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Sample records for triticale yield depending

  1. Yield performance and stability of CMS-based triticale hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühleisen, Jonathan; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Maurer, Hans Peter; Reif, Jochen Christoph

    2015-02-01

    CMS-based triticale hybrids showed only marginal midparent heterosis for grain yield and lower dynamic yield stability compared to inbred lines. Hybrids of triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) are expected to possess outstanding yield performance and increased dynamic yield stability. The objectives of the present study were to (1) examine the optimum choice of the biometrical model to compare yield stability of hybrids versus lines, (2) investigate whether hybrids exhibit a more pronounced grain yield performance and yield stability, and (3) study optimal strategies to predict yield stability of hybrids. Thirteen female and seven male parental lines and their 91 factorial hybrids as well as 30 commercial lines were evaluated for grain yield in up to 20 environments. Hybrids were produced using a cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)-inducing cytoplasm that originated from Triticumtimopheevii Zhuk. We found that the choice of the biometrical model can cause contrasting results and concluded that a group-by-environment interaction term should be added to the model when estimating stability variance of hybrids and lines. midparent heterosis for grain yield was on average 3 % with a range from -15.0 to 11.5 %. No hybrid outperformed the best inbred line. Hybrids had, on average, lower dynamic yield stability compared to the inbred lines. Grain yield performance of hybrids could be predicted based on midparent values and general combining ability (GCA)-predicted values. In contrast, stability variance of hybrids could be predicted only based on GCA-predicted values. We speculated that negative effects of the used CMS cytoplasm might be the reason for the low performance and yield stability of the hybrids. For this purpose a detailed study on the reasons for the drawback of the currently existing CMS system in triticale is urgently required comprising also the search of potentially alternative hybridization systems.

  2. The influence of climatic conditions changes on grain yield in Winter Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuț RACZ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is making out the influence of climatic changes on grain yield of winter triticale in relation with applied fertilizer. The influence of environmental conditions on growing and development of triticale plants depends of grow stages and their duration. During five experimental years (2010-2015 the climatic conditions were different year to year, with an accentuated heating trend, influencing plant phenology, accelerating or slowing down some important processes disturbing grain yield formation. The influence of drought is more accentuated by heating stress and prolonging of these conditions during the main phenological processes have a negative influence on plant growth or development with effect on the grain yield formation process.

  3. Influence of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizations on triticale yield under dry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goekmen, S.; Tasyuerek, T.; Demir, M.

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of N and P fertilizations on grain yield of triticale. Field experiments were conducted at three locations and four locations of Sivas province during 1996-97 and 1997-98 growing seasons, respectively. The experiment was designed in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Five rates of nitrogen (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg N ha -1 ) and phosphorus (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 ) were applied. The trials of nitrogen and phosphorus were conducted separately. Nitrogen application significantly increased the grain yield all sites in both years. Grain yield was significantly increased by P application at all locations in the first year and at only Uzunyayla in the second year. The highest grain yield was obtained from different fertilizer applications depending upon sites and years. Refs. 17 (author)

  4. Climate and N-Mineral Fertilization Changes on Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    Ecological quality has a well established dependence on climate-rainfall changes because the water problems are pressing. There is, therefore, growing concern about the potentially wide ranging risks that climate change would have on these key industries as the nature and extent of anticipated changes have become more evident. It also includes changes in land use and in plant production and their management. These changes are unprecedented in terms of both their rate and their spatial extent. Changes in land use (agrotechnics, soil, cultivation, fertility, quality, protection etc.) and in plant production (plant nutrition-, rotation-, protection-, etc.) are currently the main manifestations. As an interdisciplinary problem it is necessary to study such a complex matter in terms of agricultural production. Generally among natural catastrophes, droughts and floods cause the greatest problems in field crop production. The droughts and the floods that were experienced in Hungary in the early 1980's have drawn renewed attention to the analyses of these problems. New research on climate change-soil-plant systems are focused on yield and yield quality. This paper reports the climate change (rainfall) x soil (acidic sandy brown forest) x mineral N-fertilisation x plant interactions on triticale yields in a long term field experiment set up at Nyírlugos in north-eastern Hungary under temperate climate conditions in 1962. The agrochemical parameters of the soil were as follows: pH (H2O) 5.9, pH (KCl) 4.7, hydrolytic acidity 8.4, hy1 0.3, humus 0.7%, CEC 5-10 mgeq 100*g-1, total N 34 mg*kg-1, AL-P2O5 43 mg*kg-1, AL-K2O 60 mg*kg-1. From 1962 to 1980 the experiment consisted of 2x16x4x4=512 plots and from 1980 of 32x4=128 plots in split-split plot and factorial random block design. The gross plot size was 10x5=50 m2. The average fertiliser rates in kg*ha-1*year-1 were nitrogen 45, phosphorus 24 (P2O5), potassium 40 (K2O), magnesium 7.5 (MgO) until 1980 and nitrogen 75

  5. Liming and Fertilization Effects on Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Yield Between 1999 and 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    .6452***, NK: R = 0.6998***, NPK: R = 0.5555***, NPKCa: R = 0.5578***, NPKMg: R = 0.4869**, NPKCaMg: R = 0.4341**). However, the total regression coefficients ranged from 0.43 to 0.74 in depence on the different nutrient application. Maximum yields of 5.8-6.0 t . ha-1 were achieved in the rainfall range of 580-620 mm. At values above and below this domain of the precipitation the grain yield reduced quadratically. So, it can be stated that both, drought and excess rainfall conditions resulted dramatically in significant negative effects between fertilization (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and triticale yield. Keywords: precipitation, fertilization, liming, triticale, yield Introduction: The hazards associated with climate change are depend on the interaction of several systems with many variables (Johnston, 2000). Accummulation of carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, ozone, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons (build-up of greenhouse gases) in the atmosphere and trends in their emissions suggest that we can expect significant environmental changes in the 21th century (Cynthia and Ana, 2006; Eric 2006). However, a recent consensus has emerged that between the greenhouse gases rising of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide could become the more dangerous bacause it causing the global warming (Láng, 2005). Today, most researchers believe that higher temperature, drought and rainfall excess caused by climate change will depress crop yields in many places in the coming decades (Kádár et al., 2000; Jolánkai, 2005). Thus, in the last decades many agricultural investigations focused on understanding the relation between mean climate change and crop production (Runge, 1968; Várallyay, 1992). Changes in weather patterns were observed thoughout Europe including Hungary as early as 1850. Among the natural consequences of changing weather patterns, years of drought (rainfall deficit) and wet (rainfall excess) conditions, resulted in

  6. Variability of yield traits and disease resistance in winter triticale genetic resources accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Kociuba

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A systematic gathering of winter triticale accessions was started in Poland in 1982 by the Institute of Genetics, Breeding and Seed Science at the Agricultural University in Lublin (at present its name is: Institute of Genetics, Breeding and Plant Biotechnology at the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. First, breeding lines obtained in local breeding stations were gathered. Next, accessions were imported from the following world gene banks: Beltsville, Gatersleben, and VIR. Interesting hybrid materials obtained in research centers were also included in the collection. Now, the collection includes 2349 accessions (1329 of winter triticale and 1020 of spring triticale. The evaluation is conducted in a 4-year cycle of field experiments using the same methods. The gathered accessions represent a large range of variability of both morphological and commercial traits. The large differentiation of accessions especially concerns traits such as: plant height, number and weight of grains per spi- ke, protein content in grain, field resistance to powdery mildew, brown rust and leaf and spike diseases.

  7. Assessment of the impact of ecological factors on yield and quality parameters in triticale using GGE Biplot and AMMI analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendal, E.; Tekdal, S.; Sayar, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of late spring frost on grain yield (GY) and quality of spring triticale (Triticosecale) genotypes, based on genotype plus genotype * environment interaction (GGE) biplot analysis. The study included a total of 25 genotypes, including 20 advanced lines, 3 triticale varieties, and 2 candidate lines. The genotypes were evaluated for GY and quality traits during the 2012/2013 (normal season) and 2013/2014 (late spring frost) seasons. We observed significant differences between seasons for GY and quality traits, as affected by changing environmental conditions over the two seasons. Late spring frost caused a statistically significant 50% reduction in GY, 7.1% reduction in test weight (TW), and 26.1% reduction in thousand grain weight (TGW); however, it positively affected protein content (PC), and it increased by 42.6%. We observed that early heading genotypes were differently affected by late spring frost, compared to late maturing genotypes, in terms of GY, TW, and TGW. The GGE biplot analysis highlighted three and four distinct groups of traits in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 growing seasons, respectively. Results from the GGE biplot analysis revealed that G12 and G16 were stable and ideal genotypes for all of the traits in the 2012/2013 season, and G10 and G23 were stable and ideal for the 2013/2014 season. In addition, G10 was the best genotype averaged over the two growing seasons. The genotypes G9, G13, and G17 were more stable and higher yielding, based on Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) analysis, compared to the remaining genotypes. (author)

  8. (Vicia sativa L.) - triticale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... This study was carried to determine the best seed mixture of vetch and triticale for East Mediterranean .... Averaged dry matter yield in the second year was signifi- ... ever, dry matter yields of all mixtures with the exceptions ...

  9. Effect of inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on yields and fodder value of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi in triticale cv. Clercal mixture

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    Darko Uher

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Two year field trials (1999-2001 were aimed to determine the inoculation seed winter pea and nitrogen top-dressing effect on number and active nodules of pea root and also on the green mass and dry matter yield of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi and triticale cv. Clercal mixture. Immediately before sowing the inoculation of pea seeds was done by the indigenous variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae which belongs to the collection of Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The highest total nodule number on pea root (134 was determined on the inoculated variant as well as active nodule (120. Average mixture green mass yields were ranging from 20.9 t ha-1 (control up to 30.1 t ha-1 (inoculation + nitrogen top-dressing. Total dry matter yields were ranging from 3.71 t ha-1 (control up to 5.36 t ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Pea crude protein yields in 2001 were ranging from 500 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing up to 642 kg ha-1 (inoculation and for triticale, those values were from 322 kg ha-1 (control up to 498 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Total mixture crude proteins yields were from 845 kg ha-1 (control up to 998 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing.

  10. Triticale – past and future

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    St. Dobreva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Two of the oldest plants that nature has provided to mankind for feeding - wheat and rye, are now combined in a totally new species. In Bulgaria, as well as all over the world, selection aims to create highly productive varieties, which are resistible to diseases. It was in the middle of the last century when people really started to work on that. The first variety of triticale in Bulgaria was obtained in 1965. The main growers of triticale are Germany, France, China, Australia, Hungary and USA, the biggest being Poland with over 1 million hectares. The main purpose of the crop worldwide is for food for the livestock. There are bread varieties of the triticale created, which are an appropriate addition to the wheat flour for the production of bread and bakery, as well as whole grains for cereals and triticale noodles. The newest usage of triticale is as a raw material for biofuels. Fertilization is critical to the yield and to the quality of production when growing triticale. In the past fertilization has been done by depositing manure, butmodern agriculture provides significantly greater choice. The synthetic fertilizers are easy to store and distribute. Fertilization is mechanical, according to the needs of the plants. The use of foliar fertilizers is also completely mechanized. The study of their impact on productivity and quality of production is a subject of growing interest, taking into account the positive impact of the experiments conducted so far.

  11. Mutagenic sensitivity to triticales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, V.R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate and their combined treatments on germination, survival, seedling height and sterility were studied in one winter Triticale var. 6TA 87 and one sprig Triticale var. cinnamon. Based on LD 50 , degree of reduction in seedling height and increase in seed and pollen sterility, it was concluded that Triticale var. cinnamon is highly sensitive and mutable compared to Triticale 6TA 876. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Triticale in the years with extreme weather conditions

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    Nožinić Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other grain crops, the area under triticale in the Republic of Srpska has been expanding every year. Since the introduction of this plant species in the broad production began a few years ago, the finding of the optimal variety agrotechnique in different environmental conditions has great importance. This paper deals with the results of the trials from seven locations in two very extreme vegetation seasons (2002/03, 2006/07. High yield of triticale on the location Banja Luka (150 m alt. with five triticale varieties in four sowing rates in the replication trial in very unfavorable weather conditions in 2003, points to emphasized triticale tolerance to high temperatures and drought. High grain yield of triticale in the trials on the locations Banja Luka, Butmir (460 m alt. and Živince (230 m alt. was obtained in 2007 too, when all vegetation months had higher mean temperature than long term average, what is a unique appearance in the entire 'meteorological history'. In the paper the appearance of the earliest triticale heading is described and explained. It happened at one production trial on Manjača (250 m alt. in the first decade of March in 2007. On the another location on Manjača (450 m alt., in the macrotrial, rye showed much higher tolerance to extreme soil acidity, than triticale. Obtained results and unusual appearances on triticale are helpful for the further research of the stability and adaptability of more important triticale traits. .

  13. Power from triticale straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassanayake, M.; Kumar, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using triticale straw for production of electricity in Canada. Triticale is a manmade hybrid of wheat and rye and it has a high potential of growth in Canada. The cost ($/MWh) of producing electricity from triticale straw was estimated using a data intensive techno-economic model. The study also determined the optimum size of a biomass power plant (MW) which is a trade-off between capital cost of the plant and transportation cost of biomass. Cost curves were also developed in order to evaluate the impact of scale on power production costs. The location of the power plant and the future expansion of triticale were among the factors considered in the techno-economic mode. The scope of the work included all the processes beginning with the collection of straw to the conversion to electricity through direct combustion at the power plant. According to the preliminary results, the cost of producing power from triticale straw is higher than coal-based electricity production in western Canada.

  14. Aluminum tolerance association mapping in triticale

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    Niedziela Agnieszka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crop production practices and industrialization processes result in increasing acidification of arable soils. At lower pH levels (below 5.0, aluminum (Al remains in a cationic form that is toxic to plants, reducing growth and yield. The effect of aluminum on agronomic performance is particularly important in cereals like wheat, which has promoted the development of programs directed towards selection of tolerant forms. Even in intermediately tolerant cereals (i.e., triticale, the decrease in yield may be significant. In triticale, Al tolerance seems to be influenced by both wheat and rye genomes. However, little is known about the precise chromosomal location of tolerance-related genes, and whether wheat or rye genomes are crucial for the expression of that trait in the hybrid. Results A mapping population consisting of 232 advanced breeding triticale forms was developed and phenotyped for Al tolerance using physiological tests. AFLP, SSR and DArT marker platforms were applied to obtain a sufficiently large set of molecular markers (over 3000. Associations between the markers and the trait were tested using General (GLM and Multiple (MLM Linear Models, as well as the Statistical Machine Learning (SML approach. The chromosomal locations of candidate markers were verified based on known assignments of SSRs and DArTs or by using genetic maps of rye and triticale. Two candidate markers on chromosome 3R and 9, 15 and 11 on chromosomes 4R, 6R and 7R, respectively, were identified. The r2 values were between 0.066 and 0.220 in most cases, indicating a good fit of the data, with better results obtained with the GML than the MLM approach. Several QTLs on rye chromosomes appeared to be involved in the phenotypic expression of the trait, suggesting that rye genome factors are predominantly responsible for Al tolerance in triticale. Conclusions The Diversity Arrays Technology was applied successfully to association mapping studies

  15. Breeding of hexaploid triticale for drought resistance

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    Г. В. Щипак

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Analysis of hexaploid triticale breeding process for drought resistance through the use of systemic ecological tests in contrasting conditions. Methods. Dialectical, field, laboratory and statistical ones. Results. Medium-grown (‘Amos’, ‘Nikanor’, ‘Rarytet’, ‘Yaroslava’ and low-stem (‘HAD 69’, ‘HAD 86’, ‘HAD 110’, ‘Timofei’ multiline varieties of winter and alternate hexaploid triticale were developed with higher adaptability, potential yield of 9–12 tons per ha and high bread-making properties. Among the most drought resistant genotypes, such varieties as ‘Amos’, ‘Buket’, ‘Harne’, ‘Markiian’, ‘Kharroza’, ‘Shalanda’, ‘Nicanor’ and ‘Yaroslava’ showed high values of yield, plasticity and stability. Conclusions. The use of interspecific hybridization instead of intergeneric one in hexaploid triticale breeding, together with systemic testing of the hybrid material in contrasting agro-ecological zones, ensured the creation of multiline competitive varieties with an optimal combination of yield and adaptive properties

  16. Genetic studies on dwarf triticale mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalepa, S.

    1984-01-01

    The parents, F 1 , F 2 and backcrosses derived from triticale dwarf mutants and tall cultivars were studied during the 1979-80 crop season. Data was taken on individual plants to estimate dwarf inheritance, gene action and interrelationships of grain yield and selected yield related traits. The direct and indirect effects of grain yield per spike on other grain yield components were also studied. Results indicate that dwarfing is controlled by two, partially dominant, genes. Additional crosses involving other hexaploid triticale lines revealed the inheritance of other characters. The results in F 2 show that glossy plant, waxy covering of the neck and hairy neck are dominant, while short straw is recessive. Waxy covering on the spike seems to be controlled by two genes with additive action. Observation of F 2 progenies indicates that a gene for waxy neck covering Wx and hairy neck Hp might be located on the same chromosome at a distance of about 19 units. Plant height showed a positive phenotypic correlation with grain yield and 1,000 kernel weight. Non-significant correlations were found between plant height and number of grains per spike, harvest index and spikelet fertility. Path coefficient analyses at the phenotypic level indicated that the direct effects of grain number on grain yield were large while the direct effects of 1,000 kernel weight were relatively small. The results of this study indicate that selection for high kernel number is the most important factor in a breeding programme for increasing grain yield in some dwarf triticale. It was found that epistasis is not involved in the inheritance of harvest index. Additive, dominance and additive x dominance epistasis were important for grain yield per spike. A duplicate type of epistasis was found for 1,000 kernel weight and number of grains per spikelet. (author)

  17. Triticale for dairy forage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triticale forages have become increasingly important components of dairy-cropping systems. In part, this trend has occurred in response to environmental pressures, specifically a desire to capture N and other nutrients from land-applied manure, and/or to improve stewardship of the land by providing ...

  18. Potato yield and yield structure depending on irrigation

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    Milić Stanko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agroclimatic conditions of the Vojvodina Province, the application of an economic water regime and modern technology is necessary for stable and intensive potato production. A two-year experiment on calcareous chernozem was carried out to determine how irrigation and different pre-irrigation soil moisture affect potato yield and distribution of tuber fraction in the potato yield. The block-design trial had four replicates and was adapted for sprinkler irrigation conditions. It included four treatments: irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 60 % of field water capacity (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 70 % (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 80% (FC, and a non-irrigated control treatment. Irrigation significantly increased the yield of potato, which increased from 37.27 % to 75.86 %. Under irrigation, the percentage of small fractions decreased in favour of the 55 mm one, or fractions above the 45-55 mm range. On average, irrigated treatments produced significantly more tubers than the conditions of natural water supply. .

  19. Physicochemical Studies On Irradiated Triticale Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, Z.H.

    2012-01-01

    Triticale grains had slightly lower contents of fats (2.09%), proteins (13.05%), moisture (10.51%), than those of wheat (2.74, 13.68 and 10.94%) respectively. While the ash and total carbohydrate are higher in triticale grains (1.72% and 83.14%) than those of wheat grains (1.51% and 82.07%),. Wheat flour had higher contents of proteins (11.30%), carbohydrates (86.37%) than those of triticale (9.3% and 85.45% respectively). While triticale flour had higher contents of ash (1.04%), fats (1.93%), crude fiber (2.28%) than those of wheat flour (0.58%, 0.90% and 0.85%, respectively). Slight differences were found between different estimated parameters in irradiated grains (2.5, 5, 7.5 kGy) before and after storage for 6 months. The farinogram parameters of the flours with the different levels of the triticale flour, water absorption values decreased from 61.51 to 59.1% for triticale and flour blend. The maximum resistance (Bu) of the blend contained 10% triticale flour and 90% wheat flour was 665 and decreased by increasing the triticale flour ratio in the blends to 20% then the maximum resistance increased to 900. The extensibility (mm) value was increased from 105 at 10% triticale flour to 130 at 20% triticale flour then decreased to 95 at 40% triticale flour. γ-irradiation of different blends caused an increase in extensibility value. The general appearance, crust color and taste of the bread (10% triticale and 90% wheat) were given very good score.

  20. Evaluation of triticale as energy crop in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantale, Cristina; Correnti, Angelo; Farneti, Anna; Felici, Fabio; Mentuccia, Luciano; Pignatelli, Vito; Sprocati, Anna Rosa; Ammar, Karim; Galeffi, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of renewable energy represents a target of the European 2020 strategy for economical growth and sustainable competitiveness. Cereals are considered a promising biomass producing crop in temperate regions of Europe to be used for both fuel alcohol and biogas production. Among cereals, triticale represents a good candidate for this kind of application, showing a number of advantages such as high grain yield even in marginal environments, tolerance to drought, tolerance to more acid soils, lower production costs and lower susceptibility to biotic stresses. The aim of this study was to compare yield and quality of eight triticale lines grown in marginal areas in a two-year experiment. Italian variety, Magistral, and a bread wheat variety (EW9) were selected for comparison. Data from fields, chemical analyses and preliminary results from fermentation are reported.

  1. Hvede, rug og triticale til energi - input, udbytte og kvalitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn

    2000-01-01

    Yield and quality of wheat, rye or triticale for energy purposes have been evaluated in field trials. Triticale and rye had a higher biomass production than wheat in spite of a lower input of nitrogen. The straw fraction contained more chloride, potassium and sodium than the grain fraction...... of chloride and sulphur in the straw as well as content of potassium, sodium and ash may be reduced due to precipitation before harvest........ These minerals may lead to corrosion processes, ash slagging and fouling. The grain fraction contained more sulphur and nitrogen, which may lead to emission of SO2 and NOx. Fertilizers containing chloride and sulphur, may lead to an increased content of chloride and sulphur in the straw fraction. Content...

  2. Triticale biotic stresses--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseniuk, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Triticale has been considered as resistant to diseases over a long time. Although, many authors perpetuate this opinion, it is no longer true. However, in comparison to wheat and rye triticale still may look as a healthy crop, but its healthiness has been steadily declining. It could be explained by steady expansion of the growing area and longer exposure to pathogens. On the other hand, triticale is a crop on which meet pathogens of wheat and rye, but there is evidence that on triticale embedded more so called "wheat pathogens", than rye ones. For such an notable example may serve races of Puccinia recondita. In the latter respect triticale also appears to be a bridge facilitating a direct contact between the pathogens, e.g. between physiological forms of the most important cereal rusts. Such contacts stimulate somatic hybridization on bridging triticale plant and may finally result in new hybrid pathotypes carrying virulence genes (factors) to all three hosts, i.e. triticale, wheat and rye. In addition to all triticale commercial and agronomical values, triticale still is and it will continue to be bridging transfers of resistance genes to various pathogens and pests mainly from rye to wheat. The paper will describe main diseases affecting triticale worldwide. The first disease which occurred on this cereal in epidemic proportions was stem rust (Pucinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Australia. Leaf and stripe rusts (P. recondita f. sp. tritici and P. striiformis) are also have gained in importance everywhere triticale is grown. In recent years, at least in Poland, powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis occurred in epidemic proportions in quite a number of winter triticale cultivars. Similar phenomenon has been observed with quite a number of other diseases caused by facultative pathogens, such as the most damaging to triticale the Stagonospora spp. leaf and glume blotch disease complex and other pathogens like Cochliobolus sativus, Fusarium culmorum, and F

  3. Genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale.

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    Wenxin Liu

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress experienced by autumn-sown crops during winter is of great economic importance as it can have a severe negative impact on yield. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. To this end, we used a large mapping population of 647 DH lines phenotyped for both traits in combination with genome-wide marker data. Employing multiple-line cross QTL mapping, we identified nine main effect QTL for winter hardiness and frost tolerance of which six were overlapping between both traits. Three major QTL were identified on chromosomes 5A, 1B and 5R. In addition, an epistasis scan revealed the contribution of epistasis to the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. Taken together, our results show that winter hardiness and frost tolerance are complex traits that can be improved by phenotypic selection, but also that genomic approaches hold potential for a knowledge-based improvement of these important traits in elite triticale germplasm.

  4. Reduction of water consumption in bioethanol production from triticale by recycling the stillage liquid phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumienna, Małgorzata; Lasik, Małgorzata; Szambelan, Katarzyna; Czarnecki, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    The distillery stillage is a major and arduous byproduct generated during ethanol production in distilleries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of the stillage recirculation in the mashing process of triticale for non-byproducts production and reducing the fresh water consumption. The number of recirculation cycles which can be applied without disturbances in the ethanol fermentation process was investigated. Winter triticale BOGO and "Ethanol Red" Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast were used in the experiments. The method of non-pressure cooking was used for gelatinizingthe triticale, commercial α-amylase SPEZYME ETHYL and glucoamylase FERMENZYME L-400 were applied for starch liquefaction and saccharification. The process was conducted at 30°C for 72 h, next after distillation the stillage was centrifuged and the liquid fraction was used instead of 75% of process water. Ethanol yield from triticale fermentations during 40 cycles ranged between 82% and 95% of theoretical yield preserving yeast vitality and quantity on the same level. The obtained distillates were characterized with enhanced volatile compounds (fusel oil, esters, aldehydes, methanol) as well as protein and potassium concentrations. The liquid part of stillage was proved that can be reused instead of water in bioethanol production from triticale, without disturbing the fermentation process. This investigated solution of distillery byproducts utilization (liquid phase of stillage) constitutes the way which could significantly decrease the bioethanol production costs by reducing the water consumption, as well as wastewater production.

  5. Triticale: the birth of a new cereal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, N

    1983-01-13

    Hybrid triticale combines the high production and high market value of wheat and the disease and drought resistance of rye. The development of colchicine, which can sometimes double chromosomes, enabled the production of fertile plants. The use of triticale as a significant staple crop is spreading throughout the Third World countries, where it thrives on small, marginal plots as well as in large fields. Although used primarily as cattle feed, ethanol production is under consideration. As world population grows, triticale could help to combat famine. (DCK)

  6. Genetic architecture of fusarium head blight resistance in four winter triticale populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalih, R; Maurer, H P; Miedaner, T

    2015-03-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease that causes significant reductions in yield and quality in wheat, rye, and triticale. In triticale, knowledge of the genetic architecture of FHB resistance is missing but essential due to modern breeding requirements. In our study, four doubled-haploid triticale populations (N=120 to 200) were evaluated for resistance to FHB caused by artificial inoculation with Fusarium culmorum in four environments. DArT markers were used to genotype triticale populations. Seventeen quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FHB resistance were detected across all populations; six of them were derived from rye genome and located on chromosomes 4R, 5R, and 7R, which are here reported for the first time. The total cross-validated ratio of the explained phenotypic variance for all detected QTL in each population was 41 to 68%. In all, 17 QTL for plant height and 18 QTL for heading stage were also detected across all populations; 3 and 5 of them, respectively, were overlapping with QTL for FHB. In conclusion, FHB resistance in triticale is caused by a multitude of QTL, and pyramiding them contributes to higher resistance.

  7. Determination compliance abilities of some triticale varieties and comparison with wheat in Southeastern Anatolia conditions of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Enver; Tekdal, Sertaç; Aktas, Hüsnü; Karaman, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In this research, were used 3 triticale varieties (Tacettinbey, Karma 2000 and Presto), one durum (Sariçanak 98) and one bread (Nurkent) wheat varieties. The study, was randomized as complete block design with four replications in 4 location (southeastern Anatolia of Turkey) and under rainfed conditions during the growing season 2010-2011. With an analysis of variance, significant differences were determined among locations, genotypes and genotype x location interactions at the 1% and 5% level. Following results were obtained: period to heading 109 till 113 days, plant height between 96 and 127 cm, hectoliter weight between 68.2 and 81.7 kg/hl, thousand grain weight between 32.9 and 42.7 g, protein content between 13.3 and 14.7%, humidty kernels at harvest between 9.2 and 9.5% and grain yield between 4409 and 6119 kg/ha(-1). The highest grain yield was obtained with Sariçanak 98 (durum wheat variety) while the best thousant grain weight was obtained by the triticale variety Tacettinbey. The triticale variety Karma 2000 showed higher protein content (14.7%) than other the other triticale varieties as well as durum and bread wheat varieties included trial. For the Southeastern Anatolia Region he results of this study demonstrated that the grain yield of triticale varieties were lower compared to common wheat. Nevertheless the triticale grain yield was higher than these of durum and bread wheat varieties under the more extrem (higher temperature and drought) growing conditions of the Kiziltepe region. For triticale the highest mean grain yield has been obtained fwith the variety Tacettinbey which is spring type. New sping type vatieties are more suitable than wheat for the more extreme growing conditions of the Southeastern Anatolia Region.

  8. Evaluation of Different Triticale (X Triticosecale wittmack Genotypes for Agronomic and Qualitative Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ansari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Genetic variation is essential for the success of breeding programs and is vital to helping the genetic improvement of Triticale. Understanding patterns of genetic diversity in the Triticale and use of its genetic resources on a practical basis may help to establish appropriate procedures for breeding genetic materials. It can be used as a benchmark for classifying parenting lines and favorable heterotic groups in triticale. Triticale (X Triticosecale wittmack has considerable potential either as a grain crop or forage crop, but has received little attention from breeding programs in Iran. Materials and Methods This research was conducted to study the genetic diversity and the performance of triticale cultivars imported from Poland and International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT using some agro-morphological traits. Forty one triticale genotypes were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Farm of College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology. Agronomic characteristics comprising plant height (cm, length of the last node (cm, flag leaf length (cm, spike length (cm, thousand seed weight (g, the number of spike per m2, seed yield (tha-1, grain number per spike, number of spikelets per spike, harvest index, test weight (kg hectoliter, biological yield (ton ha-1, wet and dry gluten content (% were measured. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS statistical software. The multivariate analysis procedures used to analyze the collected data and to investigate relationships among variables. Mean comparison was conducted using LSD range test (at 5% level. The unweighted neighbour joining (UNJ cluster analysis was carried out using NT-SYS software. Results and Discussion Analysis of variance showed that genotypes were significantly different in all characters. The measured traits varied in coefficient of genotypic and phenotypic variation. The highest

  9. Willow yield is highly dependent on clone and site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    Use of high-yielding genotypes is one of the means to achieve high yield and profitability in willow (Salix spp.) short rotation coppice. This study investigated the performance of eight willow clones (Inger, Klara, Linnea, Resolution, Stina, Terra Nova, Tora, Tordis) on five Danish sites......, differing considerably in soil type, climatic conditions and management. Compared to the best clone, the yield was up to 36 % lower for other clones across sites and up to 51 % lower within sites. Tordis was superior to other clones with dry matter yields between 5.2 and 10.2 Mg ha−1 year−1 during the first...... 3-year harvest rotation, and it consistently ranked as the highest yielding clone on four of the five sites and not significantly lower than the highest yielding clone on the fifth site. The ranking of the other clones was more dependent on site with significant interaction between clone and site...

  10. CULTIVATION OF WINTER TRITICALE. TRITICALE APPLICATION IN THE CREATION OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Zhukov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of growth regulators in crops of winter triticale has a positive effect on the growth and development of plants. Processing of seed material reduces infection of plants with diseases. Treatment with growth regulators improves productive tillering that helps to increase productivity. The use of seedlings in the production of functional food products is a perspective direction of usage of triticale. High content of essential amino acids and biologically active substances in triticale seedlings leads to their high nutritional and biological value.

  11. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT GROWING CONDITIONS ON THE MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE SPIKE OF HEXAPLOID TRITICALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. U. Kurkiev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to study the effect of different environmental conditions on the morphological traits of the spike of hexaploid triticale varieties.Methods. We analyzed 507 samples of triticale of various eco-geographical origins, in different years of study and at different seeding times. To investigate the influence of environmental conditions on the phenotypic expression of the studied traits we held a comparative analysis of the spike of two years and, in addition, of spring triticale during winter and spring crops. Analysis on the features was carried out on the main spikes. We studied the following morphological characteristics of the spike: length, number of spikelets and density.Results and discussion. The study of differences in individual variety samples showed that more than 60% triticale samples had significant differences in the length of the spike, depending on the weather conditions of the year – with the winter crops number of spikelets per spike was significantly higher than with the spring crops. A comparative analysis of the impact of the weather conditions of the year on triticale showed that significant differences in the density of the spike were observed in less than 30%.Conclusion. Study of the influence of conditions of the year and sowing dates on the main features of the spike of triticale showed that the density of the spike is the least affected by the external environment. The length of the spikes and the number of spikelets per spike differed significantly when growing in a various conditions.

  12. Feeding value of triticale for broiler chickens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edi Widodo

    2015-03-16

    Mar 16, 2015 ... ... to the other diets. Birds on all the triticale diets except Canobolas achieved better growth than ... Prior to transfer, feed intake and body weight were recorded. The rearing conditions for ..... Asian J. Bio. Sci. 4, 90-95. Minitab ...

  13. Boron rates for triticale and wheat crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa Juliano Corulli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available No reports are registered on responses to boron fertilization nutrient deficiency and toxicity in triticale crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate triticale response to different rates of boron in comparison to wheat in an hapludox with initial boron level at 0.08 mg dm-3 4 4 factorial design trial completely randomized blocks design (n = 4. Boron rates were 0; 0.62; 1.24 and 1.86 mg dm-3; triticale cultivars were IAC 3, BR 4 and BR 53 and IAPAR 38 wheat crop was used for comparison. The wheat (IAPAR 38 crop presented the highest boron absorption level of all. Among triticale cultivars, the most responsive was IAC 53, presenting similar characteristics to wheat, followed by BR 4; these two crops are considered tolerant to higher boron rates in soil. Regarding to BR 53, no absorption effect was observed, and the cultivars was sensitive to boron toxicity. Absorption responses differed for each genotype. That makes it possible to choose and use the best-adapted plants to soils with different boron rates.

  14. Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Dependence Upon Texture Development in Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Loftus, Ryan J.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2016-01-01

    The atomic oxygen erosion yield (volume of a polymer that is lost due to oxidation per incident atom) of polymers is typically assumed to be reasonably constant with increasing fluence. However polymers containing ash or inorganic pigments, tend to have erosion yields that decrease with fluence due to an increasing presence of protective particles on the polymer surface. This paper investigates two additional possible causes for erosion yields of polymers that are dependent upon atomic oxygen. These are the development of surface texture which can cause the erosion yield to change with fluence due to changes in the aspect ratio of the surface texture that develops and polymer specific atomic oxygen interaction parameters. The surface texture development under directed hyperthermal attack produces higher aspect ratio surface texture than isotropic thermal energy atomic oxygen attack. The fluence dependence of erosion yields is documented for low Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) effective fluences for a variety of polymers under directed hyperthermal and isotropic thermal energy attack.

  15. Extended incident-angle dependence formula of sputter yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, T.; Shibata, K.; Muramoto, T.; Kenmotsu, T.; Li Z.; Kawamura, T.

    2006-06-01

    We extend a new semi-empirical formula for incident-angle dependence of normalized sputter yield that includes the contribution to sputter yield from the direct knock-out process that was not considered in the previously proposed one. Three parameters included in the new one are estimated for data calculated with ACAT code for D + ions incident obliquely on C, Fe and W materials in incident-energy regions from several tens of eV to 10 keV. Then, the parameters are expressed with functions of incident energy. The formula with the functions derived well reproduces that using the ACAT data in the whole energy range. (author)

  16. Fluence-dependent sputtering yield of micro-architectured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Christopher S.R.; Ghoniem, Nasr M., E-mail: ghoniem@ucla.edu; Li, Gary Z.; Matlock, Taylor S.; Goebel, Dan M.; Dodson, Chris A.; Wirz, Richard E.

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Sputtering yield is shown to be transient and heavily dependent on surface architecture. • Fabricated nano- and Microstructures cause geometric re-trapping of sputtered material, which leads to a self-healing mechanism. • Initially, the sputtering yield of micro-architectured Mo is approximately 1/2 the value as that of a planar surface. • The study demonstrates that the sputtering yield is a dynamic property, dependent on the surface structure of a material. • A developed phenomenological model mathematically describes the transient behavior of the sputtering yield as a function of plasma fluence. - Abstract: We present an experimental examination of the relationship between the surface morphology of Mo and its instantaneous sputtering rate as function of low-energy plasma ion fluence. We quantify the dynamic evolution of nano/micro features of surfaces with built-in architecture, and the corresponding variation in the sputtering yield. Ballistic deposition of sputtered atoms as a result of geometric re-trapping is observed, and re-growth of surface layers is confirmed. This provides a self-healing mechanism of micro-architectured surfaces during plasma exposure. A variety of material characterization techniques are used to show that the sputtering yield is not a fundamental property, but that it is quantitatively related to the initial surface architecture and to its subsequent evolution. The sputtering yield of textured molybdenum samples exposed to 300 eV Ar plasma is roughly 1/2 of the corresponding value for flat samples, and increases with ion fluence. Mo samples exhibited a sputtering yield initially as low as 0.22 ± 5%, converging to 0.4 ± 5% at high fluence. The sputtering yield exhibits a transient behavior as function of the integrated ion fluence, reaching a steady-state value that is independent of initial surface conditions. A phenomenological model is proposed to explain the observed transient sputtering phenomenon, and to

  17. Soluble carbohydrates in cereal (wheat, rye, triticale seed after storage under accelerated ageing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Germinability and the content of soluble carbohydrates were analysed in cereal seed (winter rye, cv. Warko; spring wheat, cv. Santa; hexaploid winter triticale, cv. Fidelio and cv. Woltario. Seed moisture content (mc was equilibrated over silica gel to 0.08 g H2O/g dry mass and stored in a desiccator at 20oC for up to 205 weeks or were equilibrated to mc 0.06, 0.08 or 0.10 g H2O/g dm and subjected to artificial aging at 35oC in air-tight laminated aluminium foil packages for 205 weeks. It was shown that the rate of seed aging depended on the species and seed moisture content. The fastest decrease of germinability upon storage was observed in seed with the highest moisture level. Complete germinability loss for winter rye, winter triticale cv. Fidelio, winter triticale cv. Woltario and spring wheat seed with mc 0.10 g H2O/g dm3 occurred after 81, 81, 101 and 133 weeks, respectively. Fructose, glucose, galactose, myo-inositol, sucrose, galactinol, raffinose, stachyose and verbascose were the main soluble carbohydrates found in the seed. The obtained data on the contents of specific sugars and the composition of soluble sugars fraction in seed of rye, wheat and triticale did not corroborate any profound effect of reducing sugars, sucrose and oligosaccharides on seed longevity.

  18. Triticale powdery mildew: population characterization and wheat gene efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguennec, Annaig; Trottet, Maxime; du Cheyron, Philippe; Lonnet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew has emerged on triticale in the early 2000s in many locations, probably due to a host range expansion of the wheat formae speciales, Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Many triticale cultivars are highly susceptible to powdery mildew, mainly in seedling stage, revealing a probably narrow genetic basis for powdery mildew resistance genes (Pm). Moreover, as Blumeria graminis is an obligate biotrophic fungus, it is very time consuming and difficult to maintain powdery mildew isolates for a non-specialized laboratory and populations can evolve. In order to identify wheat Pm genes efficient against natural populations of powdery mildew, wheat differential hosts and triticale seedlings were inoculated below susceptible triticale crop naturally contaminated by mildew, in several locations and several years. Symptoms on seedlings were measured after approximately two weeks of incubation in favorable fungus growth conditions. According to these data, we classified the Pm genes presents in our wheat differential hosts set in 3 classes: Pm already overcame by triticale powdery mildew, Pm having variable effects and Pm still efficient against triticale mildew. Data on triticale seedlings allowed us to identify some few triticale cultivars resistant to Blumeria graminis in seedling stage. We will try to identify Pm genes present in those cultivars next year by testing them with the characterized isolates of powdery mildew from Gent University. Nevertheless, interspecific crossing of wheat, resistant to powdery mildew in seedling stage, and rye have been initiated to introduce potentially interesting genes for resistance in triticale.

  19. Induction of mutations in hexaploid triticale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svec, M.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Several different triticale lines were seed treated with NEH or NaN 3 . In M 2 , chlorophyll mutants were mainly observed in line V2-30 (from 46 x Toemzsi), while short stem, compact spikes and early maturity mutants were found mainly in lines KS126 (from 57 x Stamm 300) and V2-2Z (from Boekoekoe x Rosner). Lines KS60 (from 46 x Toemzsi) and PS728 (from Toemzsi x 72) showed low mutability. (author)

  20. Study of calculated and measured time dependent delayed neutron yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    Time-dependent delayed neutron emission is of interest in reactor design, reactor dynamics, and nuclear physics studies. The delayed neutrons from neutron-induced fission of 232 U, 237 Np, 238 Pu, 241 Am, /sup 242m/Am, 245 Cm, and 249 Cf were studied for the first time. The delayed neutron emission from 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu, and 242 Pu were measured as well. The data were used to develop an empirical expression for the total delayed neutron yield. The expression gives accurate results for a large variety of nuclides from 232 Th to 252 Cf. The data measuring the decay of delayed neutrons with time were used to derive another empirical expression predicting the delayed neutron emission with time. It was found that nuclides with similar mass-to-charge ratios have similar decay patterns. Thus the relative decay pattern of one nuclide can be established by any measured nuclide with a similar mass-to-charge ratio. A simple fission product yield model was developed and applied to delayed neutron precursors. It accurately predicts observed yield and decay characteristics. In conclusion, it is possible to not only estimate the total delayed neutron yield for a given nuclide but the time-dependent nature of the delayed neutrons as well. Reactors utilizing recycled fuel or burning actinides are likely to have inventories of fissioning nuclides that have not been studied until now. The delayed neutrons from these nuclides can now be incorporated so that their influence on the stability and control of reactors can be delineated. 8 figures, 39 tables

  1. The yield of eggplant depending on climate conditions and mulching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamczewska-Sowińska Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The field production of eggplant in moderate climates is difficult as it depends heavily on thermal conditions. Eggplant is a species that is sensitive to low temperatures, and temperatures below 16°C constrain the growth of young plants. Other disadvantageous factors include: temperatures that are too high, water shortage and excessive soil humidity. The growth conditions for eggplant can be improved by using mulches. The purpose of the experiment was the assessment of eggplant cropping while using synthetic mulches of polyethylene foil and polypropylene textile. The research took five years (2008-2012 and on the basis of the obtained results it was possible to determine the influence of weather conditions on the yielding of this species. It was proven that eggplant cropping significantly depended on the air temperature and the amount of rainfall during the vegetation period. The highest yield was observed when the average air temperature was high and at the same time rainfall was evenly distributed throughout the vegetation season. It also turned out that the agro-technical procedure which significantly increased eggplant fruit cropping was mulching the soil with polyethylene black foil, or transparent foil, previously having applied a herbicide.

  2. Implementation of triticale in nutrition of non-ruminant animals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a high level of proteins in the grain of triticale (2 to 3% more than wheat and 4% more than rye), with very beneficial amino acid composition, and is the reason for its usage in domestic animals nutrition. Nowadays, people are of the opinion that triticale is one of potential plant species with the brightest perspective in ...

  3. Effects of growth stage on quality characteristics of triticale forages

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) in dairy-cropping systems has expanded greatly in recent years, partly to improve land stewardship by providing winter ground cover. Our objectives were to relate the nutritive value of triticale forages grown in central Wisconsin with plant growth sta...

  4. Vergelyking van verrykte gars, koring, triticale en mielies vir die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teen die agtergrond van wêreldwye en plaaslike graansurplusse, sowel as die gunstige VOV op verrykte gars en triticale, word voorsien dat hierdie kleingrane met ekonomiese voordele vir die afronding van voerkraallammers aangewend kan word. Keywords: Barley, growth, lambs, maize, triticale, voluntary intake, wheat.

  5. Male sterility of triticale lines generated through recombination of triticale and rye maintainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Warzecha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Triticum timopheevi cytoplasmic male sterility (cms system in triticale (xTriticosecale Wittmack suffers from a low frequency of maintainers and environmental instability of the male sterility. On the other hand, the Pampa cms system in rye (Secale cereale exhibits strong male sterility and a low frequency of restorers. Here, we report generating hybrids between maintainers of the T. timopheevi cms system in triticale and maintainers of the rye Pampa cms system. Ten hybrids were obtained. Their hybridity was verified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeats primers. The cms maintaining ability of F2 individuals and their progeny was tested. The F2 plants were crossed to male sterile lines of triticale carrying the T. timopheevi cytoplasm. Among 180 G1 offspring of these crosses, 71 (39.4% were completely male sterile. Fourteen F2 individuals (7.8%, as well as their F2S1 and progeny, generated stable male sterility in G1, G1BC1 and G1BC2 generations after the crosses. Our results suggest that it is possible to produce a more stable cms system in triticale based on the T. timopheevi cytoplasm as compared to the existing one.

  6. Triticale: avaliação de linhagens em diferentes regiões paulistas Triticale: evaluation on inbred lines in different regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se entre si vinte e quatro linhagens de triticale e o cultivar de trigo IAC-21, através de ensaios em diferentes localidades do Estado de São Paulo, nos anos de 1986 e 1987, analisando-se os seguintes parâmetros: rendimento de grãos, altura de plantas, ciclo em dias da emergência ao florescimento, porcentagem de plantas acamadas, peso de cem grãos e resistência à ferrugem-da-folha e às manchas-foliares em condições de campo. A linhagem de triticale Nutria 7272 foi a mais produtiva (3.098kg/ha, diferindo do 'IAC-21' (2.241 kg/ha e das demais linhagens de triticale, com exceção da Merino"S" - JLO"S" (T-20 e 21, Nutria 440 e Juanillo 159, com 2.891, 2.870, 2.805 e 2.645kg/ha respectivamente. As linhagens de triticale exibiram maior resistência à ferrugem-da-folha com relação ao 'IAC-21'. A Panche 7287 mostrou-se moderadamente resistente às manchas-foliares e, as demais, suscetíveis. As linhagens M2A-KLA"S" x MA (T-6, Faro"S" e Panche 7287 apresentaram ciclo da emergência ao florescimento significativamente maior que o 'IAC-21', e M2A-CML 360 x M2A (T-2, Turk DWF-V 127 x 6TA 204/IA 146, M2A-CML x IA, TCEP 77138, BGL "S"-IGA x PND"S" e BCM"S"-Addax"S" exibiram plantas significativamente mais baixas. A Juanillo 159 apresentou o maior peso de cem grãos, diferindo do 'IAC-21' e das demais linhagens, com exceção da Nutria 7272 e Merino"S" - JLO"S" (T-21.Twenty four triticale inbred lines and the wheat cultivar IAC-21 were evaluated in field experiments carried out at different locations of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, during the years of 1986 and 1987. Grain yield, plant height, number of days from emergence to flowering, percentage of layed plants, weight of 100 grains, resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia graminis sp. tritici and to leaf spots (Helminthosporium sp. and Septoria sp. were evaluated under field conditions. The triticale inbred line Nutria 7272 pre-sented the best grain yield (3,098 kg/ha, showing

  7. Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Heavy Metal Upptake as a Possibility of Food Chain Pollution in a Long-Term Field Experiment in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    [pH (H2O) 6.3, pH (KCl) 5.8, Ca 596 mg . kg-1]. Fe, Zn, B, Pb, Cr and Cd leaf+straw status was not influenced hardly by N treatments, but in case of the leaf+straw Co, concentration was significantly increasing. NP combination effects on Fe, Zn, B, Co, Pb, Cr and Cd were similar to N fertilization. Fe leafe+straw contents decreased strongly by NK effects. NPK and NPKCaMg nutrition growing up Pb accumulation to 1.5 mg . kg-1 [cereal average content (CAC) 0.3-0.6 mg . kg-1]. The experimental Zn, Cr, and Cd leaf+straw values not were on higher level than the CAC. The yield ranged from 0.9 t . ha-1 to 7.9 t . ha-1 on dependence of fertilization treatments. The NPKCaMg combinations yielded more around 9 times than the non fertilized plots. Fe, Zn, B, Co, Al, Sr and Cu grain status was not influenced significantly by N and NK treatments. The NP combination effects on Fe, Zn, B, Co, Al and Cu were similar to N fertilization, but in case of the Sr, concentration was dramatically increasing. Triticale seed Zn values not were on higher level than the CAC. Fe actual transfer index (ATI)(Márton, 2004) values are shown N and NPKCaMg fertilization plus effects on Fe translocation from soils to triticale grain. The Al ATI datas were on low level. These results shown Triticale have ability to Co, Pb and Sr accumulation from soil to crop and food chain to a different degree. Key words: trace element, bioavailability, Haplic Luvisol, triticale Introduction: Triticale is the stabilized man-made hybrid of wheat (Triticum eastivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.). Wheat-rye hybrids date back to 1875, it was only in 1953 that the first North American triticale breeding programme was initiated at the University Manitoba. Globally, triticale is used primary for livestock feed (Oelke et al. 1989). In Mexico, which grows the crop triticale is used mostly for whole-grain triticale breads and tortillas. In the US, triticale is harvested mostly for forage but there is a small market for pancake

  8. Defeating the Warrior: genetic architecture of triticale resistance against a novel aggressive yellow rust race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losert, Dominik; Maurer, Hans Peter; Leiser, Willmar L; Würschum, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Genome-wide association mapping of resistance against the novel, aggressive 'Warrior' race of yellow rust in triticale revealed a genetic architecture with some medium-effect QTL and a quantitative component, which in combination confer high levels of resistance on both leaves and ears. Yellow rust is an important destructive fungal disease in small grain cereals and the exotic 'Warrior' race has recently conquered Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of yellow rust resistance in hexaploid winter triticale as the basis for a successful resistance breeding. To this end, a diverse panel of 919 genotypes was evaluated for yellow rust infection on leaves and ears in multi-location field trials and genotyped by genotyping-by-sequencing as well as for known Yr resistance loci. Genome-wide association mapping identified ten quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yellow rust resistance on the leaves and seven of these also for ear resistance. The total genotypic variance explained by the QTL amounted to 44.0% for leaf and 26.0% for ear resistance. The same three medium-effect QTL were identified for both traits on chromosomes 1B, 2B, and 7B. Interestingly, plants pyramiding the resistance allele of all three medium-effect QTL were generally most resistant, but constitute less than 5% of the investigated triticale breeding material. Nevertheless, a genome-wide prediction yielded a higher predictive ability than prediction based on these three QTL. Taken together, our results show that yellow rust resistance in winter triticale is genetically complex, including both medium-effect QTL as well as a quantitative resistance component. Resistance to the novel 'Warrior' race of this fungal pathogen is consequently best achieved by recurrent selection in the field based on identified resistant lines and can potentially be assisted by genomic approaches.

  9. Wheat and triticale breeding using gamma-ray-induced variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parodi, P.C.; Nebreda, I.M.

    1984-01-01

    Use of gamma-ray-induced variability in wheat has proved to be a valuable breeding methodology. Results with triticale are still inconclusive. After several years of research a number of wheat mutants have been developed which possess an improved protein content, high yield, good agronomic type and wide adaptability. A change in the stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) population, however, rendered most of the mutants susceptible to this disease. One mutant, recently named Carolina, which was able to withstand the effects of stem rust without serious yield deterioration, was registered and released to farmers. Efforts are being made to add stem rust resistance to the susceptible mutants by conventional backcrossing. Also, new material and the most outstanding susceptible mutants were gamma irradiated in an effort to induce resistance. Other mutants, not necessarily with an improved protein content, were grouped according to disease reaction and phenotypic similarity to form multilineal composites, some of which have had a superior performance and may be released to farmers in late 1984. A study conducted under four nitrogen levels with six wheat protein mutants showed a weak and inconsistent negative correlation between yield and protein content. The mutants could be differentiated by their increased protein content under most nitrogen rates. (author)

  10. Improvement of triticale for fertility and grain character through induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakoor, A.; Saleem, M.; Afzal, M.

    1980-01-01

    Triticale is a new cereal resulting from a cross between wheat and rye. It has better yield potential than wheat and rye but suffers from low fertility, and poor development of grain. Two mutant lines NIAB T-102 and NIAB T-103 showing improvement in fertility and grain character were obtained from AUT. 567 through 10 KR exposure of gamma irradiation. As compared to the parent, the mutant lines yielded better and possessed well filled grains. The possibilities of using these mutant lines as fodder crop as well as in cross breeding programme are discussed. (author)

  11. LET dependence of scintillation yields in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doke, Tadayoshi; Hitachi, Akira; Kikuchi, Jun; Crawford, H J; Lindstrom, P J; Masuda, Kimiaki; Shibamura, Eido; Takahashi, Tan

    1988-06-01

    Scintillation yields (scintillation intensity per unit absorbed energy) in liquid argon for ionizing particles are reviewed as a function of LET for the particles. The maximum scintillation yield, which is obtained for relativistic heavy ions from Ne to La, is about 1.2 times larger than that for gamma rays in NaI(Tl) crystal. In the low LET region, the scintillation yields for relativistic electrons, protons and He ions are 10-20% lower than the maximum yield. This tendency can be explained by taking into account the existence of the electrons which have escaped from their parent ions. In the high LET region, a quenching effect due to high ionization density is observed for alpha particles, fission fragments and relativistic Au ions.

  12. Contribution of allelopathy and competition to weed suppression by winter wheat, triticale and winter rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Antje; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    Above-ground competition and allelopathy are two of the most dominant mechanisms of plants to subdue their competitors in their closest surroundings. In an agricultural perspective, the suppression of weeds by the crop is of particular interest, as weeds represent the largest yield loss potential...... of competitive traits, such as early vigour, crop height and leaf area index and presence of phytotoxic compounds of the group of benzoxazinoids to weed suppression. Four cultivars of each of the winter cereals wheat, triticale and rye were grown in field experiments at two locations. Soil samples were taken...

  13. NEW GENOTYPES AND TECHNOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF WINTER TRITICALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to conduct basic screening of new lines and cultivars of winter hexaploid triticale by the technological and molecular genetics indicators. Molecular and genetic research conducted by polymerase chain reaction allelic variants of gene loci Wx-A1, Wx-B1, and quality parameters of grain, flour and bread – on technological markers. The new cultivars and lines of winter hexaploid triticale of Nosivka Breeding and Research Station of Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat by technological indicators of grain, flour and bread quality were studied. According to representative criteria’s the most promising genotypes, which are the main products in terms Forest-Steppe ecotypes’ and a high-quality raw materials for bakeries and bioethanol were identified. Molecular and genetic identifications of allelic variants of genes loci Wx-A1, Wx-B1 triticale, which in the early stages of ontogenesis to predict targeted uses genotypes were conducted. The first among a series of triticale cultivars and lines Forest-Steppe ecotypes and biotypes with nonfunctional b gene allele WxA1, which defines a high content of amylopectin of starch, an important release for more ethanol was identified. It was found that technological characteristics of grain, flour and bread of new cultivars and lines of winter triticale meet the modern requirements production dietetic food and bioenergy products is important and relevant in the context of food security of Ukraine.

  14. Helicity dependence of the {gamma}{yields}p{yields}{yields}n{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} reaction in the second resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, J.; Altieri, S.; Annand, J.R.M.; Anton, G.; Arends, H.-J.; Aulenbacher, K.; Beck, R.; Bradtke, C.; Braghieri, A.; Degrande, N.; D' Hose, N.; Dutz, H.; Goertz, S.; Grabmayr, P.; Hansen, K.; Harmsen, J.; Harrach, D. von; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Heid, E.; Helbing, K.; Holvoet, H.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Horikawa, N.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, O.; Jennewein, P.; Kageya, T.; Kiel, B.; Klein, F.; Kondratiev, R.; Kossert, K.; Krimmer, J.; Lang, M.; Lannoy, B.; Leukel, R.; Lisin, V.; Matsuda, T.; McGeorge, J.C.; Meier, A.; Menze, D.; Meyer, W.; Michel, T.; Naumann, J.; Panzeri, A.; Pedroni, P.; Pinelli, T.; Preobrajenski, I.; Radtke, E.; Reichert, E.; Reicherz, G.; Rohlof, Ch.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, T.; Rovelli, C.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sauer, M.; Schoch, B.; Schumacher, M.; Seitz, B.; Speckner, T.; Takabayashi, N.; Tamas, G.; Thomas, A.; Vyver, R. van de; Wakai, A.; Weihofen, W.; Wissmann, F.; Zapadtka, F.; Zeitler, G

    2003-01-02

    The helicity dependence of the total cross section for the {gamma}{yields}p{yields}{yields}n{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} reaction has been measured for the first time at incident photon energies from 400 to 800 MeV. The measurement was performed with the large acceptance detector DAPHNE at the tagged photon beam facility of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz. This channel is found to be excited predominantly when the photon and proton have a parallel spin orientation, due to the intermediate production of the D{sub 13} resonance.

  15. Inclusão do triticale em rações para alevinos de piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988 Inclusion of triticale in meals for piavuçu fry Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Yuri Nagae

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar o triticale, em rações para alevinos de piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae, 240 alevinos com peso inicial médio de 1,70±0,03 g foram distribuídos em um delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições, em 30 tanque-redes (120 L instalados em cinco tanques de cimento amianto (1.000 L, com oito peixes em cada tanque-rede. Utilizaram-se seis teores de inclusão de triticale nas rações que corresponderam a 0,00; 5,14; 10,29; 15,43; 20,58 e 25,72%. Não foi observado efeito (p > 0,05 dos teores de inclusão de milheto sobre o peso final médio, ganho de peso médio, conversão alimentar aparente, taxa de eficiência protéica, sobrevivência e viabilidade econômica (custo/kg ganho. Os parâmetros físicos e químicos estiveram dentro da faixa recomendada para a criação da espécie. Conclui-se que o triticale pode representar 25,72% das rações, sem prejudicar o desempenho dos peixes, porém sua utilização dependerá das oscilações de disponibilidade e preço no mercado.An evaluation of triticale in meals for piavuçu fry Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae is provided. Two hundred and forty fry, initial mean weight 1.70±0.03g, were distributed in randomized blocks with six treatments and five repetitions in 30 120L-compartamentized ponds in five amianthus 1000L-tanks, with eight fishes in each pond. Six inclusion levels of triticale were used in meals: 0.00; 5.14; 10.29; 15.43; 20.58 and 25.72%. Inclusion levels had no influence (p > 0.05 on mean final weight, mean weight gain, apparent food conversion, protein efficiency rate, survival and economic viability (costs/gained kg. Physical and chemical parameters were kept within limits recommended for species. Triticale may therefore represent 25.72% of meal without any impairment in fish development. Nevertheless, its use will depend on availability and market price.

  16. Semi-dwarf mutants in triticale and wheat breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The triticale lines Beagle and DR-IRA have been subjected to ionizing irradiation and chemical mutagenesis in order to produce semi-dwarf mutants. Beagle is 100 cm tall and DR-IRA 80 cm under average field conditions. A bulk then pedigree method is currently represented by 158 single plots of M 6 (or in some cases M 7 ) mutants that are from 5 to 35 cm shorter than the control variety. The shortest mutants are 65 cm in height. Forty of these mutants are also earlier flowering than the control varieties. Replicated yield testing will be conducted on confirmed mutants in 1983. Response to gibberellic acid of these mutants will also be determined. The Cornerstone male-sterility mutant (ms1c) on chromosome arm 4Aα has been combined with the GA-insensitive/reduced height gene Gai/Rht1 which is also on chromosome arm 4Aα. The ms1c mutant has also been combined with Gai/Rht2 on chromosome 4D and with both Gai/Rht1 and Gai/Rht2. The combination ms1c and Gai/Rht1 has been chosen as the basis of a composite cross. Thirteen varieties were tested with GA 3 and seven (Warigal, Aroona, Oxley, Banks, Avocet, Matipo and Toquifen) which contain Gai/Rht1 were crossed with ms1c Gai/Rht1 and entered into an interpollinating F 2 . The entire composite is homozygous for this semi-dwarf allele and selection will be practiced for increased height on a GA-insensitive background. (author)

  17. Research on the suitability of organosolv semi-chemical triticale fibers as reinforcement for recycled HDPE composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour-Eddine El Mansouri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the feasibility of incorporating organosolv semi-chemical triticale fibers as the reinforcing element in recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE. In the first step, triticale fibers were characterized in terms of chemical composition and compared with other biomass species (wheat, rye, softwood, and hardwood. Then, organosolv semi-chemical triticale fibers were prepared by the ethanolamine process. These fibers were characterized in terms of its yield, kappa number, fiber length/diameter ratio, fines, and viscosity; the obtained results were compared with those of eucalypt kraft pulp. In the second step, the prepared fibers were examined as a reinforcing element for recycled HDPE composites. Coupled and non-coupled HDPE composites were prepared and tested for tensile properties. Results showed that with the addition of the coupling agent maleated polyethylene (MAPE, the tensile properties of composites were significantly improved, as compared to non-coupled samples and the plain matrix. Furthermore, the influence of MAPE on the interfacial shear strength (IFSS was studied. The contributions of both fibers and matrix to the composite strength were also studied. This was possible by the use of a numerical iterative method based on the Bowyer-Bader and Kelly-Tyson equations.

  18. The possibility of lactic acid fermentation in the triticale stillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILICA MARKOVIĆ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Triticale stillage is a by-product of bioethanol production. A research study was conducted in order to see if triticale stillage is adequate for lactic acid bacteria growth and lactic acid fermentation. Three Lactobacillus strains: Lactobacillus fermentum NRRL-B-75624, Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1, and Lactobacillus plantarum PL-4 were taken into consideration. Lactic acid fermentation was monitored by measuring pH value and titratable acidity. Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1 had the greatest decrease of pH values and increase of titratable acidity so it was chosen for future work. During the research, it was investigated how nutrient composition of triticale stillage and CaCO3 can influence lactic acid fermentation and CaCO3 role in cell protection. The nutrient composition of triticale stillage was satisfactory for lactic acid fermentation. The addition of CaCO3 helped in lactic acid fermentation. Although the titratable acidity in the samples with CaCO3 was lower than in the samples without CaCO3, the number of viable cells was higher for the samples with CaCO3, which showed that CaCO3 protected lactic acid cells from inhibition by lactic acid.

  19. Comparison of triticale cultivars with maize grain for finishing lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of triticale cultivars with maize grain for finishing lambs. TS Brand, GD van der Merwe. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  20. Implementation of triticale in nutrition of non-ruminant animals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... application in non-ruminant animal nutrition were pointed out in this paper. There is a high level of ... a result of environment protection. Triticale is an ...... Review Res. Work Faculty Agriculture, Zemun-Belgrade, 38(2): 71-. 82.

  1. Comparison of Stability and Adaptability in New Cereal; Primary Tritipyrum, with Iranian Bread Wheat and Triticale Using Different Stability Parameters in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Farokhzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the genotype-environment interaction for grain yield in eight primary and combined primary tritipyrum lines in comparison with four Iranian bread wheat varieties and five promising triticale lines, an experiment in randomized completely block design with three replication in three locations of Iran (Kerman, Sirjan, Neyriz including 7 separate environment during 2001-2002, 2005-2006 and 2010-2011 were conducted. The results of combined analysis of variance for grain yield showed significant differences between environments and genotype × environment interactions. The results of stability analysis for high yielding lines/cultivars indicated first, in Eberhart and Russell grouping method Based on slope of regression line, grain yield average and also deviation of regression line parameters, combined primary tritipyrum line (Ka/b(Cr/b-5 and triticale 4115, 4108 and M45 lines showed good compatibility in all environments. Second, the results of genotypes category in cluster analysis based on criteria ecovalance and stability variance was exactly the same. Third,, based on ecovalance, stability variance parameters and mean yield, the combined primary tritipyrum line (Ka/b(Cr/b-5 and promising triticales 4108 and M45 Lines indicated low genotype × environment interaction and high growth performance in comparison with all varieties and lines. This tritipyrum line can be introduced as a potential pasture Line in arid and semi arid area of Iran particulary with brackish water and saline soils. The two triticale lines can be registerd as high grain lines in poor lands of Iran for cereal production for the first time.

  2. Effects of climatic changes upon the variability of some productivity characters in winter triticale (X Triticosecale Wittm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuț RACZ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The global acceleration warm conditions determine an additional stress for plant growth and development stages with a high impact on plant grain yield performances. During five experimental years the climatic conditions varied quite a lot so that the main productivity elements: the number of grains/spike, weight of grains per spike and number of spikes per square meter had different values which influencing final grain yield. Analyzing the relationship between rainfall/temperature and grain yield, including its components, can be observed a strong relation between those especially in the first growth stages (from plant emergence and vegetative restarting in early spring. Climatic conditions have manifested an important influence also in the last phenophases of winter triticale plant with a negative influence on grain yield. Being a process of long duration, grain yield formation is strongly affected by temperature (r=0.89 and rainfall conditions (r=0.45.

  3. Pair copula constructions to determine the dependence structure of Treasury bond yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Brutti Righi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the dependence structure of US Treasury bonds through a pair copula construction. As a result, we verified that the variability of the yields decreases with a longer time of maturity of the bond. The yields presented strong dependence with past values, strongly positive bivariate associations between the daily variations, and prevalence of the Student's t copula in the relationships between the bonds. Furthermore, in tail associations, we identified relevant values in most of the relationships, which highlights the importance of risk management in the context of bonds diversification.

  4. Antimicrobial potential of triticale stillage after lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1

    OpenAIRE

    Kujundžić Žužana; Dimić Gordana R.; Markov Siniša L.; Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.; Mojović Ljiljana V.; Pejin Jelena D.; Marković Milica N.

    2013-01-01

    This study is concerned with the testing of antimicrobial activity of triticale stillage obtained after lactic fermentation by Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disc-diffusion and agar well diffusion methods. It was found that fermented triticale stillage after lactic acid fermentation exhibited an inhibitory effect towards tested Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis,...

  5. Antimicrobial potential of triticale stillage after lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujundžić Žužana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the testing of antimicrobial activity of triticale stillage obtained after lactic fermentation by Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disc-diffusion and agar well diffusion methods. It was found that fermented triticale stillage after lactic acid fermentation exhibited an inhibitory effect towards tested Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. The triticale stillage without addition of CaCO3 before fermentation showed a stronger antimicrobial effect in comparison with the triticale stillage with added CaCO3. Triticale stillage after lactic acid fermentation did not show any antifungal effect on the growth of tested moulds (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium brevicompactum, and Fusarium subglutinans. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31017

  6. Time dependence of the yield of chromosome mutations and free radicals in. gamma. -irradiated dry seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzhdin, N I; Samokhvalova, N S; Dozortseva, R L; Petrova, L E; Sheksheev, E M [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehvolyutsionnoj Morfologii i Ehkologii Zhivotnykh

    1976-07-01

    It has been revealed in dry barley seeds that the yield of induced ESR signals and the number of cells having chromosome aberrations depend on the irradiation conditions (single or fractionated exposures, and varying dose rates) and the duration of the post-irradiation storage. Radiobiological effects caused in dry seeds by fractionated irradiation and varying dose rates are of different nature.

  7. uv laser induced molecular multiphoton ionization and fragmentation. [Intensity dependence, ion properties and yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockwood, S; Reilly, J P; Hohla, K; Kompa, K L

    1979-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that the output from a discharge pumped KrF laser (249 nm) is capable of ionizing a variety of molecules. The nature and yield of ions generated in this process, which were identified by time-of-flight mass spectrometry, exhibit a striking intensity dependence. 12 references, 3 figures.

  8. Analysis of incident-energy dependence of delayed neutron yields in actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, Mohamad Nasrun bin Mohd, E-mail: monasr211@gmail.com; Metorima, Kouhei, E-mail: kohei.m2420@hotmail.co.jp; Ohsawa, Takaaki, E-mail: ohsawa@mvg.biglobe.ne.jp; Hashimoto, Kengo, E-mail: kengoh@pp.iij4u.or.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kindai University, Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, 577-8502 (Japan)

    2015-04-29

    The changes of delayed neutron yields (ν{sub d}) of Actinides have been analyzed for incident energy up to 20MeV using realized data of precursor after prompt neutron emission, from semi-empirical model, and delayed neutron emission probability data (P{sub n}) to carry out a summation method. The evaluated nuclear data of the delayed neutron yields of actinide nuclides are still uncertain at the present and the cause of the energy dependence has not been fully understood. In this study, the fission yields of precursor were calculated considering the change of the fission fragment mass yield based on the superposition of fives Gaussian distribution; and the change of the prompt neutrons number associated with the incident energy dependence. Thus, the incident energy dependent behavior of delayed neutron was analyzed.The total number of delayed neutron is expressed as ν{sub d}=∑Y{sub i} • P{sub ni} in the summation method, where Y{sub i} is the mass yields of precursor i and P{sub ni} is the delayed neutron emission probability of precursor i. The value of Y{sub i} is derived from calculation of post neutron emission mass distribution using 5 Gaussian equations with the consideration of large distribution of the fission fragments. The prompt neutron emission ν{sub p} increases at higher incident-energy but there are two different models; one model says that the fission fragment mass dependence that prompt neutron emission increases uniformly regardless of the fission fragments mass; and the other says that the major increases occur at heavy fission fragments area. In this study, the changes of delayed neutron yields by the two models have been investigated.

  9. Modeling dependence structure between stock market volatility and sukuk yields: A nonlinear study in the case of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Naifar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the dependence structure between sukuk (Islamic bonds yields and stock market (returns and volatility in the case of Saudi Arabia. We consider three Archimedean copula models with different tail dependence structures namely Gumbel, Clayton, and Frank. This study shows that the sukuk yields exhibit significant dependence only with stock market volatility. In addition, the dependence structure between sukuk yields and stock market volatility are symmetric and linked with the same intensity.

  10. Dependence of simulated positron emitter yields in ion beam cancer therapy on modeling nuclear fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Armin; Priegnitz, Marlen; Fiedler, Fine

    2014-01-01

    In ion beam cancer therapy, range verification in patients using positron emission tomography (PET) requires the comparison of measured with simulated positron emitter yields. We found that (1) changes in modeling nuclear interactions strongly affected the positron emitter yields and that (2) Monte...... Carlo simulations with SHIELD-HIT10A reasonably matched the most abundant PET isotopes 11C and 15O. We observed an ion-energy (i.e., depth) dependence of the agreement between SHIELD-HIT10A and measurement. Improved modeling requires more accurate measurements of cross-section values....

  11. Nanoscale Roughness of Faults Explained by the Scale-Dependent Yield Stress of Geologic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, C.; Brodsky, E. E.; Carpick, R. W.; Goldsby, D. L.; Pharr, G.; Oliver, W.

    2017-12-01

    Despite significant differences in their lithologies and slip histories, natural fault surfaces exhibit remarkably similar scale-dependent roughness over lateral length scales spanning 7 orders of magnitude, from microns to tens of meters. Recent work has suggested that a scale-dependent yield stress may result in such a characteristic roughness, but experimental evidence in favor of this hypothesis has been lacking. We employ an atomic force microscope (AFM) operating in intermittent-contact mode to map the topography of the Corona Heights fault surface. Our experiments demonstrate that the Corona Heights fault exhibits isotropic self-affine roughness with a Hurst exponent of 0.75 +/- 0.05 at all wavelengths from 60 nm to 10 μm. If yield stress controls roughness, then the roughness data predict that yield strength varies with length scale as λ-0.25 +/ 0.05. To test the relationship between roughness and yield stress, we conducted nanoindentation tests on the same Corona Heights sample and a sample of the Yair Fault, a carbonate fault surface that has been previously characterized by AFM. A diamond Berkovich indenter tip was used to indent the samples at a nominally constant strain rate (defined as the loading rate divided by the load) of 0.2 s-1. The continuous stiffness method (CSM) was used to measure the indentation hardness (which is proportional to yield stress) and the elastic modulus of the sample as a function of depth in each test. For both samples, the yield stress decreases with increasing size of the indents, a behavior consistent with that observed for many engineering materials and recently for other geologic materials such as olivine. The magnitude of this "indentation size effect" is best described by a power-law with exponents of -0.12 +/- 0.06 and -0.18 +/- 0.08 for the Corona Heights and Yair Faults, respectively. These results demonstrate a link between surface roughness and yield stress, and suggest that fault geometry is the physical

  12. Dependence of Initial Oxygen Concentration on Ozone Yield Using Inductive Energy Storage System Pulsed Power Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Tomio; Tanaka, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Nobuyuki; Mukaigawa, Seiji; Takaki, Koichi; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    Dependence of initial oxygen concentration on ozone yield using streamer discharge reactor driven by an inductive energy storage system pulsed power generator is described in this paper. Fast recovery type diodes were employed as semiconductor opening switch to interrupt a circuit current within 100 ns. This rapid current change produced high-voltage short pulse between a secondary energy storage inductor. The repetitive high-voltage short pulse was applied to a 1 mm diameter center wire electrode placed in a cylindrical pulse corona reactor. The streamer discharge successfully occurred between the center wire electrode and an outer cylinder ground electrode of 2 cm inner diameter. The ozone was produced with the streamer discharge and increased with increasing pulse repetition rate. The ozone yield changed in proportion to initial oxygen concentration contained in the injected gas mixture at 800 ns forward pumping time of the current. However, the decrease of the ozone yield by decreasing oxygen concentration in the gas mixture at 180 ns forward pumping time of the current was lower than the decrease at 800 ns forward pumping time of the current. This dependence of the initial oxygen concentration on ozone yield at 180 ns forward pumping time is similar to that of dielectric barrier discharge reactor.

  13. Tensile properties and temperature-dependent yield strength prediction of GH4033 wrought superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jianzuo [State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control and College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Li, Weiguo, E-mail: wgli@cqu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control and College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhang, Xianhe; Kou, Haibo; Shao, Jiaxing; Geng, Peiji; Deng, Yong [State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control and College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Fang, Daining [LTCS and College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-10-31

    The tensile properties of superalloy GH4033 have been evaluated at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1000 °C. Fracture surfaces and precipitation were observed using a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The alloy mainly consisted of γ’ precipitate particles homogeneously dispersed in the γ matrix interior. The effects of dynamic strain aging and precipitation on the strength were verified. A temperature-dependent yield strength model was developed to describe the temperature and precipitation effects on the alloy's yield behaviour. The model is able to consider the effect of precipitation strengthening on the yield strength. The yield behaviour of the precipitation-strengthened superalloy was demonstrated to be adequately predictable over a wide range of temperatures. Note that this model reflects the quantitative relationship between the yield strength of the precipitation-strengthened superalloy and the temperature, the elastic modulus, the specific heat capacity at constant pressure, Poisson's ratio, the precipitate particle size and the volume fraction of the particles.

  14. Enhancement of amylase production by Aspergillus sp. using carbohydrates mixtures from triticale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dojnov Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of finding a suitable available inducer in combination with starvation, carbohydrate mixtures from triticale was used as inducers and compared with well-known amylase inducers in fungi. Carbohydrate mixtures from triticale induced production of amylase cocktail (α-amylase and glucoamylase in Aspergillus niger, unlike induction with well-known inducers which induce only glucoamylase, showed by zymogram and TLC analysis of carbohydrates mixtures before and after fermentations. Glucoamylase production by A. niger was highest in the presence of extract obtained after autohydrolysis of starch from triticale (95.88 U/mL. Carbohydrate mixtures from triticale induced production of α-amylase in A. oryzae. More α-amylase isoforms were detected upon using complex carbohydrate mixture, compared to induction with maltose or starch. The 48 h induction was the most efficient by using triticale extract (101.35 U/mL. Carbohydrates from triticale extracts can be used as very good cheap amylase inducers. Triticale, still not fully utilized, could be taken into consideration as the inducer in amylase production by Aspergillus sp, such a way it could be used as sole substrate in fermentation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172048

  15. Low-temperature dependence of yielding in AISI 316 stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobler, R.L.; Reed, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    Tensile tests at temperatures between 323 and 4 K were performed on one heat of AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel having the composition Fe-17.34Cr-12.17Ni-1.55Mn-2.16Mo-0.051C. The temperature dependences of the yield and flow strengths at plastic strain increments from 0.2 to 3.65% are analyzed. At the yield strain (0.2%), no body-centered cubic (bcc) martensite phase transformation is detected. At higher strains (approx.3.2 +- 0.6%), bcc martensite forms from the parent austenite phase at test temperatures below 190 K, but there are no discontinuities in the temperature dependence of flow strength. A review of data available for three heats of AISI 316 at temperatures between 973 and 4 K reveals that deviations from thermally activated plastic flow theory occur at temperatures below 175 K, apparently depending on heat-to-heat compositional variations. Grain size and magnetic transition effects on the yield strength are discussed

  16. Development of aerated confectionery products of high nutritional value using triticale flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastries are very popular among the Russian population. Pastry are the most promising targets for the enrichment of their function ingredients.. One of the most promising feedstocks for the production of flour confectionery products is flour from grain crops ofspring triticale. The different varieties of triticale were studied in particular, triticale flour grade "Ukro" for use in technologies of shortbread-butter cookies with enhanced food value. The first in the history of our country varieties of spring triticale "Ukro" was included in the State Register of selection achievements since 2004. Triticale is characterized by high-protein content. Triticale, protein is higher than in wheat by amino acids lysine and tryptophan, minerals (calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, B vitamins. It was pointed the choice and ratio of prescription ingredients. Recipe shortbread-butter cookies based on the seeded triticale flour and flour from coarse whole meal grain, grade "Ukro", with high consumer properties was developed. Cake samples prepared on the basis of flour triticale exceed the reference sample of prime grade wheat flour. Biscuits have a high content of complete protein, vitamins, macro - and microelements, dietary fibers, high gustatory qualities. The influence of prescription components on organoleptic and physical-chemical properties of sandy butter cookies was studied. The nutritional and biological value was calculated. It was state the daily needs of the organism in these materials when using 100 g. As a result of the conducted studies proved the feasibility of the use of flour from grain triticale in the production of flour confectionery products of functional purpose.

  17. Semi-dwarf mutant lines of hexaploid triticale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pidra, M.

    1989-01-01

    A spring form of hexaploid secondary triticale ADD 143/71, bred by MOGILEVA at the Plant Breeding Station at Uhretice was used for the mutagen treatment. The mutation experiment started in 1979. Seeds were treated with a 0.8 mM water solution of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNH) (CETL and RELICHOVA, unpublished). From 180 M 1 plants, one spike was harvested per plant. A random sample of these seeds was sown as M 2 in 1980 and several plants with shorter main culm were selected. Selfed progenies of eight mutant plants designated ADD 143-m1, ADD 143-m2, ADD 143-m3 etc. were further tested in M 3 and M 4 . There were significant differences in culm length and in some other characters between the original line and the mutant lines. Especially the line m8 looks like a promising source of semi-dwarfness for breeding programmes of hexaploid triticale. During 1985-1987 genetic analysis was performed on the ADD 143/71 and the mutant lines m2, m6, m7 and m8, which suggest that their mutant genes are allelic and recessive

  18. Temperature and humidity dependence of air fluorescence yield measured by AIRFLY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ave, M.; Bohacova, M.; Buonomo, B.; Busca, N.; Cazon, L.; Chemerisov, S.D.; Conde, M.E.; Crowell, R.A.; Di Carlo, P.; Di Giulio, C.; Doubrava, M.; Esposito, A.; Facal, P.; Franchini, F.J.; Hoerandel, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; Kasprzyk, T.E.; Keilhauer, B.

    2008-01-01

    The fluorescence detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays requires a detailed knowledge of the fluorescence light emission from nitrogen molecules over a wide range of atmospheric parameters, corresponding to altitudes typical of the cosmic ray shower development in the atmosphere. We have studied the temperature and humidity dependence of the fluorescence light spectrum excited by MeV electrons in air. Results for the 313.6, 337.1, 353.7 and 391.4 nm bands are reported in this paper. We found that the temperature and humidity dependence of the quenching process changes the fluorescence yield by a sizeable amount (up to 20% for the temperature dependence in the 391.4 nm band) and its effect must be included for a precise estimation of the energy of ultra high energy cosmic rays.

  19. Time-dependent radiolytic yields at room temperature and temperature-dependent absorption spectra of the solvated electrons in polyols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Mingzhang; Mostafavi, M.; Lampre, I.; Muroya, Y.; Katsumura, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The molar extinction coefficients at the absorption maximum of the solvated electron spectrum have been evaluated to be 900, 970, and 1000 mol -1 ·m 2 for 1,2-ethanediol (12ED), 1,2-propanediol (12PD), and 1,3-propanediol (13PD), respectively. These values are two-third or three-fourth of the value usually reported in the published report. Picosecond pulse radiolysis studies have aided in depicting the radiolytic yield of the solvated electron in these solvents as a function of time from picosecond to microsecond. The radiolytic yield in these viscous solvents is found to be strongly different from that of the water solution. The temperature dependent absorption spectra of the solvated electron in 12ED, 12PD, and 13PD have been also investigated. In all the three solvents, the optical spectra shift to the red with increasing temperature. While the shape of the spectra does not change in 13PD, a widening on the blue side of the absorption band is observed in 12ED and 12PD at elevated temperatures. (authors)

  20. First measurement of the helicity dependence for the {gamma}p{yields}p{pi} reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, J.; Arends, H.J.; Beck, R.; Heid, E.; Jahn, O.; Jennewein, P.; Lang, M.; Martinez-Fabregate, M.; Rost, M.; Tamas, G.; Thomas, A. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Altieri, S.; Panzeri, A.; Pinelli, T. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Pavia (Italy); Annand, J.R.M.; McGeorge, J.C.; Rosner, G. [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Blackston, M.A.; Weller, H.R. [Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham (United States); Bradtke, C.; Dutz, H.; Klein, F.; Rohlof, C. [Universitaet Bonn, Physikalisches Institut, Bonn (Germany); Braghieri, A.; Pedroni, P. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Hose, N. d' [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Fix, A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Goertz, S.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Insitut fuer Experimentalphysik, Bochum (Germany); Grabmayr, P. [Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Hasegawa, S.; Iwata, T. [Nagoya University, Department of Physics, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Holvoet, H.; Lannoy, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Van de Vyver, R. [Universiteit Gent, Subatomaire en Stralingsfysica, Gent (Belgium); Horikawa, N. [Nagoya University, CIRSE, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Kondratiev, R.; Lisin, V. [Academy of Science, INR, Moscow (Russian Federation); Preobrajenski, I. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Academy of Science, INR, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rostomyan, T. [Universiteit Gent, Subatomaire en Stralingsfysica, Gent (Belgium); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Schumacher, M.; Seitz, B.; Zapadtka, F. [Universitaet Goettingen, II.Physikalisches Institut, Goettingen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The helicity dependence of the total cross-section and the invariant-mass distributions in the (p{pi}{sup {+-}}) and ({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) final states for the {gamma}p{yields}p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} reaction have been measured for the first time at incident photon energies from 400 to 800 MeV. The measurement was performed with the large-acceptance detector DAPHNE at the tagged photon beam facility of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz. Although this channel is found to be predominantly excited by the intermediate production of a {delta}{pi} state, both the measured unpolarized and the helicity-dependent observables are generally not well described by the existing theoretical models. (orig.)

  1. Dependence of energy per molecule on sputtering yields with reactive gas cluster ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Noriaki; Yamada, Isao

    2010-01-01

    Gas cluster ions show dense energy deposition on a target surface, which result in the enhancement of chemical reactions. In reactive sputtering with gas cluster ions, the energy per atom or molecule plays an important role. In this study, the average cluster size (N, the number of atoms or molecules in a cluster ion) was controlled; thereby the dependences of the energy per molecule on the sputtering yields of carbon by CO 2 cluster ions and that of Si by SF 6 /Ar mixed gas cluster ions were investigated. Large CO 2 cluster ions with energy per molecule of 1 eV showed high reactive sputtering yield of an amorphous carbon film. However, these ions did not cause the formation of large craters on a graphite surface. It is possible to achieve very low damage etching by controlling the energy per molecule of reactive cluster ions. Further, in the case of SF 6 /Ar mixed cluster ions, it was found that reactive sputtering was enhanced when a small amount of SF 6 gas (∼10%) was mixed with Ar. The reactive sputtering yield of Si by one SF 6 molecule linearly increased with the energy per molecule.

  2. Precocious germination and its regulation in embryos of triticale caryopses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Weidner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triticale var. Lasko embryos, isolated from grain gathered at milk ripeness, the beginning of wax ripeness and at full ripeness, were allowed to germinate for 48 h on agar with glucose. The highest incorporation of tritiated adenosine into polyribosomal RNA during germination was found in the ribosome fractions from embryos of grain gathered at full ripeness, lower incorporation was in preparations from embryos of milk ripe grain and the lowest in preparations from embryos of wax ripe grain. Different tendencies were observed in respect to the synthesis of ribosomal proteins. The highest incorporation of 14C-amino acids into ribosomal proteins was found in preparations of ribosome fractions from embryos of milk ripe grain, lower in preparations of embryos from fully ripe grain, the lowest in preparations of embryos from wax ripe grain. ABA (10-4 M completely inhibited the external symptoms of germination of immature embryos, while its inhibition of the synthesis of polyribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins was greater the more mature the embryos that were germinated. The greatest stimulation of precocious germination by exogenous BA and GA3 was demonstrated in the least mature embryos isolated from milk ripe grain. Under the influence of both stimulators, an increase of the proportion of polyribosomes in the total ribosome fraction occurred in this sample, as did a rise in the intensity of ribosomal protein synthesis. The incorporation of 3H-adenosine into polyribosomal RNA, however, was lower than in the control sample. The results obtained suggest that the regulation of precocious germination of triticale embryos by phyto-hormones is not directly related to transcription.

  3. Produção de trigo e triticale em rotações de sequeiro Wheat and triticale in crop rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Castro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se os resultados de um ensaio de rotações que decorreu durante dez anos em Vila Real (Trás-os-Montes. O ensaio incluiu a rotação tradicional das condições de sequeiro de Trás-os-Montes, cereal-alqueive (TA, e rotações alternativas susceptíveis de serem adoptadas nestas condições, cereal-leguminosa (TL, cereal-consociação forrageira (TC e cereal-prado de sequeiro (TP. Os cereais das rotações foram o trigo e, posteriormente, o triticale. Determinaram-se e analisaram-se as produções de grão e palha, os teores de nutrientes do grão e da palha e acompanharam-se os parâmetros do solo, pH, matéria orgânica e os teores de P2 O 5, K2 O e bases de troca. Destacam-se alguns resultados importantes, tais como: as produções de grão de cereal das rotações não mostrarem diferenças significativas entre si; a produção de palha da rotação TL ser superior às das restantes; o trigo cultivado após prado de sequeiro não dispensar a adubação azotada; as rotações conduzirem a modificações dos teores de matéria orgânica, cálcio de troca ou do valor do pH do solo, factores a que se deve atender, caso a rotação se prolongue por muitos anos.The results of a field trial of crop rotations conducted over a period of ten years in Vila Real (Northeast Portugal are presented. The rotations tested were cereal-cultivated fallow (TA, traditional in rain-fed conditions of the region, and alternative rotations that could be adopted in these conditions: cereal-grain legume crop (TL, cereal-forage mixture (TC and cereal-rain-fed pasture (TP. The cereals were wheat and, later, triticale. Grain, straw and aerial biomass yields were evaluated together with concentrations of nutrients. The soil parameters studied were pH, organic matter and P 2 O 5, K2O and exchange cations. Wheat straw yield of TL rotation was higher than that of the others. Wheat from TP rotation still requires nitrogen fertilization. The soils of the different

  4. Microscopic predictions of fission yields based on the time dependent GCM formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, D.; Dubray, N.; Verriere, M.; Schunck, N.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r-process to fuel cycle optimization in nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data is available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. One of the most promising theoretical frameworks is the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) applied under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). Previous studies reported promising results by numerically solving the TDGCM+GOA equation with a finite difference technique. However, the computational cost of this method makes it difficult to properly control numerical errors. In addition, it prevents one from performing calculations with more than two collective variables. To overcome these limitations, we have developed the new code FELIX-1.0 that solves the TDGCM+GOA equation based on the Galerkin finite element method. In this article, we briefly illustrate the capabilities of the solver FELIX-1.0, in particular its validation for n+ 239 Pu low energy induced fission. FELIX-1.0 gives full control on the numerical precision of fission product yields in neutron-induced fission, and its scalability also enables series of dynamical calculations on several potential energy surfaces. Preliminary results suggest an important sensitivity of our two-dimensional approach to the input potential energy surface

  5. Ruminal degradability and carbohydrates and proteins fractioning of triticale silages in singular culture or in mixtures with oat and/or legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Bumbieris Junior, Valter Harry; Jobim, Cloves Cabreira; Emile, Jean Claude; Rossi, Robson; Calixto Junior, Moyses; Branco, Antonio Ferriani

    2011-01-01

    It was aimed to evaluate the ruminal degradability, and the fractioning of carbohydrates, as well as of the nitrogen fractions of triticale silages in singular culture or in mixtures with oats and/or legumes. The treatments had been: triticale silage (X. Triticosecale Wittimack) (ST); triticale silage + forage pea (Pisum arvense) (STE); triticale silage + oats (Avena strigosa Scheb) + forage pea + vetch (Vicia sativa) (STAE). Three castrated bovine Prim’Holstein males had been used, with aver...

  6. Phosphorus digestibility response of growing pigs to phytase supplementation of triticale distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, P C; Adeola, O

    2015-02-01

    An experiment was conducted in growing pigs to determine the true total-tract digestibility (TTTD) of P in triticale distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without phytase using the regression method. Six diets were formulated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, including 3 levels of triticale DDGS (300, 400, or 500 g/kg) and phytase (0 or 500 phytase units [FTU]/kg of diet). A total of 48 barrows (initial BW 22.2 ± 1.3 kg) were assigned to the 6 diets in a randomized complete block design. There was a 5-d adjustment period followed by a 5-d total collection of feces. The results show that P intake, fecal P output, and digested P increased linearly ( phytase on apparent total-tract digestibility (ATTD) of P. In diets without added phytase, the ATTD of P in triticale DDGS was 65.0, 67.7, and 63.2% for the diets with 300, 400, and 500 g/kg triticale DDGS, respectively; the corresponding values for diets with added phytase were 77.3, 76.3, and 75.7%. By regressing daily digested P against daily P intake, the TTTD of P was estimated at 75.4% for triticale DDGS or 81.1% with added phytase, respectively. In conclusion, the TTTD of P in triticale DDGS without supplemental phytase was 75.4%, and it was 81.1% in the presence of phytase at 500 FTU/kg of the diet, but the difference was not statistically significant. For triticale DDGS, the supplementation of 500 FTU/kg phytase in diet could increase the ATTD of P ( < 0.001) but not the TTTD of P.

  7. Metabolic efficiency in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in relation to temperature dependent growth and biomass yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhartsev, Maksim; Yang, Xuelian; Reuss, Matthias; Pörtner, Hans Otto

    2015-08-01

    Canonized view on temperature effects on growth rate of microorganisms is based on assumption of protein denaturation, which is not confirmed experimentally so far. We develop an alternative concept, which is based on view that limits of thermal tolerance are based on imbalance of cellular energy allocation. Therefore, we investigated growth suppression of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the supraoptimal temperature range (30-40°C), i.e. above optimal temperature (Topt). The maximal specific growth rate (μmax) of biomass, its concentration and yield on glucose (Yx/glc) were measured across the whole thermal window (5-40°C) of the yeast in batch anaerobic growth on glucose. Specific rate of glucose consumption, specific rate of glucose consumption for maintenance (mglc), true biomass yield on glucose (Yx/glc(true)), fractional conservation of substrate carbon in product and ATP yield on glucose (Yatp/glc) were estimated from the experimental data. There was a negative linear relationship between ATP, ADP and AMP concentrations and specific growth rate at any growth conditions, whilst the energy charge was always high (~0.83). There were two temperature regions where mglc differed 12-fold, which points to the existence of a 'low' (within 5-31°C) and a 'high' (within 33-40°C) metabolic mode regarding maintenance requirements. The rise from the low to high mode occurred at 31-32°C in step-wise manner and it was accompanied with onset of suppression of μmax. High mglc at supraoptimal temperatures indicates a significant reduction of scope for growth, due to high maintenance cost. Analysis of temperature dependencies of product formation efficiency and Yatp/glc revealed that the efficiency of energy metabolism approaches its lower limit at 26-31°C. This limit is reflected in the predetermined combination of Yx/glc(true), elemental biomass composition and degree of reduction of the growth substrate. Approaching the limit implies a reduction of the safety margin

  8. Microscopic predictions of fission yields based on the time dependent GCM formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, D.; Dubray, N.; Schunck, N.; Verrière, M.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r-process to fuel cycle optimization in nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data is available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. One of the most promising theoretical frameworks is the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) applied under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). Previous studies reported promising results by numerically solving the TDGCM+GOA equation with a finite difference technique. However, the computational cost of this method makes it difficult to properly control numerical errors. In addition, it prevents one from performing calculations with more than two collective variables. To overcome these limitations, we developed the new code FELIX-1.0 that solves the TDGCM+GOA equation based on the Galerkin finite element method. In this article, we briefly illustrate the capabilities of the solver FELIX-1.0, in particular its validation for n+239Pu low energy induced fission. This work is the result of a collaboration between CEA,DAM,DIF and LLNL on nuclear fission theory.

  9. STUDY OF GENETIC VARIABILITY OF TRITICALE VARIETIES BY SSR MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ondroušková

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For the detection of genetic variability ten genotypes of winter triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack, 2n = 6x = 42; BBAARR were selected: nine varieties and one breeding line with good bread-making quality KM 4-09 with the chromosome translocation 1R.1D 5+10-2. 25 microsatellites markers located in the genome A, B, D and R were chosen for analysis. Eighty-four alleles were detected with an average of 3.36 alleles per locus were detected. For each microsatellite statistical values were calculated diversity index (DI, probabilities of identity (PI and polymorphic information content (PIC were calculated and averages statistical values are: DI 0.55, PI 0.27 and 0.5 PIC. Overall dendrogram based on the UPGMA method (Jaccards similarity coefficient significantly distinguished two groups of genotypes and these groups were divided into sub-clusters. A set of 5 SSR markers (Xwms0752, Xbarc128, Xrems1237, Xwms0861 and Xbrac170 which have the calculated PIC value higher than 0.68 that are sufficient for the identification of the analyzed genotypes was described.

  10. Faraón-INIA, a new Winter Triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack for Southern Chile Faraón-INIA, un nuevo Triticale de Inviern o (×Triticosecale Wittmack para el Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Jobet

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Faraón-INIA is a new winter triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack cultivar released by the National Wheat Program of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA in Chile. It is derived from an F9 material received from Nordsaat, Germany, under a germplasm exchange agreement signed in 2006 by both institutions. The crossing was Piano/Focus with Nord93.7548 pedigree. Faraón-INIA has a winter growth habit, a short stem (semi-dwarf, with a mean height of 106 cm. The spike is long, compact, decumbent, white, and awned. The grain is soft, yellow, with 1000-grain weight of 36 g, and a mean of hectoliter weight of 76 kg hL-1. It is resistant to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis West. f. sp. tritici and leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Erikss. as well as moderately resistant to septoria leaf blotch. Its mean yield for four seasons in three different locations: Temuco (38º50´ S, 72º25´ W, Traiguén (38º45´ S, 72º38´ W, and Purranque (36°31’ S, 71°54’ W varied between 8.2 and 15.0 t ha-1 with a general mean of 11.0 t ha-1. Bromatological analysis of the grain showed good protein content (10.6% and a generally better quality than other triticale cultivars. Based on the above information, Faraón-INIA is recommended for use as animal feed in Southern Chile.Faraón-INIA es un nuevo cultivar de triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack liberado por el Programa Nacional de Trigo del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA, Chile. Este cultivar deriva de un material F9 recibido de la empresa Nordsaat, Alemania, bajo un convenio formal firmado en el 2006 entre ambas instituciones. La cruza es Piano/Focus, y el pedigrí Nord-93.7548. Faraón-INIA tiene un hábito de desarrollo invernal y caña corta (semienano, con un promedio de altura de 106 cm. La espiga es larga, compacta, decumbente, blanca y barbada. El grano es blando, amarillo, con un peso de 100 granos de 36 g y un promedio de 76 kg hL-1 de peso del hectolitro. Es resistente a roya

  11. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-10-18

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain.

  12. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain. PMID:27763547

  13. Aerobic stability of triticale silage in single culture or in mixtures with oat and/or legumes Estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de triticale em cultivo exclusivo ou em misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Harry Bumbieris Junior

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the aerobic stability and losses during the fermentation process of triticale silages in single crop or in mixtures with oats and/or legumes. The following crops were used for silage production: triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittimack, triticale intercropped with forage pea (Pisum arvense and triticale intercropped with oats (Avena strigosa Schreb, forage pea and vetch (Vicia sativa. The dry matter content and its recovery did not differ among the silages. Buffer capacity was higher for tricale silage intercropped with oats, forage pea and vetch(88.67 m eq. NaOH/100 g DM followed by triticale intercropped with forage pea (80.80 m eq. NaOH/100 g DM. Electric conductivity values were higher in the intercropped triticale silages. Triticale silage presented the lowest temperatures observed in the silos, and the silages of intercropped triticale silages presented higher heat retention and higher pH values. Silage of triticale intercropped with oats and legumes presented lower aerobic stability but it did not reduce the aerobic stability of the total feed. Dry matter recovery during storage and in stability evaluations in aerobiosis is similar among the silages.O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar a estabilidade aeróbia e as perdas durante o processo de fermentação de silagens de triticale em cultivo exclusivo ou em misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas. As culturas utilizadas para produção das silagens foram: triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittimack; triticale em consórcio com ervilha-forrageira (Pisum arvense; e triticale em consórcio com aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb, ervilha-forrageira e ervilhaca (Vicia sativa. O teor de matéria seca e a recuperação de matéria seca não diferiram entre as silagens. A capacidade tampão foi maior para a silagem de triticale cultivado em consórcio com aveia, ervilha-forrageira e ervilhaca (88,67 m eq. NaOH/100 g de MS, seguida da silagem de triticale cultivado

  14. On some features of the effective behaviour of porous solids with J2- and J3-dependent yielding matrix behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benallal, Ahmed

    2018-02-01

    Some features od the constitutive behaviour of voided materials taking into account possible effects of the Lode angle in the yielding behaviour of the matrix are discussed. The Gurson approach is used to this end. After providing a parametric representation of the effective behaviour of such materials, some closed-form results are given for pure shear stress states and also at very high stress triaxialities. In the former case corresponding to a zero macroscopic mean stress, the contour of the yield domain in the π-plane has exactly the shape of the yield surface of the matrix in the deviatoric plane, but a size reduced by a factor 1 - f, with f the porosity of the voided material. In the latter, effective yield stresses for the voided material are slightly different from the Gurson result and found to be set by the yield stress at a microscopic stress Lode angle π/3 for very high positive triaxiality and by the yield stress at a microscopic stress Lode angle 0 for very high negative triaxiality. This last result is extended for porous materials with yielding depending further on the hydrostatic stress, fully exhibiting the interaction between volumetric and shear interactions on the yielding behaviour of isotropic porous materials. Applications to many usual yielding criteria for the matrix are also provided. xml:lang="fr"

  15. Evaluation of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) and triticale after using physical and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, E.J.; Murani, R.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: It was decided to induce mutations separately in rye and triticale to obtain forms resistant to lodging. Seeds of rye cv. 'Dankowskie Zlote' and triticale cv. 'Lasko' were irradiated with fast neutrons and treated with MNH, rye cv. 'LAD 2T80' was treated with only MNH. The mutant selection was made in M 3 and the progenies were evaluated with regard to plant height. In total, 226 changed forms were found, most of them shorter than the control. Some of them should be useful as a source of resistance to lodging. (author)

  16. Evaluation of semi-dwarf mutants in triticale and wheat breeding programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    A number of short-statured triticale plants were selected in M 4 following gamma-ray or EMS treatment of seed of Beagle and DR-IRA triticales. Selection for homozygous mutants will be attempted in M 5 . The Cornerstone male sterility mutant mslc is being combined with the three GA-insensitive, reduced-height mutants Gai/Rht1, Gai/Rht2 and Gai/Rht3 in order to establish a composite cross based on homozygosity of a given Gai/Rht allele. This would allow selection for minor genes for increased height on a GA-insensitive, reduced-height background. (author)

  17. Influence of housing system, grain type, and particle size on Salmonella colonization and shedding of broilers fed triticale or corn-soybean meal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, F B O; Sheldon, B W; Santos, A A; Ferket, P R

    2008-03-01

    Salmonella colonization in poultry may be influenced by grain type and particle size. Broilers reared either in nonlitter cage-based housing or in a conventionally floored litter house from 0 to 42 d were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: 1) ground corn-soybean meal (C, 560 microm), 2) coarsely ground corn-soybean meal (CC, >1,700 microm), 3) ground triticale-soybean meal (T, 560 microm), or 4) whole triticale-soybean meal (WT). A 4-strain cocktail of Salmonella enterica was orally gavaged into each chick at placement. Growth performance, cecal and fecal Salmonella populations, gizzard and proventriculus pH, intestinal size, jejunum histomorphometry, and carcass yields were measured. Broilers responded differently to the dietary treatments according to the housing system used. At 42 d, birds reared on litter and fed ground grain had greater BW than those fed coarse grain (2.87 vs. 2.71 kg), whereas cage-reared broilers fed ground triticale were heavier than those fed corn (2.75 vs. 2.64 kg). Broilers raised on litter had a better feed conversion ratio than those raised in cages (1.71 vs. 1.81 g/g). Independent of the housing system, relative eviscerated carcass weights of birds fed T and C were heavier than those of CC- and WT-fed broilers (762 vs. 752 g/kg). Generally, the jejunum villus area and mucosal depth were larger, whereas the small intestine was lighter and shorter in broilers raised on litter. Relative gizzard weights of broilers raised on litter and fed the coarser diets were heavier than those of broilers reared in cages and fed finely ground diets. Feeding whole or coarsely ground grains decreased cecal Salmonella populations in 42-d-old broilers (3.8, 3.9, 4.4, and 4.4 log most probable number/g for CC, WT, C, and T, respectively). Additionally, 42-d-old broilers reared on litter had lower cecal Salmonella populations than those in cages (3.8 vs. 4.4 log most probable number/g). In conclusion, as a feed ingredient, triticale is a good

  18. Energy dependence of ion-induced sputtering yields from monoatomic solids at normal incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Yasunori; Tawara, Hiro.

    1995-03-01

    The yields of the ion-induced sputtering from monoatomic solids at normal incidence for various ion-target combinations are presented graphically as a function of the incident ion energy. In order to fill the lack of the experimental data, the sputtering yields are also calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT for some ion-target combinations. Each graph shows available experimental data points and the ACAT data, together with the sputtering yields calculated by the present empirical formula, whose parameters are determined by the best-fit to available data. (author)

  19. Yields of ZP sweet maize hybrids in dependence on sowing densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet maize differs from maize of standard grain quality by many important traits that affect the ear appearance, and especially by traits controlling taste. The ear appearance trait encompasses the kernel row number, configuration, row pattern (direction and arrangement, seed set, kernel width and depth, ear shape and size. The quality of immature kernels is controlled by genes by which sweet maize differs from common maize. In order to obtain high-ranking and high-quality yields, it is necessary to provide the most suitable cropping practices for sweet maize hybrids developed at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje. The adequate sowing density is one of more important elements of correct cropping practices. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of four sowing densities in four ZP sweet maize hybrids of different FAO maturity groups on ear qualitative traits and yields obtained on chernozem type of soil in Zemun Polje. The observed traits of sweet maize (ear length, kernel row number, number of kernels per row, yield and shelling percentage significantly varied over years. The higher sowing density was the higher yield of sweet maize was, hence the highest ear yield of 9.67 t ha-1 , on the average for all four hybrids, was recorded at the highest sowing density of 70,000 plants ha-1. The highest yield was detected in the hybrid ZP 424su. The highest shelling percentage (67.81% was found in the hybrid ZP 521su at the sowing density of 60,000 plants ha-1. Generally, it can be stated that sweet maize hybrids of a shorter growing season (FAO 400 could be cultivated up to 70,000 plants ha-1, while those of a longer growing season (FAO 500 could be grown up to 60,000 plants ha-1. In such a way, the most favorable parameters of yields and the highest yields can be obtained.

  20. Sweet corn (Zea mays L.: Fresh ear yield in dependance of genotype and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn is used as food in the milky stage of endosperm, when its kernel is tender, succulent and sweet. It is consumed in form of fresh ears, or it is industrially processed. Breeding of sweet corn has several equally important aims that are directed by the market demands and different modes of consumption. The ear yield, in sweet corn is the most important but not the only main goal of breeding. In the two year study (2013, 2014 we observed the effect of the genotype, year and their interactions on the yields of 8 sweet corn hybrids. Two of the hybrids were commercial and six were experimental hybrids. The field experiment was arranged according to the RCBD with four replications. Hybrids were harvested 23 days after pollination, i.e. silking. Average yield in 2013 was significantly higher (12.19 t ha-1 than in 2014 (11.49 t ha- 1. In 2013 it ranged from 10.21 t ha-1 for the experimental hybrid ZP 489/1su, up to 13.52 t ha-1 for the commercial hybrid ZP 355su. In 2014 the lowest yielding hybrid was ZP 485/1su (10.14 t ha-1 while the highest yielding was ZP 486/1su (13.41 t ha-1. On average those two were also the highest (13.19 t ha-1 and the lowest yielding (10.66 t ha-1 hybrids. Statistical analysis showed that the effect of genotype and the year, as well as their interactions had significant impact on the yield performances of sweet corn hybrids.

  1. Nitrogen nutrition of young triticale plants grown under aluminium stress Adubação azotada de plântulas de triticale sob toxicidade de alumínio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Domingues

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Triticale has proven to be a tolerant crop in many places around the globe, under extreme climatic and edaphic conditions, particularly in Al-toxic soils. To suffice the growing food demand of the world population, one of the most important goal is the sustainable increase of cereal production avoiding the anthropogenic pollution, often air and groundwater contamination by volatilization and leaching of N compounds. The effects of enhanced ammonia proportion in relation to nitrate nutrition in hydroponics, with or without Al, were investigated on the short-term growth of triticale plants. Three days old plants of the Al-tolerant genotype TTE 9203 were submitted to 0 or 370 mM Al and received different NO3-/ NH4+ ratios with the four proportions 15:1, 8:1, 3:1 and 1:1 (with fixed total N concentration at 3.2 mM in all treatments. In relation to the corresponding control solutions, 370 mM Al induced important decreases in root length, ranging from 75.3 % to 47.3 %, reductions in fresh weight from 80 % to 60 % in roots, and from 89 % to 71 % in shoots, depending on the NO3-/ NH4+ ratio. A decrease in NO3- net uptake was shown by plants in the presence of Al. The most detrimental Al effect for young plant growth in nutrient solutions was observed with the 15:1 NO3-/ NH4+ ratio, which induced the highest reductions of length of the main root (52.7 % reduction relative to control and of root biomass fresh weight (40.6 % in four days of treatment. By the contrary, the plants grown in the 8:1 ratio solution with Al suffered the smallest reductions of root length (24.7 % in 370 mM Al treatment relative to control and of root biomass fresh weight (20.3 %. Taken together the results indicate that NH4+ can alleviate Al toxicity in triticale and point out the ideal NO3-/ NH4+ proportion of 8:1 as the best for these young plants growth and N use efficiency, under acidic and Al toxic condition. Some economical and ecological advantages of NH4+- N sources use

  2. Energy dependence of sputtering yields of Be, Be-C and Be-W films by Be{sup +}-ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korshunov, S.N.; Guseva, M.I.; Gureev, V.M.; Neumoin, V.E.; Stoljarova, V.G. [Russian Research Center Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    The energy dependence measurements of Be, Be-C and Be-W deposited layer sputtering yields by Be{sup +}-ions were performed. The ion energy was varied in the range (0.3-5.0) keV. The temperature in the process of irradiation was sustained at the level of 670 K. The mixed layers were prepared by simultaneous sputtering of pair targets, Be and C, Be and W, and Be-targets with Ar{sup +}- and Be{sup +}-ions and codeposition of the sputtered atoms on silicon collectors The codeposited layer thickness was changed in the range of (500-1000) nm. The content of oxigen in the Be, Be-C, Be-W deposited layers did not exceed 20 at.%. The mixed layer sputtering yields were compared with the experimental and calculated data, obtained for the self-sputtering yields of beryllium and carbon. It was found that the sputtering yields of the Be-C and Be deposited layers by Be{sup +}-ions in the energy range (0.3-5.0) keV are within the range between the corresponding self-sputtering yields for Be and C. The sputtering yields for the mixture Be-W are close to the corresponding self-sputtering yields of beryllium. (author)

  3. Seed yield of Cucurbita maxima Duch. depending on the presowing gamma irradiation and postradiational temperature treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranov, A.

    1977-01-01

    In field experiments the seed yield of Cucurbita maxima Duch. of the Big White 48/4 cultivar was determined after presowing gamma irradiation with 4000 R and 50000 R and postradiational temperature treatment with 80deg and 90deg in the course of 30 minutes. The presowing gamma irradiation was carried out at the IRI-200O nuclear reactor with dose capacity of 630 R/min (1968 and 1969) and 504 R/min (1970), and the postradiational heating of the seeds in a drying oven at the laboratory. It is established that the presowing gamma radiation with 4000 R stimulates the seed yield of the large-fruited pumpkin (137.06%), and the 50000 R inhibits them (25.50%). The presowing temperature treatment with 80deg and 90deg in the course of 30 minutes is stimulating or indicates tendency towards seed yield stimulation. The postradiational presowing temperature treatment with 80deg and 9Odeg C in the course of 30 minutes of the 4000 R stimulative variant decrease the seed yield stimulation, and with the 50000 R inhibitive variant - repairs or displays tendency towards seed yield reparation. (author)

  4. On a relationship between the geometry of cones on sputtered surfaces and the angular dependence of sputtered yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadderton, L.T.

    1977-01-01

    It is widely believed that the phenomenon responsible for the familiar peak in the angular dependence of sputtered yields also gives rise to characteristic semiangles α of conical protruberances on sputtered surfaces. It is shown that α corresponds to the process giving rise to the minimum rather than the maximum. No accurate measurements of the minimum have yet been made. (Auth.)

  5. EFFECT OF TIDIAZURON AND DIETHILENTRIAMINE ON GAMMA-IRRADIATED OATS AND TRITICALE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevena STOEVA

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential modifying effect of the synthetic growth regulators Tidiazuron and poliamine diethilentriamine, applied after gamma-irradiation stress on oats and triticale plants, was studied. Pot vegetative experiments with spring oats, cultivar Hanza 152, and triticale, cultivar 7251, were carried out. The plants were grown under controlled conditions and in the phase of stem extension they were irradiated with Cesium- 137 gamma rays, at a dose rate of 6 Gy (oats, and 4 Gy (triticale, and dose intensity of 2 Gy/min. On the day after the irradiation the plants were sprayed with a radioprotector for the purpose of decreasing the radiation damage. Two types of protectors were tested: tidiazuron and diethilenthriamine. The irradiation of oats and triticale plants in the phase of stem extension caused stress, which was detected by the disorganization of the cardinal physiological processes. The tested synthetic plant growth regulators reduced the negative effect of the irradiation. The peroxidase activity and the lipid peroxidation were reduced, while the plant productivity and the photosynthetic pigments were increased, both photosynthesis and transpiration activation were increased. Independently of the similar effect of both of the substances, polyamine DETA was characterized with a better modifying effect.

  6. CELL STRUCTURAL REORGANIZATION DURING INDUCTION OF ANDROGENESIS IN ISOLATED MICROSPORE CULTURES OF TRITICALE (x TRITICOSECALE WITTM.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubas, E.; Wedzony, M.; Petrovská, Beáta; Salaj, J.; Zur, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2010), s. 73-86 ISSN 0001-5296 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Androgenesis * microspores * triticale Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.586, year: 2010 www.ib.uj.edu.pl/abc/pdf/52_1/10_dubas.pdf

  7. Preliminary study of light yield dependence on LAB liquid scintillator composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Xingchen; Yu Boxiang; Zhou Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Liquid scintillator (LS) will be adopted as the detector material in JUNO (Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory). The energy resolution requirement of JUNO is 3%, which has never previously been reached. To achieve this energy resolution, the light yield of liquid scintillator is an important factor. PPO (the fluor) and bis-MSB (the wavelength shifter) are the two main materials dissolved in LAB. To study the influence of these two materials on the transmission of scintillation photons in LS, 25 and 12 cm-long quartz vessels were used in a light yield experiment. LS samples with different concentration of PPO and bis-MSB were tested. At these lengths, the light yield growth is not obvious when the concentration of PPO is higher than 4 g/L. The influence from bis-MSB becomes insignificant when its concentration is higher than 8 mg/L. This result could provide some useful suggestions for the JUNO LS. (authors)

  8. Plant height and grain yield of soybean depending on the year, irrigation and variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Galić Šubašić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-year field trials determined the influence of the year, irrigation treatment and varieties on plant height and grain yield of soybeans in the eastern Croatia conditions. All three investigated factors, as well as their interactions, with the exception of irrigation interactions and varieties that were significant at P=0.05, show a statistically significant influence (P=0.01 on the height of soybean plants. Soybean grain yields, as well as all their interactions, affect the significance level P=0.01. The obtained values of soybean grain yields during the study (mostly greater than 3000 kg ha-1 indicate the importance of selecting appropriate varieties and irrigation treatment in adapting soybean production to adverse weather effects of the year.

  9. Dependence of the two-photon photoluminescence yield of gold nanostructures on the laser pulse duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biagioni, P.; Celebrano, M.; Savoini, M.

    2009-01-01

    Two-photon photoluminescence (TPPL) from gold nanostructures is becoming one of the most relevant tools for plasmon-assisted biological imaging and photothermal therapy as well as for the investigation of plasmonic devices. Here we study the yield of TPPL as a function of the temporal width δ of ...

  10. Light dependence of quantum yields for PSII charge separation and oxygen evolution in eucaryotic algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flameling, I.A.; Kromkamp, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum yields of photosystem II (PSII) charge separation (Phi(P)) and oxygen production (Phi(O2)) were determined by simultaneous measurements of oxygen production and variable fluorescence in four different aquatic microalgae representing three different taxonomic groups: the freshwater alga

  11. Seed yield and protein content in sunflower depending on stand density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balalić Igor M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of stand density on seed yield and protein content in sunflower hybrids. The field experiment was carried out at Rimski Šančevi location. Six NS sunflower hybrids were examined. Five hybrids are confectionery (NS Goliat, NS Slatki, NS Gricko, Vranac and Cepko, and one is used for bird food (NS-H-6485. The trial was arranged as randomized complete block design (RCBD with four replications. Sowing was done with six different densities (from 20,000 to 70,000 plants per hectare, with an increment of 10,000 plants per hectare. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the effect of hybrid, stand density and hybrid × stand density interation were highly significant for seed yield and protein content. The highest seed yield, on the basis of average for all densities, was found in NS-H-6485 (4.77 t ha-1 and in NS Gricko (4.43 t ha-1. Average seed yield of hybrids significantly increased up to 50,000 plants per ha-1, when it reached the value of 4.50 t ha-1, and then decreased. Significantly higher protein content, taking into account all stand densities, showed hybrid Cepko (16.94%. Protein content, above the overall average value, was achieved in hybrid Vranac (16.11%. The high­est protein content in the average for all six hybrids was at the lowest stand density (20,000 plants per ha-1, and then decreased up to higher densities. The results showed that stand density had significant effect on seed yield and protein content in sunflower hybrids. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31025: The development of new cultivars and improving the technology of producing oil plant species for different purposes

  12. A new macroscopically anisotropic pressure dependent yield function for metal matrix composite based on strain gradient plasticity for the microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azizi, Reza; Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2013-01-01

    Metal matrix composites with long aligned elastic fibers are studied using an energetic rate independent strain gradient plasticity theory with an isotropic pressure independent yield function at the microscale. The material response is homogenized to obtain a conventional macroscopic model...... is investigated numerically using a unit cell model with periodic boundary conditions containing a single fiber deformed under generalized plane strain conditions. The homogenized response can be modeled by conventional plasticity with an anisotropic yield surface and a free energy depending on plastic strain...

  13. Dwell time dependent morphological transition and sputtering yield of ion sputtered Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, H X; Zeng, X R; Zhou, W

    2010-01-01

    Self-organized nano-scale patterns may appear on a wide variety of materials irradiated with an ion beam. Good manipulation of these structures is important for application in nanostructure fabrication. In this paper, dwell time has been demonstrated to be able to control the ripple formation and sputtering yield on Sn surface. Ripples with a wavelength of 1.7 μm were observed for a dwell time in the range 3-20 μs, whereas much finer ripples with a wavelength of 540 nm and a different orientation were observed for a shorter dwell time in the range 0.1-2 μs. The sputtering yield increases with dwell time significantly. The results provide a new basis for further steps in the theoretical description of morphology evolution during ion beam sputtering.

  14. Top layer's thickness dependence on total electron-yield X-ray standing-wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejima, Takeo; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Banse, Takanori; Hatano, Tadashi

    2005-01-01

    A Mo single-layer film with a stepwise thickness distribution was fabricated on the same Mo/Si reflection multilayer film. Total electron-yield X-ray standing-wave (TEY-XSW) spectra of the aperiodic multilayer were measured with reflection spectra. The peak positions of the standing waves in the TEY-XSW spectra changed as the film thickness of the top Mo-layer increased

  15. Yield and quality of white mustard seed depending on the seeding dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevđović Radosav

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sowing dates and harvest dates on yield and quality of white mustard seed been investigated in this study. During the experiment two sowing dates have been tested the first one based on the crops in March, and the other one when the direct sowing was carried out in late May, after the harvest of camomile crops. The harvest of the seed crops in the first seeding date was performed on 1st July, and the second on 15th September. Seed fractioning extracted the following fractions: large (3mm, medium (2 mm and small (1mm. I he objective of the laboratory' experiments was to observe the effect of the seed fraction size on the most important parameters of its quality (germination energy, total germination and absolute mass according to the stipulated terms. Based on the data obtained in the survey, it can be concluded that the seed yield is significantly affected by the varied seeding dates. Earlier seeding date produced significantly increased seed yield (1920 kg/ha than the later seeding date (1160 kg/ha. According to the seed quality parameters, the best characteristics are found in the seed fraction of 3 mm, in both seeding and harvest dates.

  16. Substrate dependence of electron-stimulated O - yields from dissociative electron attachment to physisorbed O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huels, M. A.; Parenteau, L.; Sanche, L.

    1994-03-01

    We present measurements of O- electron stimulated desorption yields obtained under identical experimental conditions from 0.15 monolayers (ML) of O2 deposited onto disordered substrates consisting of 4 ML of either Kr, Xe, C2H6, C2H4, N2O, CH3Cl, or H2O, all condensed on Pt (polycrystalline). The resulting O- yield functions, for incident electron energies below 20 eV, are compared to that obtained from the O2/Kr solid; this allows us to assess the order of magnitude effects of the local substrate environment on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) via the 2Πu and gas phase forbidden 2Σ+g,u resonances of O-2. We note that, in addition to electron energy losses in the substrate prior to DEA to O2 and post-dissociation interactions of the O- with the substrate molecules, charge or energy transfer from the O-2 transient anion to a substrate molecule, and capture of the incident electron into a dissociative anion resonance of the substrate molecule may contribute to a reduced O- yield from the physisorbed O2. In the case of O2 deposited on amorphous ice, we find that the O- signal from DEA to O2 is completely absent for electron energies below 14 eV; we attribute this to a complete quenching of the dissociative O-2(2Πu, 2Σ+) resonances by the adjacent water molecules.

  17. High moisture airtight storage of barley and triticale: Effect of moisture level and grain processing on nitrogen and phosphorus solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage time, grain processing (whole vs. rolled) and the combination of phytase, xylanase, β-glucanase and protease on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) solubility during high moisture airtight (HMA) storage of barley and triticale at various...... moisture levels (20, 23, 26 and 29% moisture) and to compare HMA storage of cereals with dry storage for 49 days. Dry stored barley and triticale (10 and 13% moisture, respectively) were kept in 10 L plastic buckets for 0 and 49 days. HMA stored cereals were kept in airtight bags (400 g per bag) at 15 °C......) in HMA storage at 29% moisture to a greater extent compared with dry storage (P levels increased P solubility (rolled barley, whole and rolled triticale) and N solubility (whole and rolled triticale) linearly and decreased Phytate P:Total P (rolled barley) linearly...

  18. Comments on the Dutton-Puls model: Temperature and yield stress dependences of crack growth rate in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young S.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → This study shows first that temperature and yield stress dependences of crack growth rate in zirconium alloys can analytically be understood not by the Dutton-Puls model but by Kim's new DHC model. → It is demonstrated that the driving force for DHC is ΔC, not the stress gradient, which is the core of Kim's DHC model. → The Dutton-Puls model reveals the invalidity of Puls' claim that the crack tip solubility would increase to the cooling solvus. - Abstract: This work was prompted by the publication of Puls's recent papers claiming that the Dutton-Puls model is valid enough to explain the stress and temperature dependences of the crack growth rate (CGR) in zirconium alloys. The first version of the Dutton-Puls model shows that the CGR has positive dependences on the concentration difference ΔC, hydrogen diffusivity D H , and the yield strength, and a negative dependence on the applied stress intensity factor K I , which is one of its critical defects. Thus, the Dutton-Puls model claiming that the temperature dependence of CGR is determined by D H C H turns out to be incorrect. Given that ΔC is independent of the stress, it is evident that the driving force for DHC is ΔC, not the stress gradient, corroborating the validity of Kim's model. Furthermore, the predicted activation energy for CGR in a cold-worked Zr-2.5Nb tube disagrees with the measured one for the Zr-2.5Nb tube, showing that the Dutton-Puls model is too defective to explain the temperature dependence of CGR. It is demonstrated that the revised Dutton-Puls model also cannot explain the yield stress dependence of CGR.

  19. Impact parameter dependence of the specific entropy and the light particle yield in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudima, K.K.; Toneev, V.D.

    1986-01-01

    The connection between the fragment yield and the associated specific entropy of particles produced in the course of a relativistic heavy ion collision is studied within the cascade approach. The essential impact parameter dependence of the fragment yield indicates that the specific entropy increases with impact parameter and that the critical density of the system decay is the larger the more central the collision process is. The results show that the thermodynamical equilibrium limit for the entropy production is not reached for such heavy systems as Nb+Nb at 400 MeV/nucleon and that the finite size effects and the dynamical freeze-out process are dominant factors in determining the cluster yield

  20. X-ray yields from high-energy heavy ions channeled through a crystal: their crystal thickness and projectile dependences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, C.; Takabayashi, Y.; Muranaka, T.; Masugi, S.; Azuma, T.; Komaki, K.; Hatakeyama, A.; Yamazaki, Y.; Takada, E.; Murakami, T.

    2005-01-01

    X-rays emitted from Ar 17+ , Fe 24+ and Kr 35+ ions of about 400 MeV/u transmitting through a thin Si crystal of about 20 μm thickness have been measured in a planar channeling condition and compared with those in a random incident condition. We have found that the X-ray yield from Ar 17+ ions is larger for the channeling condition than for the random incidence, while those from Fe 24+ and Kr 35+ ions are rather smaller. Such tendencies are explained by considering the projectile dependences of excitation and ionization probabilities together with X-ray emission rates. A crude simulation has qualitatively reproduced these experimental results. When the crystal thickness is small, the X-ray yield is smaller in the channeling condition than in the random incident condition, because excitation is depressed. However, for thicker crystals, the X-ray yield is larger, since the survived population of projectile-bound electrons is larger due to small ionization probabilities under the channeling condition. This inversion occurs at a specific crystal thickness depending on projectile species. Whether the thickness of the used crystal is smaller or larger than the inversion thickness determines enhancement or depression of the X-ray yield in the channeling condition

  1. Microstructural effects on the yield strength and its temperature dependence in a bainitic precipitation hardened Cr-Mo-V steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.; Kotilainen, H.; Nenonen, P.

    1980-03-01

    The plastic deformation behaviour of a precipitation hardened bainitic Cr-Mo-V steel is analyzed at ambient and low temperatures. The temperature dependent component of the yield strength is composed of the Peierls-Nabarro force and also partly of the strengthening contribution of the lath- and cell boundaries or the solid solution hardening. The temperature dependence below 230 K is in accordance with the models presented by Yanoshevich and Ryvkina as well as Dorn and Rajnak. The temperature independent component can be calculated merely from the dislocation density, which is stabilized by the vanadium-rich carbides. The linear additivity cannot be used for the superposition of the strengthening effects of various strengthening parameters, By using the phenomenological approach starting from the dislocation movement mechanisms upon yielding the laws for the superposition are discussed. (author)

  2. Root-exuded acid phosphatase and 32Pi-uptake kinetics of wheat, rye and triticale under phosphorus starvation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Renu

    2006-01-01

    A nutrient culture experiment was conducted with cereal species viz., wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. PBW-343), rye (Secale cereale L cv. R-308) and triticale (Triticale octoploide L. cv. DT-46), a hybrid of wheat and rye, to examine the genetic variation in root-exuded acid phosphatase (ACPase) activity and kinetics of 32 Pi-uptake under P deficient condition. The ACPase activity was assayed in the extract (intra-) and on surface (extra-cellular) or root, using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate. Significantly higher ACPase activity was observed in wheat followed by rye and triticale both on the root surface and in root extract. In general, root surface ACPase activity was 2.2-fold higher than that in root extract. A strong correlation (r 2 = 0.87**) between extra and intra-cellular ACPase activity was observed. In terms of kinetic parameters, it was observed that 32 Pi uptake and I max values were significantly higher in rye while C min and K m were lowest compared to wheat and triticale. The dry weights of shoot, root and total plant were significantly higher in rye compared to wheat and triticale. Rye also had higher amount of total plant P content The superiority of rye over wheat and triticale in P uptake was observed mainly due to efficient Pi-uptake system, which needs further studies to ascertain the enhancement of Pi-induced high-affinity P transporter in these cereals. (author)

  3. Plant density-dependent variations in bioactive markers and root yield in Australian-grown Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun Guang; Sheng, Shu Jun; Pang, Edwin C K; May, Brian; Xue, Charlie Chang Li

    2011-04-01

    The plant density-dependent variations in the root yield and content, and the yield of biomarkers in Australian grown Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, a commonly used Chinese medicinal herb for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, were investigated in a field trial involving six different plant densities. The key biomarker compounds cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, and salvianolic acid B were quantified by a validated RP-HPLC method, and the root yields were determined per plant pair or unit area. There were significant variations (pplant densities. Positive linear correlations were observed between the contents of the three tanshinones, whereas negative linear correlations were revealed between the contents of the tanshinones and salvianolic acid B. The highest root yield per plant pair was achieved when the plants were grown at 45×30 cm or 45×40 cm, whereas the highest root production par unit area was obtained for a plant density of 30×30 cm. The highest contents of the three tanshinones and the most abundant production of these tanshinones per unit area were achieved when the plants were grown at 30×30 cm. However, the highest content of salvianolic acid B was found for a density of 45×40 cm, while its highest yield per unit area was obtained for densities of 30×40 cm or 45×30 cm. The findings suggest that the plant density distinctly affects the root yield and content and the yield of tanshinones and salvianolic acid B in Australian grown S. miltiorrhiza, which may be used as a guide for developing optimal agricultural procedures for cultivating this herb. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Association studies for agro-physiological and quality traits of triticale x bread wheat derivatives in relation to drought and cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Dorin; Mittal, R K; Kant, Anil; Singh, Mohar

    2007-04-01

    Correlation coefficient analysis conducted on 22 triticale x bread wheat derivatives along with six checks to select true- breeding derivative(s) for future hybridization programme with tolerance to drought and cold stress conditions as well as better quality traits revealed significant correlation of grain yield with spikelets per spike, biological yield, harvest index, leaf area index. Interestingly, the grain yield and drought susceptibility index showed no association. However, with cold tolerance it showed significant positive correlation indicating the desirability of certain plant traits under cold stress. The grain yield exhibited no association with quality traits which might assist in the predictability of high yielding varieties with high protein, total sugars, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars. Path coefficient analysis revealed that biological yield had the highest positive direct effect on grain yield followed by harvest index, specific leaf weight, stomatal number, 1000 grain weight, stomatal size, spikelets per spike and days to heading. Therefore, indirect selection for these plant traits in order should be exercised in selecting drought tolerant genotypes. Two genotypes (RL-124-2P2 and RL 111P2) were found to be drought and cold tolerant with high grain yield, spikes per plant, spikelets per spike and leaf area index.

  5. Composition and microstructure alteration of triticale grain surface after processing by enzymes of cellulase complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is found that the pericarp tissue of grain have considerable strength and stiffness, that has an adverse effect on quality of whole-grain bread. Thereby, there exists the need for preliminary chemical and biochemical processing of durable cell walls before industrial use. Increasingly used in the production of bread finds an artificial hybrid of the traditional grain crops of wheat and rye - triticale, grain which has high nutritional value. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the influence of cellulose complex (Penicillium canescens enzymes on composition and microstructure alteration of triticale grain surface, for grain used in baking. Triticale grain was processed by cellulolytic enzyme preparations with different composition (producer is Penicillium canescens. During experiment it is found that triticale grain processing by enzymes of cellulase complex leads to an increase in the content of water-soluble pentosans by 36.3 - 39.2%. The total amount of low molecular sugars increased by 3.8 - 10.5 %. Studies show that under the influence of enzymes the microstructure of the triticale grain surface is changing. Microphotographs characterizing grain surface structure alteration in dynamic (every 2 hours during 10 hours of substrate hydrolysis are shown. It is found that the depth and direction of destruction process for non-starch polysaccharides of grain integument are determined by the composition of the enzyme complex preparation and duration of exposure. It is found, that xylanase involved in the modification of hemicelluloses fiber having both longitudinal and radial orientation. Hydrolysis of non-starch polysaccharides from grain shells led to increase of antioxidant activity. Ferulic acid was identified in alcoholic extract of triticale grain after enzymatic hydrolysis under the influence of complex preparation containing cellulase, xylanase and β-glucanase. Grain processing by independent enzymes containing in complex

  6. Effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield from grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buresova, Iva [Agrotest Fyto, Ltd., Havlickova 2787/121, 767 01 Kromeriz (Czech Republic); Hrivna, Ludek [Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-04-15

    Bioethanol can be used as motor fuel and/or as a gasoline enhancer. A high yield feedstock for bioethanol production is cereal grain. Cereal grains containing less gluten proteins (glutenin and gliadin), but high starch, are favoured by distillers because they increase the bioethanol conversion. The direct effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield was studied on triticale grain. Examined triticale Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2 and Presto Valdy were developed by introducing selected segments of wheat chromosome 1D into triticale chromosome 1R. Even if the samples analysed in this study do not afford to make definitive assumptions, it can be noticed that in analysed cases the presence of gliadin had more significant effect on investigated parameters than the presence of glutenin. Despite the presence of glutenin subunits did not significantly decrease the investigated parameters - specific weight, Hagberg falling number and starch content in grain met the requirements for grain for bioethanol production - protein content was higher than is optimal. The fermentation experiments demonstrated good bioethanol yields but depression in grain yields caused by the presence of wheat gliadin and glutenin decreased the energy balance of Presto Valdy and Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2. (author)

  7. The Dose Rate Dependence of the Yield of Trapped Electrons in Crystalline Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Johan Daniel Göran; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

    1980-01-01

    in competition with other reactions and we propose a simple model where we assume that the mobile electrons can undergo bimolecular bulk reactions with protons and OH radicals. Rate constants of 3.0 × 1015 M−1 S−1 and 1.4 × 1014 M−1 S−1 for the two reactions were required in the model in order to account......The yield of localized excess electrons in crystalline H2O ice has been studied as a function of the dose rate at various temperatures in the range −10 to −40°C. The G value was found to decrease significantly with increasing dose rate. Thus it appears that the localization of electrons takes place...

  8. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Plutzar, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26–141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture. - Highlights: ► Global energy crop potentials in 2050 are calculated with a biophysical biomass-balance model. ► The study is focused on dedicated energy crops, forestry and residues are excluded. ► Depending on food-system change, global energy crop potentials range from 26–141 EJ/yr. ► Exclusion of protected areas and failed states may reduce the potential up to 45%. ► The bioenergy potential may be 26% lower or 45% higher, depending on energy crop yields.

  9. Strain Rate Dependence of Compressive Yield and Relaxation in DGEBA Epoxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechederra, Gabriel K.; Reprogle, Riley C.; Clarkson, Caitlyn M.; McCoy, John D.; Kropka, Jamie M.; Long, Kevin N.; Chambers, Robert S.

    2015-03-01

    The mechanical response in uniaxial compression of two diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxies were studied. These were 828DEA (Epon 828 cured with diethanolamine (DEA)) and 828T403 (Epon 828 cured with Jeffamine T-403). Two types of uniaxial compression tests were performed: A) constant strain rate compression and B) constant strain rate compression followed by a constant strain relaxation. The peak (yield) stress was analyzed as a function of strain rate from Eyring theory for activation volume. Runs at different temperatures permitted the construction of a mastercurve, and the resulting shift factors resulted in an activation energy. Strain and hold tests were performed for a low strain rate where a peak stress was lacking and for a higher strain rate where the peak stress was apparent. Relaxation from strains at different places along the stress-strain curve was tracked and compared. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Sanitary state and yielding of spring barley as dependent on soil tillage method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traditional tillage cultivation (control treatment, no tillage (instead of tillage the soil was loosened with scruff, and direct sowing (with a special drill into unploughed soil on the health of spring barley cultivar. Klimek were compared in three-field crop rotation (field bean, winter wheat, spring barley in an experiment performed in the years 1997-1999 on the soil of a good wheat complex. The results of phytopathological observations carried out over the vegetation season are presented in the form of an injury index. The following diseases were recorded on spring barley: net blotch (Drechslera teres - net type and spot type, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis, leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis, eyespot (Tapesia yallundae and foot rot (fungal complex. Tillage system had no a significant influence on the occurrence of both types of net blotch. The intensity of powdery mildew and leaf blotch was the highest in the case of traditional tillage cultivation, and the lowest - in that of no tillage. Direct sowing was conductive to the development of eyespot, and no tillage - to foot rot. Fungi of the genus Fusarium, mainly F. culmorum, and the species Bipolaris sorokiniana, were isolated most frequently from infested stem bases. The weather conditions differed during spring barley grown in the three years analyzed. Mean air temperature in 1997 and 1998 was similar to the many-year average for the city of Olsztyn and its surroundings (13.8°C. In the vegetation season 1999 mean air temperature reached 14.6°C, and was considerably higher than the many-year average. Taking into account total precipitation and distribution in the three-year experimental cycle, 1997 and 1998 can be considered average, and 1999 - wet.The weather conditions had a significant effect on the intensity of all diseases observed on spring barley. The highest yield grain was obtained in the case of traditional tillage cultivation (on average 3.06 t·ha-1 for the

  11. Analysis of T-DNA integration and generative segregation in transgenic winter triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hensel Goetz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the genetic transformation of the major cereal crops has become relatively routine, to date only a few reports were published on transgenic triticale, and robust data on T-DNA integration and segregation have not been available in this species. Results Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of stable transgenic winter triticale cv. Bogo carrying the selectable marker gene HYGROMYCIN PHOSPHOTRANSFERASE (HPT and a synthetic green fluorescent protein gene (gfp. Progeny of four independent transgenic plants were comprehensively investigated with regard to the number of integrated T-DNA copies, the number of plant genomic integration loci, the integrity and functionality of individual T-DNA copies, as well as the segregation of transgenes in T1 and T2 generations, which also enabled us to identify homozygous transgenic lines. The truncation of some integrated T-DNAs at their left end along with the occurrence of independent segregation of multiple T-DNAs unintendedly resulted in a single-copy segregant that is selectable marker-free and homozygous for the gfp gene. The heritable expression of gfp driven by the maize UBI-1 promoter was demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Conclusions The used transformation method is a valuable tool for the genetic engineering of triticale. Here we show that comprehensive molecular analyses are required for the correct interpretation of phenotypic data collected from the transgenic plants.

  12. APPLICATION OF RYE SSR MARKERS FOR DETECTION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN TRITICALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Želmíra Balážová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Present study aims to testify usefulness of particular rye SSR markers for the detection of genetic diversity degree in the set of 20 triticale cultivars coming from different European countries. For this purpose, a set of six rye SSR markers were used. The set of six polymorphic markers provided 22 alleles with an average frequency of 3.67 alleles per locus. The number of alleles ranged between 2 (SCM43 and 5 (SCM28, SCM86. Resulting from the number and frequency of alleles diversity index (DI, polymorphic information content (PIC and probability of identity (PI were calculated. An average value of PIC for 6 SSR markers was 0.505, the highest value was calculated for rye SSR marker SCM86 (0.706. Based on UPGMA algorithm, a dendrogram was constructed. In dendrogram cultivars were divided into two main clusters. The first cluster contained two cultivars, Russian cultivar Greneder and Slovak cultivar Largus, and second included 18 cultivars. Genetically the closest were two Greek cultivars (Niobi and Thisbi and were close to other Greek cultivar Vrodi. It was possible to separate triticale cultivars of spring and winter form in dendrogram. Results showed the utility of rye microsatellite markers for estimation of genetic diversity of European triticale genotypes leading to genotype identification.

  13. First measurement of the helicity-dependent (vector)({gamma})(vector)(p){yields}p{eta} differential cross-section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, J.; Arends, H.J.; Aulenbacher, K.; Beck, R.; Drechsel, D.; Harrach, D. van; Heid, E. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Altieri, S. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Annand, J.R.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Anton, G. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Bradtke, C.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Braghieri, A. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); d' Hose, N. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dutz, H. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Grabmayr, P. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Hansen, K. [Department of Physics, University of Lund, Lund (Sweden); Hasegawa, S. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Hasegawa, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan); Helbing, K.; Holvoet, H.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Horikawa, N.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, O.; Jennewein, P.; Kageya, T.; Kiel, B.; Klein, F.; Kondratiev, R.; Kossert, K.; Krimmer, J.; Lang, M.; Lannoy, B.; Leukel, R.; Lisin, V.; Matsuda, T.; McGeorge, J.C.; Meier, A.; Menze, D.; Meyer, W.; Michel, T.; Naumann, J.; Panzeri, A.; Pedroni, P.; Pinelli, T.; Preobrajenski, I.; Radtke, E.; Reichert, E.; Reicherz, G.; Rohlof, Ch.; Rosner, G.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sauer, M.; Schoch, B.; Schumacher, M.; Seitz, B.; Speckner, T.; Takabayashi, N.; Tamas, G.; Thomas, A.; Van de Vyver, R.; Wakai, A.; Weihofen, W.; Wissmann, F.; Zapadtka, F.; Zeitler, G.

    2003-06-01

    The helicity dependence of the (vector)({gamma})(vector)(p){yields}p{eta} reaction has been measured for the first time at a center-of-mass angle {theta}{sup *}{sub {eta}}=70 in the photon energy range from 780 MeV to 790 MeV. The experiment, performed at the Mainz microtron MAMI, used a 4{pi}-detector system, a circularly polarized, tagged photon beam, and a longitudinally polarized frozen-spin target. The helicity 3/2 cross-section is found to be small and the results for helicity 1/2 agree with predictions from the MAID analysis. (orig.)

  14. Pressure and temperature-dependent quantum yields for the photodissociation of acetone between 279 and 327.5 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitz, M. A.; Heard, D. E.; Pilling, M. J.; Arnold, S. R.; Chipperfield, M. P.

    2004-03-01

    The photodissociation of acetone has been studied over the wavelength (λ) range 279-327.5 nm as a function of temperature (T) and pressure (p) using a spectroscopic method to monitor the acetyl (CH3CO) radical fragment. Above 310 nm the quantum yield (QY) is substantially smaller than previous measurements, and decreases with T. The QYs for production of CH3CO + CH3 and CH3 + CH3 + CO have been parameterised as a function of λ, p and T and used to calculate the altitude dependence of the photolysis frequency. In the upper troposphere (UT) the acetone photolysis lifetime is a factor of 2.5-10 longer, dependent upon latitude and season, than if the previously recommended QYs are used.

  15. The dependence of maize (Zea mays hybrids yielding potential on the water amounts reaching the soil surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresović Branka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to observe the response of maize hybrids under rainfed and irrigation conditions of the soil in order to establish the dependence of yielding potential on the water amounts reaching the soil surface during the growing season. The four-replicate trail was set up according to the randomised complete-block design on chernozem. Pre-watering soil moisture was approximately 70% of field water capacity, and soil moisture was established thermogravimetrically. During the five-year studies, the following differences in yields could be as follows: 12.68 t ha-1 (ZP 341; 12.76 t ha-1 (ZP 434; 13.17 t ha-1 (ZP 578; 14.03 t ha-1 (ZP 684 and 13.75 t ha-1 (ZP 704 under conditions of 440 mm, 440 mm, 424 mm, 457 mm and 466 mm of water, respectively. The hybrid ZP 341, i.e. ZP 578 expressed the highest, i.e. the lowest tolerance in dry relative seasons, respectively. The reduction of the water amount for every 10 mm decreased the yield by 119.4 kg ha-1 (ZP 341, 156.7 kg ha-1 (ZP 434, 172.3 kg ha-1 (ZP 578, 148.9 kg ha-1 (ZP 684 and 151.1 kg ha-1 (ZP 704. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31037

  16. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Plutzar, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26-141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture.

  17. Effect of dislocation pile-up on size-dependent yield strength in finite single-crystal micro-samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Bo; Shibutani, Yoji, E-mail: sibutani@mech.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Zhang, Xu [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); School of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Shang, Fulin [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-07-07

    Recent research has explained that the steeply increasing yield strength in metals depends on decreasing sample size. In this work, we derive a statistical physical model of the yield strength of finite single-crystal micro-pillars that depends on single-ended dislocation pile-up inside the micro-pillars. We show that this size effect can be explained almost completely by considering the stochastic lengths of the dislocation source and the dislocation pile-up length in the single-crystal micro-pillars. The Hall–Petch-type relation holds even in a microscale single-crystal, which is characterized by its dislocation source lengths. Our quantitative conclusions suggest that the number of dislocation sources and pile-ups are significant factors for the size effect. They also indicate that starvation of dislocation sources is another reason for the size effect. Moreover, we investigated the explicit relationship between the stacking fault energy and the dislocation “pile-up” effect inside the sample: materials with low stacking fault energy exhibit an obvious dislocation pile-up effect. Our proposed physical model predicts a sample strength that agrees well with experimental data, and our model can give a more precise prediction than the current single arm source model, especially for materials with low stacking fault energy.

  18. Helicity dependence of the {gamma}d{yields} {pi}NN reactions in the {delta}-resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, J.; Arends, H.J.; Beck, R.; Heid, E.; Jahn, O.; Lang, M.; Martinez-Fabregate, M.; Schwamb, M.; Tamas, G.; Thomas, A. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Altieri, S.; Panzeri, A.; Pinelli, T. [INFN, Pavia (Italy); Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Pavia (Italy); Annand, J.R.M.; McGeorge, J.C.; Protopopescu, D.; Rosner, G. [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Blackston, M.A.; Weller, H.R. [Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States); Bradtke, C.; Dutz, H.; Klein, F.; Rohlof, C. [Universitaet Bonn, Physikalisches Institut, Bonn (Germany); Braghieri, A.; Pedroni, P. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Hose, N. d' [DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Fix, A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kondratiev, R.; Lisin, V. [Academy of Science, INR, Moscow (Russian Federation); Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Insitut fuer Experimentalphysik, Bochum (Germany); Rostomyan, T. [Universiteit Gent, Subatomaire en Stralingsfysica, Gent (Belgium); INFN, Pavia (Italy); Ryckbosch, D. [Universiteit Gent, Subatomaire en Stralingsfysica, Gent (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    The helicity dependence of the differential cross-section for the {gamma}d{yields}{pi}NN reactions has been measured for the first time in the {delta} -resonance region. The measurement was performed with the large-acceptance detector DAPHNE at the tagged photon beam facility of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz. The data show that the main reaction mechanisms for the {pi}{sup {+-}} NN channels are the quasi-free N {pi} processes on one bound nucleon with nuclear dynamics playing a minor role. On the contrary, for the {pi}{sup 0}np channel nuclear mechanisms involving the reabsorption of the photoproduced {pi}{sup 0} by the np pair have to be taken into account to reproduce the experimental data. (orig.)

  19. Solvent dependence of organic exciplex fluorescence studied by magnetic effect on reaction yield (M.A.R.Y) spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, K.

    2011-01-01

    This work aims at understanding the various facets of one of the elementary reactions in nature, the electron transfer reaction using MARY (Magnetic effect on Reaction Yield) spectroscopy as a tool. The prime focus of study by the use this technique was the solvent dependence of organic exciplex fluorescence. Apart from that temperature dependent measurements using MARY spectroscopy have been performed to extract the activation energy parameters of electron transfer reaction. The discovery of magnetic field effect on new system was also a part of our study. The study of solvent dependence of organic exciplex fluorescence using MARY spectroscopy was carried out on the system of 9,10-dimethylanthracene (as the fluorophore) and N,N'-dimethylaniline and 4,4'-Bis(dimethylamino) diphenylmethane (as quenchers) in binary solvent mixtures of toluene/dimethylsulfoxide, benzylacetate/dimethylsulfoxide, toluene/propylenecarbonate and propylacetate/butyronitrile. The work focuses on the use of solvent mixtures rather than pure solvents. The solvent mixtures, tailored to simulate different microenvironemets, were employed to find out the effect of preferential solvation on electron transfer reaction. The contrast in the absolute field effect and linewidth values of the MARY spectra obtained in the four system as a function of dielectric constant scan suggest the imperative effect of concentration fluctuation on the electron transfer reaction. Temperature dependent measurements were performed on the system of N,N,N',N'- tetramethylparaphenylendiamin, photo-ionizing in a mixture of toluene/dimethylsulfoxide. However the sluggish response of the system to temperature changes does not really permit us to extract fruitful results. The magnetic field effect on the much studied system of Perylene/ N.N'-dimethylaniline was discovered for the first time. (author) [de

  20. Introgression of A- and B-genome of tetraploid triticale chromatin into tetraploid rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, H; Kwiatek, M; Kulak-Książczyk, S; Apolinarska, B

    2013-11-01

    An improvement of rye is one of the mainstream goals of current breeding. Our study is concerned with the introduction of the tetraploid triticale (ABRR) into the 4x rye (RRRR) using classical methods of distant crossing. One hundred fifty BC1F9 hybrid plants [(4x rye × 4x triticales) × 4x rye] obtained from a backcrossing program were studied. The major aim of this work was to verify the presence of an introgressed A- and B- genome chromatin of triticale in a collection of the 4x rye-tiritcale hybrids and to determine their chromosome compositions. In the present study, karyotypes of the previously reported BC1F2s and BC1F3s were compared with that of the BC1F9 generation as obtained after several subsequent open pollinations. The genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) allowed us to identify 133 introgression forms in which chromosome numbers ranged between 26 and 32. Using four DNA probes (5S rDNA, 25S rDNA, pSc119.2 and pAs1), the fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) was carried out to facilitate an exact chromosome identification in the hybrid plants. The combination of the multi-colour GISH with the repetitive DNA FISH singled out five types of translocated chromosomes: 2A.2R, 4A.4R, 5A.5R, 5B.5R and 7A.7R among the examined BC1F9s. The reported translocation lines could serve as valuable sources of wheat chromatin suitable for further improvements of rye.

  1. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibility and the nutritive value of the triticale cultivars Moreno and Ulrika for growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PERTTILÄ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Both digestibility and performance experiments were carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of triticale for growing-finishing pigs.In experiment 1,the apparent ileal and faecal digestibility of nutrients in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv.Viiviand two triticale (Tritico secale cultivars, Moreno and Ulrika, were measured using six cannulated barrows with a body weight (BWof 82-107 kg.In experiment 2,132 pigs were used over 25-100 kg BW to study the effects of replacing barley in a barley-soyabean meal-based diet with graded amounts of triticale cv.Moreno (25,50,75,or 100% and cv.Ulrika (50 or 100%.The apparent ileal and faecal digestibilities of dry matter and organic matter were higher for both triticale cultivars than for barley (P 0.05.The apparent ileal digestibility of lysine averaged 65.6, 70.8, and 70.5% for barley and triticale cv.Moreno and Ulrika,respectively.The net energy content of triticales (11.5 MJ kg-1 DMwas 0.4 MJ kg -1 DM higher than that of barley.The replacement of barley with the triticale cultivars Moreno and Ulrika exerted a positive quadratic effect on daily weight gain and the feed conversion ratio of pigs from 50 to 100 kg and from 25 to 100 kg BW (P

  2. Location of Bioelectricity Plants in the Madrid Community Based on Triticale Crop: A Multicriteria Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Romero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a work whose objective is, first, to quantify the potential of the triticale biomass existing in each of the agricultural regions in the Madrid Community through a crop simulation model based on regression techniques and multiple correlation. Second, a methodology for defining which area has the best conditions for the installation of electricity plants from biomass has been described and applied. The study used a methodology based on compromise programming in a discrete multicriteria decision method (MDM context. To make a ranking, the following criteria were taken into account: biomass potential, electric power infrastructure, road networks, protected spaces, and urban nuclei surfaces. The results indicate that, in the case of the Madrid Community, the Campiña region is the most suitable for setting up plants powered by biomass. A minimum of 17,339.9 tons of triticale will be needed to satisfy the requirements of a 2.2 MW power plant. The minimum range of action for obtaining the biomass necessary in Campiña region would be 6.6 km around the municipality of Algete, based on Geographic Information Systems. The total biomass which could be made available in considering this range in this region would be 18,430.68 t.

  3. Effect of nitrogen fertilisation on the amino acid digestibility of different triticale genotypes in caecectomised laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Wolfgang; Boguhn, Jeannette; Maurer, Hans Peter; Weiss, Jochen; Zuber, Tobias; Möhring, Jens; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen fertilisation and genotype on the amino acid (AA) digestibility of triticale grain was investigated in caecectomised laying hens. Three genotypes, Grenado, EAW6002 and Lasko, were cultivated with and without nitrogen fertilisation at the end of the heading stage. The six triticale variants as well as a basal diet were each used to feed seven laying hens in a 7 × 7 Latin square design. Nitrogen fertilisation influenced the digestibility of Cys, Glu, Phe and Ser in some triticale genotypes and reduced Ala, Ile, Lys, Met and Val digestibility in all genotypes (P digestible AAs in the grains was increased for most AAs upon nitrogen fertilisation. Overall, Lys had the lowest digestibility, whereas that of Glu and Pro was the highest. For the triticale genotypes, the level of AA digestibility was highest for EAW6002 followed by Lasko and Grenado, with significant differences (P digestible AA supply for hen feeding might benefit from considering fertilisation and genotype-specific digestibility data in feed formulation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Comparação entre métodos para a avaliação do vigor de lotes de sementes de triticale Comparison of methods for assessing the vigor of seed lots of triticale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Steiner

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de um programa de controle de qualidade, a avaliação do vigor de sementes é fundamental e necessária para o sucesso da produção. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diferentes testes de vigor na avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de triticale (X. triticosecale Wittmack, buscando a diferenciação de lotes. Cinco lotes da cultivar 'IPR 111' foram submetidos ao teste de germinação, primeira contagem, teste de frio, condutividade elétrica (50 sementes 50mL-1 de água; 25°C 24h-1, lixiviação de potássio (50 sementes 75mL-1 de água; 25°C 3h-1, envelhecimento acelerado (43°C 48h-1 e teor de água. O teste de condutividade elétrica e lixiviação de potássio são eficientes na diferenciação do vigor de lotes de sementes de triticale.In a program of seed quality assurance, the evaluation of seed vigor is fundamental and necessary to the global production process outcome. The objective of this experiment was to verify the efficiency of different vigor tests for evaluation of triticale seeds (X. triticosecale Wittmack seeking the lots differentiation. Five lots of triticale seeds (cv. IPR 111 were submitted to the following evaluations: germination, first counting of germination test, cold test, electrical conductivity test (50 seeds into 50ml of water, at 25°C for 24 hours, accelerated aging test (43°C 48h-1 in distilled water (100% RH, and also seed water content. The test of electrical conductivity and potassium leaching was efficient to distinguish vigor of triticale.

  5. Variability in amino acid digestibility of triticale grain from diverse genotypes as studied in cecectomized laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, T; Maurer, H P; Möhring, J; Nautscher, N; Siegert, W; Rosenfelder, P; Rodehutscord, M

    2016-12-01

    Triticale, an anthropogenic hybrid grain, is increasing in importance as a feed grain for laying hens. However, our limited knowledge of its nutritional qualities and their impact on hen performance prevents optimization of its use. The present study investigated the digestibility of amino acids ( AA: ) in triticale grain in laying hens, and additionally examined relationships between AA digestibility and chemical and physical characteristics of the grain. Twenty genotypes of triticale were grown under standardized agronomic and environmental conditions and were characterized according to their physical properties (thousand-seed weight, test weight, falling number, extract viscoelasticity), chemical composition (proximate nutrients, non-starch polysaccharides, AA, minerals, inositol phosphates) and gross energy concentration. Additionally, the in vitro solubility of nitrogen was determined. The animal trial comprised 4 Latin Squares (6 × 6) distributed among 2 subsequent runs. Twelve cecectomized LSL-Classic hens were individually housed in metabolism cages and either fed a basal diet containing 500 g/kg cornstarch or one of 20 triticale diets, each replacing the cornstarch with one triticale genotype, for 8 d. During the last 4 d, feed intake was recorded and excreta were collected quantitatively. Amino acid digestibility of the triticale genotypes was calculated by linear regression. The digestibility of all AA differed significantly between the 20 genotypes, including Lys (digestibility range 68 to 80%), Met (77 to 86%), Thr (68 to 78%) and Trp (74 to 83%). However, AA digestibility only correlated with characteristics of the grain in few cases, without a consistent pattern among AA. Equations to predict AA digestibility based on the grain's physical and chemical characteristics were calculated by multiple linear regression. The explanatory power (adjusted R 2 ;) of these prediction equations was below 0.7 for most AA and thus not sufficiently precise to be

  6. Simulation of nitrous oxide effluxes, crop yields and soil physical properties using the LandscapeDNDC model in managed ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyckowiak, Jedrzej; Lesny, Jacek; Haas, Edwin; Juszczak, Radoslaw; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Olejnik, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    Modeling of nitrous oxide emissions from soil is very complex. Many different biological and chemical processes take place in soils which determine the amount of emitted nitrous oxide. Additionaly, biogeochemical models contain many detailed factors which may determine fluxes and other simulated variables. We used the LandscapeDNDC model in order to simulate N2O emissions, crop yields and soil physical properties from mineral cultivated soils in Poland. Nitrous oxide emissions from soils were modeled for fields with winter wheat, winter rye, spring barley, triticale, potatoes and alfalfa crops. Simulations were carried out for the plots of the Brody arable experimental station of Poznan University of Life Science in western Poland and covered the period 2003 - 2012. The model accuracy and its efficiency was determined by comparing simulations result with measurements of nitrous oxide emissions (measured with static chambers) from about 40 field campaigns. N2O emissions are strongly dependent on temperature and soil water content, hence we compared also simulated soil temperature at 10cm depth and soil water content at the same depth with the daily measured values of these driving variables. We compared also simulated yield quantities for each individual experimental plots with yield quantities which were measured in the period 2003-2012. We conclude that the LandscapeDNDC model is capable to simulate soil N2O emissions, crop yields and physical properties of soil with satisfactorily good accuracy and efficiency.

  7. Yielding of leaf celery Apium graveolens L. var. secalinum Alef. depending on the number of harvests and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Rożek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf celery (Apium graveolensvar. secalinum is a vegetable with medicinal and spicy properties. Its numerous intensely fragrant leaves can be cut several times during the plant growing period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation and number of harvests on leaf celery yield of the cultivars ‘Afina’ and‘Gewone Snij’. Plant irrigation significantly increased leaf yield and plant height of leaf celery. Higher total yield was obtained from non-irrigated plants when leaves were harvested three times, whereas for irrigated plants yield was higher in the case of two leaf harvests. Irrespective of the experimental factors, higher yield was obtained from the cultivar ‘Gewone Snij’.

  8. Molecular, Physicochemical and Rheological Characteristics of Introgressive Triticale/Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum Lines with Wheat 1D/1A Chromosome Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Błaszczyk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of hexaploid introgressive triticale lines, with Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cultivated einkorn wheat genes and a bread wheat chromosome 1D substituted for chromosome 1A, and one set of secondary triticale lines were evaluated for grain and flour physicochemical and dough rheological characteristics in two generations (F7 and F8. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH confirmed the 1D/1A chromosome substitution. The presence or absence of einkorn high-molecular-weight (HMW glutenin subunits and the wheat Glu-D1d locus encoding the 5 + 10 subunits was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, capillary zone electrophoresis, and allele-specific molecular markers. Significant differences were found among physicochemical properties (with the exception of the Hagberg falling number of all introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines and the secondary triticale lines. The wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution also affected these properties. The results showed that in all introgressive triticale lines, the protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value, and water absorption capacity, were increased. The rheological parameters estimated using micro-farinograph, reomixer, and Kieffer dough extensibility systems also showed an appreciable increase in dough-mixing properties, maximum resistance to extension (Rmax, and dough extensibility. Introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines with 5 + 10 subunits have particularly favorable rheological parameters. The results obtained in this study suggest that the cultivated einkorn genome Am, in the context of hexaploid secondary triticale lines and with a wheat 1D/1A substitution, has the potential to improve gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for triticale quality improvement.

  9. Gamma-ray yield dependence on bulk density and moisture content of a sample of a PGNAA setup. A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagadi, M.M.; Naqvi, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were carried out to study the dependence of γ-ray yield on the bulk density and moisture content of a sample in a thermalneutron capture-based prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup. The results of the study showed a strong dependence of the γ-ray yield upon the sample bulk density. An order of magnitude increase in yield of 1.94 and 6.42 MeV prompt γ-rays from calcium in a Portland cement sample was observed for a corresponding order of magnitude increase in the sample bulk density. On the contrary the γ-ray yield has a weak dependence on sample moisture content and an increase of only 20% in yield of 1.94 and 6.42 MeV prompt γ-rays from calcium in the Portland cement sample was observed for an order of magnitude increase in the moisture content of the Portland cement sample. A similar effect of moisture content has been observed on the yield of 1.167 MeV prompt γ-rays from chlorine contaminants in Portland cement samples. For an order of magnitude increase in the moisture content of the sample, a 7 to 12% increase in the yield of the 1.167 MeV chlorine γ-ray was observed for the Portland cement samples containing 1 to 5 wt.% chlorine contaminants. This study has shown that effects of sample moisture content on prompt γ-ray yield from constituents of a Portland cement sample are insignificant in a thermal-neutrons capture-based PGNAA setup. (author)

  10. Tolerância de genótipos de trigo comum, trigo duro e triticale à toxicidade de alumínio em soluções nutritivas Tolerance of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale genotypes to aluminum toxicity in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    2006-01-01

    nutrient solution after a treatment of 48 hours in an aluminum solution associated with a particular salt concentration, according to the experiment. The bread wheats IAC-289, IAC-350 and IAC-370, the durum wheat IAC-1003 and the triticale IAC-5 genotypes were the most sensitive for increasing levels of Al3+in treatment nutrient solutions. Thus, they would be indicated only for cultivation in limed soils. The bread wheat IAC-24 and IAC-378 genotypes and the check cultivar BH-1146 were the most tolerant to Al3+ toxicity, being able to show good performance in acidic soils and/or to be used as genetic sources for tolerance in future crosses. Under constant temperature 25 ± 1ºC and pH 4,0 aluminum toxicity results in inhibition of root growth wich was dependent on the increase of the aluminum concentration or on the reduction of the salt concentration of the nutrient solution for all evaluated genotypes.

  11. Genetics of dwarfness in induced mutants of hexaploid triticale and its response to exogenous GA3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, V.D.; Reddy, G.M.

    1991-01-01

    Genetics of dwarfism in two induced mutant (d 1 and d 2 ) of hexaploid triticale, DTS 330, revealed that this trait is governed by single recessive gene. Both d 1 and d 2 were allelic to each other and d 1 was dominant over d 2 . Both d 1 , d 2 and their F 1 showed no response to exogenous GA 3 , whereas, DTS 330, d 1 x DTS 330 and d 2 x DTS 330 were responsive. The endogenous levels of GA 3 were more in the dwarf mutants than control, suggesting that dwarfness in these may be due to a partial block in the GA utilizing mechanism, rather than a block in GA biosynthesis. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Reorganization of wheat and rye genomes in octoploid triticale (× Triticosecale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinka, Anna; Achrem, Magdalena

    2018-04-01

    The analysis of early generations of triticale showed numerous rearrangements of the genome. Complexed transformation included loss of chromosomes, t-heterochromatin content changes and the emergence of retrotransposons in new locations. This study investigated certain aspects of genomic transformations in the early generations (F5 and F8) of the primary octoploid triticale derived from the cross of hexaploid wheat with the diploid rye. Most of the plants tested were hypoploid; among eliminated chromosomes were rye chromosomes 4R and 5R and variable number of wheat chromosomes. Wheat chromosomes were eliminated to a higher extent. The lower content of telomeric heterochromatin was also found in rye chromosomes in comparison with parental rye. Studying the location of selected retrotransposons from Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy families using fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed additional locations of these retrotransposons that were not present in chromosomes of parental species. ISSR, IRAP and REMAP analyses showed significant changes at the level of specific DNA nucleotide sequences. In most cases, the disappearance of certain types of bands was observed, less frequently new types of bands appeared, not present in parental species. This demonstrates the scale of genome rearrangement and, above all, the elimination of wheat and rye sequences, largely due to the reduction of chromosome number. With regard to the proportion of wheat to rye genome, the rye genome was more affected by the changes, thus this study was focused more on the rye genome. Observations suggest that genome reorganization is not finished in the F5 generation but is still ongoing in the F8 generation.

  13. THE STRUCTURE AND YIELD LEVEL OF SWEET CORN DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF WINTER CATCH CROPS AND WEED CONTROL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic manuring is suggested to be necessary in sweet corn cultivation. It is not always possible to use farmyard manure due to economic, production or technical reasons. Catch crops used as green manures can be an alternative source of organic matter. The experiment was carried out in central-east Poland (52°06’N, 22°55’E, in years 2008–2011. The successive effect of winter catch crops (hairy vetch, white clover, winter rye, Italian ryegrass, winter turnip rape and the type of weed control on the growth and yielding of sweet corn was examined. The catch crops were sown in early September, incorporated in early May. The effect of the winter catch crops on yield was compared to the effect of FYM at a rate of 30 t·ha-1 and the control without organic manuring. The sweet corn was grown directly after organic fertilization. Three methods of weed control was used: Hw – hand weeding, twice during the growing period, GCM – herbicide Guardian CompleteMix 664 SE, immediately after sowing the seed corn, Z+T – a mixture of herbicides Zeagran 340 SE + Titus 25 WG, in the 3–4 leaf stage sweet corn. The highest yields of biomass were found for winter rye (35.5 t·ha-1 FM and 7.3 t·ha-1 DM, the most of macroelements accumulated winter turnip rape (480.2 kg N+P+K+Ca+Mg·ha-1. Generally, leguminous catch crops had similar to the FYM and better than non-leguminous catch crops yield-forming effect. The highest yield of marketable ears of sweet corn was obtained after FYM (14.4 t·ha-1 and after hairy vetch catch crop (14.0 t·ha-1. A similar yield-forming effect also had white clover and Italian ryegrass. The most of ears from 1 ha was achieved after white clover catch crop (59.3 tausend, similar after FYM and hairy vetch catch crop. The highest kernel yields were found after FYM (10.7 t·ha-1. The yields of kernel after hairy vetch and white clover catch crops were significantly higher than after non-leguminous catch crops. Z+T weed control

  14. Comparison and Optimization of Saccharification Conditions of Alkaline Pre-Treated Triticale Straw for Acid and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Followed by Ethanol Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Łukajtis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the comparison of the efficiency of two-stage hydrolysis processes, i.e., alkaline pre-treatment and acid hydrolysis, as well as alkaline pre-treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, carried out in order to obtain reducing sugars from triticale straw. For each of the analyzed systems, the optimization of the processing conditions was carried out with respect to the glucose yield. For the alkaline pre-treatment, an optimal catalyst concentration was selected for constant values of temperature and pre-treatment time. For enzymatic hydrolysis, optimal process time and concentration of the enzyme preparation were determined. For the acidic hydrolysis, performed with 85% phosphoric acid, the optimum temperature and hydrolysis time were determined. In the hydrolysates obtained after the two-stage treatment, the concentration of reducing sugars was determined using HPLC. The obtained hydrolysates were subjected to ethanol fermentation. The concentrations of fermentation inhibitors are given and their effects on the alcoholic fermentation efficiency are discussed.

  15. Seed Yield of Long Fiber Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. Plants Depending on Rates of Sawing of Seed and Mineral Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. Ф. Рибак

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Impact of rates of sawing of seed and fertilization on seed productivity of Kameniar and Irma Long Fiber Flax in the conditions of Ukrainian Woodlands are highlighted. A trustworthy proportion is established of factors influence, in particular, of the sawing and fertilization rates, on Long Fiber Flax yield formation.

  16. [INFLUENCE OF AZOSPIRILLUM BRASILENSE 10/1 ON ASSOCIATIVE NITROGEN FIXATION AND INTRAVARIETAL POLYMORPHISM OF SPRING TRITICALE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patika, V P; Nadkernichna, O V; Shahovnina, O O

    2015-01-01

    It is shown, that the perspective Ukrainian sorts of spring triticale characterizes by considerable polymorphism by associative N2-fixing ability in root zone of plants. Application of active strain Azospirillum brasilense 10/1 promotes the decline of variability of this sign within the limits of sort, increase potential nitrogen activity is on the average in 3,2-4,7 times and also distributing normalizations in the selections of the inoculated plants.

  17. Evaluation of ISSR markers to assess genetic variability and relationship among winter triticale (x triticosecale wittmack) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozen, E [Anadolu University Yunusemre Campus, Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Biology

    2010-08-15

    The ISSR technique was used to identify genetic relationships in 11 winter hexaploid triticale cultivars Lasko, Stan-1, Malno, Purdy, AN-34, Tatlicak-97, Karma-2000, Presto, Melez-2001, Mikham-2002, Samur Sorti. Twenty ISSR primers were tested and twelve of them amplified clear and reproducible bands. The number of ISSR fragments generated per primer set ranged from 5 to 31 with fragment sizes varying from 320 to 2700bp. A total of 209 ISSR fragments were detected, of which 159 were polymorphic (76.07%). All cultivars were clearly differentiated by their ISSR fingerprints. Based on UPGMA analysis a dendrogram was constructed and 11 triticale cultivars were grouped in two clusters. Cluster I was the largest, comprising 10 cultivars which can be divided into four subclusters. Only one cultivar, Stan-1 was positioned in Cluster II. The polymorphic patterns generated by ISSR profiles showed different degrees of genetic relationship among the cultivars studied. Similarity values between cultivars ranged from 0.59 to 0.89. The results indicate that ISSRs may constitute a relatively simple and efficient method for analysing genetic variation in triticale. (author)

  18. Evaluation of ISSR markers to assess genetic variability and relationship among winter triticale (x triticosecale wittmack) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozen, E.

    2010-01-01

    The ISSR technique was used to identify genetic relationships in 11 winter hexaploid triticale cultivars Lasko, Stan-1, Malno, Purdy, AN-34, Tatlicak-97, Karma-2000, Presto, Melez-2001, Mikham-2002, Samur Sorti. Twenty ISSR primers were tested and twelve of them amplified clear and reproducible bands. The number of ISSR fragments generated per primer set ranged from 5 to 31 with fragment sizes varying from 320 to 2700bp. A total of 209 ISSR fragments were detected, of which 159 were polymorphic (76.07%). All cultivars were clearly differentiated by their ISSR fingerprints. Based on UPGMA analysis a dendrogram was constructed and 11 triticale cultivars were grouped in two clusters. Cluster I was the largest, comprising 10 cultivars which can be divided into four subclusters. Only one cultivar, Stan-1 was positioned in Cluster II. The polymorphic patterns generated by ISSR profiles showed different degrees of genetic relationship among the cultivars studied. Similarity values between cultivars ranged from 0.59 to 0.89. The results indicate that ISSRs may constitute a relatively simple and efficient method for analysing genetic variation in triticale. (author)

  19. Note: Theoretical study on the gas pressure dependence of x-ray yield in TE111 cavity based electron cyclotron resonance x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvakumaran, T. S.; Sen, Soubhadra; Baskaran, R.

    2014-01-01

    Adopting Langevin methodology, a pressure dependent frictional force term which represents the collisional effect is added to the Lorentz equation. The electrons are assumed to be starting from the uniformly distributed co-ordinates on the central plane. The trajectory of each electron is numerically simulated by solving the modified Lorentz equation for a given pressure. The Bremsstrahlung x-ray energy spectrum for each electron crossing the cavity wall boundary is obtained using the Duane-Hunt law. The total x-ray yield is estimated by adding the spectral contribution of each electron. The calculated yields are compared with the experimental results and a good agreement is found

  20. Yield and quality of pectins extractable from the peels of thai mango cultivars depending on fruit ripeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisakulwat, Suparat; Nagel, Andreas; Sruamsiri, Pittaya; Carle, Reinhold; Neidhart, Sybille

    2008-11-26

    Pectins, recovered from the peels of four mango ( Mangifera indica L.) cultivars by mimicking industrial techniques, were evaluated in terms of yield, composition, macromolecular properties, and technofunctional quality. Freeze-dried peels of mature-green fruits, after major mesocarp softening, and at full ripeness were extracted using hot acid. The pectins were precipitated in propan-2-ol and their crude yields quantified as alcohol-insoluble substance. Like apple pomace, the dried peels provided hardly acetylated (DAc implied by arabinose/galactose ratios of 8-15 and 33-56 mol/100 mol, respectively. Limited galacturonic acid contents made the mango peel pectins less valuable than commercial apple pectins with regard to gelling capacity and thickening properties. Whereas starch and matrix glycan fragments almost completely degraded during ripening, depolymerization of pectins and galactans was insignificant. Technofunctional properties, modulated by extraction at different pH values, were ascribed to structural differences influencing macromolecular entanglements.

  1. A pH dependence study of CdTe quantum dots fluorescence quantum yields using eclipsing thermal lens spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estupiñán-López, C. [Laboratory of Biomedical Optics and Imaging, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Dominguez, C. Tolentino [Laboratory of Biomedical Optics and Imaging, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Centre for Telecommunication Studies, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Filho, P.E. Cabral [Laboratory of Biomedical Optics and Imaging, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Biophysics and Radiobiology Department, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, B.S. [Laboratory of Biomedical Optics and Imaging, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Fontes, A., E-mail: adriana.fontes.biofisica@gmail.com [Laboratory of Biomedical Optics and Imaging, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Biophysics and Radiobiology Department, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Araujo, R.E. de, E-mail: renato.earaujo@ufpe.br [Laboratory of Biomedical Optics and Imaging, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2016-06-15

    In this study we evaluated the absolute fluorescence quantum yield (Φ) of hydrophilic CdTe QDs in function of different pHs, modified from the alkaline to acid, by using two different chemicals compounds, the mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA-the stabilizing agent of the QDs synthesis) or hydrochloric acid (HCl). The pH control of QDs suspensions is essential for the use of fluorescent nanoparticles in biological systems. We used the eclipsing thermal lens spectroscopy technique to determine the absolute fluorescence quantum yield values. The results showed variations on the Φ values as a function of the pH, which allowed a better understanding of QDs emission characteristics, establishing parameters for their use in biomedical applications such as optical images of biological systems, immunoassays, flow cytometry, biosensors and others.

  2. The influence of sowing period and seeding norm on autumn vegetation, winter hardiness and yield of winter cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapova G. N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available the winter wheat and triticale in the middle part of the Ural Mountains haven’t been seeded before. The technology of winter crop cultivation should be improved due to the production of new varieties of winter rye. Winter hardiness and yield of winter rye are higher in comparison with winter triticale and especially with winter wheat. The sowing period and the seeding rate influence the amount of yield and winter hardiness. The winter hardiness of winter cereals and the yield of the rye variety Iset sowed on August 25 and the yield of the triticale variety Bashkir short-stalked and wheat Kazanskaya 560 sowed on August 15 were higher. It is important to sow winter grain in local conditions in the second half of August. The sowing this period allows to provide plants with the necessary amount of positive temperatures (450–500 °C. This helps the plants to form 3–4 shoots of tillering and a mass of 10 dry plants reaching 3–5 grams. The winter grain crops in the middle part of the Ural Mountains should be sown with seeding rates of 6 and 7 million of sprouting grains per 1 ha, and the seeds must be cultivated with fungicidal preparation before seeding.

  3. Desarrollo radical y rendimiento en diferentes variedades de trigo, cebada y triticale bajo condiciones limitantes de humedad del suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Miranda Domínguez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available El trigo (Triticum aestivum L., triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack y cebada (Hordeum vulgare L., se cultivan en México bajo riego y temporal o secano. En condiciones de secano se cultivan en la temporada de lluvias en verano-otoño y otoño-invierno con humedad residual, después de la temporada de lluvias, aunque con severos problemas de sequía terminal. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar el rendimiento de grano (RG y sus componentes, y la densidad radical (DR bajo condiciones de humedad residual en Oaxaca, México, durante el periodo otoño-invierno 2013-2014. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones; la unidad experimental fue de cuatro surcos de 4 ×0.4 m. Se sembró el 5 de octubre de 2013 con una densidad de siembra de 100 kg ha-1 y se fertilizó con la dosis 40-40-00. La cebada produjo mayor RG que el trigo y el triticale; el alto RG estuvo acompañado de un alto índice de cosecha (IC, peso del grano (PG y DR, y menor estatura de planta y ciclo biológico (CB más corto. El trigo y el triticale tuvieron un RG similar, sin embargo, el trigo ‘Venturero’ tuvo mayor RG que la mayoría de los genotipos de trigo y triticale con alto número de espigas m-2 (E M-2 y PG, y el más alto peso hectolitrico, la mayor DR y el CB más largo. Más del 50% de las raíces se concentraron cerca de la superficie del suelo (20 cm en todos los genotipos y se observó que el trigo tuvo mayor DR que la cebada y el triticale en los estratos de 20-100 cm, y el trigo ‘Venturero’ produjo más raíces que los demás genotipos desde la superficie del suelo hasta los 100 cm. Los genotipos de cebada y trigo con mayor DR produjeron mayor RG, confirmando su mayor resistencia a sequía.

  4. Natural convection in Bingham plastic fluids from an isothermal spheroid: Effects of fluid yield stress, viscous dissipation and temperature-dependent viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anoop Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay; Chhabra, Rajendra Prasad

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the buoyancy-induced convection from an isothermal spheroid is studied in a Bingham plastic fluid. Extensive results on the morphology of approximate yield surfaces, temperature profiles, and the local and average Nusselt numbers are reported to elucidate the effects of the pertinent dimensionless parameters: Rayleigh number, 102 ≤ Ra ≤ 106; Prandtl number, 20 ≤ Pr ≤ 100; Bingham number, 0 ≤ Bn ≤ 103, and aspect ratio, 0.2 ≤ e ≤ 5. Due to the fluid yield stress, fluid-like (yielded) and solid-like (unyielded) regions coexist in the flow domain depending upon the prevailing stress levels vis-a-vis the value of the fluid yield stress. The yielded parts progressively grow in size with the rising Rayleigh number while this tendency is countered by the increasing Bingham and Prandtl numbers. Due to these two competing effects, a limiting value of the Bingham number ( Bn max) is observed beyond which heat transfer occurs solely by conduction due to the solid-like behaviour of the fluid everywhere in the domain. Such limiting values bear a positive dependence on the Rayleigh number ( Ra) and aspect ratio ( e). In addition to this, oblate shapes ( e 1) impede it. Finally, simple predictive expressions for the maximum Bingham number and the average Nusselt number are developed which can be used to predict a priori the overall heat transfer coefficient in a new application. Also, a criterion is developed in terms of the composite parameter Bn• Gr-1/2 which predicts the onset of convection in such fluids. Similarly, another criterion is developed which delineates the conditions for the onset of settling due to buoyancy effects. The paper is concluded by presenting limited results to delineate the effects of viscous dissipation and the temperature-dependent viscosity on the Nusselt number. Both these effects are seen to be rather small in Bingham plastic fluids.

  5. Projectile- and charge-state-dependent electron yields from ion penetration of solids as a probe of preequilibrium stopping power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothard, H.; Schou, Jørgen; Groeneveld, K.-O.

    1992-01-01

    Kinetic electron-emission yields gamma from swift ion penetration of solids are proportional to the (electronic) stopping power gamma approximately Beta-S*, if the preequilibrium evolution of the charge and excitation states of the positively charged ions is taken into account. We show...... by investigating the "transport factor" beta, the energy spectrum of directly ejected recoil electrons and the evolution of ionic charge state inside solids. Estimates of the energy-loss fraction leading to electron emission and the effective charges of the ions near the surface allow a quantitative description...

  6. Yield of corms of Acidanthera bicolor var. murielae perry depending on the date and depth of planting corms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kocira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were conducted in 2000–2002. Corms of Acidanthera bicolor var. murielae Perry were planted on four dates, every ten days: 19–20th of April, 29–30th of April, 8–9th of May, 18–19th of May, and at three different depths: 4, 8, and 12 cm. At the end of the vegetation period, the plants were dug out and cormels obtained were dried, cleaned and calibrated by 8 sizes that included cormels of the following circumferences: below 4.0 cm, 4.1–6.0 cm, 6.1–8.0 cm, 8.1–10.0 cm, 10.1–12.0 cm, 12.1–14.0 cm, 14.1–16.0, and over 16.0 cm. Then, the cormels were grouped into three sizes: I – cormels with a circumference of over 10.0 cm; II – cormels of 10.0–8.1 cm in circumference; and III – cormels of 8.0–6.0 cm in circumference. The structure and weight of the total and marketable yield as well as further values of cormel circumference were determined. The marketable yield comprised cormels with a circumference of over 8 cm, belonging to group I and II of the cormel size. It was found that planting corms in April increased the number of cormels in the total yield as well as the number and weight of marketable cormels. Planting corms at a depth of 12 cm increased the number and weight of cormels in the total yield as well as the weight of marketable cormels in comparison to the shallowest planting depth (4 cm. Planting corms on the 19–20th of April at a depth of 12 cm increased the percentage and weight of the largest cormels with a circumference of over 16 cm in comparison to planting them on the 18–19th of May at a depth of 4 cm.

  7. Evaluation of Freezing Tolerance of Hexaploid Triticale Genotypes under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad, NEZAMI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate freezing tolerance of different triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack genotypes, an experiment was carried out under controlled conditions in 2007 and 2008 at college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. In this study seeven triticale genotypes (�Juanilo-92�, �ET-82-15�, �ET-82-8�, �ET-83-20�, �ET-83-19�, �ET-83-18� and �ET-79-17�, across six temperatures (0�C, -4�C, -8�C, -12�C, -16�C and -20�C were evaluated within a factorial-completely randomized design with three replications. Plants were kept until 2 leaf stage in chamber with temperature of 20/15�C (day/night and 12.5 h photoperiod. At the end of this stage, plants were under acclimation for three weeks. After exposing to acclimation freezing the cell membrane integrity was measured through electrolyte leakage (EL and the lethal temperature (LT50 of samples was measured. After the exposure to freezing temperatures the samples were transferred to the greenhouse. Survival percentage, plant height, leaf area and number, chlorophyll content, and plant dry weight were determined after 3 weeks. Results showed that the effect of different freezing temperature and genotypes were significant on all plant characteristics. As temperature decreased, %EL of all genotypes was increased. Minimum and Maximum EL % in leaf and crown were observed at 0�C (21% and -20�C (88.5%. �ET-79-17� and �Juanilo-92� genotypes showed the highest EL% (55.5% and 44.8% and �ET-83-20� the lowest EL% (47.3% and 41.2% in leaf and crown. Dry weight and leaf area decreased by 48% and 42% respectively compared to non frozen control plants. �ET-79-17� and �ET-82-15� genotypes showed the highest dry weight (83.8 mg and highest leaf area (14.3 cm2 respectively and �ET-83-20� cultivar showed the lowest dry weight and leaf area (58.2 mg and 8.7 cm2.

  8. Evaluation of Freezing Tolerance of Hexaploid Triticale Genotypes under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad, NEZAMI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate freezing tolerance of different triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack genotypes, an experiment was carried out under controlled conditions in 2007 and 2008 at college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. In this study seeven triticale genotypes (Juanilo-92, ET-82-15, ET-82-8, ET-83-20, ET-83-19, ET-83-18 and ET-79-17, across six temperatures (0C, -4C, -8C, -12C, -16C and -20C were evaluated within a factorial-completely randomized design with three replications. Plants were kept until 2 leaf stage in chamber with temperature of 20/15C (day/night and 12.5 h photoperiod. At the end of this stage, plants were under acclimation for three weeks. After exposing to acclimation freezing the cell membrane integrity was measured through electrolyte leakage (EL and the lethal temperature (LT50 of samples was measured. After the exposure to freezing temperatures the samples were transferred to the greenhouse. Survival percentage, plant height, leaf area and number, chlorophyll content, and plant dry weight were determined after 3 weeks. Results showed that the effect of different freezing temperature and genotypes were significant on all plant characteristics. As temperature decreased, %EL of all genotypes was increased. Minimum and Maximum EL % in leaf and crown were observed at 0C (21% and -20C (88.5%. ET-79-17 and Juanilo-92 genotypes showed the highest EL% (55.5% and 44.8% and ET-83-20 the lowest EL% (47.3% and 41.2% in leaf and crown. Dry weight and leaf area decreased by 48% and 42% respectively compared to non frozen control plants. ET-79-17 and ET-82-15 genotypes showed the highest dry weight (83.8 mg and highest leaf area (14.3 cm2 respectively and ET-83-20 cultivar showed the lowest dry weight and leaf area (58.2 mg and 8.7 cm2.

  9. Measurement of the helicity-dependent total cross-section for the {gamma}n{yields} p {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, J.; Arends, H.J.; Beck, R.; Heid, E.; Jahn, O.; Lang, M.; Martinez-Fabregate, M.; Tamas, G.; Thomas, A. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Altieri, S.; Panzeri, A.; Pinelli, T. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Pavia (Italy); Annand, J.R.M.; McGeorge, J.C.; Protopopescu, D.; Rosner, G. [University of Glasgow, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Blackston, M.A.; Weller, H.R. [Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States); Bradtke, C.; Dutz, H.; Klein, F.; Rohlof, C. [Universitaet Bonn, Physikalisches Institut, Bonn (Germany); Braghieri, A.; Pedroni, P. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Hose, N. d' [DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Fix, A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kondratiev, R.; Lisin, V. [Academy of Science, INR, Moscow (Russian Federation); Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Insitut fuer Experimentalphysik, Bochum (Germany); Rostomyan, T. [Universiteit Gent, Subatomaire en Stralingsfysica, Gent (Belgium); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Ryckbosch, D. [Universiteit Gent, Subatomaire en Stralingsfysica, Gent (Belgium)

    2011-03-15

    The helicity dependence of the total cross-section for the {gamma}n{yields}p{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} reaction has been measured for the first time at incident photon energies from 450 to 800MeV. The measurement was performed with the large-acceptance detector DAPHNE at the tagged photon beam facility of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz. Both the measured unpolarized and the helicity-dependent observables are not well described by the existing theoretical models. (orig.)

  10. Angular dependence of neutron yield and of spectrum of neutrons producted in pA and π-A interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayukov, Yu.D.; Gavrilov, V.B.; Goryainov, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron spectra are measured in the T kinetic energy range from 6 up to 20a MeV. Neutrons escape from C, Cu, Pb, U nuclei under the angles of THETA=10 deg + 160 deg in p+A → n+x reaction at 7.5 GeV/c and in π - +A → n+x reaction at 5.0 GeV/c. In the 80-200 MeV secondary neutron energy range the obtained data are compared with the results of simultaneous measurements of proton spectra. The effect of itopic symmetry of fast nucleon yield from non-symmetric nuclei are under considereation. Division of contributions of quasi-free and deep inelastic nuclear processes to fast neutron formation is carried out on the basis of the data obtained

  11. Dynamic and rate-dependent yielding behavior of Co{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1} microcluster based magnetorheological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arief, Injamamul; Mukhopadhyay, P.K., E-mail: pkm@bose.res.in

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we performed steady shear and oscillatory magnetorheological (MR) studies in magnetic fluids containing CoNi sub-micron sized clusters of 450 nm in diameter. Such Co-rich nanoclusters were synthesized by conventional homogeneous nucleation without any external surfactant or reducing agent in liquid polyol at elevated temperature. The x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies were done for analyzing the sample composition and morphology. Two variants of fluid samples were prepared by dispersing 15 vol% and 20 vol% of CoNi powders in castor oil. Room temperature steady magnetoshear studies indicate viscoplastic behavior with stronger dependence of static yield stress on magnetization than a dipolar coupling that was operational in the dynamic yield stress. Magnetosweep measurements at constant shear rate showed interesting viscous relaxation at high magnetic fields. We also explored dynamical elastic behavior through oscillatory magnetorheological studies under both strain sweep and frequency sweep modes, and showed glass transition like phenomenon occurring in them above critical shear amplitudes. - Highlights: • A typical polymer/surfactant free polyol reduction method was used to synthesize large-scale Co{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1} nanoclusters. • Room temperature rate-dependent magnetorheology of CoNi-nanoclusters based MR fluids revealed viscoplastic behavior. • Magnetic fields were replaced by powder particle magnetization (M) for better yield stress scaling. • In addition to previously reported M{sup 2}-dependence, higher order relations (~M{sup 3}) were also noted for static yield stress. • An interesting viscous relaxation phenomenon occurred at higher magnetic fields.

  12. Decisions during negatively-framed messages yield smaller risk-aversion-related brain activation in substance-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Rena; Bogg, Tim; Finn, Peter R; Brown, Joshua W

    2013-12-01

    A sizable segment of addiction research investigates the effects of persuasive message appeals on risky and deleterious behaviors. However, to date, little research has examined how various forms of message framing and corresponding behavioral choices might by mediated by risk-related brain regions. Using event-related functional MRI, we investigated brain regions hypothesized to mediate the influence of message appeals on decision making in substance-dependent (SD) compared with nonsubstance-dependent (non-SD) individuals. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was modified to include positively-framed, negatively-framed, and control messages about long-term deck payoffs. In the positively-framed condition, the SD and non-SD groups showed improved decision-making performance that corresponded to higher risk-aversion-related brain activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula (AI). In contrast, in the negatively-framed condition, the SD group showed poorer performance that corresponded to lower risk-aversion-related brain activity in the AI region. In addition, only the non-SD group showed a positive association between decision quality and greater risk-related activity in the ACC, regardless of message type. The findings suggest substance-dependent individuals may have reduced neurocognitive sensitivity in the ACC and AI regions involved in risk perception and aversion during decision-making, especially in response to framed messages that emphasize reduced prospects for long-term gains. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Decisions during Negatively-Framed Messages Yield Smaller Risk-Aversion-Related Brain Activation in Substance-Dependent Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Rena; Bogg, Tim; Finn, Peter R.; Brown, Joshua W.

    2012-01-01

    A sizable segment of addiction research investigates the effects of persuasive message appeals on risky and deleterious behaviors. However, to date, little research has examined how various forms of message framing and corresponding behavioral choices might by mediated by risk-related brain regions. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated brain regions hypothesized to mediate the influence of message appeals on decision making in substance-dependent (SD) compared to non-substance-dependent (non-SD) individuals. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was modified to include positively-framed, negatively-framed, and control messages about long-term deck payoffs. In the positively-framed condition, the SD and non-SD groups showed improved decision-making performance that corresponded to higher risk-aversion-related brain activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula (AI). In contrast, in the negatively-framed condition, the SD group showed poorer performance that corresponded to lower risk-aversion-related brain activity in the AI region. In addition, only the non-SD group showed a positive association between decision quality and greater risk-related activity in the ACC, regardless of message type. The findings suggest substance-dependent individuals may have reduced neurocognitive sensitivity in the ACC and AI regions involved in risk perception and aversion during decision-making, especially in response to framed messages that emphasize reduced prospects for long-term gains. PMID:23148798

  14. Measurement of Thermal Properties of Triticale Starch Films Using Photothermal Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Pacheco, Z. N.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Solorzano-Ojeda, S. C.; Tramón-Pregnan, C. L.

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays, several commercially biodegradable materials have been developed with mechanical properties similar to those of conventional petrochemical-based polymers. These materials are made from renewable sources such as starch, cellulose, corn, and molasses, being very attractive for numerous applications in the plastics, food, and paper industries, among others. Starches from maize, rice, wheat, and potato are used in the food industry. However, other types of starches are not used due to their low protein content, such as triticale. In this study, starch films, processed using a single screw extruder with different compositions, were thermally and structurally characterized. The thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity, and thermal conductivity of the biodegradable films were determined using photothermal techniques. The thermal diffusivity was measured using the open photoacoustic cell technique, and the thermal effusivity was obtained by the photopyroelectric technique in an inverse configuration. The results showed differences in thermal properties for the films. Also, the films microstructures were observed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and the crystalline structure determined by X-ray diffraction.

  15. Role of gibberellins and cytokinins in regulation of germination during development and ripening of Triticale caryopses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Weidner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The germination of caryopses of M-T3 Triticale generation, which were freshly harvested in different growth and developmental phases has been studied. A significant influence of the abscisic acid (ABA accumulation on the increment of number of germinating caryopses has been found. Already in the first phase af the embryogenesis considerable stimulating effects of kinetin and gibberellin-A3 (GA3 on the germination of embryos which were isolated from freshly collected grains have been shown. When both stimulators were used together marked synergetic reaction occurred. It has been also determined that in the initial period of embryogensis premature germination occurs, to a higher extent, under the action of cytokinins than! Whether in the further phases of the caryopse development, when embryo develop mainly through the cell elongation, mostly gibberellins seem to be responsible for the activation of germination processes. The more mature were seeds the quicker germinated whole caryopses and embryos isolated from them at different ripeness, after 3-month storage. The highest stimulation of germination by phytohormones has been found for the most mature caryopses. The action of gibberellic acid has been particulary strong.

  16. Yields of clustered DNA damage induced by charged-particle radiations of similar kinetic energy per nucleon: LET dependence in different DNA microenvironments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keszenman, D.J.; Sutherland, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the linear energy transfer (LET) dependence of the biological effects of densely ionizing radiation in relation to changes in the ionization density along the track, we measured the yields and spectrum of clustered DNA damages induced by charged particles of different atomic number but similar kinetic energy per nucleon in different DNA microenvironments. Yeast DNA embedded in agarose in solutions of different free radical scavenging capacity was irradiated with 1 GeV protons, 1 GeV/nucleon oxygen ions, 980 MeV/nucleon titanium ions or 968 MeV/nucleon iron ions. The frequencies of double-strand breaks (DSBs), abasic sites and oxypurine clusters were quantified. The total DNA damage yields per absorbed dose induced in non-radioquenching solution decreased with LET, with minor variations in radioquenching conditions being detected. However, the total damage yields per particle fluence increased with LET in both conditions, indicating a higher efficiency per particle to induce clustered DNA damages. The yields of DSBs and non-DSB clusters as well as the damage spectra varied with LET and DNA milieu, suggesting the involvement of more than one mechanism in the formation of the different types of clustered damages.

  17. Measurement of the centrality dependence of $J/{\\psi}$ yields and observation of Z production in lead-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B.S.; Ackers, M.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Aleppo, M.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, J.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M-L.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, S.R.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H.S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S.P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A.E.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, G.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J.B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bobrovnikov, V.B.; Bocci, A.; Bock, R.; Boddy, C.R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C.N.; Booth, P.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozhko, N.I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Brambilla, E.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N.D.; Bright-Thomas, P.G.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N.J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R.M.; Buckley, A.G.; Buda, S.I.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Buscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Buis, E.J.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Buttinger, W.; Byatt, T.; Cabrera Urban, S.; Caccia, M.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camard, A.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Cammin, J.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carpentieri, C.; Carrillo Montoya, G.D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cavallari, A.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cazzato, A.; Ceradini, F.; Cerna, C.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; 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Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K.K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P.K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y.D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Tevlin, C.M.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokar, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonazzo, A.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torro Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Traynor, D.; Trefzger, T.; Treis, J.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocme, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tuggle, J.M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Typaldos, D.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D.G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valderanis, C.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J.A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; Van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Ventura, S.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Virchaux, M.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vovenko, A.S.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S.R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Will, J.Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B.M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, W-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V.G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo.K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zdrazil, M.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A.V.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2013-07-16

    Using the ATLAS detector, a centrality-dependent suppression has been observed in the yield of $J/{\\psi}$ mesons produced in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of minimum-bias lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre of mass energy $\\surd sNN$ = 2.76 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 6.7 ${\\mu}b^{-1}$, $J/{\\psi}$ mesons are reconstructed via their decays to ${\\mu}+{\\mu}-$ pairs. The measured $J/{\\psi}$ yield, normalized to the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, is found to significantly decrease from peripheral to central collisions. The centrality dependence is found to be qualitatively similar to the trends observed at previous, lower energy experiments. The same sample is used to reconstruct Z bosons in the ${\\mu}+{\\mu}-$ final state, and a total of 38 candidates are selected in the mass window of 66 to 116 GeV. The relative Z yields as a function of centrality are also presented, although no conclusion can be inferred about their s...

  18. Computing the biomass potentials for maize and two alternative energy crops, triticale and cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.), with the crop model BioSTAR in the region of Hannover (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauböck, Roland; Karpenstein-Machan, Marianne; Kappas, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Lower Saxony (Germany) has the highest installed electric capacity from biogas in Germany. Most of this electricity is generated with maize. Reasons for this are the high yields and the economic incentive. In parts of Lower Saxony, an expansion of maize cultivation has led to ecological problems and a negative image of bioenergy as such. Winter triticale and cup plant have both shown their suitability as alternative energy crops for biogas production and could help to reduce maize cultivation. The model Biomass Simulation Tool for Agricultural Resources (BioSTAR) has been validated with observed yield data from the region of Hannover for the cultures maize and winter wheat. Predicted yields for the cultures show satisfactory error values of 9.36% (maize) and 11.5% (winter wheat). Correlations with observed data are significant ( P  alternative to maize in the region of Hanover and other places in Lower Saxony. The model BioSTAR simulated yields for maize and winter wheat in the region of Hannover at a good overall level of accuracy (combined error 10.4%). Due to input data aggregation, individual years show high errors though (up to 30%). Nevertheless, the BioSTAR crop model has proven to be a functioning tool for the prediction of agricultural biomass potentials under varying environmental and crop management frame conditions.

  19. Pulse radiolysis study on temperature and pressure dependence of the yield of solvated electron in methanol from room temperature to supercritical condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Zhenhui; He, Hui; Lin, Mingzhang; Muroya, Yusa; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2012-09-01

    A new concept of nuclear reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), has been proposed, which is based on the success of the use of supercritical water (SCW) in fossil fuel power plants for more than three decades. This new concept reactor has advantages of higher thermal conversion efficiency, simplicity in structure, safety, etc, and it has been selected as one of the reactor concepts for the next generation nuclear reactor systems. In these reactors, the same as in boiling water reactors (BWR) and pressurized water reactors (PWR), water is used not only as a coolant but also as a moderator. It is very important to understand the behavior of the radiolysis products of water under the supercritical condition, since the water is exposed to a strong radiation field under very high temperature condition. Usually, in order to predict the concentrations of water decomposition products with carrying out some kinds of computer simulations, knowledge of the temperature and/or pressure dependent G-values (denoting the experimentally measured radiolytic yields) as well as of the rate constants of a set of reactions becomes very important. Therefore, in recent years, two groups from Argonne National Laboratory and The University of Tokyo, simultaneously conducted two projects aimed at obtaining basic data on radiolysis of SCW. However, it is still lack of reliable radiolytic yields of water decomposition products in very high temperature region. As we known, the properties of solvated electrons in polar liquid are very helpful for our understanding how they play a central role in many processes, such as solvation and reducing reactions. The solvated electron can also be used as a probe to determine the dynamic nature of the polar liquid systems. Comparing to water, the primary alcohols have much milder critical points, for example, for water and methanol, the critical temperature and pressure are 374 deg. C and 22.1 MPa and 239.5 deg. C and 8.1 MPa, respectively

  20. THE METALLICITY DEPENDENCE OF THE CO {yields} H{sub 2} CONVERSION FACTOR IN z {>=} 1 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Schreiber, N. M. Foerster; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Lutz, D.; Saintonge, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Combes, F. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, CNRS, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Bolatto, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Neri, R.; Cox, P. [IRAM, 300 Rue de la Piscine, 38406 St. Martin d' Heres, Grenoble (France); Sternberg, A. [Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Cooper, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Bouche, N. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bournaud, F. [Service d' Astrophysique, DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Burkert, A. [Universitaetssternwarte der Ludwig-Maximiliansuniversitaet, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Comerford, J. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, 1 University Station, C1402 Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Davis, M.; Newman, S. [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Garcia-Burillo, S. [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional-OAN, Apartado 1143, 28800 Alcala de Henares- Madrid (Spain); Naab, T., E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: linda@mpe.mpg.de [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astrophysik (MPA), Karl Schwarzschildstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2012-02-10

    We use the first systematic samples of CO millimeter emission in z {>=} 1 'main-sequence' star-forming galaxies to study the metallicity dependence of the conversion factor {alpha}{sub CO,} from CO line luminosity to molecular gas mass. The molecular gas depletion rate inferred from the ratio of the star formation rate (SFR) to CO luminosity, is {approx}1 Gyr{sup -1} for near-solar metallicity galaxies with stellar masses above M{sub S} {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }. In this regime, the depletion rate does not vary more than a factor of two to three as a function of molecular gas surface density or redshift between z {approx} 0 and 2. Below M{sub S} the depletion rate increases rapidly with decreasing metallicity. We argue that this trend is not caused by starburst events, by changes in the physical parameters of the molecular clouds, or by the impact of the fundamental-metallicity-SFR-stellar mass relation. A more probable explanation is that the conversion factor is metallicity dependent and that star formation can occur in 'CO-dark' gas. The trend is also expected theoretically from the effect of enhanced photodissociation of CO by ultraviolet radiation at low metallicity. From the available z {approx} 0 and z {approx} 1-3 samples we constrain the slope of the log({alpha}{sub CO})-log (metallicity) relation to range between -1 and -2, fairly insensitive to the assumed slope of the gas-SFR relation. Because of the lower metallicities near the peak of the galaxy formation activity at z {approx} 1-2 compared to z {approx} 0, we suggest that molecular gas masses estimated from CO luminosities have to be substantially corrected upward for galaxies below M{sub S}.

  1. Pressure dependent photolysis quantum yields for CH3C(O)CH3 at 300 and 308 nm and at 298 and 228 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamaganov, V G; Crowley, J N

    2013-07-07

    The quantum yield of formation of CH3 and CH3CO in the pulsed laser photo-excitation of acetone at 300 and 308 nm was investigated at several pressures (60 to 740 Torr) and at either 298 or 228 K. The organic radicals generated were monitored indirectly following conversion (by reaction with Br2) to Br atoms, which were detected by resonance fluorescence. The photolysis of Cl2 in back-to-back experiments at the same wavelength and under identical experimental conditions served as chemical actinometer. The pressure and temperature dependent quantum yields obtained with this method are in good agreement with previous literature values and are reproduced using the parameterisation developed by Blitz et al. The Br formation kinetics deviated from that expected from reactions of CH3 and CH3CO alone and Br atoms were still observed at high yield even when the quantum yield of formation of CH3 and CH3CO was low. This is explained by the reactive quenching of thermalized triplet acetone (T1) by Br2. High yields of T1 (>80%) at the highest pressure in this study indicate that any dissociation from the first excited singlet state (S1) occurs in competition with intersystem crossing, and that physical quenching of S1 to the electronic ground (S0) is not a major process at these wavelengths. The rate coefficient for reaction of T1 with Br2 was found to be ∼3 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), independent of pressure or temperature.

  2. HvDep1 Is a Positive Regulator of Culm Elongation and Grain Size in Barley and Impacts Yield in an Environment-Dependent Manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Wendt

    Full Text Available Heterotrimeric G proteins are intracellular membrane-attached signal transducers involved in various cellular processes in both plants and animals. They consist of three subunits denoted as α, β and γ. The γ-subunits of the so-called AGG3 type, which comprise a transmembrane domain, are exclusively found in plants. In model species, these proteins have been shown to participate in the control of plant height, branching and seed size and could therefore impact the harvestable yield of various crop plants. Whether AGG3-type γ-subunits influence yield in temperate cereals like barley and wheat remains unknown. Using a transgenic complementation approach, we show here that the Scottish malting barley cultivar (cv. Golden Promise carries a loss-of-function mutation in HvDep1, an AGG3-type subunit encoding gene that positively regulates culm elongation and seed size in barley. Somewhat intriguingly, agronomic field data collected over a 12-year period reveals that the HvDep1 loss-of-function mutation in cv. Golden Promise has the potential to confer either a significant increase or decrease in harvestable yield depending on the environment. Our results confirm the role of AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes in shaping plant architecture, but interestingly also indicate that the impact HvDep1 has on yield in barley is both genotypically and environmentally sensitive. This may explain why widespread exploitation of variation in AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes has not occurred in temperate cereals while in rice the DEP1 locus is widely exploited to improve harvestable yield.

  3. Allocation of the S-genome chromosomes of Aegilops variabilis Eig. carrying powdery mildew resistance in triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, M; Belter, J; Majka, M; Wiśniewska, H

    2016-03-01

    It has been hypothesized that the powdery mildew adult plant resistance (APR) controlled by the Pm13 gene in Aegilops longissima Schweinf. & Muschl. (S(l)S(l)) has been evolutionary transferred to Aegilops variabilis Eig. (UUSS). The molecular marker analysis and the visual evaluation of powdery mildew symptoms in Ae. variabilis and the Ae. variabilis × Secale cereale amphiploid forms (2n = 6x = 42, UUSSRR) showed the presence of product that corresponded to Pm13 marker and the lower infection level compared to susceptible model, respectively. This study also describes the transfer of Ae. variabilis Eig. (2n = 4x = 28, U(v)U(v)S(v)S(v)) chromosomes, carrying powdery mildew resistance, into triticale (× Triticosecale Wittm., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBRR) using Ae. variabilis × S. cereale amphiploid forms. The individual chromosomes of Ae. variabilis, triticale 'Lamberto' and hybrids were characterized by genomic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (GISH/FISH). The chromosome configurations of obtained hybrid forms were studied at first metaphase of meiosis of pollen mother cells (PMCs) using GISH. The statistical analysis showed that the way of S-genome chromosome pairing and transmission to subsequent hybrid generations was diploid-like and had no influence on chromosome pairing of triticale chromosomes. The cytogenetic study of hybrid forms were supported by the marker-assisted selection using Pm13 marker and visual evaluation of natural infection by Blumeria graminis, that allowed to select the addition or substitution lines of hybrids carrying chromosome 3S(v) which were tolerant to the powdery mildew infection.

  4. Thiol dioxygenase turnover yields benzothiazole products from 2-mercaptoaniline and O2-dependent oxidation of primary alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, William P; Sardar, Sinjinee; Thapa, Pawan; Hossain, Mohammad S; Foss, Frank W; Pierce, Brad S

    2017-10-01

    Thiol dioxygenases are non-heme mononuclear iron enzymes that catalyze the O 2 -dependent oxidation of free thiols (-SH) to produce the corresponding sulfinic acid (-SO 2 - ). Previous chemical rescue studies identified a putative Fe III -O 2 - intermediate that precedes substrate oxidation in Mus musculus cysteine dioxygenase (Mm CDO). Given that a similar reactive intermediate has been identified in the extradiol dioxygenase 2, 3-HCPD, it is conceivable that these enzymes share other mechanistic features with regard to substrate oxidation. To explore this possibility, enzymatic reactions with Mm CDO (as well as the bacterial 3-mercaptopropionic acid dioxygenase, Av MDO) were performed using a substrate analogue (2-mercaptoaniline, 2ma). This aromatic thiol closely approximates the catecholic substrate of homoprotocatechuate of 2, 3-HPCD while maintaining the 2-carbon thiol-amine separation preferred by Mm CDO. Remarkably, both enzymes exhibit 2ma-gated O 2 -consumption; however, none of the expected products for thiol dioxygenase or intra/extradiol dioxygenase reactions were observed. Instead, benzothiazoles are produced by the condensation of 2ma with aldehydes formed by an off-pathway oxidation of primary alcohols added to aqueous reactions to solubilize the substrate. The observed oxidation of 1º-alcohols in 2ma-reactions is consistent with the formation of a high-valent intermediate similar to what has been reported for cytochrome P450 and mononuclear iron model complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A series of inorganic solid nitrogen sources for the synthesis of metal nitride clusterfullerenes: the dependence of production yield on the oxidation state of nitrogen and counter ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fupin; Guan, Jian; Wei, Tao; Wang, Song; Jiao, Mingzhi; Yang, Shangfeng

    2013-04-01

    A series of nitrogen-containing inorganic solid compounds with variable oxidation states of nitrogen and counter ions have been successfully applied as new inorganic solid nitrogen sources toward the synthesis of Sc-based metal nitride clusterfullerenes (Sc-NCFs), including ammonium salts [(NH4)xH(3-x)PO4 (x = 0-2), (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)2CO3, NH4X (X = F, Cl), NH4SCN], thiocyanate (KSCN), nitrates (Cu(NO3)2, NaNO3), and nitrite (NaNO2). Among them, ammonium phosphates ((NH4)xH(3-x)PO4, x = 1-3) and ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN) are revealed to behave as better nitrogen sources than others, and the highest yield of Sc-NCFs is achieved when NH4SCN was used as a nitrogen source. The optimum molar ratio of Sc2O3:(NH4)3PO4·3H2O:C and Sc2O3:NH4SCN:C has been determined to be 1:2:15 and 1:3:15, respectively. The thermal decomposition products of these 12 inorganic compounds have been discussed in order to understand their different performances toward the synthesis of Sc-NCFs, and accordingly the dependence of the production yield of Sc-NCFs on the oxidation state of nitrogen and counter ion is interpreted. The yield of Sc3N@C80 (I(h) + D(5h)) per gram Sc2O3 by using the N2-based group of nitrogen sources (thiocyanate, nitrates, and nitrite) is overall much lower than those by using gaseous N2 and NH4SCN, indicating the strong dependence of the yield of Sc-NCFs on the oxidation state of nitrogen, which is attributed to the "in-situ" redox reaction taking place for the N2-based group of nitrogen sources during discharging. For NH3-based group of nitrogen sources (ammonium salts) which exhibits a (-3) oxidation states of nitrogen, their performance as nitrogen sources is found to be sensitively dependent on the anion, and this is understood by considering their difference on the thermal stability and/or decomposition rate. Contrarily, for the N2-based group of nitrogen sources, the formation of Sc-NCFs is independent to both the oxidation state of nitrogen (+3 or +5) and the

  6. Effect of germination on chemical, functional and nutritional characteristics of wheat, brown rice and triticale: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibian, Mandeep S; Saxena, Dharmesh C; Riar, Charanjit S

    2017-10-01

    Germination is accompanied by various metabolic reactions in the seed, which lead to alteration of its chemical composition as compared to raw seed. Among the micromolecules, amino acids play an important role in various growth and metabolic activities in seeds. Results indicated that germination altered seeds' chemical composition, which improved/changed the functional properties investigated such as bulk density, foaming capacity, water holding capacity, oil binding capacity and emulsification properties. Essential amino acids were increased during germination, which contributed in enhancing the nutritional quality of protein in seeds. Germination also improved protein-based quality parameters such as essential amino acid index, biological value, protein efficiency ratio and nutritional index in seeds of brown rice, wheat and triticale. Among the grains, the essential amino acid index of brown rice was reported to be highest after germination. Indispensable/essential amino acids such as lysine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, phenylalanine and valine showed a significant increase during germination. As a result, amino acid scoring based on the reference pattern of an FAO Expert Consultation Report (2013) for infants and adults was appreciably improved after germination along with an increase in the essential amino acid indices for brown rice (78.78), wheat (76.55) and triticale (73.99). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Tissue culture-induced genetic and epigenetic variation in triticale (× Triticosecale spp. Wittmack ex A. Camus 1927) regenerants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machczyńska, Joanna; Zimny, Janusz; Bednarek, Piotr Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    Plant regeneration via in vitro culture can induce genetic and epigenetic variation; however, the extent of such changes in triticale is not yet understood. In the present study, metAFLP, a variation of methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis, was used to investigate tissue culture-induced variation in triticale regenerants derived from four distinct genotypes using androgenesis and somatic embryogenesis. The metAFLP technique enabled identification of both sequence and DNA methylation pattern changes in a single experiment. Moreover, it was possible to quantify subtle effects such as sequence variation, demethylation, and de novo methylation, which affected 19, 5.5, 4.5% of sites, respectively. Comparison of variation in different genotypes and with different in vitro regeneration approaches demonstrated that both the culture technique and genetic background of donor plants affected tissue culture-induced variation. The results showed that the metAFLP approach could be used for quantification of tissue culture-induced variation and provided direct evidence that in vitro plant regeneration could cause genetic and epigenetic variation.

  8. The use of transcription inhibitors in the study of the mechanism of abscisic acid action in germinating triticale caryopses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Weidner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on germinating triticale (var. Grado caryopses. The purpose of the experiments was to compare the effect of selected inhibitors of transcription with the action of abscisic acid during germination of caryopses. The following inhibitors were used: α-amanitin, cordycepin, cycloheximide and 5-fluorouracil. Studied were the synthesis of total and polyribosomal RNA, the process of polyribosome formation and the synthesis of ribosomal proteins. The effect of exogenous ABA, especially in the early stages of germination, was not similar to any of the four above inhibitors of transcription. After 12 h of imbibition at a lowered temperature and 3 h of germination, ABA caused a relatively low level of inhibition of RNA synthesis, whereas all of the inhibitors used halted RNA synthesis in embryos by about 50-60%. After 6 h of germination, the same proportion of polyribosomes in the total ribosome fraction (46% was found in both the embryos from the control sample and treated with ABA. The use of inhibitors brought this figure down to below 40%. The conclusion is drawn that in the early stages of germination, regulation of protein synthesis by ABA in triticale caryopses must occur on a level other than transcription.

  9. The role of zeatin and gibberellic acid in breaking of the abscisic acid-induced dormancy in Triticale caryopses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Weidner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were conducted on the germinating embryos and the whole caryopses of Triticale. During preimbibition and 24 hours germination caryopses were treated with abscisic acid (ABA, which produced 63% inhibition of embryo growth. Gibberellin-A3 (GA3 reversed the ABA effect in 18%, while zeatin in 22%. The clear synergic reaction was observed (36% when both stimulators acted together. There was no significant effect of ABA, ABA and GA3, as well as ABA and zeatin on the synthesis of polyribosomal RNA in the initial period of germination of excised embryos. However, during 24 hours germination of whole caryopses ABA caused a twofold decrease in 3H-uridine incorporation into the total fraction of embryonic ribosomes. While the incorporation of 14C-aminoacid mixture into ribosomal proteins was even three-fold lower. Effect of GA3 and zeatin on breaking of the ABA-induced "dormancy" was studied. It was confirmed that the higher polyribosome contribution to the sum total of ribosomes the more intensive synthesis of ribosomal proteins. No higher 3H-uridine incorporation into polyribosomal fraction was observed. From the results it may be inferred that in the initial period of germination of Triticale caryopses regulation of protein biosynthesis occurs rather at the translation than transcription level.

  10. Evaluation of genetic variability for heading date and height in triticale obtained by induced mutations and artificial crosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandini, F.; Carvalho, F.I.F. de; Barbosa Neto, J.F.; Mittelmann, A.; Amaral, A.L. do

    1997-01-01

    The adjustment of adaptive characters such as heading date and height, allows one to arrange successive cultures and to apply efficient agronomic techniques, resulting in productivity increase. Methods that increase genetic variability have great significance in plant breeding, once they amplify the opportunities for selecting superior genotypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of induced mutations and reciprocal crosses in families segregating for heading date and height and to analyze the correlation between these characters. The populations were obtained from reciprocal crosses and induced mutation with gamma radiation. In the latter, radiation dosages of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 kR were obtained from exposition to Cobalt - 60. Changes in the mean and variance in two triticale genotypes Triticale BR4 e EMBRAPAI8, were analyzed. The results obtained indicated families with wide segregation patterns for heading date and height and also suggested the possibility to identify families with distinct values compared to the control population for both characters and both genotypes. There was a tendency to reductions in height and increases in heading date for the families evaluated. However, there was not an expressive correlation between heading date and height for the majority of the treatments, therefore allowing the breeder to select plant types adapted to the environment of cultivation. (author) [pt

  11. Effects of Some Plant Extracts in Triticale-Based Broiler Diets on Growth Performance, E.Coli Counts in Intestine and Blood Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergun Demir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of using plant essential oils in triticale-based broiler diets as alternative to antimicrobial growth promotors (AGPs on growth, E.coli counts in small intestine and blood parameters. 720 male broiler chicks were randomly distributed to nine experimental groups with four replicates. The control group received the triticale-soybean meal basal diet. In the other treatment groups the basal diet was supplemented with one of the following; flavomycin, enzyme, flavomycin+enzyme, enzyme+thyme oil, enzyme+fennel oil, enzyme+bay leaf oil, enzyme+thyme oil+fennel oil and enzyme+thyme oil+fennel oil+bay leaf oil. Results showed that the weight gain and feed intake were not influenced by the treatments (P>0,05. The use of the combination of plant extracts significantly improved the feed conversion. Use of plant extracts in triticale-based broiler diets as an alternative to AGPs had no regular effect on E.coli count in small intestine segments (P>0,05. Feeding broiler chickens with the enzyme+thyme oil supplemented diets increased eritrocyte level in serum (P0,05 by the treatments. In conclusion, these plant ectracts can be also used with enzyme in triticale-based broiler diets as alternative to AGPs.

  12. Feasibility of Triticale (Tritico secale wittmack. X Cropping in Agricultural Lands of Gorgan County by Spatial Analysis Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maral Niazmoradi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the most appropriate algorithm for land suitability assessment is important for current and future land use planning. Several approaches have been attempted to conduct land suitability assessment. Geographic Information System (GIS technology is useful for integration of bio-climate, terrain and soil-resource-inventory information (Sarkar et al., 2008. The integration of Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA methods such as Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP with GIS is a trend in land suitability analysis. This combination could be useful in solving conflictive situations for individual or groups interested in spatial context and is also a powerful approach to land suitability assessments (Elsheikh et al., 2013. The present study was therefore carried out with the objective land suitability analysis for feasibility of triticale cropping in agricultural lands of Gorgan township by spatial analysis of geographic information system (GIS and evaluation of environmental variables. Introduction It is essential to allocate crop to the most suitable land areas precisely for the best production since arable land has been decreased. Selecting the most appropriate algorithm for land suitability assessment is important for current and future land use planning. Several approaches have been attempted to conduct land suitability assessment. Geographic Information System (GIS technology is a useful tool for integration of bio-climate, terrain and soil-resource-inventory information. The integration of Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA methods such as Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP by GIS is a trend in land suitability analysis. This combination could be useful in solving conflictive situations for individual or groups interested in spatial context and it is a powerful approach for land suitability assessments (Elsheikh et al., 2013. The present study was therefore carried out with the objective land suitability analysis for feasibility of triticale cropping in

  13. The scaling of stress distribution under small scale yielding by T-scaling method and application to prediction of the temperature dependence on fracture toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Kenichi; Hamada, Takeshi; Meshii, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for scaling the crack tip stress distribution under small scale yielding condition was proposed and named as T-scaling method. This method enables to identify the different stress distributions for materials with different tensile properties but identical load in terms of K or J. Then by assuming that the temperature dependence of a material is represented as the stress-strain relationship temperature dependence, a method to predict the fracture load at an arbitrary temperature from the already known fracture load at a reference temperature was proposed. This method combined the T-scaling method and the knowledge “fracture stress for slip induced cleavage fracture is temperature independent.” Once the fracture load is predicted, fracture toughness J c at the temperature under consideration can be evaluated by running elastic-plastic finite element analysis. Finally, the above-mentioned framework to predict the J c temperature dependency of a material in the ductile-to-brittle temperature distribution was validated for 0.55% carbon steel JIS S55C. The proposed framework seems to have a possibility to solve the problem the master curve is facing in the relatively higher temperature region, by requiring only tensile tests. (author)

  14. Energy dependence of fission product yields from 235U, 238U, and 239Pu with monoenergetic neutrons between thermal and 14.8 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, Matthew; Arnold, Charles; Bhike, Megha; Bredeweg, Todd; Fowler, Malcolm; Krishichayan; Tonchev, Anton; Tornow, Werner; Stoyer, Mark; Vieira, David; Wilhelmy, Jerry

    2017-09-01

    Under a joint collaboration between TUNL-LANL-LLNL, a set of absolute fission product yield measurements has been performed. The energy dependence of a number of cumulative fission product yields (FPY) have been measured using quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams for three actinide targets, 235U, 238U and 239Pu, between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV. The FPYs were measured by a combination of fission counting using specially designed dual-fission chambers and γ-ray counting. Each dual-fission chamber is a back-to-back ionization chamber encasing an activation target in the center with thin deposits of the same target isotope in each chamber. This method allows for the direct measurement of the total number of fissions in the activation target with no reference to the fission cross-section, thus reducing uncertainties. γ-ray counting of the activation target was performed on well-shielded HPGe detectors over a period of two months post irradiation to properly identify fission products. Reported are absolute cumulative fission product yields for incident neutron energies of 0.5, 1.37, 2.4, 3.6, 4.6, 5.5, 7.5, 8.9 and 14.8 MeV. Preliminary results from thermal irradiations at the MIT research reactor will also be presented and compared to present data and evaluations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Security, LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory through NNSA Stewardship Science Academic Alliance grant No. DE-FG52-09NA29465, DE-FG52-09NA29448 and Office of Nuclear Physics Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER41033.

  15. Pressure dependence for the CO quantum yield in the photolysis of acetone at 248 nm: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somnitz, H; Fida, M; Ufer, T; Zellner, R

    2005-09-21

    The quantum yield of CO in the laser pulse photolysis of acetone at 248 nm and at 298 K in the pressure range 20-900 mbar (N2) has been measured directly using quantitative infrared diode laser absorption of CO. It is found that the quantum yield of CO shows a significant dependence on total pressure with Phi(CO) decreasing with pressure from around 0.45 at 20 mbar to approximately 0.25 at 900 mbar. From a combination of ab initio quantum chemical calculations on the molecular properties of the acetyl (CH3CO) radical and its unimolecular fragmentation as well as the application of statistical (RRKM) and dynamical calculations we show that CO production results from prompt secondary fragmentation (via(2a)) of the internally excited primary CH3CO* photolysis product with an excess energy of approximately 62.8 kJ mol(-1). Hence, our findings are consistent with a consecutive photochemically induced decomposition model, viz. step (1): CH3COCH3+hv--> CH3CO*+ CH3, step (2a): CH3CO*--> CH3+ CO or step (2b) CH3CO*-(+M)--> CH3CO. Formation of CO via a direct and/or concerted channel CH3COCH3+hv--> 2CH(3)+ CO (1') is considered to be unimportant.

  16. Fluence dependent changes of erosion yields and surface morphology of the iron-tungsten model system: SDTrimSP-2D simulation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. von Toussaint

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different sample structures of an iron-tungsten model system (as a surrogate for reduced activation ferritic martensitic steels like EUROFER on the development of surface morphologies, tungsten surface enrichment and sputter yields under low-energy monoenergetic perpendicular 200 eV deuterium bombardment has been studied with SDTrimSP-2d simulations. Previous modeling studies considering diffusive effects also could reasonably reproduce and explain the experimental results for a large set of experimental parameters like temperature, flux and sample concentration. However, for settings with negligible Fe-W-interdiffusion the fluence needed for steady-state conditions differed between the experiments and the simulations. Thus, the main focus of the present study is directed towards the elucidation of this fluence mismatch. Comparison of one and two-dimensional simulation results reveal a strong dependency of the tungsten enrichment on the sample homogeneity and a significantly delayed reduction of the erosion yield due to a pronounced formation of surface structures from initially flat sample surfaces.

  17. The influence of choice feeding and cereal type (corn or triticale) during the finishing period on performance of mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, J; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Dubois, J P; Lavigne, F; Bijja, M; Molette, C

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the influence of choice feeding and cereal type (corn or triticale) during the finishing period on performance of ducks. In total, 624 one-day-old male mule ducks (Cairina moschata × Anas platyrhynchos) were divided into 3 groups differing in the diet they received between 56 and 84 d of age: a commercial complete pelleted diet (control group; AMEn 12.1 MJ/kg, CP 15%), or corn whole seeds (AMEn 14.4 MJ/kg, CP 7.3%) and protein-rich pellets (AMEn 9.9 MJ/kg, CP 22.7%) in 2 separated feeders [choice feeding with corn (CFC) group]; or triticale whole seeds (AMEn 13.0 MJ/kg, CP 10.5%) and protein-rich pellets (AMEn 11.2 MJ/kg, CP 19.5%) in 2 separated feeders [choice feeding with triticale (CFT) group]. From 85 to 96 d, 96 birds/group were overfed with corn. Feed intake (complete pellets or cereal and protein-rich pellets) per pen was measured at 60, 62, 65, 69, 78, and 84 d of age. Body weight and body traits were measured at 56 to 84 d of age. Over the entire period, from 56 to 84 d, the feed intake of the CFC group was 7% lower than the control group, and 5% lower than that in the CFT group (P = 0.002). Whatever the diet tested, at 56 and 84 d of age, the BW (4,099 and 4,779 g, P = 0.42 and P = 0.35, respectively) and the carcass traits (P > 0.05) of ducks were similar in the 3 groups. During and after overfeeding, the performances of the ducks were also similar (P > 0.05). The present results suggest that CFC during the finishing period is a solution to reduce the cost of diet destined to ducks. Indeed, using locally grown grains could reduce the economic and environmental impacts of duck feeding, reducing the transportation and crushing processes. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Sina and Sinb genes in triticale do not determine grain hardness contrary to their orthologs Pina and Pinb in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparis, Sebastian; Orczyk, Waclaw; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2013-11-26

    Secaloindoline a (Sina) and secaloindoline b (Sinb) genes of hexaploid triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) are orthologs of puroindoline a (Pina) and puroindoline b (Pinb) in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It has already been proven that RNA interference (RNAi)-based silencing of Pina and Pinb genes significantly decreased the puroindoline a and puroindoline b proteins in wheat and essentially increased grain hardness (J Exp Bot 62:4025-4036, 2011). The function of Sina and Sinb in triticale was tested by means of RNAi silencing and compared to wheat. Novel Sina and Sinb alleles in wild-type plants of cv. Wanad were identified and their expression profiles characterized. Alignment with wheat Pina-D1a and Pinb-D1a alleles showed 95% and 93.3% homology with Sina and Sinb coding sequences. Twenty transgenic lines transformed with two hpRNA silencing cassettes directed to silence Sina or Sinb were obtained by the Agrobacterium-mediated method. A significant decrease of expression of both Sin genes in segregating progeny of tested T1 lines was observed independent of the silencing cassette used. The silencing was transmitted to the T4 kernel generation. The relative transcript level was reduced by up to 99% in T3 progeny with the mean for the sublines being around 90%. Silencing of the Sin genes resulted in a substantial decrease of secaloindoline a and secaloindoline b content. The identity of SIN peptides was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The hardness index, measured by the SKCS (Single Kernel Characterization System) method, ranged from 22 to 56 in silent lines and from 37 to 49 in the control, and the mean values were insignificantly lower in the silent ones, proving increased softness. Additionally, the mean total seed protein content of silenced lines was about 6% lower compared with control lines. Correlation coefficients between hardness and transcript level were weakly positive. We documented that RNAi-based silencing of Sin genes resulted in

  19. Grain yields and disease resistance as selection criteria for introduction of new varieties of small grain cereal in Lubumbashi, D.R. Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukobo, M R P; Ngongo, L M; Haesaert, G

    2014-01-01

    Wheat production in African countries is a major challenge for their development, considering their increasing consumption of wheat flour products. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, wheat and wheat-based products are the important imported food products although there is a potential for the cultivation of small grain cereals such as durum wheat, wheat and triticale. Trials done in Lubumbashi in the Katanga Province have shown that Septoria Leaf Blotch, Septoria Glume Blotch and Fusarium head blight are the main constraints to the efficient development of these cultures. Some varieties of Elite Spring Wheat, High Rainfall Wheat, Triticale and Durum Wheat from CIMMYT were followed during 4 growing seasons and agronomic characteristics and their levels of disease resistance were recorded. Correlations of agronomic characteristics with yields showed that in most cases, thousand kernel weight is the parameter that has the most influence on the yield level (p < 0.0001). The analysis of variance for all diseases showed that there were significant effects related to the year, the species and the interaction years x species. Triticale varieties seem to have a better resistance against the two forms of Septoria compared to wheat varieties but, they seem to be more sensitive to Fusarium Head Blight than wheat varieties. However, the Fusarium Head Blight has a rather low incidence in Lubumbashi.

  20. Energy dependence of fission product yields from 235U, 238U, and 239Pu with monoenergetic neutrons between thermal and 14.8 MeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gooden Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under a joint collaboration between TUNL-LANL-LLNL, a set of absolute fission product yield measurements has been performed. The energy dependence of a number of cumulative fission product yields (FPY have been measured using quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams for three actinide targets, 235U, 238U and 239Pu, between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV. The FPYs were measured by a combination of fission counting using specially designed dual-fission chambers and γ-ray counting. Each dual-fission chamber is a back-to-back ionization chamber encasing an activation target in the center with thin deposits of the same target isotope in each chamber. This method allows for the direct measurement of the total number of fissions in the activation target with no reference to the fission cross-section, thus reducing uncertainties. γ-ray counting of the activation target was performed on well-shielded HPGe detectors over a period of two months post irradiation to properly identify fission products. Reported are absolute cumulative fission product yields for incident neutron energies of 0.5, 1.37, 2.4, 3.6, 4.6, 5.5, 7.5, 8.9 and 14.8 MeV. Preliminary results from thermal irradiations at the MIT research reactor will also be presented and compared to present data and evaluations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Security, LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory through NNSA Stewardship Science Academic Alliance grant No. DE-FG52-09NA29465, DE-FG52-09NA29448 and Office of Nuclear Physics Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER41033.

  1. Localization of introduced genes on the chromosomes of transgenic barley, wheat and triticale by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.; Zimny, J.; Becker, D.

    1997-01-01

    Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) we localized introduced genes on metaphase chromosomes of barley, wheat, and triticale transformed by microprojectile bombardment of microspores and scutellar tissue with the pDB1 plasmid containing the uidA and bar genes. Thirteen integration sites...... of single-copy integrations. There was a slight tendency towards the localization of transgenes in distal chromosome regions. Using the GAA-satellite sequence for chromosome banding, the chromosomes containing the inserted genes were identified in most cases. Two barley lines derived from the same...... transformant showed a totally different integration pattern. Southern analysis confirmed that the inserted genes were segregating independently, resulting in different integration patterns among the progeny lines. The application of the FISH technique for the analysis of transgenic plants is discussed....

  2. Root distribution pattern of triticale varieties under irrigated and unirrigated conditions using 32P plant injection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, J.P.; Soni, B.K.; Bhargava, B.S.

    1977-01-01

    A study on the root distribution pattern of four triticale varieties (6TA-204-3, 6TA-204-4, S-520 and S-411) under irrigated and unirrigated conditions showed that in general, there was a more profused root system in irrigated conditions than in the unirrigated ones. The lateral root distribution was adversely affected under unirrigated conditions. Root density of different varieties, in a soil segment of 15 cm diameter and 48 cm depth grown under unirrigated conditions, was in the following order : S-520 > 6 TA-204-3 > 6 TA-204-4 > S-411 while under irrigated conditions the order was : 6 TA-204-3 > S-520 > 6 TA-204-4 > S-411. (author)

  3. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  4. Comparison of the target-thickness dependence of the convoy electron yield and the Rydberg electron yield measured in coincidence with exit charge states in fast ion-solid collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaither, C.C. III; Breinig, M.; Freyou, J.; Underwood, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    We have simultaneously measured the yield of convoy electrons and the yield of electrons in high Rydberg states of the projectile (n /approx gt/ 70), produced by 2MeV/u C projectiles passing through C foils, whose thicknesses range from 4--10 ug/cm 2 , for incident charge states q/sub i/ = 4--6 and exit charge states q/sub e/ = 4--6. We have found that these yields exhibit similar trends as a function of foil thickness, but that, nevertheless, the ratio of the number of convoy electrons detected in coincidence with ions of exit charge state q/sub e/ to the number of electrons detected in high Rydberg states of ions with the same exit charge state is a function of foil thickness. This may be due to a broadening of the convoy electron energy spectrum with increasing foil thickness. 6 refs., 3 figs

  5. Root distribution pattern and nitrogen uptake of some wheat and triticale germplasms in relation to rates and methods of nitrogen application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, N.L.; Seth, Jagdish

    1975-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted under irrigated conditions with four germplasms viz. Triticale(70-2), and wheat varieties HD 4502(durum), Kalyan Sona and Moti (aestivums) at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute Farm, New Delhi, during rabi season of 1972-73. The treatments comprised of three rates of nitrogen viz. 0,60 and 120 kg/ha and two methods of nitrogen application viz. (1) soil + foliar and (2) soil. The root distribution of the four germplasms, studied by 32 P injection technique was increased both vertically and horizontally with the addition of nitrogen. Root distribution of triticale was observed to be deep and spreading in habit, while durum proved to be shallow rooted and compact in nature. The total uptake of nitrogen was significantly increased with higher rates of nitrogen in all the germplasms. The maximum uptake of nitrogen was observed in the durum wheat. (author)

  6. Osmotic adjustment, gas exchanges and chlorophyll fluorescence of a hexaploid triticale and its parental species under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant-Manceau, Annick; Pradier, Elisabeth; Tremblin, Gérard

    2004-01-01

    The effect of salt stress (NaCl 85.7 or 110 mmol/L) was investigated in the triticale T300 and its parental species, Triticum dicoccum farrum (Triticum df) and Secale cereale cv. Petkus. Triticum df and T300 were more salt-tolerant than the rye (110 mmol/L NaCl was the highest concentration allowing rye growth to the three-leaf stage). Na+, K+ and Cl- ions accounted for almost half of the osmotic adjustment in Triticum df and T300, and up to 90% in rye. Salinity decreased the net photosynthesis and transpiration rates of the three cereals as compared to control plants, but induced no significant change in chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters. Water-use efficiency (WUE) increased with salinity. In the presence of 110 mmol/L NaCl, the K+/Na+ ratio decreased markedly in rye as compared to the other two cereals. Proline concentration, which increased in Triticum df and T300, could have protected membrane selectivity in favour of K+. Proline content remained low in rye, and increasing soluble sugar content did not appear to prevent competition between Na+ and K+. The salt sensitivity of rye could be due to low K+ uptake in the presence of a high NaCl concentration.

  7. Analysis of self-fertilization and meiotic behavior of eleven Brazilian triticale cultivars at two sowing dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divanilde Guerra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven Brazilian hexaploid triticale cultivars (2n = 6x = 42, from three breeding programs, were evaluated for theirability of self-fertilization in 2006 and for meiotic behavior, meiotic index and pollen viability at two sowing dates in 2007. Highpotential of self-fertilization was observed, with values up to 89.52 %. Many irregularities were found in the meiotic analysis, suchas the presence of univalents, laggard chromosomes and micronuclei in tetrads, which compromised both meiotic behavior andmeiotic index. At the first sowing date, more suitable for normal plant development, overall mean values of 52.68 % for normal cellsand 64.95 % for meiotic index were observed. At the second sowing date, less appropriate for the crop, overall means of 52.23 %for normal cells and 58.24 % for meiotic index were obtained. Despite all the irregularities, considerable pollen viability wasobserved, reaching overall means of 92.08 % and 91.07 % for the first and second sowing dates, respectively.

  8. Radiation induced wheat-rye chromosomal translocations in triticale. Optimizing the dose using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F.; Comeau, A.; Chen, Q.; Collin, J.; St-Pierre, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was utilized to monitor the level of ionizing radiation ( 60 Co source) in their ability to cause intra- and intergeneric chromosomal aberrations in triticale seeds. Seeds were irradiated with 0, 20, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 1000 Gy doses. The root growth of irradiated seeds was greatly inhibited at 200 Gy and above. Various types of aberrations including wheat-rye, wheat-wheat, rye-rye, wheat-rye-wheat, rye-wheat-rye translocations and acentric fragments with or without translocations were observed. There was a consistent increase in proportion of aberrations per cell with an increase in radiation dose. It was concluded that for an optimal level of chromosomal translocation and least number of acentric fragments, a 20 Gy dose was quite sufficient for inducing a desirable level of wheat-rye chromosomal translocations. The excellent efficiency and importance of utilizing FISH in such studies of alien-introgression via chromosomal translocations are discussed. (author)

  9. Radiation induced wheat-rye chromosomal translocations in triticale. Optimizing the dose using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, F. [Brandon Univ., Manitoba (Canada); Comeau, A.; Chen, Q.; Collin, J.; St-Pierre, C.A.

    2000-03-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was utilized to monitor the level of ionizing radiation ({sup 60}Co source) in their ability to cause intra- and intergeneric chromosomal aberrations in triticale seeds. Seeds were irradiated with 0, 20, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 1000 Gy doses. The root growth of irradiated seeds was greatly inhibited at 200 Gy and above. Various types of aberrations including wheat-rye, wheat-wheat, rye-rye, wheat-rye-wheat, rye-wheat-rye translocations and acentric fragments with or without translocations were observed. There was a consistent increase in proportion of aberrations per cell with an increase in radiation dose. It was concluded that for an optimal level of chromosomal translocation and least number of acentric fragments, a 20 Gy dose was quite sufficient for inducing a desirable level of wheat-rye chromosomal translocations. The excellent efficiency and importance of utilizing FISH in such studies of alien-introgression via chromosomal translocations are discussed. (author)

  10. Quantifying nitrogen flux after application of 15N-labelled pig slurry on triticale in the late autumn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morvan, T.; Leterme, P.; Mary, B.

    1996-01-01

    Predicting nitrate leaching after spreading slurry in autumn is difficult because plant uptake, mineralization, immobilization, volatilization and denitrification occur and modify the nitrate pool available for leaching. To estimate these fluxes, pig slurry was labelled with (15NH4)2SO4 and spread in December (110 kg NH4-N.ha-1) on triticale. Soil microbial immobilization, crop uptake and soil inorganic nitrogen were measured at seven dates between day 2 and 63 after application. NH4-N in the slurry follows three ways of transformation: volatilization (38 kg N.ha-1 in 16 days), immobilization (29 kg N.ha-1 day 30) and nitrification (42 kg N.ha-1). This last one was achieved 48 days after spreading, despite the cold mean temperatures measured during the experiment. Gross mineralization of soil and slurry organic nitrogen was large (35 kg N.ha-1 for the 0-10 cm soil layer). The real utilization coefficient of 15N-labelled N was low, smaller than 4% at day 63. The leaching of nitrate was small because there was no rainfall after day 48. Thus, from the balance of 15N-labelled N, it is suggested that 22 kg NO3 N.ha-1 has been lost by denitrification [fr

  11. In situ and in vitro ruminal starch degradation of grains from different rye, triticale and barley genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, J; Seifried, N; Steingass, H; Rodehutscord, M

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, advances in plant breeding were achieved, which potentially led to modified nutritional values of cereal grains. The present study was conducted in order to obtain a broad overview of ruminal digestion kinetics of rye, triticale and barley grains, and to highlight differences between the grain species. In total, 20 genotypes of each grain species were investigated using in situ and in vitro methods. Samples were ground (2 mm), weighed into polyester bags, and incubated in situ 1 to 48 h in three ruminally cannulated lactating dairy cows. The in vitro gas production of ground samples (1 mm) was measured according to the 'Hohenheim Gas Test', and cumulative gas production was recorded over different time spans for up to 72 h. There were significant differences (Pvalues exhibited the highest variation within species. The in vitro gas production rate was significantly higher (Pvalues, but was not reflected in the ED estimates. Therefore, the usage of mean values for the ED of DM and ST for each species appears reasonable. Estimated metabolisable energy concentrations (ME, MJ/kg DM) and the estimated digestibility of organic matter (dOM, %) were significantly lower (Pvalues were not significantly different (P=0.386 and 0.485).

  12. Simultaneous Transfer of Leaf Rust and Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes from Hexaploid Triticale Cultivar Sorento into Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Li, Yinghui; Cao, Lirong; Liu, Peiyuan; Geng, Miaomiao; Zhang, Qiang; Qiu, Lina; Sun, Qixin; Xie, Chaojie

    2018-01-01

    Wheat powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici , and wheat leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks, are two important diseases that severely threaten wheat production. Sorento, a hexaploid triticale cultivar from Poland, shows high resistance to the wheat powdery mildew isolate E09 and the leaf rust isolate PHT in Beijing, China. To introduce resistance genes into common wheat, Sorento was crossed with wheat line Xuezao, which is susceptible to both diseases, and the F 1 hybrids were then backcrossed with Xuezao as the recurrent male parent. By marker analysis, we demonstrate that the long arm of the 2R (2RL) chromosome confers resistance to both the leaf rust and powdery mildew isolates at adult-plant and seedling stages, while the long arm of 4R (4RL) confers resistance only to powdery mildew at both stages. The chromosomal composition of BC 2 F 3 plants containing 2R or 2RL and 4R or 4RL in the form of substitution and translocation were confirmed by GISH (genomic in situ hybridization) and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization). Monosomic and disomic substitutions of a wheat chromosome with chromosome 2R or 4R, as well as one 4RS-4DL/4DS-4RL reciprocal translocation homozigote and one 2RL-1DL translocation hemizigote, were recovered. Such germplasms are of great value in wheat improvement.

  13. Dual functionality of triticale as a novel dietary source of prebiotics with antioxidant activity in fermented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agil, Rania; Hosseinian, Farah

    2012-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (i) define the optimum concentration of triticale bran (TB) that can be incorporated in yogurt, (ii) evaluate the prebiotic effects of TB on microbial viability, pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) in yogurt across 28 days of cold storage, and (iii) measure the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of water-extractable polysaccharides (WEP) in TB. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were used as starter cultures. Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis were used as probiotics. A concentration of 4% TB in yogurt was determined to be the maximum amount that could be added without causing synersis. By day 7, the number of bacteria greatly increased in yogurt samples containing TB and maintained higher viable bacteria counts at the end of the cold storage period, in comparison to controls (P ≤ 0.05). Confirming this data was the lower pH levels and higher TTA values of TB yogurt samples exhibited throughout 28 days (P ≤ 0.05). Polysaccharide extracts of TB exhibited strong antioxidant activity with an ORAC value of 33.86 ± 2.30 μmol trolox equivalents (TE)/g of bran. Results of this study suggest that TB may serve as a new prebiotic and antioxidant source for functional foods and nutraceutical applications.

  14. On the nature of anomalies in temperature dependence of the OKh18N1OT steel yield strength after thermal cycling in the low temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, E.M.; Lavrent'ev, F.F.; Kurmanova, T.N.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated were structural transformations in 0Kh18N10T steel as a result of heating and cooling and of deformation within the range of temperatures between 300 and 77 K, the quantity relationships between the said transformations and the variation of the yield limit with the temperature. The studies were conducted by metallography and mechanical test methods. It was shown that an increase in the number of heating and cooling cycles correlates with a loss in strength of the steel while deformation at 77 K. This anomaly in the temperature relationship of the yield limit is related to the appearance in the course of deformation of α-martensite with a BCC lattice. Deformation at 300 K increases the amount ea of epsilon-martensite, a decrses the effectve size of grain and, in consequence, increases the yield limit. The relationship between the yield limit and the grain size at the temperature of 300 K is described adequately by the Hall-Petch equation

  15. Angular dependence of sputtering yield of TiSi sub 2 layers and analysis of titanium disilicide by SIMS and SCANIIR methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, S L; Valiev, K A; Vasiliev, A G; Orlikovsky, A A [AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. of Physics and Technology

    1989-11-01

    The values of sputtering yields of TiSi{sub 2}, Ti and Si layers are determined for Ar{sup +} (8 keV) bombardment at angles 0-80{sup 0}. It is shown that the theoretical functions that we have suggested for TiSi{sub 2} sputtering yields from angular Ar{sup +} bombardment, which are based on models of bicomponent compounds sputtering under normal ion bombardment, are in good agreement with the experimental curve for TiSi{sub 2}. The calibration curves for the determination of TiSi{sub x} layer compositions by SIMS and SCANIIR methods (in dynamic regime) are presented. It is shown with the help of the static SIMS method (E{sub AR+} = 3 keV) that not only can the TiSi{sub x} composition be determined but the TiSi{sub 2} crystal phase can also be identified. (author).

  16. Noble-gas ion sputtering yield of gold and copper: Dependence on the energy and angle of incidence of the projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva-Florio, A.; Baragiola, R.A.; Jakas, M.M.; Alonso, E.V.; Ferron, J.

    1987-02-15

    We have measured the sputtering yield of Au and Cu targets as a function of energy and the angle of incidence of noble-gas projectiles in the energy range 2--50 keV. The experimental results were compared with the analytical theory of sputtering and with computer simulations. Our study indicates that the linear-cascade model is applicable only asymptotically for low nuclear stopping powers.

  17. Biomass Yield and N Uptake in Tall Fescue and Reed Canary Grass Depending on N and PK Fertilization on Two Marginal Sites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    areas with limited suitability for cereal production. Plots with TF and RCG were sown in April 2011, and fertilization trials were established in spring 2012 with three factors: (a) grass species, (b) PK fertilization (either no P and K or 24 and 250 kg ha−1 y−1 of P and K, respectively), and (c) N...... fertilization (0, 150, 300, or 450 kg ha−1 y−1 N). Three cuts were taken annually from 2012 to 2014. Both species responded strongly to N fertilization. In TF, 450 kg ha−1 y−1 N combined with PK fertilization gave DM yields of 19.3, 12.1, and 14.2 t ha−1 y−1 in the 3 years, respectively, and corresponding...... yields for RCG were 17.3, 14.4, and 14.3 t ha−1 y−1. Without PK fertilization yields were significantly lower: 15.2, 7.5, and 7.3 t ha−1 y−1 in TF and 16.3, 8.7, and 4.8 ha−1 y−1 in RCG. When fertilized with PK, N uptake in harvested biomass balanced with N fertilization at rates of 244, 187, and 172 kg...

  18. Measurement of the Azimuthal Angle Dependence of Inclusive Jet Yields in Pb+Pb Collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Bittner, Bernhard; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coelli, Simone; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Colas, Jacques; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Damiani, Daniel; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Demirkoz, Bilge; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; 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Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giunta, Michele; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haefner, Petra; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jared, Richard; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koenig, Sebastian; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madar, Romain; Madaras, Ronald; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Michal, Sebastien; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molfetas, Angelos; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raas, Marcel; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radloff, Peter; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; 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Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; 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Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; 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Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2013-10-09

    Measurements of the variation of inclusive jet suppression as a function of relative azimuthal angle, $\\Delta\\phi$, with respect to the elliptic event plane provide insight into the path-length dependence of jet quenching. ATLAS has measured the $\\Delta\\phi$ dependence of jet yields in 0.14 nb$^{-1}$ of $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC for jet transverse momenta $p_T$ > 45 GeV in different collision centrality bins using an underlying event subtraction procedure that accounts for elliptic flow. The variation of the jet yield with Delta phi was characterized by the parameter, $v_2^{jet}$, and the ratio of out-of-plane ($\\Delta\\phi ~ \\pi/2$) to in-plane ($\\Delta\\phi ~ 0$) yields. Non-zero $v_2^{jet}$ values were measured in all centrality bins for $p_T$ < 160 GeV. The jet yields are observed to vary by as much as 20% between in-plane and out-of-plane directions.

  19. Purification and biochemical characterization of an Aspergillus niger phytase produced by solid-state fermentation using triticale residues as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira-Vielma, Alberto A; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Ilyina, Anna; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Carneiro-da-Cunha, María das Graça; Michelena-Álvarez, Georgina; Martínez-Hernández, José L

    2018-03-01

    In this study, an extracellular phytase produced by Aspergillus niger 7A-1, was biochemically characterized for possible industrial application. The enzyme was purified from a crude extract obtained by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of triticale waste. The extract was obtained by microfiltration, ultrafiltration (300, 100 and 30 kDa) and DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 89 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme was most active at pH 5.3 and 56 °C, and retained 50% activity over a wide pH range of 4 to 7. The enzymatic thermostability assay showed that the enzyme retained more than 70% activity at 80 °C for 60 s, 40% activity for 120 s and 9% after 300 s. The phytase showed broad substrate specificity, a K m value of 220 μM and V max of 25 μM/min. The purified phytase retained 50% of its activity with phosphorylated compounds such as phenyl phosphate, 1-Naphthyl phosphate, 2-Naphthyl phosphate, p-Nitrophenyl phosphate and Glycerol-2-phosphate. The inhibition of phytase activity by metal ions was observed to be drastically inhibited (50%) by Ca ++ and was slightly inhibited (10%) by Ni ++ , K + , and Na + , at 10 and 20 mM concentrations. A positive effect was obtained with Mg ++ , Mn ++ , Cu ++ , Cd ++ and Ba ++ at 25 and 35% with stimulatory effect on the phytase activity.

  20. Purification and biochemical characterization of an Aspergillus niger phytase produced by solid-state fermentation using triticale residues as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Neira-Vielma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an extracellular phytase produced by Aspergillus niger 7A-1, was biochemically characterized for possible industrial application. The enzyme was purified from a crude extract obtained by solid-state fermentation (SSF of triticale waste. The extract was obtained by microfiltration, ultrafiltration (300, 100 and 30 kDa and DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 89 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme was most active at pH 5.3 and 56 °C, and retained 50% activity over a wide pH range of 4 to 7. The enzymatic thermostability assay showed that the enzyme retained more than 70% activity at 80 °C for 60 s, 40% activity for 120 s and 9% after 300 s. The phytase showed broad substrate specificity, a Km value of 220 μM and Vmax of 25 μM/min. The purified phytase retained 50% of its activity with phosphorylated compounds such as phenyl phosphate, 1-Naphthyl phosphate, 2-Naphthyl phosphate, p-Nitrophenyl phosphate and Glycerol-2-phosphate. The inhibition of phytase activity by metal ions was observed to be drastically inhibited (50% by Ca++ and was slightly inhibited (10% by Ni++, K+, and Na+, at 10 and 20 mM concentrations. A positive effect was obtained with Mg++, Mn++, Cu++, Cd++ and Ba++ at 25 and 35% with stimulatory effect on the phytase activity.

  1. Implications of late-in-life density-dependent growth for fishery size-at-entry leading to maximum sustainable yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gemert, Rob; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2018-01-01

    -in-life density-dependent growth: North Sea plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus), and Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus). For all stocks, the model predicts exploitation at MSY with a large size-at-entry into the fishery, indicating that late-in-life density...

  2. Density dependence of the radiolysis yields of primary species from fast neutron-irradiated supercritical water at 400 {sup o}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butarbutar, S.L. [Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); National Nuclear Energy Agency, BATAN, Tangerang Selatan, Banten (Indonesia); Meesungnoen, J. [Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); Guzonas, D.A.; Stuart, C.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Jay-Gerin, J-P [Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    A reliable understanding of radiolysis processes in supercritical water (SCW)-cooled reactors is crucial to developing chemistry control strategies that minimize corrosion and the transport of both corrosion products and radionuclides. Chemistry control is one of the most important factors to keep the integrity of materials from degradation processes and also to reduce out-of-core radiation fields and worker dose. However, directly measuring the chemistry in reactor cores is difficult due to the extreme conditions of high temperature and pressure and mixed neutron and γ-radiation fields that are not compatible with normal chemical instrumentation. Thus, chemical models and computer simulations are an important route of investigation for predicting the detailed radiation chemistry of the coolant in a SCW reactor and the consequences for materials. Surprisingly, there is only limited information on the fast neutron radiolysis of water at high temperatures, and no experimental data are yet available on the radiolysis yields for fast neutron irradiation of SCW. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict the G-values for the primary species e{sup -}{sub aq}, H{sup •}, H{sub 2}, {sup •}OH, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formed from the radiolysis of pure, deaerated SCW (H{sub 2}O) by 2-MeV mono-energetic neutrons at 400 {sup o}C as a function of water density in the range of ~0.15-0.6 g/cm{sup 3}. The 2-MeV neutron was taken as representative of a fast neutron flux in a reactor. For light water, the moderation of these neutrons after knock-on collisions with water molecules generated mostly recoil protons of 1.264, 0.465, 0.171, and 0.063 MeV having linear energy transfer (LET) values of ~3.3, 6.5, 10.4, and 11.4 keV/μm at 0.15 g/cm{sup 3}, and ~13.3, 26, 42, and 46 keV/μm at 0.6 g/cm{sup 3}, respectively. Neglecting oxygen ion recoils and assuming that the most significant contribution to the radiolysis came from these first four recoil protons, the fast

  3. Produtividade e desenvolvimento de cultivares de repolho em função de doses de boro Yield of cabbage cultivars depending on levels of boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiane S Silva

    2012-09-01

    weight of outer leaves, leaf content of boron, plant area, plant height, number of outer leaves, fresh weight of outer leaves, dry weight of outer leaves, classification according to head weight, compactness and yield per hectare. The cultivar 60 Dias showed higher values for yield components and consequently greater productivity. The application of boron influences linearly in the boron content of leaves, head diameter and number of inner leaves. The boron levels interfered the yield of cabbage, the maximum dose for '60 Dias' being 7.2 kg ha-1 and the minimum necessary dose for the cv. Chato de Quintal being 1.06 kg ha-1.

  4. Ruminal degradability and carbohydrates and proteins fractioning of triticale silages in singular culture or in mixtures with oat and/or legumesDegradabilidade ruminal e fracionamento de carboidratos e proteínas em silagens de triticale em cultivo singular ou em misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moysés Calixto Junior

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to evaluate the ruminal degradability, and the fractioning of carbohydrates, as well as of the nitrogen fractions of triticale silages in singular culture or in mixtures with oats and/or legumes. The treatments had been: triticale silage (X. Triticosecale Wittimack (ST; triticale silage + forage pea (Pisum arvense (STE; triticale silage + oats (Avena strigosa Scheb + forage pea + vetch (Vicia sativa (STAE. Three castrated bovine Prim’Holstein males had been used, with average live weight of 300 kg, having ruminal cannulas. The incubation times had duration of 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. Fractions, a, c and ED of the DM of STAE silage was higher (30,33; 0,026 and 45,45% than others silages. Fraction b of the DM of ST silage was higher (58,45% than STE silages (45,36% and STAE (44,37%. In CP the ST silage presented higher fraction (72.12%. For the potentially degradability fraction (b of CP it was not observed difference among treatments. The degradation rate (c of the CP was higher for STE silage (0.063% than ST ensilage (0,012%, however this was similar to the STAE (0,045%. ED of CP was better for STE silage (77,71%. ST silage presented fraction a and b for NDF highest (8,62 and 81,99% than others silages. The degradation rate (c of NDF was higher for STAE (0,027%. ED for NDF did not present difference among treatments. ST silage presented the best values for the total carbohydrates (83,97% than STE (79,87% and STAE silages (76,77%. STE and STAE silages presented better DM degradability and suggest to be a potential source of non degradable protein in the rumen. The exclusive triticale silage revealed superior with regard to the degradability of fiber fraction, also presenting higher amount of total carbohydrates potentially degraded.O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal, e o fracionamento de carboidratos, assim como das frações nitrogenadas das silagens de triticale em plantio singular ou em

  5. A high-yield co-expression system for the purification of an intact drs2p-cdc50p lipid flippase complex, critically dependent on and stabilized by phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azouaoui, Hassina; Montigny, Cédric; Ash, Miriam-Rose

    2014-01-01

    P-type ATPases from the P4 subfamily (P4-ATPases) are energy-dependent transporters, which are thought to establish lipid asymmetry in eukaryotic cell membranes. Together with their Cdc50 accessory subunits, P4-ATPases couple ATP hydrolysis to lipid transport from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic...... leaflet of plasma membranes, late Golgi membranes, and endosomes. To gain insights into the structure and function of these important membrane pumps, robust protocols for expression and purification are required. In this report, we present a procedure for high-yield co-expression of a yeast flippase......, the Drs2p-Cdc50p complex. After recovery of yeast membranes expressing both proteins, efficient purification was achieved in a single step by affinity chromatography on streptavidin beads, yielding ∼1-2 mg purified Drs2p-Cdc50p complex per liter of culture. Importantly, the procedure enabled us to recover...

  6. Orientation and temperature dependence of yield stress and slip geometry of Ti3Al and Ti3Al-V single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umakoshi, Y.; Nakano, T.; Takenaka, T.; Sumimoto, K.; Yamane, T.

    1993-01-01

    Single crystals of binary Ti 3 Al and ternary Ti 3 Al-V alloys with the D0 19 structure were deformed in compression at 20-900 C. Slip systems of the (10 bar 10) -type and the (11 bar 21) -type were observed in these alloys throughout the entire temperature range depending on orientation, but the (11 bar 21) -slip was limited to orientations near [0001]. The basal (0001) -slip was also activated in quenched Ti 3 Al. The CRSS for the (10 bar 10) -slip in the binary and ternary alloys decreases monotonically with increasing temperature. In the ternary alloy the CRSS for the (10 bar 10) -slip shows a violation of Schmid's law, while the binary alloy obeys the CRSS law. When Ti 3 Al is deformed by (11 bar 21) -slip the CRSS for the slip exhibits an anomalous peak in the temperature-CRSS curve but the addition of vanadium suppresses the extent of the anomalous strengthening

  7. Concentration dependence of the light yield and energy resolution of NaI:Tl and CsI:Tl crystals excited by gamma, soft X-rays and alpha particles

    CERN Document Server

    Trefilova, L N; Kovaleva, L V; Zaslavsky, B G; Zosim, D I; Bondarenko, S K

    2002-01-01

    Based on the analysis of light yield dependence on activator concentration for NaI:Tl and CsI:Tl excited by gamma-rays, soft X-rays and alpha-particles, an explanation of the effect of energy resolution enhancement with the rise of Tl content has been proposed. Based on the concept regarding the electron track structure, we proposed an alternative explanation of the intrinsic resolution value. The concept does not take into account the non-proportional response to electrons of different energies and is based on the statistic fluctuation of scintillation photon number formed outside and inside the regions of higher ionization density.

  8. A new general method for simultaneous fitting of temperature and concentration dependence of reaction rates yields kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for HIV reverse transcriptase specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An; Ziehr, Jessica L; Johnson, Kenneth A

    2017-04-21

    Recent studies have demonstrated the dominant role of induced fit in enzyme specificity of HIV reverse transcriptase and many other enzymes. However, relevant thermodynamic parameters are lacking, and equilibrium thermodynamic methods are of no avail because the key parameters can only be determined by kinetic measurement. By modifying KinTek Explorer software, we present a new general method for globally fitting data collected over a range of substrate concentrations and temperatures and apply it to HIV reverse transcriptase. Fluorescence stopped-flow methods were used to record the kinetics of enzyme conformational changes that monitor nucleotide binding and incorporation. The nucleotide concentration dependence was measured at temperatures ranging from 5 to 37 °C, and the raw data were fit globally to derive a single set of rate constants at 37 °C and a set of activation enthalpy terms to account for the kinetics at all other temperatures. This comprehensive analysis afforded thermodynamic parameters for nucleotide binding ( K d , Δ G , Δ H , and Δ S at 37 °C) and kinetic parameters for enzyme conformational changes and chemistry (rate constants and activation enthalpy). Comparisons between wild-type enzyme and a mutant resistant to nucleoside analogs used to treat HIV infections reveal that the ground state binding is weaker and the activation enthalpy for the conformational change step is significantly larger for the mutant. Further studies to explore the structural underpinnings of the observed thermodynamics and kinetics of the conformational change step may help to design better analogs to treat HIV infections and other diseases. Our new method is generally applicable to enzyme and chemical kinetics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Evaluation of yield quality and weed infestation of common valerian (Valeriana officinalis L. in dependence on weed control method and forecrop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment involving the cultivation of common valerian was conducted on loess soil in Abramów (Lublin region in the period 2007-2009. Qualitative parameters of herbal raw material obtained from this plant as well as in-crop weed infestation were evaluated depending on the protection method and forecrop. Hand-weeded plots, in which a hand hoe was used, were the control. In the other treatments, weeds were controlled using various herbicides and a mechanical implement (brush weeder. Potato and winter wheat + field pea cover crop were the forecrops for common valerian crops. A hypothesis was made that the use of a brush weeder and herbicides not registered for application in valerian crops would have a positive effect on this plant's productivity and weed infestation in its crops. It was also assumed that the introduction of a cover crop would allow the elimination of differences in the forecrop value of the crop stands in question. The best quantitative and qualitative parameters of common valerian raw material as well as the largest reduction of incrop weed infestation were recorded after the application of the herbicides which were not type approved. The use of the brush weeder in the interrows also had a beneficial effect on productivity of the plant in question, but secondary weed infestation at the end of the growing season of common valerian turned out to be its disadvantage. Traditional crop protection methods used in common valerian crops were less effective in weed infestation reduction and they resulted in lower plant productivity and raw material quality. Potato proved to be a better forecrop for common valerian than winter wheat + field pea; however, this positive effect was not confirmed statistically. The following annual weeds: Chenopodium album, Galinsoga parviflora, Stellaria media, were predominant in the common valerian crop. Traditional weed control methods resulted in the dominance of some dicotyledonous weeds, such

  10. Abscisic acid content and the expression of genes related to its metabolism during maturation of triticale grains of cultivars differing in pre-harvest sprouting susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Justyna; Zdunek-Zastocka, Edyta; Prabucka, Beata; Bielawski, Wiesław

    2016-12-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays a predominant role in the onset and maintenance of primary dormancy. Peak ABA accumulation in embryos of triticale grains was observed before any significant loss of water and was higher in Fredro, a cultivar less susceptible to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS), than in Leontino, a cultivar more sensitive to PHS. At full maturity, embryonic ABA content in Fredro was twice as high as in Leontino. Two full-length cDNAs of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (TsNCED1, TsNCED2), an enzyme involved in ABA biosynthesis, and two full-length cDNAs of ABA 8'-hydroxylase (TsABA8'OH1 and TsABA8'OH2), an enzyme involved in ABA catabolism, were identified in triticale grains and characterized. The maximum transcript level of both TsNCED1 and TsNCED2 preceded the peak of ABA accumulation, suggesting that both TsNCEDs contribute to reach this peak, although the expression of TsNCED1 was significantly higher in Fredro than in Leontino. High expression of TsABA8'OH2 and TsABA8'OH1 was observed long before and at the end of the ABA accumulation peak, respectively, but no differences were observed between cultivars. The obtained results suggest that mainly TsNCED1 might be related to the higher ABA content and higher resistance of Fredro to PHS. However, Fredro embryos not only have higher ABA content, but also exhibit greater sensitivity to ABA, which may also have a significant effect on grain dormancy and lower susceptibility to PHS for grains of this cultivar. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of concentrate proportion in the diet with or without Fusarium toxin-contaminated triticale on ruminal fermentation and the structural diversity of rumen microbial communities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguhn, Jeannette; Neumann, Dominik; Helm, André; Strobel, Egbert; Tebbe, Christoph C; Dänicke, Sven; Rodehutscorda, Markus

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the concentrate proportion and Fusarium toxin-contaminated triticale (FCT) in the diet on nutrient degradation, microbial protein synthesis and structure of the microbial community, utilising a rumen simulation technique and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) profiles based on PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. Four diets containing 60% or 30% concentrates on a dry matter basis with or without FCT were incubated. The fermentation of nutrients and microbial protein synthesis was measured. On the last day of incubation, microbial mass was obtained from the vessel liquid, DNA was extracted and PCR-primers targeting archaea, fibrobacter, clostridia, bifidobacteria, bacillii, fungi, and bacteria were applied to separately study the individual taxonomic groups with SSCP. The concentrate proportion affected the fermentation and the microbial community, but not the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. Neither the fermentation of organic matter nor the synthesis and composition of microbial protein was affected by FCT. The fermentation of detergent fibre fractions was lower in diets containing FCT compared to diets with uncontaminated triticale. Except for the clostridia group, none of the microbial groups were affected by presence of FCT. In conclusion, our results give no indication that the supplementation of FCT up to a deoxynivalenol concentration in the diet of 5 mg per kg dry matter affects the fermentation of organic matter and microbial protein synthesis. These findings are independent of the concentrate level in the diets. A change in the microbial community composition of the genus Clostridia may be the reason for a reduction in the cellulolytic activity.

  12. Atmospheric CO2 fertilization effects on biomass yields of 10 crops in northern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan F. Degener

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality and quantity of the influence that atmospheric CO2 has on cropgrowth is still a matter of debate. This study's aim is to estimate if CO2 will have an effect on biomass yields at all, to quantify and spatially locate the effects and to explore if an elevated photosynthesis rate or water-use-efficiency is predominantly responsible. This study uses a numerical carbon based crop model (BioSTAR to estimate biomass yields within theadministrative boundaries of Niedersachsen in Northern Germany. 10 crops are included (winter grains: wheat, barley,rye, triticale - early, medium, late maize variety - sunflower, sorghum, spring wheat, modeled annuallyfor the entire 21st century on 91,014 separate sites. Modeling was conducted twice, once with an annually adaptedCO2 concentration according to the SRES-A1B scenario and once with a fixed concentration of 390 ppm to separate the influence of CO2 from that of the other input variables.Rising CO2 concentrations will play a central role in keeping future yields of all crops above or aroundtoday's level. Differences in yields between modeling with fixed or adapted CO2 can be as high as60 % towards the century's end. Generally yields will increase when CO2 rises and decline whenit is kept constant. As C4-crops are equivalently affected it is presumed that anelevated efficiency in water use is the main responsible factor for all plants.

  13. Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields from 235U, 238U and 239Pu for Incident Neutron Energies Between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, Matthew; Bredeweg, Todd; Fowler, Malcolm; Vieira, David; Wilhelmy, Jerry; Tonchev, Anton; Stoyer, Mark; Bhike, Megha; Finch, Sean; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tornow, Werner

    2017-09-01

    The energy dependence of a number of cumulative fission product yields (FPY) have been measured using quasi- monoenergetic neutron beams for three actinide targets, 235U, 238U and 239Pu, between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV. The FPYs were measured by a combi- nation of fission counting using specially designed dual-fission chambers and -ray counting. Each dual-fission chamber is a back-to-back ioniza- tion chamber encasing an activation target in the center with thin de- posits of the same target isotope in each chamber. This method allows for the direct measurement of the total number of fissions in the activa- tion target with no reference to the fission cross-section, thus reducing uncertainties. γ-ray counting of the activation target was performed on well-shielded HPGe detectors over a period of 2 months post irradiation to properly identify fission products. Reported are absolute cumulative fission product yields for incident neutron energies of 0.5, 1.37, 2.4, 3.6, 4.6 and 14.8 MeV. New data in the second chance fission region of 5.5 - 9 MeV are included. Work performed for the U.S. Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  14. A high-yield co-expression system for the purification of an intact drs2p-cdc50p lipid flippase complex, critically dependent on and stabilized by phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azouaoui, Hassina; Montigny, Cédric; Ash, Miriam-Rose

    2014-01-01

    , the Drs2p-Cdc50p complex. After recovery of yeast membranes expressing both proteins, efficient purification was achieved in a single step by affinity chromatography on streptavidin beads, yielding ∼1-2 mg purified Drs2p-Cdc50p complex per liter of culture. Importantly, the procedure enabled us to recover...... was critically dependent on the simultaneous presence of PI4P and PS. We also identified a prominent role for PI4P in stabilization of the Drs2p-Cdc50p complex towards temperature- or C12E8-induced irreversible inactivation. These results indicate that the Drs2p-Cdc50p complex remains functional after affinity...... purification and that PI4P as a cofactor tightly controls its stability and catalytic activity. This work offers appealing perspectives for detailed structural and functional characterization of the Drs2p-Cdc50p lipid transport mechanism....

  15. Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields from 235U, 238U and 239Pu for Incident Neutron Energies Between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, M. E.; Arnold, C. W.; Becker, J. A.; Bhatia, C.; Bhike, M.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fallin, B.; Fowler, M. M.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Krishichayan; Macri, R.; Rusev, G.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    Fission Product Yields (FPY) have historically been one of the most observable features of the fission process. They are known to have strong variations that are dependent on the fissioning species, the excitation energy, and the angular momentum of the compound system. However, consistent and systematic studies of the variation of these FPY with energy have proved challenging. This is caused primarily by the nature of the experiments that have traditionally relied on radiochemical procedures to isolate specific fission products. Although radiochemical procedures exist that can isolate all products, each element presents specific challenges and introduces varying degrees of systematic errors that can make inter-comparison of FPY uncertain. Although of high importance in fields such as nuclear forensics and Stockpile Stewardship, accurate information about the energy dependence of neutron induced FPY are sparse, due primarily to the lack of suitable monoenergetic neutron sources. There is a clear need for improved data, and to address this issue, a collaboration was formed between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) to measure the energy dependence of FPY for 235U, 238U and 239Pu. The measurements have been performed at TUNL, using a 10 MV Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator to produce monoenergetic neutrons at energies between 0.6 MeV to 14.8 MeV through a variety of reactions. The measurements have utilized a dual-fission chamber, with thin (10-100 μg/cm2) reference foils of similar material to a thick (100-400 mg) activation target held in the center between the chambers. This method allows for the accurate determination of the number of fissions that occurred in the thick target without requiring knowledge of the fission cross section or neutron fluence on target. Following activation, the thick target was removed from the dual-fission chamber and gamma

  16. Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields from {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu for Incident Neutron Energies Between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooden, M.E., E-mail: m_gooden@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Arnold, C.W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Becker, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bhatia, C. [McMaster University, Ontario (Canada); Bhike, M. [Department of Physics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Bond, E.M.; Bredeweg, T.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Fallin, B. [Department of Physics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Fowler, M.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Howell, C.R. [Department of Physics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Kelley, J.H. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27605 (United States); Krishichayan [Department of Physics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Macri, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Rusev, G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Ryan, C.; Sheets, S.A.; Stoyer, M.A.; Tonchev, A.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Tornow, W. [Department of Physics, Duke University,Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); and others

    2016-01-15

    Fission Product Yields (FPY) have historically been one of the most observable features of the fission process. They are known to have strong variations that are dependent on the fissioning species, the excitation energy, and the angular momentum of the compound system. However, consistent and systematic studies of the variation of these FPY with energy have proved challenging. This is caused primarily by the nature of the experiments that have traditionally relied on radiochemical procedures to isolate specific fission products. Although radiochemical procedures exist that can isolate all products, each element presents specific challenges and introduces varying degrees of systematic errors that can make inter-comparison of FPY uncertain. Although of high importance in fields such as nuclear forensics and Stockpile Stewardship, accurate information about the energy dependence of neutron induced FPY are sparse, due primarily to the lack of suitable monoenergetic neutron sources. There is a clear need for improved data, and to address this issue, a collaboration was formed between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) to measure the energy dependence of FPY for {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu. The measurements have been performed at TUNL, using a 10 MV Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator to produce monoenergetic neutrons at energies between 0.6 MeV to 14.8 MeV through a variety of reactions. The measurements have utilized a dual-fission chamber, with thin (10-100 μg/cm2) reference foils of similar material to a thick (100-400 mg) activation target held in the center between the chambers. This method allows for the accurate determination of the number of fissions that occurred in the thick target without requiring knowledge of the fission cross section or neutron fluence on target. Following activation, the thick target was removed from the dual-fission chamber

  17. Some compositional and health indicators of milk quality of dairy cows with higher milk yield at including of selected corn species into feeding ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pozdíšek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of economical reasons the substitution of maize by feed corn as wheat (Sulamit and triticale (Kitaro was revolved in concentrate part of dairy cow feeding rations. The design of mentioned replacement in feeding rations was carried out according to results of previous research (Pozdíšek and Vaculová, 2008 for nutrition experiment. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the possible effects of corn replacement in cow feeding rations on milk composition and properties. The expressively different variants of corn were selected for experiment in comparison to maize (reference. Dairy cows were fed by total mixed ration on the basis of maize and clover silage and hay. Otherwise the identical day feeding rations among cow groups differed only in concentrate portions ((K, control group maize 1.5 kg, wheat (P1 2.0 kg and triticale (P2 2.0 kg (experimental groups. Group feeding rations 1 (K, 2 (P1 and 3 (P2 had: NEL/kg dry (DM matter (6.524, 6.512 and 6.491; NL % in DM (17.9, 18.2 and 17.9; fibre % in DM (15.96, 15.74 and 15.72; PDIN/PDIE (1.189, 1.189 and 1.191. The experiment took six weeks, there were included 8, 9 and 9 cows (n = 26 of Czech Fleckvieh breed. Feed groups were well balanced in terms of milk yield, days in milk and number of lactation. The tie stable and pipeline milking equipment were used in experiment. Animals were milked twice a day and sampled at morning milking in intervals about seven days approximately. Cows were relatively healthy in terms of occurrence of milk secretion disorders. Within groups the individual milk samples (in total 182 in experiment were aggregated into bulk samples (n = 21 = 3 groups × 7 sampling periods, which were analysed on 45 milk indicators, 18 of them were evaluated in this paper. The differences in milk yield were significantly advantageous for K group (15.32 > 14.07 (wheat or 13.86 kg (triticale at morning milking, while fat (3.27 < 3.47 or 3.44 % was lower (P < 0.05. Lactose was not

  18. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    create a favourable environment for rice ... developing lines adaptable to many ... have stable, not too short crop duration with ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant ..... and yield components.

  19. Effect of Different Tillage Methods and Cover Crop Types on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Sharefee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Conservation agriculture is an appropriate strategy for maintaining and improving agricultural resources which increases crop production and stability and also provides environmental protection. This attitude contributes to the conservation of natural resources (soil, water, and air and is one of the most effective ways to overcome the drought crisis, water management and compensation of soil organic matter in arid and semi-arid regions. The practice of zero-tillage decreases the mineralization of organic matter and contributes to the sequestration of organic carbon in the soil. Higher amounts of organic matter in the soil improve soil structure and root growth, water infiltration and retention, and cation exchange capacity. In addition, zero-tillage reduces soil compaction and crop production costs. Cover crops are cultivated to protect the soil from erosion and elements loss by leaching or runoff and also improve the soil moisture and temperature. Given that South Khorasan farmers still use traditional methods of cultivation of wheat, and cover crops have no place in their farming systems, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cover crops types and tillage systems on yield and yield components of wheat in Birjand region. Materials and Methods A split plot field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Farm of the University of Birjand over the growing season of 2014-2015. The main factor was the type of tillage (no-till, reduced tillage and conventional tillage and cover crop type (chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus, rocket salad (Eruca sativa, triticale (X Triticosecale witmack, barley (Hordeum vulgaris and control (no cover crop was considered as sub plots. Cover crops were planted on July 2014. Before planting wheat, cover crops were dried through spraying paraquat herbicide using a backpack sprayer at a rate of 3 L ha-1. Then the three tillage

  20. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, D.; Denn, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We are surrounded in everyday life by yield stress fluids: materials that behave as solids under small stresses but flow like liquids beyond a critical stress. For example, paint must flow under the brush, but remain fixed in a vertical film despite the force of gravity. Food products (such as

  1. Yield stress determination of a physical gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Pluronic F127 solutions form gels in water with high elastic moduli. Pluronic gels can, however, only withstand small deformations and stresses. Different steady shear and oscillatory methods traditionally used to determine yield stress values are compared. The results show that the yield stresses...... values of these gels depend on test type and measurement time, and no absolute yield stress value can be determined for these physical gels....

  2. AVALIAÇÃO DE GENÓTIPOS DE CENTEIO, TRITICALE, TRIGO COMUM E TRIGO DURO QUANTO À TOLERÂNCIA AO ALUMÍNIO EM SOLUÇÃO NUTRITIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. de O. CAMARGO

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento diferencial entre 9 genótipos de centeio, 2 de triticale, 5 de trigo comum (Triticum aestivum L. e um de trigo duro (Triticum durum L., empregando-se soluções nutritivas arejadas, com concentrações de alumínio (0, 3, 6, 10, 15 e 20 mgL-1, à temperatura constante de 25 ± 1oC e pH 4,0. A tolerância foi medida pela capacidade das raízes primárias continuarem a crescer em solução sem alumínio, após 48 horas em solução contendo uma concentração conhecida de alumínio. Todos os cultivares de centeio Branco, Bagé, FA (In Chansti, Soron, Padrela, Montalegre, Vila Pouco de Aguiar, Gimonde e Lamego e os cultivares de trigo BH-1146 e IAC-227 foram considerados muito tolerantes, por exibirem crescimento radicular após o tratamento em solução contendo 20mgL-1 de Al3+. Os genotipos de centeio Padrela, Montalegre e Vila Pouco de Aguiar foram os mais tolerantes, em função dos seus maiores índices de tolerância relativa. Os cultivares de triticale IAC-1 e CEP-15 e os cultivares de trigo comum IAC-5 e IAC-24 apresentaram uma tolerância intermediária, exibindo crescimento da raiz primária na presença de 15 mgL-1 de Al3+, porém não a 20. Os cultivares Anahuac (trigo comum e Yavaros "S" (trigo duro mostraram-se sensíveis ao Al3+ , não apresentando crescimento das raízes primárias após tratamento em soluções contendo 3 mgL-1 de Al3+.Nine rye genotypes, two triticale, five bread wheat and one durum wheat were studied for aluminum tolerance in aerated nutrient solutions with six different levels of aluminum (0, 3, 6, 10, 15 and 20 mgL-1, under constant temperature at 25 ± 1oC and pH 4.0. Aluminum tolerance was evaluated by measuring the root growth in an aluminum-free complete nutrient solution after a treatment of 48 hours in an aluminum solution. All the rye cultivars Branco, Bagé, FA (In Chansti, Soron, Padrela, Montalegre, Vila Pouco de Aguiar, Gimonde and Lamego and the wheat cultivars BH-1146

  3. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  4. Measurements of fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, H.O.

    2000-01-01

    After some historical introductory remarks on the discovery of nuclear fission and early fission yield determinations, the present status of knowledge on fission yields is briefly reviewed. Practical and fundamental reasons motivating the pursuit of fission yield measurements in the coming century are pointed out. Recent results and novel techniques are described that promise to provide new interesting insights into the fission process during the next century. (author)

  5. Measurements of beryllium sputtering yields at JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jet-Efda Contributors Stamp, M. F.; Krieger, K.; Brezinsek, S.

    2011-08-01

    The lifetime of the beryllium first wall in ITER will depend on erosion and redeposition processes. The physical sputtering yields for beryllium (both deuterium on beryllium (Be) and Be on Be) are of crucial importance since they drive the erosion process. Literature values of experimental sputtering yields show an order of magnitude variation so predictive modelling of ITER wall lifetimes has large uncertainty. We have reviewed the old beryllium yield experiments on JET and used current beryllium atomic data to produce revised beryllium sputtering yields. These experimental measurements have been compared with a simple physical sputtering model based on TRIM.SP beryllium yield data. Fair agreement is seen for beryllium yields from a clean beryllium limiter. However the yield on a beryllium divertor tile (with C/Be co-deposits) shows poor agreement at low electron temperatures indicating that the effect of the higher sputtering threshold for beryllium carbide is important.

  6. Fission product yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenta, V.; Hep, J.

    1978-01-01

    Data are summed up necessary for determining the yields of individual fission products from different fissionable nuclides. Fractional independent yields, cumulative and isobaric yields are presented here for the thermal fission of 235 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu and for fast fission (approximately 1 MeV) of 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu; these values are included into the 5th version of the YIELDS library, supplementing the BIBFP library. A comparison is made of experimental data and possible improvements of calculational methods are suggested. (author)

  7. Studies on seed yield potential of some selected kenaf (Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-11

    Jun 11, 2014 ... Kenaf seed yield depends on morpho-physiological traits between varieties, .... separated using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% ... Mean squares derived from combined analysis of variance for seed yield and yield components in 20 .... environment interaction and yield stability in winter wheat.

  8. Yield surface evolution for columnar ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Shujuan; Mu, Yanhu; Zhao, Shunpin; Li, Guoyu

    A series of triaxial compression tests, which has capable of measuring the volumetric strain of the sample, were conducted on columnar ice. A new testing approach of probing the experimental yield surface was performed from a single sample in order to investigate yield and hardening behaviors of the columnar ice under complex stress states. Based on the characteristic of the volumetric strain, a new method of defined the multiaxial yield strengths of the columnar ice is proposed. The experimental yield surface remains elliptical shape in the stress space of effective stress versus mean stress. The effect of temperature, loading rate and loading path in the initial yield surface and deformation properties of the columnar ice were also studied. Subsequent yield surfaces of the columnar ice have been explored by using uniaxial and hydrostatic paths. The evolution of the subsequent yield surface exhibits significant path-dependent characteristics. The multiaxial hardening law of the columnar ice was established experimentally. A phenomenological yield criterion was presented for multiaxial yield and hardening behaviors of the columnar ice. The comparisons between the theoretical and measured results indicate that this current model is capable of giving a reasonable prediction for the multiaxial yield and post-yield properties of the columnar ice subjected to different temperature, loading rate and path conditions.

  9. Status of fission product yield data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuninghame, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The topics covered in this paper are: (a) cumulative yields in thermal neutron fission and in fast fission up to 14 MeV incident neutron energy, (b) dependence of the yields on incident neutron energy and spectrum, (c) independent yields, (d) charge dispersion and distribution, and (e) yields of light particles from ternary fission. The paper reviews information on these subjects for fission of actinides from 232 Th upwards with special emphasis on data published since the 1973 Bologna FPND Panel, compares data sets, and discusses the gaps still to be found in them. (author)

  10. Soviet test yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergino, Eileen S.

    Soviet seismologists have published descriptions of 96 nuclear explosions conducted from 1961 through 1972 at the Semipalatinsk test site, in Kazakhstan, central Asia [Bocharov et al., 1989]. With the exception of releasing news about some of their peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) the Soviets have never before published such a body of information.To estimate the seismic yield of a nuclear explosion it is necessary to obtain a calibrated magnitude-yield relationship based on events with known yields and with a consistent set of seismic magnitudes. U.S. estimation of Soviet test yields has been done through application of relationships to the Soviet sites based on the U.S. experience at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), making some correction for differences due to attenuation and near-source coupling of seismic waves.

  11. Centrality dependence of Jet Yields and Jet Fragmentation in Lead-Lead Collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Measurements are presented for jet spectra and jet yield central-to-peripheral ratios (RCP) and jet charged particle fragmentation distributions in √sNN = 2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions using data obtained from the Fall 2010 LHC Pb+Pb run. A total of 47 million events corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 7.3 μb−1 were analyzed. Jets are measured using the anti-kt algorithm for two jet sizes, R = 0.2 and R = 0.4. Results are presented for jet spectra with ET > 100 GeV (R = 0.4) and ET > 50 GeV (R = 0.2) over the pseudorapidity range |η| < 2.8. The Ncoll normalized yields and central to peripheral ratios (RCP) are presented as a function of jet ET and for 10% bins in Pb+Pb collision centrality over the centrality range 0-80%. Distributions of longitudinal and transverse momenta of charged particle fragments in R = 0.2 and R = 0.4 jets are also presented, with comparisons between central and peripheral collisions. Results of di-jet asymmetry measurements using nearly the full Fall 2...

  12. Measurement of the azimuthal angle dependence of inclusive jet yields in Pb+Pb collisions at √s.sub.NN./sub. = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Böhm, Jan; Chudoba, Jiří; Gallus, Petr; Gunther, Jaroslav; Havránek, Miroslav; Hejbal, Jiří; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lokajíček, Miloš; Lysák, Roman; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Myška, Miroslav; Němeček, Stanislav; Růžička, Pavel; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Tic, Tomáš; Vrba, Václav; Zeman, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 15 (2013), "152301-1"-"152301-19" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13009 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : jet * transverse momentum * jet * quenching * path length * dependence * ATLAS * underlying event * CERN LHC Coll * elliptic flow Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 7.728, year: 2013

  13. Produtividade de beterraba em função de doses de sulfato de amônio em cobertura Table beet yield depending on rates of ammonium sulphate applied as side dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo E. Trani

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available No estado de São Paulo foram conduzidos, em duas localidades, três experimentos de campo com a beterraba cultivar Top Tall Early Wonder com o objetivo de avaliar a produção total de raízes e parte aérea sob diferentes doses de N aplicadas em cobertura. O primeiro experimento foi realizado em Monte Alegre do Sul (SP em um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo distrófico e os dois últimos foram instalados em Campinas (SP em um Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo distrófico. Os três experimentos foram conduzidos no delineamento de blocos casualizados com seis repetições. As doses de nitrogênio foram parceladas em duas aplicações, na forma de sulfato de amônio, e variaram de zero a 200 kg ha-1. No primeiro experimento a produtividade máxima de raízes de beterraba foi atingida com 92 kg de N ha-1 em cobertura, no segundo com 179 kg de N ha-1, e no último experimento com 151 kg N ha-1. A produtividade da parte aérea em todos os experimentos foi linear e positiva. As maiores produtividades de beterraba para a comercialização em maços (raízes e folhas foram obtidas com a maior dose de N em cobertura, ou seja, 200 kg N ha-1. Foi encontrada uma relação linear e positiva entre o teor de N das raízes e parte aérea com as doses de N aplicadas em cobertura.Three field experiments were carried out in two locations in São Paulo State, Brazil, to evaluate the total root and above ground yields of table beets under different nitrogen rates. One experiment was carried out in Monte Alegre do Sul on a Typic Kandaudult and the others in Campinas on a Typic Hapludox. The experimental design was of complete randomized blocks with six replications. Nitrogen rates varying from zero to 200 kg ha-1 were split in two applications using ammonium sulphate. In the first field trial the maximum root yield of table beets was reached with 92 kg of N ha-1, in the second with 179 kg of N.ha-1, and in the third with 151 kg of N.ha-1. The yield response of above ground to N

  14. Enhancement of HHG yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrat, C.; Biegert, J.

    2011-01-01

    A static electric field periodically distributed in space controls and enhances the yield in high harmonic generation. The method is relatively simple to implement and allows tuning from the extreme-ultraviolet to soft X-ray. The radiation yield is selectively enhanced due to symmetry breaking induced by a static electric field on the interaction between the driving laser and the medium. The enhanced spectral region is tuned by varying the periodicity of the static electric field. Simulations predict an increase of more than two orders of magnitude for harmonics in the water window spectral range.

  15. Brazilian Soybean Yields and Yield Gaps Vary with Farm Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, G. R.; Cohn, A.; Griffin, T. S.; Bragança, A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the farm size-specific characteristics of crop yields and yield gaps may help to improve yields by enabling better targeting of technical assistance and agricultural development programs. Linking remote sensing-based yield estimates with property boundaries provides a novel view of the relationship between farm size and yield structure (yield magnitude, gaps, and stability over time). A growing literature documents variations in yield gaps, but largely ignores the role of farm size as a factor shaping yield structure. Research on the inverse farm size-productivity relationship (IR) theory - that small farms are more productive than large ones all else equal - has documented that yield magnitude may vary by farm size, but has not considered other yield structure characteristics. We examined farm size - yield structure relationships for soybeans in Brazil for years 2001-2015. Using out-of-sample soybean yield predictions from a statistical model, we documented 1) gaps between the 95th percentile of attained yields and mean yields within counties and individual fields, and 2) yield stability defined as the standard deviation of time-detrended yields at given locations. We found a direct relationship between soy yields and farm size at the national level, while the strength and the sign of the relationship varied by region. Soybean yield gaps were found to be inversely related to farm size metrics, even when yields were only compared to farms of similar size. The relationship between farm size and yield stability was nonlinear, with mid-sized farms having the most stable yields. The work suggests that farm size is an important factor in understanding yield structure and that opportunities for improving soy yields in Brazil are greatest among smaller farms.

  16. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  17. Average L-shell fluorescence, Auger, and electron yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, M.O.

    1980-01-01

    The dependence of the average L-shell fluorescence and Auger yields on the initial vacancy distribution is shown to be small. By contrast, the average electron yield pertaining to both Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions is shown to display a strong dependence. Numerical examples are given on the basis of Krause's evaluation of subshell radiative and radiationless yields. Average yields are calculated for widely differing vacancy distributions and are intercompared graphically for 40 3 subshell yields in most cases of inner-shell ionization

  18. The evaluation for reference fission yield of 238U fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Qichang; Liu Tingjin

    1998-01-01

    In the fission yield data evaluation and measurement, the reference yield is very important, good or poor recommended or measurement values depend upon the reference data to a great extent. According to the CRP's requirement, the evaluation of reference fission yields have been and will be carried out in CNDC, as a part of the whole work (contract No.9504/R 0 /Regular Budget Fund), the evaluation for 29 reference fission yields of 15 product nuclides from 238 U fission have been completed

  19. Status of fission yield measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeck, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Fission yield measurement and yield compilation activities in the major laboratories of the world are reviewed. In addition to a general review of the effort of each laboratory, a brief summary of yield measurement activities by fissioning nuclide is presented. A new fast reactor fission yield measurement program being conducted in the US is described

  20. Cover crop rotations in no-till system: short-term CO2 emissions and soybean yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Gonsiorkiewicz Rigon

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In addition to improving sustainability in cropping systems, the use of a spring and winter crop rotation system may be a viable option for mitigating soil CO2 emissions (ECO2. This study aimed to determine short-term ECO2 as affected by crop rotations and soil management over one soybean cycle in two no-till experiments, and to assess the soybean yields with the lowest ECO2. Two experiments were carried out in fall-winter as follows: i triticale and sunflower were grown in Typic Rhodudalf (TR, and ii ruzigrass, grain sorghum, and ruzigrass + grain sorghum were grown in Rhodic Hapludox (RH. In the spring, pearl millet, sunn hemp, and forage sorghum were grown in both experiments. In addition, in TR a fallow treatment was also applied in the spring. Soybean was grown every year in the summer, and ECO2 were recorded during the growing period. The average ECO2 was 0.58 and 0.84 g m2 h–1 with accumulated ECO2 of 5,268 and 7,813 kg ha–1 C-CO2 in TR and RH, respectively. Sunn hemp, when compared to pearl millet, resulted in lower ECO2 by up to 12 % and an increase in soybean yield of 9% in TR. In RH, under the winter crop Ruzigrazz+Sorghum, ECO2 were lower by 17%, although with the same soybean yield. Soil moisture and N content of crop residues are the main drivers of ECO2 and soil clay content seems to play an important role in ECO2 that is worthy of further studies. In conclusion, sunn hemp in crop rotation may be utilized to mitigate ECO2 and improve soybean yield.

  1. Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Yield and Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Declining soil fertility is one of the major problems causing yield reduction of barley ... (VC) with inorganic NP on growth, yield and yield components of food barley. ... The experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with ...

  2. Yield enhancement with DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

    2012-03-01

    A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

  3. Water limits to closing yield gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle Frankel; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Garrassino, Francesco; Chiarelli, Davide; Seveso, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is often seen as a suitable approach to meet the growing demand for agricultural products and improve food security. It typically entails the use of fertilizers, new cultivars, irrigation, and other modern technology. In regions of the world affected by seasonal or chronic water scarcity, yield gap closure is strongly dependent on irrigation (blue water). Global yield gap assessments have often ignored whether the water required to close the yield gap is locally available. Here we perform a gridded global analysis (10 km resolution) of the blue water consumption that is needed annually to close the yield gap worldwide and evaluate the associated pressure on renewable freshwater resources. We find that, to close the yield gap, human appropriation of freshwater resources for irrigation would have to increase at least by 146%. Most study countries would experience at least a doubling in blue water requirement, with 71% of the additional blue water being required by only four crops - maize, rice, soybeans, and wheat. Further, in some countries (e.g., Algeria, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen) the total volume of blue water required for yield gap closure would exceed sustainable levels of freshwater consumption (i.e., 40% of total renewable surface and groundwater resources).

  4. Calculation of Bremsstrahlung yield for thin target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, N.; Akkurt, I.; Tekin, H. O.; Cakirli, R. B.; Akkus, B.; Kupa, I.

    2010-01-01

    The Bremsstrahlung photon is created by de-accelerating electron beam in an electric field which is usually a thin material so-called radiator. The obtained Bremsstrahlung yield depends on some parameter such as incoming electron beam energy, the thickness and also Z number of the radiator. The main aim of this work is to obtain optimum radiator to be used at Bremsstrahlung photon beam facility at TAC. For this purposes the Bremsstrahlung photon yield has been obtained using FLUKA code for different types materials.

  5. Amplitude Models for Discrimination and Yield Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This seminar presentation describes amplitude models and yield estimations that look at the data in order to inform legislation. The following points were brought forth in the summary: global models that will predict three-component amplitudes (R-T-Z) were produced; Q models match regional geology; corrected source spectra can be used for discrimination and yield estimation; three-component data increase coverage and reduce scatter in source spectral estimates; three-component efforts must include distance-dependent effects; a community effort on instrument calibration is needed.

  6. Variables affecting simulated Be sputtering yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Björkas, C., E-mail: carolina.bjorkas@helsinki.fi; Nordlund, K.

    2013-08-15

    Since beryllium is a strong candidate for the main plasma-facing material in future fusion reactors, its sputtering behaviour plays an important role in predicting the reactor’s life-time. Consensus about the actual sputtering yields has not yet been achieved, as observations are influenced by experimental method and/or studied sample. In this work, the beryllium sputtering due to deuterium and beryllium self-bombardment is analyzed using molecular dynamics simulations. The main methodological aspects that influence the outcome, such as flux and fluence of the bombardment, are highlighted, and it is shown that the simulated yields also depend on the sample structure and deuterium content.

  7. A note on hypoplastic yielding

    OpenAIRE

    Nader, José Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This note discusses briefly the definition of yield surface in hypoplasticity in connection with the physical notion of yielding. The relation of yielding with the vanishing of the material time derivative of the stress tensor and the vanishing of the corotational stress rate is investigated.

  8. Path Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components and Some Agronomic Traits in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new bread wheat cultivars needs efficient tools to monitor trait association in a breeding program. This investigation was aimed to characterize grain yield components and some agronomic traits related to bread wheat grain yield. The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between different traits and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to grain yield. Correlation and path analysis were carried out in 56 bread wheat genotypes grown under field conditions of Maragheh, Iran. Observations were recorded on 18 wheat traits and correlation coefficient analysis revealed grain yield was positively correlated with stem diameter, spike length, floret number, spikelet number, grain diameter, grain length and 1000 seed weight traits. According to the variance inflation factor (VIF and tolerance as multicollinearity statistics, there are inconsistent relationships among the variables and all traits could be considered as first-order variables (Model I with grain yield as the response variable due to low multicollinearity of all measured traits. In the path coefficient analysis, grain yield represented the dependent variable and the spikelet number and 1000 seed weight traits were the independent ones. Our results indicated that the number of spikelets per spikes and leaf width and 1000 seed weight traits followed by the grain length, grain diameter and grain number per spike were the traits related to higher grain yield. The above mentioned traits along with their indirect causal factors should be considered simultaneously as an effective selection criteria evolving high yielding genotype because of their direct positive contribution to grain yield.

  9. Yield stress independent column buckling curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Tudor‐Cristian; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    of the yield stress is to some inadequate degree taken into account in the Eurocode by specifying that steel grades of S460 and higher all belong to a common set of “raised” buckling curves. This is not satisfying as it can be shown theoretically that the current Eurocode formulation misses an epsilon factor......Using GMNIA and shell finite element modelling of steel columns it is ascertained that the buckling curves for given imperfections and residual stresses are not only dependent on the relative slenderness ratio and the cross section shape but also on the magnitude of the yield stress. The influence...... in the definition of the normalised imperfection magnitudes. By introducing this factor it seems that the GMNIA analysis and knowledge of the independency of residual stress levels on the yield stress can be brought together and give results showing consistency between numerical modelling and a simple modified...

  10. Principal component regression for crop yield estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Suryanarayana, T M V

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the estimation of crop yield in Central Gujarat, especially with regard to the development of Multiple Regression Models and Principal Component Regression (PCR) models using climatological parameters as independent variables and crop yield as a dependent variable. It subsequently compares the multiple linear regression (MLR) and PCR results, and discusses the significance of PCR for crop yield estimation. In this context, the book also covers Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a statistical procedure used to reduce a number of correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components (PC). This book will be helpful to the students and researchers, starting their works on climate and agriculture, mainly focussing on estimation models. The flow of chapters takes the readers in a smooth path, in understanding climate and weather and impact of climate change, and gradually proceeds towards downscaling techniques and then finally towards development of ...

  11. Crude protein yield and theoretical extractable true protein of potential biorefinery feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solati, Zeinab; Manevski, Kiril; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2018-01-01

    for supplying biomass to biorefineries. Field experiments during 2013–2014 with perennial crops (pure grasses: cocksfoot, festulolium, reed canary, tall fescue, two miscanthus species and two grass-legume mixtures) and annual crops in optimized rotations (winter rye, sugar beet, maize, triticale, hemp and grass...

  12. Effects of municipal sewage sludge doses on the yield, some yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... Whereas grain yield, which was the highest component was ... land application, many studies have been performed ... grain. Analysis of variance was used to compare treatment ... een 17.0 - 164.0 cm depending on the environmental .... municipal sewage sludge for the stabilization of soil contaminated by.

  13. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  14. Experimental study on yield behavior of Daqing crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Lei [China University of Petroleum, College of Mechanical and Transportation Engineering, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-15

    The yield behavior of Daqing crude oil was studied by means of multi-mode controlled-stress tests with a high-precision stress controlled rheometer. Two experiments of creep and constant stress loading rate were performed. The yield stress of gelled crude oil was dependent on the test conditions such as the stress loading time and the stress loading rate, but the yield strain did not change with test conditions. The yield strain did exist objectively and it can be used as the criterion for the yielding of the structure of gelled crude oil. The yield strain of gelled oil was studied through experiments of creep, constant stress loading rate, oscillatory shear stress increase, and constant shear rate. The yield strain of gelled crude oil decreased with the increasing gel strength. The experiment of constant speed increase of stress showed the strain softening phenomena for low gel strength oil. (orig.)

  15. Statistical modelling and deconvolution of yield meter data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøgersen, Frede Aakmann; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2004-01-01

    and an impulse response function. This results in an unusual spatial covariance structure (depending on the driving pattern of the combine harverster) for the yield monitoring system data. Parameters of the impulse response function and the spatial covariance function of the yield are estimated using maximum...

  16. VARIABILITY OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN “EGUSI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    Estimate of expected genetic advance in seed yield plant-1 ranged between. 25.90-48.40%. ..... values in fruit and seed yield characters have been reported in culinary melon, ... and Khund, A. 2004. Extent of heterosis and heritability in some.

  17. Response of Yield and Yield Components of Tef [Eragrostis Tef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partial budget analysis also indicates that applications of 46 kg. N ha-1 and 10 kg P ha-1 are ..... (1994) indicated that where the grain yield response is negative, yield reduction is primarily caused by a .... An Economic Training. Manual.

  18. On yield gaps and yield gains in intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gou, Fang; Yin, Wen; Hong, Yu; Werf, van der Wopke; Chai, Qiang; Heerink, Nico; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat-maize relay intercropping has been widely used by farmers in northwest China, and based on field experiments agronomists report it has a higher productivity than sole crops. However, the yields from farmers’ fields have not been investigated yet. Yield gap analysis provides a framework to

  19. 7755 EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZER ON FRUIT YIELD AND YIELD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... peasant farmers in Nigeria. With the increased ... did not significantly (p=0.05) increase the fruit yield nor the seed yield. Key words: NPK fertilizer, Fruit ..... SAS (Statistical Analysis System) Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, ...

  20. SLIFER measurement for explosive yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.C.; Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.; Breding, D.R.

    1976-04-01

    This report describes the shorted location indicator by frequency of electrical resonance (SLIFER) system used at Sandia Laboratories for determination of explosive yield of under ground nuclear tests

  1. Atomistic simulations of the yielding of gold nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao Jiankuai; Gall, Ken; Dunn, Martin L.; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.

    2006-01-01

    We performed atomistic simulations to study the effect of free surfaces on the yielding of gold nanowires. Tensile surface stresses on the surfaces of the nanowires cause them to contract along the length with respect to the bulk face-centered cubic lattice and induce compressive stress in the interior. When the cross-sectional area of a nanowire is less than 2.45 nm x 2.45 nm, the wire yields under its surface stresses. Under external forces and surface stresses, nanowires yield via the nucleation and propagation of the {1 1 1} partial dislocations. The magnitudes of the tensile and compressive yield stress of nanowires increase and decrease, respectively, with a decrease of the wire width. The magnitude of the tensile yield stress is much larger than that of the compressive yield stress for small nanowires, while for small nanowires, tensile and compressive yield stresses have similar magnitudes. The critical resolved shear stress (RSS) by external forces depends on wire width, orientation and loading condition (tension vs. compression). However, the critical RSS in the interior of the nanowires, which is exerted by both the external force and the surface-stress-induced compressive stress, does not change significantly with wire width for same orientation and same loading condition, and can thus serve as a 'local' criterion. This local criterion is invoked to explain the observed size dependence of yield behavior and tensile/compressive yield stress asymmetry, considering surface stress effects and different slip systems active in tensile and compressive yielding

  2. Determination of region-specific data of yield and quality of alternatives to silage maize in fodder crops – field trails with forage gras and clover grass mixtures, Sorghum as well as whole plant silage of grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wosnitza, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This project should generate current regional results over a period of three years about the parameter yield and quality of alternative fodder crops to maize; this includes grass and clover grass mixtures, silage maize, varieties of Sorghum/millets and whole plant silages of wheat, rye and triticale. The tested silage maize showed the highest and most reliable average dry matter yield with 23 tons per hectare, with a very low variance. The Sorghum and millet varieties had dry matter yields of 3 to 5 tons per hectare below the silage maize yield but with individual values fluctuating in a broad range within years and locations. With values far below 28% the dry matter contents were not suitable for ensiling. The grass and clover grass mixtures are good, stable and established alternatives to maize for silage. They achieved high yields comparable with these of Sorghum but stable and with a highly suitable dry matter content for ensiling. The yield of the whole plant silages was up to 22% lower compared with maize. So none of the alternative crops can compete with the high level yield of silage maize in its favoured region, therefore would be a combination of two crops recommended. But some individual locally adapted mixtures or varieties of the alternative crops reached nearly 80% of the maize yield. Silage maize showed the highest level of the net energy content for lactation (NEL, followed by the values of the fodder crops and the whole plant silages. The Sorghum varieties showed the lowest NEL value of all tested cultures. The highest crude protein showed the fodder crops contents. Silage maize, Sorghum and the whole plant silages had values lying nearly around the 50% mark of the fodder crops.

  3. Centralised electricity production from winter cereals biomass grown under central-northern Spain conditions: Global warming and energy yield assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastre, C.M.; Maletta, E.; González-Arechavala, Y.; Ciria, P.; Santos, A.M.; Val, A. del; Pérez, P.; Carrasco, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the sustainability of electricity production from winter cereals biomass. • Productivity ranks are generated from different genotypes cultivated in real farms. • GHG and energy balances show better performance compared to natural gas electricity. • Cereals yields below 8 odt/ha do not accomplish objective 60% of GHG savings. • Marginal yields and sustainability criteria are discussed suggesting optimization. - Abstract: The goal of this paper is to assess the sustainability of electricity production from winter cereals grown in one of the most important Spanish agricultural areas, Castilla y León Region, situated in central-northern Spain. This study analyses greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and energy balances of electricity production in a 25 MWe power plant that was powered using straw biomass from three annual winter cereals (rye, triticale and oat) grown as dedicated energy crops. The results of these analyses were compared with those of electricity produced from natural gas in Spanish power plants. Assessments were performed using a wide range of scenarios, mainly based on the biomass yield variability obtained in demonstration plots of twelve different winter cereal genotypes. Demonstration plots were established in two different locations (provinces of Soria and León) of the Castilla y León Region during two crop seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011) using common management practices and input rates for rain-fed agriculture in these regions. Our results suggest that production of electricity from winter cereals biomass combustion yielded considerable reductions in terms of GHG emissions when compared to electricity from natural gas. Nevertheless, the results show that low biomass yields that are relatively frequent for Spanish farmers on low productivity lands may produce no significant reductions in GHG in comparison with electricity from natural gas. Consequently, the agronomic management of winter cereals should be re

  4. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  5. The status of fission product yield data (FPND) in 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuninghame, J.G.

    1977-05-01

    The topics covered is this paper are:- (a) cumulative yields in thermal neutron fission and in fast fission up to 14 MeV incident neutron energy; (b) dependence of the yields on incident neutron energy and spectrum; (c) independent yields; (d) charge dispersion and distribution, and (e) yields of light particles from ternary fission. The paper reviews information on these subjects for fission of actinides from 232 Th upwards, with special emphasis on data published since the 1973 Bologna FPND Panel, compares data sets and discusses the gaps still to be found in them. (author)

  6. Adubação Nitrogenada em Pastagem de Triticale mais Azevém sob Pastejo com Lotação Contínua: Recuperação de Nitrogênio e Eficiência na Produção de Forragem Nitrogen Fertilization on Triticale plus Italian Ryegrass Pasture under Continuous Stocking: Nitrogen Recovery and Forage Production Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Brugnara Soares

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a eficiência da adubação nitrogenada na forma de uréia, em pastagem de triticale mais azevém, submetida a pastejo com lotação contínua. Foram usados quatro níveis de nitrogênio em cobertura: 0, 150, 300 e 450 kg N/ha, divididos em cinco aplicações. A massa de forragem disponível foi de 1404, 1437, 1619 e 1599 kg MS/ha, respectivamente. A produção total de forragem foi de 6039, 6914, 7877 e 7662 kg MS/ha e a produção de nitrogênio, de 191,6; 247,7; 303,2 e 307,2 kg/ha, para os níveis 0, 150, 300 e 450 kg N/ha, respectivamente. A eficiência da adubação nitrogenada foi de 5,83; 6,13; e 3,61 kg MS/kg de nitrogênio aplicado e a recuperação de nitrogênio, de 37,39; 37,21 e 25,69%, para os níveis 150, 300 e 450 kg N/ha, respectivamente. Na avaliação da concentração de nitrogênio nas camadas do perfil do solo (0-5, 5-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm de profundidade, em duas datas (20/07 e 20/09, constatou-se aumento no teor de nitrogênio mineral, da primeira para a segunda avaliação, principalmente nas maiores profundidades e nos maiores níveis de nitrogênio, indicando que houve perdas por lixiviação, diminuindo a recuperação e eficiência no uso deste nutriente.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the nitrogen fertilization efficiency using urea, on triticale plus Italian ryegrass pasture, submitted to continuous stocking. Four nitrogen levels were used: 0, 150, 300 and 450 kg of N/ha, divided in five applications. The herbage mass was 1404, 1437, 1619 and 1599 kg of DM/ha. The total herbage production was 6039, 6914, 7877 and 7662 kg of DM/ha and the nitrogen production was 191.6, 247.7, 303.2 and 307.2 kg of N/ha for the 0, 150, 300 and 450 kg of N/ha levels, respectively. The nitrogen fertilization efficiency was 5.83, 6.13 and 3.61 kg of DM produced/kg of nitrogen applied and the nitrogen recovery was 37.39, 37.21 and 25.69% for the levels of 150, 300 and 450 kg of N

  7. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Gan et al., 2003). Nitrogen increases yield by influencing a variety of agronomic and quality parameters. In general, there was an increase in plant height and dry matter accumulation per plant in soybean (Manral and Saxena, ...

  8. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... density and nitrogen rate increased plant height, lowest pod height, harvest index and seed yield. ... since some combine harvester heads are unable to pick ..... as effected by population density and plant distribution.

  9. Effects of application boron on yields, yield component and oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of five boron (B) doses; 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg B ha-1 in B-deficient calcareous soils on yield and some yield components of four sunflower genotypes. Genotypes have shown variations with respect to their responses to B applications. AS-615 and Coban had the ...

  10. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  11. Influence of surface topography on the sputtering yields of silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jisheng; Wang Zhenxia; Tao Zhenlan; Zhang Jiping

    1992-01-01

    The sputtering yields of silver have been measured as a function of the fluence of incident Ar + ions (27 keV) using the collector technique and RBS analysis. The irradiated surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that the sputtering yields of surfaces with topography are enhanced relative to smooth surfaces of silver, but the extent of the enhancement depends on the irradiation dose. The experimental results can be explained assuming that the surface topography and sputtering yield are a function of incident angle. It is obvious that the surface topography is an important factor to influence the sputtering yield. The term ''apparent sputtering yield'' has specifically been used when referring to the experimental sputtering yield of a surface with topography, to emphasize the difference with a smooth surface. (orig.)

  12. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, M.; Al-Adili, A.; Gorelov, D.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Mattera, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilä, H.; Pomp, S.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Rakopoulos, V.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Simutkin, V.; Solders, A.

    2016-06-01

    The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f) and Th(p,f) have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn) reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  13. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantz M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f and Th(p,f have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  14. Tradeoffs between Maize Silage Yield and Nitrate Leaching in a Mediterranean Nitrate-Vulnerable Zone under Current and Projected Climate Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Bruno; Giola, Pietro; Dumont, Benjamin; Migliorati, Massimiliano De Antoni; Cammarano, Davide; Pruneddu, Giovanni; Giunta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Future climatic changes may have profound impacts on cropping systems and affect the agronomic and environmental sustainability of current N management practices. The objectives of this work were to i) evaluate the ability of the SALUS crop model to reproduce experimental crop yield and soil nitrate dynamics results under different N fertilizer treatments in a farmer’s field, ii) use the SALUS model to estimate the impacts of different N fertilizer treatments on NO3- leaching under future climate scenarios generated by twenty nine different global circulation models, and iii) identify the management system that best minimizes NO3- leaching and maximizes yield under projected future climate conditions. A field experiment (maize-triticale rotation) was conducted in a nitrate vulnerable zone on the west coast of Sardinia, Italy to evaluate N management strategies that include urea fertilization (NMIN), conventional fertilization with dairy slurry and urea (CONV), and no fertilization (N0). An ensemble of 29 global circulation models (GCM) was used to simulate different climate scenarios for two Representative Circulation Pathways (RCP6.0 and RCP8.5) and evaluate potential nitrate leaching and biomass production in this region over the next 50 years. Data collected from two growing seasons showed that the SALUS model adequately simulated both nitrate leaching and crop yield, with a relative error that ranged between 0.4% and 13%. Nitrate losses under RCP8.5 were lower than under RCP6.0 only for NMIN. Accordingly, levels of plant N uptake, N use efficiency and biomass production were higher under RCP8.5 than RCP6.0. Simulations under both RCP scenarios indicated that the NMIN treatment demonstrated both the highest biomass production and NO3- losses. The newly proposed best management practice (BMP), developed from crop N uptake data, was identified as the optimal N fertilizer management practice since it minimized NO3- leaching and maximized biomass production over

  15. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Attributes of Five Sweet Potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0087, and TIS 2532.OP.1.13) were evaluated for yield and agronomic performance in Imo State University Farm, Owerri. The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design with three replications. The planting density was 33,000 ...

  16. Heterosis and combining ability for grain yield and yield component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ranged from 0 to -13% indicating that the hybrids tend to be earlier in maturity than the parents. The mean squares due to GCA for days to maturity, ear diameter, member of kernels per row, 1000 kernel weight and grain yield were significant, indicating the importance of additive genetic variance in controlling these traits.

  17. Rice yield prediction from yield components and limiting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casanova, D.; Goudriaan, J.; Catala Former, M.M.; Withagen, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    This article aims to quantify growth at field level in relation to crop status and soil properties in irrigated direct-seeded rice. Forty fields were selected in the Ebro Delta (Spain). Rice growth was monitored and soil properties measured. Yield was related to soil properties by a deductive

  18. Correlation Analysis of some Growth, Yield, Yield Components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    three critical growth stages which was imposed by withholding water (at ... November, 5th December, 19th December and 2nd January) laid out in a split ... Simple correlation coefficient ® of different crop parameters and grain yield ... The husk bran and germ are rich sources of ..... heat in 2009/2010 dry season at Fadam a ...

  19. Status of fission yield data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, T.R.; Blachot, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the current status of the recent US evaluation for 34 fissioning nuclides at one or more neutron incident energies and for spontaneous fission. Currently there are 50 yields sets, and for each we have independent and cumulative yields and uncertainties for approximately 1100 fission products. When finalized the recommended data will become part of Version VI of the US ENDF/B. Other major evaluations in progress that are included in a recently formed IAEA Coordinated Research Program are also summarized. In a second part we review two empirical models in use to estimate independent yields. Comparison of model estimates with measured data is presented, including a comparison with some recent data obtained from Lohengrin (Cf-249 T). 18 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    2001-01-01

    Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

  1. NIF total neutron yield diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Gary W.; Ruiz, Carlos L.

    2001-01-01

    We have designed a total neutron yield diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which is based on the activation of In and Cu samples. The particular approach that we have chosen is one in which we calibrate the entire counting system and which we call the ''F factor'' method. In this method, In and/or Cu samples are exposed to known sources of DD and DT neutrons. The activated samples are then counted with an appropriate system: a high purity Ge detector for In and a NaI coincidence system for Cu. We can then calculate a calibration factor, which relates measured activity to total neutron yield. The advantage of this approach is that specific knowledge of such quantities as cross sections and detector efficiencies is not needed. Unless the actual scattering environment of the NIF can be mocked up in the calibration experiment, the F factor will have to be modified using the results of a numerical simulation of the NIF scattering environment. In this article, the calibration factor methodology will be discussed and experimental results for the calibration factors will be presented. Total NIF neutron yields of 10 9 --10 19 can be measured with this method assuming a 50 cm stand-off distance can be employed for the lower yields

  2. Comparison of the methods for determination of scintillation light yield

    CERN Document Server

    Sysoeva, E; Zelenskaya, O

    2002-01-01

    One of the most important characteristics of scintillators is the light yield. It depends not only on the properties of scintillators, but also on the conditions of measurements. Even for widely used crystals, such as alkali halide scintillators NaI(Tl) and CsI(Tl), light yield data, obtained by various authors, are different. Therefore, it is very important to choose the convenient method of the light yield measurements. In the present work, methods for the determination of the physical light yield, based on measurements of pulse amplitude, single-electron pulses and intrinsic photomultiplier resolution are discussed. These methods have been used for the measurements of light yield of alkali halide crystals and oxide scintillators. Repeatability and reproducibility of results were determined. All these methods are rather complicated in use, not for measurements, but for further data processing. Besides that, they demand a precise determination of photoreceiver's parameters, as well as determination of light ...

  3. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... used different genotypes and the environmental conditions under which their ... and Jinks (1971):. Y = m + aa + βd + a2aa + 2aβad +β2dd … .... /plant, 100-grain weight per plant and Grain yield per plant (g) of six generations in IET6279 X IR70445-146-3-. 3 cross. Traits. Generation. Mean. Standard. Range.

  4. Yield trends and yield gap analysis of major crops in the world

    OpenAIRE

    Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the gap between current and potential yields of major crops in the world, and the production constraints that contribute to this yield gap. Using an expert-based evaluation of yield gaps and the literature, global and regional yields and yield trends of major crops are quantified, yield gaps evaluated by crop experts, current yield progress by breeding estimated, and different yield projections compared. Results show decreasing yield growth for wheat and rice, but ...

  5. Response of switchgrass yield to future climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulbure, Mirela G; Wimberly, Michael C; Owens, Vance N

    2012-01-01

    A climate envelope approach was used to model the response of switchgrass, a model bioenergy species in the United States, to future climate change. The model was built using general additive models (GAMs), and switchgrass yields collected at 45 field trial locations as the response variable. The model incorporated variables previously shown to be the main determinants of switchgrass yield, and utilized current and predicted 1 km climate data from WorldClim. The models were run with current WorldClim data and compared with results of predicted yield obtained using two climate change scenarios across three global change models for three time steps. Results did not predict an increase in maximum switchgrass yield but showed an overall shift in areas of high switchgrass productivity for both cytotypes. For upland cytotypes, the shift in high yields was concentrated in northern and north-eastern areas where there were increases in average growing season temperature, whereas for lowland cultivars the areas where yields were projected to increase were associated with increases in average early growing season precipitation. These results highlight the fact that the influences of climate change on switchgrass yield are spatially heterogeneous and vary depending on cytotype. Knowledge of spatial distribution of suitable areas for switchgrass production under climate change should be incorporated into planning of current and future biofuel production. Understanding how switchgrass yields will be affected by future changes in climate is important for achieving a sustainable biofuels economy. (letter)

  6. Path and correlation analysis of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) seed yield components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abel, Simon; Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte

    2017-01-01

    Maximum perennial ryegrass seed production potential is substantially greater than harvested yields with harvested yields representing only 20% of calculated potential. Similar to wheat, maize and other agriculturally important crops, seed yield is highly dependent on a number of interacting seed...... yield components. This research was performed to apply and describe path analysis of perennial ryegrass seed yield components in relation to harvested seed yields. Utilising extensive yield components which included subdividing reproductive inflorescences into five size categories, path analysis...... was undertaken assuming a unidirectional causal-admissible relationship between seed yield components and harvested seed yield in six commercial seed production fields. Both spikelets per inflorescence and florets per spikelet had a significant (p seed yield; however, total...

  7. Path Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Setterfield

    2015-01-01

    Path dependency is defined, and three different specific concepts of path dependency – cumulative causation, lock in, and hysteresis – are analyzed. The relationships between path dependency and equilibrium, and path dependency and fundamental uncertainty are also discussed. Finally, a typology of dynamical systems is developed to clarify these relationships.

  8. Prediction of yield and long-term failure of oriented polypropylene: kinetics and anisotropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, T.B.; Reynolds, C.T.; Peijs, T.; van Dommelen, J.A.W.; Govaert, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    The time-dependent yield and failure behavior of off-axis loaded uniaxially oriented polypropy-lene tape is investigated. The yield and failure behavior is described with an anisotropic vis-coplastic model. A viscoplastic flow rule is used with an equivalent stress, based on Hill’sanisotropic yield

  9. Factors controlling regional grain yield in China over the last 20 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    wang, Xiaobin; Cai, D.X.; Grant, C.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Oenema, O.

    2015-01-01

    Food production is highly dependent on regional yields of crops. Regional differences in grain yields could be due to fertilizer management and climate variability. Here, we analyze trends of grain yields in North China, Northeast China, East China, and Central and Southwest China from 1992 to 2012,

  10. Simulation-based production planning for engineer-to-order systems with random yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akcay, Alp; Martagan, Tugce

    2018-01-01

    We consider an engineer-to-order production system with unknown yield. We model the yield as a random variable which represents the percentage output obtained from one unit of production quantity. We develop a beta-regression model in which the mean value of the yield depends on the unique

  11. Dispersive analysis of {omega}{yields}3{pi} and {phi}{yields}3{pi} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niecknig, Franz; Kubis, Bastian; Schneider, Sebastian P. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    We study the three-pion decays of the lightest isoscalar vector mesons, {omega} and {phi}, in a dispersive framework that allows for a consistent description of final-state interactions between all three pions. Our results are solely dependent on the phenomenological input for the pion-pion P-wave scattering phase shift. We predict the Dalitz plot distributions for both decays and compare our findings to recent measurements of the {phi}{yields}3{pi} Dalitz plot by the KLOE and CMD-2 collaborations. Dalitz plot parameters for future precision measurements of {omega}{yields}3{pi} are predicted. We also calculate the {pi}{pi} P-wave inelasticity contribution from {omega}{pi} intermediate states. (orig.)

  12. Semi-empirical formulas for sputtering yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Yasumichi

    1994-01-01

    When charged particles, electrons, light and so on are irradiated on solid surfaces, the materials are lost from the surfaces, and this phenomenon is called sputtering. In order to understand sputtering phenomenon, the bond energy of atoms on surfaces, the energy given to the vicinity of surfaces and the process of converting the given energy to the energy for releasing atoms must be known. The theories of sputtering and the semi-empirical formulas for evaluating the dependence of sputtering yield on incident energy are explained. The mechanisms of sputtering are that due to collision cascade in the case of heavy ion incidence and that due to surface atom recoil in the case of light ion incidence. The formulas for the sputtering yield of low energy heavy ion sputtering, high energy light ion sputtering and the general case between these extreme cases, and the Matsunami formula are shown. At the stage of the publication of Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables in 1984, the data up to 1983 were collected, and about 30 papers published thereafter were added. The experimental data for low Z materials, for example Be, B and C and light ion sputtering data were reported. The combination of ions and target atoms in the collected sputtering data is shown. The new semi-empirical formula by slightly adjusting the Matsunami formula was decided. (K.I.)

  13. PREDICTION MODELS OF GRAIN YIELD AND CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso Ysac Avila Serrano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to characterize the grain yield of five cowpea cultivars and to find linear regression models to predict it, a study was developed in La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. A complete randomized blocks design was used. Simple and multivariate analyses of variance were carried out using the canonical variables to characterize the cultivars. The variables cluster per plant, pods per plant, pods per cluster, seeds weight per plant, seeds hectoliter weight, 100-seed weight, seeds length, seeds wide, seeds thickness, pods length, pods wide, pods weight, seeds per pods, and seeds weight per pods, showed significant differences (P≤ 0.05 among cultivars. Paceño and IT90K-277-2 cultivars showed the higher seeds weight per plant. The linear regression models showed correlation coefficients ≥0.92. In these models, the seeds weight per plant, pods per cluster, pods per plant, cluster per plant and pods length showed significant correlations (P≤ 0.05. In conclusion, the results showed that grain yield differ among cultivars and for its estimation, the prediction models showed determination coefficients highly dependable.

  14. Yields of historical exploration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huslende, T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper relates to an method of evaluation developed for analysing the yield of historical exploration programs by computerized simulation. The most important elements show in coarse features how the results can be used in the different analyses. The evaluation is to be executed annually for the comparison and sorting of data from different offshore sites. Topics are exploration evaluation study, evaluation process, handling of exploration costs, discovered reserves, development projects, cash flow analysis, analysis of results, finding cost, international comparison. 1 ref., 11 figs

  15. Crop diversity for yield increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyun Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean--either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand.

  16. The minimum yield in channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uguzzoni, A.; Gaertner, K.; Lulli, G.; Andersen, J.U.

    2000-01-01

    A first estimate of the minimum yield was obtained from Lindhard's theory, with the assumption of a statistical equilibrium in the transverse phase-space of channeled particles guided by a continuum axial potential. However, computer simulations have shown that this estimate should be corrected by a fairly large factor, C (approximately equal to 2.5), called the Barrett factor. We have shown earlier that the concept of a statistical equilibrium can be applied to understand this result, with the introduction of a constraint in phase-space due to planar channeling of axially channeled particles. Here we present an extended test of these ideas on the basis of computer simulation of the trajectories of 2 MeV α particles in Si. In particular, the gradual trend towards a full statistical equilibrium is studied. We also discuss the introduction of this modification of standard channeling theory into descriptions of the multiple scattering of channeled particles (dechanneling) by a master equation and show that the calculated minimum yields are in very good agreement with the results of a full computer simulation

  17. Studies on seed yield potential of some selected kenaf ( Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kenaf seed yield depends on morpho-physiological traits between varieties, and the interaction between genotype and the environment. Studies were conducted in Ibadan, Ilora and Kisi stations of the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IAR&T), Obafemi Awolowo University, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Oyo State, ...

  18. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    of dependent classes and a machine-checked type soundness proof in Isabelle/HOL [29], the first of this kind for a language with virtual classes and path-dependent types. [29] T.Nipkow, L.C. Poulson, and M. Wenzel. Isabelle/HOL -- A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order Logic, volume 2283 of LNCS, Springer, 2002......Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...

  19. Exercise Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Vardar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise dependence define a condition in which a person performs excessive exercise resulting in deterioration of his or her physical and mental health wellness. Despite many clinical research studies on exercise dependence, exact diagnostic criteria has not been developed yet. Clinical evidences concerning etiology, epidemiology, underlying mechanisms and treatment of exercise dependence are still not sufficient. Moreover, evaluation of this clinical disorder within dependency perspective is a fairly new concept. Recent studies have shown that exercise dependence has similar features like chemical substance dependence with regards to withdrawal and tolerance symptoms. The aim of this review was to briefly evaluate diagnostic and clinical features of exercise dependence. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 163-173

  20. Using Low Resolution Satellite Imagery for Yield Prediction and Yield Anomaly Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rojas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Low resolution satellite imagery has been extensively used for crop monitoring and yield forecasting for over 30 years and plays an important role in a growing number of operational systems. The combination of their high temporal frequency with their extended geographical coverage generally associated with low costs per area unit makes these images a convenient choice at both national and regional scales. Several qualitative and quantitative approaches can be clearly distinguished, going from the use of low resolution satellite imagery as the main predictor of final crop yield to complex crop growth models where remote sensing-derived indicators play different roles, depending on the nature of the model and on the availability of data measured on the ground. Vegetation performance anomaly detection with low resolution images continues to be a fundamental component of early warning and drought monitoring systems at the regional scale. For applications at more detailed scales, the limitations created by the mixed nature of low resolution pixels are being progressively reduced by the higher resolution offered by new sensors, while the continuity of existing systems remains crucial for ensuring the availability of long time series as needed by the majority of the yield prediction methods used today.

  1. Yield surfaces for perforated plates with square arrays of holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2004-01-01

    A symmetric model of a perforated plate containing a 3x3 array of circular holes, arranged in a square pattern, was chosen and elastoplastic finite element analyses were carried out to determine the limit stresses for both pitch and diagonal directions of loading, for different values of biaxiality ratios. Plane stress conditions were assumed and the Tresca and von Mises yield criteria were employed to obtain two different sets of results. Yield surfaces were constructed and 'general cut-out factors' were determined for four different ligament efficiencies. The FEM results obtained by the authors using the Tresca and von Mises yield criteria were compared with the corresponding results of [J. Pressure Vessel Technol. Trans. ASME (1975) 146-154] and [J. Pressure Vessel Technol. Trans. ASME (1997) 122-126], respectively. The results based on the Tresca yield criterion obtained by the present authors and those in [J. Pressure Vessel Technol. Trans. ASME (1975) 146-154] were found to agree well with each other. In the case of the von Mises yield criterion, the agreement with [J. Pressure Vessel Technol. Trans. ASME 122-126] is generally good. The estimates based on the Tresca yield criterion are seen to result in lower values of limit stresses and cut-out factors as compared to those based on the von Mises yield criterion. The difference is attributed to the yield criterion and the flow rule chosen for the analysis. The shape as well as the size of the yield surface was found to depend on the ligament efficiency

  2. Yields of Selected Catch Crops in Dry Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Handlířová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Catch crops mainly reduce soil erosion and leaching of nutrients as well as enrich the soil organic matter. The aim of this research is to evaluate the yields of catch crops of Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Fagopyrum esculentum, Carthamus tinctorius and Secale cereale v. multicaule, and thus determine the possible applicability of catch crops in areas with high average annual temperature and low precipitation totals. The small-plot field experiment was performed on clay-loam gleyic fluvisol at the Field Experimental Station in Žabčice, Southern Moravia, Czech Republic, within the period of 2006-2014. The catch crops were set up after winter wheat in mid-August. The results have shown a statistically significant difference among different catch crops in yield of dry matter and even among years. The yield of catch crops is mainly dependent on a sufficient supply of water in the soil and the appropriate amount and distribution of rainfall over the growing season. Sinapis alba and Phacelia tanacetifolia regularly reached the highest yields. High yields were also achieved with Fagopyrum esculentum. Due to the method of crop rotation in the Czech Republic, with a predominance of Brassica napus var. napus, it is inappropriate to include Sinapis alba. It is the best to grow Phacelia tanacetifolia and even Fagopyrum esculentum, or a mixture thereof, depending on the use of catch crops.

  3. Dependency Parsing

    CERN Document Server

    Kubler, Sandra; Nivre, Joakim

    2009-01-01

    Dependency-based methods for syntactic parsing have become increasingly popular in natural language processing in recent years. This book gives a thorough introduction to the methods that are most widely used today. After an introduction to dependency grammar and dependency parsing, followed by a formal characterization of the dependency parsing problem, the book surveys the three major classes of parsing models that are in current use: transition-based, graph-based, and grammar-based models. It continues with a chapter on evaluation and one on the comparison of different methods, and it close

  4. Crop yield response to climate change varies with cropping intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, Andrew J; Parkes, Ben; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian

    2015-04-01

    Projections of the response of crop yield to climate change at different spatial scales are known to vary. However, understanding of the causes of systematic differences across scale is limited. Here, we hypothesize that heterogeneous cropping intensity is one source of scale dependency. Analysis of observed global data and regional crop modelling demonstrate that areas of high vs. low cropping intensity can have systematically different yields, in both observations and simulations. Analysis of global crop data suggests that heterogeneity in cropping intensity is a likely source of scale dependency for a number of crops across the globe. Further crop modelling and a meta-analysis of projected tropical maize yields are used to assess the implications for climate change assessments. The results show that scale dependency is a potential source of systematic bias. We conclude that spatially comprehensive assessments of climate impacts based on yield alone, without accounting for cropping intensity, are prone to systematic overestimation of climate impacts. The findings therefore suggest a need for greater attention to crop suitability and land use change when assessing the impacts of climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Yield trends and yield gap analysis of major crops in the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the gap between current and potential yields of major crops in the world, and the production constraints that contribute to this yield gap. Using an expert-based evaluation of yield gaps and the literature, global and regional yields and yield trends of major crops are

  6. A global water supply reservoir yield model with uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuria, Faith W; Vogel, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the reliability and uncertainty associated with water supply yields derived from surface water reservoirs is central for planning purposes. Using a global dataset of monthly river discharge, we introduce a generalized model for estimating the mean and variance of water supply yield, Y, expected from a reservoir for a prespecified reliability, R, and storage capacity, S assuming a flow record of length n. The generalized storage–reliability–yield (SRY) relationships reported here have numerous water resource applications ranging from preliminary water supply investigations, to economic and climate change impact assessments. An example indicates how our generalized SRY relationship can be combined with a hydroclimatic model to determine the impact of climate change on surface reservoir water supply yields. We also document that the variability of estimates of water supply yield are invariant to characteristics of the reservoir system, including its storage capacity and reliability. Standardized metrics of the variability of water supply yields are shown to depend only on the sample size of the inflows and the statistical characteristics of the inflow series. (paper)

  7. On the e-linac-based neutron yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatyan, G.G.; Nikolenko, V.G.; Popov, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    We treat neutron generating in high atomic number materials due to the photonuclear reactions induced by the Bremsstrahlung of an electron beam produced by linear electron accelerator (e-linac). The dependence of neutron yield on the electron energy and the irradiated sample size is considered for various sample materials. The calculations are performed without resort to the so-called 'numerical Monte Carlo simulation'. The acquired neutron yields are well correlated with the data asserted in investigations performed at a number of the e-linac-driven neutron sources

  8. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  9. GDP growth and the yield curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stig Vinther

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the forecastability of GDP growth using information from the term structure of yields. In contrast to previous studies, the paper shows that the curvature of the yield curve contributes with much more forecasting power than the slope of yield curve. The yield curvature also...... predicts bond returns, implying a common element to time-variation in expected bond returns and expected GDP growth....

  10. Analysis of yield advantage in mixed cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, R.

    1993-01-01

    It has long been recognized that mixed cropping can give yield advantages over sole cropping, but methods that can identify such yield benefits are still being developed. This thesis presents a method that combines physiological and economic principles in the evaluation of yield advantage.

  11. Fission yield data evaluation system FYDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tingjin

    1998-01-01

    Taking account of some features of fission yield data, to do the fission yield data evaluation conveniently, a fission yield data evaluation system FYDES has been developed for last two years. Outline of the system, data retrieval and data table standardization, data correction codes, data averaging code, simultaneous evaluation code and data fit programs were introduced

  12. modelling relationship between rainfall variability and yields

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , S. and ... factors to rice yield. Adebayo and Adebayo (1997) developed double log multiple regression model to predict rice yield in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The general form of .... the second are the crop yield/values for millet and sorghum ...

  13. Redefining yield gaps at various spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, K.; Fishman, R.; Norstrom, A. V.; Diekert, F. K.; Engstrom, G.; Gars, J.; McCarney, G. R.; Sjostedt, M.

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has highlighted the prevalence of 'yield gaps' around the world and the importance of closing them for global food security. However, the traditional concept of yield gap -defined as the difference between observed and optimal yield under biophysical conditions - omit relevant socio-economic and ecological constraints and thus offer limited guidance on potential policy interventions. This paper proposes alternative definitions of yield gaps by incorporating rich, high resolution, national and sub-national agricultural datasets. We examine feasible efforts to 'close yield gaps' at various spatial scales and across different socio-economic and ecological domains.

  14. [Caffeine dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Naoshi; Ueki, Hirofumi

    2010-08-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world and is a legal stimulant that is readily available to children. The potential for dependence on caffeine has been debated. Presently, due to a paucity of clinical evidence on caffeine dependence, no such diagnosis is included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Although in recent studies, a subset of the general population was found to demonstrate caffeine dependence. It is valuable for psychiatrists and primary care physicians to recognize caffeine dependence as a clinical syndrome, since some people are distressed by their caffeine use and feel they can not control or stop their problematic use.

  15. Measurements of sputtering yields for low-energy plasma ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, M.; Yamada, M.; Suckewer, S.; Rosengaus, E.

    1979-04-01

    Sputtering yields of various wall/limiter materials of fusion devices have been extensively measured in the relevant plasma environment for low-energy light ions (E 14 cm -3 and electron temperature up to 10eV. Target materials used were C (graphite), Ti, Mo, Ta, W, and Fe (stainless steel). In order to study the dependence of the sputtering yields on the incident energy of ions, the target samples were held at negative bias voltage up to 300V. The sputtering yields were determined by a weight-loss method and by spectral line intensity measurements. The data obtained in the present experiment agree well with those previously obtained at the higher energies (E greater than or equal to 200eV) by other authors using different schemes; the present data also extend to substantially lower energies (E approx. > 30eV) than hitherto

  16. Yield and flow properties of aluminum alloy AA 8001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, J.S.; Johnson, H.W.; Han, E.G.

    1995-01-01

    Aluminum alloy AA 8001 is being used at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for nuclear reactor fuel and target components. The objective of this research was to determine parameters for predictive models of the compressive flow properties of AA 8001. Seventy-five true strain-rate, hot compression tests were performed. New, quantitative information about the yield and flow behavior of aluminum alloy AA 8001 was determined. Parameters were determined to use in a hyperbolic sine constitutive law so that the yield stress, the peak stress, and the peak strain can be predicted from the temperature-compensated strain-rate, Z. It was found that the onset of strain softening was more strongly dependent on Z than the onset of yielding was

  17. Maximizing the ExoEarth candidate yield from a future direct imaging mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, Christopher C.; Roberge, Aki; Mandell, Avi; Robinson, Tyler D.

    2014-01-01

    ExoEarth yield is a critical science metric for future exoplanet imaging missions. Here we estimate exoEarth candidate yield using single visit completeness for a variety of mission design and astrophysical parameters. We review the methods used in previous yield calculations and show that the method choice can significantly impact yield estimates as well as how the yield responds to mission parameters. We introduce a method, called Altruistic Yield Optimization, that optimizes the target list and exposure times to maximize mission yield, adapts maximally to changes in mission parameters, and increases exoEarth candidate yield by up to 100% compared to previous methods. We use Altruistic Yield Optimization to estimate exoEarth candidate yield for a large suite of mission and astrophysical parameters using single visit completeness. We find that exoEarth candidate yield is most sensitive to telescope diameter, followed by coronagraph inner working angle, followed by coronagraph contrast, and finally coronagraph contrast noise floor. We find a surprisingly weak dependence of exoEarth candidate yield on exozodi level. Additionally, we provide a quantitative approach to defining a yield goal for future exoEarth-imaging missions.

  18. Investigation of the yield process by deformation luminescence of X-ray irradiated KCl:Ca2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, S.; Ida, K.; Ohgaku, T.

    2011-01-01

    It is found that deformation luminescence gives us information about the microscopic yield process of X-ray irradiated KCl:Ca 2+ . The stress-strain curve has a macroscopic yield point. But we find that luminescence appears to start before the macroscopic yield. This means that dislocation begin to move before the macroscopic yield because deformation luminescence is attributed to radiation-induced dislocation motion. The beginning of luminescence is considered to be the microscopic yield. Investigating the dependence of microscopic yield stress on strain rate and impurity concentration gives us additional information. The activation volume obtained from the dependence of microscopic yield stress on strain rate is comparable to the value estimated from the concentration of impurity. Then the dislocation starts to move overcoming impurity-vacancy dipoles as obstacles to dislocation motion. The dislocation density starts to increase at the microscopic yield point and then sharply increases to the macroscopic yield.

  19. Ice sheets on plastically-yielding beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Many fast flowing regions of ice sheets are underlain by a layer of water-saturated sediments, or till. The rheology of the till has been the subject of some controversy, with laboratory tests suggesting almost perfectly plastic behaviour (stress independent of strain rate), but many models adopting a pseudo-viscous description. In this work, we consider the behaviour of glaciers underlain by a plastic bed. The ice is treated as a viscous gravity current, on a bed that allows unconstrained slip above a critical yield stress. This simplified description allows rapid sliding, and aims to investigate 'worst-case' scenarios of possible ice-sheet disintegration. The plastic bed results in an approximate ice-sheet geometry that is primarily controlled by force balance, whilst ice velocity is determined from mass conservation (rather than the other way around, as standard models would hold). The stability of various states is considered, and particular attention is given to the pace at which transitions between unstable states can occur. Finally, we observe that the strength of basal tills depends strongly on pore pressure, and combine the model with a description of subglacial hydrology. Implications for the present-day ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica will be discussed. Funding: ERC Marie Curie FP7 Career Integration Grant.

  20. Effects of Drought Stress on Canola (Brassica napus L. Genotypes Yield and Yield Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Khani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Canola (Brassica napus L. genotypes with wide adaptability to environmental conditions could play a major role in Iran’s oilseed crop production. Selection of high performing genotypes is very important for developing canola cultivation. Water stress can reduce crop yield by affecting both source and sink for assimilation. Canola yield depends on genotype and environmental conditions and response of genotypes to environmental factors. Canola genotypes response to stress depends on the developmental stage and the events occurring prior to and during flowering stage. Resistance to water stress is divided to avoidance and tolerance. Some species are tolerable against water stress. In a while, other species respond ending life cycle, falling leaves and other reactions into water stress. Therefore, investigation of canola genotypes response to water stress in phenological growth stages can be valuable in order to determine resistant or tolerant genotypes. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of drought stress on canola genotypes yield and its components, an experiment was conducted in 2013-2014 as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the research farm, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of East-Azarbaijan, Tabriz-Iran. Three levels of drought stress were considered as main plot (No-stress, stress at the flowering and pod setting growth stages and 18 canola genotypes including HW113, RS12, Karaj1, KR18, L73, L72, HW101, L146, L210, L183, SW101, L5, L201, HW118, KR4, Karaj2, Karaj3 and KS7 as subplots. Flood irrigation was scheduled at 50% field capacity, 30 and 30% field capacity for no-stress, stress at the flowering and pod setting growth stages, respectively; i.e. soil moisture capacity was maintained at 30% by irrigating to 100% field capacity when available moisture reached 30% in drought stress treatments. An ANOVA was conducted using the PROC-GLM procedure

  1. The ratio Rdp of the quasi-elastic nd → p(nn) to the elastic np → pn charge-exchange process yields at 0 deg over 0.55-2.0 GeV neutron beam energy region: 2. Comparison of the results with the model dependent calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharov, V.I.; Morozov, A.A.; Shindin, R.A.; Chernykh, E.V.; Nomofilov, A.A.; Strunov, L.N.

    2008-01-01

    In our previous paper, the new experimental results on ratio R dp of the quasi-elastic charge-exchange yield at 0 Lab d eg for the nd → p + (nn) reaction to the elastic np → pn charge-exchange yield, were presented. The measurements were carried out at the Nuclotron of the Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at the neutron beam kinetic energies of 0.55, 0.8, 1.0,1.2, 1.4, 1.8 and 2.0 GeV. In this paper, the comparison of these R dp data with the R dp calculations obtained within the impulse approximation by using the invariant amplitude sets from the GW/VPI phase-shift analysis, is made. The calculated R dp values with the set of invariant amplitude data for the elastic np → pn charge exchange at θ p,CM = 0 deg are in a good agreement with the experimental data. It has been confirmed that at θ p,CM = 0 deg the nd → pnn process is caused by the elastic np → pn charge-exchange reaction. Thus, it has been shown that the obtained experimental R dp results can be used for the Delta-Sigma experimental programme to reduce the total ambiguity in the extraction of the amplitude parts

  2. Increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masashi Iino; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Chunqi Li; Haruo Kumagai [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Institute for Energy Utilization

    2004-10-01

    The effect of water treatment at 500 and 600 K on solvent extractions of Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), and Illinois No. 6 (IL) coals was investigated. All the coals used show that the water treatments at 600 K increased the extraction yields greatly in the extractions with a 1:1 carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent, NMP, or 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN). However, the water treatments at 500 K and the heat treatments at 600 K without water gave only a slight increase in the yields. Characterizations of the water-treated coals were performed using ultimate and proximate compositions, Fourier transform infrared analysis, solvent swelling, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation time, and viscoelasticity behavior. The swelling degree in methanol and toluene was increased by the water treatment at 600 K, suggesting that crosslinks become loosened by the treatment. The results of infrared analysis and the extraction temperature dependency of the extraction yields with NMP and 1-MN suggest that the loosening of {pi} - interactions, and of both {pi} - interactions and hydrogen bonds, are responsible for the yield enhancements for PO and UF coals, respectively. However, for IL coal, which exhibited a decrease in oxygen content and the amount of hydrogen-bonded OH, suggesting the occurrence of some chemical reactions, the yield enhancements may be due to the relaxation of hydrogen bonds and the removal of oxygen functional groups, such as the breaking of ether bonds. 17 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Integrated model for predicting rice yield with climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Ki; Das, Amrita; Park, Jong-Hwa

    2018-04-01

    Rice is the chief agricultural product and one of the primary food source. For this reason, it is of pivotal importance for worldwide economy and development. Therefore, in a decision-support-system both for the farmers and in the planning and management of the country's economy, forecasting yield is vital. However, crop yield, which is a dependent of the soil-bio-atmospheric system, is difficult to represent in statistical language. This paper describes a novel approach for predicting rice yield using artificial neural network, spatial interpolation, remote sensing and GIS methods. Herein, the variation in the yield is attributed to climatic parameters and crop health, and the normalized difference vegetation index from MODIS is used as an indicator of plant health and growth. Due importance was given to scaling up the input parameters using spatial interpolation and GIS and minimising the sources of error in every step of the modelling. The low percentage error (2.91) and high correlation (0.76) signifies the robust performance of the proposed model. This simple but effective approach is then used to estimate the influence of climate change on South Korean rice production. As proposed in the RCP8.5 scenario, an upswing in temperature may increase the rice yield throughout South Korea.

  4. Closing Yield Gaps: How Sustainable Can We Be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajal Pradhan

    Full Text Available Global food production needs to be increased by 60-110% between 2005 and 2050 to meet growing food and feed demand. Intensification and/or expansion of agriculture are the two main options available to meet the growing crop demands. Land conversion to expand cultivated land increases GHG emissions and impacts biodiversity and ecosystem services. Closing yield gaps to attain potential yields may be a viable option to increase the global crop production. Traditional methods of agricultural intensification often have negative externalities. Therefore, there is a need to explore location-specific methods of sustainable agricultural intensification. We identified regions where the achievement of potential crop calorie production on currently cultivated land will meet the present and future food demand based on scenario analyses considering population growth and changes in dietary habits. By closing yield gaps in the current irrigated and rain-fed cultivated land, about 24% and 80% more crop calories can respectively be produced compared to 2000. Most countries will reach food self-sufficiency or improve their current food self-sufficiency levels if potential crop production levels are achieved. As a novel approach, we defined specific input and agricultural management strategies required to achieve the potential production by overcoming biophysical and socioeconomic constraints causing yield gaps. The management strategies include: fertilizers, pesticides, advanced soil management, land improvement, management strategies coping with weather induced yield variability, and improving market accessibility. Finally, we estimated the required fertilizers (N, P2O5, and K2O to attain the potential yields. Globally, N-fertilizer application needs to increase by 45-73%, P2O5-fertilizer by 22-46%, and K2O-fertilizer by 2-3 times compared to the year 2010 to attain potential crop production. The sustainability of such agricultural intensification largely depends

  5. Closing Yield Gaps: How Sustainable Can We Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Prajal; Fischer, Günther; van Velthuizen, Harrij; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Juergen P.

    2015-01-01

    Global food production needs to be increased by 60–110% between 2005 and 2050 to meet growing food and feed demand. Intensification and/or expansion of agriculture are the two main options available to meet the growing crop demands. Land conversion to expand cultivated land increases GHG emissions and impacts biodiversity and ecosystem services. Closing yield gaps to attain potential yields may be a viable option to increase the global crop production. Traditional methods of agricultural intensification often have negative externalities. Therefore, there is a need to explore location-specific methods of sustainable agricultural intensification. We identified regions where the achievement of potential crop calorie production on currently cultivated land will meet the present and future food demand based on scenario analyses considering population growth and changes in dietary habits. By closing yield gaps in the current irrigated and rain-fed cultivated land, about 24% and 80% more crop calories can respectively be produced compared to 2000. Most countries will reach food self-sufficiency or improve their current food self-sufficiency levels if potential crop production levels are achieved. As a novel approach, we defined specific input and agricultural management strategies required to achieve the potential production by overcoming biophysical and socioeconomic constraints causing yield gaps. The management strategies include: fertilizers, pesticides, advanced soil management, land improvement, management strategies coping with weather induced yield variability, and improving market accessibility. Finally, we estimated the required fertilizers (N, P2O5, and K2O) to attain the potential yields. Globally, N-fertilizer application needs to increase by 45–73%, P2O5-fertilizer by 22–46%, and K2O-fertilizer by 2–3 times compared to the year 2010 to attain potential crop production. The sustainability of such agricultural intensification largely depends on the way

  6. Path Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    Begrebet Path Dependence blev oprindelig udviklet inden for New Institutionel Economics af bl.a. David, Arthur og North. Begrebet har spredt sig vidt i samfundsvidenskaberne og undergået en udvikling. Dette paper propagerer for at der er sket så en så omfattende udvikling af begrebet, at man nu kan...... tale om 1. og 2. generation af Path Dependence begrebet. Den nyeste udvikling af begrebet har relevans for metodologi-diskusionerne i relation til Keynes...

  7. Systematics of Fission-Product Yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    Empirical equations representing systematics of fission-product yields have been derived from experimental data. The systematics give some insight into nuclear-structure effects on yields, and the equations allow estimation of yields from fission of any nuclide with atomic number Z F = 90 thru 98, mass number A F = 230 thru 252, and precursor excitation energy (projectile kinetic plus binding energies) PE = 0 thru ∼200 MeV--the ranges of these quantities for the fissioning nuclei investigated. Calculations can be made with the computer program CYFP. Estimates of uncertainties in the yield estimates are given by equations, also in CYFP, and range from ∼ 15% for the highest yield values to several orders of magnitude for very small yield values. A summation method is used to calculate weighted average parameter values for fast-neutron (∼ fission spectrum) induced fission reactions

  8. Systematics of Fission-Product Yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.C. Wahl

    2002-05-01

    Empirical equations representing systematics of fission-product yields have been derived from experimental data. The systematics give some insight into nuclear-structure effects on yields, and the equations allow estimation of yields from fission of any nuclide with atomic number Z{sub F} = 90 thru 98, mass number A{sub F} = 230 thru 252, and precursor excitation energy (projectile kinetic plus binding energies) PE = 0 thru {approx}200 MeV--the ranges of these quantities for the fissioning nuclei investigated. Calculations can be made with the computer program CYFP. Estimates of uncertainties in the yield estimates are given by equations, also in CYFP, and range from {approx} 15% for the highest yield values to several orders of magnitude for very small yield values. A summation method is used to calculate weighted average parameter values for fast-neutron ({approx} fission spectrum) induced fission reactions.

  9. Managment oriented analysis of sediment yield time compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanova, Anna; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Raclot, Damien; Nunes, João P.; Licciardello, Feliciana; Le Bouteiller, Caroline; Latron, Jérôme; Rodríguez Caballero, Emilio; Mathys, Nicolle; Klotz, Sébastien; Mekki, Insaf; Gallart, Francesc; Solé Benet, Albert; Pérez Gallego, Nuria; Andrieux, Patrick; Moussa, Roger; Planchon, Olivier; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Alshihabi, Omran; Chikhaoui, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The understanding of inter- and intra-annual variability of sediment yield is important for the land use planning and management decisions for sustainable landscapes. It is of particular importance in the regions where the annual sediment yield is often highly dependent on the occurrence of few large events which produce the majority of sediments, such as in the Mediterranean. This phenomenon is referred as time compression, and relevance of its consideration growths with the increase in magnitude and frequency of extreme events due to climate change in many other regions. So far, time compression has ben studied mainly on events datasets, providing high resolution, but (in terms of data amount, required data precision and methods), demanding analysis. In order to provide an alternative simplified approach, the monthly and yearly time compressions were evaluated in eight Mediterranean catchments (of the R-OSMed network), representing a wide range of Mediterranean landscapes. The annual sediment yield varied between 0 to ~27100 Mg•km-2•a-1, and the monthly sediment yield between 0 to ~11600 Mg•km-2•month-1. The catchment's sediment yield was un-equally distributed at inter- and intra-annual scale, and large differences were observed between the catchments. Two types of time compression were distinguished - (i) the inter-annual (based on annual values) and intra- annual (based on monthly values). Four different rainfall-runoff-sediment yield time compression patterns were observed: (i) no time-compression of rainfall, runoff, nor sediment yield, (ii) low time compression of rainfall and runoff, but high compression of sediment yield, (iii) low compression of rainfall and high of runoff and sediment yield, and (iv) low, medium and high compression of rainfall, runoff and sediment yield. All four patterns were present at inter-annual scale, while at intra-annual scale only the two latter were present. This implies that high sediment yields occurred in

  10. Produtividade da beterraba e rúcula em função da época de plantio em monocultivo e consórcio Yield of sugar beet and rocket depending on planting times in sole crop and intercropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilson C Grangeiro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se os rendimentos das culturas da beterraba e da rúcula em função de épocas de plantio e sistemas solteiro e consorciado, em Mossoró, de janeiro a março de 2005. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com nove tratamentos em quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram dos consórcios da beterraba com rúcula estabelecidos aos 0, 7, 14 e 21 dias após a semeadura da beterraba, monocultura da beterraba e as monoculturas da rúcula, nas mesmas épocas de estabelecimento dos cultivos consorciados. A semeadura da rúcula e beterraba realizada na mesma época proporcionaram maior massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e produtividade de rúcula, sendo respectivamente, de 50,19 g/planta; 5,86 g/planta e 1338,47 g/m². Já para a beterraba, independentemente da época de semeadura, o monocultivo foi superior ao consórcio na produção de massa fresca e de raízes. Os maiores índices de uso eficiente da terra foram obtidos no sistema de consórcio quando a semeadura da rúcula foi realizada no mesmo período (2,0 e aos sete dias (1,9 após a semeadura da beterraba.The yield of sugar beet and rocket was evaluated, as a result of planting times in sole crop and intercropping system. The experiment was carried out in Mossoró, from January to March,f 2005. The experimental design was of randomized complete blocks with nine treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of the intercrops of sugar beet with rocket established at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days after sugar beet sowing date, as well as of sugar beet and rocket cultivated as sole crops, planted at the same times of the intercropping establishment. The highest values of fresh shoot (50.19 g/plant, dry mass (5.86 g/plant and yield (1338.47 g/m² of rocket were observed in the intercropping systems established at the same time. The highest values of shoot fresh mass and root yield of sugar beet were observed in sole crop. The highest land equivalent

  11. Alumina Yield in the Bayer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hond, R.

    The alumina industry has historically been able to reduce alumina production costs, by increasing the liquor alumina yield. To know the potential for further yield increases, the phase diagram of the ternary system Na2O-Al2O -H2O at various temperature levels was analysed. It was found that the maximum theorical precipitation alumina yield is 160 g/l, while that for digestion was calculated to be 675 g/l.

  12. Equity Volatility and Corporate Bond Yields

    OpenAIRE

    John Y. Campbell; Glen B. Taksler

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of equity volatility on corporate bond yields. Panel data for the late 1990s show that idiosyncratic firm-level volatility can explain as much cross-sectional variation in yields as can credit ratings. This finding, together with the upward trend in idiosyncratic equity volatility documented by Campbell, Lettau, Malkiel, and Xu (2001), helps to explain recent increases in corporate bond yields. The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com.

  13. Food for thought: pretty good multispecies yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Dichmont, C. M.; Levin, P.S.

    2017-01-01

    good multidimensional yield to accommodate situations where the yield from a stock affects the ecosystem, economic and social benefits, or sustainability. We demonstrate in a European example that PGMY is a practical concept. As PGMY provides a safe operating space for management that adheres...... that broader ecosystem, economic, and social objectives are addressed. We investigate how the principles of a “pretty good yield” range of fishing mortalities assumed to provide >95% of the average yield for a single stock can be expanded to a pretty good multispecies yield (PGMY) space and further to pretty...

  14. Yield Mapping in Salix; Skoerdekartering av salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Christoffer; Gilbertsson, Mikael; Rogstrand, Gustav; Thylen, Lars

    2004-09-01

    The most common species for energy forest production is willow. Willow is able to produce a large amount of biomass in a short period of time. Growing willow has a potential to render a good financial result for the farmer if cultivated on fields with the right conditions and plenty of water. Under the right conditions growing willow can give the farmer a net income of 3,000 SEK (about 430 USD) per hectare and year, which is something that common cereal crops cannot compete with. However, this is not the common case since willow is often grown as a substitute crop on fields where cereal crop yield is low. The aim of this study was to reveal if it is possible to measure yield variability in willow, and if it is possible to describe the reasons for yield variation both within the field but also between different fields. Yield mapping has been used in conventional farming for about a decade. The principles for yield mapping are to continuously measure the yield while registering location by the use of GPS when harvesting the field. The collected data is then used to search for spatial variations within the field, and to try to understand the reasons for this variation. Since there is currently no commercial equipment for yield mapping in willow, a yield mapping system had to be developed within this project. The new system was installed on a Claas Jaguar harvester. The principle for yield mapping on the Claas Jaguar harvester is to measure the distance between the feeding rollers. This distance is correlated to the flow through the harvester. The speed and position of the machine was registered using GPS. Knowing the working width of the harvester this information was used to calculate the yield. All collected data was stored on a PDA computer. Soil samples were also collected from the yield mapped fields. This was to be able to test yield against both physical and chemical soil parameters. The result shows that it is possible to measure spatial variations of yield in

  15. Improving the yield from fermentative hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Jeremy T; Bagley, David M

    2007-05-01

    Efforts to increase H(2) yields from fermentative H(2) production include heat treatment of the inoculum, dissolved gas removal, and varying the organic loading rate. Although heat treatment kills methanogens and selects for spore-forming bacteria, the available evidence indicates H(2) yields are not maximized compared to bromoethanesulfonate, iodopropane, or perchloric acid pre-treatments and spore-forming acetogens are not killed. Operational controls (low pH, short solids retention time) can replace heat treatment. Gas sparging increases H(2) yields compared to un-sparged reactors, but no relationship exists between the sparging rate and H(2) yield. Lower sparging rates may improve the H(2) yield with less energy input and product dilution. The reasons why sparging improves H(2) yields are unknown, but recent measurements of dissolved H(2) concentrations during sparging suggest the assumption of decreased inhibition of the H(2)-producing enzymes is unlikely. Significant disagreement exists over the effect of organic loading rate (OLR); some studies show relatively higher OLRs improve H(2) yield while others show the opposite. Discovering the reasons for higher H(2) yields during dissolved gas removal and changes in OLR will help improve H(2) yields.

  16. Understanding yield loss and pathogen biology to improve disease management: Stagonospora nodorum blotch - a case study in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estimated potential yield losses caused by plant pathogens are up to 16% globally, and most research in plant pathology aims to reduce yield loss in crops directly or indirectly. Yield losses caused by a certain disease depend not only on disease severity, but also on weather factors, the pathog...

  17. Produtividade e classificação de brócolos para indústria em função da adubação nitrogenada e potássica e dos espaçamentos entre plantas Yield and classification of broccoli depending on fertilizing and spacing between plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur B Cecílio Filho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available No município de Itatiba-SP, no período de março a julho de 2007, foi realizado um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar doses de nitrogênio e potássio e espaçamentos entre plantas na produtividade e classificação de brócolos para indústria. O experimento foi instalado sob delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com os tratamentos em esquema fatorial 5 x 4, e três repetições, sendo avaliadas as doses de nitrogênio-potássio: 105-105; 157,5-157,5; 210-210; 262,5-262,5 e 315-315 kg ha-1 de N e K2O e os espaçamentos entre plantas: 0,2; 0,3; 0,4 e 0,5 m. O espaçamento entre linhas foi de 0,8 m. Foram avaliados o teor foliar de nitrogênio (TN e de potássio (TP, produtividade de inflorescência (PI, produtividade de floretes (PF, rendimento industrial (RI e classificação dos floretes com base em seu comprimento: PF5 (5 e 7 e 9 cm. Maiores espaçamentos entre plantas proporcionaram maior TN e menores PI e PF. As doses NK e os espaçamentos entre plantas não influenciaram significativamente o TP e o RI. As maiores produtividades de inflorescências (22,08 t ha-1 e de floretes (17,09 t ha-1 foram obtidas com 0,20 m entre plantas e 315 kg ha-1 de N e de K2O. Maior percentagem de floretes na classe PF5 foi obtida no menor espaçamento entre plantas. As doses NK e os espaçamentos entre plantas não influenciaram as percentagens de floretes nas classes PF79 e PF9.In Itatiba, São Paulo state, Brazil, during the period between March and July of 2007, an experiment was carried out aiming to appraise the effect of doses of nitrogen and potassium (105-105, 157.5-157.5, 210-210, 262.5-262.5 and 315-315 kg ha-1 N and K2O and spacing between plants (0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 m upon the yield of broccoli and their classification. The experimental design was carried out in a randomized block, with the treatments in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme and three replications. Rows of plants were 0.8 m apart. The following characteristics were evaluated: foliar content

  18. Combined effects of agrochemicals and ecosystem services on crop yield across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gagic, Vesna; Kleijn, David; Báldi, András; Boros, Gergely; Jørgensen, Helene Bracht; Elek, Zoltán; Garratt, Michael P. D.; de Groot, G. Arjen; Hedlund, Katarina; Kovács- Hostyánszki, Anikó; Marini, Lorenzo; Martin, Emily; Pevere, Ines; Potts, Simon G.; Redlich, Sarah; Senapathi, Deepa; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Świtek, Stanislaw; Smith, Henrik G.; Takács, Viktória; Tryjanowski, Piotr; van der Putten, Wim H.; van Gils, Stijn; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneously enhancing ecosystem services provided by biodiversity below and above ground is recommended to reduce dependence on chemical pesticides and mineral fertilisers in agriculture. However, consequences for crop yield have been poorly evaluated. Above ground, increased landscape complexity

  19. Influence of management and environment on Australian wheat: information for sustainable intensification and closing yield gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, B A; King, D; Zhao, G

    2014-01-01

    In the future, agriculture will need to produce more, from less land, more sustainably. But currently, in many places, actual crop yields are below those attainable. We quantified the ability for agricultural management to increase wheat yields across 179 Mha of potentially arable land in Australia. Using the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM), we simulated the impact on wheat yield of 225 fertilization and residue management scenarios at a high spatial, temporal, and agronomic resolution from 1900 to 2010. The influence of management and environmental variables on wheat yield was then assessed using Spearman’s non-parametric correlation test with bootstrapping. While residue management showed little correlation, fertilization strongly increased wheat yield up to around 100 kg N ha −1  yr −1 . However, this effect was highly dependent on the key environment variables of rainfall, temperature, and soil water holding capacity. The influence of fertilization on yield was stronger in cooler, wetter climates, and in soils with greater water holding capacity. We conclude that the effectiveness of management intensification to increase wheat yield is highly dependent upon local climate and soil conditions. We provide context-specific information on the yield benefits of fertilization to support adaptive agronomic decision-making and contribute to the closure of yield gaps. We also suggest that future assessments consider the economic and environmental sustainability of management intensification for closing yield gaps. (paper)

  20. Influence of management and environment on Australian wheat: information for sustainable intensification and closing yield gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, B. A.; King, D.; Zhao, G.

    2014-04-01

    In the future, agriculture will need to produce more, from less land, more sustainably. But currently, in many places, actual crop yields are below those attainable. We quantified the ability for agricultural management to increase wheat yields across 179 Mha of potentially arable land in Australia. Using the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM), we simulated the impact on wheat yield of 225 fertilization and residue management scenarios at a high spatial, temporal, and agronomic resolution from 1900 to 2010. The influence of management and environmental variables on wheat yield was then assessed using Spearman’s non-parametric correlation test with bootstrapping. While residue management showed little correlation, fertilization strongly increased wheat yield up to around 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1. However, this effect was highly dependent on the key environment variables of rainfall, temperature, and soil water holding capacity. The influence of fertilization on yield was stronger in cooler, wetter climates, and in soils with greater water holding capacity. We conclude that the effectiveness of management intensification to increase wheat yield is highly dependent upon local climate and soil conditions. We provide context-specific information on the yield benefits of fertilization to support adaptive agronomic decision-making and contribute to the closure of yield gaps. We also suggest that future assessments consider the economic and environmental sustainability of management intensification for closing yield gaps.

  1. Analysis of Yield and Yield Related Traits Variability of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cv. Izolda and Double Haploid Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozdój Janusz

    2015-12-01

    determining grain yield levels were also analyzed. Calculated total variation coefficients values of each analyzed trait during three-year long studies were different depending on plant material – DH lines or standard Izolda. Low variation coefficients values characterized following traits (traits ranked by increasing values for DH lines and standard Izolda, respectively: total spikelets number per spike (6.6 and 6.3%, spike length (11.1 and 12.6%, fertile spikelets number per spike (13.7 and 11.7%, single grain weight (15.0 and 12.2%, shoot length (16.2 and 13.3%, grains number per spikelet (26.4 and 23.3%, total shoots number per plant (23.4 and 29.6%, grains number per spike (30.1 and 28.2%. Higher variation coefficients values were obtained for the following traits: grain yield per spike (40.0 and 35.7%, plant immature tillers number (35.8 and 42.6%, plant productive tillers number (42.2 and 43.2%, spike sterile spikelets number (46.6 and 44.7% and number of grains per plant (58.3 and 60.5%. The highest values characterized grain yield per plant (66.9 and 60.8%.

  2. FOLIAR NUTRIENT CONTENTS AND FRUIT YIELD IN CUSTARD APPLE PROGENIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliar nutrient contents are evaluated in several fruit trees with many objectives. Leaf analysis constitutes a way of evaluating the nutritional requirements of crops. Due to the positive impact that fertilizers have on crop yields, researchers frequently try to evaluate the correlations between yield and foliar nutrient contents. This work's objective was to present fruit yields from the 4th to the 6th cropping seasons, evaluate foliar nutrient contents (on the 5th cropping season, and estimate the correlations between these two groups of traits for 20 half-sibling custard apple tree progenies. The progenies were evaluated in a random block design with five replicates and four plants per plot. One hundred leaves were collected from the middle third of the canopy (in height of each of four plants in each plot. The leaves were collected haphazardly, i.e., in a random manner, but without using a drawing mechanism. In the analysis of variance, the nutrient concentrations in the leaves from plants of each plot were represented by the average of four plants in the plot. Fruit yield in the various progenies did not depend on cropping season; progeny A4 was the most productive. No Spearman correlation was found between leaf nutrient concentrations and fruit yield. Increased nutrient concentrations in the leaves were progeny-dependent, i.e., with regard to Na (progenies FE5 and JG1, Ca (progeny A4, Mg (progeny SM7, N (progeny A3, P (progeny M, and K contents (progeny JG3. Spearman's correlation was negative between Na-Mg, Na-Ca, and Mg-P contents, and positive between Mg-Ca and N-K contents.

  3. Mean-Field Scenario for the Athermal Creep Dynamics of Yield-Stress Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Martens, Kirsten; Barrat, Jean-Louis

    2018-01-01

    We develop a theoretical description based on an existent mean-field model for the transient dynamics prior to the steady flow of yielding materials. The mean-field model not only reproduces the experimentally observed nonlinear time dependence of the shear-rate response to an external stress, but also allows for the determination of the different physical processes involved in the onset of the reacceleration phase after the initial slowing down and a distinct fluidization phase. The fluidization time displays a power-law dependence on the distance of the applied stress to an age-dependent yield stress, which is not universal but strongly dependent on initial conditions.

  4. Crop yield response to increasing biochar rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefit or detriment to crop yield from biochar application varies with biochar type/rate, soil, crop, or climate. The objective of this research was to identify yield response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), corn (Zea mayes L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to hardwood biochar applied at...

  5. Central Bank Communication and the Yield Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leombroni, Matteo; Vedolin, Andrea; Venter, Gyuri

    communication shocks have a significant impact, with intermediate maturities being affected the most; (ii) positive (negative) communication shocks significantly lower (raise) the yield spread between the peripheral and core countries; (iii) this cross-sectional difference arises after the 2008 financial crises......-for-yield investors....

  6. FEM growth and yield data monocultures - Poplar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohren, G.M.J.; Goudzwaard, L.; Jansen, J.J.; Oosterbaan, A.; Oldenburger, J.F.; Ouden, den J.

    2016-01-01

    The current database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures (douglas fir, common oak, poplar, Japanese Larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Corsican pine, Austrian pine, red oak and several other species, with only a few plots,

  7. Yield stress of alumina-zirconia suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, V.; Pradip; Malghan, S.G.

    1996-01-01

    The yield stress of concentrated suspensions of alumina, zirconia, and mixed alumina-zirconia powders was measured by the vane technique as a function of solids loading, relative amounts of alumina and zirconia, and pH. At the isoelectric point (IEP), the yield stress varied as the fourth power of the solids loading. The relative ratio of alumina and zirconia particles was important in determining the yield stress of the suspension at the IEP. The yield stress of single and mixed suspensions showed a marked variation with pH. The maximum value occurred at or near the IEP of the suspension. The effect of electrical double-layer forces on the yield stress can be described on the basis of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. A normalized yield stress--that is, the ratio of the yield stress at a given pH to the yield stress at the IEP predicted by this model--showed good correlation with experimental data

  8. Local yield stress statistics in model amorphous solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Armand; Lerbinger, Matthias; Hernandez-Garcia, Anier; García-García, Reinaldo; Falk, Michael L.; Vandembroucq, Damien; Patinet, Sylvain

    2018-03-01

    We develop and extend a method presented by Patinet, Vandembroucq, and Falk [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 045501 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.045501] to compute the local yield stresses at the atomic scale in model two-dimensional Lennard-Jones glasses produced via differing quench protocols. This technique allows us to sample the plastic rearrangements in a nonperturbative manner for different loading directions on a well-controlled length scale. Plastic activity upon shearing correlates strongly with the locations of low yield stresses in the quenched states. This correlation is higher in more structurally relaxed systems. The distribution of local yield stresses is also shown to strongly depend on the quench protocol: the more relaxed the glass, the higher the local plastic thresholds. Analysis of the magnitude of local plastic relaxations reveals that stress drops follow exponential distributions, justifying the hypothesis of an average characteristic amplitude often conjectured in mesoscopic or continuum models. The amplitude of the local plastic rearrangements increases on average with the yield stress, regardless of the system preparation. The local yield stress varies with the shear orientation tested and strongly correlates with the plastic rearrangement locations when the system is sheared correspondingly. It is thus argued that plastic rearrangements are the consequence of shear transformation zones encoded in the glass structure that possess weak slip planes along different orientations. Finally, we justify the length scale employed in this work and extract the yield threshold statistics as a function of the size of the probing zones. This method makes it possible to derive physically grounded models of plasticity for amorphous materials by directly revealing the relevant details of the shear transformation zones that mediate this process.

  9. Wheat yield dynamics: a structural econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Afsin; Akdi, Yilmaz; Arslan, Fahrettin

    2007-10-15

    In this study we initially have tried to explore the wheat situation in Turkey, which has a small-open economy and in the member countries of European Union (EU). We have observed that increasing the wheat yield is fundamental to obtain comparative advantage among countries by depressing domestic prices. Also the changing structure of supporting schemes in Turkey makes it necessary to increase its wheat yield level. For this purpose, we have used available data to determine the dynamics of wheat yield by Ordinary Least Square Regression methods. In order to find out whether there is a linear relationship among these series we have checked each series whether they are integrated at the same order or not. Consequently, we have pointed out that fertilizer usage and precipitation level are substantial inputs for producing high wheat yield. Furthermore, in respect for our model, fertilizer usage affects wheat yield more than precipitation level.

  10. Biogas and Methane Yield from Rye Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production in the Czech Republic has expanded substantially, including marginal regions for maize cultivation. Therefore, there are increasingly sought materials that could partially replace maize silage, as a basic feedstock, while secure both biogas production and its quality.Two samples of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum silage with different solids content 21% and 15% were measured for biogas and methane yield. Rye grass silage with solid content of 15% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.431 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.249 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter. Rye grass silage with solid content 21% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.654 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.399 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter.

  11. Realized (co)variances of eurozone sovereign yields during the crisis: The impact of news and the Securities Markets Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; de Jong, Frank; Giuliodori, M.; Widijanto, D.

    We use realized variances and covariances based on intraday data to measure the dependence structure of eurozone sovereign yields. Our analysis focuses on the impact of news, obtained from the Eurointelligence newsflash, on the dependence structure. More news tends to raise the volatility of yields

  12. Will energy crop yields meet expectations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, Stephanie Y.; Malins, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Expectations are high for energy crops. Government policies in the United States and Europe are increasingly supporting biofuel and heat and power from cellulose, and biomass is touted as a partial solution to energy security and greenhouse gas mitigation. Here, we review the literature for yields of 5 major potential energy crops: Miscanthus spp., Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Populus spp. (poplar), Salix spp. (willow), and Eucalyptus spp. Very high yields have been achieved for each of these types of energy crops, up to 40 t ha −1  y −1 in small, intensively managed trials. But yields are significantly lower in semi-commercial scale trials, due to biomass losses with drying, harvesting inefficiency under real world conditions, and edge effects in small plots. To avoid competition with food, energy crops should be grown on non-agricultural land, which also lowers yields. While there is potential for yield improvement for each of these crops through further research and breeding programs, for several reasons the rate of yield increase is likely to be slower than historically has been achieved for cereals; these include relatively low investment, long breeding periods, low yield response of perennial grasses to fertilizer, and inapplicability of manipulating the harvest index. Miscanthus × giganteus faces particular challenges as it is a sterile hybrid. Moderate and realistic expectations for the current and future performance of energy crops are vital to understanding the likely cost and the potential of large-scale production. - Highlights: • This review covers Miscanthus, switchgrass, poplar, willow, and Eucalyptus. • High yields of energy crops are typically from small experimental plots. • Field scale yields are lower due to real world harvesting losses and edge effects. • The potential for yield improvement of energy crops is relatively limited. • Expectations must be realistic for successful policies and commercial production

  13. Climate Variability and Sugarcane Yield in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, David

    2005-11-01

    This paper seeks to understand the role that climate variability has on annual yield of sugarcane in Louisiana. Unique features of sugarcane growth in Louisiana and nonclimatic, yield-influencing factors make this goal an interesting and challenging one. Several methods of seeking and establishing the relations between yield and climate variables are employed. First, yield climate relations were investigated at a single research station where crop variety and growing conditions could be held constant and yield relations could be established between a predominant older crop variety and a newer one. Interviews with crop experts and a literature survey were used to identify potential climatic factors that control yield. A statistical analysis was performed using statewide yield data from the American Sugar Cane League from 1963 to 2002 and a climate database. Yield values for later years were adjusted downward to form an adjusted yield dataset. The climate database was principally constructed from daily and monthly values of maximum and minimum temperature and daily and monthly total precipitation for six cooperative weather-reporting stations representative of the area of sugarcane production. The influence of 74 different, though not independent, climate-related variables on sugarcane yield was investigated. The fact that a climate signal exists is demonstrated by comparing mean values of the climate variables corresponding to the upper and lower third of adjusted yield values. Most of these mean-value differences show an intuitively plausible difference between the high- and low-yield years. The difference between means of the climate variables for years corresponding to the upper and lower third of annual yield values for 13 of the variables is statistically significant at or above the 90% level. A correlation matrix was used to identify the variables that had the largest influence on annual yield. Four variables [called here critical climatic variables (CCV

  14. Effects of pellet yield on electricity cost in laser fusion generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohachevsky, I.O.; Booth, L.A.; Hafer, J.F.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The dependence of capital and net electricity production costs on fuel pellet yield is investigated for laser fusion reactors based on the magnetically protected and the wetted wall reactor cavity concepts. It is determined that above a certain pellet yield, which depends on the cavity concept, diseconomies of scale occur and the costs per unit output increase with increasing fuel pellet yield. This behavior, determined with the trade-off and analysis computer code TROFAN, is explained through analytical examination of the scaling rules for the laser fusion reactor components

  15. Yield risks in global maize markets: Historical evidence and projections in key regions of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson B. Villoria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous worldwide crop failures stemming from a more unstable climate may reduce the scope for international trade to compensate food shortages and stabilize food prices across the various regions of the world. Understanding the effects of changes in crop productivity on global markets requires knowledge about the extent to which crop yields may be systematically related across producing and consuming centers. This short communication contributes to this knowledge by investigating the potential changes in the strength of two key sources of supply risks in global maize markets: yield variance and cross-country yield correlation. We focus on the largest producing and consuming countries of the world. We capitalize on yield projections from the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison project. Exploratory analysis of the skill of the underlying GGCMI models in reproducing key moments of the distribution of observed yields reveals that they overstate observed variances but faithfully reproduce observed patterns of cross-country correlations. We find no evidence of an increase in the degree of cross-country dependency of maize yields. We also find a higher incidence of what would be considered extremely low maize yields by present-time standards stemming from the projected downward trend in yields levels toward mid-century. The weak dependency of maize yields across countries, an the possibility of reducing the higher incidence of extremes through policies aimed to reverse the climate-induced downward trends in yields, suggest that international trade can become a valuable tool to ameliorate the effects of more unstable crop yields. Keywords: Extremely low yields, Maize markets, Food prices, Agricultural yields, Systemic risk in agriculture, Global agriculture, AgMIP, Global gridded crop model intercomparison

  16. Importance of growth characteristics for yield of barley in different growing systems: will growth characteristics describe yield diffently in different growing systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kristian; Ericson, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The interest in organic grown cereals has increased the need for variety tests under organic growing systems and/or the knowledge on whether growth characteristics describe yield differently under conventional and organic conditions. This paper is a contribution to that question by examining...... the relationships between some important growth characteristics in barley trials in both systems in Northern Sweden and in Denmark. Mixed model analyses were used for regressions of growth characteristics (or transformations of those) on yield (and log-transformed yield), allowing the slope to depend on the growing...... system. The analyses showed that diseases seemed to have a less negative effect on yield in the organic growing system than in the conventional growing system if pesticides were not applied. For other characteristics the effect depended on the country. This was the case for grain characteristics where...

  17. Study of nonproportionality in the light yield of inorganic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai [School of Engineering and IT, B-purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory 0909 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Using a phenomenological approach, the light yield is derived for inorganic scintillators as a function of the rates of linear, bimolecular, and Auger processes occurring in the electron track initiated by an x ray or a {gamma}-ray photon. A relation between the track length and incident energy is also derived. It is found that the nonproportionality in the light yield can be eliminated if either nonlinear processes of interaction among the excited electrons, holes, and excitons can be eliminated from occurring or the high density situation can be relieved by diffusion of carriers from the track at a faster rate than the rate of activation of nonlinear processes. The influence of the track length and radius on the yield nonproportionality is discussed in view of the known experimental results. Inventing new inorganic scintillating materials with high carrier mobility can lead to a class of proportional inorganic scintillators. Results agree qualitatively with experimental results for the dependence of light yield on the incident energy.

  18. Study of nonproportionality in the light yield of inorganic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jai

    2011-01-01

    Using a phenomenological approach, the light yield is derived for inorganic scintillators as a function of the rates of linear, bimolecular, and Auger processes occurring in the electron track initiated by an x ray or a γ-ray photon. A relation between the track length and incident energy is also derived. It is found that the nonproportionality in the light yield can be eliminated if either nonlinear processes of interaction among the excited electrons, holes, and excitons can be eliminated from occurring or the high density situation can be relieved by diffusion of carriers from the track at a faster rate than the rate of activation of nonlinear processes. The influence of the track length and radius on the yield nonproportionality is discussed in view of the known experimental results. Inventing new inorganic scintillating materials with high carrier mobility can lead to a class of proportional inorganic scintillators. Results agree qualitatively with experimental results for the dependence of light yield on the incident energy.

  19. Fluorescence quantum yield of thioflavin T in rigid isotropic solution and incorporated into the amyloid fibrils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna I Sulatskaya

    Full Text Available In this work, the fluorescence of thioflavin T (ThT was studied in a wide range of viscosity and temperature. It was shown that ThT fluorescence quantum yield varies from 0.0001 in water at room temperature to 0.28 in rigid isotropic solution (T/η→0. The deviation of the fluorescence quantum yield from unity in rigid isotropic solution suggests that fluorescence quantum yield depends not only on the ultra-fast oscillation of ThT fragments relative to each other in an excited state as was suggested earlier, but also depends on the molecular configuration in the ground state. This means that the fluorescence quantum yield of the dye incorporated into amyloid fibrils must depend on its conformation, which, in turn, depends on the ThT environment. Therefore, the fluorescence quantum yield of ThT incorporated into amyloid fibrils can differ from that in the rigid isotropic solution. In particular, the fluorescence quantum yield of ThT incorporated into insulin fibrils was determined to be 0.43. Consequently, the ThT fluorescence quantum yield could be used to characterize the peculiarities of the fibrillar structure, which opens some new possibilities in the ThT use for structural characterization of the amyloid fibrils.

  20. Effects of phosphorus and zinc applications on the yields and yields ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of phosphorus and zinc applications on the yields and yields components of sole early maturing maize ( Zea mays ) and bambaranut ( Vigna subterranean Thour. ) and in intercrop under southern guinea savannah ecology zone.

  1. Yield and competition in barley variety mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Jokinen

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Competition between spring barley varieties and yield performance of two-, three and four-variety mixtures were studied in two replacement series field experiments. In the first experiment, repeated in three successive years (1983 —85 the components were the six-row varieties Agneta, Arra, Hja-673 and Porno. In the second experiment (1984, including two nitrogen doses (50 and 100 kgN/ha, both six-row (Agneta, Pomo and two-row (Ida, Kustaa varieties were used. Arra in the first and Agneta in the second experiment were the most competitive varieties. The results suggested that the fast growth of Arra at the beginning promoted its competitive ability. Increase in available nitrogen usually strengthened the competitiveness of Agneta. The observed competitive differences between varieties were not related to the earliness of a variety, neither to the morphological characters (two- and six-row varieties nor to the grain yield of a variety grown alone. The competitive ability was not always a stable character, the dominant suppression relationship varying from one environment to another (e.g. growing season, nitrogen dose. The observed overyielding was not statistically significant. The ratio of actual to expected yield and the relative yield total of several mixtures exceeded slightly one. As a conclusion, the yield advantage of mixtures was marginal. As a rule, the mixtures were not more stable than monocultures as determined by the coefficient of variation. However, the yield of some mixtures varied less than the yield of the most stable monoculture.

  2. Benefits of seasonal forecasts of crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, G.; Okada, M.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Major factors behind recent fluctuations in food prices include increased biofuel production and oil price fluctuations. In addition, several extreme climate events that reduced worldwide food production coincided with upward spikes in food prices. The stabilization of crop yields is one of the most important tasks to stabilize food prices and thereby enhance food security. Recent development of technologies related to crop modeling and seasonal weather forecasting has made it possible to forecast future crop yields for maize and soybean. However, the effective use of these technologies remains limited. Here we present the potential benefits of seasonal crop-yield forecasts on a global scale for choice of planting day. For this purpose, we used a model (PRYSBI-2) that can well replicate past crop yields both for maize and soybean. This model system uses a Bayesian statistical approach to estimate the parameters of a basic process-based model of crop growth. The spatial variability of model parameters was considered by estimating the posterior distribution of the parameters from historical yield data by using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method with a resolution of 1.125° × 1.125°. The posterior distributions of model parameters were estimated for each spatial grid with 30 000 MCMC steps of 10 chains each. By using this model and the estimated parameter distributions, we were able to estimate not only crop yield but also levels of associated uncertainty. We found that the global average crop yield increased about 30% as the result of the optimal selection of planting day and that the seasonal forecast of crop yield had a large benefit in and near the eastern part of Brazil and India for maize and the northern area of China for soybean. In these countries, the effects of El Niño and Indian Ocean dipole are large. The results highlight the importance of developing a system to forecast global crop yields.

  3. Slope Controls Grain Yield and Climatic Yield in Mountainous Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X.; Rong, L.; Gu, Z.; Feng, D.

    2017-12-01

    Mountainous regions are increasingly vulnerable to food insecurity because of limited arable land, growing population pressure, and climate change. Development of sustainable mountain agriculture will require an increased understanding of the effects of environmental factors on grain and climatic yields. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between actual grain yield, climatic yield, and environmental factors in a mountainous region in China. We collected data on the average grain yield per unit area in 119 counties in Yunnan province from 1985 to 2012, and chose 17 environmental factors for the same period. Our results showed that actual grain yield ranged from 1.43 to 6.92 t·ha-1, and the climatic yield ranged from -0.15 to -0.01 t·ha-1. Lower climatic yield but higher grain yield was generally found in central areas and at lower slopes and elevations in the western and southwestern counties of Yunnan province. Higher climatic yield but lower grain yield were found in northwestern parts of Yunnan province on steep slopes. Annual precipation and temperature had a weak influence on the climatic yield. Slope explained 44.62 and 26.29% of the variation in grain yield and climatic yield. The effects of topography on grain and climatic yields were greater than climatic factors. Slope was the most important environmental variable for the variability in climatic and grain yields in the mountainous Yunnan province due to the highly heterogeneous topographic conditions. Conversion of slopes to terraces in areas with higher climatic yields is an effective way to maintain grain production in response to climate variability. Additionally, soil amendments and soil and water conservation measures should be considered to maintain soil fertility and aid in sustainable development in central areas, and in counties at lower slopes and elevations in western and southwestern Yunnan province.

  4. Optimizing rice yields while minimizing yield-scaled global warming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittelkow, Cameron M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria A; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; Linquist, Bruce A

    2014-05-01

    To meet growing global food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly evaluated with respect to crop productivity, i.e., on a yield-scaled as opposed to area basis. Here, we compiled available field data on CH4 and N2 O emissions from rice production systems to test the hypothesis that in response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) addition, yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP) will be minimized at N rates that maximize yields. Within each study, yield N surplus was calculated to estimate deficit or excess N application rates with respect to the optimal N rate (defined as the N rate at which maximum yield was achieved). Relationships between yield N surplus and GHG emissions were assessed using linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models. Results indicate that yields increased in response to increasing N surplus when moving from deficit to optimal N rates. At N rates contributing to a yield N surplus, N2 O and yield-scaled N2 O emissions increased exponentially. In contrast, CH4 emissions were not impacted by N inputs. Accordingly, yield-scaled CH4 emissions decreased with N addition. Overall, yield-scaled GWP was minimized at optimal N rates, decreasing by 21% compared to treatments without N addition. These results are unique compared to aerobic cropping systems in which N2 O emissions are the primary contributor to GWP, meaning yield-scaled GWP may not necessarily decrease for aerobic crops when yields are optimized by N fertilizer addition. Balancing gains in agricultural productivity with climate change concerns, this work supports the concept that high rice yields can be achieved with minimal yield-scaled GWP through optimal N application rates. Moreover, additional improvements in N use efficiency may further reduce yield-scaled GWP, thereby strengthening the economic and environmental sustainability of rice systems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Exclusive nonleptonic B{yields}VV decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N [Department of Physics, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar-751004 (India); Naimuddin, Sk [Department of Physics, Maharishi College of Natural Law, Bhubaneswar-751007 (India); Dash, P C [Department of Physics, Prananath Autonomous College, Khurda-752057 (India); Kar, Susmita [Department of Physics, North Orissa University, Baripada-757003 (India)

    2009-07-01

    The exclusive two-body nonleptonic B{yields}VV decays are investigated, within the factorization approximation, in the relativistic independent quark model based on a confining potential in the scalar-vector harmonic form. The branching ratios and the longitudinal polarization fraction (R{sub L}) are calculated yielding the model predictions in agreement with experiment. Our predicted CP-odd fraction (R{sub perpendicular}) for B{yields}D*D{sub (s)}* decays are in general agreement with other model predictions and within the existing experimental limit.

  6. yield and yield componemts of extra early maize (zea mays l.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SHARIFAI

    maize crop and improve the soil structures and chemical nutrients of the soil. The significant interaction between intra-row spacing and poultry manure on cob diameter, 100 grain weight and grain yield showed the importance of poultry manure on yield and yield components of maize crop. Poultry manure increases both ...

  7. Using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to estimate sugarcane yield and yield components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) yield and yield components are important traits for growers and scientists to evaluate and select cultivars. Collection of these yield data would be labor intensive and time consuming in the early selection stages of sugarcane breeding cultivar development programs with a ...

  8. Effects of cutting frequency on alfalfa yield and yield components in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cutting frequency on alfalfa yield and yield components in Songnen Plain, Northeast China. J Chen, F Tang, R Zhu, C Gao, G Di, Y Zhang. Abstract. The productivity and quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is strongly influenced by cutting frequency (F). To clarify that the yield and quality of alfalfa if affected by F, ...

  9. Inheritance of grain yield and its correlation with yield components in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... 7 × 7 incomplete diallel cross of seven wheat parents during the crop season of 2009 to 2010. Mean square of general ... Genetic background and yield traits of the seven parents. Parent. Pedigree. Released year ..... Correlation and path analysis for yield and yield contributing characters in wheat (Triticum ...

  10. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. yield as affected by nitrogen fertilization and different water regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Ferreira-Santos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to its origin and hardiness, safflower is usually cultivated in low-fertility soils with few inputs and no irrigation. In Brazil, little is known about its response to nitrogen (N and irrigation. This study was carried out near the city of Engenheiro Coelho, SP, Brazil, in 2014, in order to determine the effect of increasing nitrogen application rates (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 kg ha-1 on safflower cultivation under irrigation and rainfed conditions. The use of irrigation during drought periods allowed stress reduction and significantly increased yield components and grain yield. Safflower yield was influenced by the interaction between water regimes and nitrogen rates. Grain yield may vary depending on several factors, however, maximum yield was achieved with rates of 208 and 214 kg N ha-1 under irrigation and rainfed conditions, respectively. For oil yield, 200 kg N ha-1 were sufficient, regardless of the water regime.

  11. Combined sputtering yield and surface topography development studies on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Lewis, G.W.; Whitton, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The sputtering yield-incidence angle function has been measured for 8 keV Ar + ions incident on Si by direct scanning electron microscope observation of the depths of sputtered craters on substrate boundaries. This function displays a maximum sputtering yield at an angle thetasub(p) approximately equal to 40 0 to the surface normal. The sequential ion fluence dependence of features developed beneath local surface contaminant was then studied, quasi dynamically, in the same on-line ion source-S.E.M. system. During erosion of the contaminant a steeply elevated pillar of Si forms, which then transforms to a cone, again of high elevation angle >>thetasub(p). This cone is gradually eroded into the surrounding surface with no special significance associated with orientations of angle thetasub(p). Pedal depressions surrounding the pillar-cone system are also noted. The reasons for these observations and their relevance to ion beam surface channel etching are discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Ionization yield from electron tracks in liquid xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronova, T.Ya.; Kipsanov, M.A.; Kruglov, A.A.; Obodovskij, I.M.; Pokachalov, S.G.; Shilov, V.A.; Khristich, E.B.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for calculating coefficients K β , characterizing ionization yield from electron track in liquid xenon are considered. K β calculation is conducted on the base of experimental data on K parameter characterizing ionization yield from a certain combination of photo-, Compton-and Auger electron tracks. K parameter measurements are conducted in liquid xenon at 170 K temperature within 10-30 keV gamma- and X radiation energy ranges. Calculated dependence of K β and K coefficients on the energy in a wide (5-500 keV) range is presented. K β values obtained can be applied for calculating the energy resolution of a gamma-spectrometer and linearity of its calibration characteristics if the electric field intensity in the spectrometer does not exceed some kV/cm

  13. On the yield stress of complex materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderas, F.; Herrera-Valencia, E. E.; Sanchez-Solis, A.; Manero, O.; Medina-Torres, L.; Renteria, A.; Sanchez-Olivares, G.

    2013-11-01

    In the present work, the yield stress of complex materials is analyzed and modeled using the Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) constitutive equation, consisting of the upper-convected Maxwell equation coupled to a kinetic equation to account for the breakdown and reformation of the fluid structure. BMP model predictions for a complex fluid in different flow situations are analyzed and compared with yield stress predictions of other rheological models, and with experiments on fluids that exhibit yield stresses. It is shown that one of the main features of the BMP model is that it predicts a real yield stress (elastic solid or Hookean behavior) as one of the material parameters, the zero shear-rate fluidity, is zero. In addition, the transition to fluid-like behavior is continuous, as opposed to predictions of more empirical models.

  14. Hydrogeological Characteristics of Groundwater Yield in Shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrogeological Characteristics of Groundwater Yield in Shallow Wells of the ... of Water Resources and Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority in Ilorin. ... moment correlation, multiple and stepwise multiple regression analysis.

  15. Accelerated yield learning in agressive lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Ashkenaz, Scott M.; Chen, Xing; Lord, Patrick J.; Merrill, Mark A.; Quattrini, Rich; Wiley, James N.

    2000-06-01

    As exposure wavelengths decrease from 248 nm to 193, 157, and even 13 nm (EUV), small process defects can cause collapse of the lithographic process window near the limits of resolution, particularly for the gate and contact structures in high- performance devices. Such sensitivity poses a challenge for lithography process module control. In this work, we show that yield loss can be caused by a combination of macro, micro, CD, and overlay defects. A defect is defined as any yield- affecting process variation. Each defect, regardless of cause, is assumed to have a specific 'kill potential.' The accuracy of the lithographic yield model can be improved by identifying those defects with the highest kill potential or, more importantly, those that pose the highest economic risk. Such economic considerations have led us to develop a simple heuristic model for understanding sampling strategies in defect metrology and for linking metrology capability to yield and profitability.

  16. Agricultural yields of irradiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Miranda, E.; Sanchez, M.

    1999-01-01

    Lettuce, radish and ryegrass have been used to study the nitrogen fertilization of soil by sewage sludge. The results show that the irradiated sludge improve by 15 - 30 % the production yield, compared to the non-irradiated sludge. (author)

  17. Enhancing the muon-catalyzed fusion yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    Much has been learned about muon-catalyzed fusion since the last conference on emerging nuclear energy systems. Here the authors consider what they have learned about enhancing the muon-catalyzed fusion energy yield

  18. Independent isomer yield ratio of 90Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Warner, R.A.; Ford, G.P.; Willmes, H.

    1985-05-01

    The independent isomer yield ratio for 90 Rb from thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been measured by use of a new technique involving a pulsed reactor and an on-line mass spectrometer facility. The apparent isomer yield ratio was measured for different ion collection time intervals and extrapolated to zero collection time to eliminate interference from 90 Kr decay. The observed isomer yield ratio of 8.7 +- 1.0 is one of the largest ratios measured for a low energy fission process. However, a statistical model analysis shows that the average angular momentum ( = 4.5) deduced from this isomer yield ratio is consistent with average angular momentum for other products from low energy fission. 7 refs

  19. Remotely sensed rice yield prediction using multi-temporal NDVI data derived from NOAA's-AVHRR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xiuzhen; Li, Xinxing; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Zhuokun

    2013-01-01

    Grain-yield prediction using remotely sensed data have been intensively studied in wheat and maize, but such information is limited in rice, barley, oats and soybeans. The present study proposes a new framework for rice-yield prediction, which eliminates the influence of the technology development, fertilizer application, and management improvement and can be used for the development and implementation of provincial rice-yield predictions. The technique requires the collection of remotely sensed data over an adequate time frame and a corresponding record of the region's crop yields. Longer normalized-difference-vegetation-index (NDVI) time series are preferable to shorter ones for the purposes of rice-yield prediction because the well-contrasted seasons in a longer time series provide the opportunity to build regression models with a wide application range. A regression analysis of the yield versus the year indicated an annual gain in the rice yield of 50 to 128 kg ha(-1). Stepwise regression models for the remotely sensed rice-yield predictions have been developed for five typical rice-growing provinces in China. The prediction models for the remotely sensed rice yield indicated that the influences of the NDVIs on the rice yield were always positive. The association between the predicted and observed rice yields was highly significant without obvious outliers from 1982 to 2004. Independent validation found that the overall relative error is approximately 5.82%, and a majority of the relative errors were less than 5% in 2005 and 2006, depending on the study area. The proposed models can be used in an operational context to predict rice yields at the provincial level in China. The methodologies described in the present paper can be applied to any crop for which a sufficient time series of NDVI data and the corresponding historical yield information are available, as long as the historical yield increases significantly.

  20. Central Bank Communication and the Yield Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leombroni, Matteo; Vedolin, Andrea; Venter, Gyuri

    countries. We study two explanations for this finding, revelation of the ECB’s private information and credit risk, and argue that neither channel can explain the effect on yield spreads. Motivated by this, we consider an alternative explanation in which central bank communication affects the aggregate...... demand due to the presence of reaching-for-yield investors. We show that a resulting risk premium channel helps to rationalize our findings....

  1. Central Bank Communication and the Yield Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leombroni, Matteo; Vedolin, Andrea; Venter, Gyuri

    versus peripheral countries. We study two explanations for this finding, revelation of the ECB's private information and credit risk, and argue that neither channel can explain the effect on yield spreads. Motivated by this, we consider an alternative explanation in which central bank communication can...... induce demand shocks for bonds due to the presence of reaching-for-yield investors. We show that a resulting risk premium channel helps to rationalize our findings....

  2. Interactive effects of pests increase seed yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagic, Vesna; Riggi, Laura Ga; Ekbom, Barbara; Malsher, Gerard; Rusch, Adrien; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Loss in seed yield and therefore decrease in plant fitness due to simultaneous attacks by multiple herbivores is not necessarily additive, as demonstrated in evolutionary studies on wild plants. However, it is not clear how this transfers to crop plants that grow in very different conditions compared to wild plants. Nevertheless, loss in crop seed yield caused by any single pest is most often studied in isolation although crop plants are attacked by many pests that can cause substantial yield losses. This is especially important for crops able to compensate and even overcompensate for the damage. We investigated the interactive impacts on crop yield of four insect pests attacking different plant parts at different times during the cropping season. In 15 oilseed rape fields in Sweden, we estimated the damage caused by seed and stem weevils, pollen beetles, and pod midges. Pest pressure varied drastically among fields with very low correlation among pests, allowing us to explore interactive impacts on yield from attacks by multiple species. The plant damage caused by each pest species individually had, as expected, either no, or a negative impact on seed yield and the strongest negative effect was caused by pollen beetles. However, seed yield increased when plant damage caused by both seed and stem weevils was high, presumably due to the joint plant compensatory reaction to insect attack leading to overcompensation. Hence, attacks by several pests can change the impact on yield of individual pest species. Economic thresholds based on single species, on which pest management decisions currently rely, may therefore result in economically suboptimal choices being made and unnecessary excessive use of insecticides.

  3. Expectations, Bond Yields and Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Albert Lee

    2011-01-01

    expectations about inflation, output growth, and the anticipated path of monetary policy actions contain important information for explaining movements in bond yields. Estimates from a forward-looking monetary policy rule suggest that the central bank exhibits a preemptive response to inflationary expectations...... of this type may provide traders and policymakers with a new set of tools for formally assessing the reaction of bond yields to shifts in market expectations...

  4. N-acetylcysteine increased rice yield

    OpenAIRE

    NOZULAIDI, MOHD; JAHAN, MD SARWAR; KHAIRI, MOHD; KHANDAKER, MOHAMMAD MONERUZZAMAN; NASHRIYAH, MAT; KHANIF, YUSOP MOHD

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) biosynthesized reduced glutathione (GSH), which maintains redox homeostasis in plants under normal and stressful conditions. To justify the effects of NAC on rice production, we measured yield parameters, chlorophyll (Chl) content, minimum Chl fluorescence (Fo), maximum Chl fluorescence (Fm), quantum yield (Fv/Fm), net photosynthesis rate (Pn), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and relative water content (RWC). Four treatments, N1G0 (nitrogen (N) with no NAC), ...

  5. Development of high yielding mutants in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.A.; Sarwar, G.; Siddiqui, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) locally known as Masoor, is the second most important rabi pulse crop, after chickpea, in Pakistan. It is cultivated on an area of over 63,400 ha, which constitutes about 4.83% of the total area under pulses. The annual production of the crop is 28,200 tones with an average yield of 445 kg/ha. Yield at the national level is very low, about one-half of the world's yield, which is mainly due to non-availability of high yield potential genotypes. Keeping in view the importance of mutants in developing a large number of new varieties, an induced mutations programme was initiated at AEARC, Tandojam during 1987-88, to develop high yielding varieties in lentil. For this, seeds of two lentil varieties, 'Masoor-85' and 'ICARDA-8' had been irradiated with gamma-rays ranging from 100-600 Gy in NIAB, Faisalabad during 1990. Selections were made in M2 on the basis of earliness, plant height, branches/plant and 100 grain weight. After confirming these mutants in M3 they were promoted in station yield trials and studied continuously for three consecutive years (1993- 1995). Overall results revealed that these mutants have consistent improvement of earliness in flowering and maturity. Plant height also increased in all mutant lines except AEL 23/40/91 where reduction in this attribute was observed as compared to parent variety. Mutant lines AEL 49/20/91 and AEL 13/30/91 showed improvement in 100 grain weight. The improvement of some agronomic characters enhanced the yield of mutant lines in comparison to parent varieties (Masoor-85 and ICARDA-8). The diversity in yield over the respective parents was computed from 6.94 to 60.12%. From these encouraging results it is hoped that mutant lines like AEL 12/30/91 and AEL 49/20/91 may serve as potential lentil genotypes in future. (author)

  6. Photophysics of the variable quantum yield of asymmetric bilirubin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troup, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Bilirubin (BR), responsible for neonatal jaundice, is a molecule containing two pyrromethenone chromophores conjoined by a 'saturated' carbon CH 2 group. Because this disease is cured by phototherapy, BR has been extensively studied by laser means. When the chromophores in each half of the molecule are identical, we have symmetrical BR (SBR); when they are not, we have asymmetric BR (ASBR). The quantum yield of the photoproducts in simple organic solution from SBR is not wavelength-dependent, while that from ASBR is. Because of the proximity of the two chromophores, both the SBR and ASBR systems are subject to Davidoff (dynamic electric dipole) splitting of the chromophore excited states. A quantum mechanical calculation shows that when the two (ASBR) chromophore states are not degenerate, the higher Davidoff state is preferentially occupied by the chromophore with the 'original' higher energy, and the lower Davidoff state by the chromophore of 'original' lower energy. This is just what is required for the quantum yield to vary with wavelength. If the variation of the quantum yield of ASBR in the presence of human serum albumen is approximated by a square-wave (narrow line approximation), the deduced ratio of the short wavelength photoproduct yield with the long wavelength one is in agreement with accepted values for the 'original' energy difference of the chromophores, and the Davidoff splitting parameter. A previous explanation has involved variation of relaxation processes with wavelength, but only qualitatively. The quantum yields for SBRs bonded to HSA are not yet published, but show wavelength variation, possibly from asymmetric bonding. In 0.1% ammonia/methanol however, there is no such variation for the SBRs, while for ASBR, there is, and the photoproduct ratios for long and short wavelength are reciprocals of one another, as predicted by our theory

  7. CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS AND GRAIN YIELD OF RICE FOR TIDAL SWAMP AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Hairmansis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of rice varieties for tidal swamp areas is emphasized on the improvement of rice yield potential in specific environment. However, grain yield is a complex trait and highly dependent on the other agronomic characters; while information related to the relationship between agronomic characters and grain yield in the breeding program particularly for tidal swamp areas is very limited. The objective of this study was to investigate relationship between agronomic characters and grain yield of rice as a basis for selection of high yielding rice varieties for tidal swamp areas. Agronomic characters and grain yield of nine advanced rice breeding lines and two rice varieties were evaluated in a series of experiments in tidal swamp areas, Karang Agung Ulu Village, Banyuasin, South Sumatra, for four cropping seasons in dry season (DS 2005, wet season (WS 2005/2006, DS 2006, and DS 2007. Result from path analysis revealed that the following characters had positive direct effect on grain yield, i.e. number of productive tillers per hill (p = 0.356, number of filled grains per panicle (p = 0.544, and spikelet fertility (p = 0.215. Plant height had negative direct effect (p = -0.332 on grain yield, while maturity, number of spikelets per panicle, and 1000-grain weight showed negligible effect on rice grain yield. Present study suggests that indirect selection of high yielding tidal swamp rice can be done by selecting breeding lines which have many product tive tillers, dense filled grains, and high spikelet fertility.

  8. Yield response of cotton, maize, soybean, sugar beet, sunflower and wheat to deficit irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirda, C.; Kanber, R.; Tulucu, K.

    1995-01-01

    Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programmes in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of sugar beet with water stress imposed (i e.,irrigation omitted)during ripening,stage saved nearly 22 % water, yet with no significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Turkey Region, the European part of Turkey,and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower(i e,yield vs water consumption), revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stags influence yield the least , and 40 % savings of irrigation water supply , compared with traditional practices in the region, can be achieved without significant yield reduction. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of maize hindered the yield most significantly. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A four year field experiments aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was at the most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. Results of experiments on cotton showed that irrigations omitted during yield formation stage did not significantly hinder the yield. Similarly wheat give good yield response if irrigated at booting,heading and milking stages, depending on w heather conditions. In areas where rainfall at planting is limited, supplementary irrigation during this period can ensure good establishment of wheat crop. 1 tab; 9 figs; 59 refs (Author)

  9. Genotype x environment interaction and stability analysis for yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    etc

    2015-05-06

    . Combined analysis of variance (ANOVA) for yield and yield components revealed highly significant .... yield stability among varieties, multi-location trials with ... Mean grain yield (kg/ha) of 17 Kabuli-type chickpea genotypes ...

  10. Effect of Organic Fertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M Azimzadeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soil organic matters impose direct and indirect effect on crop production through providing of nutrients and also improvement of soil physical condition and stimulation of plant growth. It also seems that plant production based on application of organic fertilizers is more stable than application of chemical fertilizers. So, there has been lots of attention from agronomists, ecologists and consumers toward organic fertilizers. In organic farming, agricultural ecosystem is considered as a living thing and integrated totality, so in this system, soil, crop, microorganisms and micro-climate affect on each other and also are under the effect of each other. For better performance of this system, each component should be in its appropriate condition. Periodical reverse of organic matter to soil and crop rotation will improve biological and physical characteristics of soil. However, balance of nutrients in organic matter which is available for plant is important because causes less dependence to chemical fertilizers. Indeed, nutrients balance is more important than application of chemical fertilizers that can lead to water pollution and decreasing quality of food products. Application of chemical fertilizers caused considerable increasing of farmer's income in last decade. These fertilizers also imposed ecological and environmental problems. In Iran like most of the countries, overusing of chemical inputs like fertilizers has caused destruction of water and soil resources. In addition, leaching of soluble chemical fertilizers specially nitrogen fertilizers has caused pollution of drinking water and overfilling of the water of lakes and ponds in some regions. So researchers have done a lot of effort to replace organic and biological fertilizers with chemical one. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of organic fertilizers on safflower production. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the effect of organic fertilizers and

  11. Requests for fission yield measurements. A supplement to WRENDA 93/94 (published as INDC(SEC)-104)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammer, M.

    1994-02-01

    The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Compilation and Evaluation of Fission Yield Nuclear Data has been established with the goal to improve the evaluation process, include the energy dependence of yields and full covariance information in the data base. The evaluation of experimental fission yield information is supplemented by semi-empirical model calculations. Measured fission yields are still insufficient to provide users with reliable data for the requested yield sets. Therefore, CRP participants elaborated and issued requests for further measurements: General requests, primarily for systematic studies, to help improving model parameters and evaluating the energy dependence of yields; tables of specific deficient yield data, where no or only one measurement exists, or where data are discrepant. (author)

  12. Effect of Mycorrhizal Fungus (Glomus spp on Wheat (Triticumaestivum Yield and Yield Components with Regard to Irrigation Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Habibi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Decrease in water quality affected by salinization of the water resources due to the drought is one of the limiting factors of plant production. Using mycorrhizal fungi is an important approach to deal with damaging effects during stress conditions. The symbiosis of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM with the host plant and hence, the production of a very extensive network of hypha, enhances nutrient acquisition and improves water uptake in the host plant. The specialized network of hypha raises the uptake and translocation of nutrients to the plant, whereas it inhibits high uptake of Na and Cl and their transport to plant shoots compared with plant roots. Hence, AM can alleviate the stress of salinity on plant growth and increases their tolerance to the stresses. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on yield and yield components of wheat, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in research farm of Shahid Chamran Ahvaz University. Experimental design was a randomized complete block design arranged in split factorial with three replications. The factors were water salinity (water quality including filtered water (EC ≥ 1 dS m-1, tap water (EC = 1/7-3 ds m-1, tap water plus NaCl and filtered water plus NaCl (EC = 8 ds m-1. Soil sterilization included sterilized and non-sterilized soil and mycorrhizal inoculation were in five levels (non-inoculated, inoculated with ‌Glomusmosseae, G. intraradices, G. geosporum and mixture of them. Yield and yield components were measured at crop maturity and colonization percentage of root was determined at flowering stage. Root colonization by AM was determined through preparing root samples at 1 g in each experimental unit, and roots were stained using the Gridline- Intersect Method. The harvest index and mycorrhizal dependency were also measured. Salinity levels determined approximate the threshold of wheat –tolerate- salinity before the results would rather

  13. Metabolic enzyme cost explains variable trade-offs between microbial growth rate and yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike T Wortel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbes may maximize the number of daughter cells per time or per amount of nutrients consumed. These two strategies correspond, respectively, to the use of enzyme-efficient or substrate-efficient metabolic pathways. In reality, fast growth is often associated with wasteful, yield-inefficient metabolism, and a general thermodynamic trade-off between growth rate and biomass yield has been proposed to explain this. We studied growth rate/yield trade-offs by using a novel modeling framework, Enzyme-Flux Cost Minimization (EFCM and by assuming that the growth rate depends directly on the enzyme investment per rate of biomass production. In a comprehensive mathematical model of core metabolism in E. coli, we screened all elementary flux modes leading to cell synthesis, characterized them by the growth rates and yields they provide, and studied the shape of the resulting rate/yield Pareto front. By varying the model parameters, we found that the rate/yield trade-off is not universal, but depends on metabolic kinetics and environmental conditions. A prominent trade-off emerges under oxygen-limited growth, where yield-inefficient pathways support a 2-to-3 times higher growth rate than yield-efficient pathways. EFCM can be widely used to predict optimal metabolic states and growth rates under varying nutrient levels, perturbations of enzyme parameters, and single or multiple gene knockouts.

  14. Soybean growth and yield under cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in no-tillage systems can provide better conditions for the development of soybean plants with positive effects on grain yield and growth analysis techniques allow researchers to characterize and understand the behavior of soybean plants under different straw covers. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize, using growth analysis, yield components and agronomic performance of soybean under common bean, Brachiaria brizantha and pearl millet straws. The experiment was performed on a soil under cerrado in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three treatments (cover crops and five replications. Soybean grain yield was lower in the B. brizantha straw treatment (3,708 kg ha-1 than both in the pearl millet (4.772 kg ha-1 and common bean straw treatments (5,200 kg ha-1. The soybean growth analysis in B. brizantha, pearl millet and common bean allowed characterizing the variation in the production of dry matter of leaves, stems, pods and total and leaf area index that provided different grain yields. The cover crop directly affects the soybean grain yield.

  15. Evaluation of Yield, Yield Components and Growth Indices of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. in Conventional and Organic Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Hajghani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Application of organic fertilizers in sustainable agriculture systems improves yield sustainability of field crop. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is native to Middle East and belongs to the Asteraceae family. It is resistant to saline conditions, water stress, and can reach the deep-lying water of soil. The humic acid (HA mentioned as an environmentally friendly, organic matter with low levels of hormonal-like compounds is useful in improving agriculture production (Samavat and Malakuti 2006. The HA influence on plant growth depends on the source, concentration and molecular weight of the substance. Vermicompost is produced by earthworms, mainly Eisenia foetida, it has higher levels of available nutrients compared to the original materials of composts produced by other methods. Recent evidences suggest that using different amounts of vermicompost increased vegetative traits and concentration of minerals in sunflower. However, there has been little discussion about organic farming of safflower. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of organic treatments on yield, yield components, and growth indices of safflower and to compare it with conventional agriculture. Materials and methods This research was conducted in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station in Kerman, Iran during 2012–2013. It was carried out in a randomized complete block (RCB design and had three replications. The current research has been performed to investigate the effects of two different sources of organic fertilizer on spring safflower. Four levels of vermicompost (V: 0, 3, 6 and 9 t ha-1 were considered in the main plots. Liquid humic acid at four different concentrations (HA: 0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm were examined and kept in the subplots. Humic acid as a foliar treatment on leaf surface was applied twice at the beginning of stem elongation and at flowering times. In this study, aimed to compare organic farming

  16. Particle debonding using different yield criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Kuroda, Mitsutoshi

    2004-01-01

    Effects of plastic anisotropy in relation to debonding of rigid inclusions embedded in an elastic-viscoplastic metal are studied. Full finite strain analyses are carried out for plane cells assuming plane stress or plane strain. The overall stress strain response is calculated, when the cell......-matrix debonding. Keeping all material parameters fixed, the material response of the plane strain cell is considerably affected, due to debonding at a much reduced overall plastic strain compared to the corresponding plane stress cell. (C) 2004 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved....... extent and shape of the particular yield function considered. The required overall straining of the cell for debonding initiation is related to the extent of the yield surfaces, since a high yield stress promotes debonding. Additionally, the maximum overall stress level for the cell is lower for the Hill...

  17. Satellite-based assessment of grassland yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K.; Siegmund, R.; Wagner, M.; Hartmann, S.

    2015-04-01

    Cutting date and frequency are important parameters determining grassland yields in addition to the effects of weather, soil conditions, plant composition and fertilisation. Because accurate and area-wide data of grassland yields are currently not available, cutting frequency can be used to estimate yields. In this project, a method to detect cutting dates via surface changes in radar images is developed. The combination of this method with a grassland yield model will result in more reliable and regional-wide numbers of grassland yields. For the test-phase of the monitoring project, a study area situated southeast of Munich, Germany, was chosen due to its high density of managed grassland. For determining grassland cutting robust amplitude change detection techniques are used evaluating radar amplitude or backscatter statistics before and after the cutting event. CosmoSkyMed and Sentinel-1A data were analysed. All detected cuts were verified according to in-situ measurements recorded in a GIS database. Although the SAR systems had various acquisition geometries, the amount of detected grassland cut was quite similar. Of 154 tested grassland plots, covering in total 436 ha, 116 and 111 cuts were detected using CosmoSkyMed and Sentinel-1A radar data, respectively. Further improvement of radar data processes as well as additional analyses with higher sample number and wider land surface coverage will follow for optimisation of the method and for validation and generalisation of the results of this feasibility study. The automation of this method will than allow for an area-wide and cost efficient cutting date detection service improving grassland yield models.

  18. Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Yield and Yield Components of Sesame (Sesamumindicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Ibrahim; Manzoor Hussain; Ahmad Khan; Yousaf Jamal; Muhammad Ali; Muhammad Faisal Anwar Malik

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is a structural component of chlorophyll and protein therefore adequate supply of nitrogen is beneficial for both carbohydrates and protein metabolism as it promotes cell division and cell enlargement, resulting in more leaf area and thus ensuring good seed and dry matter yield. Theexperiment entitled effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on yield and yield components of sesame were conducted at New Developmental Farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar during kharif 2013. Randomiz...

  19. Production yields of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchioni, E.; Ennahar, S.

    2009-01-01

    2-alkycyclobutanones are formed by irradiation exclusively, and are considered as unique radiolytic product (URP). Because of the URP character of the 2-alkycyclobutanones, these compounds are good marker of irradiation treatment. The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) developed an analytical method (EN 1785) for detection of 2-alkycyclobutanones having a detection limit of 0.2 pmol, limiting the application to foodstuffs treated for microbial disinfection (doses > 0.5 kGy), with fat content higher than 1.0 g %. The use of this EN 1785 and the supercritical extraction analytical methods allowed the determination of the production yields of 2-alkycyclobutanones in broad range of foodstuffs. The obtained production yields were between 0.20 and 12.21 nmol/mmol fatty acid/kGy), and showed strong dependency from he nature of the food matrix. The amount 2-alkycyclobutanones intake from irradiated foodstuffs by consumer calculated based on production yields determined in this work show, that the doses used in toxicological studies were much higher, than that are consumed by human through eating irradiated foods. (author)

  20. Production yields of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchioni, E.; Ennahar, S. [Universite de Strasbourg, Illkirch (France). Faculte de Pharmacie. Lab. de Chimie Analytique et Sciences de l' Aliment], e-mail: marchion@unistra.fr, e-mail: ennahar@unistra.fr; Horvatovich, P. [University of Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Pharmacy. Analytical Biochemistry], e-mail: p.l.horvatovich@rug.nl; Ndiaye, B. [Centre Hospitalier National de Fann, Dakar (Senegal)], e-mail: ibamath@hotmail.com

    2009-07-01

    2-alkycyclobutanones are formed by irradiation exclusively, and are considered as unique radiolytic product (URP). Because of the URP character of the 2-alkycyclobutanones, these compounds are good marker of irradiation treatment. The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) developed an analytical method (EN 1785) for detection of 2-alkycyclobutanones having a detection limit of 0.2 pmol, limiting the application to foodstuffs treated for microbial disinfection (doses > 0.5 kGy), with fat content higher than 1.0 g %. The use of this EN 1785 and the supercritical extraction analytical methods allowed the determination of the production yields of 2-alkycyclobutanones in broad range of foodstuffs. The obtained production yields were between 0.20 and 12.21 nmol/mmol fatty acid/kGy), and showed strong dependency from he nature of the food matrix. The amount 2-alkycyclobutanones intake from irradiated foodstuffs by consumer calculated based on production yields determined in this work show, that the doses used in toxicological studies were much higher, than that are consumed by human through eating irradiated foods. (author)

  1. RADIOCHEMICAL YIELDS OF GRAFT POLYMERIZATION REACTIONS OF CELLULOSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Jr, J C; Blouin, F A

    1963-12-15

    The preparation of radioinduced graft polymers of cotton cellulose, while retaining the fibrous nature and high molecular weight of the cellulose, depended primarily on the radiochemical yields of cellulose reactions and of graft polymerization reactions. Yields of the initial major molecular changes in cellulosic polymer indicated that, in the case of scission of the molecule and carboxyl group formation, chain reactions were not initiated by radiation; however, in the case of carbonyl group formation chain reactions were initiated but quickly terminated. Generally, experimental procedures, used in graft polymerization reactions, were: simultaneous irradiation reactions, that is, application of monomers or solutions of monomers to cellulose or chemically modified celluloses, then irradiation; and post-irradiation reactions, that is, irradiation of cellulose or chemically modified celluloses, then after removal from the field of radiation, contacting the irradiated cellulose with monomer. Some of the most important factors influencing the radiochemical yields of graft polymerization reactions, of styrene and acrylonitrile onto cellulose were: concentration of monomer in treating solution; solvent; ratio of monomer solution to cellulose; prior chemical modification of cellulose; and absence of oxygen, particularly in post-irradiation reactions. Experimental data are presented, and the direct and indirect effects of Co/sup 60/ gamma radiation on these reactions are discussed. (auth)

  2. Study of Winter Wheat Yield Quality Analysis at ARDS Turda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Adrian Ceclan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the potential for yield and quality indicators for winter wheat genotypes in terms of pedological and climate condition and applied technology, at ARDS Turda during 2014 – 2015. Depending on the climatic conditions that are associated with applied technology is a decisive factor in successful wheat crop for all genotypes that were studied at Ards Turda during the 2014 – 2016. That’s wy each genotype responded differently to the conditions of the ARDS Turda also through the two levels of fertilisations applied in the winter with fertilizers 20:20:0, 250 kg/ha assuring 50 kg/ha N and P active substance and second level of fertilisations with 150 kg/ha ammonium nitrate assuring 50 kg/ha N active substance. All genotype that were studied in terms of yield and quality indicators were influenced by the fertilization level. The influence of pedo-climatic conditions, applied technologies and fertilizers level at ARDS Turda showed that all genotypes with small yield had higher protein and gluten content respectively Zeleny index.

  3. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    This paper analyzes the strong comovement between real stock and nominal bond yields at generational (low) frequencies. Life-cycle patterns in savings behavior in an overlapping generations model with cash-in-advance constraints explain this persistent comovement between financial yields. We argue...... that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...

  4. Quality and Yield of Cannabis Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastorp, Grith; Lindholst, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. 180 seizures containing 667 different samples of cannabis products from 5 police districts in Jutland were examined from 2008 to the present. The samples were divided into the groups: hashish, marihuana (leaves and buds) and whole plants (indoors and outdoors). Cannabis seized from indoor...... cultivation was examined in order to determine THC content and yield. The results are used by the Danish Police Attorney to estimate expected yields in cases with unripe cannabis plants. The results indicate that the THC content found in locally grown marihuana is slightly higher than in hashish. However...

  5. Systematics of neutron-induced fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachot, J.; Brissot, R.

    1983-10-01

    The main characteristics of the mass and charge distributions for thermal neutron induced fission of actinides are reviewed. We show that these distributions can be reasonably reproduced with only 24 data as input. We use a representation where the element yields together with the most probable mass Ap(Z) play the dominant role. The ability of this model to calculate mass yields for the fission of not yet measured actinides is also shown. The influence of the excitation energy of the fissile system on charge and mass distribution is also discussed

  6. PREOVULATORY FOLLICLE DEVELOPMENT IN HIGH YIELDING COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Tomášek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the development of preovulatory follicles in pregnant and non-pregnant high yielding cows. The treatment by supergestran and oestrophan was used to synchronize the estrous cycle. Ovaries were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. The linear increase of preovulatory follicles was observed in pregnant (P < 0,001 and non-pregnant (P < 0,001 cows during 8 days before ovulation. In conclusion, preovulatory follicles in pregnant and non-pregnant high yielding cows developed similarly.

  7. Neutron yield measurements on a TMX endplug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaughter, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron yield measurements were made on the east endplug of TMX using a calibrated recoil proton counter. The detector consists of a liquid scintillator (NE 213) with a pulse shape discrimination property that allows for identifying photon and neutron interactions. An energy threshold is established to suppress the response to scattered neutrons with energies lower than 1 to 2 MeV. Results indicate there are typical neutron yields of 2 to 3 x 10 11 n/s during a 25-ms discharge with 200 A of 20-keV neutral beam injection into the endplug

  8. High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudou, Jean-Paul; Curmi, Patrick A [Structure and Activity of Normal and Pathological Biomolecules-INSERM/UEVE U829, Universite d' Evry-Val d' Essonne, Batiment Maupertuis, Rue du pere Andre Jarlan, F-91025 Evry (France); Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrischnan; Reuter, Rolf [3.Physikalisches Institut, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Aubert, Pascal [Nanometric Media Laboratory, Universite d' Evry-Val d' Essonne, Batiment Maupertuis, Rue du pere Andre Jarlan, F-91025 Evry (France); Sennour, Mohamed; Thorel, Alain [Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris, ParisTech, BP 87, F-91000 Evry (France); Gaffet, Eric [Nanomaterials Research Group-UMR 5060, CNRS, UTBM, Site de Sevenans, F-90010 Belfort (France)], E-mail: jpb.cnrs@free.fr, E-mail: pcurmi@univ-evry.fr, E-mail: f.jelezko@physik.uni-stuttgart.de

    2009-06-10

    A new fabrication method to produce homogeneously fluorescent nanodiamonds with high yields is described. The powder obtained by high energy ball milling of fluorescent high pressure, high temperature diamond microcrystals was converted in a pure concentrated aqueous colloidal dispersion of highly crystalline ultrasmall nanoparticles with a mean size less than or equal to 10 nm. The whole fabrication yield of colloidal quasi-spherical nanodiamonds was several orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported starting from microdiamonds. The results open up avenues for the industrial cost-effective production of fluorescent nanodiamonds with well-controlled properties.

  9. High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudou, Jean-Paul; Curmi, Patrick A; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrischnan; Reuter, Rolf; Aubert, Pascal; Sennour, Mohamed; Thorel, Alain; Gaffet, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new fabrication method to produce homogeneously fluorescent nanodiamonds with high yields is described. The powder obtained by high energy ball milling of fluorescent high pressure, high temperature diamond microcrystals was converted in a pure concentrated aqueous colloidal dispersion of highly crystalline ultrasmall nanoparticles with a mean size less than or equal to 10 nm. The whole fabrication yield of colloidal quasi-spherical nanodiamonds was several orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported starting from microdiamonds. The results open up avenues for the industrial cost-effective production of fluorescent nanodiamonds with well-controlled properties.

  10. Yield, yield components and dry matter digestibility of alfalfa experimental populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is the most important forage crop grown in the temperate regions. It is cultivated for production of vegetative aerial mass used fresh or as hay, and recently as haylage and silage. In many centres worldwide, efforts are made to breed and create new alfalfa cultivars with both higher yields and of higher nutritional value. The aim of this paper was to determine yield and digestibility of 12 experimental populations of alfalfa, and to compare their results to the yields of well-known domestic alfalfa commercial cultivars. The results show significant differences in yield of green forage and dry matter among alfalfa populations, as well as in yield components, height, proportion of leaves in yield and growth rate (tab. 1, 2 and 3. Differences between in vitro digestible dry matter (% and yields of in vitro digestible dry matter (t ha-1 were also significant (tab. 5 and 6. Yield and quality of experimental populations were at the same level or higher than of control cultivars. Synthetic SINUSA exceeded the control cutivars (NS Mediana ZMS V and Banat VS in yield and quality of dry matter. .

  11. Fission product yield measurements using monoenergetic photon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishichayan; Bhike, M.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.

    2017-09-01

    Measurements of fission products yields (FPYs) are an important source of information on the fission process. During the past couple of years, a TUNL-LANL-LLNL collaboration has provided data on the FPYs from quasi monoenergetic neutron-induced fission on 235U, 238U, and 239Pu and has revealed an unexpected energy dependence of both asymmetric fission fragments at energies below 4 MeV. This peculiar FPY energy dependence was more pronounced in neutron-induced fission of 239Pu. In an effort to understand and compare the effect of the incoming probe on the FPY distribution, we have carried out monoenergetic photon-induced fission experiments on the same 235U, 238U, and 239Pu targets. Monoenergetic photon beams of Eγ = 13.0 MeV were provided by the HIγS facility, the world's most intense γ-ray source. In order to determine the total number of fission events, a dual-fission chamber was used during the irradiation. These irradiated samples were counted at the TUNL's low-background γ-ray counting facility using high efficient HPGe detectors over a period of 10 weeks. Here we report on our first ever photofission product yield measurements obtained with monoenegetic photon beams. These results are compared with neutron-induced FPY data.

  12. Fission product yield measurements using monoenergetic photon beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishichayan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of fission products yields (FPYs are an important source of information on the fission process. During the past couple of years, a TUNL-LANL-LLNL collaboration has provided data on the FPYs from quasi monoenergetic neutron-induced fission on 235U, 238U, and 239Pu and has revealed an unexpected energy dependence of both asymmetric fission fragments at energies below 4 MeV. This peculiar FPY energy dependence was more pronounced in neutron-induced fission of 239Pu. In an effort to understand and compare the effect of the incoming probe on the FPY distribution, we have carried out monoenergetic photon-induced fission experiments on the same 235U, 238U, and 239Pu targets. Monoenergetic photon beams of Eγ = 13.0 MeV were provided by the HIγS facility, the world's most intense γ-ray source. In order to determine the total number of fission events, a dual-fission chamber was used during the irradiation. These irradiated samples were counted at the TUNL's low-background γ-ray counting facility using high efficient HPGe detectors over a period of 10 weeks. Here we report on our first ever photofission product yield measurements obtained with monoenegetic photon beams. These results are compared with neutron-induced FPY data.

  13. Study of pp{yields}pp{eta} reaction at threshold; Etude de la reaction pp{yields}pp{eta} au seuil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleb, A

    1994-11-01

    The {eta} production has been studied through the pp {yields} pp{eta} reaction at threshold. Data were taken at the Synchrotron of the ``Laboratoire National Saturne``. The detection in coincidence of the two protons scattered near 0 deg and analysed with the magnetic spectrometer SPES3 allows the reconstruction of missing mass spectra for the {eta} signature. A simulation program which takes into account all the experimental set up characteristics has been realized and tested through the pp {yields} d{pi}{sup +} reaction detected simultaneously with pp {yields} pp{eta}. The generated proton momentum spectra for pp {yields} pp{eta} show a pronounced {eta} mass dependence. This characteristic, connected to the kinematical properties of pp {yields} pp{eta} at threshold, is used to extract the mass of the meson {eta}. The obtained value, m{sub {eta}} = 547.65 {+-} 0.18 MeV, is in good agreement with measurement done recently through the pd {yields} {sup H}e{eta} reaction. The total cross section {sigma}{sub t} of pp {yields} pp{eta} measured at 1260, 1265 and 1300 MeV presents a strong energy dependence. This cross section increases less with energy than the phase-space. The influence of p-p and {eta}-p final state interactions in our measurements is studied. Our results are compared with theoretical predictions and assess the dominant character of the baryonic resonance N{sup *}(1535) in the {eta} mechanism production at threshold. These experimental results give an energy dependence which is not well reproduced by the theoretical predictions. This discrepancy could be an incorrect description of the {eta}-p interaction in the models. (author). 48 refs., 60 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Dimension yields from yellow-poplar lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. Gilmore; J. D. Danielson

    1984-01-01

    The available supply of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), its potential for new uses, and its continuing importance to the furniture industry have created a need to accumulate additional information about this species. As an aid to better utilization of this species, charts for determining cutting stock yields from yellow poplar lumber are presented for each...

  15. Comparative morphophysiological and yield characteristics of musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that crop cycle did not significantly influenced height of the tallest sucker at harvest of the paint crop, black sigatoka disease responses and the fruit weight. All phonological and yield traits were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the environment evaluation. Similarly, genotype, genome groups and their ...

  16. Yield improvement of Kenyan sesame varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayiecho, P.O.; Nyabundi, J.O.

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to improve the yield of Kenyan sesame cultivars the seeds of three cultivars, SPS SIK6, SIK 096 and SPS SIK 50/1 were subjected to 300Gy, 400Gy and 600Gy of gamma rays. A first batch of seeds were subjected to these treatments in March 1994 (Experiment I) while the second batch was treated in March 1995 (Experiment II). The M 1 , M 2 , M 3 and M 4 generations of experiment I and M 1 generation of Experiment II were raised at the University of Nairobi Dryland Research Field Station, Kibwezi from 1994 to 1996. The M 6 and M 7 generations of Experiment I and M 2 of Experiment II were raised at Siaya Farmer's Training Centre in 1997. The effects of radiation in M 1 generation were expressed in reduced and delayed seedling emergence, reduced plant height, sectorial deformed plants, delayed flowering and extremely low yield. There was increased variation in M 2 for most evaluated traits. Plants in M 2 and subsequent generations were scored for a number of yield related morphological traits and days to flowering. Selection was done in the early generations for increased capsule number and earliness. As a result of selection, a total of 88 lines from M 4 generation were used to derive M 5 generation. Further selection in M 6 generation lead to 35 lines being retained for preliminary yield trials in M 7 generations. (author)

  17. Disentangling agronomic and economic yield gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Michiel; Morley, Tomas; Jongeneel, Roel; Ittersum, van Martin; Reidsma, Pytrik; Ruben, Ruerd

    2017-01-01

    Despite its frequent use in policy discussions on future agricultural production, both the concept of the yield gap and its determinants are understood differently by economists and agronomists. This study provides a micro-level framework that disentangles and integrates agronomic and economic

  18. PARTICULARITIES OF BUDGETING OF INVESTMENTS YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA JARMILA GUŢĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some particularities of the budget process of all the investments as a main aspect in taking the best decision according to the main use of all the firms’ resources. As a measure method of the investments yield the main one is that which describes the relationship between the profit and the investment which improves the deccisional process.

  19. Experimental assessment of bacterial storage yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahan-Gül, Ö.; Artan, N.; Orhon, D.

    2002-01-01

    to the amount of oxygen associated with substrate storage. Model simulation was used to evaluate the procedure for different initial experimental conditions. The procedure was tested on acetate. The same storage yield value of 0.76 gCOD/gCOD was calculated for two experiments, starting with different F/M ratios...

  20. Achieving maximum sustainable yield in mixed fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, Clara; Vermard, Youen; Dolder, Paul J.; Brunel, Thomas; Jardim, Ernesto; Holmes, Steven J.; Kempf, Alexander; Mortensen, Lars O.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Rindorf, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Achieving single species maximum sustainable yield (MSY) in complex and dynamic fisheries targeting multiple species (mixed fisheries) is challenging because achieving the objective for one species may mean missing the objective for another. The North Sea mixed fisheries are a representative example

  1. Yield gaps in Dutch arable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Vieira da Silva, Joao; Reidsma, Pytrik; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2017-01-01

    Arable farming systems in the Netherlands are characterized by crop rotations in which potato, sugar beet, spring onion, winter wheat and spring barley are the most important crops. The objectives of this study were to decompose crop yield gaps within such rotations into efficiency, resource and

  2. Yielding and flow of sheared colloidal glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petekidis, G; Vlassopoulos, D; Pusey, P N

    2004-01-01

    We have studied some of the rheological properties of suspensions of hard-sphere colloids with particular reference to behaviour near the concentration of the glass transition. First we monitored the strain on the samples during and after a transient step stress. We find that, at all values of applied step stress, colloidal glasses show a rapid, apparently elastic, recovery of strain after the stress is removed. This recovery is found even in samples which have flowed significantly during stressing. We attribute this behaviour to 'cage elasticity', the recovery of the stress-induced distorted environment of any particle to a more isotropic state when the stress is removed. Second, we monitored the stress as the strain rate dot γ of flowing samples was slowly decreased. Suspensions which are glassy at rest show a stress which becomes independent of dot γ as dot γ →0. This limiting stress can be interpreted as the yield stress of the glass and agrees well both with the yield stress deduced from the step stress and recovery measurements and that predicted by a recent mode coupling theory of sheared suspensions. Thus, the behaviours under steady shearing and transient step stress both support the idea that colloidal glasses have a finite yield stress. We note however that the samples do exhibit a slow accumulation of strain due to creep at stresses below the yield stress

  3. Bulk yields of nucleosynthesis from massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary estimates are made of the absolute yields of abundant nuclei synthesized in observed stars. The compositions of nine helium stars of mass 3 or =10M/sub sun/ is estimated. A variety of choices for the initial mass function (IMF) are used to calculate the yield per stellar generation. For standard choices of the (IMF) the absolute and relative yields of 12 C, 16 O, 20 Ne, 24 Mg, the Si to Ca group, and the iron group agree with solar system values, to the accuracy of the calculations. The relative yields are surprisingly insensitive to the slope of the IMF. In a second approach, using standard estimates (Ostriker, Richstone, and Thuan) for the current rate of stellar death, I find the present rate of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood to be about 10%of the average rate over galactic history. This result is consistent with many standard models of galactic evolution (for example, the Schmidt model in which star formation goes as gas density squared). It appears that if the star formation rate is high enough to produce the stars we see around us, then the nucleosynthesis rate is large enough to produce the processed nuclei (except 4 He) seen in those stars. The typical nucleosynthesis source is massive (Mapprox. =30 M/sub sun/); the death rate of such stars is a small fraction (3-10%) of recent estimates of the total rate of supernovae

  4. High yielding rice mutants for West Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, A.R.; Sen, S.

    1980-01-01

    Four high yielding mutants with specific genetic corrections of the simply inherited characters were developed from IR-8 through X-irradiation. Recurrent selections of the promising isolates were made under diverse agro-climatic conditions in Winter and Summer seasons of West Bengal. The isolates CNM 6 and CNM 25 belonging to early maturity group and CNM 20 and CNM 31, to mid-early maturity group were finally selected at X 5 generation on the basis of their resistance qualities, maturity period and grain yield. They were evaluated upto X 10 qeneration at multi-locations as Pre-release and Minikit Varieties at State level. They were also placed at the National Screening Nursery (NSN) for screening against multiple diseases and pests at the National level. CNM 6 is reported to be promising in IRTP nurseries. It is reported that CNM 25 (IET 5646) ranked 2nd on the basis of average grain yield, CNM 20 (IET 5937) and CNM 31 (IET 5936) were resistant to diseases and with yield comparable to Jaya. These four productive mutants of superior types are widely accepted. CNM 6 is recommended for cultivation in Bankura and Birbhum districts and CNM 25 and CNM 31 in the different agro-climatic zones of West Bengal. (author)

  5. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge

  6. Understanding the rheology of yield stress materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paredes Rojas, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the PhD research on the flow behavior of yield stress materials, using rheological measurements and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Experiments are performed in dispersed systems, such as emulsions, gels and foams; for these, when the amount of the dispersed phase is high

  7. Determination of low-energy ion-induced electron yields from thin carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegrini, Frederic; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Wurz, Peter; Bochsler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Ion beams crossing thin carbon foils can cause electron emission from the entrance and exit surface. Thin carbon foils are used in various types of time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers to produce start pulses for TOF measurements. The yield of emitted electrons depends, among other parameters, on the energy of the incoming ion and its mass, and it has been experimentally determined for a few projectile elements. The electron emission yield is of great importance for deriving abundance ratios of elements and isotopes in space plasmas using TOF mass spectrometers. We have developed a detector for measuring ion-induced electron yields, and we have extended the electron yield measurements for oxygen to energies relevant for solar wind research. We also present first measurements of the carbon foil electron emission yield for argon and iron in the solar wind energy range

  8. Use of Vegetation Health Data for Estimation of Aus Rice Yield in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Atiqur; Roytman, Leonid; Krakauer, Nir Y.; Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Goldberg, Mitch

    2009-01-01

    Rice is a vital staple crop for Bangladesh and surrounding countries, with interannual variation in yields depending on climatic conditions. We compared Bangladesh yield of aus rice, one of the main varieties grown, from official agricultural statistics with Vegetation Health (VH) Indices [Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI) and Vegetation Health Index (VHI)] computed from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data covering a period of 15 years (1991...

  9. Seed yield and some yield components of sesame as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the effect of different irrigation, N and superabsorbent levels on yield and yield components of sesame, a field experiment was conducted in Khosf Region, Birjand, Iran in 2009 as a split-split plot design based on a randomized complete block design. The treatments included irrigation interval at three levels ...

  10. Effect of sulfur and iron fertilizers on yield, yield components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-13

    Jun 13, 2011 ... per plant. Interaction between water stress and combination of iron and sulfur fertilizers had significant .... Results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) of water stress (W), sulfur (B) and iron (C), and their interaction with gain yield, yield components and ... the soil structure and it increased the usefulness of other.

  11. Influence of Inter and Intra-rows Spacing on Yield and Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abyssinia

    yield and yield components of fresh market(Bishola) and processing (Cochoro) tomato cultivars. ... row spacing had a significant effect on plan canopy width, above ground dry biomass, ... Poor varietal performance and management practices that includeinter and intra-row spacing ..... of assimilate export from the leaves.

  12. An adapted yield criterion for the evolution of subsequent yield surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsters, N.; Brosius, A.

    2017-09-01

    In numerical analysis of sheet metal forming processes, the anisotropic material behaviour is often modelled with isotropic work hardening and an average Lankford coefficient. In contrast, experimental observations show an evolution of the Lankford coefficients, which can be associated with a yield surface change due to kinematic and distortional hardening. Commonly, extensive efforts are carried out to describe these phenomena. In this paper an isotropic material model based on the Yld2000-2d criterion is adapted with an evolving yield exponent in order to change the yield surface shape. The yield exponent is linked to the accumulative plastic strain. This change has the effect of a rotating yield surface normal. As the normal is directly related to the Lankford coefficient, the change can be used to model the evolution of the Lankford coefficient during yielding. The paper will focus on the numerical implementation of the adapted material model for the FE-code LS-Dyna, mpi-version R7.1.2-d. A recently introduced identification scheme [1] is used to obtain the parameters for the evolving yield surface and will be briefly described for the proposed model. The suitability for numerical analysis will be discussed for deep drawing processes in general. Efforts for material characterization and modelling will be compared to other common yield surface descriptions. Besides experimental efforts and achieved accuracy, the potential of flexibility in material models and the risk of ambiguity during identification are of major interest in this paper.

  13. Effects of heterosis for yield and yield components obtained by crossing divergent alfalfa populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When breeding alfalfa for yield performance, it is necessary to use high-yielding parents obtained by different breeding methods. The assumption at the onset of this research was that crossing highest-yielding domestic cultivars with divergent populations from geographically distant breeding centers could result in the expression of heterotic effects in their hybrids contributing to increased alfalfa yield. The objective of this study was to determine yield and yield components and heterotic effects in hybrid progenies obtained by crossing the domestic cultivars NS Banat ZMS II and NS Mediana ZMS V with the cultivars Pella, Dolichi and Hyliki from Greece, UMSS 2001 from Bolivia and Jogeva 118 from Estonia in two series. The field trial planted in 2006, included 13 F1 hybrids and 6 of 7 initial parents in both series. Heterotic effects for yields of forage and hay were observed in 4 combinations (C NS Banat ZMS II x E Hyliki; C NS Banat ZMS II x E UMSS 2001; C NS Mediana ZMS V x E Hyliki; C NS Mediana ZMS V x E Dolichi. The populations that exhibited heterosis in a set of crossings are recommended for use as parent components for development of high-yielding synthetic alfalfa cultivars. .

  14. Correlation and path-cofficient analysis of seed yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken in order to determine the association among yield components and their direct and indirect effects on the seed yield of confectionery sunflower. 36 confectionery sunflower populations originated from different regions of Northwest Iran were characterized using 11 agromorphological traits ...

  15. Effect of water stress on yield and yield components of sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment during year 2009 was conducted in the research station of the University of Tehran, College of Abouraihan in Pakdasht region, Iran. The study was aimed to investigate the effect of water stress on seed yield, yield component and some quantitative traits of four sunflower hybrids namely Azargol, Alstar, ...

  16. Influences of nitrogen and potassium top dressing on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... (K) top dressing on grain yield and yield components of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Tarrom) and to ... positive reciprocal effect on crops, and was an important approach in ..... dressing fertilization (Figures 2a, b and c), but nitrogen levels of upper fully .... (Brassica napus L.)–rice (Oryza sativa L.) rotation. Plant Soil ...

  17. Inheritance of grain yield and its correlation with yield components in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... average yield of wheat in China is 4.75 t ha-1, which is low compared to other .... Analysis of variance for combining ability for grain yield plant-1. Source of variation ..... Hayman BI (1954). The theory and analysis of diallel crosses. .... Analysis and prospect of China wheat market in 2011. Food and Oil.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION ON YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENT FORMATION OF SOYBEAN VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva CANDRÁKOVÁ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 and 2006, the influence of fertilization was investigated on forming of yield components and yield of three soybean varieties in sugar beet growing area. Varieties Korada, Supra and OAC Vision were grown. Number of plants per m2, number of pods per plant, number of seeds in pod, thousand seeds weight, yield of seeds, yield of stems and harvest index were examined. Variants of fertilization: I. non-fertilized control, II. LAV 27 % (40 kg ha-1 net nutrient of N in growing stage of first pair of true leaves unfolded, III. Humix komplet (rate 8 l.ha-1 applied in growing stage of first pair of true leaves unfolded (4 l.ha-1 and in growing stage of first flower buds visible (4 l.ha-1, IV. Humix komplet in rate 8 l.ha-1 applied in growing stage of first pair of true leaves unfolded. The yields of seeds and stems were high significantly influenced by variety, fertilization and year. The significantly highest yield of seeds was achieved by Korada variety (4,04 t.ha-1. Varieties OAC Vision and Supra reached yields in interval 3,74-3,84 t.ha-1. Split rate of Humix komplet (III var significantly influenced yield of seeds and stems. The fertilization have increased weight of seeds in proportion to aboveground phyto-mass weight, what was expressed by harvest index.

  19. Effect of Salinity and Silicon on Seed Yield and Yield Components of Purslane Portulaca oleracea L.(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Rahimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effects on salinity and silicon application on yield and yield components of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L., an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized desgin with three replications and two factors consisted of four different levels of salinity using NaCl (0, 7, 14, 21dS/m and two levels of silicon (application of one mMol sodium silicate and not application. Increasing salinity concentration significantly caused a negative effect on seed yield. But yield components such as number and weight of seed were more sensitive than number of capsul in main stem in final seed yield. Application of silicon increased seed yield in control but was not significant in salinity levels and leaves and stem biomass. Seed yield and total seed weight in branches was significantly decresed. Weight of 1000 seed in main stem and branches was not significantly different in salinity levels. As a result, purslane could be extremely tolerated to saline conditions, so it seems that it can be cultivated in saline soils and arid regions. Also applied silicon can be increase yield and plant tolerance to environmental stress. Keywords: 1000 seed, Branches, Capsul, Dry weight

  20. Delayed neutron yield from fast neutron induced fission of 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piksaikin, V.M.; Kazakov, L.E.; Isaev, S.G.; Roshchenko, V.A.; Goverdovski, A.A.; Tertytchnyi, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    The measurements of the total delayed neutron yield from fast neutron induced fission of 238 U were made. The experimental method based on the periodic irradiation of the fissionable sample by neutrons from a suitable nuclear reaction had been employed. The preliminary results on the energy dependence of the total delayed neutron yield from fission of 238 U are obtained. According to the comparison of experimental data with our prediction based on correlation properties of delayed neutron characteristics, it is concluded that the value of the total delayed neutron yield near the threshold of (n,f) reaction is not a constant. (author)

  1. Microstructural origins of yield-strength changes in AISI 316 during fission or fusion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Hamilton, M.L.; Panayotou, N.F.; Johnson, G.D.

    1981-08-01

    The changes in yield strength of AISI 316 irradiated in breeder reactors have been successfully modeled in terms of concurrent changes in microstructural components. Two new insights involving the strength contributions of voids and Frank loops have been incorporated into the hardening models. Both the radiation-induced microstructure and the yield strength exhibit transients which are then followed by saturation at a level dependent on the irradiation temperature. Extrapolation to anticipated fusion behavior based on microstructural comparisons leads to the conclusion that the primary influence of transmutational differences is only to alter the transient behavior and not the saturation level of yield strength

  2. Laser-based secondary neutral mass spectroscopy: Useful yield and sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.; Calaway, W.F.; Joergensen, B.; Schweitzer, E.L.; Gruen, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of problems exist in order to optimally apply resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS) to the detection of sputtered neutral atoms, however. Several of these problems and their solutions are examined in this paper. First, the possible useful yields obtainable and the dependence of useful yield on various laser parameters for this type of sputtered neutral mass spectrometer (SNMS) are considered. Second, the choice of a mass spectrometer and its effect on the instrumental useful yield is explored in light of the unique ionization region for laser based SNMS. Finally a brief description of noise sources and their effect on the instrumental sensitivity is discussed. 33 refs., 12 figs

  3. Influence of dissolved gas and temperature on the light yield of new liquid scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Buontempo, S; Golovkin, S V; Martellotti, G; Medvedkov, A M; Penso, G; Soloviev, A S; Vasilchenko, V G

    1999-01-01

    Sixteen new liquid scintillators, emitting green light, were studied. They are based on four solvents combined with four dopants. The influence of different gas atmospheres was studied. In particular it was shown that by keeping these liquid scintillators in vacuum or in a neutral gas, the light yield increases up to 32~\\% at 20 $^{\\circ}$C and for the best solvent-dopant combinations. The dependance of the light yield on temperature was also studied for these scintillators. In the 20--60 $^{\\circ}$C interval, some exhibit a light yield variation of $\\sim$ 3 \\% which is smaller than that of the NE 102A plastic scintillator.

  4. Quantifying potential yield and water-limited yield of summer maize in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingnuo; Liu, Chaoshun; Chen, Maosi

    2017-09-01

    The North China Plain is a major food producing region in China, and climate change could pose a threat to food production in the region. Based on China Meteorological Forcing Dataset, simulating the growth of summer maize in North China Plain from 1979 to 2015 with the regional implementation of crop growth model WOFOST. The results showed that the model can reflect the potential yield and water-limited yield of Summer Maize in North China Plain through the calibration and validation of WOFOST model. After the regional implementation of model, combined with the reanalysis data, the model can better reproduce the regional history of summer maize yield in the North China Plain. The yield gap in Southeastern Beijing, southern Tianjin, southern Hebei province, Northwestern Shandong province is significant, these means the water condition is the main factor to summer maize yield in these regions.

  5. Response of Yield, Yield Components and Nutrient Concentration of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. to Mycorrhizal Symbiosis under Salt Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bijhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation and salinity stress on the growth, yield and nutrient concentrations of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L., an experiment was carried out as split plot in a completely randomized block design at Zabol University Research Farm in 2013. Treatments consisted of three salinity stresses: 1 (control, 5 and 10 dSm-1, was considered as the main treatments, and four levels of mycorrhizal inoculation (Glomus intraradices, G. etanicatum, G. hoi and non-inoculation as control as the sub-treatments. The effects of salinity on all traits under study, except umbers per plant, were significant, and severe stress (10 dSm-1 reduced 100 seed weight, number of seeds per umbel, concentrations of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in seeds by 17.71, 11.4, 14.95, 46.08, 13.60 %, respectively, as compared to the control. The numbers of seeds per umbel and phosphorus concentration in seed were highest in G. intraradices with 28.4 and 54.4%, respectively as compared to control and umbels per plant was also maximum (9.7 by using G. etanicatum. Mycorrhizal inoculation did not have significant effect on calcium and magnesium concentrations in seeds and 1000 seed weight. However mycorrhiza × salinity stress interaction was significant about concentration of sodium, potassium and sodium to potassium ratio (Na/K in seeds, as well as seed yield and seed number per plant. Among the species of mycorrhiza, applied G. intraradices had better performance in severe salinity (10 dS-1 and increased seed yield and seed number per plant by 28.5 and 47.6%, respectively in comparision control. The results suggested that mycorrhizal inoculation improves water absorption by plant. Yield increases of plants under different salinity regimes dependent on their mycorrhizal inoculation.

  6. Yield Potential of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Flengmark, Poul Kristiansen

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the yield potential of fibre hemp in Denmark, defined as seed yield, biomass, stem and fibre production, five cultivars were evaluated in field trials at two sites during 1998-2000. The total dry matter yield, stem yield, fibre yield, fibre percent, plant height, and seed...

  7. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of Romanian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Wheat is adapted to diverse environments, between the ... international collaborative studies many new varieties ... Stability of grain yield and quality characteristics over locations ... grain yield capacity and yield components of twelve .... Analysis of variance for grain yield and yield-related traits over two ...

  8. Effect of Biofertilizers on the Yield and Yield Components of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Khorramdel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Application of biological fertilizers is one of the most important methods for plant nutrition in ecological agriculture. In order to investigate the effect of biofertilizers on yield and yield components of black cumin (Nigella sativa L., a field experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications during 2007 growing season at the Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments included: (A Azotobacter paspali, (B Azospirillum brasilense, (C the fungus of Glomus intraradaices, C+A, C+B, A+B, A+B+C, and control without no biofertilizers. In all treatments except control, the amounts of 15 mg of each biofertilizer were applied to 110 g of seeds. Results indicated that application of biofertilizers enhanced yield and yield components and decreased percentage of hollow capsules. Plant performance was better with application of Azospirillum plus mycorrhiza and a mixture of Azotobacter, Azospirillum and mycorrhiza in terms of yield determining criteria. The maximum and minimum amounts of seed yield were recorded in the B+C treatment with 41.4 gm-2, and control with 24.1 gm-2, respectively. There was no significant correlation between number of capsules per plant and seed yield, but the positive and significant correlation between number of branches per plant, number of seeds per capsule, 1000-seed weight and seed yield was observed. This study showed that application of suitable biofertilizers could increase yield and yield components of black cumin. Keywords: Biofertilizer, Ecological agriculture, Medicinal plants, Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

  9. Track models and radiation chemical yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Magee, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The authors are concerned only with systems in which single track effects dominate and radiation chemical yields are sums of yields for individual tracks. The authors know that the energy deposits of heavy particle tracks are composed of spurs along the particle trajectory (about one-half of the energy) and a more diffuse pattern composed of the tracks of knock-on electrons, called the penumbra (about one-half of the energy). The simplest way to introduce the concept of a unified track model for heavy particles is to consider the special case of the track of a heavy particle with an LET below 0.2-0.3eV/A, which in practice limits us to protons, deuterons, or particles with energy above 100 MeV per nucleon. At these LET values, to a good approximation, spurs formed by the main particle track can be considered to remain isolated throughout the radiation chemical reactions

  10. Grain yield stability of early maize genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Bahadur Kunwar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate grain yield stability of early maize genotypes. Five early maize genotypes namely Pool-17, Arun1EV, Arun-4, Arun-2 and Farmer’s variety were evaluated using Randomized Complete Block Design along with three replications at four different locations namely Rampur, Rajahar, Pakhribas and Kabre districts of Nepal during summer seasons of three consecutive years from 2010 to 2012 under farmer’s fields. Genotype and genotype × environment (GGE biplot was used to identify superior genotype for grain yield and stability pattern. The genotypes Arun-1 EV and Arun-4 were better adapted for Kabre and Pakhribas where as pool-17 for Rajahar environments. The overall findings showed that Arun-1EV was more stable followed by Arun-2 therefore these two varieties can be recommended to farmers for cultivation in both environments.

  11. Effects of nitrogen application method and weed control on corn yield and yield components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahvand, Pariya; Sajedi, Nurali; Mousavi, Seyed Karim; Ghiasvand, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilizer application and different methods for weed control on yield and yield components of corn was evaluated in Khorramabad in 2011. The experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design in 3 replications. Nitrogen application was as main plot in 4 levels (no nitrogen, broadcasting nitrogen, banding nitrogen and sprayed nitrogen) and methods of weed control were in 4 levels (non-control weeds, application Equip herbicide, once hand control of weeds and application Equip herbicide+once time weeding) was as subplots. Result illustrated that effects of nitrogen fertilizer application were significant on grain and forage yield, 100 seeds weight, harvest index, grain number per row and cob weight per plant. Grain yield increased by 91.4 and 3.9% in application banding and broadcasting for nitrogen fertilizer, respectively, compared to the no fertilizer treatment. The results show improved efficiency of nitrogen utilization by banding application. Grain yield, harvest index, seed rows per cob, seeds per row and cob weight were increased by weed control. In the application of Equip herbicide+ hand weeding treatment corn grain yield was increased 126% in comparison to weedy control. It represents of the intense affects of weed competition with corn. The highest corn grain yield (6758 kg h(-1)) was related to the application banding of nitrogen fertilizer and Equip herbicide+once hand weeding.

  12. Locational variation in green fodder yield, dry matter yield, and forage quality of sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Khan, S.; Mohammad, D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to find out the variations in for- age yield and quality of sorghum as affected by different environments. The three agroecological zones viz., Agricultural Research Institute (ARI), Sariab, Quetta, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI), Faisalabad and National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad were selected on the basis of different physiography, geology, temperature, and climate and water availability. Crude protein contents, varied from 6.98 to 8.02 percent, crude fibre contents from 30.84 to 31.68 percent, green fodder yield from 38.91 to 50.64 t/ha and dry matter yield from 8.92 to 10.17 t/ha at the three diverse locations. Maximum crude protein and crude fibre contents were obtained at NARC, Islamabad and AARI, Faisalabad. Maximum green fodder and dry matter yields were also observed at NARC, Islamabad and AARI, Faisalabad. It was also noted that the same genotypes showed differential response when planted under the diverse environments for green fodder yield, dry matter yield, crude protein and crude fibre contents. Therefore, it was concluded that these differences in forage yield and quality traits under diverse environments were due to differences in soil types, soil fertility, temperature, rain- fall and other climatic conditions. (author)

  13. Effect of particle fluctuation on isoscaling and isobaric yield ratio of nuclear multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, Swagata; Chaudhuri, Gargi

    2013-01-01

    Isoscaling and isobaric yield ratio parameters are compared from canonical and grand canonical ensembles when applied to multifragmentation of finite nuclei. Source dependence of isoscaling parameters and source and isospin dependence of isobaric yield ratio parameters are examined in the framework of the canonical and the grand canonical models. It is found that as the nucleus fragments more, results from both the ensembles converge and observables calculated from the canonical ensemble coincide more with those obtained from the formulae derived using the grand canonical ensemble

  14. Radiation-chemical yields of molecular hydrogen formation in cyclohexane based alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Val'ter, A.I.; Kovalev, G.V.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen radiation-chemical yields in γ-irradiated cyclohexanol, 1.2-cis- and 1.2-trans-cyclohexandiols and inositol are determined within the general problem frameworks of radiolysis mechanism for cyclohexanering-base alcohols. Irradiation was conducted at 77 and 293 K, dose rate - 4 Gy/s. Hydrogen concentration in all irradiated alcohols depends linearly on the dose. Radiation-chemical yields of H 2 and of stabilized radicals, as well, in the irradiated crystalline alcohols are analyzed depending on the irradiation temperature, alcohol molecular structure

  15. Cattle manure fertilization increases fig yield

    OpenAIRE

    Leonel,Sarita; Tecchio,Marco Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Fertilization using organic compounds is complementary to chemical fertilization, being essential to integrated fruit production. Reports on fig tree (Ficus carica L.) organic fertilization and mineral nutrition are worldwide scarce, especially in Brazil. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of cattle manure fertilization on the yield and productivity of the fig tree 'Roxo de Valinhos' in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, during the 2002/03, 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06 crop cycles....

  16. Overview of tritium fast-fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, J.E.

    1981-03-01

    Tritium production rates are very important to the development of fast reactors because tritium may be produced at a greater rate in fast reactors than in light water reactors. This report focuses on tritium production and does not evaluate the transport and eventual release of the tritium in a fast reactor system. However, if an order-of-magnitude increase in fast fission yields for tritium is confirmed, fission will become the dominant production source of tritium in fast reactors

  17. Science yield estimation for AFTA coronagraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Wesley A.; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Krist, John; Macintosh, Bruce; Mennesson, Bertrand; Savransky, Dmitry; Shao, Michael; Serabyn, Eu