to pathogen infection. Degradome analysis provided 701 predicted target genes associated with defense response, signal transduction, development, metabolism, and transcriptional regulation. The obtained results indicate that wheat isolines employ diverse arrays of miRNAs that modulate their target genes during compatible and incompatible interaction. Our findings contribute to increase knowledge on roles of microRNA in wheat-leaf rust interactions and could help in rust

  7. The Triticum Mosaic Virus 5' Leader Binds to Both eIF4G and eIFiso4G for Translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Roberts

    Full Text Available We recently identified a remarkably strong (739 nt-long IRES-like element in the 5' untranslated region (UTR of Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV, Potyviridae. Here, we define the components of the cap-binding translation initiation complex that are required for TriMV translation. Using bio-layer interferometry and affinity capture of the native translation apparatus, we reveal that the viral translation element has a ten-fold greater affinity for the large subunit eIF4G/eIFiso4G than to the cap binding protein eIF4E/eIFiso4E. This data supports a translation mechanism that is largely dependent on eIF4G and its isoform. The binding of both scaffold isoforms requires an eight base-pair-long hairpin structure located 270 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation site, which we have previously shown to be crucial for IRES activity. Despite a weak binding affinity to the mRNA, eIFiso4G alone or in combination with eIFiso4E supports TriMV translation in a cap-binding factor-depleted wheat germ extract. Notably, TriMV 5' UTR-mediated translation is dependent upon eIF4A helicase activity, as the addition of the eIF4A inhibitor hippuristanol inhibits 5' UTR-mediated translation. This inhibition is reversible with the addition of recombinant wheat eIF4A. These results and previous observations demonstrate a key role of eIF4G and eIF4A in this unique mechanism of cap-independent-translation. This work provides new insights into the lesser studied translation mechanisms of plant virus-mediated internal translation initiation.

  8. Multi-approaches analysis reveals local adaptation in the emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides) at macro- but not micro-geographical scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volis, Sergei; Ormanbekova, Danara; Yermekbayev, Kanat; Song, Minshu; Shulgina, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Detecting local adaptation and its spatial scale is one of the most important questions of evolutionary biology. However, recognition of the effect of local selection can be challenging when there is considerable environmental variation across the distance at the whole species range. We analyzed patterns of local adaptation in emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, at two spatial scales, small (inter-population distance less than one km) and large (inter-population distance more than 50 km) using several approaches. Plants originating from four distinct habitats at two geographic scales (cold edge, arid edge and two topographically dissimilar core locations) were reciprocally transplanted and their success over time was measured as 1) lifetime fitness in a year of planting, and 2) population growth four years after planting. In addition, we analyzed molecular (SSR) and quantitative trait variation and calculated the QST/FST ratio. No home advantage was detected at the small spatial scale. At the large spatial scale, home advantage was detected for the core population and the cold edge population in the year of introduction via measuring life-time plant performance. However, superior performance of the arid edge population in its own environment was evident only after several generations via measuring experimental population growth rate through genotyping with SSRs allowing counting the number of plants and seeds per introduced genotype per site. These results highlight the importance of multi-generation surveys of population growth rate in local adaptation testing. Despite predominant self-fertilization of T. dicoccoides and the associated high degree of structuring of genetic variation, the results of the QST - FST comparison were in general agreement with the pattern of local adaptation at the two spatial scales detected by reciprocal transplanting.

  9. Heavy Metal Accumulation in Soil Amended with Roadside Pond Sediment and Uptake by Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. PBW 343

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    Tanmoy Karak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The risks of heavy metal accumulation and the dynamics related to roadside pond sediment application in comparison to control of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were investigated in field experiments. Selective sequential extraction procedures revealed that application of pond sediment in soil increases the labile pools of the studied heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Risk assessment codes concluded that Cu and Pb were in the high-risk zone in both pond sediment and soil amended with pond sediment, whereas Zn and Cu were found in the medium-risk zone for control soil. Heavy metal accumulation by wheat straw and grain (39.38, 1.18, 23.73, 0.36, 0.18, and 16.8 mg kg-1 for Zn, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Pb, respectively, for wheat grain was significantly increased through application of pond sediment. However, metal accumulation did not thwart the enhancement of wheat yield when pond sediment was applied. Health risk indexes of analyzed heavy metals were found to be within the Indian permissible limit for foodstuffs. Pond sediments help to fortify wheat grain by increasing the concentration of Zn and Cu as a source of micronutrients in the diet. However, a significant increase of Pb in wheat grain through pond sediment could be a health concern for its long-term application. Therefore, pond sediment would be a valuable resource for agriculture as an alternative organic supplement, but long-term use may require the cessation of the excavated sediment as agricultural landfill in order to restrict heavy metal contamination through it.

  10. The influence of the forerunner plant and the irrigation on some quality indicators of the wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L. in their growth conditions on the acid soils in the North-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana ARDELEAN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper sustains the importance of the forerunner plant concerning the quality of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and is based on the research carried out during 2006-2008 on a long term trial placed on the brown luvic (acid soils from Oradea in 1990. In non-irrigating and irrigating conditions as well the smallest protein, wet gluten and dry gluten values were obtained in wheat mono-crop; the values increased in the forerunner plant, wheat-maize and the biggest values were registered in the forerunner plant, wheat-maize-soybean.

  11. Adaptação, estabilidade e potencial produtivo de genótipos de Triticum durum L., irrigados por aspersão, no Estado de São Paulo Adaptability, stability and yield potential of Triticum durum L. genotypes under sprinkler irrigation in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felicio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se 17 linhagens e duas cultivares de Triticum durum L. tendo como testemunha a cultivar IAC 24 de T. aestivum L., em experimentos semeados em condições de irrigação por aspersão nas localidades de Votuporanga, Ribeirão Preto e Mococa, no período de 1998 a 2002, no Estado de São Paulo. Foram determinados os rendimentos de grãos e o comportamento de cada genótipo diante das variações ambientais. Análises de adaptação e estabilidade permitiram a identificação de genótipos com comportamento previsível a essas condições ambientais. Foram observados efeitos significativos para anos, locais e genótipos, destacando-se na média dos três locais quanto ao rendimento de grãos a linhagem de T. durum L. 11 (MEMOS"S"/YAV79/3/ SAPI"S"/TEAL"S"// HUI"S". O melhor rendimento de grãos foi observado em Ribeirão Preto e o pior em Votuporanga. Observou-se nas linhagens 9 e 11 (MEMOS"S"/YAV79/3/SAPI"S"/TEAL"S"//HUI"S, 12 e 19 (GYS"S"/3/ STN"S"// HUI"S"/SOMOS"S" e 3 (STN"S"/3/TEZ"S"/YAV79// HUI"S" adaptabilidade específica, portanto, responsivas ao emprego de alta tecnologia. A incidência da ferrugem-da- folha somente foi constatada na cultivar IAC 24 da espécie de T. aestivum.In order to evaluate Triticum durum L. genotypes having as control the T. aestivum L. cultivar IAC, 24 experiments were carried out, under sprinkler irrigation, at Votuporanga, Ribeirão Preto and Mococa locations, in the period 1998 to 2002, in the State of São Paulo. Grain yield and performance of each genotype in relation to the environment variation were evaluated. Adaptability and stability analysis were made identify genotypes with predictable performance in these environment conditions. Significant effects were observed for years, locations and genotypes. Considering the three locations, Triticum durum inbred line 11 (MEMOS"S"/YAV79/3/ SAPI"S"/TEAL"S"// HUI"S" presented the highest yield. The highest grain yields were observed in Ribeirão Preto and

  12. Physiological and comparative proteomic analysis reveals different drought responses in roots and leaves of drought-tolerant wild wheat (Triticum boeoticum.

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    Hui Liu

    Full Text Available To determine the proteomic-level responses of drought tolerant wild wheat (Triticum boeoticum, physiological and comparative proteomic analyses were conducted using the roots and the leaves of control and short term drought-stressed plants. Drought stress was imposed by transferring hydroponically grown seedlings at the 3-leaf stage into 1/2 Hoagland solution containing 20% PEG-6000 for 48 h. Root and leaf samples were separately collected at 0 (control, 24, and 48 h of drought treatment for analysis. Physiological analysis indicated that abscisic acid (ABA level was greatly increased in the drought-treated plants, but the increase was greater and more rapid in the leaves than in the roots. The net photosynthetic rate of the wild wheat leaves was significantly decreased under short-term drought stress. The deleterious effects of drought on the studied traits mainly targeted photosynthesis. Comparative proteomic analysis identified 98 and 85 differently changed protein spots (DEPs (corresponding to 87 and 80 unique proteins, respectively in the leaves and the roots, respectively, with only 6 mutual unique proteins in the both organs. An impressive 86% of the DEPs were implicated in detoxification and defense, carbon metabolism, amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, proteins metabolism, chaperones, transcription and translation, photosynthesis, nucleotide metabolism, and signal transduction. Further analysis revealed some mutual and tissue-specific responses to short-term drought in the leaves and the roots. The differences of drought-response between the roots and the leaves mainly included that signal sensing and transduction-associated proteins were greatly up-regulated in the roots. Photosynthesis and carbon fixation ability were decreased in the leaves. Glycolysis was down-regulated but PPP pathway enhanced in the roots, resulting in occurrence of complex changes in energy metabolism and establishment of a new homeostasis. Protein metabolism

  13. Mapping and characterization of wheat stem rust resistance genes SrTm5 and Sr60 from Triticum monococcum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shisheng; Guo, Yan; Briggs, Jordan; Dubach, Felix; Chao, Shiaoman; Zhang, Wenjun; Rouse, Matthew N; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2018-03-01

    The new stem rust resistance gene Sr60 was fine-mapped to the distal region of chromosome arm 5A m S, and the TTKSK-effective gene SrTm5 could be a new allele of Sr22. The emergence and spread of new virulent races of the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt), including the Ug99 race group, is a serious threat to global wheat production. In this study, we mapped and characterized two stem rust resistance genes from diploid wheat Triticum monococcum accession PI 306540. We mapped SrTm5, a previously postulated gene effective to Ug99, on chromosome arm 7A m L, completely linked to Sr22. SrTm5 displayed a different race specificity compared to Sr22 indicating that they are distinct. Sequencing of the Sr22 homolog in PI 306540 revealed a novel haplotype. Characterization of the segregating populations with Pgt race QFCSC revealed an additional resistance gene on chromosome arm 5A m S that was assigned the official name Sr60. This gene was also effective against races QTHJC and SCCSC but not against TTKSK (a Ug99 group race). Using two large mapping populations (4046 gametes), we mapped Sr60 within a 0.44 cM interval flanked by sequenced-based markers GH724575 and CJ942731. These two markers delimit a 54.6-kb region in Brachypodium distachyon chromosome 4 and a 430-kb region in the Chinese Spring reference genome. Both regions include a leucine-rich repeat protein kinase (LRRK123.1) that represents a potential candidate gene. Three CC-NBS-LRR genes were found in the colinear Brachypodium region but not in the wheat genome. We are currently developing a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library of PI 306540 to determine which of these candidate genes are present in the T. monococcum genome and to complete the cloning of Sr60.

  14. Genome-wide exploration of metal tolerance protein (MTP) genes in common wheat (Triticum aestivum): insights into metal homeostasis and biofortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Recep; Filiz, Ertugrul; Eroglu, Seckin

    2017-04-01

    Metal transport process in plants is a determinant of quality and quantity of the harvest. Although it is among the most important of staple crops, knowledge about genes that encode for membrane-bound metal transporters is scarce in wheat. Metal tolerance proteins (MTPs) are involved in trace metal homeostasis at the sub-cellular level, usually by providing metal efflux out of the cytosol. Here, by using various bioinformatics approaches, genes that encode for MTPs in the hexaploid wheat genome (Triticum aestivum, abbreviated as Ta) were identified and characterized. Based on the comparison with known rice MTPs, the wheat genome contained 20 MTP sequences; named as TaMTP1-8A, B and D. All TaMTPs contained a cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family domain and most members harbored a zinc transporter dimerization domain. Based on motif, phylogeny and alignment analysis, A, B and D genomes of TaMTP3-7 sequences demonstrated higher homology compared to TaMTP1, 2 and 8. With reference to their rice orthologs, TaMTP1s and TaMTP8s belonged to Zn-CDFs, TaMTP2s to Fe/Zn-CDFs and TaMTP3-7s to Mn-CDFs. Upstream regions of TaMTP genes included diverse cis-regulatory motifs, indicating regulation by developmental stage, tissue type and stresses. A scan of the coding sequences of 20 TaMTPs against published miRNAs predicted a total of 14 potential miRNAs, mainly targeting the members of most diverged groups. Expression analysis showed that several TaMTPs were temporally and spatially regulated during the developmental time-course. In grains, MTPs were preferentially expressed in the aleurone layer, which is known as a reservoir for high concentrations of iron and zinc. The work identified and characterized metal tolerance proteins in common wheat and revealed a potential involvement of MTPs in providing a sink for trace element storage in wheat grains.

  15. Soil zinc and cadmium availability and uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as affected by long-term organic matter management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüter, Roman; Costerousse, Benjamin; Mayer, Jochen; Mäder, Paul; Thonar, Cécile; Frossard, Emmanuel; Schulin, Rainer; Tandy, Susan

    2017-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a widespread problem in human mineral nutrition. It is mainly caused by imbalanced diets with low contents of bioavailable Zn. This is in particular a problem in populations depending on cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as a major source of this essential micronutrient element. Increasing Zn concentrations in wheat grains (biofortification) is therefore an important challenge. At the same time, increased uptake of the toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd) must be prevented. Agronomic practises influence soil properties such as pH and soil organic carbon and thus also have an indirect effect on phytoavailable soil Zn and Cd concentrations and the uptake of these metals by wheat in addition to direct inputs with fertilizers and other amendments. This study investigated the effects of long-term organic matter management on the phytoavailability of soil Zn and Cd and their uptake by wheat on plots of two Swiss long-term field trials. In one trial (DOK), a farming system comparison trial established in 1978, we compared plots under conventional management with mineral fertilization either in combination or not with farmyard manure application to plots under biodynamic organic management and control plots with no fertilizer application. In the second trial (ZOFE), established in 1949, we compared different fertilizer regimes on conventionally managed plots, including plots with application of mineral fertilizers only, farmyard manure, or compost and control plots with no fertilizer application. Soil physico-chemical and biological properties were determined at the beginning of the growing season. Soil Zn and Cd availabilities were assessed by the Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT) method and by DTPA extraction before and after wheat cultivation. Additionally, various wheat yield components and element concentrations in shoots and grains were measured at harvest. In the ZOFE trial, soil Zn and Cd concentrations were lowest in the mineral

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation of Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus wild On heamatobiochemical parameters of broilers

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    Rekhate

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighty, day old straight run commercial broilers chicks were randomly distributed into four groups (T1, T2, T3 and T4 of two replications having ten chicks in each, reared on deep litter system upto 8 weeks of age. The chicks in all the treatment groups were fed basal diet T1 control and T2, T3 and T4 groups were fed basal diet + 0.5, 1.00 and 1.5 per cent Shatavari root powder (SRP respectively. Significant (P<0.01 improvement in live body weight of broilers was observed between the treatments. Better FCE was observed with the increase in SRP. The digestibility of protein found significantly (P< 0.01 better with higher inclusion level of SRP. Hb, total serum protein, albumin and globulin revealed significant (P< 0.01 variation between the treatments. It was concluded that supplementation of Shatavari root powder at 0.5, 1.00 and 1.5 per cent level improves growth performance and general health status of broilers however, 1.0 per cent level could be more economical. [Vet. World 2010; 3(6.000: 280-281

  17. Morphology and physiology of the dimorphic fungus Mucor circinelloides (syn. M. racemosus) during anaerobic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübbehüsen, Tina Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2003-01-01

    The dimorphic Mucor circinelloides requires an anaerobic atmosphere and the presence of 30% CO2 to grow as a multipolar budding yeast, otherwise hyphal growth predominates. Establishing other means to control the morphology would be a distinct advantage in the development of a fermentation process...... for this organism for the production of heterologous proteins. Thus, conditions suppressing polarised growth while at the same time abolishing the CO2 requirement were investigated in submerged cultivations. It was found that supplementing cultures with mixtures of ergosterol and Tween 80 resulted in yeast...... on supporting yeast growth by influencing the fluidity of the plasma membrane or affecting polarised growth are discussed....

  18. Clinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a medical device in various forms containing Triticum vulgare for the treatment of venous leg ulcers – a randomized pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanelli M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marco Romanelli,1 Michela Macchia,1 Salvatore Panduri,1 Battistino Paggi,1 Giorgio Saponati,2 Valentina Dini1 1Wound Healing Research Unit, Dermatology Division, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, 2ISPharm srl, Lucca, Italy Abstract: This study was carried out to assess the efficacy and tolerability of the topical application of an aqueous extract of Triticum vulgare (TV in different vehicles (cream, impregnated gauzes, foam, hydrogel, and dressing gel for the treatment of venous lower leg ulcers. Fifty patients were randomized to receive one of the five investigational vehicles. Treatment was performed up to complete healing or to a maximum of 29 days. The wound size reduction from baseline was the primary efficacy variable, which was measured by means of a noninvasive laser scanner instrument for wound assessment. In all groups, apart from the foam group, a similar trend toward the reduction of the surface area was observed. The cream showed the greatest effect on the mean reduction of the lesion size. At last visit, six ulcers were healed: two in the cream group, three in the gauze group, and one in the dressing gel group. In the patients treated with the cream, the gauzes, the hydrogel, and the dressing gel, the reduction of lesion size was 40%–50%; the reduction was smaller in the foam group. No impact in terms of age on the healing process was found. The Total Symptoms Score decreased in all groups during the study; a greater efficacy in terms of signs/symptoms was observed in the patients treated with the gauzes. In the dressing gel group, one patient had an infection of the wound after 3 weeks of treatment and 2 of colonization, leading to a systemic antibiotic treatment. The events were judged as nonrelated to the device used. On the basis of the results, it could be argued that the medical device may be useful in the treatment of chronic venous ulcers. Keywords: venous leg ulcers, Triticum vulgare

  19. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  20. Estudio de parámetros hídricos foliares en trigo (Triticum aestivum L. y su uso en selección de genotipos resistentes a sequía Leaf water parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and their use in the selection of drought resistant genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO ORTIZ

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Los parámetros hídricos foliares ys (potencial de solutos, CRA (contenido relativo de agua y AO (ajuste osmótico permiten caracterizar la respuesta de las plantas frente al estrés hídrico e identificar aquellos genotipos mejor adaptados. Sin embargo, estos parámetros presentan una gran influencia del medioambiente lo que dificulta su análisis. En este trabajo se planteó la hipótesis de que es posible caracterizar y seleccionar genotipos resistentes a sequía en base a la evolución de los parámetros hídricos foliares en campo. Se cultivaron 31 genotipos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. en dos ensayos de campo, uno regado y otro no regado que recibió sólo 218,3 mm de lluvia invernal. El diseño fue de bloques al azar con dos repeticiones. Entre los 77 y 121 días después de la emergencia (DC 41 a DC 77 se realizaron cinco muestreos de CRA y psis en hojas bandera hidratadas (psish en cada repetición de cada ensayo (con un total de 10 observaciones por ensayo. Las repeticiones se muestrearon en días alternos, con un intervalo de 24 h entre las 12:00 y las 14:00 h. A la cosecha se midió biomasa, rendimiento y componentes de rendimiento. Las observaciones de CRA y ysh fueron altamente afectadas por factores ambientales (ca. 80 % de la suma de cuadrados y no estuvieron correlacionadas entre repeticiones de un mismo ensayo. Con fines de análisis se consideró cada observación como independiente (10 observaciones de cada parámetro hídrico foliar por genotipo y se realizaron regresiones lineales del valor de cada parámetro hídrico foliar de cada genotipo sobre el promedio de todos los genotipos en el momento de muestreo. Cada genotipo se caracterizó por el valor medio del parámetro hídrico foliar y la pendiente de la regresión. Además se estimó el ajuste osmótico (AO de cada genotipo utilizando tres métodos propuestos en la literatura. Se hicieron dos selecciones de genotipos, una consideró la pendiente y el promedio de ysh

  1. Fungicide Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Different Genotypes of Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L., OAT (Avena Sativa L., and Wheat (Triticum Aaestivum L. Growth Cultivated in Two Soil Types under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khalil Gardezi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of fungicides on the association with Glomus intraradices and soil contamination on three genotypes of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one of oat (Avena sativa L., and another one of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intraradices. Metacaptan was used as a fungicide applied to half of the seeds. The pH of the soil was alkaline. Electric conductivity, and organic matter, nitric and ammoniac nitrogen, phosphorous, copper and nickel quantities were higher on the soils irrigated with sewage water. The soil contamination did not affect significantly plant responses in this study. It is concluded that endomycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus intraradices gave better growth and yield, especially in beans. The application of fungicides improved plant growth.

  2. Effect of germination on the phytase activity, phytate and total phosphorus contents of rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), millet (Panicum miliaceum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeke, Marshall Arebojie; Egielewa, Samuel Jacob; Eigbogbo, Mary Ugunushe; Ihimire, Inegbenose Godwin

    2011-12-01

    The effect of germination on the level of phytase activity and the contents of phytates and phosphorus of five Nigeria grown cereal grains was studied. The cereals screened were rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), millet (Panicum miliaceum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and wheat (Triticum aestivum). Phytase activity was high (0.21-0.67 U g(-1)) in all samples. Phytate content ranged between 5.6 and 6.2 mg g(-1) while total phosphorus content ranged between 3.3 and 4.3 mg g(-1). During germination, the level of phytase activity increased and reached its maximal value after seven (16-fold), six (5-fold), five (7-fold), seven (3-fold) and eight (6-fold) days of germination for rice, maize, millet, sorghum and wheat respectively. After this initial increase, phytase activity declined slightly (P germination was accompanied by a significant reduction in phytate (P < 0.05) and a small but significant increase in total phosphorus.

  3. The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, nitrogen and phosphorus on relative agronomic efficiency of fertilizers, growth parameters and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar N-80-19 in Sari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Saber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR plus nitrogen and phosphorous chemical fertilizers on relative agronomic efficiency of P and N fertilizers and some agronomic parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar N-80-19, an experiment was conducted at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during growing season of 2008-2009. Experiment was arranged in split-split plot based on randomized complete block design with three levels (0, 25 and 50 kg.ha-1 and sub-plots were considered PGPR at four levels (control, inoculation with nitrogen fixing bacteria (PFB, phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB and dual inoculation with PFB and PSB with three replications. Results showed that the application of biofertilizers significantly increased relative agronomic efficiency of N and P fertilizers, spike number, plant height, flag leaf area, grain yield and grain weight of wheat. Application of biofertilizers increased wheat grain yield as much as 46.6% as compared to control. Double inoculation of biofertilizers improved relative agronomic efficiency of fertilizers by 58.4 and 76.5% as compared to control, respectively. Integrated treatments showed higher performance compared to separate treatments. Generally, biofertilizers with low levels of P and N fertilizers significantly improved yield components of wheat without any reduction in yield related parameters.

  4. The occurrence of fungi on roots and stem bases of Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. Thell. grown under two levels of chemical protection and harmfulness of Fusarium graminearum Schwabe to seedlings of selected genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Cegiełko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 2007–2009 on the plots of the Felin Experimental Station belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland. The studies comprised two breeding lines of spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. Thell. – STH 3 and STH 715. Two levels of chemical protection were applied in the cultivation with minimal and complex protection. Infection of winter spelt wheat roots and stem bases was recorded in each growing season at hard dough stage (87 in Zadok’s scale. After 3 years of the study, the mean values of disease indexes for the analyzed spelt wheat lines in the experimental treatment with minimal protection were 28.53 and 40.30 respectively for STH 3 and STH 715. In the experimental combination with complex protection, after 3 years of the study the mean values of disease indexes ranged from 25.96 (STH 3 to 26.90 (STH 715. The mycological analysis showed that Fusarium spp., especially F. culmorum, caused root rot and necrosis of stem bases of spelt wheat in the experimental combination with minimal and complex protection. Moreover, Fusarium avenaceum and Bipolaris sorokiniana caused root rot and necrosis of stem bases of spelt wheat. Investigation carried out in a growth chamber on susceptibility of seedlings of three lines of spelt wheat (LO 2/09/n/2, LO 5/09/13/3, LO 5/09/5/4 to infection with Fusarium graminearum No. 8 and F. graminearum No. 45 showed that the genotypes did not differ in their susceptibility. All of them were susceptible, as indicated by high values of the disease indexes. No interaction was found between genotypes and strains of the fungus. This indicates the differential pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum species.

  5. Tracer-aided studies on the fate and effects of sulphur dioxide in Spinacia oleracea L. and Triticum vulgare. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopic-tracer-aided studies of atmospheric sulphur pollutant - plant interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plesnicar, M.

    1982-06-01

    Wheat, Triticum vulgare and spinach, Spinacia oleracea plants were exposed to two different concentrations of 35 SO 2 - released by lactic acid from Na 2 35 SO 3 - for 45 minutes, and distribution of radioactivity was studied in leaves, stem and roots. After 24 hours, the specific activity of the leaves of both plants was reduced while that of the roots was increased, suggesting 35 S translocation from leaves to roots. Translocation to the stem and roots of 35 S products was much higher in wheat than in spinach. In leaves of both plant species, ethanol-soluble products were much higher than the ethanol-insoluble fraction during the first 6 hours of exposure. The ethanol-soluble fraction contained sulphate, sulphite and unidentified material. The study suggests that SO 2 is metabolized in preference to endogenous S, that the wheat plant is more susceptible to SO 2 , and that tolerance is related to the capacity of converting SO 2 to sulphate and reducing its further conversion. Uptake of 35 SO 2 by young and old wheat and spinach plants was studied with a view to determining susceptibility to SO 2 exposure as a function of the developmental stage of the plant. In wheat, young plants metabolize endogenous sulphur in preference to absorbed SO 2 while older plants are active in converting absorbed sulphur into organic (ethanol-insoluble) form. In spinach, young plants are more active in transporting 35 S products from leaves to roots and older plants show higher incorporation percentage of 35 S into the organic fraction of leaves. Uptake of 1- 14 C-acetate by lipids of leaf discs from spinach and wheat was investigated in normal and SO 2 -stressed plants. The incorporation of radioacetate into lipids of leaf tissues of both plants was strongly inhibited in SO0 plants. Also U- 14 C-lysine incorporation into proteins of leaf tissue was significantly inhibited by 0.2-2.0 ppm aqueous SO 2

  6. Molecular diversity at 18 loci in 321 wild and 92 domesticate lines reveal no reduction of nucleotide diversity during Triticum monococcum (Einkorn) domestication: implications for the origin of agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, B; Ozkan, H; Walther, A; Kohl, J; Dagan, T; Salamini, F; Martin, W

    2007-12-01

    The diploid wheat Triticum monococcum L. (einkorn) was among the first crops domesticated by humans in the Fertile Crescent 10,000 years ago. During the last 5,000 years, it was replaced by tetraploid and hexaploid wheats and largely forgotten by modern breeders. Einkorn germplasm is thus devoid of breeding bottlenecks and has therefore preserved in unfiltered form the full spectrum of genetic variation that was present during its domestication. We investigated haplotype variation among >12 million nucleotides sequenced at 18 loci across 321 wild and 92 domesticate T. monococcum lines. In contrast to previous studies of cereal domestication, we sampled hundreds of wild lines, rather than a few dozen. Unexpectedly, our broad sample of wild lines reveals that wild einkorn underwent a process of natural genetic differentiation, most likely an incipient speciation, prior to domestication. That natural differentiation was previously overlooked within wild einkorn, but it bears heavily upon inferences concerning the domestication process because it brought forth 3 genetically, and to some extent morphologically, distinct wild einkorn races that we designate here as alpha, beta, and gamma. Only one of those natural races, beta, was exploited by humans for domestication. Nucleotide diversity and haplotype diversity in domesticate einkorn is higher than in its wild sister group, the einkorn beta race, indicating that einkorn underwent no reduction of diversity during domestication. This is in contrast to findings from previous studies of domestication history among more intensely bred crop species. Taken together with archaeological findings from the Fertile Crescent, the data indicate that a specific wild einkorn race that arose without human intervention was subjected to multiple independent domestication events.

  7. Effets de la vitesse et de la durée du remplissage du grain ainsi que de l'accumulation des assimilats de la tige dans l'élaboration du rendement du blé dur (Triticum durum Desf. dans les conditions de culture des hautesplaines orientales d'Algérie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benmahammed A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of speed and the duration of grain filling and the accumulation of the assimilates of the stem in developing the durum wheat yield (Triticum durum Desf. in the culture conditions of the high plains of eastern Algeria. The present study was led on the experimental site of station ITGC in Setif. The objective is to determine the differences of duration and speed of filling and the contribution of the assimilates of the stems to the yield of 5 durum wheat genotypes (Triticum durum Desf.. The year effect is significant, what explains the fluctuation of the conditions of one growth year to another. The grain yield is associated to the great quantity of assimilates stored and transferred from the stems to the grain filling. The Mbb genotype which has an important stem height transfers more assimilates. The genotypes ADS497 and Deraa present large standard leaves. The beginning of the active phase of the grain filling corresponds to the beginning of the foliar senescence. Mbb presents a slower foliar drying rate, the speed of drying stationary recorded by ADS497 is of -0.5957 cm2 per day. The speed of grain filling is negatively related to the duration of filling. The participation of the assimilates coming from the stem decreases when the environment allows the expression of a better grain yield.

  8. Assessment of the use potential of edible sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus) processing waste within the agricultural system: influence on soil chemical and biological properties and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) growth in an amended acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garau, Giovanni; Castaldi, Paola; Deiana, Salvatore; Campus, Paolo; Mazza, Antonio; Deiana, Pietrino; Pais, Antonio

    2012-10-30

    In this study we evaluated the influence of ground purple sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) endoskeletons, a processing waste common to all edible sea urchin plants, on the chemical, biochemical and microbiological features of an acidic (pH 5.65) sandy-loam soil. The purple sea urchin endoskeletons were characterized by a high content of total carbonates (∼94%), a moderately alkaline pH in water (pH 7.88) and electrical conductivity values (3.55 mS/cm) very similar to those of commercial lime. To evaluate the influence of the P. lividus endoskeletons on soil properties four different amendment rates were tested, notably 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0% based on soil dry weight, and the effects compared with those recorded on unamended control soil. The addition of the purple sea urchin processing waste caused an immediate and significant pH increase which was positively related to the rate of the amendment addition. After a six months equilibration period, the differences in soil pH were still evident and significant increases of electrical conductivity and available phosphorus were also detected in soils with the higher amendment rates. The number of heterotrophic and cellulolytic bacteria and actinomycetes significantly increased after amendment addition while the number of culturable fungi steadily declined. The analysis of the Biolog Community Level Physiological Profile indicated a clear influence of the purple sea urchin processing waste on the structure of the native microbial community while a significant increase of microbial functionality (i.e. dehydrogenase activity) was recorded in soil treated with the higher amendment rates (i.e. 3.0 and 5.0%). The improvement of microbial abundance and functionality as well as the change of the microbial community structure were ascribed to the pH shift induced by the P. lividus processing waste. To investigate possible effects on soil fertility, dwarf bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) growth were also

  9. [Features of the formation of self-fertile euploid lines (2n = 42) by self-pollination of the 46-chromosome barley-wheat BC1 hybrid Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum Hudson (= H. geniculatum All.) (2n = 28) x Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 42)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, L A; Trubacheeva, N V; Rakovtseva, T S; Belova, L I; Deviatkina, E P; Kravtsova, L A

    2006-12-01

    We studied some features of the development of self-fertile 42-chromosome lines on the base of self-pollination progeny of 46-chromosome plants obtained by backcrossing of barley--wheat hybrids Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum Hudson (= H. geniculatum All.) (2n = 28) x Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 42). The stabilization of karyotypes, resulting in 42-chromosome plants of the wheat type was generally completed by generation BC1F10. The plants of all self-pollination progenies, including BC1F10, showed some phenotypic traits characteristic of wild barley. Plants of BC1F10 with the chromosome sets 2n = 42 and 2n = 42 + t were analyzed by RAPD with a set of 115 primers. Fragments of the wild barley genome were detected in RAPD patterns with 19 primers. Cross-hybridization confirmed that these fragments belonged to the wild barley genome. We raised four phenotypically different 42-chromosome lines from grains obtained from plants of generation BC1F10, and these lines proved to be cytogenetically stable and self-fertile when grown in the field.

  10. [Effect of rye Secale cereale L. chromosomes 1R and 3R on polyembryony expression in hybrid combinations between (Hordeum vulgare L.)-Triticum aestivum L. alloplasmic recombinant lines and wheat T. aestivum L.-rye S. cereale L. substitution lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, L A; Rakovtseva, T S; Belova, L I; Deviatkina, E P; Silkova, O G; Kravtsova, L A; Shchapova, A I

    2007-07-01

    The effect of rye chromosomes on polyembryony was studied for reciprocal hybrid combinations between (Hordeum vulgare L.)-Triticum aestivum L. alloplasmic recombinant lines and five wheat T. aestivum L. (cultivar Saratovskaya 29)-rye Secale cereale L. (cultivar Onokhoiskaya) substitution lines: IR(1D), 2R(2D), 3R(3B), 5R(5A), and 6R(6A), and for direct hybrid combinations between the [H. marinum ssp. gussoneanum (H. geniculatum All.)]-T. aestivum alloplasmic recombinant line and the wheat-rye substitution lines 1R (1A), 1R (1D), and 3R(3B). Chromosomes 1R and 3R of rye cultivar Onokhoiskaya proved to affect the expression of polyembryony in the hybrid combinations that involved the alloplasmic recombinant lines of common wheat as maternal genotypes. Based on this finding, polyembryony was regarded as a phenotypic expression of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions where an important role is played by rye chromosomes 1R and 3R and the H. vulgare cytoplasm. Consideration is given to the association between the effect of rye chromosomes 1R and 3R on polyembryony in the [(Hordeum)-T. aestivum x wheat-rye substitution lines] hybrid combinations and their stimulating effect on the development on angrogenic embryoids in isolated anther cultures of the wheat-rye substitution lines.

  11. Meiotic behaviour of tetraploid wheats (Triticum turgidum L.) and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microsporogenesis in heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant genotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris. Plant Cell Environ. 24, 723–731. Ramanna M. S. and Jacobsen E. 2003 Relevance of sexual poly- ploidization for crop improvement–a review. Euphytica 133, 3–. 18. Rieseberg L. H. and Willis J. H. 2007 Plant speciation. Science 317,.

  12. Influence of sulfur on cadmium (Cd) stress tolerance in Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... accumulation. However, S-exposed plants clearly exhibited enhanced antioxidant enzymes activity. (catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), chlorophyll a and b content and total soluble ... that application of S mitigated the adverse effects of Cd stress by enhancing TSC, photosynthetic pigments ...

  13. Analysis of genetic divergence in Durum wheat (Triticum Durum Desf.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted at Geregera and Kone testing sites of Sirinka Agricultural Research Center, northeastern Ethiopia. The objective of the experiment was to estimate the genetic divergence among durum wheat germplasm of diverse origin and clustering them into homogenous groups for further hybridization ...

  14. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-04-17

    Flood and .... Some information about the interaction between VRN-1 and Ppd active alleles have been generated from ... The study also revealed the role of tempera- ture in the attainment of flowering competence in the pho-.

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity among sixty bread wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of genetic diversity among wheat cultivars is important to ensure that a continuous pool of cultivars with varying desirable traits is maintained. In view of this, a molecular study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity of sixty wheat cultivars using sixty microsatellite markers. Amplified alleles from each ...

  16. Response of bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) to application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highly soluble N fertilizers like urea may be lost from the soil plant system through leaching, volatilization, and denitrification thereby reduce yields and NUE of arable crops. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of slow nitrogen (N) releasing fertilizer (UREAStabil) on NUE and yields of bread wheat and ...

  17. Gamma rays induced variability in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobieh, S. El-S.S.; Ragab, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    The present study was established in the experimental farm belonging to plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Inchas to study the effect of gamma ray (0.200 and 300 Gy) on means of yield and yield attributes for irradiated populations of Giza 164 and Sakha 92, varieties in comparison with untreated control, Moreover, genetic variation was studied by estimate phenotypic, genotypic, coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance under selection of bread wheat varieties (Giza 164 and Sakha 92). 1- In -M 1 - generation: (1995-1996) on plant with morphological change (dwarfness) was identified in 300Gy dose of Giza 164 variety. Moreover, this varient was confirmed and segregated in M 2 generation into three types of segregants (dwarf-semidwarf and tall stem). 2- Results showed that mean values of yield and yield attributes of irradiated populations in M 2 of Giza 164 and Sakha 92 varieties were insignificantly increased. High magnitudes of G.C-V.%, Hb% and Gs% for number of spike/plant and number of grain/spike were obtained, however moderate magnitude was found for the weight of grains spike. The high values of heritability and genetic gains from selection for these triaits in the next generations. The correlation between grain yield and each of number of spike/plant and number of grain/spike were positive and highly significant however, it was positive and significant for weight grain/spike. Some variants with morphological changes i.e. dwarf, semidward, tall stem, earlly maturity and brown spike were selected in M 2 generations. These variants surpassed their mother varieties for one or more of yield attributes suggesting the importance of further evaluation and confirmation of this variants in the next generations

  18. Molecular characterization of γ gliadin from durum wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gliadin protein associated with gluten strength and viscoelasticity of the dough, we performed an in silico molecular and structural analysis in order to define its putative functional properties. The latter could be a valuable candidate as molecular ...

  19. Alterations in reducing sugar in Triticum aestivum under irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... the 12th day of stress, shoots were harvested. Samples were weighed, washed and kept in sealed plastic bags with tags in the refrigerator for the estimation of reducing sugars. For quantitative estimation of soluble carbohydrates (free from combined hexoses), 4 ml buffer solution in per gram fresh weight of.

  20. Genetic architecture of seed longevity in bread wheat (Triticum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-20

    Jan 20, 2017 ... SPSS v17.0 software (SPSS Inc. 1999). Candidate genes mapping within a genomic region associated with a trait were identified from the deletion bin maps prepared in wheat cv. Chinese Spring (http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/pubs/2004/. Genetics/Bioinfo/). 3. Results. 3.1 Genomic distribution of DArT markers.

  1. (Helianthus annuus L.) extracts on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Seeds of two wheat varieties, namely Margalla 99 and. Chakwall 97, were sown in pots (3 seeds in each pot) and a basal dose consisting of 1 g urea and 1 g diammonium phosphate was ..... Allelopathic effects of sunflower extracts on mustard seed germination and seedling growth. Biol. Plant. (In Press).

  2. Response of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UREAStabil) on NUE and yields of bread wheat and ... The increase of agricultural food production worldwide over the past four decades has been associated with ..... Soil at Different Land use in Kelantan, Malaysia. Journal of Applied Science and.

  3. Variation in virulence patterns of Septoria tritici on Triticum aestivum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Des analyses similaires sur la nécrose a groupé les isolats en 8 groupes de virulence et les cultivars en 6 groupes de resistance. Il a été indiqué que la nécrose et la couverture de pycnidae étaient indépendantes de l'une de l'autre et peuvent être controllés par differents gènes. Mots Clés: Spécialisation physiologique, ...

  4. Investigation of DNA changes in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of cadmium on amounts of the soluble proteins, investigation of growth and possible changes to the structure of DNA using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker. In the present study, wheat seedlings were used for detection of ...

  5. Augmenting the salt tolerance in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although silicon improves the salt tolerance in grasses, the mechanism involved is still ambiguous. Moreover in wheat, classified as Si-accumulator, silicon can alleviate the salt stress. Hence in this study, the effects of silicon using calcium silicate (150 mg/L) on the morphology, physiology and biochemistry of wheat ...

  6. Response of wheat (triticum aestivum) to herbicidal weed control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.Y.; Baig, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    This study was carried out with a view to determining the response of wheat cv. Sandal to herbicidal weed control. The plant height was influenced by various herbicidal treatments. But maximum height was obtained by bromoxynil - MCPA (Buctil-M) fallowed by isoproturon (TolKan). Similarly maximum number of fertile tillers per plant, flag leaf area, ear length, yield (Kg/ha) and number of spikelet per ear were observed at bromoxynil-MCPA, Isoproturon (Tolkan), hand weeding and 2-4-D (DMA-6) treatments. But the number of grains per ear did not vary much in response to various herbicidal treatments. However, maximum 1000 grain weight and herbicidal activity index (HAI) were obtained by brombromoxynil-MCPA. The results show that post-emergence herbicides applied as low as 1.3 Kg ai/ha and supplemented with one hand weeding can give optimum crop yield and will there fore be an ideal recommendation to farmers with little experience in the use of herbicides. (author)

  7. Assessment of genetic diversity among sixty bread wheat (Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mwale

    2State Key Laboratory of Biology for Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of. Agricultural Sciences .... from parts of main wheat growing regions of China and 3 cultivars collected from USA and Italy ..... locus while higher PIC value indicates the high ability of the marker to express ...

  8. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... Time to flowering in the winter growth habit bread wheat is dependent on vernalization (exposure to cold conditions) and ... [Kumar S., Sharma V., Chaudhary S., Tyagi A., Mishra P., Priyadarshini A. and Singh A. 2012 Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat ..... to ascertain the hybrid nature of F1 plants.

  9. Alterations in reducing sugar in Triticum aestivum under irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted with the objective of observing alterations in reducing sugars, which may play a part in distinguishing tolerant and susceptible genotypes. The experimental material consisted of thirteen wheat genotypes including eleven bread wheat advanced lines, one synthetic hexaploid and its durum ...

  10. Evaluation of Bread Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) Breeding Lines for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/star.v4i1.1 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers ...

  11. Genetic architecture of seed longevity in bread wheat (Triticum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-20

    Jan 20, 2017 ... genases, chalcone synthase, lipoxygenase, cellulose synthase, protein kinases, NADH-oxidoreductase, reverse transcriptase and some ethylene forming enzymes). Of particular interest with respect to longevity could be chal- cone synthase, lipoxygenase and cellulose synthase. Chal- cone synthase (Chs) ...

  12. Weed biomass and economic yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... 91 which has never been possible (Rao, 2000). Weed management is not accomplished by using cultural practices exclusively. Herbicides offer an additional tool to control weeds in conjunction with cultural practices. Jarwar et al. (1999) observed that chemical weed control is effective in controlling weeds.

  13. Detection of the introgression loci in Triticum aestivum transferred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant changes of the distribution frequency for the same introgression loci between BC1F2 and BC1F2-F7 populations were observed, and seven selective advantage loci from A. tauschii (Xgdm128-3D, Xgdm8-3D, Xgdm72-3D, Xgwm341-3D, Xgdm63-5D, Xgdm132-6D and Xgdm36-6D) were found, which ...

  14. Photosynthesis of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) in rainfed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... on photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E) as well as their relationship with yield of spring wheat genotypes viz: Chakwal-50, Wafaq-2001 and GA-2002 was studied.

  15. Genetic evaluation of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-30

    Apr 30, 2014 ... leaf rust, terminal heat stress and drought stress have adverse impact on wheat productivity in the eastern regions of South Asia especially Eastern Gangetic Plains of India (Joshi et al., 2007). However, spot blotch is most serious constrain for the wheat production caused by. Cochliobolus sativus (Ito and ...

  16. A complete mitochondrial genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2The State Key Laboratory of Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, ... substitution rates between orthologous mitochondrion-encoded genes of higher plants, we found an accelerated evolutionary ..... the evolution of the sequences and structures of the genomes.

  17. A complete mitochondrial genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    three rRNA and 17 tRNA genes, as well as 149 open reading frames (ORFs; greater than 300 bp in length). The sequence is almost identical to the previously ... and unicellular eukaryotes. The length of plant mitochon- .... maize and sorghum) through estimating the number of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions.

  18. Intercropping of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and bean (Vicia faba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... sources consumption, where intercropping systems had more light interception and water, and nutrient uptake compared to sole crops, ... as water, light and nutrients can be utilized more effi- ciently than in the respective ..... ment of foliage and canopy architecture and can there- fore intercept more PAR ...

  19. Meiotic behaviour of tetraploid wheats (Triticum turgidum L.) and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meiotic aberrations such as laggards, chromosome bridges, micronuclei, abnormal cytokines, chromatin pulling and meiotic restitution were observed and the studied genotypes were accordingly ranked as follows: triticale > synthetic hexaploid wheats > tetraploid wheats possessing meiotic restitution > tetraploid wheats ...

  20. Alterations in reducing sugar in Triticum aestivum under irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... This research was conducted with the objective of observing alterations in reducing sugars, which may play a part in distinguishing tolerant and susceptible genotypes. The experimental material consisted of thirteen wheat genotypes including eleven bread wheat advanced lines, one synthetic hexaploid ...

  1. Yield and quality assessment of spelt (Triticum spelta L.) compared with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Olsen, Carl Christian

    1997-01-01

    weight, protein and ash content were higher in the T. spelta cultivars than in the wheat cultivar. Remote sensing studies at Roskilde in 1996 showed that in 2 of the T. spelta cultivars biomass production occurred earlier and was higher than in the other T. spelta cultivars and the wheat cultivar. Early......The adaptation of 7 T. spelta cultivars to the Danish climate was investigated and compared with a well-adapted winter wheat cultivar in field trials in 1994/95 and 1995/96 at Roskilde and Ronhave. The yield of all T. spelta cultivars was lower than that of the wheat cultivar, while 1000-seed...... harvest for green grain resulted in a decreased 1000-seed weight, and a high seed protein and ash content....

  2. Diferenciación bioquímica de las especies Triticum Durum y Triticum Aestivum (Sin. T. Vulgare) : nuevos métodos analíticos

    OpenAIRE

    García Olmedo, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Para establecer una característica bioquímica como caracter específico diferencial es necesario desarrollar previa¬mente un método adecuado para su análisis. Las observaciones de Walde y Mangel (1930) sugirie¬ron la posibilidad de que la presencia de palmitato de sitosterol fuera un carácter específico de T. aestivum. Matweef (1952) — propuso un método para valorar dicha sustancia por pesada y por colorimetría después de separarla de los extractos acetonicos de la pasta molida -por precipitac...

  3. Studies on the Fungi Associated with Soft Rot of Carrot ( Daucus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Altogether, six different fungi were isolated and included were Aspergillus niger, Mucor racemosus, Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium sp. and Alternaria sp. The most frequently occurring isolate was M. racemosus (58%) followed by A. niger, (45%) and P. italicum (38%). Carrot samples from the Ipata market ...

  4. Faster chitosan production by mucoralean strains in submerged culture Rápida produção de quitosana por linhagens de Mucorales em cultura submersa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Valéria da Silva Amorim

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Production of chitosan was conducted using two Mucoralean strains, Mucor racemosus and Cunninghamella elegans. Chitosan was extracted from mycelia of M. racemosus and C. elegans at different growth phases on YPD medium. In both fungi, chitosan was rapidly produced, while highest yield of extractable chitosan was found in 24h of cultivation in submerged culture. The yield of chitosan isolated from dry mycelia of M. racemosus was about 40% higher than from C. elegans. The degree of N-acetylation of chitosan was 49% in M. racemosus and 20% in C. elegans, and the D-glucosamine contents were about 48% and 90%, respectively.A produção microbiológica da quitosana foi realizada usando-se duas linhagens de Mucorales, Mucor racemosus and Cunninghamella elegans. Quitosana foi extraída a partir dos micélios de M. racemosus e C. elegans em diferentes fases de crescimento em meio YPD. Para ambos os fungos, quitosana foi rapidamente produzida, com rendimentos de quitosana mais elevados após 24h de cultivo em cultura submersa. O rendimento de quitosana isolada a partir de micélio seco de M. racemosus foi cerca de 40% maior do que de C. elegans. O grau de N-acetilação da quitosana foi 49% em M. racemosus e 20% em C. elegans, e os conteúdos de D-glicosamina foram cerca de 48 and 90%, respectivamente.

  5. Ractopamine uptake from soil by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ractopamine, a beta adrenergic agonist, is approved to use as feed additive in swine (Paylean®), cattle (Optaflexx®), and turkey (Topmax®) to improve daily weight gain, increase feed efficiency, and produce leaner meat. Because of this economic advantage, ractopamine is widely used. The transfer o...

  6. Ammonium sulphate and urea use efficiency in wheat (triticum aestivum) through isotope dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, M.A.; Pappa, J.L.; Aldana, F.

    1993-01-01

    Two field experiments were carried out to evaluate the use efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer in wheat crop, using urea and ammonium sulphate 5% N-15 atom excess. The experiments were conducted at the ICTA Experimental Center 'Labor Ovalle', Quetzaltenango. In one of them, the time of the largest use efficiency by the crop was determined, for which three times of applications were evaluated: at sowing, 35 and 55 days after sowing with a total rate of 100 kg nitrogen per hectare, applying fertilizer dissolved in water. In the other experiment the application of fertilizer solid and dissolved in water was compared. The use efficiency was similar for nitrogen sources, but not for time and type of application being 35 days and fertilizer dissolved the treatments with best use efficiency

  7. Antioxidants, free radicals, storage proteins, and proteolytic activities in wheat (Triticum durum) seeds during accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleschi, Luciano; Capocchi, Antonella; Ghiringhelli, Silvia; Saviozzi, Franco; Calucci, Lucia; Pinzino, Calogero; Zandomeneghi, Maurizio

    2002-09-11

    Accelerated aging was performed by incubation of wheat seeds at 40 degrees C and 100% relative humidity for 3, 4, 6, 10, and 14 days. The effects of the treatment on seed germinability and on several biochemical characteristics of flour (carotenoids, free radical and protein contents, and proteolytic activity) and gluten (free radical content and flexibility) were evaluated. A decrease of germinability was found during aging, the germination being completely inhibited after 14 days. The lutein content decreased gradually, without going to zero, while that of free radicals increased. A reduction of soluble proteins and a degradation of glutenins and gliadins were observed, associated with a substantial increase of protease activity and a decrease in gluten flexibility. The results were discussed in reference to those previously obtained by natural aging of wheat seeds of the same species and cultivar.

  8. Growth, yield and grain protein content of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Plant and Soil ... Soil tillage affects both the profitability and sustainability of cropping systems. ... compared to a monoculture system can be ascribed to improved soil organic carbon and nitrogen (N) contents, which result in more plant-available mineral N and hence more vigorous crop growth.

  9. Weed infestation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under the conditions of application of some retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Harasim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted in the period 2004–2007 on grey-brown podzolic soil (sandy. This study analysed the relationship between the use of stem shortening in cereals by means of retardants with the following active substances: chlormequat chloride (Antywylegacz Płynny 675 SL, trinexapac-ethyl (Moddus 250 EC, chlormequat chloride + ethephon (Cecefon 465 SL, and weed infestation. The retardants were applied at the 1st node stage (BBCH 31 – Antywylegacz Płynny 675 SL and the 2nd node stage of winter wheat (BBCH 32 – Moddus 250 EC and Cecefon 465 SL, together with the adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC (75% of SN 200 mineral oil or without the adjuvant. Winter wheat, cv. 'Muza', was grown after vetch grown for seed. The whole experiment was sprayed with the herbicides Apyros 75 WG and Starane 250 EC at the full tillering stage (BBCH 29–30. Plots where no growth regulators were used were the control treatment. Weed density and biomass showed great variation between years. In the winter wheat crop, Veronica persica, Viola arvensis, Veronica arvensis, Capsella bursa-pastoris,and Chenopodium album dominated in the dicotyledonous class, whereas Apera spica-venti, Echinochloa crus-galli,and Elymus repens were predominant among monocotyledonous plants. The level of weed infestation of the winter wheat crop, as measured by the number and air-dry weight of weeds, was significantly differentiated by years and retardants used as well as by interactions of these factors. The adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC did not have a significant effect on the above-mentioned weed infestation parameters. .

  10. Frost-Resistant Plants Selection Peculiarities at Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Varieties Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. П. Чебаков

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Giving regard to the main elements of Winter Wheat varieties assessment when selecting frost resistant plants and taking into account genetic potential of the parents, date of hybrids sowing and their assessment by the speed of spring vegetation, it is possible in the sense of successful breeding to derive the most steady genotypes by the specified characteristics starting from F1. hybrids.

  11. Considering the method of frost resistance determination for Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. І. Рябчун

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available There is the method represented in the article for frost resistance determination for Winter Wheat (soft and hard varieties by experts’ assessment of varieties submitted for Official Variety Studying. Prescribed temperature limits for artificial freezing of the plants, example varieties for frost-resistance groups, are indicated.

  12. Economical and Morpho-Biological Features of Whiner Wheat New Generation Varieties (Triticum durum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. І. Улич

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes summary of the researches, characteristics of morphological and agro-biological characteristics and features, a note is made of a significant progress in the selection of productivity and adaptability of registered Durum Winter Wheat Varieties of new crops rotation. Significant developments of  plants architectonic are marked, especially in height, characteristics of economical value, and in terms of considerable achievements in breeding of this kind of wheat. A stress in made on the need to enhance Durum Winter Wheat breeding to develop more frostresistant and drought-overheat resistant varieties.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLIADIN AND HMW GLUTENIN PROTEIN COMPOSITION IN COLOURED WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Šudyová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is one of the most important grains in our daily diet. Coloured wheat contains natural anthocyanin compounds. Bioactive compounds in wheat have attracted increasingly more interest from breeders because of their benefits. It is important to fully understand protein properties of red, blue, purple, and yellow-coloured wheat in order to predict their potential uses for culturing new varieties. All 21 accessions originating from different geographical areas of world were evaluated for high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS and T1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation using SDS-PAGE and A-PAGE. The data indicated the prevalence of the allele 1 (36%, allele 0 (30% and allele 2* (34% at the Glu-1A and five alleles, namely 7+8 (36%, 7+9 (29%, 20 (21%, 7 (12% and 17+18 (2% represented the Glu-1B. Existence of 2 alleles at the locus Glu-1D was revealed, in fact 21% of them showed the subunit pairs Glu-1D 5+10 correlated with good bread making properties. Protein subunit Glu-1A1 and Glu-1A2* were correlated positively with improved dough strength as compared to subunit null. On the chromosome Glu-1B subunit 17+18 and 7+8 were associated with slightly stronger gluten type than 7+9, whereas subunit 20 and 7 were associated with weak gluten properties. On the basis of electrophoretic separation of gliadin fraction it was found that only one genotype contained T1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation. The Glu-1 quality score ranged from 4 to 10. Suitable accessions can be used for the crossing programs to improve colour and good technological quality of bread wheat.  doi:10.5219/161

  14. Response of spring type wheat (triticum aestivum l.) cultivars to different chilling treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late sowing of wheat in autumn due to environmental conditions or late harvesting of cotton crop results in substantial yield loss. It may be attributed to non-fulfillment of chilling requirements. The present study was conducted to identify the chilling requirement of autumn sown cultivars of wheat...

  15. Potassium and zinc increase tolerance to salt stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Amin Ullah; Hadi, Fazal; Midrarullah; Nawaz, Muhammad Asif; Rahman, Khaista

    2017-07-01

    Potassium and zinc are essential elements in plant growth and metabolism and plays a vital role in salt stress tolerance. To investigate the physiological mechanism of salt stress tolerance, a pot experiment was conducted. Potassium and zinc significantly minimize the oxidative stress and increase root, shoot and spike length in wheat varieties. Fresh and dry biomass were significantly increased by potassium followed by zinc as compared to control C. The photosynthetic pigment and osmolyte regulator (proline, total phenolic, and total carbohydrate) were significantly enhanced by potassium and zinc. Salt stress increases MDA content in wheat varieties while potassium and zinc counteract the adverse effect of salinity and significantly increased membrane stability index. Salt stress decreases the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) while the exogenous application of potassium and zinc significantly enhanced the activities of these enzymes. A significant positive correlation was found of spike length with proline (R 2  = 0.966 ∗∗∗ ), phenolic (R 2  = 0.741 ∗ ) and chlorophyll (R 2  = 0.853 ∗∗ ). The MDA content showed significant negative correlation (R 2  = 0.983 ∗∗∗ ) with MSI. It is concluded that potassium and zinc reduced toxic effect of salinity while its combine application showed synergetic effect and significantly enhanced salt tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The γ-gliadin multigene family in common wheat (Triticum aestivum and its closely related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qing

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique properties of wheat flour primarily depend on gluten, which is the most important source of protein for human being. γ-Gliadins have been considered to be the most ancient of the wheat gluten family. The complex family structure of γ-gliadins complicates the determination of their function. Moreover, γ-gliadins contain several sets of celiac disease epitopes. However, no systematic research has been conducted yet. Results A total of 170 γ-gliadin genes were isolated from common wheat and its closely related species, among which 138 sequences are putatively functional. The ORF lengths of these sequences range from 678 to 1089 bp, and the repetitive region is mainly responsible for the size heterogeneity of γ-gliadins. The repeat motif P(Q/L/S/T/I/V/R/AF(S/Y/V/Q/I/C/LP(R/L/S/T/H/C/YQ1–2(P(S/L/T/A/F/HQQ1–2is repeated from 7 to 22 times. Sequence polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium analyses show that γ-gliadins are highly diverse. Phylogenic analyses indicate that there is no obvious discrimination between Sitopsis and Ae. tauschii at the Gli-1 loci, compared with diploid wheat. According to the number and placement of cysteine residues, we defined nine cysteine patterns and 17 subgroups. Alternatively, we classified γ-gliadins into two types based on the length of repetitive domain. Amino acid composition analyses indicate that there is a wide range of essential amino acids in γ-gliadins, and those γ-gliadins from subgroup SG-10 and SG-12 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain are more nutritional. A screening of toxic epitopes shows that γ-gliadins with a pattern of C9 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain almost lack any epitopes. Conclusion γ-Gliadin sequences in wheat and closely related Aegilops species are diverse. Each group/subgroup contributes differently to nutritional quality and epitope content. It is suggested that the genes with a short repetitive domain are more nutritional and valuable. Therefore, it is possible to breed wheat varieties, the γ-gliadins of which are less, even non-toxic and more nutritional.

  17. Expression and functional analysis of TaASY1 during meiosis of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langridge Peter

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pairing and synapsis of homologous chromosomes is required for normal chromosome segregation and the exchange of genetic material via recombination during meiosis. Synapsis is complete at pachytene following the formation of a tri-partite proteinaceous structure known as the synaptonemal complex (SC. In yeast, HOP1 is essential for formation of the SC, and localises along chromosome axes during prophase I. Homologues in Arabidopsis (AtASY1, Brassica (BoASY1 and rice (OsPAIR2 have been isolated through analysis of mutants that display decreased fertility due to severely reduced synapsis of homologous chromosomes. Analysis of these genes has indicated that they play a similar role to HOP1 in pairing and formation of the SC through localisation to axial/lateral elements of the SC. Results The full length wheat cDNA and genomic clone, TaASY1, has been isolated, sequenced and characterised. TaASY1 is located on chromosome Group 5 and the open reading frame displays significant nucleotide sequence identity to OsPAIR2 (84% and AtASY1 (63%. Transcript and protein analysis showed that expression is largely restricted to meiotic tissue, with elevated levels during the stages of prophase I when pairing and synapsis of homologous chromosomes occur. Immunolocalisation using transmission electron microscopy showed TaASY1 interacts with chromatin that is associated with both axial elements before SC formation as well as lateral elements of formed SCs. Conclusion TaASY1 is a homologue of ScHOP1, AtASY1 and OsPAIR2 and is the first gene to be isolated from bread wheat that is involved in pairing and synapsis of homologous chromosomes.

  18. ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENTATION IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.: GENETIC BASIS AND ROLE UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchenko O.Yu.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites of plants. They have a wide range of biological activity such as antioxidant, photoprotection, osmoregulation, heavy metal ions chelation, antimicrobial and antifungal activities, which help plants to survive under different stress conditions. Bread wheat (T. aestivum L. can have purple pigmentation provided by anthocyanin compounds in different organs, such as grain pericarp, coleoptile, culm, leaf blades, leaf sheaths, glumes and anthers. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying formation of these traits as well as contribution of the pigmentation to stress tolerance have not been widely studied in wheat. The aim of the current study was to investigate molecular-genetic mechanisms underlying anthocyanin pigmentation in different wheat organs and to estimate the role of the pigmentation under different abiotic stress conditions in wheat seedlings. In the current study, near-isogenic lines (NILs: cv. ‘Saratovskaya 29’ (‘S29’ and lines i:S29Pp1Pp2PF and i:S29Pp1Pp3P developed on the ‘S29’ background but having grain pericarp coloration (genes Pp and more intense coleoptile (Rc, culm (Pc, leaf blade (Plb, leaf sheath (Pls pigmentation in comparison with ‘S29’, were used. Comparative transcriptional analysis of the five structural genes Chs, Chi, F3h, Dfr, Ans, encoding enzymes participating in the anthocyanin biosynthesis, was performed in different organs of NILs. It was shown that the presence of the Rc, Pc, Plb, Pls and Pp alleles conferring strong anthocyanin pigmentation induced more intense transcription of the structural genes, suggesting the genes Rc, Pc, Plb, Pls and Pp to play a regulatory role in anthocyanin biosynthesis network. To evaluate the role of anthocyanins in stress response at the seedling stage, growth ability of the NILs and anthocyanin content in their coleoptiles were assessed after treatments with NaCl (100 and 200 mM, CdCl2 (25 and 50 μM and 15% PEG 6000 (polyethylene glycol 6000, simulating salinity, heavy metal and drought stress, respectively. Under salinity and drought stress, the level of anthocyanins increased significantly in all three NILs in comparison with untreated control, whereas under CdCl2 treatment anthocyanin content increased significantly in ‘S29’ only. The tendency of the lines having more intensive anthocyanin pigmentation to have better growth ability under stress conditions was observed. Taken together the results obtained it may be suggested that anthocyanin production in wheat seedlings is tightly related with the response to abiotic stress.

  19. Evidence of intralocus recombination at the Glu-3 loci in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low-molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) are a class of wheat seed storage proteins that play a critical role in the determination of wheat flour bread-making quality. These proteins are encoded by multigene families located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci (Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3), on t...

  20. Flow kaiyotyping and chromosome sorting in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doleželová, Marie; Vrána, Jan; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 104, - (2002), s. 1362-1372 ISSN 0040-5752 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038204; GA AV ČR IBS5038104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Chromosome isolation * Chromosome sorting * Flow cytometry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.264, year: 2002

  1. DNA-methylation changes induced by salt stress in wheat Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Demethylation may take place as a passive process because of lack of maintenance methylation ... dish) were germinated for 3 days in the dark at 25°C on filter paper soaked with distilled water. 8-Day-old ..... For the loss of DNA methylation, active or passive mechanisms have been proposed (Jost et al., ...

  2. Breeding schemes for the implementation of genomic selection in wheat (Triticum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Filippo M; Bentley, Alison R; Charmet, Gilles; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Crossa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade the breeding technology referred to as 'genomic selection' (GS) has been implemented in a variety of species, with particular success in animal breeding. Recent research shows the potential of GS to reshape wheat breeding. Many authors have concluded that the estimated genetic gain per year applying GS is several times that of conventional breeding. GS is, however, a new technology for wheat breeding and many programs worldwide are still struggling to identify the best strategy for its implementation. This article provides practical guidelines on the key considerations when implementing GS. A review of the existing GS literature for a range of species is provided and used to prime breeder-oriented considerations on the practical applications of GS. Furthermore, this article discusses potential breeding schemes for GS, genotyping considerations, and methods for effective training population design. The components of selection intensity, progress toward inbreeding in half- or full-sibs recurrent schemes, and the generation of selection are also presented. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Physiological, Biochemical, Epigenetic and Molecular Analyses of Wheat (Triticum aestivum Genotypes with Contrasting Salt Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress exerts significant impact on plant’s growth, development, and productivity. Productivity of crop plants under salt stress is lagging behind because of our limited knowledge about physiological, biochemical, epigenetic, and molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance in plants. This study aimed to investigate physio-biochemical, molecular indices and defense responses of selected wheat cultivars to identify the most contrasting salt-responsive genotypes and the mechanisms associated with their differential responses. Physio-biochemical traits specifically membrane stability index, antioxidant potential, osmoprotectants and chlorophyll contents, measured at vegetative stage, were used for multivariate analysis to identify the most contrasting genotypes. Genetic and epigenetic analyses indicated the possible mechanisms associated with differential response of the wheat genotypes under salt stress. Better antioxidant potential, membrane stability, increased accumulation of osmolytes/phytophenolics, and higher K+/Na+ ratio under 200 mM NaCl stress identified Kharchia-65 to be the most salt-tolerant cultivar. By contrast, increased MDA level, reduced soluble sugar, proline, total chlorophyll, total phenolics contents, and lower antioxidant potential in HD-2329 marked it to be sensitive to the stress. Genetic and bioinformatics analyses of HKT1;4 of contrasting genotypes (Kharchia-65 and HD-2329 revealed deletions, transitions, and transversions resulting into altered structure, loss of conserved motifs (Ser-Gly-Gly-Gly and Gly-Arg and function in salt-sensitive (HD-2329 genotype. Expression analysis of HKTs rationalized the observed responses. Epigenetic variations in cytosine methylation explained tissue- and genotype-specific differential expression of HKT2;1 and HKT2;3.

  4. Influence of foliar application of potassium on wheat (triticum aestivum L) under saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Aziz, M.

    2013-01-01

    A potted experiment was conducted in the Department of Biological Sciences, University of Sargodha, to determine the effect of potassium (K) on wheat under saline and non-saline conditions. Foliar spray of K (0, 300, 600 mgL/sup -1/) was applied on wheat under different salinity levels (0, 150 mmol). Salinity levels were created according to the saturation percentage of the soil. Each pot was filled with 7kg well-mixed soil. This experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design with two factors factorial arrangement and with three replications. Different growth and physiological attributes were collected from the conducted experiment. Application of K increased the shoot and root fresh and dry weight. Salinity also affected the chlorophyll contents but the application of K enhanced the chlorophyll contents under saline and non-saline conditions. Foliar application of K also minimised the toxicity of sodium. Similarly, grains yield was also decreased under saline conditions but the foliar application of K reduced the salinity stress and enhanced the grains yield. These results indicated that foliar-applied K ameliorated the effect of salinity on wheat plants. (author)

  5. Effects of Short-term Hypergravity Exposure on Germination, Growth and Photosynthesis of Triticum aestivum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, Pandit B.; Jagtap, Sagar S.; Dixit, Jyotsana P.; Kamble, Shailendra M.; Dhepe, Aarti P.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the hypergravity effect on plants, where seedlings (4-5 days old) were continuously exposed and grown under hypergravity condition. Here, we have used a novel `shortterm hypergravity exposure experimental method' where imbibed caryopses (instead of seedlings) were exposed to higher hypergravity values ranging from 500 g to 2500 g for a short interval time of 10 minutes and post short-term hypergravity treated caryopses were grown under 1 g conditions for five days. Changing patterns in caryopsis germination and growth, along with various photosynthetic and biochemical parameters were studied. Results revealed the significant inhibition of caryopsis germination and growth in short-term hypergravity treated seeds over control. Photosynthesis parameters such as chlorophyll content, rate of photosynthesis (PN), transpiration rate (Evap) and stomatal conductance (Gs), along with intracellular CO2 concentration (Cint) were found to be affected significantly in 5 days old seedlings exposed to short-term hypergravity treatment. In order to investigate the cause of observed inhibition, we examined the α-amylase activity and antioxidative enzyme activities. α-amylase activity was found to be inhibited, along with the reduction of sugars necessary for germination and earlier growth in short-term hypergravity treated caryopses. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and guaiacol peroxidase were increased in short-term hypergravity treated caryopses, suggesting that caryopses might have experienced oxidative stress upon short-term hypergravity exposure.

  6. The inheritance of plant height in winter wheat -Triticum aestivum L.-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević Veselinka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Four winter wheat varieties (Srbijanka, Partizanka, KG-56 and PKB-111 have been selected for diallel crossing in other to study the mode of inheritance, gene effect and genetic variance components for the plant height in F2 generation. Sixty plants of parents and F2 generation were used for analysis. The mode of inheritance was done on the basis of the significance of components of genetic variance and the regression analysis. The inheritance of plant height in the most crossing combinations was superdominance. The combining ability analysis was found to be highly significant, which means both additive and non-additive type of gene actions. The best general combining ability manifested KG-56 variety, and the best specific combining ability have shown hybrids KG-56 x PKB-111, Srbijanka x PKB-111 and Partizanka x KG-56. The genetic variance components, average degree of dominance and regression line indicated superdominance in the inheritance of plant height. The dominant alleles frequency was higher than recessive alleles frequency, which confirmed the ratio of dominant/recessive alleles.

  7. EKSTRAKSI DAN ANALISIS FITOSTEROL LEMBAGA GANDUM [Extraction and analysis of Phytosterol from wheat germ (Triticum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah K Darusman3

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytosterol may reduce the absorption of cholesterol, and used for preventing atherosclerosis. It is limited in soybean, but potentially abundant in wheat germ. Research on the utilization of wheat germ sterol had not been reported so far. Many aspects of germ sterol extraction from wheat germ and its characteristics were still unknown. In this research, the best extraction method, kinds and content of phytosterol from wheat germ were investigated.This research consisted of two steps: (1 extraction of phytosterol directly form whole germ and ground germ using hexane, and indirect extraction through germ oil using hexane and mixed solvent of hexane and ethanol, and direct extraction from ground germ using ethanol; (2 analysis of the type and content of phytosterol in the crude extract through the following steps: preparation of crude extract, fractionation, and analysis.Results showed that indirect extraction through germ oil was considered as the best method which yielded 1.37% of phytosterol. The highest yield was obtained when extracted using a mixed solvent of hexane – ethanol 82:18. However, the odor of ethanol and hexane (gasoline like odor was still detected. The solvent’s ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:2 resulted better odor of the extract. Extraction of sterol using ethanol yielded 18.39% of sterol when the ratio of germ to ethanol at 1:10 (w/v was applied.Results of quantitative analysis on the main component of crude extract of wheat germ sterol showed that the total content of sterol extracted with mixed solvent was higher than those extracted with ethanol. The ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:1 (v/v gave higher content of total sterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, whereas higher content of -sitosterol was produced at the solvent’s ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:2 (v/v.

  8. In vitro evaluation of boron tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondić-Špika Ankica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat tolerance to high boron concentrations was determined using mature embryo culture. The testing was performed on a modified MS nutrient medium to which boric acid was added in two concentrations: 15 mM and 30 mM. The control medium contained no excess boric acid. The experiment involved 14 Serbian varieties. After one month of cultivation callus fresh weight (CFW was measured and reductions of fresh callus weight (RFCW at boron (B concentration of 15 mM in relation to the control were calculated. The genotypes differed significantly according to their reaction to different B concentrations. Six genotypes had RFCWs below 50.0 %, while eight genotypes had RFCWs above 50.1 %. Cultivars Nevesinjka and Pesma were considered the most tolerant genotypes, while cultivars Balada and Vila were the most sensitive. The results confirmed that differences in genotype reactions to excess B are visible at the cellular level and that they may serve as a selection criterion. .

  9. Induksi Mutasi Kalus Embriogenik Gandum (Triticum aestivum L. melalui Iradiasi Sinar Gamma untuk Toleransi Suhu Tinggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Budi Setiawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mutation techniques through gamma ray irradiation is useful to support breeding programs for genetic improvement of wheat. Genetic improvement on tolerance to high temperatures is necessary for development of wheat in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of radiosensitivity to be used as the basis for the induction of mutations by gamma ray irradiation on embryogenic callus to obtain putative mutants with high temperature tolerance. Explants used were embryogenic callus cultured on MS medium containing 30 g L-1 sukrosa, 2 g L-1 gelrite, 2 mg L-1 2.4D and 1 mg L-1 picloram. Culture incubated for 6 weeks with temperature 20±4 oC in the room culture. Five irradiation doses (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy were used in radiosensitivity testing. A factorial, completely randomized design was applied to the experiment. The first factor was selection temperature with three levels (25, 30 and 35 oC, and the second factor was doses of gamma ray iradiation with three levels (10, 20, and 30 Gy. The result showed that radiosensitivity levels varied among varieties, LD20: 7.79 to 18.96 Gy and LD50: 24.29-33.63 Gy. Selayar variety which has highest sensitivity value compared with Dewata and Nias. Increasing doses of iradiation and temperature decrease survival of embryogenic callus, number of embryos, and percentage of germinated plantlets. Based on in vitro selection using high temperature (25, 30, and 35 oC, the obtained 19 putative mutants were derived from embryos that appear on the surface of embryogenic callus survival after irradiation and high temperature selection.Keywords: in vitro selection, putative mutant, radiosensitivity, somatic embryo

  10. Study of root para-nodules formation in wheat (Triticum durum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    djemel

    2013-08-28

    Aug 28, 2013 ... a growth chamber with hydroponic medium. Binocular observation revealed that para-nodules were formed when wheat roots were inoculated with Frankia and the root length was enhanced. When the inoculation with Frankia was combined to 2,4-D treatment, the para-nodules formed were bigger and.

  11. Molecular cloning of a novel GSK3/shaggy-like gene from Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... cellular homeostasis and protect and repair damaged proteins and membranes. Therefore, TmGSK1 was shown to be a positive regulator commonly involved in the tolerance to salt, mechanical injury, ABA hormone, cold and drought in einkorn wheat. However, most mechanisms in this model are still ...

  12. Ferulic acid from aleurone determines the antioxidant potency of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.; Berg, R. van den; Havenaar, R.; Bast, A.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Grain is an important source of phytochemicals, which have potent antioxidant capacity. They have been implicated in the beneficial health effect of whole grains in reducing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to identify the most important antioxidant

  13. The Use of Double-Monotelodisomics to Identify Translocations in Triticum aestivum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Larsen, J.

    1974-01-01

    By analysing metaphase I of double-monotelodisomic hybrids between two varieties of hexaploid wheat differentiated by reciprocal translocations it is possible to establish reliably the chromosomes involved in each translocation. Also the chromosome parts translocated may be identified. The use...

  14. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) root proteome and differentially expressed root proteins between hybrid and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Ni, Zhongfu; Yao, Yingyin; Xie, Chaojie; Li, Zhenxing; Wu, Haiyan; Zhang, Yinhong; Sun, Qixin

    2007-10-01

    To better understand the development of wheat roots, a reference map of the major soluble proteins of wheat roots was established using a combination of 2-DE and MALDI TOF MS and MS/MS, and a total of 450 protein spots were detected with silver staining in a pH ranges of 4-7, of which 282 spots corresponding to 240 proteins were identified. These identified proteins were grouped into diverse functional categories. In comparison with a wheat leave proteome, in root, proteins involved in metabolism and transport were over-represented, whereas proteins involved in energy, disease and defense, transcription, and signal transduction were under-represented. To further get an insight into the molecular basis of wheat heterosis, differential proteome analysis between hybrid and parents were performed. A total of 45 differentially expressed protein spots were detected, and both quantitative and qualitative differences could be observed. Moreover, 25 of the 45 differentially expressed protein spots were identified, which were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, energy, cell growth and division, disease and defense, secondary metabolism. These results indicated that hybridization between two parental lines can cause expression differences between wheat hybrid and its parents not only at mRNA levels but also at protein abundances.

  15. [Dynamics of hybrid necrosis genes in Russian cultivars of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukhal'skiĭ, V A; Martynov, S P; Bilinskaia, E N

    2010-11-01

    Study of necrosis genotypes of 72 Russian cultivars of winter common wheat has confirmed a tendency towards "washing off" of genotypes with the Ne1 gene. Fifty-six percent of cultivars have the genotype ne1ne1Ne2Ne2, and 44% have the genotype ne1ne1ne2ne2; i.e., they are free of hybrid necrosis genes. The results of the study indicate that the diversity of the original ancestors in the groups of cultivars with the ne1ne 1Ne2Ne2 and ne1ne1ne2ne2 genotypes is almost the same. This determines the instability of the tendency towards a higher prevalence of the nel ne 1Ne2Ne2 genotype in recent years. The changes in the diversity of the original ancestors with time have shown an increase in the diversity index. These processes may somewhat decrease the rate of genetic erosion caused by the fact that the Ne1Ne1ne2ne2 falls out of breeding. The routes of transmission of necrosis gene alleles from ancestors to descendants have been traced using extended pedigrees, and this information has been used to identify the probable donors and sources of hybrid necrosis gene alleles. In most cases, the cultivars Mironovskaya 808 and Krasnodarskaya 39 are the putative sources of the Ne2allele (60.6 and 27.3% of all cases, respectively). The old cultivar Gostianum 237 from Saratov oblast is the putative source of the Ne2 allele in the cultivar Krasnodarskaya 39. The cultivars Bezostaya 1 and Odesskaya 51 (whose pedigree also includes Bezostaya 1) are the donors of the recessive genotype ne1nelne2ne2 in 93.5% of cases. The old Ukrainian cultivar Ukrainka is the most frequent source of recessive alleles. The strength of the Ne2 allele has been estimated in 36 cultivars. The results indicate that modifier genes affect the expression of tumor necrosis genes.

  16. Solar Radiation-Associated Adaptive SNP Genetic Differentiation in Wild Emmer Wheat, Triticum dicoccoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing; Chen, Liang; Jin, Xiaoli; Zhang, Miaomiao; You, Frank M; Wang, Jirui; Frenkel, Vladimir; Yin, Xuegui; Nevo, Eviatar; Sun, Dongfa; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Peng, Junhua

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome scans with large number of genetic markers provide the opportunity to investigate local adaptation in natural populations and identify candidate genes under positive selection. In the present study, adaptation genetic differentiation associated with solar radiation was investigated using 695 polymorphic SNP markers in wild emmer wheat originated in a micro-site at Yehudiyya, Israel. The test involved two solar radiation niches: (1) sun, in-between trees; and (2) shade, under tree canopy, separated apart by a distance of 2-4 m. Analysis of molecular variance showed a small (0.53%) but significant portion of overall variation between the sun and shade micro-niches, indicating a non-ignorable genetic differentiation between sun and shade habitats. Fifty SNP markers showed a medium (0.05 ≤ F ST ≤ 0.15) or high genetic differentiation ( F ST > 0.15). A total of 21 outlier loci under positive selection were identified by using four different F ST -outlier testing algorithms. The markers and genome locations under positive selection are consistent with the known patterns of selection. These results suggested that genetic differentiation between sun and shade habitats is substantial, radiation-associated, and therefore ecologically determined. Hence, the results of this study reflected effects of natural selection through solar radiation on EST-related SNP genetic diversity, resulting presumably in different adaptive complexes at a micro-scale divergence. The present work highlights the evolutionary theory and application significance of solar radiation-driven natural selection in wheat improvement.

  17. [Competitiveness of hard wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) varieties against ripgut brome (Bromus rigidus Roth)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamal, A; Benbella, M; Rzozi, S B; Bouhache, M; Msatef, Y

    2001-01-01

    Varieties with an excellent competitiveness against ripgut brome (Bromus rigidus Roth.) would be very important to reinforce others methods to control ripgut brome weed. This study was carried out in 1999-2000 season in a greenhouse experiment to test the aggressiveness degree of six varieties of hard wheat (Oum Rabia, Isly, Marzak, Karim, Sebou, and Massa) combined with ripgut brome. Plant density was fixed at 16 plants of wheat or Bromus for pure crop and 8 plants for wheat and 8 for Bromus mixture. The results showed that the numbers of kernels/spikes were higher in the mixture for on pure composition. For the kernel weight, the result was opposite except for Isly and Marzak varieties. Karim and Isly varieties obtained the highest grain yield and were more competitive in mixture composition but Sebou and Massa varieties were less competitive against ripgut brome. Results of ripgut brome productivity and water use efficiency were similar and were used to determine the aggressiveness coefficient of hard wheat varieties against ripgut brome. The reduction of the shoot dry matter of brome was 22 to 56% at flowering. The grain yield of brome was reduced from 57 to 81%.

  18. Leaf nitrogen spectral reflectance model of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) based on PROSPECT: simulation and inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guijun; Zhao, Chunjiang; Pu, Ruiliang; Feng, Haikuan; Li, Zhenhai; Li, Heli; Sun, Chenhong

    2015-01-01

    Through its association with proteins and plant pigments, leaf nitrogen (N) plays an important regulatory role in photosynthesis, leaf respiration, and net primary production. However, the traditional methods of measurement leaf N are rooted in sample-based spectroscopy in laboratory. There is a big challenge of deriving leaf N from the nondestructive field-measured leaf spectra. In this study, the original PROSPECT model was extended by replacing the absorption coefficient of chlorophyll in the original PROSPECT model with an equivalent N absorption coefficient to develop a nitrogen-based PROSPECT model (N-PROSPECT). N-PROSPECT was evaluated by comparing the model-simulated reflectance values with the measured leaf reflectance values. The validated results show that the correlation coefficient (R) was 0.98 for the wavelengths of 400 to 2500 nm. Finally, N-PROSPECT was used to simulate leaf reflectance using different combinations of input parameters, and partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to establish the relationship between the N-PROSPECT simulated reflectance and the corresponding leaf nitrogen density (LND). The inverse of the PLSR-based N-PROSPECT model was used to retrieve LND from the measured reflectance with a relatively high accuracy (R2=0.77, RMSE=22.15 μg cm-2). This result demonstrates that the N-PROSPECT model established in this study can accurately simulate nitrogen spectral contributions and retrieve LND.

  19. Traits Explaining Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. spp. Durum) Yield in Dry Chilean Mediterranean Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ribot, Gerlitt; Opazo, Marcela; Silva, Paola; Acevedo, Edmundo

    2017-01-01

    Yield under water stress (YS) is used as the main criterion in the selection of wheat varieties for dry Mediterranean environments. It has been proposed that selection of genotypes using YS assisted by morphological and physiological traits associated with YS is more efficient in selecting high yielding genotypes for dry environments. A study was carried out at the Antumapu Experiment Station of the University of Chile, located in Santiago, Chile (33° 40′S and 70° 38′ W). The objective was to evaluate the extent to which morpho physiological traits could explain YS. For this purpose, grain yield and yield components of 185 durum wheat genotypes from ICARDA (International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas) and INIA (Chilean National Institute for Agricultural Research) were evaluated along with seed size and weight, days to heading (DH), glaucousness (GLAU), plant height (PH) and 13C discrimination (Δ). The design was an α-lattice with two replications, the genotypes were grown in two different water conditions (high and low irrigation) during two seasons (2011-2012/2012-2013). Grain weight (GW) was the only yield component with high H associated with YS, but it was not associated with yield under high irrigation (YI). The combination of YI with DH+GLAU+PH+Δ+GW obtained in LI environments explained a greater fraction of YS (38%) across years; these traits had lower genotype x environment interaction than YS, they also explained a higher proportion of yield under drought than YI. None of the traits studied could replace YS in selections for grain yield. It is concluded that these traits could aid in the selection of durum wheat subject to water stress, particularly in early generations. PMID:29104578

  20. Genetic Diversity for Grain Yield and its Components in Winter Wheat Genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabrizi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect the most effective characters on grain yield and its component in winter wheat genotypes, an experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at Research Station of the Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch. Planting seed, application of fertilizers and fertilizers and pesticides and irrigation regimes were processed as they are usually done in the region. Some traits such as days to heading, days to maturity, height plant, main spike weight, straw yield, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, grain yield and harvest index were characterized. Analysis of variance revealed that there were significant differences among genotypes for most of the traits except the weight of main spike and grain number per plant. Results also showed that the highest phenotypic (19.77% diversity belonged to the weight of main spike and least to days to maturity and days to heading (with 0.27% and 0.52% respectively. Results of factor analysis showed that four factors accounted for 82.73% of the total variation. Cluster analysis, based on traits under study, grouped the genotypes into two groups. The first group consisted of seven and the second on of five genotypes.

  1. Physiological and antioxidant response of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings to fluoroquinolone antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Luqman; Mahmood, Tariq; Coyne, Mark S; Khalid, Azeem; Rashid, Audil; Hayat, Malik Tahir; Gulzar, Asim; Amjad, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    Combinations of antibiotics occur in terrestrial environments due to excessive prescription, consumption, and disposal and have adverse effects, including crop toxicity. We examined short-term (20-d) toxicity of the fluoroquinolone antibiotics ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, and their mixture in a germination and a greenhouse sand culture study with wheat. We tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in toxicity by examining stress products and antioxidants involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS) during stress. Germination was unaffected by any antibiotic concentration or mixture used. The highest antibiotic concentrations, 100 and 300 mg L -1 , significantly decreased wheat growth. In 20 days exposure the maximum malondialdehyde production (2.45 μmol g -1 fresh weight), total phenols (16.40 mg g -1 of extract), and total antioxidant capacity (17.74 mg of Vitamin C g -1 of extract) and maximum activities of superoxide dismutase (7.99 units mg -1 protein min -1 ) and ascorbate peroxidase (0.69 μmol ascorbate mg -1 protein min -1 ) significantly increased compared to the control. In contrast, catalase (0.45 mmol H 2 O 2 mg -1 protein min -1 ) and peroxidase (0.0005 units mg -1 protein min -1 ) activity significantly decreased compared to the control. We conclude that high antibiotic concentrations in the plant growth medium reduced wheat growth by causing oxidative stress. The capacity to respond to oxidative stress was compromised by increasingly higher antibiotic concentrations in some enzyme systems. This stress damaged the physiological structure of the young plants and could reduce crop productivity in the long term. Consequently, fluoroquinolone-contaminated water challenges developing countries with constraints on available water for irrigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality of bread made from ozonated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Harkanwal P S; Manthey, Frank A; Simsek, Senay

    2011-07-01

    Ozone gas could be used as a fumigant during grain and flour storage. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of exposure to ozone and the effects of blending ozone-treated flour with control flour on flour functionality and bread-making quality. Ozone treatment oxidized lipids, increased brightness and reduced the yellow hue of flour, and increased peak viscosity and setback viscosity of flour. Bread made from flour treated with ozone at 1500 mg kg(-1) for 4.5 min and bread made from flour blended with 100 g kg(-1) ozonated flour had good crust color and a whiter crumb and had more crumb cells, which resulted in a greater specific volume of the bread when compared with control flour. Flour functionality declined as ozone exposure increased beyond 9 min and as the concentration of ozonated flour increased beyond 200 g kg(-1) . Bread made from flour exposed to ozone for 4.5 min or flour that contained 100 g kg(-1) fully ozonated flour had greater specific loaf volume and whiter crumb compared to bread made with control flour. Exposure of flour to ozone for longer times (9-45 min) and higher blends (200-1000 g kg(-1) ) deteriorated quality of bread. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. A chromosome-based draft sequence of the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, K. F. X.; Rogers, J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Pozniak, C.; Feuillet, C.; Lukaszewski, A.J.; Sourdille, P.; Kubaláková, Marie; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Dubská, Zdeňka; Vrána, Jan; Šperková, Romana; Šimková, Hana; Choulet, F.; Stein, N.; Praud, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 345, č. 6194 (2014) ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/2554; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : GENE-EXPRESSION * POLYPLOID WHEAT * AEGILOPS-TAUSCHII Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 33.611, year: 2014 http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=000339400700040

  4. Sequence-Based Analysis of Translocations and Inversions in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ma, J.; Stiller, J.; Berkman, P.J.; Wei, Y.M.; Rogers, J.; Feuillet, C.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Mayer, K. F.; Eversole, K.; Zheng, Y.L.; Liu, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2013) E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATIONS * HOMOEOLOGOUS GROUP-4 * EVOLUTION Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  5. Effects of moulds on the safety and processing quality of Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarić Marija D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat and wheat products are frequently subjected to mould infestations. Many of them are potential producers of various mycotoxins. Some of the consequences, due to the infestations by genus Fusarium and Alternaria, are mostly: yield loss, decrease of biological and technological quality, and unacceptable quality of infected kernels for the production and processing into human food because of the possible presence of mycotoxins. It is unknown whether and how the contaminated grains are distributed during milling into various flour streams and finished products. Wholegrain flours and related products contain all anatomic parts of kernels, including mycotoxins. It is a known fact that mycotoxins are resistant to thermal degradation, so they do not loose their toxicity during processing. Moulds from genus Fusarium spp. and Alternaria spp. synthesize mycotoxins, mostly zearalenon and ochratoxin A. The aim of the investigation was to examine mould contamination of wheat grain, as well as to identify the isolated species, especially those capable of producing toxins, and to determine their impact on technological quality, safety and sanitary condition of wheat. Six varieties of wheat, contaminated with moulds, were investigated. Each sample was separated manually into four fractions: sound kernels, black germ kernels, kernels infected slightly and those infected severely with Fusarium spp.

  6. First report of Fusarium redolens causing crown rot of wheat (Triticum spp.) in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium crown rot, caused by a complex of Fusarium spp., is a yield-limiting disease of wheat world-wide, especially in dry Mediterranean climates. In order to identify Fusarium species associated with crown rot of wheat, a survey was conducted in summer 2013 in the major wheat growing regions of T...

  7. Ecological and Geographical Selection of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. А. Уразалієв

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the lead long-term selection works wint involving a World' s collection and intertype and intertype hybridization with purposeful selection on economic-biological attributes highly productive • grades of a winter wheat, with stability to various kinds of illnesses and high technological qualities of grain have been allocated. The adapted grades of a winter wheat for a various environment of various zones of the countries of the Central Asia that allows to realize potential opportunities of grades in different environments of cultivation and by that to prevent losses of a crop from biotic and abiotic stresses that allows to stabilize productivity and adaptability of culture in a zon winter husbandry are created. The long-term field experiences lead by us and laboratory analyses on a level of productivity, qualities of grain and stability to stresses allows to conclude, that alongside with a genotype, stabilityenvironmental conditions render strong and significant influence on all complex of selection attributes.

  8. Resistance of Select Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Cultivars to Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvin, John; Whitworth, R Jeff; Rojas, Lina Maria Aguirre; Smith, C Michael

    2017-08-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) is a global pest of wheat and vectors some of the most damaging strains of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). In years of heavy R. padi infestation, R. padi and BYDV together reduce wheat yields by 30-40% in Kansas and other states of the U.S. Great Plains wheat production area. Cultivation of wheat cultivars resistant to R. padi can greatly reduce production costs and mitigate R. padi-BYDV yield losses, and increase producer profits. This study identified cultivars of hard red and soft white winter wheat with R. padi resistance that suppress R. padi populations or tolerate the effects of R. padi feeding damage. 'Pioneer (S) 25R40,' 'MFA (S) 2248,' 'Pioneer (S) 25R77,' and 'Limagrain LCS Mint' significantly reduced R. padi populations. MFA (S) 2248, Pioneer (S) 25R40, and 'Limagrain LS Wizard' exhibited tolerance expressed as significantly greater aboveground biomass. These findings are significant in that they have identified wheat cultivars currently available to producers, enabling the immediate improvement of tactics to manage R. padi and BYDV in heavily infested areas. Secondarily, these results identify cultivars that are good candidates for use in breeding and genetic analyses of arthropod resistance genes in wheat. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Mutagenic Effects of Some Chemical Agents in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Water soaked wheat cv. NW 1014 seeds were treated with aqueous solutions (1 per cent) of 6 chemicals, namely, acid slurry, sodium carbonate, tri-sodium phosphate, sodium tri-polyphosphate, carboxy methylcellulose and sodium sulphate for 22h. Out of these chemicals, tri-sodium phosphate and carboxy methylcellulose recorded the highest mutation frequency (1.15 per cent), followed by sodium sulphate (1.00 per cent), sodium carbonate (0.85 per cent), sodium tri-poly phosphate (0.65 per cent) and acid slurry (0.0 per cent) in the M 2 generation. The highest number of mutants was observed for late heading (47), followed by dwarf stature (36), white spike (7) and high tillering (6) in the M 2 generation. On the basis of the number of high yielding mutants (M 5 ), the mutagenic efficiency of sodium carbonate may be placed at the top rank, followed by sodium sulphate, tri-sodium phosphate, sodium tri-poly phosphate and carboxy methyl cellulose. One type of macro mutant (white spiked) was induced by tri-sodium phosphate whereas sodium carbonate generated 3 types of macro-mutants (large flag leaf, club shape spike and small grain ). The studies reveal that all the chemicals, except acid slurry, may be used as mutagenic agents in wheat. (author)

  10. First report of wheat blast caused by magnaporthe oryzae pathotype triticum in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat blast or ‘brusone’, caused by the ascomycetous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae B.C. Couch (synonym Pyricularia oryzae Cavara), was first identified in 1985 in Brazil. M. oryzae is composed of a range of morphologically identical but genetically different host-specific pathotypes that are specialized...

  11. Novel nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction in wheat (Triticum aestivum) induces vigorous plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interspecific hybridization can be considered an accelerator of evolution, otherwise a slow process, solely dependent on mutation and recombination. Upon interspecific hybridization, several novel interactions between nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes emerge which provide additional sources of diversi...

  12. Development of chromosome-arm-specific microsatellite markers in Triticum aestivum (Poaceae) using NGS technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nie, X.; Li, B.; Wang, L.; Liu, P.; Biradar, S. S.; Li, T.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Edwards, D.; Luo, M.; Weining, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 9 (2012), e369-e371 ISSN 0002-9122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : chromosome-arm-specific DNA * flow-sorted chromosomes * next-generation sequencing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.586, year: 2012

  13. Genetics and mapping of a new leaf rust resistance gene in Triticum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMIT KUMAR SINGH

    Selection G12 showed resistance at both seedling and adult plant stages. Genetic analysis in F1, F2 and F2:3 families at the seedling stage revealed that leaf rust resistance in Selection G12 is conditioned by a single incompletely dominant gene. The leaf rust resistance gene was mapped to chromosome 3BL with SSR ...

  14. Effect of processing on the amino acid profile of wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    - Nasser) was investigated. Traditional processing methods namely soaking and cooking were employed. The seed contained some essential amino acids: Lysine (2.08g/100g protain), threonine (2.99g/100g protein), valine (4.15g/100g ...

  15. Effect of different rates of nitrogen fertilizer on durum wheat (Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Asefa

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... The result showed that nitrogen rates and cultivars had significant effect on yield, yield related traits, nitrogen uptake ... cooking quality [8]. Durum wheat grain protein functionality can be influenced by N fertilization, particularly in the varieties of relatively with less gluten strength [9]. Information on the quality ...

  16. Characterization of new allele influencing flowering time in bread wheat introgressed from Triticum militinae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ivaničová, Zuzana; Jakobson, I.; Reis, D.; Šafář, Jan; Milec, Zbyněk; Abrouk, Michael; Doležel, Jaroslav; Jarve, K.; Valárik, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 5 (2016), s. 718-727 ISSN 1871-6784 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07164S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : GENE-EXPRESSION * HEXAPLOID WHEAT * LIGHT QUALITY Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.813, year: 2016

  17. Mutation breeding on dueruem wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Cereals provide 50 % of protein and calorie essential for nutrition. Cereals contribution to total daily food consumption can go up to 3/4, if their role in animal feeding has also been considered. Of the 41 % of crop plants are cereals and their share in food production is as high as 98 %. Combination of high yielding cultivars and adequate management techniques is primary to increase yield in unit area. Crossing is the most common breeding method to develop new cultivars. Mutation has been important as a direct or complemental technique to crossing in plant breeding. Mutation is an effective method to expand existent gene pools for breeding purposes. It has been proved as a successful and effectual method by widely grown mutant cereal varieties. Considering these successful examples, Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center started a durum wheat mutation breeding program in 2002. Main goal of the program is to develop durum wheat lines/varieties with high adaptation to drought and cold, high yield and quality, and short length. Kunduru 1149 has been used as parent cultivar. Kunduru 1149 had 11 % seed moisture content and 98 % germination rate. Seeds were irradiated with 50, 150, 250 Gy of gamma rays from a 6 0Co source and 0,002-0,004 EMS doses of individual and bulk applications for growth rooms and field experiments, respectfully. M1 plants of field experiment had been transplanted to the several field days after the treatment. M2 generation seeds were harvested from fertile spikes of M1 plants and planted to field in the next growing season in 2003. Selections based on the program goals were made throughout M3-M6 generations in 2004-2008. Preliminary field yield trials have been in progress with selected mutant lines of M6 generation based on their quality analysis.

  18. In situ assessment of morpho-physiological response of wheat (triticum aestivum L.) genotypes to drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raziuddin; Faratullah; Ullah, N.; Hassan, G.; Swati, Z.A.; Bakht, J.; Shafi, M.; Akmal, M.

    2010-01-01

    In situ studies were conducted to assess the morpho-physiological responses of wheat genotypes to PEG-induced water stress. Wheat genotypes were raised in hydroponic cultures where plants were nourished with half strength Hoagland solution. Plants were exposed to 00, 10, 20, 30 and 40% PEG-6000 at 4-leaf stage. PEG was applied in split doses at the rate of 10% with an interval of 15 days. Significant differences (p=0.05) were recorded for all the parameters studied due to genotypes and PEG concentrations. Wheat genotypes showed negative but variable response to PEG concentrations for shoot length, root length, root/ shoot ratio and root mass whereas PEG imposed stress had positive impact on proline content and abscisic acid (ABA). Genotype Khattakwal attained maximum shoot length in PEG induced stress. Maximum root/shoot ratio and root mass was recorded in Ghaznavi-98 while Tatara and Khattakwal attained maximum relative water content. Endogenous proline and ABA content increased up to 10 fold in response to 40% PEG. Maximum proline was accumulated by Khattakwal whereas maximum ABA by ICP-3. (author)

  19. Karakterisasi Morfologi dan Sifat Kuantitatif Gandum (Triticum aestivum L. di Dataran Menengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartika Widowati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIndonesia is one of the largest wheat importers. Suitable environmental condition for wheat needs to be studied if wheat is going to be widely cultivated in Indonesia. The adaptability of wheat grown in various climates and altitudes is one of the important aspects. The objective of this experiment was to study the quantitative and morphological character of wheat grown in middle land (540 m asl in Bogor, West Java. The experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications. Wheat genotypes used were three national varieties (Nias, Selayar, and Dewata, four new improved varieties (Guri 3 Agritan, Guri 4 Agritan, Guri 5 Agritan, and Guri 6 Unand, and one introduced genotype (SBD. Data were collected for several quantitative variables and seventeen morphological characters based on UPOV descriptor. The result showed that wheat growth was restricted in Bogor. Genotype determined plant height, leaf number, ear length, root length, number of spikelet, harvest time, seed weight, number of tillers, and plant biomass. Based on ear length, grain weight, and plant biomass, Guri 3 Agritan had the highest production than the other genotypes.Keywords: diversity, genetic relationship, high temperature, introduced genotype, phylogenetic

  20. Growth and DNA Methylation Level of Triticum Aestivum Seedlings Treated with 5-Azacytidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yingduan, H.; Liu, W. X.; Li, J. Y.; Ding, W. K.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, H.; Jiang, L. N. A.; Zhou, Y. Q.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two wheat varieties were used to study effects of DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine on wheat seedling growth, and found that the high concentration of 5-azacytidine (over 100 meu m) significantly affected growth of wheat seedling root, especially for wheat AK58. When the concentration of 5-azacytidine was between 50 to 250 meu m, plant height of wheat AK58 significantly reduced, and the minimum dwarf phenotype was obtained when treated by 250 meu m 5-azacytidine. Different with wheat AK58, plant height of wheat XM13 increased after being treated by 5-azacytidine. In addition, leaf area and chlorophyll content of two wheat varieties both increased under low concentration of 5-azacytidine (10-50 meu m), and the increase magnitude of wheat AK58 was far more compared with wheat XM13, indicating that moderate methylation could promote development of wheat leaf and photosynthesis, and photosynthesis of wheat AK58 might be closely related with methylation status of genomic DNA. This study also found that proline content of wheat AK58 and soluble sugar content of two wheat varieties increased after being treated by 5-azacytidine, and showed a concentration-dependent increase, further more, soluble sugar content of wheat AK58 was far higher than that of wheat XM13 under normal conditions, thus 5-azacytidine might be conducive to accumulation of soluble sugar in wheat and could obviously influence osmotic adjustment ability of wheat AK58. Further analysis showed that DNA methylation level of wheat AK58 was higher compared with wheat XM13, and was both lower in leaf genomic DNA of two wheat varieties than that in root genomic DNA. Although 5-azacytidine significantly reduced DNA methylation level of leaf and root genome, the decrease amplitude of leaf was more obvious. Collectively, these results suggest that there are some differences in seedling growth, physiological characteristics and DNA methylation level of two wheat varieties, furthermore, DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine could influence growth of wheat seedling, especially for wheat AK58. (author)

  1. Exogenous application of ascorbic acid stimulates growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Malik and Muhammad Ashraf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought causes considerable reduction in plant growth. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to appraise the potential role of exogenously applied ascorbic acid in alleviating the effect of drought on wheat. Two contrasting wheat genotypes, a drought tolerant cultivar Chakwal-86 and a drought sensitive strain 6544-6 were used in the study. Drought was induced by dissolving 20% Polyethylene glycol (PEG8000 in the nutrient solution producing -0.6MPa osmotic stress. Drought caused a significant decrease in chlorophyll pigments and net photosynthesis resulting in growth reduction of both wheat genotypes. However, this decrease was more severe in the genotype 6544-6 compared to Chakwal-86. Ascorbic acid (AsA was applied through rooting medium, as a foliar spray and seed soaking treatment. Ascorbic acid treated seedlings of both genotypes maintained higher chlorophyll contents, net photosynthesis and growth compared to the non-treated plants. Of the three different modes of ascorbic acid application, rooting medium was more effective in alleviating the adversities of drought in wheat. `

  2. Effect of Sulphur Fertilization on Grain Quality and Protein Composition of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Pompa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of atmosphere emission of SO2 and the massive use of fertilizers high in nitrogen and phosphorus resulted in a decrease of the sulphur content in the soil. In durum wheat cultivation, sulphur supply plays a key role not only for plant growth, but also for grain quality. Sulphur is an essential macronutrient primarily used to synthesize methionine and cysteine and it is also involved in establishing protein structures by disulphide bonds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sulphur nutrition on grain quality and protein composition of durum wheat cultivars grown under water deficit conditions, typical of Mediterranean areas. To this purpose, in the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 crop seasons a field trial was carried out by comparing two water regimes (irrigated and rainfed, two sulphur fertilizer levels and two durum wheat cultivars. Under our experimental conditions, an increase in protein and gluten content in the rainfed treatment and a positive effect of sulphur fertilization on quality parameters were observed. Few changes were observed in protein composition in response to sulphur fertilization.

  3. Genetics and mapping of a new leaf rust resistance gene in Triticum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMIT KUMAR SINGH

    friendly method. Wild relatives of wheat are reservoir of useful genes, including genes for rust resis- tance. To date, 74 leaf rust resistance genes have been des- ignated and about half of them have originated from various closely or distantly related ...

  4. The in silico identification and characterization of a bread wheat/Triticum militinae introgression line

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abrouk, Michael; Balcárková, Barbora; Šimková, Hana; Komínková, Eva; Martis, M.M.; Jakobson, I.; Timofejeva, L.; Rey, Elodie; Vrána, Jan; Kilian, A.; Jarve, K.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Valárik, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2017), s. 249-256 ISSN 1467-7644 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07164S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : crop improvement * powdery mildew * common wheat * chromosomes * genome * resistance * plant * recombination * evolution * barley * GenomeZipper * alien introgression * comparative analysis * chromosome rearrangement * chromosome translocation * linkage drag Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 7.443, year: 2016

  5. Application of glycerol for induced powdery mildew resistance in Triticum aestivum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has demonstrated that glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P and oleic acid (18:1 are two important signal molecules associated with plant resistance to fungi. In this article, we provide evidence that a 3% glycerol spray application 1-2 days before powdery mildew infection and subsequent applications once every 4 days was sufficient to stimulate the plant defense responses without causing any significant damage to wheat leaves. We found that G3P and oleic acid levels were markedly induced by powdery mildew infection. In addition, TaGLI1 (encoding a glycerol kinase and TaSSI2 (encoding a stearoylacyl carrier protein fatty acid desaturase, two genes associated with the glycerol and fatty acid (FA pathways, respectively, were induced by powdery mildew infection, and their promoter regions contain some fungal response elements. Moreover, exogenous application of glycerol increased the G3P level and decreased the level of oleic acid (18:1. Glycerol application induced the expression of pathogenesis-related (PR genes (TaPR-1, TaPR-2, TaPR-3, TaPR-4, and TaPR-5, induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS before powdery mildew infection, and induced salicylic acid (SA accumulation in wheat leaves. Further, we sprayed glycerol in a wheat field and found that it significantly (p value<0.05 reduced the severity of powdery mildew disease and lessened disease-associated kernel weight loss, all without causing any noticeable degradation in wheat seed quality.

  6. Lignin biosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): its response to waterlogging and association with hormonal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tran-Nguyen; Son, SeungHyun; Jordan, Mark C; Levin, David B; Ayele, Belay T

    2016-01-25

    Lignin is an important structural component of plant cell wall that confers mechanical strength and tolerance against biotic and abiotic stressors; however it affects the use of biomass such as wheat straw for some industrial applications such as biofuel production. Genetic alteration of lignin quantity and quality has been considered as a viable option to overcome this problem. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying lignin formation in wheat biomass has not been studied. Combining molecular and biochemical approaches, the present study investigated the transcriptional regulation of lignin biosynthesis in two wheat cultivars with varying lodging characteristics and also in response to waterlogging. It also examined the association of lignin level in tissues with that of plant hormones implicated in the control of lignin biosynthesis. Analysis of lignin biosynthesis in the two wheat cultivars revealed a close association of lodging resistance with internode lignin content and expression of 4-coumarate:CoA ligase1 (4CL1), p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase1 (C3H1), cinnamoyl-CoA reductase2 (CCR2), ferulate 5-hydroxylase2 (F5H2) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase2 (COMT2), which are among the genes highly expressed in wheat tissues, implying the importance of these genes in mediating lignin deposition in wheat stem. Waterlogging of wheat plants reduced internode lignin content, and this effect is accompanied by transcriptional repression of three of the genes characterized as highly expressed in wheat internode including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase6 (PAL6), CCR2 and F5H2, and decreased activity of PAL. Expression of the other genes was, however, induced by waterlogging, suggesting their role in the synthesis of other phenylpropanoid-derived molecules with roles in stress responses. Moreover, difference in internode lignin content between cultivars or change in its level due to waterlogging is associated with the level of cytokinin. Lodging resistance, tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses and feedstock quality of wheat biomass are closely associated with its lignin content. Therefore, the findings of this study provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying lignin formation in wheat, an important step towards the development of molecular tools that can facilitate the breeding of wheat cultivars for optimized lignin content and enhanced feedstock quality without affecting other lignin-related agronomic benefits.

  7. Toxicity of sulfadiazine and copper and their interaction to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonggang; Yu, Wantai; Ma, Qiang; Zhou, Hua; Jiang, Chunming

    2017-08-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the single and combined effect of different concentrations of sulfadiazine (SDZ) (1 and 10mgkg -1 ) and copper (Cu) (20 and 200mgkg -1 ) stresses on growth, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidant enzyme activities of wheat seedlings and their accumulation. High SDZ or Cu level significantly inhibited the growth of wheat seedlings, but the emergence rate was only inhibited by high SDZ level. The presence of Cu reduced the accumulation of SDZ, whereas the effect of SDZ on the accumulation of Cu depended on their concentrations. Low Cu level significantly increased the chlorophyll content, while high Cu level or both SDZ concentrations resulted in a significant decrease in the chlorophyll content as compared to the control. Additionally, H 2 O 2 and MDA contents increased with the elevated SDZ or Cu level. The activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase were also stimulated by SDZ or Cu except for the aerial part treated by low Cu level and root treated by high SDZ level. The joint toxicity data showed that the toxicity of SDZ to wheat seedlings was generally alleviated by the presence of Cu, whereas the combined toxicity of SDZ and Cu was larger than equivalent Cu alone. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. SUPLEMENTASI STEROL LEMBAGA GANDUM (Triticum sp. PADA MARGARIN (Supplementation of Margarine with Wheat Germ Sterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Anna Marliyati1*

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Margarine is a water in oil (w/o emulsion product which is widely used for household cooking and baking industry. Consuming of margarine, which contains trans fatty acid may cause health problem due to the increase of LDL cholesterol. Since margarine is also a good carrier of phytosterol which prevent the absorption of cholesterol, there is a possibility to formulate a healthier margarine. In this research formulation and characteristics of products was investigated. The research work consisted of two steps: (1 supplementation of wheat germ sterol into margarine (two methods and (2 analysis of physical, chemical characteristics and hedonic score. Parameters of physical characteristics were melting point and emulsion stability, whereas chemical characteristics were water and oil contents. The hedonic test was carried out based on product’s color, odor, taste, texture, and spreadability. Results showed that method II of supplementation produced better margarine than method I, in which the concentration of sterol in the margarine was higher with a melting point similar to that of control, better emulsion stability, and higher hedonic score. Supplementation process was carried out by mixing sterol into fat phase melted at 50 0C, followed by mixing with aqueous phase at 4 0C. Sterol used for method II was extracted using mixed solvent of hexane and ethanol at the ratio of 1:2 (v/v, which was resulted from previous experimentation.

  9. Genetics and mapping of a new leaf rust resistance gene in Triticum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic analysis in F1, F2 and F2.3 families at the seedling stage revealed that leaf rust resistance in Selection G12 is conditioned by a single incompletely dominant gene. The leaf rust resistance gene was mapped to chromosome 3BL with SSR markers Xgwm114 and Xgwm547 flanking the gene at a distance of 28.3 cM ...

  10. Mutation breeding for durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum Desf.) improvement in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.T.; D'Amato, F.; Avanzi, S.

    1993-01-01

    In view of the economic importance of durum wheat in Italy and in the Mediterranean and Near East Region much effort was devoted to its genetic improvement. Lodging susceptibility and straw weakness, particularly under high fertilizer level, were the main reasons of substantially lower yields compared to bread wheat. An experimental mutagenesis programme was started in Italy in 1956 by F. D'Amato and G.T. Scarascia. It included both fundamental genetic studies and applied mutation breeding. Remarkable results were obtained at the 'Laboratorio Applicazioni in Agricoltura', Casaccia Nuclear Research Center, Roma, Italy, in radiobiology, radiogenetics, cytology and cytogenetics, genetics and breeding. Selection among some 1,000 induced mutants and hybridization led to 11 registered mutant varieties, six by the direct use of selected mutants and the remaining from cross-breeding. The economic benefits derived from the developed mutant cultivars are substantial. Mutant varieties have a great impact on durum wheat production, both in Italy and other countries like Bulgaria or Austria where Italian mutants have been used successfully in cross-breeding. (author)

  11. Genetic architecture of seed longevity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Mian Abdur Rehman; Nagel, Manuela; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Borner, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The deterioration in the quality of ex situ conserved seed over time reflects a combination of both physical and chemical changes. Intraspecific variation for longevity is, at least in part, under genetic control. Here, the grain of 183 bread wheat accessions maintained under low-temperature storage at the IPK-Gatersleben genebank over some decades have been tested for their viability, along with that of fresh grain subjected to two standard artificial ageing procedures. A phenotype-genotype association analysis, conducted to reveal the genetic basis of the observed variation between accessions, implicated many regions of the genome, underling the genetic complexity of the trait. Some, but not all, of these regions were associated with variation for both natural and experimental ageing, implying some non-congruency obtains between these two forms of testing for longevity. The genes underlying longevity appear to be independent of known genes determining dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting.

  12. Thermal, pasting and morphological properties of starch granules of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Khatkar, B S

    2017-07-01

    Large (A) and small (B) granules of wheat starch were separated and their morphological, thermal, structural and pasting properties were investigated. The pasting properties of starches from two wheat varieties showed significant differences. For wheat variety C-306, the unfractionated starch showed higher peak, trough, breakdown, final, and setback viscosities than the starch isolated from wheat variety WH-147. On the contrary, unfractionated starch of variety WH-147 has higher pasting temperature than the starch of the variety C-306. Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that unfractionated starch exhibited the higher gelatinization enthalpy, peak and conclusion temperatures than the isolated A- and B-starch granules from both the varieties. Scanning electron microscopy results revealed that large A-granules appeared to be smooth and displayed disk or lenticular shape having diameter 13-35 μm, while B-granules showed a spherical shape with diameter of 2-6 μm. The variations in structures and content would result in starch granules with different chemical and physical properties.

  13. Different site-specific N-glycan types in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) PAP phytase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Welinder, Karen Gjesing

    2011-01-01

    Phytase activity in grain is essential to make phosphate available to cell metabolism, and in food and feed. Cereals contain the purple acid phosphatase type of phytases (PAPhy). Mature wheat grain is dominated by TaPAPhy_a which, in the present work, has been characterized by extensive peptide...... sites the glycan consisted of a single GlcNAc residue. The mature protein is ca. 500 residues in size and appears to be truncated at the N- and C-termini....

  14. Effect of Boron Toxicity on Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çatav, Şükrü Serter; Genç, Tuncer Okan; Kesik Oktay, Müjgan; Küçükakyüz, Köksal

    2018-02-12

    Boron (B) toxicity, which occurs in semi-arid and arid environments, can adversely affect the growth and yield of many plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different concentrations of boric acid (3, 6, 9 and 12 mM) on growth, oxidative stress and genotoxicity parameters in root and shoot tissues of wheat seedlings. Our results indicate that B stress inhibits root and shoot growth of wheat in a concentration-dependent manner, and leads to increases in TBARS and H 2 O 2 contents in shoot tissue. Moreover, our findings suggest that high concentrations of B may exert a genotoxic effect on wheat. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to evaluate the effect of B stress on genotoxicity in both root and shoot tissues of wheat.

  15. Influence of Potassium and Boron on Some Traits in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum Cv. Darab2)

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Zare; Masoud Zadehbagheri; Arash Azarpanah

    2013-01-01

    The boron element is unique among the essential elements in that a narrow range in concentration can mean the difference between plant deficiency and plant toxicity. Effect of potassium on boron toxicity reduction in wheat was evaluated at Agriculture Research Station located in Jahrom, Iran, during 2009. An experiment was conducted in a factorial experiment based on Completely Randomized Design (CRD) in three replications. The treatments were four levels of B (0, 20, 40 and 60 mg) and four l...

  16. In-situ atrazine biodegradation dynamics in wheat (Triticum) crops under variable hydrologic regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Cecilia, Daniele; Maggi, Federico

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive biodegradation reaction network of atrazine (ATZ) and its 18 byproducts was coupled to the nitrogen cycle and integrated in a computational solver to assess the in-situ biodegradation effectiveness and leaching along a 5m deep soil cultivated with wheat in West Wyalong, New South Wales, Australia. Biodegradation removed 97.7% of 2kg/ha ATZ yearly applications in the root zone, but removal substantially decreased at increasing depths; dechlorination removed 79% of ATZ in aerobic conditions and 18% in anaerobic conditions, whereas deethylation and oxidation removed only 0.11% and 0.15% of ATZ, respectively. The residual Cl mass fraction in ATZ and 4 byproducts was 2.4% of the applied mass. ATZ half-life ranged from 150 to 247days in the soil surface. ATZ reached 5m soil depth within 200years and its concentration increased from 1×10 -6 to 4×10 -6 mg/kg dry-soil over time. The correlation between ATZ specific biomass degradation affinity Φ 0 and half-life t 1/2 , although relatively uncertain for both hydrolyzing and oxidizing bacteria, suggested that microorganisms with high Φ 0 led to low ATZ t 1/2 . Greater ATZ applications were balanced by small nonlinear increments of ATZ biodegraded fraction within the root zone and therefore less ATZ leached into the shallow aquifer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A positive allelopathic effect of corn cockle, agrostemma githago, on wheat, triticum aestivum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, B.; Doll, H.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of com cockle on wheat was studied during germination and on adult plants in a growth chamber. Seedling length of wheat germinated together with corn cockle for 5 days increased 13%. Wheat growing together with corn cockle in pots to maturity had a statistically significant higher wheat...... biomass and grain production than wheat growing alone. However, two other experiments with adult plants harvested before wheat maturity showed no effect of corn cockle on wheat production per pot. Within the pots the presence of corn cockle influenced wheat in all three experiments. Wheat plants growing...... at the same position as a corn cockle plant were 20 to 50% larger than wheat plants standing alone....

  18. Molecular organization and comparative analysis of chromosome 5B of the wild wheat ancestor Triticum dicoccoides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akpinar, B.A.; Yuce, M.; Lucas, S.; Vrána, Jan; Burešová, Veronika; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, JUN 18 (2015) ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : TURGIDUM VAR . DICOCCOIDES * MARKER DEVELOPMENT * GENOME SEQUENCE Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015

  19. Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Benzoxazinoid Glycosides from Rhizopus-Elicited Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Wouter J C; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Duran, Katharina; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-08-17

    Benzoxazinoids function as defense compounds and have been suggested to possess health-promoting effects. In this work, the mass spectrometric behavior of benzoxazinoids from the classes benzoxazin-3-ones (with subclasses lactams, hydroxamic acids, and methyl derivatives) and benzoxazolinones was studied. Wheat seeds were germinated with simultaneous elicitation by Rhizopus. The seedling extract was screened for the presence of benzoxazinoid (glycosides) using reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection coupled in line to multiple-stage mass spectrometry (RP-UHPLC-PDA-MS(n)). Benzoxazin-3-ones from the different subclasses showed distinctly different ionization and fragmentation behaviors. These features were incorporated into a newly proposed decision guideline to aid the classification of benzoxazinoids. Glycosides of the methyl derivative 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one were tentatively identified for the first time in wheat. We conclude that wheat seedlings germinated with simultaneous fungal elicitation contain a diverse array of benzoxazinoids, mainly constituted by benzoxazin-3-one glycosides.

  20. Use of intergeneric cross for production of doubled haploid wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Shaukat, S.; Kashif, M.; Khan, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of conventional breeding or hybridisation is to bring about homozygosity, for which 6 to 7 years may be required. Wheat and maize crosses have proved to be more efficient in DH lines production than anther culture methods, because of its lower genetic specificity. Doubled haploid technique facilitates the development of homozygous plants within one generation. The system is developed through haploid production, followed by chromosome doubling, to produce homozygous plants in a single generation. For doubled haploid production method wheat and maize crossing system is better than anther culture and ovule culture because maize pollens are highly responsive and produce stable progeny population. Wheat is being used as female parent and maize as a male parent for the production of doubled haploid. Moreover, Silver Nitrate (AgNO/sub 3/) in tiller culture media can improve the frequency of haploid embryo production in this crossing system. Our result showed that DH production through wheat and maize crossing system was proved to be time saving (2 years) as compared to other conventional breeding methods (6 years). (author)

  1. High lysine and high yielding mutants in wheat (Triticum aestivum) L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, T.; Mahmood, F.; Ahmad, A.; Sattar, A.; Khan, I.

    1988-01-01

    The dry seeds of the variety Lu-26 were irradiated with 20 krad of gamma rays. In M 2 about 300 mutant plants were selected for short stature, rust resistance and other desirable traits. As a result of further selection, in M 6 , eight superior lines were finally identified. The agronomic characteristics of these mutants, the parent variety (Lu-26) and a standard check variety (Pak-81) are shown. The selected mutants and commercially grown cultivars (Lu-26 and Pak-81) were studied for total protein content and amino acid pattern. The mutants WM-89-1, WM-6-17 and WM-81-2 showing high yield also contained comparatively high amounts of methionine and lysine. The lysine contents were 565, 410, and 370 mg/100g in the mutants WM-89-1, WM-6-17 and WM-81-2, respectively against a range value of 210-370 mg/100g in other mutants and 250-320 in the commercial cultivars. The mutant WM-81-2 was comparable to WM-56-1-5 in lysine content. The results of these experiments show a possibility of developing varieties having high yield and high amounts of essential amino acids such as lysine and methionine

  2. Rust resistance evaluation of advanced wheat (triticum aestivum l.) genotypes using pcr-based dna markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.U.; Younis, M.; Iqbal, M.Z.; Nawaz, M.

    2014-01-01

    The most effective and environmental friendly approach for the control of wheat rust disease is the use of resistant genotypes. The present study was conducted to explore rust resistance potential of 85 elite wheat genotypes (36 varieties and 49 advanced lines) using various types of DNA markers like STS, SCAR and SSR. DNA markers linked with different genes conferring resistance to rusts (Leaf rust=Lr, Yellow rust=Yr and Stem rust=Sr) were employed in this study. A total of 18 genes, consisting of eleven Lr (lr1, lr10, lr19, lr21, lr28, lr34, lr39, lr46, lr47, lr51 and lr52), four Yr (yr5, yr18, yr26 and yr29) and three Sr genes (sr2, sr29, and sr36) were studied through linked DNA markers. Maximum number of Lr genes was found in 17 advanced lines and 9 varieties, Yr genes in 26 advanced lines and 20 wheat varieties, and Sr genes in 43 advanced lines and 27 varieties. Minimum number of Lr genes was found in advanced line D-97 and variety Kohinoor-83, Yr genes in wheat variety Bwp-97 and Sr genes in 6 advanced lines and 8 varieties. Molecular data revealed that genotypes having same origin, from a specified area showed resistance for similar type of genes. In this study, an average similarity of 84% was recorded among wheat genotypes. Out of 18 loci, 15 were found to be polymorphic. (author)

  3. Productivity and quality of a grain wheat durum spring (Triticum durum Dest. in depending on fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. В. Бараболя

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available It was studied the impact of mineral fertilizers on productivity and grain quality of wheat durum spring. Glassiness of grain, protein and gluten contain increase along with increase of doses of nitrogenous fertilizer. Maximum grain productivity was achieved by mineral fertilizers in combination on autumn fallow N60P60K60. after pea - N90P60K60

  4. VARIABILITY OF NUMBER OF KERNELS PER SPIKE IN WHEAT CULTIVARS (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desimir KNEZEVIC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper was analyzed number of kernels per spike in 20 genetically divergent wheat cultivars originated from different breeding centers in Serbia. Investigation conducted during two seasons which characterized different climatic condition. For analysis used samples of 60 wheat plants (20 plants in 3 replications which were harvested in full maturity stage. The differences in average values for number of kernels per spike in studied cultivars were determined. The variability of number of kernels per spike was established. In average, number of kernels per spike for all cultivars was higher in second year 72.22 than in first experimental year 68.73. The highest number of kernels/spike in both year expressed Tanjugovka cultivar and the lowest Yugoslavia cultivar. Average value of coefficientvariation for all cultivars varied from 14.19 in first year to 12.92 in second year. Average number of kernels per spike for both year of growing, varied from 54.56 in cultivar Yugoslavia to 77.83 in cultivar Tanjugovka. Significant differences for number of kernels/spike were found among cultivars in both years as well between years. Heritability in wide sense for number of kernels/spike was 79.13%.

  5. Effects of five Glomus spp. (Zygomycetes) on growth and mineral nutrition of Triticum aestivum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Janusz Błaszkowski

    2014-01-01

    In a pot experiment conducted in a growth chamber. the influence of five species of arbuscular fungi (Glomales) on growth and mineral nutrition of winter wheat (Triricum aestivum) cv. Salwa was investigated. After nine weeks of growth, plants inoculated with Glomus calcdonium and G. mosseae were significantly higher than those from control pots and those with G. constrictum, G. deserticola and G. macrocarpum mycorrhizae. All fungi significantly increased root dry weights, although G. caledoni...

  6. Effects of five Glomus spp. (Zygomycetes on growth and mineral nutrition of Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Błaszkowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a pot experiment conducted in a growth chamber. the influence of five species of arbuscular fungi (Glomales on growth and mineral nutrition of winter wheat (Triricum aestivum cv. Salwa was investigated. After nine weeks of growth, plants inoculated with Glomus calcdonium and G. mosseae were significantly higher than those from control pots and those with G. constrictum, G. deserticola and G. macrocarpum mycorrhizae. All fungi significantly increased root dry weights, although G. caledonium was the most effective species. Except for G. constrictum, the other fungi significantly increased shoot dry weights of plants, with G.caledonium being the most effective species. G. caledonium, G. macrocarpum and G. mosseae significantly decreased root: shoot ratios. Inoculations significantly affected shoot and root N, P, K, Ca and Mg concentrations. Except for G. constrictum, all the other fungi significantly increased shoot N and Ca contents. Shoot P and K contents were significantly higher in plants harbouring only G. caledonium mycorrhizae. G. caledonium. G. deserticola and G. mosseae significantly increased shoot Mg contents. Except for G.constritum, the other fungi significantly enhanced root N and P contens. The fungi significantly increasing root K supplies were G. caledoniumum, G. macrocarpum , and G. mosseae. Root Ca contents was significantly increased only in G. constrictum treatment. Except for G. constrictum and G. mosseae, the other fungi significantly increased root Mg contents, with G. macrocarpum ranking the first. Shoot and root dry weights and shoot N and K as well as root N and P contents in T. aestivum were significantly correlated with mycorrhizal colonization.

  7. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes can enhance root elongation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuping; Han Heyou; Liu Xueqin; Gu Xiaoxu; Chen Kun; Lu Donglian

    2012-01-01

    The potential effects of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (o-MWCNTs) with a length ranging from 50 to 630 nm on the development and physiology of wheat plants were evaluated by examining their effects on seed germination, root elongation, stem length, and vegetative biomass at a concentration ranging from 10 to 160 μg/mL in the plant. Results indicated that after 7 days of exposure to the o-MWCNTs medium, faster root growth and higher vegetative biomass were observed, but seed germination and stem length did not show any difference as compared with controls. Moreover, a physiological study was conducted at cellular level using a traditional physiological approach to evidence the possible alterations in morphology, the cell length of root zone, and the dehydrogenase activity of seedlings. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that o-MWCNTs could penetrate the cell wall and enter the cytoplasm after being taken up by roots. The cell length of root zone for the seedlings germinated and grown in the o-MWCNTs (80 μg/mL) medium increased by 1.4-fold and a significant concentration-dependent increase in the dehydrogenase activity for the o-MWCNT-treated wheat seedlings was detected. These findings suggest that o-MWCNTs can significantly promote cell elongation in the root system and increase the dehydrogenase activity, resulting in faster root growth and higher biomass production.

  8. Zearalenone Uptake and Biotransformation in Micropropagated Triticum durum Desf. Plants: A Xenobolomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolli, Enrico; Righetti, Laura; Galaverna, Gianni; Suman, Michele; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Bruni, Renato

    2018-02-14

    A model was set up to elucidate the uptake, translocation, and metabolic fate of zearalenone (ZEN) in durum wheat. After treatment with ZEN, roots and shoots were profiled with LC-HRMS. A comprehensive description of in planta ZEN biotransformation and a biotechnological evaluation of the model were obtained. Up to 200 μg ZEN were removed by each plantlet after 14 days. Most ZEN and its masked forms were retained in roots, while minimal amounts were detected in leaves. Sixty-two chromatographic peaks were obtained, resulting in 7 putative phase I and 18 putative phase II metabolites. ZEN16Glc and ZEN14Glc were most abundant in roots, sulfo-conjugates and zearalenol derivatives were unable to gain systemic distribution, while distinct isomers of malonyl conjugates were found in leaves and roots. This study underlines the potential ZEN occurrence in plants without an ongoing Fusarium infection. Micropropagation may represent a tool to investigate the interplay between mycotoxins and wheat.

  9. Relationship between grain yield, osmotic adjustment and benzoxazinone content in Triticum aestivum L. cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Herman; Copaja, Sylvia V; Bravo, Héctor R; Argandoña, Victor H

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen wheat genotypes were grown under water deficit to ascertain the role of osmotic adjustment (OA) and the concentration of benzoxazinones in sustaining grain yield. A positive correlation between osmotic adjustment capacity and yield was observed in wheat genotypes cultivated under field conditions. The weight gain of plants exposed to drought was in agreement with the OA values (R(2) = 0.93). However, when wheat plants were infested by cereal aphids, this correlation was not found. The benzoxazinones 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxa-zin-3-one (DIBOA) and 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4 benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) are defensive secondary metabolites present in wheat and others cereals. The content of these compounds varied in wheat genotypes and increased with drought and aphid infestation. A positive correlation between weight gain of irrigated-infested plants and drought-infested plants and the contents of benzoxazinones was observed. These results suggest that plants with better OA capacity and high benzoxazinone content should have better field yields.

  10. Comparative metabolic responses and adaptive strategies of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to salt and alkali stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Yang, Zongze; Li, Feng; Yan, Changrong; Zhong, Xiuli; Liu, Qi; Xia, Xu; Li, Haoru; Zhao, Long

    2015-07-07

    It is well known that salinization (high-pH) has been considered as a major environmental threat to agricultural systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between salt stress and alkali stress in metabolic profiles and nutrient accumulation of wheat; these parameters were also evaluated to determine the physiological adaptive mechanisms by which wheat tolerates alkali stress. The harmful effect of alkali stress on the growth and photosynthesis of wheat were stronger than those of salt stress. High-pH of alkali stress induced the most of phosphate and metal ions to precipitate; as a result, the availability of nutrients significantly declined. Under alkali stress, Ca sharply increased in roots, however, it decreased under salt stress. In addition, we detected the 75 metabolites that were different among the treatments according to GC-MS analysis, including organic acids, amino acids, sugars/polyols and others. The metabolic data showed salt stress and alkali stress caused different metabolic shifts; alkali stress has a stronger injurious effect on the distribution and accumulation of metabolites than salt stress. These outcomes correspond to specific detrimental effects of a highly pH environment. Ca had a significant positive correlation with alkali tolerates, and increasing Ca concentration can immediately trigger SOS Na exclusion system and reduce the Na injury. Salt stress caused metabolic shifts toward gluconeogenesis with increased sugars to avoid osmotic stress; energy in roots and active synthesis in leaves were needed by wheat to develop salt tolerance. Alkali stress (at high pH) significantly inhibited photosynthetic rate; thus, sugar production was reduced, N metabolism was limited, amino acid production was reduced, and glycolysis was inhibited.

  11. Comparative efficacy of different post-emergence herbicides in wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehzad, M.A.; Nadeem, M.A.; Sarwar, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study the efficacy of different post-emergence herbicides for controlling weeds in wheat during a Rabi season 2008-09. Experiment comprised of six treatments, i.e. weed-infested control, pyroxasulfone at 50 g a.i ha/sup -1/, metribuzin at 250 g a.i ha/sup -1/, isoproturon at 1080 g a.i ha/sup -1/, clodinafop propargyl at 240 g a.i ha/sup -1/ and bromoxynil+MCPA at 247+247 g a.i ha/sup -1/ as post-emergence herbicides. Results revealed that Post-emergence application of isoproturon (1080 g a.i ha-1) proved to be best for obtaining maximum grain plus straw yield up to the level of weed-free control. Bromoxynil+MCPA (247+247 g a.i ha/sup -1/) and clodinafop propargyl (240 g a.i ha-1) also gave maximum spike bearing tillers, number of grains spike-1 and 1000-grain weight. Isoproturon (1080 g a.i ha/sup -1/) strictly reduced the weeds population as well as biomass as compared to weed-infested control. Poor weed control was achieved by using pyroxasulfone and metribuzin treatments. Hence, post-emergence Isoproturon (1080 g a.i ha/sup -1/) followed by bromoxynil + MCPA (247+247 g a.i ha/sup -1/) was provide to be the most effective herbicide against weeds and resulted in maximum wheat yield. (author)

  12. Comparative efficacy of different post-emergence herbicides in wheat (triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehzad, M.A.; Nadeem, M.A.; Sarwar, M.A.; Naseer-ud-Din, G.M.; Ilahi, F.

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study the efficacy of different post-emergence herbicides for controlling weeds in wheat during a Rabi season 2008-09. Experiment comprised of six treatments, i.e. weed-infested control, pyroxasulfone at 50 g a.i ha/sup -1/, metribuzin at 250 g a.i ha/sup -1/, isoproturon at 1080 g a.i ha/sup -1/, clodinafop propargyl at 240 g a.i ha/sup -1/ and as post-emergence herbicides. Results revealed that Post-emergence application of bromoxynil + MCPA at 247+247 g a.i ha/sup -1/ isoproturon (1080 g a.i ha) proved to be best for obtaining maximum grain plus straw yield up to the level of weed-free -1 -1 control. Bromoxynil + MCPA (247+247 g a.i ha) and clodinafop propargyl (240 g a.i ha/sup -1/) also gave maximum spike bearing tillers, number of grains spike and 1000-grain weight. Isoproturon (1080 g a.i ha/sup -1/) strictly reduced the weeds population as well as biomass as compared to weed-infested control. Poor weed control was achieved by using pyroxasulfone and metribuzin treatments. Hence, post-emergence Isoproturon (1080 g a.i ha/sup -1/) followed by bromoxynil + MCPA (247+247 g a.i ha/sup -1/ ) was provide to be the most effective herbicide against weeds and resulted in maximum wheat yield. (author)

  13. Differential Physiological Responses of Portuguese Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Genotypes under Aluminium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Garcia-Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The major limitation of cereal production in acidic soils is aluminium (Al phytotoxicity which inhibits root growth. Recent evidence indicates that different genotypes within the same species have evolved different mechanisms to cope with this stress. With these facts in mind, root responses of two highly Al tolerant Portuguese bread wheat genotypes—Barbela 7/72/92 and Viloso mole—were investigated along with check genotype Anahuac (Al sensitive, using different physiological and histochemical assays. All the assays confirmed that Barbela 7/72/92 is much more tolerant to Al phytotoxicity than Viloso Mole. Our results demonstrate that the greater tolerance to Al phytotoxicity in Barbela 7/72/92 than in Viloso Mole relies on numerous factors, including higher levels of organic acid (OAs efflux, particularly citrate efflux. This might be associated with the lower accumulation of Al in the root tips, restricting the Al-induced lipid peroxidation and the consequent plasma membrane integrity loss, thus allowing better root regrowth under Al stress conditions. Furthermore, the presence of root hairs in Barbela 7/72/92 might also help to circumvent Al toxicity by facilitating a more efficient uptake of water and nutrients, particularly under Al stress on acid soils. In conclusion, our findings confirmed that Portuguese bread wheat genotype Barbela 7/72/92 represents an alternative source of Al tolerance in bread wheat and could potentially be used to improve the wheat productivity in acidic soils.

  14. Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf. Lines Show Different Abilities to Form Masked Mycotoxins under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Cirlini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs in the relationship between DON content and FHB incidence. DON conjugation to glucose (DON-3-glucoside, D3G is the primary plant mechanism for resistance towards DON accumulation. Although this mechanism has been already described in bread wheat and barley, no data are reported so far about durum wheat, a key cereal in the pasta production chain. To address this issue, the ability of durum wheat to detoxify and convert deoxynivalenol into D3G was studied under greenhouse controlled conditions. Four durum wheat varieties (Svevo, Claudio, Kofa and Neodur were assessed for DON-D3G conversion; Sumai 3, a bread wheat variety carrying a major QTL for FHB resistance (QFhs.ndsu-3B, was used as a positive control. Data reported hereby clearly demonstrate the ability of durum wheat to convert deoxynivalenol into its conjugated form, D3G.

  15. Comparative studies on three triticum species as affected by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.T.M.; Shahin, A.H.; Gaweesh, S.S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Wheat grains of three species, i.e. T. monococcum, T. durum and T. aestivum were irradiated with different doses started from 0.5 Krad and were succesively doubled up to the dosage 64 Krad. It could be concluded that the promising dosage was 1 Krad for both monococcum and aestivum and 4 Krad for durum. The trait was based on germination, height of plant, number of spikes per plant, weight of spikes per plant, length of spike, weight of spike, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, yield of both grains and straw, and weight of 1000 seeds

  16. Modelling the effect of ethanol on growth rate of food spoilage moulds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dantigny, P.; Guilmart, A.; Radoi, F.; Bensoussan, M.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of ethanol (E) on the radial growth rate (¿) of food spoilage moulds (Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Eurotium herbariorum, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium

  17. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pneumonia causing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae. TLC and HPLC finger printing showed the presence of steroidsterpenes, alkaloids and flavonoids. Keywords: Asparagus racemosus, Antioxidant, Antityrosinase, Antimicrobial, Phytochemistry African Journal of Trad, Comp and Alternative Medicine Vol. 5 (3) 2008: pp.

  18. Rhizosphere Fungi of Red Pepper ( Capsicum frutescens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fungi isolated were Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus candidus, Penicillium expansum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium poae, Penicillium citrinum, Mucor racemosus, Mucor mucedo, Verticillium lateritium, Fusarium avenaceum, Trichophyton mentagrophyte, Fusarium verticilliodes, ...

  19. Identification of Bipolaris bicolor and Bipolaris sorokiniana on wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum L. in Brazil Identificação de Bipolaris bicolor e Bipolaris sorokiniana sobre sementes de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra R. Morejon

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused in wheat by Helminthosporium spp. have led to considerable yield and production losses. Different species in this genus are associated with wheat seeds. In Brazil, spot blotch in wheat is caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc Schoem, and another fungus Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra Shoem that has been also isolated from wheat seeds. The current study was undertaken to identify the most frequent fungus species that normaly infects wheat seeds and compared them with B. sorokiniana. The fungus Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra Shoem., isolated from wheat seeds cultivar IAPAR, was identified by taxonomic methods and compared with the fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc. Shoem., in relation to growth characteristics on the seeds, as well as to growth characteristics in PDA and morphology of the structures. Type of colony observed on the seeds is important for the differentiation between the fungus species. Bipolaris sorokiniana presented black colonies, which were well-adherent to the seeds, whereas B. bicolor presented grayish, aerial, cotton-like colonies. The size of the conidia also differed in length and width, and B. bicolor presented the smallest dimensions. In relation to septa, B. bicolor conidia presented deep ones, with dark color bases, but seldom presented dark apex. Bipolaris sorokiniana presented homogenous color.Doenças causadas por Helminthosporium spp. em trigo, causam consideráveis perdas na produção. Diferentes espécies do gênero do fungo podem ser encontradas em sementes. No caso do Brasil, a mancha foliar do trigo tem sido causada por Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc Schoem, entretanto, outro fungo como Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra Shoem tem sido isolado de sementes do trigo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar as espécies de fungo que normalmente infectam sementes de trigo e comparar com a mais comum B. sorokiniana. O fungo Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra Shoem., isolado de sementes de trigo var. IAPAR, foi identificado por métodos taxonômicos e comparado com o fungo Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc. Shoem. em relação ao crescimento sobre as sementes bem como às características culturais no meio BDA e morfologia das estruturas. O tipo de colônia observada sobre as sementes é importante para diferenciar as espécies entre si. O fungo B. sorokiniana apresentou colônias de cor preta sendo bem aderidas às sementes, enquanto B. bicolor apresentou colônias aéreas acinzentadas e com aspecto cotonoso. O tamanho dos conídios também diferenciaram no comprimento e largura onde os valores menores corresponderam a B. bicolor. Em relação aos septos, os conídios de B. bicolor apresentavam septo "profundo", com coloração escura na base e, raras vezes no ápice. Os conídios de B. sorokiniana apresentaram coloração homogênea.

  20. Chromosomal distribution of pTa-535, pTa-86, pTa-713, 35S rDNA repetitive sequences in interspecific hexaploid hybrids of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and spelt (Triticum spelta L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goriewa-Duba, Klaudia; Duba, Adrian; Kwiatek, Michał; Wiśniewska, Halina; Wachowska, Urszula; Wiwart, Marian

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) relies on fluorescent-labeled probes to detect specific DNA sequences in the genome, and it is widely used in cytogenetic analyses. The aim of this study was to determine the karyotype of T. aestivum and T. spelta hybrids and their parental components (three common wheat cultivars and five spelt breeding lines), to identify chromosomal aberrations in the evaluated wheat lines, and to analyze the distribution of polymorphisms of repetitive sequences in the examined hybrids. The FISH procedure was carried out with four DNA clones, pTa-86, pTa-535, pTa-713 and 35S rDNA used as probes. The observed polymorphisms between the investigated lines of common wheat, spelt and their hybrids was relatively low. However, differences were observed in the distribution of repetitive sequences on chromosomes 4A, 6A, 1B and 6B in selected hybrid genomes. The polymorphisms observed in common wheat and spelt hybrids carry valuable information for wheat breeders. The results of our study are also a valuable source of knowledge about genome organization and diversification in common wheat, spelt and their hybrids. The relevant information is essential for common wheat breeders, and it can contribute to breeding programs aimed at biodiversity preservation.

  1. Resposta de cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. ao controle químico das principais doenças fúngicas da cultura Response of wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. to the chemical control of fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito de Camargo Barros

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Doenças do trigo, como a ferrugem-da-folha, a helmintosporiose e o oídio, causadas por Puccinia recondita, Bipolaris sorokiniana e Blumeria graminis tritici, respectivamente, podem reduzir severamente o rendimento da cultura. Diversas medidas são preconizadas para o controle das mesmas, entre as quais o emprego de cultivares resistentes, na época adequada, e o controle químico, sem o qual, freqüentemente, a cultura torna-se inviável economicamente. No presente trabalho avaliou-se, em condições de campo, a resposta a aplicações de fungicidas de seis cultivares de trigo, IAC 24, IAC 289, IAC 350, IAC 362, IAC 364 e IAC 370, em quatro experimentos instalados nos anos de 2000 a 2003, em Capão Bonito, Estado de São Paulo. Os ensaios foram realizados em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com 4 repetições, e analisados, a cada ano, em esquema fatorial, 2 x 6, sendo fungicida o fator 1 (com e sem e cultivar o fator 2. As pulverizações, duas ou três, foram iniciadas quando a ferrugem-da-folha atingiu entre 10 e 15% de incidência, e repetidas após aproximadamente 15 dias. Avaliou-se a severidade das doenças por meio de uma escala de notas, que variou de 0 a 9 sendo 0 ausência de sintomas e 9 maior que 60 % de área de tecido foliar afetado pelas doenças, além do peso de mil sementes (PMS e do rendimento. O oídio foi encontrado apenas em 2000, a ferrugem-da-folha em todos os anos em elevados índices de severidade (30 a 60% de área foliar afetada e a helmintosporiose ocorreu nos três últimos anos, 2001 a 2003, apresentando os maiores índices de severidade em 2001 (até 60 % de área foliar afetada, o ano mais chuvoso. Em todos os anos os tratamentos químicos proporcionaram controle das doenças, aumentos no PMS e no rendimento. Nos anos mais favoráveis para a cultura, 2002 e 2003, o retorno em rendimento foi maior. As cultivares de ciclo mais longo, IAC 370, IAC 289 e IAC 350, foram as que mais responderam à aplicação do fungicida, embora as duas últimas tenham apresentado os menores índices de severidade das doenças, indicando que não só a resistência, mas fatores como o ciclo e características de produtividade intrínsecas a cada cultivar podem ser importantes na resposta ao controle químico.Leaf rust, leaf spot or brown spot and powdery mildew, caused by Puccinia recondita tritici, Bipolaris sorokiniana and Blumeria graminis tritici, respectively, are wheat diseases that may severely decrease crop yield. Several practices are recommended for the control of these diseases such as cultivar resistance, planting at a suitable time, and chemical control, without which the crop frequently becomes uneconomical. The objective of the present work was to evaluate, under field conditions, the response of six wheat cultivars, IAC 24, IAC 289, IAC 350, IAC 362, IAC 364 and IAC 370, in four experiments, carried out from 2000 to 2003 at Capão Bonito, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The experiments were set out in a randomized block design with four replications, and analyzed as a 2 x 6 factorial, being fungicide treatment (with and without the factor 1 and cultivar the factor 2. Severity of the diseases was graded in a scale that ranged from 0 to 9, (0 = without symptoms and 9 > 60% of the foliar area affected by disease. Grain yield and the thousand kernel weight (TKW were also assessed in each experiment. Powdery mildew was only observed in 2000, but leaf rust was detected in all years in high severity indexes (30 to 60% of leaf area affected by the disease. Leaf spot, detected in the last three years, from 2001 to 2003, showed the highest severity indexes in the rainiest year, 2001 (up to 60 % of the leaf affected by the disease. In all years the fungicides were efficient to control the diseases in all experiments and resulted in higher TKW and in grain yield increases. The cultivars with the longest crop cycles, IAC 370, IAC 289 and IAC 350, had the highest responses in yield to the chemical control, despite the fact that the last two cultivars were less affected by the diseases in the control plots, showing that not only cultivar resistance, but the crop cycle and the yield potential, characteristic of each cultivar, were important in the response to the chemical control.

  2. Marker Assisted Transfer of Two Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 from Triticum boeoticum (Boiss. to Triticum aestivum (L..

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    Ahmed Fawzy Abdelnaby Elkot

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the important wheat diseases, worldwide. Two PM resistance genes, designated as PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, were identified in T. boeoticum acc. pau5088 and mapped on chromosome 7AL approximately 48cM apart. Two resistance gene analogue (RGA-STS markers Ta7AL-4556232 and 7AL-4426363 were identified to be linked to the PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, at a distance of 0.6cM and 6.0cM, respectively. In the present study, following marker assisted selection (MAS, the two genes were transferred to T. aestivum using T. durum as bridging species. As many as 12,317 florets of F1 of the cross T. durum /T. boeoticum were pollinated with T. aestivum lines PBW343-IL and PBW621 to produce 61 and 65 seeds, respectively, of three-way F1. The resulting F1s of the cross T. durum/T. boeoticum//T. aestivum were screened with marker flanking both the PM resistance genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 (foreground selection and the selected plants were backcrossed to generate BC1F1. Marker assisted selection was carried both in BC1F1 and the BC2F1 generations. Introgression of alien chromatin in BC2F1 plants varied from 15.4-62.9 percent. Out of more than 110 BC2F1 plants showing introgression for markers linked to the two PM resistance genes, 40 agronomically desirable plants were selected for background selection for the carrier chromosome to identify the plants with minimum of the alien introgression. Cytological analysis showed that most plants have chromosome number ranging from 40-42. The BC2F2 plants homozygous for the two genes have been identified. These will be crossed to generate lines combining both the PM resistance genes but with minimal of the alien introgression. The PM resistance gene PmTb7A.1 maps in a region very close to Sr22, a stem rust resistance gene effective against the race Ug99. Analysis of selected plants with markers linked to Sr22 showed introgression of Sr22 from T. boeoticum in several BC2F1 plants. Thus, in addition to PM resistance, these progeny might also carry resistance to stem rust race Ug99.

  3. Chromosomal distribution of pTa-535, pTa-86, pTa-713, 35S rDNA repetitive sequences in interspecific hexaploid hybrids of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and spelt (Triticum spelta L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Goriewa-Duba

    Full Text Available Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH relies on fluorescent-labeled probes to detect specific DNA sequences in the genome, and it is widely used in cytogenetic analyses. The aim of this study was to determine the karyotype of T. aestivum and T. spelta hybrids and their parental components (three common wheat cultivars and five spelt breeding lines, to identify chromosomal aberrations in the evaluated wheat lines, and to analyze the distribution of polymorphisms of repetitive sequences in the examined hybrids. The FISH procedure was carried out with four DNA clones, pTa-86, pTa-535, pTa-713 and 35S rDNA used as probes. The observed polymorphisms between the investigated lines of common wheat, spelt and their hybrids was relatively low. However, differences were observed in the distribution of repetitive sequences on chromosomes 4A, 6A, 1B and 6B in selected hybrid genomes. The polymorphisms observed in common wheat and spelt hybrids carry valuable information for wheat breeders. The results of our study are also a valuable source of knowledge about genome organization and diversification in common wheat, spelt and their hybrids. The relevant information is essential for common wheat breeders, and it can contribute to breeding programs aimed at biodiversity preservation.

  4. Habilidade competitiva relativa do trigo (Triticum aestivum em convivência com azevém (Lolium multiflorum ou nabo (Raphanus raphanistrum Relative competitive ability of wheat (Triticum aestivum intercropped with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum or wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Rigoli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos em série de substituição possibilitam o estudo da competição inter e intra-específica. A premissa desses experimentos é de que as produtividades das misturas podem ser determinadas pela comparação com a produtividade da monocultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a habilidade competitiva relativa de cultivar de trigo com as espécies daninhas azevém ou nabo. Foram realizados três experimentos em casa de vegetação na UFPel, no ano de 2006. O delineamento utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos arranjados em série de substituição. As proporções de plantas de trigo e dos competidores azevém ou nabo foram: 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 e 0/100, com população total de 900 plantas m-2. A análise estatística da competitividade foi realizada através de diagramas aplicados aos experimentos substitutivos e interpretações dos índices de competitividade. As relações competitivas entre plantas de trigo e azevém ou entre trigo e nabo são alteradas pela proporção de plantas que compõem a associação; a cultura do trigo apresenta habilidade competitiva superior à do azevém, mas inferior à do nabo, quando as espécies ocorrem em proporções iguais de plantas nas associações, e essas espécies ocupam o mesmo nicho ecológico.Replacement series experiments make possible the study of inter and intraspecific competition, based on the fact that the yield of the species under competition can be determined by comparing with plants in monoculture. The objective of this work was to investigate the relative competitive ability of wheat crop with the weeds Italian ryegrass or wild radish. Three experiments were conducted under greenhouse at UFPel, in 2006. The treatments were conducted in a completely randomized design, with four replications, with the treatments arranged in replacement series. The proportions of wheat plants and competitors Italian ryegrass or wild radish were: 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100, always with a total population of 900 plants m-2. Competitiveness statistical analysis consisted in applying diagrams to the replacement series and interpreting the competitiveness indices. The competitive relationships between wheat and ryegrass or between wheat and wild radish plants are altered by the proportion of plants that compose the association. Wheat shows superior competitive ability to ryegrass but inferior to wild radish when the species have similar proportions of plants in the associations and when these species occur in the same ecological niche.

  5. Efeito da data de sementeira na produtividade de trigo mole (Triticum Aestivum L. em condições mediterrânicas Effect of the sowing date on bread wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. productivity under mediterranean conditions

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    José Manuel Godinho Calado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A data de sementeira do trigo mole exerce uma influência relevante no crescimento e desenvolvimento da cultura, condicionando a sua produtividade. O seu efeito é, especial-mente, importante sob condições mediterrânicas. Por isso, neste trabalho procurou-se verificar a influência da data de sementeira no rendimento do trigo mole, a partir de um ensaio de quinze genótipos semeados em datas diferentes durante cinco anos (1994/95 a 1999/00 na região Alentejo. Com base na análise dos resultados conclui-se que a variação da época de sementeira em aproximadamente um mês, desde o fim de Outubro até ao fim de Novembro, pode permitir rendimentos viáveis do trigo mole nas zonas cerealíferas mediterrânicas, particularmente na região Alentejo. Todavia, as produções mais altas tendem a ser obtidas quando a sementeira é efectuada na primeira quinzena de Novembro. Ao avançar a sementeira para o mês de Dezembro decresce a produtividade e, em consequência, diminui a viabilidade da cultura.The sowing date of bread wheat has a great influence on the growth and development of the crop and its productivity, especially under Mediterranean conditions. This paper presents the results of trials conducted in the Alentejo region that studied the performance of fifteen wheat genotypes sown at different dates, repeated over 5 years (1994/95 to 1999/00. Despite a great variability between years, the results indicate that a satisfactory wheat productivity in the Alentejo can be obtained with sowing dates ranging from end of October until the end of November. Nonetheless, sowing dates in the first half of November tend to provide higher grain yields. Moving the sowing date into December results in reduced grain yields, thus compromising the economic viability of wheat growing.

  6. The Effect of Rates and Times of Nitrogen Fertilizer on N Accumulation and Remobilization Efficiency at Flag Leaf in Two Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum and Triticum.durum) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, A.; Sarvestani, Z. Tahmasebi; Bagheri, A. R.; Abad, H. Heidari Sharif

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the physiological basis of absorption and transportation of nitrogen by plants has specific importance. In this experiment, a bread cultivar and durum wheat cultivar, were treated with different rates and times of nitrogen application, by using split factorial with on the basis of randomized complete block design with three replications at Shiraz region during 2004-2005. Main plots were consisted of two levels of cultivars (Falat and Yavaros) and sub plots included nitrogen rates (40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1) and times of nitrogen application (T1 = all N fertilizer at planting, T2 = 1/2 at planting+1/2 during booting stage and T3 = 1/3 at planting+1/3 during booting stage+1/3 at heading stage). The results showed that there were significant differences between cultivars in flag leaf nitrogen content in maturity stage, N remobilization and its efficiency from flag leaf to grains and also grain protein percentage. Durum wheat was more efficient in nitrogen remobilization and therefore, had a higher grain protein percentage. Increasing in rates and times of nitrogen application had significant effect on most of the measured traits. There were significant interactions between cultivars, rates and times of N application, indicating that durum wheat was more efficient in N remobilization from flag leaf to the grain. It appeared that, N remobilization efficiency was the main factor affecting the grain protein percentage, under the conditions of low N absorption and drought after flowering, in this experiment.

  7. The freezing of water bonded in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain studied by means protons magnetic relaxation method; Zamarzanie wody zwiazanej w ziarnach pszenicy (Triticum aestivum L.) badane metoda relaksacji magnetycznej dla protonow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haranczyk, H.; Jasinski, G. [Inst. Fizyki, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland); Strzalka, K. [Inst. Biologii Molekularnej, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Some biological aspects of water freezing in the wheat grain have been studied using NMR methods. Measuring of the relaxation times for freezing and liquid water shown absence of T{sub 2}{approx}100 {mu}s and T{sub 2}{approx}1 ms separated components what pointed for some different way of water bonding. 7 refs, 12 figs, 2 tabs.

  8. Assessment of two carrier materials for phosphate solubilizing biofertilizers and their effect on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Salma; Shahid, Izzah; Mehnaz, Samina; Malik, Kauser A

    2017-12-01

    Biofertilizers are usually carrier-based inoculants containing beneficial microorganisms. Incorporation of microorganisms in carrier material enables easy-handling, long-term storage and high effectiveness of biofertilizers. Objective of the present study was to assess enriched biogas sludge and soil as biofertilizer carriers on growth and yield of wheat. Six phosphate solubilizing strains were used in this study. Three phosphate solubilizing strains, 77-NS2 (Bacillus endophyticus), 77-CS-S1 (Bacillus sphaericus) and 77-NS5 (Enterobacter aerogenes) were isolated from the rhizosphere of sugarcane, two strains, PSB5 (Bacillus safensis) and PSB12 (Bacillus megaterium) from the rhizosphere of wheat and one halophilic phosphate solubilizing strain AT2RP3 (Virgibacillus sp.) from the rhizosphere of Atriplex amnicola, were used as bioinoculants. Phosphate solubilization ability of these strains was checked in vitro in Pikovskaya medium, containing rock phosphate (RP) as insoluble P source, individually supplemented with three different carbon sources, i.e., glucose, sucrose and maltose. Maximum phosphate solubilization; 305.6μg/ml, 217.2μg/ml and 148.1μg/ml was observed in Bacillus strain PSB12 in Pikovskaya medium containing sucrose, maltose and glucose respectively. A field experiment and pot experiments in climate control room were conducted to study the effects of biogas sludge and enriched soil based phosphorous biofertilizers on growth of wheat. Bacillus strain PSB12 significantly increased root and shoot dry weights and lengths using biogas sludge as carrier material in climate control room experiments. While in field conditions, significant increase in root and shoot dry weights, lengths and seed weights was seen by PSB12 and PSB5 (Bacillus) and Enterobacter strain 77-NS5 using biogas sludge as carrier. PSB12 also significantly increased both root and shoot dry weights and lengths in field conditions when used as enriched soil based inoculum. These results indicated that bacterial isolates having plant beneficial traits such as P solubilization are more promising candidates as biofertilizer when used with carrier materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Conservation tillage, optimal water and organic nutrient supply enhance soil microbial activities during wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Singh, Geeta; Singh, Rana P.

    2011-01-01

    The field experiments were conducted on sandy loam soil at New Delhi, during 2007 and 2008 to investigate the effect of conservation tillage, irrigation regimes (sub-optimal, optimal and supra-optimal water regimes), and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices on soil biological parameters in wheat cultivation. The conservation tillage soils has shown significant (pbiofertilizer+25% Green Manure) has been used in combination with the conservation tillage and the optimum water supply. Study demonstrated that microbial activity could be regulated by tillage, water and nitrogen management in the soil in a sustainable manner. PMID:24031665

  10. Effect of lime, magnesium and boron on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and their residual effects on mungbean (Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Hossain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during 2007-2008 season in the research field of Wheat Research Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Dinajpur to know the effect of lime, Magnesium (Mg and Boron (B on yield and yield components of wheat and also theirresidual effect on mungbean. The geographical position of the area is between 25°62´ N, 88°63´ E and 38.20 meter above sea level. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications, both in wheat and mungbean. Treatmentsfor wheat were (I recommended fertilizer + Mg + B, (II recommended fertilizer + lime + B + Mg, (III recommended fertilizer + lime + Mg, (IV recommended fertilizer + lime + B and (V control (Only recommended fertilizer and for mungbean were (I recommendedfertilizer + Mg + B, (II 75% of recommended dose, (III recommended fertilizer + B, (IVrecommended fertilizer + Mg and (V control (without fertilizers. Results showed that the highest yield and yield components of wheat were recorded from recommended fertilizers +lime + B + Mg treated plot and the second highest were recorded from recommended fertilizers + lime + Mg treated plot. The lowest was recorded in control plot (only recommended fertilized. In case of mungbean the highest was found from recommended fertilizers + B treated plot, this treatment was limed in previously cultivated wheat crop and the lowest was recorded from control plot (without fertilizer.

  11. Antioxidants, free radicals, storage proteins, puroindolines, and proteolytic activities in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds during accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calucci, Lucia; Capocchi, Antonella; Galleschi, Luciano; Ghiringhelli, Silvia; Pinzino, Calogero; Saviozzi, Franco; Zandomeneghi, Maurizio

    2004-06-30

    Seeds of bread wheat were incubated at 40 degrees C and 100% relative humidity for 0, 3, 4, 6, and 10 days. The effects of accelerated aging on seed germinability and some biochemical properties of flour (carotenoid, free radical, and protein contents and proteolytic activity) and gluten (free radical content and flexibility) were investigated. Seed germinability decreased during aging, resulting in seed death after 10 days. A progressive decrease of carotenoid content, in particular, lutein, was observed, prolonging the incubation, whereas the free radical content increased in both flour and gluten. A degradation of soluble and storage proteins was found, associated with a marked increase of proteolytic activity and a loss of viscoelastic properties of gluten. On the contrary, puroindolines were quite resistant to the treatment. The results are discussed in comparison with those previously obtained during accelerated aging of durum wheat seeds.

  12. A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHLOROPHYLL PHOTOSYNTHETIC POTENTIAL AND YIELD OF WINTER WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES

    OpenAIRE

    G.À. PRIADKINA; O.O. STASIK; L.N. MIKHALSKAYA; V.V. SHVARTAU

    2014-01-01

    Development of the indices for selection of high-yielding crops and the models, forecasting crop yields, necessitate the analysis of the relationship between photosynthetic traits and productivity. Chlorophyll photosynthetic potential, characterizing the total amount of chlorophyll in the aboveground parts of plants (or in leaves) per unit of ground surface area during the growing season or a certain period, under optimal weather conditions correlated most closely with yield (T.M. Shadchina e...

  13. Integrating remote sensing and GIS for prediction of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum protein contents in Linfen (Shanxi, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-chen Feng

    Full Text Available In this study, relationships between normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and plant (winter wheat nitrogen content (PNC and between PNC and grain protein content (GPC were investigated using multi-temporal moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS data at the different stages of winter wheat in Linfen (Shanxi, P. R. China. The anticipating model for GPC of winter wheat was also established by the approach of NDVI at the different stages of winter wheat. The results showed that the spectrum models of PNC passed F test. The NDVI4.14 regression effect of PNC model of irrigated winter wheat was the best, and that in dry land was NDVI4.30. The PNC of irrigated and dry land winter wheat were significantly (P<0.01 and positively correlated to GPC. Both of protein spectral anticipating model of irrigated and dry land winter wheat passed a significance test (P<0.01. Multiple anticipating models (MAM were established by NDVI from two periods of irrigated and dry land winter wheat and PNC to link GPC anticipating model. The coefficient of determination R(2 (R of MAM was greater than that of the other two single-factor models. The relative root mean square error (RRMSE and relative error (RE of MAM were lower than those of the other two single-factor models. Therefore, test effects of multiple proteins anticipating model were better than those of single-factor models. The application of multiple anticipating models for predication of protein content (PC of irrigated and dry land winter wheat was more accurate and reliable. The regionalization analysis of GPC was performed using inverse distance weighted function of GIS, which is likely to provide the scientific basis for the reasonable winter wheat planting in Linfen city, China.

  14. Diversification in substrate usage by glutathione synthetases from soya bean (Glycine max), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Unlike animals which accumulate glutathione (γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) alone as their major thiol antioxidant, several crops synthesize alternative forms of glutathione by varying the carboxy residue. The molecular basis of this variation is not well understood, but the substrate specificity of the respective GSs (glutathione synthetases) has been implicated. To investigate their substrate tolerance, five GS-like cDNAs have been cloned from plants that can accumulate alternative forms of glutathione, notably soya bean [hGSH (homoglutathione or γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-β-alanine)], wheat (hydroxymethylglutathione or γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-serine) and maize (γ-Glu-Cys-Glu). The respective recombinant GSs were then assayed for the incorporation of differing C-termini into γ-Glu-Cys. The soya bean enzyme primarily incorporated β-alanine to form hGSH, whereas the GS enzymes from cereals preferentially catalysed the formation of glutathione. However, when assayed with other substrates, several GSs and one wheat enzyme in particular were able to synthesize a diverse range of glutathione variants by incorporating unusual C-terminal moieties including D-serine, non-natural amino acids and α-amino alcohols. Our results suggest that plant GSs are capable of producing a diverse range of glutathione homologues depending on the availability of the acyl acceptor. PMID:16008521

  15. The distal portion of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 5D short arm controls endosperm vitreosity and grain hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernel vitreosity is an important trait of wheat grain, but its complete developmental control is not known. We developed back-cross seven (BC7) near isogenic lines in the soft white spring wheat cultivar Alpowa that possess or lack the distal portion of chromosome 5D short arm. This deletion was de...

  16. Genetic analysis of kernel texture (grain hardness) in a hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bi-parental population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain hardness is a very important trait in determining wheat market class and also influences milling and baking traits. At the grain Hardness (Ha) locus on chromosome 5DS, there are two primary mutations responsible for conveying a harder kernel texture among U.S. hard red spring wheats: (1) the P...

  17. Evaluation of Radiation Absorption and Use Efficiency in Row Intercropping of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate radiation absorption and use efficiency in row intercropping for wheat and canola, a field experiment was conducted based on a randomized block design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during two growing seasons of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Treatments included four combinations of row intercropping of wheat and canola (one row of wheat + one row of canola (1:1, two rows of wheat + two rows of canola (2:2, three rows of wheat + three rows of canola (3:3 and four rows of wheat + four rows of canola (4:4 and their monoculture. Results indicated that the effect of row intercropping was significant on radiation use efficiency of wheat and canola. The highest radiation use efficiency based on biological yield of wheat and canola were observed in monoculture (with 1.6 and 1.04 g.MJ-1 and three rows wheat+ three rows canola (with 1.4 and 0.57 g.MJ-1, respectively. The maximum radiation use efficiency based on economical yield of wheat and canola were obtained in monoculture (with 0.52 and 0.3 g.MJ-1 and three rows wheat+ three rows canola (0.49 and 0.23 g.MJ-1, respectively. The range of land equivalent ratio for radiation absorption efficiency in different row intercroppings of wheat and canola was 1.31-1.61. In general, row intercropping of wheat with canola increased radiation use efficiency and combination of three rows of wheat + three rows of canola was the most promising one.

  18. Evaluation of Radiation Absorption and Use Efficiency in Row Intercropping of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    A Koocheki; S Khorramdel; F Fallahpour; F Melati

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate radiation absorption and use efficiency in row intercropping for wheat and canola, a field experiment was conducted based on a randomized block design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during two growing seasons of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Treatments included four combinations of row intercropping of wheat and canola (one row of wheat + one row of canola (1:1), two rows of wheat + two rows of canola (2:2), three row...

  19. Inheritance of Protein Patterns in a Synthetic Allopolyploid of Triticum Monococcum (AA) and Aegilops Ventricosa (DDMvMv)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siddiqui, K. A.; Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1972-01-01

    in the main reserve-protein group — the gliadins, with a concomitant decrease in the salt-soluble proteins and the glutenins. Also the amino-acid composition, especially of the gliadins, was influenced by the amphiploidy. The gliadins from T. monococcum had higher contents of histidine, arginine, aspartic...... acid, serine, and isoleucine than Ae. ventricosa. In the amphiploid the epistasis of Ae. ventricosa over T. monococcum in most morphological attributes was parallelled in the amino-acid composition of the Osborne protein fractions. Such parallelism may have evolutionary significance. The salt...

  20. Short-term winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cover crop grazing influence on calf growth, grain yield, and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover cropping has many agronomic benefits and can provide forages base for spring livestock grazing. Winter cover crop grazing has shown immediate economic benefits through increased animal production. Winter wheat pasture grazing is common in beef cow-calf production and stocker operations....

  1. Improved tolerance to drought stress after anthesis due to priming before anthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) var. Vinjett

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Vignjevic, Marija; Jiang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    , single or double drought priming before anthesis resulted in higher grain yield than in non-primed plants under drought stress during grain filling. The photosynthesis rate and ascorbate peroxidase activity were higher while malondialdehyde content was lower in primed plants than in the non-primed plants...... carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) small subunit, Rubisco activase and ascorbate peroxidase were upregulated in primed plants compared with non-primed plants under drought stress during grain filling. In conclusion, the altered protein expression and upregulated activities of photosynthesis and ascorbate...... peroxidase in primed plants may indicate their potential roles in alleviating a later-occurring drought stress episode, thereby contributing to higher wheat grain yield under drought stress during grain filling....

  2. Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulating heterologous endo-xylanase or ferulic acid esterase in the endosperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harholt, Jesper; Bach, Inga C; Lind-Bouquin, Solveig; Nunan, Kylie J.; Madrid, Susan M.; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Holm, Preben B.; Scheller, Henrik V.

    2009-12-08

    Endo-xylanase (from Bacillus subtilis) or ferulic acid esterase (from Aspergillus niger) were expressed in wheat under the control of the endosperm specific 1DX5 glutenin promoter. Constructs both with and without the endoplasmic reticulum retention signal KDEL were used. Transgenic plants were recovered in all four cases but no qualitative differences could be observed whether KDEL was added or not. Endo-xylanase activity in transgenic grains was increased between two and three fold relative to wild type. The grains were shriveled and had a 25-33% decrease in mass. Extensive analysis of the cell walls showed a 10-15% increase in arabinose to xylose ratio, a 50% increase in the proportion of water extractable arabinoxylan, and a shift in the MW of the water extractable arabinoxylan from being mainly larger than 85 kD to being between 2 kD and 85 kD. Ferulic acid esterase expressing grains were also shriveled and the seed weight was decreased by 20-50%. No ferulic acid esterase activity could be detected in wild type grains whereas ferulic acid esterase activity was detected in transgenic lines. The grain cell walls had 15-40% increase in water unextractable arabinoxylan and a decrease in monomeric ferulic acid between 13 and 34%. In all the plants the observed changes are consistent with a plant response that serves to minimize the effect of the heterologously expressed enzymes by increasing arabinoxylan biosynthesis and cross-linking.

  3. Genetic mapping of stem rust resistance gene Sr13 in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Kristin; Abate, Zewdie; Chao, Shiaoman; Zhang, Wenjun; Rouse, Matt; Jin, Yue; Elias, Elias; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Wheat stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, can cause significant yield losses. To combat the disease breeders have deployed resistance genes both individually and in combinations to increase resistance durability. A new race, TTKSK (Ug99), identified in Uganda in 1999, is virulent on most of the resistance genes currently deployed, and is rapidly spreading to other regions of the world. It is therefore important to identify, map, and deploy resistance genes that are still effective against TTKSK. One of these resistance genes, Sr13, was previously assigned to the long arm of chromosome 6A, but its precise map location was not known. In this study, the genome location of Sr13 was determined in four tetraploid wheat (T. turgidum ssp. durum) mapping populations involving the TTKSK resistant varieties Kronos, Kofa, Medora and Sceptre. Our results showed that resistance was linked to common molecular markers in all four populations, suggesting that these durum lines carry the same resistance gene. Based on its chromosome location and infection types against different races of stem rust, this gene is postulated to be Sr13. Sr13 was mapped within a 1.2 to 2.8 cM interval (depending on the mapping population) between EST markers CD926040 and BE471213, which corresponds to a 285-kb region in rice chromosome 2, and a 3.1-Mb region in Brachypodium chromosome 3. These maps will be the foundation for developing high-density maps, identifying diagnostic markers, and positional cloning of Sr13. PMID:20857083

  4. MicroRNA regulated defense responses in Triticum aestivum L. during Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Om Prakash; Permar, Vipin; Koundal, Vikas; Singh, Uday Dhari; Praveen, Shelly

    2012-02-01

    Plants have evolved diverse mechanism to recognize pathogen attack and triggers defense responses. These defense responses alter host cellular function regulated by endogenous, small, non-coding miRNAs. To understand the mechanism of miRNAs regulated cellular functions during stem rust infection in wheat, we investigated eight different miRNAs viz. miR159, miR164, miR167, miR171, miR444, miR408, miR1129 and miR1138, involved in three different independent cellular defense response to infection. The investigation reveals that at the initiation of disease, accumulation of miRNAs might be playing a key role in hypersensitive response (HR) from host, which diminishes at the maturation stage. This suggests a possible host-fungal synergistic relation leading to susceptibility. Differential expression of these miRNAs in presence and absence of R gene provides a probable explanation of miRNA regulated R gene mediated independent pathways.

  5. Genetic mapping of resistance to Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) biotype 2 in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accession CI2401

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fazel-Najafabadi, M.; Peng, J.; Peairs, F.B.; Šimková, Hana; Kilian, A.; Lapitan, N. L. V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 203, č. 3 (2015), s. 607-614 ISSN 0014-2336 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/2554 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : RWA resistance * RWA biotype 2 * Marker-assisted selection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.618, year: 2015

  6. Structural and chemical analysis of process residue from biochemical conversion of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Anders Tengstedt; Jørgensen, Henning; Laursen, Kristian Holst

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical conversion of lignocellulose to fermentable carbohydrates for ethanol production is now being implemented in large-scale industrial production. Applying hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for the conversion process, a residue containing substantial amounts of lignin...

  7. Computational Analysis Of Group 2 Late Embryogenesis Protein (Lea In Different Cultivar Of Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasouli Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Late Embryogenesis abundant protein has a crucial role as the cold-acclimation process in the wheat. These proteins encoded by TaWdhn13 gene. This gene is transcriptionally activated and produces the accumulated proteins and metabolites and protection cell structure from freezing damage. The objectives of this study were to isolate the genomic DNA (g-DNA sequence of TaWdhn13, to analyze structure, conserved domains of the gene, and to found a basis for association analysis of the functional sites associated with computational analysis. We here report on the functional assignment to TaWdhn13 gene by computational analysis. The Three-Dimensional (3D model of LEA protein drawing by using the phyre 2 server. For identify the conserved domain and motif of these gene sequence we used the Conserved Domain Database and DNA Motif Searching Database, however, the conserved domains and motif has been recognized. The results showed TaWdhn13 conserved domain incudes: Dehydrin superfamily. Also, motifs structure for this gene includes: 2FE2S_FER_1 Motif, INTEGRIN_BETA Motif, VWFC_1 Motif, EGF_1 Motif and DEFENSIN Motif. Our results reveal that group 2 LEA proteins are most likely to function within the cell nucleus. The analysis of protein property showed that the protein had no trans-membrane domains. The isoelectric point of the protein was 3.41, which was charged with 5.34 negative electrons when pH value of the buffer was 7.0.

  8. THE ROLE OF MATH/BTB PROTEINS IN EGG CELL AND AT THE ONSET OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. EMBRYOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Leljak-Levanić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The conserved BTB and MATH domains are presented in a variety of proteins as a single copy domain, together or in combination with other types of domains. Different functional roles have been identified for BTB proteins such as transcription repression, cytoskeleton regulation as well as protein ubiquitination/degradation in which amino-terminal MATH domain is responsible for substrate specificity. Although the function of MATH/BTB proteins is not clear, distribution of these proteins from yeast to human and domain conservation suggest that they are critical in some cellular functions. In wheat we have identified existence of at least three MATH/BTB domain proteins encoding genes (TaMATH/BTB, TaMATH/BTB-Ec, TaMATH/BTB-2c which expression was analyzed in different vegetative tissues, egg cells, zygotes and during embryo development. TaMATH/BTB was found to be expressed ubiquitously, while transcript of TaMATH/BTB-Ec is presented only in the egg cell. TaMATH/BTB-2c is induced after fertilization, with the highest expression level in 2-celled stage proembryo. Subcellular localization of TaMATH/BTB-2c was analyzed after generating GFP-fusion proteins. Besides the complete coding region, deletions of either MATH or BTB domain were fused to GFP. Expression and subcellular localization indicates a putative role of TaMATH/BTB-2c in cell polarity.

  9. Mutual impacts of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) on the bioavailability of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Shuyan; Fang, Shuhong; Zhu, Lingyan; Liu, Li; Liu, Zhengtao; Zhang, Yahui

    2014-01-01

    Wheat and earthworms were exposed individually and together to soils contaminated with 11 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Wheat accumulated PFASs from soil with root concentration factors and bioconcentration factors that decreased as the number of perfluorinated carbons in the molecule increased. Earthworms accumulated PFASs from soil with biota-to-soil accumulation factors that increased with the number of carbons. Translocation factors (TF) of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) in wheat peaked at perfluorohexanoic acid and decreased significantly as the number of carbons increased or decreased. Perfluorohexane sulfonate produced the greatest TF of the three perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) examined. Wheat increased the bioaccumulation of all 11 PFASs in earthworms and earthworms increased the bioaccumulation in wheat of PFCAs containing seven or less perfluorinated carbons, decreased bioaccumulation of PFCAs with more than seven carbons, and decreased bioaccumulation of PFSAs. In general, the co-presence of wheat and earthworms enhanced the bioavailability of PFASs in soil. -- Highlights: • PFASs can be taken up by root of wheat from soil and translocated to shoot. • The RCFs and BCFs of PFASs in wheat decreased with perfluorinated carbon chain length. • PFHxA had the highest TF, which decreased exponentially with the carbon chain length. • The BSAFs in earthworm increased with carbon chain length. • The co-presence of wheat and earthworm enhanced the bioavailability of PFASs in soil. -- PFASs can be uptake by root of wheat from soil and translocated to shoot and co-presence of wheat and earthworm enhance the bioavailability of PFASs in soil

  10. Sequential Path Analysis for Determination of Relationship Between Yield and Yield Components in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtasham MOHAMMADI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate 295 wheat genotypes in Alpha-Lattice design with two replications. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation of grain yield was 2706 and 950 (kg/ha,respectively. The results of correlation coefficients indicated that grain yield had significant and positive association with plant height, spike length, early growth vigor and agronomic score. Whereas there were negative correlation coefficients between grain yield and days to physiological maturity and canopy temperature before and during anthesis. Path analysis indicated agronomic score and plant height had high positive direct effects on grain yield, while canopy temperature before and during anthesis, and days to maturity, wes another trait having negative direct effect on grain yield. The results of sequential path analysis showed the traits that accounted as a criteria variable for high grain yield were agronomic score, plant height, canopy temperature, spike length, chlorophyll content and early growth vigor, which were determined as first, second and third order variables and had strong effects on grain yield via one or more paths. More important, as canopy temperature, agronomic score and early growth vigor can be evaluated quickly and easily, these traits may be used for evaluation of large populations.

  11. Forming of productivity of new soft winter wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L. subject to phyto-virus pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. П. Петренкова

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The infection by phytoviruses and the productivity formation in the new varieties of winter bread wheat in the different years with virus damage were investigated. There were identified the varieties being more tolerant to the observed diseases, among these - the samples with different constituents of tolerance, which could be used in the breeding programs.

  12. Sequencing and assembly of low copy and genic regions of isolated Triticum aestivum chromosome arm 7DS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berkman, O. J.; Skarshewski, A.; Lorenc, M. T.; Kubaláková, Marie; Šimková, Hana; Batley, J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Edwards, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 7 (2011), s. 768-775 ISSN 1467-7644 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/07/1573; GA MŠk ED0007/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : wheat genome sequence * chromosome 7 * genome assembly Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.442, year: 2011

  13. Soil Water Availability Modulation Over Estimated Relative Yield Losses in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Due to Ozone Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    De la Torre, Daniel; Sierra, Maria Jose

    2007-01-01

    The approach developed by Fuhrer in 1995 to estimate wheat yield losses induced by ozone and modulated by the soil water content (SWC) was applied to the data on Catalonian wheat yields. The aim of our work was to apply this approach and adjust it to Mediterranean environmental conditions by means of the necessary corrections. The main objective pursued was to prove the importance of soil water availability in the estimation of relative wheat yield losses as a factor that modifies the effects...

  14. Comparative toxicity of nonylphenol, nonylphenol-4-ethoxylate and nonylphenol-10-ethoxylate to wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingming; Wang, Feifei; Xue, Changhui; Wang, Caixia; Chi, Shengqi; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2016-09-01

    Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) are a group of surfactants that are widely used in industrial and household products and often detected in the environment. The metabolite of NPEOs, named nonylphenol (NP), has proven to be an endocrine disruptor, and its environmental behavior and eco-toxicity have been widely investigated in previous studies. However, to the best of our knowledge, insight into the toxicity differences of NP and NPEOs on important crops remains limited. Therefore, this study investigated the comparative toxicity of NP, nonylphenol-4-ethoxylate (NP4EO), and nonylphenol-10-ethoxylate (NP10EO) on wheat seedlings using hydroponic experiments. The results indicated that NP is most toxic to wheat followed by NP4EO, and NP10EO is the least toxic to wheat. The adverse effects of NP on wheat were observed for all the tested parameters including germination, shoot length, root length, chlorophyll, lipid peroxidation, and enzymatic activities. To gain insight into the molecular response, we analyzed the transcript abundance of SOD-Cu/Zn and CAT with NP, NP4EO, and NP10EO exposure using quantitative real-time PCR. The data revealed that both genes exhibited up- or down-regulated expression patterns that were consistent with the activities of the two enzymes. This result further conformed that NP is most toxic to wheat plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Novel Genes Associated with Culm Cellulose Content in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simerjeet Kaur

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell wall formation is a complex, coordinated and developmentally regulated process. Cellulose is the most dominant constituent of plant cell walls. Because of its paracrystalline structure, cellulose is the main determinant of mechanical strength of plant tissues. As the most abundant polysaccharide on earth, it is also the focus of cellulosic biofuel industry. To reduce culm lodging in wheat and for improved ethanol production, delineation of the variation for stem cellulose content could prove useful. We present results on the analysis of the stem cellulose content of 288 diverse wheat accessions and its genome-wide association study (GWAS. Cellulose concentration ranged from 35 to 52% (w/w. Cellulose content was normally distributed in the accessions around a mean and median of 45% (w/w. Genome-wide marker-trait association study using 21,073 SNPs helped identify nine SNPs that were associated (p < 1E-05 with cellulose content. Four strongly associated (p < 8.17E-05 SNP markers were linked to wheat unigenes, which included β-tubulin, Auxin-induced protein 5NG4, and a putative transmembrane protein of unknown function. These genes may be directly or indirectly involved in the formation of cellulose in wheat culms. GWAS results from this study have the potential for genetic manipulation of cellulose content in bread wheat and other small grain cereals to enhance culm strength and improve biofuel production.

  16. Ectopic expression of Triticum aestivum SERK genes (TaSERKs) control plant growth and development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Khurana, Paramjit

    2017-09-28

    Somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) belong to a small gene family of receptor-like kinases involved in signal transduction. A total of 54 genes were shortlisted from the wheat genome survey sequence of which 5 were classified as SERKs and 49 were identified as SERK-like (SERLs). Tissue- specific expression of TaSERKs at major developmental stages of wheat corroborates their indispensable role during somatic and zygotic embryogenesis. TaSERK transcripts show inherent differences in their hormonal sensitivities, i.e. TaSERK2 and TaSERK3 elicits auxin- specific responses while TaSERK1, 4 and 5 were more specific towards BR-mediated regulation. The ectopic expression of TaSERK1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 in Arabidopsis led to enhanced plant height, larger silique size and increased seed yield. Zygotic embryogenesis specific genes showed a differential pattern in TaSERK Arabidopsis transgenics specifically in the silique tissues. Elongated hypocotyls and enhanced root growth were observed in the overexpression transgenic lines of all five TaSERKs. The inhibitory action of auxin and brassinosteroid in all the TaSERK transgenic lines indicates their role in regulating root development. The results obtained imply redundant functions of TaSERKs in maintaining plant growth and development.

  17. Agronomic, nutritional and nutraceutical aspects of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cultivars under low input agricultural management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dinelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Among cereals, durum wheat has a central role in the Italian diet and economy, where there is a historical tradition of pasta making. In the present study, we evaluated the nutrient and nutraceutical properties of 2 old and 6 modern durum wheat varieties grown under low input agricultural management. Considering the lack of available data on the adaptability of existing durum wheat varieties to the low input and organic sectors, the research aimed at providing a complete description of the investigated genotypes, considering the agronomic performance as well as the nutrient and phytochemical composition. The experimental trials were carried out at the same location (Bologna, Northern Italy for two consecutive growing seasons (2006/2007, 2007/2008. No clear distinction between old and modern varieties was observed in terms of grain yield (mean values ranging from 2.5 to 4.0 t/ha, highlighting that the divergence in productivity, normally found between dwarf and non-dwarf genotypes, is strongly reduced when they are cropped under low input management. All durum wheat varieties presented high protein levels and, in addition, provided remarkable amounts of phytochemicals such as dietary fibre, polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids. Some of the investigated genotypes, such as Senatore Cappelli, Solex, Svevo and Orobel, emerged with intriguing nutritional and phytochemical profiles, with the highest levels of dietary fibre and antioxidant compounds. The study provided the basis for further investigations into the adaptability of the durum wheat genotypes to low input management, for the selection of genotypes characterised by higher yield and valuable nutrient and nutraceutical quality.

  18. Effect of agroforestry system on yield attributes of wheat (Triticum Aestivum l.) under shallow water table conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran, R.; Agnihotri, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Fifteen tree rows of Eucalyptus tereticornis were planted at G.B.Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pant Nagar, located in tarai region of Uttaranchal in a Nelder fan design in March 1989 at the angle of 24øN' from each other starting from north in anticlockwise direction. Area per tree was 30 m 2 . Wheat was intercropped with Eucalyptus tereticornis of 21st November, 1996. Each row of trees was one treatment. There were 15 treatments with control as sole crop. Various yield attributes, net radiation and water table depth were measured below trees and in control, simultaneously. In treatments 7, 8, 9, 10 and 12 early vegetative growth was observed below trees. Higher yield attributing characters were also observed in some of the treatments below trees. In general, treatment 9 (192-216ø) gave better yield attributes than that of control

  19. Implications of high-temperature events and water deficits on protein profiles in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jørgensen, Anders Dysted; Li, Huawei

    2011-01-01

    proteins involved in primary metabolism, storage and stress response such as late embryogenesis abundant proteins, peroxiredoxins and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors. Several proteins, e.g. heat shock protein and 14-3-3 protein changed in abundance only under multiple high temperatures....

  20. Bread winter wheat breeding (Triticum aestivum L. using spring varieties genepool in forest-steppe Environments of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. С. Кочмарський

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is concluded by investigations that wheat crossing of various development types between themselves cause increase of formbuilding process in hybrid progeny, promoting the selection of practically valuable recombinats. The genotypes which present the practical valuable by complex of adaptive traits and properties have been selected by phenotype stability in the breeding process. The new bread winter wheat variety Pamyati Remesla developed with participation of spring wheat variety Hja 22139 (Finland has been proposed for including it into the Register of Plant varieties of Ukraine adapted for use in Steppe, Forest- Steppe and Woodland of Ukraine since 2010.