WorldWideScience

Sample records for tritiated nonglucose contaminants

  1. Hepatic and extrahepatic responses to insulin in NIDDM and nondiabetic humans. Assessment in absence of artifact introduced by tritiated nonglucose contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, P.C.; Kryshak, E.J.; Schwenk, W.F.; Haymond, M.W.; Rizza, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    It is well established that patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are resistant to insulin. However, the contribution of hepatic and extrahepatic tissues to insulin resistance remains controversial. The uncertainty may be at least in part due to errors introduced by the unknowing use in previous studies of impure isotopes to measure glucose turnover. To determine hepatic and extrahepatic responses to insulin in the absence of these errors, steady-state glucose turnover was measured simultaneously with [6-3H]- and [6-14C]glucose during sequential 5- and 4-h infusions of insulin at rates of 0.4 and 10 mU.kg-1.min-1 in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. At low insulin concentrations, [6-3H]- and [6-14C]glucose gave similar estimates of glucose turnover. Hepatic glucose release was equal to but not below zero in the nondiabetic subjects, but persistent glucose release (P less than 0.001) and decreased glucose uptake (P less than 0.001) was observed in the diabetic patients. At high insulin concentrations, both isotopes underestimated glucose turnover during the 1st h after initiation of the high-dose insulin infusion. More time (P less than 0.05) was required to reachieve steady state in NIDDM than nondiabetic subjects. At steady state, [6-3H]- but not [6-14C]glucose systematically underestimated (P less than 0.05) glucose turnover in both groups due to the presence of a tritiated nonglucose contaminant. The percentage of radioactivity in plasma due to tritiated contaminants was linearly related to turnover

  2. Tritium incorporation in corn and bean after an accute contamination with tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, H.A.; Archundia, C.; Bravo, G.; Nulman, R.; Ortiz Magana, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Tritium produced by natural or artificial processes is set free in the environment, generally as tritiated water, which the plants use to produce organic compounds such as proteins, fats and carbohidrates. The metabolism of tritium depends on the chemical form in which it is found, transport studies of tritium in different ecosystems, and in particular in food chains, gradually have become more important as a result of the tritium increase in the environment. In Mexico, corn and beans have been studied due to their great importance in the human food chain. The determination of tritium in organic compounds (bound tritium) requires an efficient conversion to tritiated water. For this reason, in this work we have detailed a dry oxidation method, which is a modification of the method of Schoniger, which consists of combustion in oxygen initiated by a simple electrical device using a disposable nichrome resistance, which is also used as a sample carrier. Tritium determination is done by a liquid scintillation counter with quenching correction using an internal standard. Graphs of tritium activity are shown plotted against the time between the application of tritiated water and the time of harvest. The highest activity is found about the 18th day for corn and the 16th day for beans. The calculated values for the half-lives for corn and beans are approximately 56 and 43 days respectively. (author)

  3. Radioimmunoanalysis of the immune response and tissue lipoperoxidation of rats for low doses contaminated with tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejan, A.; Turcu, Gr.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the evaluation of the humoral immune response and liver and kidney lipoperoxidation on rats acutely and chronically contaminated with low doses of tritiated water (HTO). The contamination doses for both situations were 0.5 cSv, 5 cSv and 10 cSv. By humoral immune response analysis we mean the measurement, through a radioimmunoanalysis (RIA) method, of the two intrinsic parameters of an antiserum, that is, the mean antibodies concentration and the mean antibodies affinity constant. We followed the liver and kidney lipidic peroxidation through malondialdehyde (MDA) formation assayed by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reaction. The humoral immune response and lipoperoxidation have been compared with the response of an uncontaminated group by the Student t test. (author). 17 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Complete oxidative conversion of lignocellulose derived non-glucose sugars to sugar acids by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruimiao; Hou, Weiliang; Bao, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Non-glucose sugars derived from lignocellulose cover approximately 40% of the total carbohydrates of lignocellulose biomass. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars to the target products is an important task of lignocellulose biorefining research. Here we report a fast and complete conversion of the total non-glucose sugars from corn stover into the corresponding sugar acids by whole cell catalysis and aerobic fermentation of Gluconobacter oxydans. The conversions include xylose to xylonate, arabinose to arabonate, mannose to mannonate, and galactose to galactonate, as well as with glucose into gluconate. These cellulosic non-glucose sugar acids showed the excellent cement retard setting property. The mixed cellulosic sugar acids could be used as cement retard additives without separation. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars not only makes full use of lignocellulose derived sugars, but also effectively reduces the wastewater treatment burden by removal of residual sugars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tritiated ammonia formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heung, L.K.

    1995-01-01

    When nitrogen was selected as the glovebox atmosphere for the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a concern was raised as to the possibility of tritiated ammonia formation in the gloveboxes. Experimental data were produced to study the tritiated ammonia formation rate in a tritium and nitrogen mixture. A rate equation that closely simulates the experimental data was developed. This rate equation can be used to calculate the formation of tritiated ammonia from different concentrations of tritium and nitrogen. The reaction of T 2 and N 2 to form NT 3 is a slow process, particularly when the tritium concentration is low. The reaction requires weeks or months to reach radiochemical equilibrium dependent on the concentrations of the reactants. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  6. The preparation of tritiated berberine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Jianwen; Zhang Nianbao

    1992-01-01

    Tritiated berberine was prepared by heterogeneous catalysed exchange in newborn tritiated water, using a metal hydrogen transfer catalyst such as Pd. After purifying, the tritiated products was obtained with specific activity 36.8 GBq/mmol. The radiochemical purity was over 95% by TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography) and HPLC (High Pressure Liquid Chromatography)

  7. Synthesis of tritiated clenbuterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pri-Bar, Ilan; Buchman, Ouri (Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev)

    1990-12-01

    Tritiated clenbuterol was prepared starting from 4-aminoacetophenone (I) which was selectively brominated to 4-amino-3,5-dibromoacetophenone (II), then to 4-amino-{alpha},3,5-tribromoacetophenone (III) and reacted with tert. butylamine to 4-amino-3,5-dibromo-{alpha}-tert.butylaminoacetophenone (IV). (IV) was dehalogenated and reduced with tritium gas to give 2-(tert.butylamino)-1-(4-amino-(3,5-{sup 3}H)-phenyl)-(1-{sup 3}H)-ethanol (V). This tritiated compound underwent selective aromatic chlorination to give the desired 2-(tert.butylamino)-1-(4-amino-3,5-dichlorophenyl)-(1-{sup 3}H)-ethanol, (ethanol-1-{sup 3}H)clenbuterol, with specific activity of 13.4 Ci/mmol (496 GBq/mmol). (author).

  8. Forest Irrigation Of Tritiated Water: A Proven Tritiated Water Management Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, Karen; Blount, Gerald; Kmetz, Thomas; Prater, Phil

    2012-11-08

    Tritium releases from the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground (ORWBG) at the SRS in South Carolina has impacted groundwater and surface water. Tritiated groundwater plumes discharge into Fourmile Branch which is a small tributary of the Savannah River, a regional water resource. Taking advantage of the groundwater flow paths and the local topography a water collection and irrigation system was constructed and has been used at the SRS for over a decade to reduce these tritiated water releases to Fourmile Branch. The tritiated water is transferred to the atmosphere by evaporation from the pond surface, and after irrigation, wetted surface evaporation and evapotranspiration through the forest vegetation. Over the last decade SRS has irrigated over 120,000,000 gallons of tritiated water, which diverted over 6000 curies away from Fourmile Branch and the Savannah River. The system has been effective in reducing the flux of tritiated groundwater by approximately 70%. Mass balance studies of tritium in the forest soils before operations and over the last decade indicate that approximately 90% of the tritiated water that is irrigated is transferred to the atmosphere. Dose studies indicate that exposure to site workers and offsite maximally exposed individual is very low, approximately 6 mrem/year and 0.004 mrem/year, respectively. To consistently meet the flux reduction goal of tritium into Fourmile Branch optimization activities are proposed. These efforts will increase irrigation capacity and area. An additional 17 acres are proposed for an expansion of the area to be irrigated and a planting of approximately 40 acres of pine forest plantations is underway to expand irrigation capacity. Co-mingled with the tritiated groundwater are low concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOCs), and 1,4-dioxane. Research studies and SRS field data indicate the forest irrigation system may have an added benefit of reducing the mass of these co-contaminants via

  9. Tritium in the food chain. Intercomparison of model predictions of contamination in soil, crops, milk and beef after a short exposure to tritiated water vapour in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, P. [PJS Barry (Canada)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Future fusion reactors using tritium as fuel will contain large inventories of the gas. The possibility that a significant fraction of an inventory may accidentally escape into the atmosphere from this and other potential sources such as tritium handling facilities and some fission reactors e g, PWRs has to be recognized and its potential impact on local human populations and biota assessed. Tritium gas is relatively inert chemically and of low radiotoxicity but it is readily oxidized by soil organisms to the mixed oxide, HTO or tritiated water. In this form it is highly mobile, strongly reactive biologically and much more toxic. Models of how tritiated water vapour is transported through the biosphere to foodstuffs important to man are essential components of such an assessment and it is important to test the models for their suitability when used for this purpose. To evaluate such models, access to experimental measurements made after actual releases are needed. There have however, been very few accidental releases of tritiated water to the atmosphere and the experimental findings of those that have occurred have been used to develop the models under test. Models must nevertheless be evaluated before their predictions can be used to decide the acceptability or otherwise of designing and operating major nuclear facilities. To fulfil this need a model intercomparison study was carried out for a hypothetical release scenario. The study described in this report is a contribution to the development of model evaluation procedures in general as well as a description of the results of applying these procedures to the particular case of models of HTO transport in the biosphere which are currently in use or being developed. The study involved eight modelers using seven models in as many countries. In the scenario farmland was exposed to 1E10 Bq d/m{sup 3} of HTO in air during 1 hour starting at midnight in one case and at 10.00 a.m. in the other, 30 days before harvest of

  10. Tritium in the food chain. Intercomparison of model predictions of contamination in soil, crops, milk and beef after a short exposure to tritiated water vapour in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, P.

    1996-09-01

    Future fusion reactors using tritium as fuel will contain large inventories of the gas. The possibility that a significant fraction of an inventory may accidentally escape into the atmosphere from this and other potential sources such as tritium handling facilities and some fission reactors e g, PWRs has to be recognized and its potential impact on local human populations and biota assessed. Tritium gas is relatively inert chemically and of low radiotoxicity but it is readily oxidized by soil organisms to the mixed oxide, HTO or tritiated water. In this form it is highly mobile, strongly reactive biologically and much more toxic. Models of how tritiated water vapour is transported through the biosphere to foodstuffs important to man are essential components of such an assessment and it is important to test the models for their suitability when used for this purpose. To evaluate such models, access to experimental measurements made after actual releases are needed. There have however, been very few accidental releases of tritiated water to the atmosphere and the experimental findings of those that have occurred have been used to develop the models under test. Models must nevertheless be evaluated before their predictions can be used to decide the acceptability or otherwise of designing and operating major nuclear facilities. To fulfil this need a model intercomparison study was carried out for a hypothetical release scenario. The study described in this report is a contribution to the development of model evaluation procedures in general as well as a description of the results of applying these procedures to the particular case of models of HTO transport in the biosphere which are currently in use or being developed. The study involved eight modelers using seven models in as many countries. In the scenario farmland was exposed to 1E10 Bq d/m 3 of HTO in air during 1 hour starting at midnight in one case and at 10.00 a.m. in the other, 30 days before harvest of crops

  11. Low pressure tritiation of molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, T.F.; Powers, J.C.; Lively, M.O.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described of tritiating sensitive biological molecules by depositing molecules of the substance to be tritiated on a supporting substrate in an evacuated vacuum chamber near, but not in the path of, an electron beam which traverses the chamber, admitting tritium gas into the chamber, and subjecting the tritium to the electron beam. Vibrationally excited tritium gas species are generated which collide and react with the substance thus incorporating tritium atoms into the substance. (U.K.)

  12. Effect of internal contamination with tritiated water on the neoplastic colonies in the lungs, innate anti-tumour reactions, cytokine profile, and haematopoietic system in radioresistant and radiosensitive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosielska, Ewa M; Cheda, Aneta; Zdanowski, Robert; Lewicki, Sławomir; Scott, Bobby R; Janiak, Marek K

    2018-04-06

    Tritium is a potentially significant source of internal radiation exposure which, at high levels, can be carcinogenic. We evaluated whether single intraperitoneal injection of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice with tritiated water (HTO) leading to exposure to low (0.01 or 0.1 Gy) and intermediate (1.0 Gy) cumulative whole-body doses of β radiation is immunosuppressive, as judged by enhancement of artificial tumour metastases, functioning of NK lymphocytes and macrophages, circulating cytokine's levels, and numbers of bone marrow, spleen, and peripheral blood cells. We demonstrate that internal contamination of radiosensitive BALB/c and radioresistant C57BL/6 mice with HTO at all the absorbed doses tested did not affect the development of neoplastic colonies in the lungs caused by intravenous injection of syngeneic cancer cells. However, internal exposure of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to 0.1 and 0.01 Gy of β radiation, respectively, up-regulated cytotoxic activity of and IFN-γ synthesis in NK lymphocytes and boosted macrophage secretion of nitric oxide. Internal contamination with HTO did not affect the serum levels of pro- (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α,) and anti-inflammatory (IL-1Ra, IL-4, IL-10) cytokines. In addition, exposure of mice of both strains to low and intermediate doses from the tritium-emitted β-particles did not result in any significant changes in the numbers of bone marrow, spleen, and peripheral blood cells. Overall, our data indicate that internal tritium contamination of both radiosensitive and radioresistant mice leading to low and intermediate absorbed β-radiation doses is not immunosuppressive but may enhance some but not all components of anticancer immunity.

  13. Tritiated waste management - tritiated oil packaging and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasznai, J.P.; Mullins, D.F.; Mowat, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Tritium Handling facilities often have oil lubricated vacuum pumps in active portions of tritium systems. The interaction of tritium with the oil can lead to the formation of various classes of tritiated species, both volatile and non-volatile. These tritiated species can cause problems in terms of handling, dosimetry and ultimate waste disposal. Knowledge of these species and their relative concentrations will allow the safe and cost effective use of oil-filled pumps in tritium environments. In order to understand more accurately the specific dosimetry hazards, improve handling procedures and minimize waste volumes, the distribution of tritium amongst the several classes of tritiated species was determined. The change in tritium content and distribution over time was also determined. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Tritiated waste conditioning. Pt.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasznai, J.P.

    1985-11-01

    The Darlington Tritium Removal Facility will generate both liquid and solid tritiated waste. Liquid waste will have to be conditioned and packaged prior to disposal to minimize the releases of tritium to the environment. The conditioning requirements for solid tritiated waste are presently under investigation. Earlier work on the conditioning of aqueous tritiated waste has shown that solidification by itself in either cement or an organic polymer matrix is inadequate to meet a tritium (as HTO) release target of 1 x 10 -3 % per day. Encapsulating the solidified waste in a 1-cm thick layer of water extendible polyester resin reduced the release rate to 1.3 x 10 -4 % per day over a 150-day leaching period. The release rate however, increased to 1.7 x 10 -3 % per day when averaged over the subsequent 600-day leaching period. Encapsulation, however, is a difficult process and the information presented in this report compares encapsulation with simple containerization in a low water permeable material such as polyethylene. The results indicate that the same degree of tritium (as HTO) retention can be achieved by replacing a 1-cm thick encapsulating layer of polymer resin with a .14-cm thick high density polyethylene container. Consequently, encapsulation should not be pursued further for this type of waste. Leaching data has shown that even for the short exposure times encountered (typically 4-5 hours) the components of the polymer resin solidification agent permanently increase the water permeability and hence tritium releases from the polyethylene containers

  15. An overview of SCK-CEN's technological research for the treatment of tritiated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braet, J.; Bruggeman, A.; Vanderbiesen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The production of fusion energy involves the use of huge amounts of tritium, of the order of 4 x 10 19 Bq/Gwe.a. Therefore operation and dismantling of test installations and future commercial fusion reactors are not possible without the production of tritiated waste. Various categories of tritiated waste are and will be produced which require different detritiation techniques to lower the initial tritium content in the samples and to allow final waste disposal of the partly detritiated material and of all by-products generated in the processes. The current internationally adopted strategy is to convert all kinds of tritiated waste into tritiated water, which can then be treated in one water detritiation installation. Since several years SCK-CEN has been developing techniques for the treatment of tritiated waste. Amongst them technologies for the treatment of tritiated organic liquids, surface contaminated metals, contaminated concrete and most importantly water detritiation. The so-called liquid phase catalytic exchange for water detritiation requires an efficient catalyst that should furthermore be hydrophobic because of the low solubility and hence slow diffusion of hydrogen in the water layer that covers normal catalysts. In the past SCK-CEN invented and developed such a catalyst which has recently been optimized and tested in a bench scale installation. To confirm the performances of our improved catalyst for a longer period of time and in a longer column, we are now doing tests in a 2 meter high trickle bed reactor and the endurance of the catalyst is being tested at ICSI. Using a good performing catalyst, LPCE will be, in combination with electrolysis, a technically and economically sound technology for water detritiation. Other R and D focuses on the development of a system do decontaminate surface contaminated metals and concrete using superheated steam. The resulting water can in its turn be treated in a water detritiation installation. For the purpose of

  16. Tritium distribution and incorporation from tritiated water or tritiated precursors of DNA, RNA or proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewissen, D.J.; Furedi, M.E.; Ugarte, A.S.; Rust, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Following administration of tritiated thymidine to newborn C57 Black/6M mice in the dose range of 0.3 to 1.5 μCi/g of body weight, an increased incidence of lymphosarcomas was observed in both sexes. It appeared that administration of tritiated thymidine to newborn mice resulted in a definite modulation of the tumour spectrum. This observation brought up the question as to whether tritiated precursors of RNA or proteins, namely tritiated uridine or leucine, or even tritiated water, would possibly trigger a similar shift of the tumour spectrum in the C57 Black/6M mice. As a prerequisite to testing this hypothesis, an endeavour was made to investigate the comparative distribution of tritiated thymidine, uridine or leucine versus tritiated water, in mice under various experimental conditions. Newborn and juvenile C57 BL/6M mice were injected with 1 or 10 μCi/g of tritiated water, tritiated thymidine, tritiated uridine or tritiated leucine. Young adult mice were similarily injected. Animals were sacrificed after varying lengths of time. The data show that administration of tritiated precursors such as thymidine, uridine and leucine or of tritiated water results in a very complex time-dependent and, in some respects, age-dependent residual activity dynamics both in the organic component and in the aqueous fraction of tissue. Groups of juvenile male mice, 15 days old, were injected on three consecutive days with 100 μCi of HTO/g of body weight. A significant although small incorporation of tritium into DNA, RNA and proteins was observed in all organs tested under the experimental conditions. In addition, comparative dose estimates were made from tritiated thymidine or tritiated water in the testis. (author)

  17. Literature survey of tritiated waste characterization and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, E.A.

    1996-09-06

    Characterizing, handling, and storing tritiated waste is challenging because of the physical and chemical properties of tritium. Tritium is soluble in many materials, including structural materials such as, stainless steel, structural steel, polymers, concrete and paints. Tritium permeates rapidly into these materials compared to other species, and so parts exposed to tritium are normally contaminated to some degree throughout the bulk. The relatively low kinetic energy of the {beta}-decay causes detecting tritium anywhere but very near the surface of materials to be impossible, because the {beta}-particle is absorbed by the material. Tritium readily exchanges with hydrogen in water vapor, and the resulting tritiated water can permeate polymers, concrete, oil, and the oxide surface films normally present on metals. Most of the tritium contamination in structural metals resides in the surface oxide film and in organic films at the surface, when metals are exposed to tritium at ambient temperature and pressure, whether the exposure is to gas or tritiated water. The most reliable method of assaying tritium is to dissolve samples in a proper liquid scintillant and use {beta}-scintillation counting. Other methods that require less time or are non-destructive (such as smear/counting) are significantly less reliable, but they can be used for routine waste characterization if sample dissolution/liquid scintillation counting is regularly employed to benchmark them.

  18. Excretion and intestinal absorption of tritiated glutamic acid by carp, Cyprinus Carpio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Terushia; Kistner, G.

    1986-01-01

    Excretion and intestinal absorption of tritiated glutamic acid by carp was investigated. Approximately 80% of orally administered tritium was excreted at a half life value of 1.4 h and an observed slower excretion of 7 days for the remainder. Tritium incorporated in glutamic acid was efficiently retained at the site of absorption, i.e. intestine, liver, gill, kidney, blood and muscle. A dual marking experiment using tritiated glutamic acid and 14 C-market glutamic acid showed higher excretion of tritium by factors 2.0 to 4.9 than that of 14 C. Tritiated glutamic acid is considered to be mainly incorporated in the citric acid cycle soon after administration and the release of tritium in tritiated water through the cycle is assumed as causing the initial rapid excretion of tritium in carp. The intestinal absorption of glutamic acid was likely to depend on its concentration in the administered solution. The maximum level of absorption is estimated to be 0.1 m mol/0.5 h for one year old carp. The results obtained here would make it possible to estimate the tritium contamination of fish due to tritiated glutamic acid entering the food chain. (orig.)

  19. Conditioning of tritiated wastes. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    Work is continuing on the development of conditioning systems for low and intermediate level tritiated liquid and solid wastes which will prevent loss of tritium for at least 150 years. This portion of the program has concentrated on solidification and encapsulation of tritiated aqueous wastes, development of techniques, for the measurement of tritium loss in air and water, and identification and evaluation of encapsulation materials. Solidification of tritiated aqueous wastes by water extendible polyester or cements resulted in average tritium releases of approximately 1-4x10 -1 α/day with that from water extendible polyester being the lowest. The daily release rate is independent of initial tritium concentration in the waste form and can be reduced by a factor of 1000 by encapsultation of the waste within a 10 mm layer of water extendible polyester. Water extendible polyester is the preferred material for solidification and encapsulation of aqueous tritiated wastes and encapsulation of tritiated solids permitting release of only 3x10 -3 % of the original activity over 150 years. It is expected that this program which was originally scheduled for three years can now be completed in two years with complete definition of the conditioning system including the outer package

  20. Transportation of tritiated waste from fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetzmacher, K.M.; Carlson, R.V.; Stencel, J.R.; Sissingh, R.A.P.

    1988-03-01

    This paper examines methods of handling tritiated waste from a fusion facility, concentrating on handling requirements specific to tritium. Gaseous effluent from a fusion reactor can currently be transported from a fusion facility in two forms /endash/ as a gas or solidified on uranium beds. Tritiated water can be transported if it is solidified by absorption onto molecular sieve beds or on clay or cement. Solid waste being shipped for disposal can be transported in low specific activity (LSA, less than 0.3 mCig[1.1 /times/ 10 7 Bqg]), type A (less than or equal to 1000 CI[3.7 /times/ 10 13 Bq]) or type B (greater than 1000 CI[3.7 /times/ 10 13 Bq]) standard containers. The method chosen for transport depends on the amount and level of activity of the tritiated material and whether or not it will be reprocessed at another facility. 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Conversion of tritium gas to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannakopoulos, P.J.; Easterly, C.E.

    1979-05-01

    The mechanisms of conversion of tritium gas to tritiated water (HTO) have been examined for several tritium gaseous mixtures. The physical and chemical processes involved in the self-radiolysis of such mixtures have been analyzed and the kinetics involved in the formation of HTO has been presented. It has been determined that the formation of the H and/or OH free radicals, as intermediate species, are of significance in the formation of HTO. Therefore, the problem of reducing the rate of formation of tritiated water in a mixture of gaseous tritium with atmospheric components is one of finding an effective scavenger for the H and/or OH free radicals

  2. Performance assessment of solidified tritiated waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deneanu, N.; Antonescu, M.

    1997-01-01

    Present research continues an investigation of use of immobilization materials (clay, natural zeolites and cement binders with appropriate additive sand, volcanic tuff) for immobilization of the tritiated liquid wastes. Laboratory results obtained to date demonstrate that the leachate from the wastes passes acceptance criteria for radioactivity. The tritium release rates were 10 -4 to 8 x 10 -5 g / cm 2 · day. The use of coating materials to reduce the leaching of tritium from tritiated cement blocks has been studied. Paraffin and bitumen coatings were made by dipping the cement blocks into the coating, whereas other materials were brushed on the surface. The leaching rates of tritium were around 6 x 10 -4 g/cm 2 · day. Since encapsulation can be regarded as inside in-situ method, the use of high density polyethylene as a container was investigated as an alternative. Of the types of absorbents evaluated, volcanic tuff was found to be very effective at absorbing tritiated liquid waste. The leaching rates of tritium from tritiated liquids into a 0.1 cm thick polyethylene container were 10 -6 g/ cm 2 · day. (authors)

  3. Limitation of tritium outgassing from tritiated solid waste drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liger, K.; Trabuc, P.; Lefebvre, X.; Troulay, M.; Perrais, C. [CEA, Centre de Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STPA/LIPC, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-03-15

    In the framework of the development of fusion thermonuclear reactors, tritiated solid waste is foreseen and will have to be managed. The management of tritiated waste implies limitations in terms of activity and tritium degassing. The degassing tritium can be under the form of tritiated hydrogen, tritiated water and, in some specific cases, negligible amount of tritiated volatile organic compound. Hence, considering the major forms of degassing tritium, CEA has developed a mixed-compound dedicated to tritium trapping in drums. Based on several experiments, the foreseen mixed compound is composed of MnO{sub 2}, Ag{sub 2}O, Pt and molecular sieve, the three first species having the ability to convert tritiated hydrogen into tritiated water and the last one acting as a trap for tritiated water. To assess the performance of the trapping mixture, experimental tests were performed at room temperature on tritiated dust composed of beryllium and carbon. It was shown that the metallic oxides mixture used for tritiated hydrogen conversion is efficient and that tritiated water adsorption was limited due to an inefficient regeneration of the molecular sieve prior to its use. Apart from this point, the tritium release from waste was reduced by a factor of 5.5, which can be improved up to 87 if the adsorption step is efficient.

  4. Radiolytic gas production from tritiated waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Orebaugh, E.G.

    1977-07-01

    Radiolytic gas production during long-term storage of tritiated waste was estimated from gamma and alpha radiolysis tests to determine the extent of pressurization in sealed containers. Two forms of simulated wastes were irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays or 244 Cm alpha particles: concrete for solidification of tritiated water and vermiculite for solidification of tritiated octane or vacuum pump oil. For concrete, the gamma and alpha radiolysis results predicted that H 2 will be formed by tritium beta particles with an initial rate of 0.1 to 0.3 molecule for every 100 eV of energy absorbed. Also, as the H 2 pressure increases, this 100-eV yield decreases because of a reaction removing H 2 . Eventually, a steady state pressure that depends on the radiation intensity will be attained. For intensities less than 10 5 rads/h, the steady state pressure will be less than 20 psi. O 2 in the air sealed with the concrete will be almost completely depleted, and N 2 will be unaffected. For the organic materials sorbed onto vermiculite, the gamma and alpha radiolysis results predicted that H 2 and traces of CH 4 and CO 2 will be produced. For tritium beta particles, the 100-eV yields for H 2 based on energy sorbed by the organic materials are 4.4 for octane and 2.2 for vacuum pump oil. In the containers, steady state H 2 pressure will not be attained at pressures up to at least 200 psi. As with the concrete, O 2 will be nearly completely depleted and N 2 will be unaffected. The 100-eV yield for H 2 production was used to calculate pressure increases in conceptual tritiated waste packages. 13 figures

  5. Studies on carcinogenic effect of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Shuai; Wang Hui; Li Maohe; Lin Suqin

    1994-09-01

    Studies on carcinogenic effect of tritiated water is introduced in two parts. The first part is an in vitro study in which CHL-1 cells were exposed to tritiated water (9.25 x 10 5 ∼ 3.5 x 10 6 Bq/ml) for 24 ∼ 96 h and the accumulated dose was from 0.055 to 0.88 Gy. In order to estimate RBE of tritium for malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells, the induction of malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells by exposure to gamma rays of 137 Cs was tested. Based on the transformation rates, the RBE of tritium for malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells was estimated to be 1.6. The second part is an in vivo study. In the study, rats were fed with tritiated water (2.22 x 10 5 and 1.11 x 10 5 Bq/ml) for 1.5 a. Rats in control group were fed with tap water. Results showed that in the statistics, the differences in the total tumor incidence and malignant tumor incidence between high and low dose rate groups and control groups were remarkably significant

  6. Synthesis of adenosine triphosphate tritiated in position 2 and 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossery, Jean-Michel

    1986-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate or ATP is an important molecule present at the cellular level in many fundamental biochemical mechanism, and the study of its metabolism is therefore of particular interest. In this thesis for pharmacy graduation, the author first describes the different steps of synthesis and purification leading to chloride-2-ATP, a precursor of the final tritiated molecule. Then, the author explains the tritiation of this molecule to obtain an ATP tritiated in position 2 and in position 8 [fr

  7. The estimation of annual limit on intake for tritiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Kenshi; Okumura, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    Tritium incorporation into tissues and DNA of mice was studied after daily ingestion of tritiated food or tritiated water. The tritiated food used was a commercial preparation mixed with brine shrimp which had been reared in tritiated sea water. After ingestion of tritiated food or water for up to 22 d, the specific activity of tritium in tissues was measured as tissue-free-water tritium, tissue-bound tritium and DNA-bound tritium. In order to compare the tritium intake from food with that from water, 14 C-glucose was added to food and drinking water. The specific activity of tritium of tissues obtained was then corrected by the specific activity of 14 C in tissues in order to analyse the tritium incorporation from the same amount of ingested food and water. DNA-bound tritium after the ingestion of tritiated food was 4.6 times higher than that of tritiated water, while tissue-bound tritium was 2.2 times higher. The radiation dose to liver from tritium incorporated through food was two-fold higher than through tritiated water, which was mainly due to the high incorporation of tritium into DNA. Our results demonstrated that the dose calculation based on tissue-free-water tritium alone would underestimate the radiation exposure of the human population exposed to tritiated food. (author)

  8. Zeolites as candidate materials for aqueous tritiated waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, M.; Radak-Jovanovic, Z.; Gal, I.J.; Brucher, H.

    1987-01-01

    Zeolites have been considered as storage materials for aqueous tritiated waste, owing to their relatively high water contents, low diffusion coefficient of water in their pores and their accessibility. The diffusion coefficient of tritiated water in the solid particles seems to be the most important factor in the selection of zeolites for tritiated water storage. This work summarizes investigations done in The Boris Kidric Institute and Juelich Nuclear Research Center on zeolites as storage materials for tritiated water. Modified 4A zeolites as CsA, ZnA, CoA, Fe(III)A, as well as synthetic and natural analcime, have been investigated. Self-diffusion coefficients of THO in zeolites have been calculated using the Boyd-Reichenberg model of diffusion. The results obtained are discussed from the point of view of using zeolites as storage materials for tritiated waste water. In this respect, natural and synthetic analcime seem to be promising

  9. Radiolysis of water confined in zeolites 4A: application to tritiated water storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frances, Laetitia

    2014-01-01

    Self-radiolysis of tritiated water (HTO) adsorbed in zeolites 4A shows differences compared to free-bulk water radiolysis. We studied the roles of zeolites on that. We took special care with the influence of water loading ratio. We first exposed zeolites to external irradiations, reproducing selectively the dose or the dose rate measured in the case of tritiated water storage. This strategy enables the characterising of the samples after their irradiation since they are not contaminated by tritium. Those experiments revealed the high stability of zeolites 4A. We used a second approach which consisted in studying the precise case of self-radiolysis of tritiated water, in order to obtain radiolytic yields representative of HTO storage. The comparison between the quantities of gas released when zeolites are exposed to the three different sources that we used (electrons accelerated at 10 MeV, γ released by radioactive decay of 137 Cs and β - released by radioactive decay of tritium) revealed the strong influence of the dose rate. Moreover, whatever the irradiation source, zeolites 4A first favour hydrogen release and secondarily oxygen release too. On the contrary, zeolites favour next a recombination between those radiolytic products, with a dependence on their water loading ratio. Several processes are discussed to explain such a phenomena, not noticed during the free-bulk water radiolysis. (author) [fr

  10. Retention of tritium in rats after ingestion of tritiated food or tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, I.; Pietrzak-Flis, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Biological half-lives of tritium and the values of tritium fractions eliminated with particular half-lives were determined in the body water and in the liver, kidneys, lungs, small intestine and brain tissues of two groups of rats chronically exposed to tritiated food or tritiated water (HTO). The animals were exposed from conception till the 71-st day of life. They were killed at time intervals up to 50 days after cessation of tritium exposure and then tritium in the body water and non-exchangeable tritium (NET) in the tissues were determined. The retention curves obtained from these data indicate the existence of two biological half-lives for the body water tritium as well as for NET. It was found that after the exposure to tritiated food the second biological half-lives (T b2 ) were longer than after the HTO exposure, while the fractions of tritium eliminated with T b2 were smaller. However, these differences have only small influence on the values of time integral Q of deposited non-exchangeable tritium in the tissues of both groups of rats. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs. (author)

  11. Metabolism of tritiated water in foetuses and newborn mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujeno, Y.; Takimoto, K.

    1982-01-01

    The compartment models of transplacental transfer of tritiated water injected into pregnant females, to foetuses and of lacteal transfer of tritiated water injected into nursing females, to sackling newborn mice were presented, respectively. There are many assumptions in the models and they do not fit the experimental data well. However, some of the differences between the models and experimental data can be qualitatively explained by physiological reasoning. The changes in the kidney functions of pregnant women are also the important factors which have to be considered to analyze the dynamics. The present dynamics analyses with mice can contribute to the understanding of the dynamics of tritiated water in humans. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Guidelines on the medical management of tritiated water overexposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The Medical Advisers to the Atomic Energy Control Board provide advice to occupational and family physicians treating overexposed workers. GMA-7 provides information and guidance to medical practitioners on the medical management of individuals who have been overexposed to tritiated water. Various treatment principles are presented with special emphasis on techniques for facilitating removal of tritiated water from the body so as to reduce the total radiation dose. Risks and biological effects from exposures to tritiated water and various radiation protection precautions are also discussed. 32 refs., 1 tab

  13. Gas generation by self-radiolysis of tritiated waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadlock, W.E.; Abell, G.C.; Steinmeyer, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Studies simulating the effect of self-radiolysis in disposal packages containing tritiated waste materials show hydrogen to be the dominant gas-phase product. Pressure buildup and gas composition over various tritiated octane and tritiated water samples are designed to give worst case results. One effect of tritium fixation agents is to reduce pressure buildup. The results show that development of explosive gas mixtures is unlikely and that maximum pressure buildup in typical Mound Facility waste packages can be expected to be <0.25 MPa

  14. Guidelines on the medical management of tritiated water overexposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Medical Advisers to the Atomic Energy Control Board provide advice to occupational and family physicians treating overexposed workers. GMA-7 provides information and guidance to medical practitioners on the medical management of individuals who have been overexposed to tritiated water. Various treatment principles are presented with special emphasis on techniques for facilitating removal of tritiated water from the body so as to reduce the total radiation dose. Risks and biological effects from exposures to tritiated water and various radiation protection precautions are also discussed. 32 refs., 1 tab

  15. Twelve weeks treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, prevents degradation of peptide YY and improves glucose and non-glucose induced insulin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, K; Knop, F K; Vilsbøll, T

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effects of 12 weeks of treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, on gastrointestinal hormone responses to a standardized mixed meal and beta cell secretory capacity, measured as glucose and non-glucose induced insulin secretion during a hyperglycaemic clamp, in patients...

  16. Insulin secretion in lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients is associated with high levels of nonglucose secretagogues and insulin resistance of beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Storgaard, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    We examined whether plasma concentrations of nonglucose insulin secretagogues are associated with prehepatic insulin secretion rates (ISR) in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected, lipodystrophic patients (LIPO). Additionally, the negative feedback of insulin...... on ISR was evaluated. ISR were estimated by deconvolution of plasma C-peptide concentrations during fasting (basal) and during the last 30 min of a 120-min euglycemic insulin clamp (40 mU.m(-2).min(-1)). Eighteen normoglycemic LIPO were compared with 25 normoglycemic HIV-infected patients without...... lipodystrophy (controls). Thirty minutes before start of the clamp, a bolus of glucose was injected intravenously to stimulate endogenous insulin secretion. Insulin sensitivity index (SiRd) was estimated from glucose tracer analysis. LIPO displayed increased basal ISR (69%), clamp ISR (114%), basal insulin (130...

  17. Tritium content in some organs and the DNA of rat liver cells following short term administration of tritiated food, tritiated protein or tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochalska, M.; Szot, Z.

    1979-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were given equivalent doses of various tritium compounds, namely tritiated food (TF), tritiated protein (TP) or tritiated water (TW) for 5 days. On the 6th day of the experiment tritium radioactivity of dry tissues and the DNA of liver cells was determined. DNA of liver cells of animals given TP contained 13-23 times more tritium than that of rats receiving TW. Incorporation of tritium from TF into the examined tissues was found to be higher than that from TP or TW, with the exception of the brain which revealed the highest tritium content after TP. Tritium concentration in lungs, small intestine, muscle, skin and femur of animals given TF or TP did not differ significantly. (author)

  18. Improving distillation method and device of tritiated water analysis for ultra high decontamination efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hsin-Fa; Wang, Chu-Fang; Lin, Chien-Kung

    2015-12-01

    It is important that monitoring environmental tritiated water for understanding the contamination dispersion of the nuclear facilities. Tritium is a pure beta radionuclide which is usually measured by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). The average energy of tritum beta is only 5.658 keV that makes the LSC counting of tritium easily be interfered by the beta emitted by other radionuclides. Environmental tritiated water samples usually need to be decontaminated by distillation for reducing the interference. After Fukushima Nucleaer Accident, the highest gross beta concentration of groundwater samples obtained around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station is over 1,000,000 Bq/l. There is a need for a distillation with ultra-high decontamination efficiency for environmental tritiated water analysis. This study is intended to improve the heating temperature control for better sub-boiling distillation control and modify the height of the container of the air cooling distillation device for better fractional distillation effect. The DF of Cs-137 of the distillation may reach 450,000 which is far better than the prior study. The average loss rate of the improved method and device is about 2.6% which is better than the bias value listed in the ASTM D4107-08. It is proven that the modified air cooling distillation device can provide an easy-handling, water-saving, low cost and effective way of purifying water samples for higher beta radionuclides contaminated water samples which need ultra-high decontamination treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Encapsulation of tritiated wastes in hot laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayet, L.; Bourdinaud, P.

    1982-06-01

    From 1962 to 1976, one of the laboratories called ''Cellule 4'', was equipped to produce large quantities of tritium. The decisions taken in June 1976 to redirect the activities of the Radioisotopes Department included the suspension of the tritium activities of ''Cellule 4'' at the Saclay Nuclear Research Center. From 1976 to 1981, many CEA departments contributed to the design and implementation of a packaging procedure for tritiated wastes resulting from the dismantling of ''Cellule 4''. A classification into three groups was adopted for this purpose. (1) Packaging in a welded stainless steel container. (2) Packaging in a reinforced concrete shell lined internally with a thick coat of epoxy resin charged with sand. (3) Packaging in a reinforced concrete shell lined internally with a thin coat of epoxy resin. The dismantling operations were carried out in three phases. (1) (2 1/2 months): the T activity remained unchanged during this period and waste selection was carried out. (2) (2 1/2 months): waste dismantling and packaging of groups (2) and (3) were carried out in this phase. Activity decayed rapidly. (3) (2 months): the work performed included the loosening and cutting of the general structures [fr

  20. Behaviour of fluoropolymers in presence of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubueanu, Gh.; Postolache, C.; Tuta, C.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. One of the most used methods for tritium recovery from tritiated water relies on combined electrolysis with catalytic isotope exchange techniques. The electrolytic cell converts the tritiated water or tritiated heavy water into a hydrogen, deuterium and tritium mixture. The mixture is purified and then tritium is recovered by catalytic isotopic separation techniques. Tritium presence in the system induces an intense radiation field especially at aqueous solution interface. This can generate significant structural modifications with potentially negative effects. In this paper work it is followed the study of radiolytic phenomena in Pt/C/PTFE isotopic exchange catalyst, NAFION membranes and VITON fluoroelastomer in presence of tritiated water with high radioactive concentration. Radiolytical processes were analyzed by: Exposure of fluoropolymers samples immersed in H 2 O at gamma radiation field (60-Co source) in vacuum, at liq. Nitrogen temperature and at ambient temperature respectively; Immersing of NAFION, Pt/C/PTFE catalyst and VITON samples in tritiated water with high activity (3.7 and 37 TBq/L) for different time period. In both cases the samples were characterized by FT IR ATR, and fluoride ions emission from polymeric matrix. Experimental results were correlated with quantum-chemical simulations.

  1. Research and development of decontamination and decommission for tritiated wastes in fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, K.

    1999-01-01

    A review is presented on the decontamination and decommissioning of tritium wastes. Tritium takes a variety of chemical forms, e. g. tritium gases (HT, DT, D 2 ) and tritiated water (HTO, DTO, T 2 O) . Furthermore the behavior of tritium depends on its chemical forms. Concerning the decontamination, several methods have devised and applied in these years. In the present paper the need of the improvement is noted for each method. Smear, and soak or washout are simple and widely used, but time-consuming. In addition the method applies only to the surface contamination. For high tritium contamination, hot gas purge and thermal desorption may work. Use of electric discharges and laser irradiation is now under testing. (Tanaka, Y.)

  2. Chromatographic purification of tritiated steroids prior to use in radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manlimos, F.S.; Abraham, G.E.

    1975-01-01

    The purity of tritiated steroids used as reagents in radioimmunoassay plays an important role in the reliability of the assay. These radioactive reagents should be assessed for purity upon receipt and the purity should be checked periodically afterward. For such purposes, we have used chromatographic purification on Celite microcolumns. By changing the polarity of the stationary and mobile phases, 20 different tritiated steroids with a wide range of polarity could be purified on these microcolumns. This approach is easy, rapid, economical, and reliable. (U.S.)

  3. Survey of tritiated oil sources and handling practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    Tritium interactions with oil sources (primarily associated with pumps) in tritium-handling facilities can lead to the incorporation of tritium in the oil and the production of tritiated hydrocarbons. This results in a source of radiological hazard and the need for special handling considerations during maintenance, decontamination, decommissioning and waste packaging and storage. The results of a general survey of tritiated-oil sources and their associated characteristics, handling practices, analysis techniques and waste treatment/storage methods are summarized here. Information was obtained from various tritium-handling laboratories, fusion devices, and CANDU plants. 38 refs., 1 fig

  4. Preparation of tritiated aniline of high molar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, V.D.; Toropova, M.A.; Simonova, T.P.; Avrorin, V.V.; Zhuravlev, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    Synthesis technique of aniline, tritiated by aminogroup and ortho- and para-pisition of aromatic ring without carrier is proposed. The technique is based on azobenzene reduction splitting by gaseous tritium on palladium catalyser under, static conditions. The molar activity of aniline produced makes up 10.4x10 14 Bq/mol

  5. The treatment and disposal of tritiated effluents. Technology and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, K.; Bruecher, H.

    1983-01-01

    The study on the disposal of tritiated effluents has been conducted in coordination with investigations carried out at NUKEM GmbH under the heading ''Compilation of Safety-Related Data for an Industrial Disposal of Tritiated Effluents on the Basis of Large-Scale Invenstigations''. The findings of this study were adopted, in particular with a view to tritium exchange rates ascertained experimentally. After some introductory remarks on the origin of tritium, its properties and its behaviour in a reprocessing plant three alternative methods for the disposal of tritiated effluents produced during reprocessing are described in the present study and compared with each other under various aspects. The study is based on the concept of a 1400 t/a reprocessing plant for LWR fuel, which annually produces 3000 m 3 of tritiated waste water with a tritium content of 6.5 x 10 12 Bq/m 3 as well as a residual fission product and actinide content. (orig./RW) [de

  6. Immobilization of tritiated aqueous waste in polymer impregnated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.; Becker, W.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques have been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory for the immobilization of high-level tritiated aqueous waste in polymer impregnated concrete (PIC). These techniques are discussed and the rates of tritium release from PIC waste forms for both static leaching in distilled water and burial in test lysimeters at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are reported

  7. Distribution of tritium in the different organs of calves and pigs after ingestion of various tritiated feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchmann, R.; Charles, P.; Bruwaene, R. van; Remy, J.; Koch, G.; Hoek, J. van den

    1978-01-01

    The studies reported here are related to the distribution of tritium in the organs of farm animals contaminated in various ways. Two young male calves ingested tritiated milk; the daily intake of 3 H-organic form was about 15 μCi for each calf and the total activity ingested until the sacrifice was 482 μCi. Three male pigs from the same litter and about 7 weeks old were used for each experiment of the administration of tritium under different forms. It was verified that the chemical form of 3 H present in the food is of great importance for the incorporation of 3 H in the organic matter of the animal organs. The total incorporation increases by a factor 5.6 when 3 H is ingested as tritiated milkpowder by pigs as compared to HTO and with a factor 15 for calves. When tritiated potatoes were ingested by pigs a factor 15.6 was found. The transfer of 3 H from HTO and milk feed ingested in the organic fraction of organs is lower for pig than for calf. (Auth.)

  8. Tritiated uracil, tritiated thymidine, and bromodeoxyuridine induced mutations in eucaryotic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burki, H.J.; Moustacchi, E.; Cleaver, J.E.

    1979-02-01

    The induction of gene conversion at the ARG-4 locus in strain BZ34 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined after the cells incorporated y- 3 H uracil under optimum growth conditions for 16 hours, and then received damage at 4 0 C from tritium decays at very low dose rates of 1.4 to 27.6 tritium decays per hour. The results were compared to the results of gene conversion induced by 60 Co. The induction of resistance to 6TG in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells has been studied after incorporation of 3 H-methyl thymidine, 6- 3 H-thymidine, and bromodeoxyuridine under several experimental conditions. The induction of mutations by incorporated 6- 3 H-thymidine is about three times as effective as the induction of mutations by tritiated-methyl thymidine. These results suggest that the determination of the RBE for tritium decays in model eucaryotic systems like yeast and cultured Chinese hamster cells will be influenced by the precise experimental conditions employed. In particular, experiments with mammalian cells will be affected by hot times for mutagenesis in the cell cycle and hot positions within the DNA in the nucleus, and also by the position of tritium decay within the DNA-incorporated molecule

  9. Emanation of tritiated water from disposal sites at Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.V.

    1982-01-01

    The level of contamination induced by the presence of tritiated water (HTO) on the Bandelier tuff near Los Alamos, New Mexico has been seen to decrease vertically and horizontally at the same rate. This decrease in radioactivity with distance from the source has been measured around three different disposal shafts and found to be somewhat slower than the decrease in emanation rate with distance from the source. Physical factors, suspected of influencing HTO emanation, were entered as independent variables in a regression equation including measurements taken over a 14 month period. The physical variables studied were of thermal, hydrological, and meteorological origin or a combination of the above. Only four variables were retained as significant although they explained only 71% of the variation in the HTO flux

  10. Tritiated thymidine and deoxycytidine suicide of mouse hemopoietic colony forming cells (CFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyeki, E.M.; Wierzba, K.; Bisel, T.U.

    1981-01-01

    Significant enhancement of tritiated dCyd suicide occurred when unlabelled dThd was added to cultures of mouse monocytic colony-forming cells. Incorporation experiments supported the suicide experiments in that incorporation of tritiated dCyd into DNA was significantly increased. One hundred micromolar dCyd significantly reduced the radiotoxicity of 0.3 μCi of tritiated dThd; incorporation experiments indicated a dose-related reduction in the incorporation of tritiated dThd into DNA with the addition of 1-100 μM unlabelled dCyd. The addition of 1 μM aminopterin reversed the effect of 100 μM deoxycytidine; viz., incorporation of dThd into DNA was 90% of controls. Aminopterin had a similar effect on deoxyuridine reversal of tritiated dThd incorporation into DNA. Aminopterin had no effect on the reduction of tritiated dThd incorporation into DNA due to the addition of 100 μM unlabelled thymidine. Unlabelled ribonucleosides, Urd and Cyd, did not significantly affect the suicide pattern of tritiated dThd or dCyd when they were added to CFC cultures. Unlabelled deoxyribonucleosides, dThd or dCyd, did not significantly affect the suicide pattern of either tritiated Cyd or Urd when they were added to cultures containing tritiated ribonucleosides. Unlabelled Urd or Cyd was effective in reversing the suicide due to tritiated Urd or Cyd. (author)

  11. Tritiated Dust Levitation by Beta Induced Static Charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Gentile, C.A.; Ciebiera, L.; Langish, S.

    2003-01-01

    Tritiated particles have been observed to spontaneously levitate under the influence of a static electric field. Tritium containing co-deposits were mechanically scraped from tiles that had been used in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) inner limiter during the deuterium-tritium campaign and were placed in a glass vial. On rubbing the plastic cap of the vial a remarkable ''fountain'' of particles was seen inside the vial. Particles from an unused tile or from a TFTR co-deposit formed during deuterium discharges did not exhibit this phenomenon. It appears that tritiated particles are more mobile than other particles and this should be considered in assessing tokamak accident scenarios and in occupational safety

  12. Biological study of a tritiated luminous paint (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remy, J.; Meunier, J.; Aeberhardt, A.

    1962-01-01

    A powdered mixture of zinc sulphide and a tritiated polyester has been administered to rats by means of the oesophageal probe. The distribution of tritium in the organ, and its elimination, have been studied. It appears that from 75 to 80 per cent of the polyester has undergone sufficient degradation in the intestinal medium to be absorbed by the digestive mucous membrane and to be subjected to metabolic reactions. (authors) [fr

  13. A miniature discriminating monitor for tritiated water vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R.A.H.; Ravazzani, A.; Pacenti, P. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Advanced Material, Ispra, Vatican City State, Holy See (Italy); Campi, F. [Nuclear Engineering Dept., Polytechnic of Milan (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    In detecting tritium in air (or other gas) for worker safety, it is important to discriminate between tritiated water vapour and elemental tritium, because the first is much more easily absorbed in the lungs. We haveinvented (patent pending) an innovative discriminating monitor which works better than existing designs, and is much smaller. The air (or other sample gas) passes over a large surface area of solid scintillator, which is surface-treated to make it hygroscopic. Tritiated water vapour in the air exchanges continuously, rapidly and reversibly with the water in the thin hygroscopic layer; which is of the order of 1 micron thick. The beta-emissions from tritium in the hygroscopic layer hit the solid scintillator, causing flashes of light that are detected by a photomultiplier. The new discriminating monitor for tritiated species in air offers superior performance to existing discriminating monitors, and is much smaller. It is planned to develop a portable version which could serve as a personal tritium monitor. (authors)

  14. Digestibility of cow's tritiated milk powder by calf and pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruwaene, R. van; Kirchmann, R.; Charles, P.; Hoek, J. van den

    1976-01-01

    Milk obtained from a lactating cow, maintained in a byre and fed on tritiated drinking water (266 μCi/1), was used in these experiments. Tritium moves into the different metabolic pathways that eventually produce milk. After administration of this continuous oral dose of tritiated water, the tritium content of the whole milk and of the dry matter reaches a plateau 10 days after the beginning of the ingestion of THO. Analysis of the radioactivity in the several milk constituents indicated that tritium was incorporated to different extents in different components. This in vivo tritiated milk powder was fed to two calves and three pigs in their rations. Daily samples of faeces were taken. For determining the digestibility and the incorporation of this milk powder the animals were slaughtered and several organs examined. The tritium activity was determined in the dry matter of the organs and the faeces. The data obtained in these experiments indicate that the milk powder is better absorbed by the calf if the digestibility coefficient is taken into consideration, but the milk powder is better incorporated in the organic matter of the muscle and liver of the pig. (author)

  15. Radiation dose to mouse liver cells from ingestion of tritiated food or water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, K.; Okumura, Y.; Sakamoto, K.

    1990-01-01

    Tritium incorporated into tissues and DNA of mice was studied after daily ingestion of tritiated food or tritiated water. The tritiated food used was a commercial preparation mixed with brine shrimp that had been reared in tritiated sea water. After ingestion of tritiated food or water for up to 22 d, the specific activity of 3H in tissues was measured as tissue-free-water 3H, tissue-bound 3H, and DNA-bound 3H. Carbon-14 glucose was added to food and drinking water to compare the 3H intake from food with that from water. The specific activity of 3H in tissues was then corrected by the specific activity of 14C in tissues to determine the 3H incorporation from the same amount of ingested food and water. DNA-bound 3H after the ingestion of tritiated food was 4.6 times higher than that of tritiated water, while tissue-bound 3H was 2.2 times higher. The radiation dose to liver from 3H incorporated through food was twofold higher than from tritiated water, which was mainly from the high incorporation of 3H into DNA. Our results demonstrated that the dose calculation based on tissue-free-water 3H alone would under-estimate the radiation exposure of the human population exposed to tritiated food

  16. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Jacqmin, G. [NUKEM GmbH, Industreistr, Alzenau (Germany)

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  17. The metabolisme of tritiated water in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, Lucien; Vernois, Yvette; Bullier, Denise; Gros, Roger.

    1977-07-01

    The metabolism of tritiated water was studied in the rat during 580 days. The results on urinary and fecal excretion, total activity retention in 25 tissues or organs, cumulated activities from the 4th to the 582nd day are presented and discussed. They are in agreement with other similar studies, if compared over the same length of experimentation. The activity retained by the spinal cord is twice that retained in the brain considered as the organ whose long half-lived component is the most active. The use of such data for the study of tritium-labelled compounds is illustrated by two examples [fr

  18. Calculation of committed dose equivalent from intake of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, D.V.

    1978-08-01

    A new computerized method of calculating the committed dose equivalent from the intake of tritiated water at Harwell is described in this report. The computer program has been designed to deal with a variety of intake patterns and urine sampling schemes, as well as to produce committed dose equivalents corresponding to any periods for which individual monitoring for external radiation is undertaken. Details of retrospective doses are added semi-automatically to the Radiation Dose Records and committed dose equivalents are retained on a separate file. (author)

  19. Fixation of aqueous tritiated waste in polymer impregnated concrete and in polyacetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, P.; Neilson, R. Jr.; Steinberg, M.

    1976-01-01

    Tritiated aqueous waste can be used to hydrate hydraulic cement producing a concrete that contains a network of interconnected porosity and as such is subject to water intrusion and subsequent tritium loss by leaching and exchange. Techniques have been developed to impregnate this porosity with styrene monomer, which is then polymerized in situ, resulting in a concrete that is essentially impermeable while its strength, durability, and resistance to chemical attack are significantly improved. An adsorbent additive can be incorporated to increase the tritiated waste loading of the concrete. Tritiated aqueous waste can also be fixed in polymeric form through reaction with calcium carbide to form tritiated acetylene and calcium hydroxide. Polymerization of the acetylene is accomplished by either 60 Co γ-irradiation or thermal catalysis over cupric oxide. The tritiated polyacetylene produced can contain up to 50 at.% tritium and is essentially nonleachable, insoluble, thermally stable up to 325 0 C, and chemically inert. Tritiated polyacetylene can be incorporated as an aggregate in concrete, polymer concrete (PC), or polymer impregnated concrete (PIC) to form a monolithic solid. The tritiated calcium hydroxide formed in the calcium carbide-water reaction may be calcined, with the recovered tritiated water recycled, or incorporated directly into PC or PIC to impede tritium release

  20. Tritiated imipramine binding sites are decreased in the frontal cortex of suicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, M.; Virgilio, J.; Gershon, S.

    1982-01-01

    Binding characteristics of tritiated imipramine were determined in the frontal cortex of suicides and well-matched controls. Maximal binding was significantly lower in brains from the suicides. This finding is consistent with reports of decreased tritiated imipramine binding in the platelets of patients diagnosed as having a major affective disorder

  1. Tritium retention in the femoral bone marrow and spleens of mice receiving single intravenous injections of tritiated water and tritiated thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshima, Hisamasa; Matsushita, Satoru; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Kashima, Masatoshi

    1987-01-01

    To derive parameters necessary for evaluating the possible hazards of tritium, retention of tritium in total and TCA-insoluble fractions of the femoral marrow and spleen of mice were observed after single intravenous injections of tritiated water and tritiated thymidine. Retention curves of tritium in TCA-insoluble fractions of the femoral marrow and spleen were resolved fairly well into two exponential components. After injecting tritiated thymidine, most of the activity was detected in the TCA-insoluble fraction. Tritium in this fraction decreased with half-times of 2.2 days in the femoral marrow and 3.6 days in the spleen as the first component, and 23.9 days and 30.5 days, respectively, as the second component. After tritiated water injections, the tritium incorporated into the TCA-insoluble fraction was quite small. Most of the activity was considered to be in the TCA-soluble fraction. Tritium in this fraction was estimated to decrease with half-times of 2.6 days in the femoral marrow and 2.3 days in the spleen as the first component, and 8.0 days and 8.2 days, respectively, as the second component. It is concluded that the retention curves of tritium in the bone marrow are similar to those in the spleen for tritiated water, but not for tritiated thymidine. (author)

  2. Radioecology of tritiated water in subarctic soils and vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, L.; Miettinen, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    The residence times of tritium in various types of soils and plants have been determined in southern and northern Finland. The experiments were conducted in forest and agricultural environments where tritiated water was applied to the soil surface in the form of a single fall of rain. After that the movement and loss of tritiated water from the unsaturated zone was followed over a 2-4-year period in some forest areas. Uptake and loss of tritium in the tissue-free water and organic compounds of some native plants was studied in each area. The results indicated that in the subarctic area the half-residence times of tritium in soils and plants were greatly dependent on the climatic conditions at the time of the labelling and during the short growing seasons and also on the rate of water movement in the soil. In the experiments started during the best growing season the half-residence times in soil and plants do not differ from those determined in more temperate latitudes. (author)

  3. Pathways for Disposal of Commercially-Generated Tritiated Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Nancy V. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology

    2016-09-26

    From a waste disposal standpoint, tritium is a major challenge. Because it behaves like hydrogen, tritium exchanges readily with hydrogen in the ground water and moves easily through the ground. Land disposal sites must control the tritium activity and mobility of incoming wastes to protect human health and the environment. Consequently, disposal of tritiated low-level wastes is highly regulated and disposal options are limited. The United States has had eight operating commercial facilities licensed for low-level radioactive waste disposal, only four of which are currently receiving waste. Each of these is licensed and regulated by its state. Only two of these sites accept waste from states outside of their specified regional compact. For waste streams that cannot be disposed directly at one of the four active commercial low-level waste disposal facilities, processing facilities offer various forms of tritiated low-level waste processing and treatment, and then transport and dispose of the residuals at a disposal facility. These processing facilities may remove and recycle tritium, reduce waste volume, solidify liquid waste, remove hazardous constituents, or perform a number of additional treatments. Waste brokers also offer many low-level and mixed waste management and transportation services. These services can be especially helpful for small-quantity tritiated-waste generators, such as universities, research institutions, medical facilities, and some industries. The information contained in this report covers general capabilities and requirements for the various disposal/processing facilities and brokerage companies, but is not considered exhaustive. Typically, each facility has extensive waste acceptance criteria and will require a generator to thoroughly characterize their wastes. Then a contractual agreement between the waste generator and the disposal/processing/broker entity must be in place before waste is accepted. Costs for tritiated waste

  4. Pathways for Disposal of Commercially-Generated Tritiated Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, Nancy V.

    2016-01-01

    From a waste disposal standpoint, tritium is a major challenge. Because it behaves like hydrogen, tritium exchanges readily with hydrogen in the ground water and moves easily through the ground. Land disposal sites must control the tritium activity and mobility of incoming wastes to protect human health and the environment. Consequently, disposal of tritiated low-level wastes is highly regulated and disposal options are limited. The United States has had eight operating commercial facilities licensed for low-level radioactive waste disposal, only four of which are currently receiving waste. Each of these is licensed and regulated by its state. Only two of these sites accept waste from states outside of their specified regional compact. For waste streams that cannot be disposed directly at one of the four active commercial low-level waste disposal facilities, processing facilities offer various forms of tritiated low-level waste processing and treatment, and then transport and dispose of the residuals at a disposal facility. These processing facilities may remove and recycle tritium, reduce waste volume, solidify liquid waste, remove hazardous constituents, or perform a number of additional treatments. Waste brokers also offer many low-level and mixed waste management and transportation services. These services can be especially helpful for small-quantity tritiated-waste generators, such as universities, research institutions, medical facilities, and some industries. The information contained in this report covers general capabilities and requirements for the various disposal/processing facilities and brokerage companies, but is not considered exhaustive. Typically, each facility has extensive waste acceptance criteria and will require a generator to thoroughly characterize their wastes. Then a contractual agreement between the waste generator and the disposal/processing/broker entity must be in place before waste is accepted. Costs for tritiated waste

  5. Tritium in organic compounds of brain of rats exposed to tritiated water or tritiated food during three successive generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The study was performed on Wistar rats which were chronically exposed to tritiated water (HTO, 37.0 kBq/ml) or to tritiated food (48.1 kBq/g). The tritium exposure of the rats was started before mating and was continued up to delivery of the F 3 generation. The incorporation of organically bound tritium (OBT) was determined in whole brain and in some organic components of rats at various ages. The specific activity of OBT in whole brain and in its organic components with the exception of proteins significantly increased in the F 1 +F 2 generations of rats in comparison with F 0 females. The contribution of OBT to the total dose rate was about 6 per cent in HTO group and 9 per cent in T-food group. The contribution of lipids and proteins to the dose rate from OBT was similar in both treatment groups, being 60 and 20 per cent, respectively. 20 refs. (author)

  6. Tritium sorption behavior on the percolation of tritiated water into a soil packed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuichi, Kazuya, E-mail: kfuruichi@aees.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Katayama, Kazunari; Date, Hiroyuki [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Takeishi, Toshiharu [Factory of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Fukada, Satoshi [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We establish the permeation model of tritiated water in the soil layer. • Saturated hydraulic conductivity of water in soil was gained by using the model. • The isotope exchange reaction coefficient was good agreement with experimental data. - Abstract: Development of tritium transport model in natural soil is an important issue from a viewpoint of safety of fusion reactors. The spill of a large amount of tritiated water to the environment is a concern accident because huge tritiated water is handled in a fusion plant. In this work, a simple tritium transport model was proposed based on the tritium transport model in porous materials. The overall mass transfer coefficient representing isotope exchange reaction between tritiated water and structural water in soil particles was obtained by numerically analyzing the result of the percolation experiment of tritiated water into the soil packed bed. Saturated hydraulic conductivity in the natural soil packed bed was obtained to be 0.033 mm/s. By using this value, the overall mass transfer capacity coefficients representing the isotope exchange reaction between tritiated water percolating through the packed bed and overall structural water on soil particles was determined to be 6.0 × 10{sup −4} 1/s. This value is much smaller than the mass transfer capacity coefficient between tritiated water vapor and water on concrete material and metals.

  7. Optical and thermal energy discharge from tritiated solid hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnotta, F.; Mapoles, E.R.; Collins, G.W.; Souers, P.C.

    1991-04-02

    The authors are investigating mechanisms of energy storage and release in tritiated solid hydrogens, by a variety of techniques including ESR, NMR and thermal and optical emission. The nuclear decay of a triton in solid hydrogen initiates the conversion of nuclear energy into stored chemical energy by producing unpaired hydrogen atoms which are trapped within the molecular lattice. The ability to store large quantities of atoms in this manner has been demonstrated and can serve as a basis for new forms of high energy density materials. This paper presents preliminary results of a study of the optical emission from solid hydrogen containing tritium over the visible and near infrared (NIR) spectral regions. Specifically, they have studied optical emission from DT and T{sub 2} using CCD, silicon diode and germanium diode arrays. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Transplantation of photoreceptors labeled with tritiated thymidine into RCS rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouras, P.; Du, J.; Gelanze, M.; Kwun, R.; Kjeldbye, H.; Lopez, R.

    1991-01-01

    Tritiated thymidine was administered to newborn rats to label photoreceptors, about 50% of which are still dividing. These photoreceptors were enzymatically dissociated and separated from the remainder of the retina after the infant rat matured. These labeled photoreceptors were then transplanted into a foreign host retina in the region of the outer nuclear layer. The hosts were ocular, albinotic, Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, congenic to the normal donors and at least 4 months old, a time when virtually all the photoreceptors have degenerated from their retinas. The transplant site was examined at various times after transplantation by light microscope autoradiography. Labeled photoreceptor cell bodies were found in clusters in the outer nuclear layer region for as long as 3 months after transplantation surgery

  9. The use of tritiated water in evaluating animal production parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertshaw, D.

    1988-01-01

    Tritiated water (TOH) provides a means of measuring a number of parameters of importance not only to the applied animal physiologist but to those involved in assessing animal productivity. For the examination of animal-environment interactions, TOH is an invaluable tool for assessing total body water, water turnover rate and hence water requirements of different types of animals kept under a variety of climatic and other conditions. It can also be useful for measuring water losses, e.g. through evaporation, and hence is a tool for assessing thermal stress. For animal productivity studies, TOH is useful for assessing such parameters as carcass composition, the intake of forages, supplements and milk. Each of these aspects is described as are the assumptions which have to be made when using TOH for the measurements concerned. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab

  10. Potential for tumor therapy with tritiated tetracycline. Summary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.C.; Wood, P.; Wood, L.L.; Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1976-01-01

    Reports of tetracycline accumulation in human and animal tumors have led a number of investigators to postulate that this drug, if radio-labeled, might have potential as a therapeutic or diagnostic agent. This paper describes attempts to investigate this potential for tritiated tetracycling. The therapeutic studies demonstrated that while a significant reduction in the growth rates of transplanted tumors could be obtained by the administration of heavy doses of TTC relative to uninjected controls, similar reductions were observed in the growth rates of tumors in animals receiving unlabeled TC. In the localization studies in rodents, the concentrations of TTC in normal tissues and tumors were compared and were correlated with the corresponding concentrations of 14 C-thymidine, a measure of proliferative activity

  11. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.; Brooks, A.

    1982-01-01

    Somatic and genetic effects of the continuous ingestion of tritiated water (HTO) at concentrations of 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 μCi/ml were investigated in mice of the Hale-Stoner-Brookhaven strain. At these levels, there was no measurable somatic effect. Although genetic effects as measured by dominant lethal mutation (DLM) assay indicated a significant effect (P>0.01) on the number of viable embryos and early deaths in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group and on the number of viable embryos in the 1.0 μCi/ml HTO group, no genetic effects were significantly noted in the 0.3 μCi/ml HTO group. Liver cytogenetic studies showed a significant increase in the number of abnormal cells in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group. A reduction in bone marrow stem cells, without an attendant reduction in total marrow cellularity, was noted in the 3.0 and 1.0 μCi/ml HTO groups. There was no significant difference in any of the DLM parameters between animals maintained on 3.0 μCi/ml of HTO and animals exposed to the equivalent 137 Cs gamma dose (22 hours/day exposure). Consideration of the relative amounts and biological half lives of tritium present in the nucleus as water, DNA and histone suggests that after transient exposure to tritiated water, nearly all significant radiation damage can be attributed to tritium present in the nucleus as water. These data suggest that hazards from tritium attendant with normal reactor operation should not at this time be considered as a deterrent to the further development of fission and/or fusion reactor technology. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Mathematical simulation of water distillation column for decreasing volume of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Masahiro; Naruse, Yuji

    1981-12-01

    Water distillation is an attractive method for decreasing volume of the tritiated water produced by operation of tritium facilities. The tritiated water is continuously fed to a column and it is separated into two streams. The top stream is discarded to the environment after addition of sufficient amount of uncontaminated water. The bottom stream is further treated for solidification and capsulation. The tridiagonal matrix method proved to provide surprisingly rapid convergences of the calculations. The concentration of deuterium naturally contained in the tritiated water is higher than the tritium concentration, but it was verified that presence of HDO can be ignored in the calculation. (author)

  13. Tritium conversion in tritiated water: study of the involved reactions: a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1987-10-01

    According to ICRP publication 30, hazards due to molecular tritium are not significant in comparison to hazards due to the oxidated form: tritiated water. It is thus important to know the kinetics of tritium/tritiated water conversion to obtain a realistic evaluation of the risks for the environment at level of present facilities and of future nuclear fusion facilities. Laboratory experiments in static contained conditions have shown that tritiated water is produced by two mechanisms: gas phase oxidation, hydrogen isotopic exchange with water. The periods found are relatively long and difficult to specify. In terrestrial atmosphere, the two mechanisms intervening in tritiated water formation are photochemical oxidation and biochemical reactions occurring in soil and in vegetation aerial parts. The corresponding periods are of some years for the first one, of some hours for the second one [fr

  14. Marked reduction in the number of platelet-tritiated imipramine binding sites in geriatric depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeroff, C.B.; Knight, D.L.; Krishnan, R.R.; Slotkin, T.A.; Bissette, G.; Melville, M.L.; Blazer, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The number (Bmax) and affinity (Kd) of platelet-tritiated imipramine binding sites was determined in young and middle-aged controls 50 years of age and younger (n = 25), elderly normal controls over 60 years of age (n = 18), patients who fulfilled DSM-III criteria for major depression who were under 50 years of age (n = 29), patients who fulfilled DSM-III criteria for major depression who were 60 years of age and older (n = 19), and patients who fulfilled both DSM-III criteria for primary degenerative dementia and National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease (n = 13). Both groups of depressed patients (under 50 and over 60 years of age) exhibited significant reductions (decreases 42%) in the number of platelet-tritiated imipramine binding sites with no change in affinity, when compared with their age-matched controls. There was little overlap in Bmax values between the elderly depressed patients and their controls. The patients with probable Alzheimer's disease showed no alteration in platelet-tritiated imipramine binding. There was no statistically significant relationship between postdexamethasone plasma cortisol concentrations and tritiated imipramine binding. These results indicate that platelet-tritiated imipramine binding may have potential utility as a diagnostic adjunct in geriatric depression, and moreover that the reduction in the number of platelet-tritiated imipramine binding sites is not due to hypercortisolemia

  15. Tritium recovery from tritiated water with a two-stage palladium membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birdsell, S.A.; Willms, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    A process to recover tritium from tritiated water has been successfully demonstrated at TSTA. The 2-stage palladium membrane reactor (PMR) is capable of recovering tritium from water without generating additional waste. This device can be used to recover tritium from the substantial amount of tritiated water that is expected to be generated in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor both from torus exhaust and auxiliary operations. A large quantity of tritiated waste water exists world wide because the predominant method of cleaning up tritiated streams is to oxidize tritium to tritiated water. The latter can be collected with high efficiency for subsequent disposal. The PMR is a combined catalytic reactor/permeator. Cold (non-tritium) water processing experiments were run in preparation for the tritiated water processing tests. Tritium was recovered from a container of molecular sieve loaded with 2,050 g (2,550 std. L) of water and 4.5 g of tritium. During this experiment, 27% (694 std. L) of the water was processed resulting in recovery of 1.2 g of tritium. The maximum water processing rate for the PMR system used was determined to be 0.5 slpm. This correlates well with the maximum processing rate determined from the smaller PMR system on the cold test bench and has resulted in valuable scale-up and design information.

  16. Separation of tritiated water using graphene oxide membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, Gary J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Motkuri, Radha K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gotthold, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Frost, Anthony P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bratton, Wesley [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-28

    In future nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and possibly for nuclear power plants, the cleanup of tritiated water will be needed for hundreds of thousands of gallons of water with low activities of tritium. This cleanup concept utilizes graphene oxide laminar membranes (GOx) for the separation of low-concentration (10-3-10 µCi/g) tritiated water to create water that can be released to the environment and a much smaller waste stream with higher tritium concentrations. Graphene oxide membranes consist of hierarchically stacked, overlapping molecular layers and represent a new class of materials. A permeation rate test was performed with a 2-µm-thick cast Asbury membrane using mixed gas permeability testing with zero air (highly purified atmosphere) and with air humidified with either H2O or D2O to a nominal 50% relative humidity. The membrane permeability for both H2O and D2O was high with N2 and O2 at the system measurement limit. The membrane water permeation rate was compared to a Nafion® membrane and the GOx permeation was approximately twice as high at room temperature. The H2O vapor permeation rate was 5.9 × 102 cc/m2/min (1.2 × 10-6 g/min-cm2), which is typical for graphene oxide membranes. To demonstrate the feasibility of such isotopic water separation through GOX laminar membranes, an experimental setup was constructed to use pressure-driven separation by heating the isotopic water mixture at one side of the membrane to create steam while cooling the other side. Several membranes were tested and were prepared using different starting materials and by different pretreatment methods. The average separation result was 0.8 for deuterium and 0.6 for tritium. Higher or lower temperatures may also improve separation efficiency but neither has been tested yet. A rough estimate of cost compared to current technology was also included as an indication of potential viability of the process. The relative process costs were based on the rough size of facility to

  17. DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR INTAKE OF TRITIATED WATER IN HUMANS: ROLE OF TRITIUM INCORPORATION IN ORGANIC MATTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Balonov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tritium is one of the factors of internal exposure of the humans both in occupational and public environments. It enters the body mainly as tritiated water through inhalation, with food, drinks and through the skin; part of tritium gradually transforms into the metabolised organically bound tritium as a result of biochemical reactions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate organically bound tritium contribution to the effective dose of an adult using the biokinetic model and real dosimetric data. The data of long term monitoring from 6 studies with 17 workers or volunteers following single intake of tritiated water in the body were selected from 9 publications (1968-1997. Three two-compartment models of tritium biokinetics were used in this study: recurrent model with gradual transformation of tritium from tritiated water into organically bound tritium and tritiated water excretion; model with instant transformation of tritium into organically bound tritium and tritiated water excretion; model with instant transformation of tritium into organically bound tritium and both tritiated water and organically bound tritium excretion (according to ICRP. The ICRP model doesn’t properly reflect the real tritiated water metabolism in the human body: second exponent of the tritiated water content in the body water and accumulation of the organically bound tritium fraction are absent. The organically bound tritium fraction composes 3% of tritiated water in ICRP model. It is significantly higher compared to two other models (0,4% and 0,8%. According to the first model the contribution of OBT fraction to the mean dose varied from 1,8 to 4,6% for individuals; mean value was 3,0 ± 0,9%. According to the second model the contribution of organically bound tritium fraction was slightly higher: 3,6 ± 1,1%, according to the ICRP model – 9%. The dynamic of excretion of tritium with urine can be described with double-exponential curves and provides the basis

  18. Dose contribution from metabolized organically bound tritium after chronic tritiated water intakes in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Lamothe, E.; Galeriu, D.

    2001-01-01

    Our earlier study of acute tritiated water intakes in humans has demonstrated that the dose contribution from metabolized organically bound tritium is less than 10% of the body water dose. To further demonstrate that the dose contribution from the organically bound tritium per unit intake of tritiated water is the same, regardless of whether the intake is acute (all at once) or chronic (spread over time), urine samples from six male radiation workers with chronic tritiated water intakes were collected and analyzed for tritium. These workers have a well-documented dose history and a well-controlled tritium bioassay database, providing assurance that their tritium intakes were in the form of tritiated water. Each month for a full calendar year, urine samples were collected from each exposed worker. The monthly concentration of tritium-in-urine for each exposed worker was no lower than 104 Bq L -1 but no higher than 105 Bq L -1 . These urine samples were analyzed for tritiated water and organically bound tritium to determine the ratio of these tritiated species in urine. The average ratio of tritiated water to organically bound tritium in urine for each exposed worker was 330-129 (range, 297-589). In calculating the dose to these workers, we assumed that, under steady-state conditions, the ratio of the specific activity of tritium ( 3 H activity per gH) in the organic matter and water fractions of urine is representative of the ratio of the specific activity of tritium in the organic matter and water fractions of soft tissue. A mathematical model was developed and used to estimate the dose increase from the metabolized organically bound tritium based on the ratio of tritiated water to organically bound tritium in urine. The resulting average dose from the organically bound tritium was 6.9-3.1% (range, 4.7-9.9%) of the body water dose for the six male workers, and agrees well with the value obtained from our acute tritiated water intakes study in humans. The observed

  19. Tritiated wastewater treatment and disposal evaluation for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, W.L.

    1995-08-01

    A second annual summary and analysis of potential processes for the mitigation of tritium contained in process effluent, ground water and stored waste is presented. It was prepared to satisfy the Hanford Federal Facility and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-05B. Technologies with directed potential for separation of tritium at present environmental levels are organized into two groups. The first group consists of four processes that have or are undergoing significant development. Of these four, the only active project is the development of membrane separation technology at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Although research is progressing, membrane separation does not present a near term option for the mitigation of tritium. A second grouping of five early stage projects gives an indication of the breadth of interest in low level tritium separation. If further developed, two of these technologies might prove to be candidates for a separation process. At the present, there continues to be no known commercially available process for the practical reduction of the tritium burden in process effluent. Material from last year's report regarding the occurrence, regulation and management of tritium is updated and included in the appendices of this report. The use of the State Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS) for disposal of tritiated effluent from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) begins in the fall of 1995. This is the most significant event impacting tritium in the environment at the Hanford Site this coming year

  20. Fixation of aqueous tritiated waste in polymer impregnated concrete and in polyacetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, P.; Neilson, R. Jr.; Steinberg, M.

    1975-01-01

    Tritiated aqueous waste can be used to hydrate hydraulic cement producing a concrete that contains a network of interconnected porosity. Such a product is subject to water intrusion and subsequent tritium loss by leaching and exchange. Techniques have been developed to impregnate this porosity with styrene monomer which is then polymerized in situ, resulting in a concrete that is essentially impermeable while its strength, durability, and resistance to chemical attack are significantly improved. Tritium bulk leach rates as low as 1.68 x 10 -4 g/(cm 2 -day) have been measured for polymer-impregnated concrete in water. An adsorbent additive can be incorporated to increase the specific tritiated waste loading of the concrete. Depending upon the formulations, these composites incorporate 5.8 to 8.3 liters HTO per cubic foot. Tritiated aqueous waste can also be fixed in polymeric form as polyacetylene through reaction with calcium carbide to form tritiated acetylene which is subsequently polymerized. Acetylene polymerization is accomplished by either 60 Co gamma irradiation or thermal catalysis over cupric oxide. The tritiated polyacetylene produced can contain up to 50 atomic percent tritium and is essentially non-leachable, insoluble, thermally stable to 325 0 C, and chemically inert. The bulk leach rate of tritiated polyacetylene was determined to be of the order of 1.8 x 10 -8 g/(cm 2 -day). Radiolysis by 60 Co gamma irradiation results in a G value for hydrogen production of 0.15 molecules/100 eV. Tritiated polyacetylene can be incorporated as an aggregate in concrete, polymer concrete, or polymer impregnated concrete to form a monolithic solid

  1. Conversion of tritiated hydrogen to water in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, L.L.

    1976-09-01

    The report summarizes present information on the atmospheric reactions of tritium. The global distribution of hydrogen and of water is first considered. Data on tritium distribution are then compared and, finally, known reactions which may convert tritiated hydrogen-containing molecules are discussed. Approximately 99 percent of the world's inventory of tritium exists as HTO. Although most of it is in the ocean, a significant portion still resides in the stratosphere. However, in the troposphere, which is the primary concern of this review, most of the tritium is in the form of HT, a smaller amount as HTO, and a much smaller but still significant amount as CH 3 T. Further, the tritium-to-hydrogen ratio in the troposphere is higher in hydrogen and in methane than it is in water vapor. The formation of HTO by exchange of HT or T 2 with water or by direct oxidation with oxygen, in the absence of catalysts, is extremely slow at concentrations in the atmosphere that might exist a few minutes after a tritium release. Photochemical oxidation may be the predominant conversion mechanism and over larger periods of time may combine with bacterial action to serve as the principal pathways of conversion of HT (or T 2 ) and CH 3 T to HTO or other more reactive forms of tritium. The net conversion rate following a tritium release to the atmosphere would be expected to be less than 1 percent in 24 hr. The significance of the relatively high tritium content in atmospheric methane needs evaluation. Monitoring of CH 3 T has been largely neglected in the past. Considerable uncertainty exists in some of the data on which these conclusions are based and recommendations are made for further work

  2. Formation of volatile decomposition products by self-radiolysis of tritiated thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Kazuhiro; Mori, Hirofumi

    1997-01-01

    In order to estimate the internal exposure dose in an experiment using tritiated thymidine, the rate of volatile 3 H-decomposition of several tritiated thymidine samples was measured. The decomposition rate of (methyl- 3 H)thymidine in water was over 80% in less than one year after initial analysis. (methyl- 3 H)thymidine was decomposed into volatile and non-volatile 3 H-decomposition products. The ratio of volatile 3 H-decomposition products increased with increasing the rate of the decomposition of (methyl- 3 H) thymidine. The volatile 3 H-decomposition products consisted of two components, of which the main component was tritiated water. Internal exposure dose caused by the inhalation of such volatile 3 H-decomposition products of (methyl- 3 H) thymidine was assumed to be several μSv. (author)

  3. Radiation doses to the tissues of rat from tritiated thymidine administered by three different routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Iwakura, Tetsuo; Mabuchi, Yasuo.

    1984-01-01

    Biological behaviour of tritiated thymidine were investigated in rat over 120 days after oral, intraperitoneal or intravenous administration and the absorbed doses to different tissues were estimated. The result of present study revealed that the absorbed dose from tritiated thymidine varied with the route of administration. Among the three routes of administration, intraperitoneal injection gave the highest dose to all of the tissues examined. A significant difference due to the route of administration was found in spleen and small intestine, where the doses were, respectively, 3.3 and 4.5 times higher after intraperitoneal injection than after oral ingestion. The difference was substantially dependent on the dose value from non-volatile tritium which would be incorporated into DNA. Present observation suggests that the radiation hazards of tritiated thymidine differ depending on the route of entry into the body. (author)

  4. Synthesis of tritiated sex pheromones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, Angel; Feixas, Joan [CID (CDIC), Biological Organic Chemistry Dept., Barcelona (Spain)

    1996-10-01

    Synthesis of tritiated sex phenomones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis has been accomplished by a simple route involving tritiated sodium borohydride reduction of the corresponding aldehyde followed by acetylation of the resulting radiolabelled alcohol. The process occurs with high chemical and radiochemical yields and the compounds have been used in pheromone catabolism studies. (author).

  5. The measurement of water vapor permeability of glove materials using dilute tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doughty, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    As fusion technology progresses, there will be an increasing need to handle tritium and tritiated compounds. Protective clothing, especially drybox gloves, must be an effective barrier to minimize worker exposure. The water vapor permeability of glove materials and finished glove constructions is a crucial property of drybox gloves and is not sufficiently well characterized. We have built an apparatus that measures water vapor permeability of elastomers using dilute tritiated water. The technique is more sensitive than other methods currently available and allows us to make measurements on materials and under conditions previously inaccessible. In particular, we present results on laminated drybox gloves for which data is not currently available. (orig.)

  6. Preparation of tritiated polystyrene and its application in radio luminescent paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi, S.; Mathewy, K.M.; Seshadri, N.K.; Subramanian, T.K.

    2001-01-01

    Beta radiation emanating from tritiated polystyrene in close proximity with copper activated zinc sulphide phosphor will provide self-sustained light sources and are used for nocturnal illumination of watches and clocks, product advertisements, telephone numbers, exit signs etc. Phenylacetylene was partially reduced in diethyl ether medium with tritium using 5% Pd/C poisoned with quinoline to give styrene. Styrene formed was polymerised to polystyrene by subjecting it to irradiation with γ-radiation (20 mega rad dose). Copper activated zinc sulphide phosphor was coated with tritiated polystyrene to give self-sustained light sources. (author)

  7. Characteristics of honeycomb catalysts to recover tritiated hydrogen and methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuhiko, Uda; Masahiro, Tanaka; Kenzo, Munakata

    2007-01-01

    methane gas. With regard to hydrogen oxidization, the cordierite honeycomb reveals a better oxidizing performance than the metal alloy honeycomb. It was also suggested that the oxidization rate depends on the amount of deposited noble metal but the mesh density does not strongly affects the oxidation rate. Experimental results indicate that the catalytic oxidization rate decreases with increasing moisture content in the experimental gases. It was found that the catalytic activity of palladium catalysts for hydrogen oxidization is substantially decreased under the condition of low temperature and high humidity. In conclusion, it can be said that the honeycomb catalysts are promising alternatives of conventional packed bed type of catalyst for the recovery of tritiated gas if proper noble metal is selected. (orig.)

  8. urea space versus tritiated water space as an in vivo predtctor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UREA SPACE VERSUS TRITIATED WATER SPACE AS AN IN VIVO PREDTCTOR. OF BODY WATER AND BODY FAT. H.H. Meissner. Animal and Dairy Science Research lnstirurc, [rene. Receipt o1'MS 6.6.76. OPSOMMING; UREUMRUIMTE VERSUS TRTTIUMRUIMTE AS'N IN VIVO BF-RAMI.-R VAN LIGGAAMSVO(; LN ...

  9. Synthesis of high specific activity tritiated dihydropyridines: nicardipine- sup 3 H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnes, H.; Huang, G.T. (Syntex Research, Palo Alto, CA (USA). Inst. of Organic Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis of high specific activity 3-nitrobenzaldehyde-(4,6-{sup 3}H), a key intermediate in the general synthesis of tritiated 4-aryldihydropyridines, is described. This substance was then used to prepare the calcium channel entry blocker, nicardipine-(4',6'-{sup 3}H) at a specific activity of 51 Ci/mmole via the Hantzsch process. (author).

  10. Oxidative Decontamination of Tritiated Materials Employing Ozone Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, Charles A.; Parker, John J.; Guttadora, Gregory L.

    2001-01-01

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has developed a process by which to significantly reduce surface and near surface tritium contamination from various materials. The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS) reacts gaseous state ozone (accelerated by presence of catalyst), with tritium entrained/deposited on the surface of components (stainless steel, copper, plastics, ceramics, etc.), for the purpose of activity reduction by means of oxidation-reduction chemistry. In addition to removing surface and near surface tritium contamination from (high monetary value) components for reuse in non-tritium environments, the OTDS has the capability of removing tritium from the surfaces of expendable items, which can then be disposed of in a less expensive fashion. The OTDS can be operated in a batch mode by which up to approximately 40 pounds of tritium contaminated (expendable) items can be processed and decontaminated to levels permissible for free release (less than1,000 dpm/100 cm 2). This paper will discuss the OTDS process, the level of tritium surface contamination removed from various materials, and a technique for ''deep scrubbing'' tritium from subsurface layers

  11. Incorporation and metabolism of tritium in pregnant mice and their offspring after feeding organically labelled tritiated milk powder during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruwaene, R. van; Gerber, G.B.; Kirchmann, R.; Maes, J.; Fagniart, E.

    1982-01-01

    Food mixed from equal amounts of organically labelled tritiated milk powder and normal food pellets was given to mice during pregnancy and lactation. At birth, some new-born were swapped with those from non-exposed mothers to compare separately accumulation and metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. Young mice were sacrificed at different time after birth, and tritium activity in different organs was determined. Tritium activity was also determined in maternal organs at various times during and after the 42 days feeding period. The activity per g in some tissues of the young, particularly in fat, exceeded that of the food given, probably as a result of the high activity and low metabolic dilution of the fats in the food. Young mice contaminated during lactation and pregnancy contained still detectible activity at an age of 2 months. Activity was nearly the same in mice receiving tritium only during lactation as in those receiving it also during pregnancy. Dilution was more marked due to rapid growth when tritium application was discontinued at birth. Tritium water was replaced most rapidly, organic tritium in brain turned over most slowly with and additional metabolic component of a half life in the order of 1 month. Organic tritium in liver displayed an intermediate half life. (author)

  12. Separation of tritiated water from water using composite membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.; Nelson, D.

    1996-01-01

    Polymeric composite membranes are being developed to remove tritium from contaminated water at DOE sites. Industrial membrane systems are being developed that have proven to be energy efficient, and membrane technologies such as reverse-osmosis have been well developed for desalination and other industrial/municipal applications. Aromatic polyphosphazene membranes are being investigated because they have excellent radiological, thermal, and chemical stability. The FY 1996 effort is directed toward delineating a potential mechanism, providing a statistical approach to data acquisition, refining a mass balance, and designing a staged array module

  13. High specific activity tritiation of the pyridazin-3-one histamine H{sub 3} receptor inverse agonist CEP-27088

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Joseph R. [PerkinElmer Health Sciences, Inc. 940 Winter St. Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Filer, Crist N., E-mail: crist.filer@perkinelmer.com [PerkinElmer Health Sciences, Inc. 940 Winter St. Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Maniscalco, Mario [PerkinElmer Health Sciences, Inc. 940 Winter St. Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Becknell, Nadine C.; Hudkins, Robert L. [Discovery Research, Cephalon, Inc. 145 Brandywine Parkway, West Chester, PA 19380 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Methods are presented to tritiate and characterize radioligand (3). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper addresses a useful compound to study the histamine-3 receptor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compound is a member of the pyridazin-3-one heterocycle class. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In particular, the paper describes the installation of tritium in the compound of interest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Furthermore, tritium NMR has been employed to characterize the tritiated compound.

  14. Catalytic oxidation efficiencies for tritium and tritiated methane in a mature, industrial-scale decontamination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, J.M.; Gildea, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    Almost all tritium decontamination systems proposed for fusion facilities employ catalytic oxidation to water, followed by drying, to remove tritium and tritiated hydrocarbons from gas streams. One such large-scale system, the gas purification system (GPS), has been operating in the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, since October 1977. A series of experiments have recently been conducted there to assesss the current operating characteristics of the GPS catalyst. The experiments used tritium and tritiated methane and covered a range of temperatures, flow rates, and concentration levels. When contrasted with 1977 data, the results indicate that no measurable degradation of catalyst function had occurred. However, some reduction in active metal surface area, as indicated by B.E.T. surface area measurements (approx. 100 → 90m 2 /g) and AES scans (approx. 1.4 → 0.9 at. % Pt), had occurred. Kinetic rate coefficients were also derived and a rough temperature dependence obtained

  15. Catalytic oxidation efficiencies for tritium and tritiated methane in a mature, industrial-scale decontamination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, J.M.; Gildea, P.D.

    1980-10-01

    Almost all tritium decontamination systems proposed for fusion facilities employ catalytic oxidation to water, followed by drying, to remove tritium and tritiated hydrocarbons from gas streams. One such large-scale system, the gas purification system (GPS), has been operating in the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, since October 1977. A series of experiments have recently been conducted there to assess the current operating characteristics of the GPS catalyst. The experiments used tritium and tritiated methane and covered a range of temperatures, flow rates, and concentration levels. When contrasted with 1977 data, the results indicate that no measurable degradation of catalyst function had occurred. However, some reduction in active metal surface area, as indicated by B.E.T. surface area measurements (approx. 100 → 90 m 2 /g) and AES scans (approx. 1.4 → 0.9 at% Pt), had occurred. Kinetic rate coefficients were also derived and a rough temperature dependence obtained

  16. ITER tritiated waste management by the Host state and first lessons learned for fusion development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamela, Jérôme, E-mail: jerome.pamela@cea.fr [CEA, Agence ITER-France, centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bottereau, Jean-Michel [CEA, Agence ITER-France, centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Canas, Daniel [CEA, DEN/DADN, centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Decanis, Christelle; Liger, Karine; Gaune, Frédéric [CEA, DEN, centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2014-10-15

    This paper summarises the present status of the ITER tritiated waste management strategy under development in France. This paper describes the specific challenges posed by this radioactive waste containing tritium as well as the solutions planned for the various waste categories and the implementation expected for the ITER tritiated waste, including the features of the future interim storage facility called INTERMED. Several options to reduce temporary storage duration as well as to minimise out-gassing rates and tritium discharges into the environment are under study, the related issues and the preliminary results obtained are shown. The first lessons learned for fusion development and their extrapolation to future reactors are outlined based on four parameters: materials, operating temperature, fuel cycle efficiency and tritium removal technologies.

  17. A study of water in glass by an autoradiographic method that utilizes tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knickerbocker, S.H.; Brown, S.D.; Joshi, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter determines water concentration and spatial distribution in glass by an autoradiographic method that makes use of tritiated water as the tagged species. Describes the method and presents some typical results. Lists advantages and disadvantages associated with the method and examines other methods that might be used for the study of water in glass. Discusses dry glass preparation, the addition of tritiated water to glass, glass preparation, film selection, and film analysis. Shows tritium autoradiography to be a valuable technique for measuring the content and spatial distribution of water in inorganic glasses. Finds that the technique yields unique information, particularly in regard to spatial distribution, when compared with techniques of IR spectroscopy, SIMS, SIPS, NRRA, ESR and NMR. Points out that large areas (e.g., several square inches) of sample can be mapped in a single exposure. Notes that the spatial resolution of water in the glass network can be 10 -7 m, so very accurate diffusion profiles are obtainable

  18. Molecular and genotoxic effects in Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to tritiated water at an elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallas, L.; Jha, A. [School of Biological Sciences, Plymouth University (United Kingdom); Bean, T.; Lyons, B. [Cefas Weymouth Laboratory (United Kingdom); Turner, A. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Radioactive contaminants do not occur in isolation; organisms are also exposed to fluctuations in biological, biotic and physico-chemical factors, such as competition, other contaminants, salinity and temperature. Thermal discharge from nuclear facilities is considered to be one of the most important environmental issues surrounding these establishments, second only to the release of radionuclides. Cooling water from nuclear institutions is one of the major sources of tritium ({sup 3}H) to the aquatic environment; temperature is therefore an abiotic factor of particular concern when it comes to assessing the potential detrimental impacts of {sup 3}H exposure in marine species. In this context, we used a molecular approach to elucidate the potential mechanisms behind the genotoxicity of tritiated water (HTO) to marine mussels, at 'normal' and elevated temperatures. Mussels were exposed to control seawater or 15 MBq L{sup -1} HTO at 15 and 25 deg. C for 7 days, with haemolymph and gill tissue sampling (for comet assay to detect DNA strand breaks and gene expression analysis, respectively) after 0, 1, 12, 72 and 168 h. In addition, a Cu concentration of 40 μg L{sup -1} (previously established as genotoxic under these exposure conditions) was used concurrently as a positive control (at 15 deg. C). Tissue-specific accumulation of {sup 3}H was also determined, allowing the calculation of dose rates using the ERICA tool. Comparison of DNA strand breakage (DSB) as a function of time suggested that significant levels of DSB were induced earlier in haemocytes of mussels exposed to HTO at 25 deg. C compared to 15 deg. C (72 h vs. 168 h). Alterations in transcriptional expression of key genes also suggest that the 72 h time point is critical, with gill showing reduced expression of hsp70, hsp90, mt20, p53 and rad51 during HTO exposure at the elevated temperature. In contrast, HTO exposure at 15 deg. C resulted in significant up-regulation of the same genes after 72

  19. Characterization of erosion dust and tritiated products inside the jet vessel after the first tritium experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charuau, J.; Belot, Y.; Cetier, P.; Drezet, L.; Grivaud, L.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to characterize the erosion products found in the JET vessel after the first tritium experiment. These products were analyzed for carbon, beryllium, Inconel metals and tritium. All these elements were present in airborne particles or deposited dust. The tritium was found as tritiated water vapour, and also strongly associated to the suspended or deposited particles. It was more abundant in fine than in coarse particles. The particulate tritium seems to be almost entirely 'insoluble' in a water solution

  20. Using miniature osmotic infusion pumps to maintain tritiated thymidine exposure to cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neely, J.E.; Hake, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    To provide a constant level of tracer doses of tritiated thymidine to cultured cells during continuous infusion, miniature osmotic infusion pumps were used to provide replacement thymidine. By determining the loss of isotope from the media during nonreplacement, the rate of constant infusion replacement to maintain thymidine levels was calculated. The replacement rates were similar for the three cell lines examined and allowed a standard osmotic pump infusion

  1. DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR INTAKE OF TRITIATED WATER IN HUMANS: ROLE OF TRITIUM INCORPORATION IN ORGANIC MATTER

    OpenAIRE

    M. I. Balonov; L. A. Chipiga

    2016-01-01

    Tritium is one of the factors of internal exposure of the humans both in occupational and public environments. It enters the body mainly as tritiated water through inhalation, with food, drinks and through the skin; part of tritium gradually transforms into the metabolised organically bound tritium as a result of biochemical reactions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate organically bound tritium contribution to the effective dose of an adult using the biokinetic model and real dosimetr...

  2. Water flux in animals: analysis of potential errors in the tritiated water method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, K.A.; Costa, D.

    1979-03-01

    Laboratory studies indicate that tritiated water measurements of water flux are accurate to within -7 to +4% in mammals, but errors are larger in some reptiles. However, under conditions that can occur in field studies, errors may be much greater. Influx of environmental water vapor via lungs and skin can cause errors exceeding +-50% in some circumstances. If water flux rates in an animal vary through time, errors approach +-15% in extreme situations, but are near +-3% in more typical circumstances. Errors due to fractional evaporation of tritiated water may approach -9%. This error probably varies between species. Use of an inappropriate equation for calculating water flux from isotope data can cause errors exceeding +-100%. The following sources of error are either negligible or avoidable: use of isotope dilution space as a measure of body water volume, loss of nonaqueous tritium bound to excreta, binding of tritium with nonaqueous substances in the body, radiation toxicity effects, and small analytical errors in isotope measurements. Water flux rates measured with tritiated water should be within +-10% of actual flux rates in most situations

  3. Water flux in animals: analysis of potential errors in the tritiated water method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, K.A.; Costa, D.

    1979-03-01

    Laboratory studies indicate that tritiated water measurements of water flux are accurate to within -7 to +4% in mammals, but errors are larger in some reptiles. However, under conditions that can occur in field studies, errors may be much greater. Influx of environmental water vapor via lungs and skin can cause errors exceeding +-50% in some circumstances. If water flux rates in an animal vary through time, errors approach +-15% in extreme situations, but are near +-3% in more typical circumstances. Errors due to fractional evaporation of tritiated water may approach -9%. This error probably varies between species. Use of an inappropriate equation for calculating water flux from isotope data can cause errors exceeding +-100%. The following sources of error are either negligible or avoidable: use of isotope dilution space as a measure of body water volume, loss of nonaqueous tritium bound to excreta, binding of tritium with nonaqueous substances in the body, radiation toxicity effects, and small analytical errors in isotope measurements. Water flux rates measured with tritiated water should be within +-10% of actual flux rates in most situations.

  4. Comparative stochastic effects from low level exposure of mice to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewissen, D.J.; Ugarte, A.S.; Rust, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 1,133 C57 Black/6M mick of both sexes were randomly assigned to 5 experimental groups. In the first group, mice received a single injection of tritiated water (HTO) at weaning time. In the second group, weaned mice were exposed to tritated drinking water for the entire lifespan. In the third group the female parent received one single injection of HTO following delivery. In the fourth group, the female parent and her progeny were exposed to tritiated drinking water for the entire lifespan. In the fifth group, dams were exposed to tritiated drinking water from the beginning of pregnancy for the entire lifespan. (Drinking HTO 1 μCi/ml; single dose of HTO 1 μCi). Data from experimental groups were statistically evaluated vis a vis extensive control groups (+- 1,000 control mice of either sex). All mice were autopsied as moribund or soon after death and tissues were microscopically examined. A significantly increased incidence of reticulum cell sarcomas was observed in female offspring from dams in the third and fifth groups. A significantly increased incidence of hepatic tumors was observed in male offspring in the fourth group. Mean survival times did not significantly differ within experimental groups but were significantly different from controls

  5. Tritium removal from contaminated water via infrared laser multiple-photon dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maienschein, J.L.; Magnotta, F.; Herman, I.P.; Aldridge, F.T.; Hsiao, P.

    1983-01-01

    Isotope separation by means of infrared-laser multiple-photon dissociation offers an efficient way to recover tritium from contaminated light or heavy water found in fission and fusion reactors. For tritium recovery from heavy water, chemical exchange of tritium into deuterated chloroform is followed by selective laser dissociation of tritiated chloroform and removal of the tritiated photoproduct, TCl. The single-step separation factor is at least 2700 and is probably greater than 5000. Here we present a description of the tritium recovery process, along with recent accomplishments in photochemical studies and engineering analysis of a recovery system

  6. Mixtures of tritiated water, zinc and dissolved organic carbon: Assessing interactive bioaccumulation and genotoxic effects in marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Holly B C; Dallas, Lorna J; Comber, Sean D W; Braungardt, Charlotte B; Worsfold, Paul J; Jha, Awadhesh N

    2018-07-01

    Release of tritium ( 3 H) in the marine environment is of concern with respect to its potential bioaccumulation and detrimental impact on the biota. Previous studies have investigated the uptake and toxicity of this radionuclide in marine mussels, and the interaction of 3 H with dissolved organic ligands and elevated temperature. However, despite the well-established view that toxicity is partly governed by chemical speciation, and that toxic effects of mixture of contaminants are not always additive, there have been no studies linking the prevailing chemistry of exposure waters with observed biological effects and tissue specific accumulation of 3 H in combination with other constituents commonly found in natural waters. This study exposed the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis for 14 days to mixtures of 3 H (as tritiated water, HTO) and zinc (Zn) at 5 Mbq L -1 , and 383, 1913 and 3825 nM Zn, respectively, to investigate (a) 3 H and Zn partitioning in soft tissues of mussels, and (b) DNA damage in haemocytes, determined using the single cell gel electrophoresis or the comet assay. Additionally, the extent of association of 3 H with dissolved organic carbon (DOC, added as humic acid) over the exposure period was investigated in order to aid the interpretation of biological uptake and effects. Results concluded a clear antagonistic effect of Zn on 3 H-induced DNA damage at all Zn concentrations used, likely explained by the importance of Zn in DNA repair enzymes. The interaction of DOC with 3 H was variable, with strong 3 H-DOC associations observed in the first 3 d of the experiment. The secretion of 3 H-binding ligands by the mussels is suggested as a possible mechanism for early biological control of 3 H toxicity. The results suggest risk assessments for radionuclides in the environment require consideration of potential mixture effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  8. Synthesis of high specific active tritiated Leu-enkephalin in the leucine residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, S.; Hasegawa, H.; Shinohara, Y. (Tokyo Coll. of Pharmacy (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    Leu-enkephalin labelled with tritium in the Leu residue has been prepared. Synthesis of the precursor peptide, (4,5-dehydroLeu{sup 5}-)Leu-enkephalin, was carried out by solid phase synthesis using Fmoc amino acid derivatives. The peptide was tritiated catalytically yielding {sup 3}H-Leu-enkephalin with a specific radioactivity of 4.39 TBq/mmol. The distribution of tritium label was investigated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with a synchronized accumulating radioisotope detector following acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis, which confirmed that the tritium label was entirely located at the Leu residue. (author).

  9. Selected bibliography on heavy water, tritiated water and hydrogen isotopes (1981-1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.T.; Sutawane, U.B.; Rathi, B.N.

    1994-01-01

    A selected bibliography on heavy water, tritiated water and hydrogen isotopes is presented. This bibliography covers the period 1981-1992 and is in continuation to Division's earlier report BARC-1192 (1983). The sources of information for this compilation are Chemical Abstracts, INIS Atom Index and also some scattered search through journals and reports available in our library. No claim is made towards exhaustiveness of this bibliography even though sincere attempts have been made for a wide coverage. The bibliography is arranged under the headings: (1) production, purification, recovery, reprocessing and storage, (2) isotope exchange, 3) isotope analysis, (4) properties and (5) miscellaneous. Total number of references in the bibliography are 1762. (author)

  10. Autoradiographic investigation of sperm transit through the male mouse genital tract after tritiated thymidine incorporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadoune, J.P.; Alfonsi, M.F. (Faculte de Medecine Broussais-Hotel-Dieu, U.E.R. Biomedicale des Saints-Peres, 75 - Paris (France))

    1984-01-01

    The transit of spermatozoa in the genital tract of the male mouse was investigated by quantitative light microscopic autoradiography after intraperitoneal injection of tritiated thymidine. Transit duration in the caput and the corpus of the epididymis was shown to be 3 days; the total duration of transit in the genital tract was 5 days. These findings indicate that the time required for the transit of spermatozoa in the epididymal caput and corpus was comparable to that calculated in other mammals studied. However, the duration of sperm storage in the epididymal cauda appeared to be shorter than that previously reported for rodents.

  11. DETERMINATION OF IN-VITRO LUNG SOLUBILITY AND INTAKE-TO-DOSE CONVERSION FACTOR FOR TRITIATED LANTHANUM NICKEL ALUMINUM ALLOY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Labone, T.; Staack, G.; Cheng, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Varallo, T.

    2011-11-11

    A sample of tritiated lanthanum nickel aluminum alloy (LaNi4.25Al0.75 or LANA.75) similar to that used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities was analyzed to estimate the particle size distribution of this metal tritide powder and the rate, at which this material dissolves in the human respiratory tract after it is inhaled. This information is used to calculate the committed effective dose received by a worker after inhaling the material. These doses, which were calculated using the same methodology given in the DOE Tritium Handbook, are presented as inhalation intake-to-dose conversion factors (DCF). The DCF for this metal tritide is less than the DCF for tritiated water and radiation worker bioassay programs designed for tritiated water are adequate to monitor for intakes of this material.

  12. Synthesis of the metabolite of the insecticide Deltamethrine: deuterated and tritiated 5-hydroxy-3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol and its 5-methoxy derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do-cao-thang; Nguyen-hoang-nam; Nguyen-ngoc-quang; Hoellinger, H.

    1988-01-01

    Partial hydrolysis of LiBH 4 with deuterated, tritiated water in THF solution provided a simple and cheap method for the preparation of deuterated, tritiated alcohols by reduction of esters : (α - 2 H) and (α - 3 H) 5-methoxy-3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol, 5-hydroxy 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol (metabolite of deltamethrin), the pyrethroid insecticide. (author)

  13. Multi-column adsorption systems with condenser for tritiated water vapor removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotoh, Kenji; Kudo, Kazuhiko

    1996-01-01

    Two types of multi-column adsorption system are proposed as the system for removal of tritiated moisture from tritium process gases or/and handling room atmospheres. The types are of recycle use of adsorption columns, and are composed of twin or triplet columns and one condenser which is used for collecting the adsorbed moisture from columns in desorption process. The systems utilize the dry gas from a working column as the purge gas for regenerating a saturated column and appropriate an active column for recovery of the tritiated moisture passing through the condenser. Each column hence needs the additional amount of adsorbent for collecting the moisture from the condenser. In the modeling and design of an adsorption column, it is primary to estimate the necessary amount of a candidate adsorbent for its packed-bed. The performance of the proposed systems is examined here by analyzing the dependence of the necessary amount of adsorbent for their columns on process operational conditions and adsorbent moisture-adsorption characteristics. The result shows that the necessary amount is sensitive to the types of adsorption isotherm, and suggests that these systems should employ adsorbents which exhibit the Langmuir-type isotherms. (author)

  14. Theoretical prediction of thermodynamic properties of tritiated beryllium molecules and application to ITER source term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virot, F., E-mail: francois.virot@irsn.fr; Barrachin, M.; Souvi, S.; Cantrel, L.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Standard enthalpies of formation of BeH, BeH{sub 2}, BeOH, Be(OH){sub 2} have been calculated. • The impact of hydrogen isotopy on thermodynamic properties has been shown. • Speciation in the vacuum vessel shows that the main tritiated species is tritiated steam. • Beryllium hydroxide and hydride could exist during an accidental event. - Abstract: By quantum chemistry calculations, we have evaluated the standard enthalpies of formation of some gaseous species of the Be-O-H chemical system: BeH, BeH{sub 2}, BeOH, Be(OH){sub 2} for which the values in the referenced thermodynamic databases (NIST-JANAF [1] or COACH [2]) were, due to the lack of experimental data, estimated or reported with a large uncertainty. Comparison between post-HF, DFT approaches and available experimental data allows validation of the ability of an accurate exchange-correlation functional, VSXC, to predict the thermo-chemical properties of the beryllium species of interest. Deviation of enthalpy of formation induced by changes in hydrogen isotopy has been also calculated. From these new theoretically determinated data, we have calculated the chemical speciation in conditions simulating an accident of water ingress in the vacuum vessel of ITER.

  15. Effect of lifetime intake of organically bound tritium and tritiated water on the oocytes of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak-Flis, Z.; Wasilewska-Gomulka, M.

    1984-01-01

    Rats were continuously exposed to constant activity of tritium in drinking water (HTO group) or to tritium organically bound in food (T-food group) in the period from conception of F 1 generation through maturity. Female offspring were killed at the age of 21 and 71 days and the oocytes in their ovaries were counted. Mean dose rates absorbed in the ovaries were for the HTO groups 7.25+-0.37 and 14.73+-0.79 mGy/day and for the T-food group 4.84+-0.25 mGy/day. Reduction in the oocyte number in the ovaries of females exposed to tritiated food was bigger than in the ovaries of females exposed to tritiated water. The dependence of the survival of small oocytes on the dose rate and the corresponding total accumulated dose had an exponential character. The damaging effect of tritium was for the period from conception to 21 days of age bigger than from 21 to 71 days of age. Of all stages of oocyte development, the highest sensitivity to tritium irradiation was observed in small oocytes and oocytes with one complete layer of follicle cells. As a result, relative number of the growing and large oocytes increased. (orig.)

  16. Effect of tritiated compounds on sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) in human lymphocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Manli; Rao Yongqing; Chen Guanying; Wu Weiwei; Zhao Zilan; Shen Lei

    1990-01-01

    Human lymphocytes treated in vitro with various activities of 3 H-TdR and 3 H-UdR were cultured to understand the effects of tritium on the cell cycle and the frequency of SCE. The results of these experiments indicated that both tritiated compounds make the frequency of SCE increase and the cell cycle delay. The frequency of SCE increased markedly with activity of 3 H. With respect to delaying cell cycle, 3 H-UdR was more effective than 3 H-TdR. The average frequencies of SCE for 3 H-UdR were higher than those for 3 H-TdR. With the exception of 3.7 x 10 3 Bq/mL group and differences between other 3 H-UdR groups and corresponding 3 H-TdR group were significant (t test, p < 0.01). These results suggest that tritiated compounds may have the effect on the cell proliferating rate. The cell proliferating rate index (PRI) seems to be related with the frequency of SCE: the higher the frequency of SCE, the lower the PRI is

  17. Inhibiting effect of tea catechins on the lipid peroxidation induced in tritiated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, M. [Radiochemical Research Laboratory, University of Shizuoka, 836 Ohya, Shizuoka-shi 422-8529 (Japan); Takeuchi, Y. [Radiochemical Research Laboratory, University of Shizuoka, 836 Ohya, Shizuoka-shi 422-8529 (Japan); Okuno, K. [Radiochemical Research Laboratory, University of Shizuoka, 836 Ohya, Shizuoka-shi 422-8529 (Japan); Yoshioka, H. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Shizuoka-shi 422-8526 (Japan); Yoshioka, H. [Radiochemical Research Laboratory, University of Shizuoka, 836 Ohya, Shizuoka-shi 422-8529 (Japan)]. E-mail: srhyosi@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp

    2006-02-15

    Lipid peroxidation induced by {beta}-ray in tritiated water and the inhibiting effect of tea catechins on it were studied using a spin probe method. A hydrophobic spin probe, 16-doxylstearic acid (16NS), was incorporated into a liposome prepared from egg yolk phosphatidylcholine, which was dispersed in tritiated water; the catechins were added to the solution. The rate of the decrease of ESR intensity of 16NS was a measure of the peroxidation and of the inhibiting effect. Inhibiting activity increased with an increase in the concentration of the catechin. Inhibiting ability estimated from the slope of the curves was in the order of (-)-epicatechin gallate > (-)-epigallocatechin gallate > (-)-epicatechin > (-)-epigallocatechin. The activity decreased with increasing temperature and the temperature dependence increased with the catechin concentration. These results were explained by a model; the initiator of the peroxidation is the hydroxyl radical (OH) and catechin is adsorbed on the surface of the membrane and scavenges OH coming into there from the water phase. The activity depended on the ratio of the adsorbed catechin, namely the partition coefficient between the water and the lipid.

  18. Utilization of tritiated water dilution technique in determination of nitrogen partitioning in cashmere goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Linfeng; Yang Gaiqing; Liu Ping; Zhang Shijun

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate nitrogen partitioning in local cashmere goats, six Inner Mogolia White Cashmere goats between 2 to 2.5 years old were used to determine the nitrogen partitioning in cashmere goats. The total retained nitrogen (TN) in body, distribution of body nitrgen and hair nitrogen were measured by general digestive and metabolism method combined with tritiated water dilution technique. Results showed that the combined methods were ideal for determining body nitrgen (BN) and hair nitrogen (fur nitrogen, FN) of Cashmere goats. There were obvious significance between BN and FN in different seasons. In telogen, BN and FN partitioning was 75.7% ± 0.62% and 24.3% ± 0.62%, respectively. Whereas, it changed to 66.6% ± 2.2% and 33.4% ± 2.2% in anagen. BN partitioning decreased when the season changed from telogen to anagen, while FN partitioning increased, which indicated that more nitrogen substance was partitioned to body growth in telogen, and more nitrogen substance was distribute to cashmere growth in anagen. These transformation were related to the changing of photoperiod and some hormones, such as melatonin (MT), prolactin (PRL) and IGF-I. It could be concluded that tritiated water dilution technique can be used to detect body protein content as well as BN, combining general digestive and metabolism experiment, FN partitoning can be determined. BN and FN partitoning varied with the season in cashmere goats because of hormones changing. (authors)

  19. Excretion of organic and inorganic tritiated compounds in cow's milk after ingestion of tritium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hoek, J.; Gerber, G.B.; Kirchmann, R.

    1980-01-01

    The secretion of tritium in milk as water, casein and lipids was studied in cows given tritiated water to drink for 25 days. The parameters of the exponential functions describing the secretion of tritium as water, casein and lipid are determined during this 'loading phase' and also for a 'decay period' of 75 days after the tritiated water administration had been terminated. Secretion started after a short delay (0.5 day). Turnover of all three compounds was short (half time of about 5 days). Calculations of the dilution of the ingested water during metabolism showed that about 83% of the milk water secreted is found to originate from drinking water; the rest comes from water in food and from that formed in metabolism. The parameters of the decay phase indicated that the principle components of water, casein and lipids had about the same turnover rates as during the loading phase. Using the loading and decay phase data, calculations were performed to determine how much activity in each compound and in each metabolic component would be excreted after a single and after a continuous application of tritium oxide when integrated over infinite times. (UK)

  20. Studies on the fixation of tritiated water using the cement hydration, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimaki, Kenzo; Tsutsui, Tenson; Miake, Chiaki.

    1989-01-01

    In the previous paper, we have reported the results of basic experiments to fix tritiated water using the hydration of cement, and found that most tritiated water transfers to surrounding water, even if it is incorporated using the hydration of cement. In this report, we tried to apply a simple compartment model to the tritium transfer curves reported in the previous paper, which represent the phenomena that most water containing tritium is exchanging with a surrounding water, regardless of its forms, i.e., a crystalline water, free water and so on. We divided a solidified cement into three groupes with respect to the exchangeability of water, i.e., a compartment of fixed water, of compositions expect water, and of exchanging water. We developed a simple compartment model under the assumption that the water in the third compartment is exchangeable with the sorrounding water with a certain exchanging volume rate E, not altering by time. The transfer curves calculated with the model contains unknown parameter, E. By the method of least squares, varying the values of E, we could obtain most approximated transfer curves of tritium to those obtained by the previous experiments. In the result, we knew that the simple compartment model is applied to the tritium transfer curves reported in the previous paper. (author)

  1. Tritium contamination of hematopoietic stem cells alters long-term hematopoietic reconstitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giacomo, F.; Barroca, V.; Laurent, D.; Lewandowski, D.; Saintigny, Y.; Romeo, P.H.; Granotier, Ch.; Boussin, F.D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In vivo effects of tritium contamination are poorly documented. Here, we study the effects of tritiated Thymidine ([ 3 H] Thymidine) or tritiated water (HTO) contamination on the biological properties of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Materials and methods: Mouse HSC were contaminated with concentrations of [ 3 H] Thymidine ranging from 0.37-37.03 kBq/ml or of HTO ranging from 5-50 kBq/ml. The biological properties of contaminated HSC were studied in vitro after HTO contamination and in vitro and in vivo after [ 3 H] Thymidine contamination. Results: Proliferation, viability and double-strand breaks were dependent on [ 3 H] Thymidine or HTO concentrations used for contamination but in vitro myeloid differentiation of HSC was not affected by [ 3 H] Thymidine contamination. [ 3 H] Thymidine contaminated HSC showed a compromised long-term capacity of hematopoietic reconstitution and competition experiments showed an up to two-fold decreased capacity of contaminated HSC to reconstitute hematopoiesis. These defects were not due to impaired homing in bone marrow but to an initial decreased proliferation rate of HSC. Conclusion: These results indicate that contaminations of HSC with doses of tritium that do not result in cell death, induce short-term effects on proliferation and cell cycle and long-term effects on hematopoietic reconstitution capacity of contaminated HSC. (authors)

  2. Preparation for tritiated waste management of fusion facilities: Interim storage WAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decanis, C., E-mail: christelle.decanis@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Canas, D. [CEA, DEN/DADN, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Derasse, F. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Pamela, J. [CEA, Agence ITER-France, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Fusion devices including ITER will generate tritiated waste. • Interim storage is the reference solution offering an answer for all types of tritiated radwaste. • Interim storage is a buffer function in the process management and definition of the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) is a key milestone in the facility development cycle. • Defining WAC is a relevant way to identify ahead of time the studies to be launched and the required actions to converge on a detailed design for example material specific studies, required treatment, interfaces management, modelling and monitoring studies. - Abstract: Considering the high mobility of tritium through the package in which it is contained, the new 50-year storage concepts proposed by the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) currently provide a solution adapted to the management of waste with tritium concentrations higher than the accepted limits in the disposals. The 50-year intermediate storage corresponds to 4 tritium radioactive periods i.e., a tritium reduction by a factor 16. This paper details the approach implemented to define the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for an interim storage facility that not only takes into account the specificity of tritium provided by the reference scheme for the management of tritiated waste in France, but also the producers’ needs, the safety analysis of the facility and Andra’s disposal requirements. This will lead to define a set of waste specifications that describe the generic criteria such as acceptable waste forms, general principles and specific issues, e.g. conditioning, radioactive content, tritium content, waste tracking system, and quality control. This approach is also a way to check in advance, during the design phase of the waste treatment chain, how the future waste could be integrated into the overall waste management routes and identify possible key points that need further investigations (design changes, selection

  3. Pharmacokinetics of tritiated water in normal and dietary-induced obese rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, L.Y.; Jusko, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Tritiated water disposition was characterized in normal and dietary-induced obese rats to assess pharmacokinetic concerns in calculating water space and estimating body fat. A monoexponential decline in serum tritium activity was observed in both groups of rats, thus facilitating use of various computational methods. The volume of distribution and the total clearance of tritium in obese rats were larger than in normal rats because of the increased body weight. The values of water space (volume of distribution) estimated from moment analysis or dose divided by serum tritium activity at time zero (extrapolated) or at 2 hr were all similar. Thus, obesity does not alter the distribution equilibrium time and distribution pattern of tritium, and the conventional 2-hr single blood sampling after intravenous injection is adequate to estimate the water space of normal and obese rats

  4. Biological half-time of tritiated water: comparison of hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberstadt, P.; Fernandez, M.V.G.; Gonzalez, O.

    1986-01-01

    The half-time values of tritiated water were explored in eleven hyperthyroid patients and in two hypothyroid ones. For reasons of comparability the numbers are expressed in days per square meter (d/m/sup 2/) of body surface. Against the estimated 5.4d/m/sup 2/ in normal subjects, the hyperthyroids reflected 3.9+-0.66 and the two determinations of hypothyroids were 6.42 and 7.13, respectively. During the study neither diagnostic nor therapeutic procedures were ever postponed. The half-time values are not representative of extreme conditions in hyper- or hypothyroids, but are sufficiently clear to indicate well-defined differences from normal people. The total exposure to radiation for the exploratory procedure was minimal, estimated at less than 12 mrem for the normal standard man.

  5. Measurement of organ blood flow using tritiated water. II. Uterine blood flow in conscious pregnant ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.W.; Oddy, V.H.; Jones, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Total uterine blood flow was measured with a tritiated water (TOH) diffusion method and with radioactive microspheres in six, conscious, pregnant ewes. With continuous infusion of TOH, equilibrium between the TOH concentration in utero-ovarian venous blood and arterial blood was attained within 50 min of the start of the infusion. The concentration of TOH in uterine and foetal tissue and in foetal blood water was the same as that in uterine venous water by 40 min; at this time, the concentration of TOH in the water of amniotic and allantoic fluids was 96% of that in uterine venous blood water. Estimates of total uterine blood flow obtained using TOH were highly correlated with those obtained with microspheres and the corresponding mean flow values obtained with the two techniques did not significantly differ. The percentage of the total uterine blood flow passing through arteriovenous anastomoses ranged from 1.4 to 3.3%

  6. Total synthesis of fully tritiated Leu-enkephalin by enzymatic coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellio, F.; Lecocq, G.; Morgat, J.L.; Gueguen, P. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Biochimie)

    1990-09-01

    This paper describes the total enzymatic synthesis of Leu-enkephalin (Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu) in which all residues were labelled with tritium. Carboxypeptidase Y from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the coupling enzyme. ({sup 3}H)-Tyr-NH{sub 2}, ({sup 3}H)-Gly-Oet, ({sup 3}H)-Phe-NH{sub 2} and ({sup 3}H)-Leu-NH{sub 2} were prepared with specific radioactivities ranging between 20 and 60 Ci/mmol (740 to 2220 GBq/mmol). Using a microscale procedure, we obtained a fully tritiated hormone having a specific radioactivity equal to 139 Ci/mmol (5143 GBq/mmol), in agreement with the summation of the specific radioactivities of constituting residue. The radioactive hormone had antigenic properties identical to those of native Leu-enkephalin. It also bound to rat brain opiate receptors like the parental hormone. (author).

  7. Autoradiographic analysis of tritiated imipramine binding in the human brain post mortem: effects of suicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross-Isseroff, R.; Israeli, M.; Biegon, A.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro quantitative autoradiography of high-affinity tritiated imipramine binding sites was performed on brains of 12 suicide victims and 12 matched controls. Region-specific differences in imipramine binding were found between the two groups. Thus, the pyramidal and molecular layers of the cornu ammoni hippocampal fields and the hilus of the dentate gyrus exhibited 80%, 60%, and 90% increases in binding in the suicide group, respectively. The postcentral cortical gyrus, insular cortex, and claustrum had 45%, 28%, and 75% decreases in binding in the suicide group, respectively. No difference in imipramine binding was observed in prefrontal cortical regions, in the basal ganglia, and in mesencephalic nuclei. No sex and postmortem delay effects on imipramine binding were found. Imipramine binding was positively correlated with age, the effect of age being most pronounced in portions of the basal ganglia and temporal cortex

  8. Measurement of capacity coefficient of inclined liquid phase catalytic exchange column for tritiated water processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamai, Hideki; Konishi, Satoshi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Okuno, Kenji

    1994-01-01

    Liquid phase catalytic exchange (LPCE) is effective method for enrichment and removal of tritium from tritiated water. Capacity coefficients of operating LPCE column that are essential to evaluate column performance were measured. Experiments were performed with short catalyst packed columns and effect of inclination was studied. Method for evaluation of capacity coefficients was established from measurement of isotope concentration of liquid, vapor, gas phases at the two ends of the column. The capacity coefficients were measured under various superficial gas velocities. Feasibility study of helical columns with roughened inner surface was performed with short inclined columns. The column performance was not strongly affected by the inclination. The result indicates technological feasibility of helical LPCE column, that is expected to have operation stability and reduced height

  9. The metabolism of tritiated oleic acid in the rat. A radiological protection study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, Lucien; Vernois, Yvette; Nazard, Raymonde.

    1979-04-01

    The metabolism of 3 H-labelled oleic acid has been studied in the rat during 600 days. The results of urinary and fecal excretions, of the retention of the total and fixed activities in 25 tissues or organs and the cumulative activity from day 4 to 616 are discussed. Oleic acid is more widely spread than other labelled molecules studied previously both as regard excretion or retention. During the first 4 days one can grossly admit that half the activity is fixed to water and half is stored in the adipose tissues which it leaves quickly first, then more slowly with a half-life of 200 days about. For some ten tissues, the cumulative activity due to the fixed fraction exceeds the cumulative activity due to tritiated water obtained by metabolism of oleic acid [fr

  10. Tritiated-water detection with a 2D(γ,n)1H monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, W.G.; Baumann, N.P.

    Tritiated process water is monitored by detecting the D 2 O component via the 2 D(γ,n) 1 H reaction. A probe containing a 1 to 7 mCi 24 Na (15 h) γ-source and six 3 He neutron detectors produces and monitors the 2 D(γ,n) 1 H reaction. A variety of probe configurations were examined for D 2 O detection sensitivity. The corresponding detection limits range from 6 to 280 μL for D 2 O droplets and 1 to 13 μL/cm for D 2 O streams, when 10-minute neutron counting with a 1 mCi γ-source is used. Results from two field applications illustrate the utility of the monitor

  11. P-aminobenzoic acid and tritiated cyanoborohydride for the detection of pyruvoyl residues in proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Poelje, P.D.; Snell, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure for the detection of covalently bound pyruvic acid in purified proteins or in crude extracts is described. The dialyzed sample is first treated with sodium cyanoborohydride to reduce any Schiff bases present and then incubated with p-aminobenzoic acid and sodium [ 3 H]cyanoborohydride. Derivatized proteins are visualized by fluorography following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Gel slices containing the labeled proteins are hydrolyzed, and, after removal of polyacrylic acid, the hydrolysate is subjected to ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. The presence of pyruvic acid is established by the detection of a tritiated, 280-nm absorbing compound with a retention time corresponding to that of synthetic N-(p-carboxyphenyl)alanine. The procedure is capable of detecting protein-bound pyruvic acid in the picomolar range and is easily modified to screen for other covalently bound keto acids

  12. Depressed patients have decreased binding of tritiated imipramine to platelet serotonin ''transporter''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.M.; Rehavi, M.; Skolnick, P.; Ballenger, J.C.; Goodwin, F.K.

    1981-01-01

    The high-affinity tritiated (3H) imipramine binding sites are functionally (and perhaps structurally) associated with the presynaptic neuronal and platelet uptake sites for serotonin. Since there is an excellent correlation between the relative potencies of a series of antidepressants in displacing 3H-imipramine from binding sites in human brain and platelet, we have examined the binding of 3H-imipramine to platelets from 14 depressed patients and 28 age- and sex-matched controls. A highly significant decrease in the number of 3H-imipramine binding sites, with no significant change in the apparent affinity constants, was observed in platelets from the depressed patients compared with the controls. These results, coupled with previous studies showing a significant decrease in the maximal uptake of serotonin in platelets from depressed patients, suggest that an inherited or acquired deficiency of the serotonin transport protein or proteins may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression

  13. Bacterial incorporation of tritiated thymidine and populations of bacteriophagous fauna in the rhizosphere of wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik; Griffiths, Bryan; Christensen, Søren

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial and microfaunal populations, and bacterial productivity measured by tritiated thymidine (3HTdr) incorporation, in the rhizosphere of wheat seedlings were measured. Soil from planted pots was fractionated into rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere (bulk) soil, while unplanted soil was taken from...... pots without plants. Total bacterial counts and biovolume did not differ between fractions but viable (plate) counts were 8 times higher in the rhizosphere compared to bulk and unplanted soil. 3HTdr was incorporated at a constant rate with low variability in bulk or unplanted soil. In rhizosphere soil...... 3HTdr incorporation was lower than in bulk or unplanted soils and showed high variability. The populations of bacterial-feeding protozoa and nematodes indicated that rhizosphere bacterial activity was actually 3–4 times greater in rhizosphere than bulk soil in accordance with the results...

  14. Potential for tumor therapy with tritiated tetracycline. Summary evaluation. [Animal tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.C.; Wood, P.; Wood, L.L.; Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1976-10-26

    Reports of tetracycline accumulation in human and animal tumors have led a number of investigators to postulate that this drug, if radio-labeled, might have potential as a therapeutic or diagnostic agent. This paper describes attempts to investigate this potential for tritiated tetracycling. The therapeutic studies demonstrated that while a significant reduction in the growth rates of transplanted tumors could be obtained by the administration of heavy doses of TTC relative to uninjected controls, similar reductions were observed in the growth rates of tumors in animals receiving unlabeled TC. In the localization studies in rodents, the concentrations of TTC in normal tissues and tumors were compared and were correlated with the corresponding concentrations of /sup 14/C-thymidine, a measure of proliferative activity.

  15. Incorporation of tritiated thymidine and uridine in normal and endopolyploid nuclei of differentiated tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Y.K.; Sen, Sumitra

    1987-01-01

    Rate of replication and transcription between normal and giant endopolyploid nuclei of differentiated tissue of Hordeum vulgare L. (2n=14) roots and Phlox drummondii Hook. (2n=14) and Zea mays L. (2n=20) endosperms were studied by labelling experiments with tritiated thymidine and uridine. The incorporation of thymidine and uridine was identical in both diploid and giant endopolyploid nuclei of the roots of H. vulgare. The endosperm cells of P. drummondii and Z. mays, however, exhibit markedly different labelling pattern in normal (i.e. triploid) and endopolyploid nuclei where both replication and transcription were rather high. The nutritive function of the endosperm is probably responsible for this high degree of activity. (author). 14 refs., 10 figs., 3 tables

  16. Differential effects of chronic ingestion of tritiated water on prenatal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamenhof, S.

    1990-01-01

    Female rats were given tritiated drinking water (3 microCi/ml) from 30 days before mating up to and throughout pregnancy. At this low dose, the course and the outcome of pregnancy were normal. The differences between newborn body and cerebral weights of the treated rats and those of control animals were on the borderline of significance. In contrast, cerebral DNA and cerebral protein were highly significantly lower. In 30-35% of the treated population the DNA and protein values were more than 2 standard deviations (SD) below the mean values for the control population. Thus the number of the progeny of the mothers exposed to tritiated water that were considered to have outstandingly low levels of DNA and protein was 14-17 times greater than in the control group. The irradiated population also had 3-5% of severely affected individuals with cerebral DNA and protein values more than 2 SD below the mean of the experimental population. However, even in this irradiated population, a certain number of individuals did not show the effects of radiation as indicated by DNA and protein values that were not lower than the mean values of the control population. These animals may represent those individuals in which normal (control) populations would have cerebral DNA and protein levels well above the average (by 1 to 2 SD), but here, because of prenatal irradiation, were about average. If so, this lack of effect of irradiation cannot be caused by protection against radiation. However, at present, a differential repair mechanism of protection in those animals (or their mothers) that showed little or no effect of irradiation cannot be excluded

  17. Tritium distribution in newborn mice after providing mother mice with drinking water containing tritiated thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, M.; Streffer, C.; Molls, M.

    1983-01-01

    Throughout gestation pregnant mice received drinking water which contained [methyl- 3 H]thymidine (18.5 kBq/ml). The newborn mice were divided into two groups. One group was nursed by their own mothers, which were further supplied with tritiated thymidine until 4 weeks after delivery (Experiment I). The other group was nursed by ''nonradioactive mothers'' which were given no tritiated thymidine (Experiment II). Tritium incorporation into the small molecular components of the acid-soluble fraction, lipid, RNA, DNA, and protein was analyzed for the newborn mice at various ages. In Experiment II, total radioactivity per gram tissue decreased initially after birth with a half life of 2.5-2.9 days in spleen, liver, intestine, stomach, thymus, lung, kidney, heart, and brain. At about 2 weeks after birth, a slower component of tritium elimination due mainly to the DNA-bound tritium appeared. Specific activity of DNA at birth was organ specific, highest in heart and lowest in thymus. Cumulative absorbed dose in various organs was estimated for the first 4 weeks after birth based upon an assumption that total and DNA-bound tritium are uniformly distributed. The result showed that organ specificity of dose accumulation is obvious for DNA-bound tritium, highest in spleen (1.15 mGy) and lowest in brain (0.13 mGy). It was also shown that the tritium supply from mother's milk is of minor importance for dose accumulation of DNA-bound tritium in the cell nuclei of organs of suckling mice

  18. Tritium distribution in newborn mice after providing mother mice with drinking water containing tritiated thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, M.; Streffer, C.; Molls, M.

    1983-01-01

    Throughout gestation pregnant mice received drinking water which contained [methyl- 3 H]thymidine (18.5 kBq/ml). The newborn mice were divided into two groups. One group was nursed by their own mothers, which were further supplied with tritiated thymidine until 4 weeks after delivery (Experiment I). The other group was nursed by nonradioactive mothers which were given no tritiated thymidine (Experiment II). Tritium incorporation into the small molecular components of the acid-soluble fraction, lipid, RNA, DNA, and protein was analyzed for the newborn mice at various ages. In Experiment II, total radioactivity per gram tissue decreased initially after birth with a half life of 2.5 to 2.9 days in spleen, liver, intestine, stomach, thymus, lung, kidney, heart, and brain. At about 2 weeks after birth, a slower component of tritium elimination due mainly to the DNA-bound tritium appeared. Specific activity of DNA at birth was organ specific, highest in heart and lowest in thymus. Cumulative absorbed dose in various organs was estimated for the first 4 weeks after birth based upon an assumption that total and DNA-bound tritium are uniformly distributed. The result showed that organ specificity of dose accumulation is obvious for DNA-bound tritium, highest in spleen (1.15 mGy) and lowest in brain (0.13 mGy). It was also shown that the tritium supply from mother's milk is of minor importance for dose accumulation of DNA-bound tritium in the cell nuclei of organs of suckling mice

  19. Dose contribution from metabolized organically bound tritium after acute tritiated water intakes in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Galeriu, D.; Richardson, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    Urine samples from eight male radiation workers who had an unplanned acute tritiated water intake were measured for tritium-in-urine up to 300 d post-exposure. During the first month or so post-exposure, these individuals increased their fluid intakes to accelerate the turnover rate of tritium in the body for dose mitigation. Their daily fluid intakes reverted to normal levels in the latter period of the study. A non-linear regressional analysis of the tritium-in-urine data showed that the average biological half-life of tritium in body water, with standard deviation, was 63 ± 1.0 d (range, 5.0-8.1 d) and 8.4 ± 2.0 d (range, 6.2-12.8 d) during the respective periods of increased fluid intake and the later period of normal fluid intake. A longer term component of tritium excretion was also observed with average biological half-life of 74 ± 18 d (range, 58-104 d), indicating the incorporation of tritium, and its retention, in the organic fractions of the body. A mathematical model was developed and used to estimate the dose increase from the metabolized organically bound tritium on the basis of the kinetics of tritium-in-urine. The model accounts for a change in the rates of urinary excretion caused by variable fluid intakes. The average dose to the body, for the eight male workers, due to the metabolized organically bound tritium was estimated to be 6.2 ± 1.3% (range, 3.5% to 8.9%) of the committed effective dose due to tritium in the body water. This value for the dose increase from organically bound tritium is in the range of the current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, i.e., organically bound tritium incorporated into the body contributes about 10% of the dose to the body water following tritiated water intakes. (author)

  20. Comparison of late effects of single x-ray exposure, chronic tritiated water ingestion, and chronic cesium-137 gamma exposure in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    There is concern over the possible late effects resulting from chronic exposure to tritiated water, a primary by-product of power reactors. We are comparing the genetic and somatic effects of tritiated water ingestion to acute x-ray or chronic cesium-137 gamma-ray exposures. Eight week old mice were maintaned on tritiated water in concentrations of 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 μCi/ml. Identical animals received cesium-137 gamma exposures equivalent to that from the tritiated water. At 4 week intervals, animals were sacrificed and the hematopoietic stem cell content and cellularity of the bone marrow determined. For comparison of acute and chronic effects, one group of mice received a single whole-body x-ray exposure of 525 rads. The x-irradiated animals showed an immediate sharp decrease in marrow cellularity followed by gradual return to normal levels, with a lifelong reduction in number of marrow stem cells. Animals exposed to the two higher concentrations of tritiated water showed only slight reductions in marrow cellularity, with a lifelong reduction in hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Comparison of the external gamma exposures to chronic tritiated water ingestion indicates similar patterns. Maintenance of normal cellularity with a reduced number of stem cells in x-rayed animals was shown by tritiated thymidine cytocide to be due to the reduction in number of stem cells in the resting G/sub O/ stage. At this time it is not possible to determine whether there is a significant difference in relative biological effectiveness of tritiated water compared to cesium-137 gamma rays; however, indications are that they are similar

  1. Radioautographic identification of central monoaminergic neurons after local micro-instillation of tritiated serotonin and norepinephrine in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, Lucienne; Mouren-Mathieu, A.-M.; Descarries, Laurent.

    1978-01-01

    Monoaminergic neurons in nuclei raphe dorsalis and locus coeruleus of the cat may be visualized by radioautography after local micro-instillation of tritiated serotonin and noradrenaline. The concomitant administration of the appropriate tracer with the other biogenic amine in non radioactive form permits a specific identification of serotoninergic and catecholaminergic nerve cell bodies. A small contingent of presumptive serotoninergic neurons is thus demonstrated in the region of the locus coeruleus [fr

  2. Water excretion mechanisms of the kidney studied in the rabbit using tritiated water during the stop-flow assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.; Amiel, CI.; Falbriard, A.

    1960-01-01

    The pattern of water turnover in the kidney and the mechanisms of water transfer into the urine have been studied in the rabbit using tritiated water as a tracer and the stop-flow technique. The experiments have given the following results: a) During the interruption of the diuresis, the injected tritiated water is completely exchanged with the water of the renal cortex, but the tracer does not reach the deep regions of the kidney, despite the fact that the blood circulation is maintained in these regions; this suggests that the vascular loops of the vasa recta function as a mechanism of water exchange by countercurrent. b) During the osmotic polyuria following the stop-flow period, the concentration gradient of tritiated water inside the kidney diminishes progressively. The concentration of the tracer in the urine is at all time similar to that existing in the deep medulla and the renal papilla and markedly different from that of the cortex or arterial blood. This fact shows that the molecules of water in the urine excreted do not come from either the glomerular filtrate or the convoluted tubules but from the water contained in the deep regions of the kidney. Also these results indicate that the walls of the collecting ducts have a very high permeability to water diffusion. Reprint of a paper published in Revue francaise d'etudes cliniques et biologiques, Vol. IV, no. 8, p. 773-779, 1959 [fr

  3. Laboratory studies conducted for the development of a plant to concentrate the radioactive waste from tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornea, Anisia; Zamfirache, Marius; Stefanescu, Ioan; Vasut, Felicia; Soare, Amalia

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant is the biggest operational source of tritium, from Europe and one of the most important in the world. Our interest is especially focussed on tritiated water waste with low activity resulting from the maintenance operations performed on reactors with the purpose of reducing their volume and further reprocessing. The system presented in this work is based on the catalytic isotopic exchange and molecular dissociation CECE. The development of technologies in the field of isotopic separation based on the water electrolysis process was not very successful in last decades first of all because of the shortcomings of the classical electrolysers which use a KOH-type electrolyte. The main disadvantages are high KOH electrolyte hold-up and problems regarding hydrogen and oxygen purification and consequently the corrosion risk. Lately, there has been noticed a growing interest regarding the electrolysers having polymer membranes as electrolyte SPM (solid polymer membrane). Such an electrolyser is available in our institute, so the aim of our research was to use this electrolyser in a tritium concentration system from the tritiated water waste using the technology for isotopes separation-CECE. The present paper presents a conceptual design scheme for a concentration system of the tritium resulting from the tritiated water waste. (authors)

  4. Processing Tritiated Water at the Savannah River Site: A Production-Scale Demonstration of a palladium membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessions, K

    2004-01-01

    The Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR) process was installed in the Tritium Facilities at the Savannah River Site to perform a production-scale demonstration for the recovery of tritium from tritiated water adsorbed on molecular sieve (zeolite). Unlike the current recovery process that utilizes magnesium, the PMR offers a means to process tritiated water in a more cost effective and environmentally friendly manner. The design and installation of the large-scale PMR process was part of a collaborative effort between the Savannah River Site and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The PMR process operated at the Savannah River Site between May 2001 and April 2003. During the initial phase of operation the PMR processed thirty-four kilograms of tritiated water from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The water was processed in fifteen separate batches to yield approximately 34,400 liters (STP) of hydrogen isotopes. Each batch consisted of round-the-clock operations for approximately nine days. In April 2003 the reactor's palladium-silver membrane ruptured resulting in the shutdown of the PMR process. Reactor performance, process performance and operating experiences have been evaluated and documented. A performance comparison between PMR and current magnesium process is also documented

  5. Availability of Zr80Ni20-alloy for tritium Extraction from tritiated methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Masao; Motohashi, Eiichi; Shu, W.M.; Watanabe, Kuniaki

    1998-01-01

    Decomposition of methane by gettering materials is one of promising methods to extract tritium atoms from tritiated hydrocarbon species in the exhaust gases of thermonuclear fusion devices. Basic properties of the powered Zr 80 Ni 20 -alloy on the decomposition kinetics of methane and the absorption-desorption characteristics of hydrogen isotopes have been investigated. The Zr 80 Ni 20 -alloy mainly consisted of Zr and Zr 2 Ni crystals. The decomposition rate obeyed the first order kinetics with respect to the pressure of methane, and most of methane(>99.7%) was decomposed within a few minutes at 723K. The activation energies for the decomposition were determined as 37.2 and 58.3 kJ/mol for temperatures of Region I and Region II, respectively. Pressure changes of hydrogen in the temperature range from 373 to 673K indicated the existence of two hydrides. ΔH o and ΔS o evaluated from temperature dependence of the equilibrium dissociation pressure at a low hydrogen concentration were determined as-168 kJ/mol-H 2 and -124J/K·mol-H 2 , respectively. These values were close to those of Zr-hydride. On the other hand, the pressure changes at a high hydrogen concentration indicated the existence of Zr 2 Ni-hydride. It was revealed, therefore, that hydrogen atoms liberated by methane decomposition are absorbed by Zr and Zr 2 Ni crystals, depending on the hydrogen concentration in the Zr 80 Ni 20 -alloy. (author)

  6. A field-scale demonstration of air sparging to remediate tritiated fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.E.; Gillespie, D.R.; Hokett, S.L.; Donithan, J.D.

    1996-09-01

    Two pilot field-scale studies were conducted during the period of May 24 to July 22, 1996, to evaluate the potential of air sparging to remediate tritiated fluids. Previous analytical solutions to the rate of tritium removal were evaluated and compared to the experimental results. The analytical solution of Craig and Gordon that describes isotopic fractionation of an evaporating body of water appears to most accurately describe the process, versus the more limited isotopic exchange equation of Slattery and Ingraham and the mass transfer equation of Wilson and Fordham, which are accurate only at moderate to high humidities and do not describe the tritium enrichment process that would occur at low humidities. The results of the two experiments demonstrated that air sparging of tritium is a viable process in the field. Tritium removal rates of 60 percent were reported during the first experiment and 66 percent for the second experiment. Comparison to previous laboratory work revealed that rates could have been improved by starting with higher concentrations, utilizing smaller bubbles, and longer bubble path lengths. Risks associated with the pilot study were greater the closer one worked to the experiment with a maximum increase in the Lifetime Excess Total Risk per Unit Uptake of 2.4 x 10 -5 . Conduct of this experiment at locations with much higher activities of tritium would significantly increase the associated risk

  7. Results of experimental research on the transfer of tritiated water to cultivated vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchmann, R.; Fagnart, E.

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the experiments performed since 1968 in the framework of the studies on the transfer of tritium in terrestrial food chains is presented. The experiments varied widely and modes of exposure were: a) uptake of tritium through roots from soil irrigated; b) foliar uptake of tritium from sprayed tritiated water; c) certain plant foliages were exposed to vapour (in the THO form) under controlled conditions. Mostly the activities applied were a few mCi/m 2 , excepted in the irrigation experiments, planned to produce forage for transfer studies to animals, in this latter case the activities applied were a few hundred mCi/m 2 . The study of tritium turnover in the water compartment indicates the incorporation of a definite fraction in the organic constituents; the levels of incorporation of tritium as OBT (organic bound tritium) are presented and discussed. In general, the behaviour of tritium is qualitatively similar for the various modes of exposures with the major part of tritium being associated with short TFWT residence-time and a small percentage with long residence-time (25 to 52 days) which might be attributed to organic fraction. (author)

  8. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited monitoring tritiated water in air and water effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, R.V.; Tepley, N.W

    1978-01-01

    Current on-line methods of monitoring effluents for tritium (as tritiated water, HTO) measure concentrations in air above 250 nCi/m 3 (approx. 10 kBq/m 3 ) and in water above 1 uCi/kg (approx. 40 kBq/kg). Some of the problems encountered in such monitoring are the presence of fission and activation products in the effluents and, particularly in water monitoring, the often dirty quality of the sample. In a new design of monitor, HTO is collected directly from air by a flow of liquid scintillator (LS). For water monitoring a flow of air continuously samples the water and transports HTO to the LS. The key features of the new design are that the high detection efficiency of LS is realizable, that the rate of use of LS is only approx. 2 mm 3 /s, that the controlled evaporation and metering of air provides the low flow of HTO needed for mixing with LS, and that accurate metering of a dirty effluent is not needed. The sensitivities for detecing tritium on-line are improved by at least an order of magnitude

  9. Transfer of atmospheric tritiated water to foliage and fruit of crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellows, R.J.; Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Napier, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    Tritiated water (THO) released to the environment from the effluent streams of nuclear reactors may be easily assimilated by organisms through metabolic fixation following foliar interception of THO vapor. This study was initiated to characterize atmospheric THO exchange parameters in two crops agronomically important to eastern Washington, grape (Vitus vinifera) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Short-term exposures using atmospheric THO concentrations ranging from 458 to 1,300,900 pCi/m 3 indicated no statistically significant concentration influences on THO exchange into the leaf tissue free-water (TFW) and organically bound tritium (OBT) of the leaves of either species. Long-term exposures indicated that equilibration of the leaf TFW with atmospheric THO concentrations occurred within 24 to 48 h for both species while equilibration of grape TFW appeared to take over 20 days. The rate of THO saturation of the foliage TFW appeared to be directly related to the stomatal resistance of the leaves and fruit. Desorption rates from both leaves and fruit were greater in the light than in the dark, again correlating with stomatal resistance. More than 90% of the absorbed THO was lost from the leaf TFW pool within 24 h following cessation of exposure for both species, while loss of THO from grape TFW and OBT pools was minimal. It appeared that more than 95 to 98% of the THO found in the TFW and OBT pools of the grape fruit was of atmospheric origin and not from transport from other parts of the plant

  10. The effects of tritiated water on some developmental stages of tilapia nilotica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carino, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    Seven developmental stages of Tilapia nilotica from gastrula (11 hr) to the active feeding and free swimming stage (10-d) were reared in tritiated water of concentrations 10 -3 10 -2 and 10 -1 Ci 1 -1 . The fish were reared for different lengths of time, the first group for the period till the next developmental stage and the second group till 3 weeks of age or day 21. Treated and control specimens were compared. An over-all delay in development was noted both at the gross morphological and the histological levels in the experimental fish. Growth was stunted. Many had unresorped yolk which was observable externally in the distended abdomens and histologically within the liver. Percent survival was lower in the treated fish and this was, in general, inversely related to developmental stage and tritium concentration of the rearing water. Posthatch larvae were sluggish to inactive. The liver exhibited histological aberrations which include the presence of adipose cells in place of liver parenchyma in the more anterior liver regions. Brains of treated fish, in general were smaller. One instance of an abnormal brain growth and findings on the retinal epithelium, spleen and pancreas are described. Development of gonads and digestive tract was, in general, retarded. (Auth.) 40 refs.; 5 tabs

  11. Distribution of Tritiated Tetanus Toxin Following an Intraperitoneal Injection in Immunized and Non-Immunized Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speirs, R.S.

    1962-01-01

    Tetanus toxin, purified by ultra-filtration and precipitation with ammonium sulphate, was lyophilized and exposed to 5 c of tritium gas (Wilzbach procedure) for 2½ d in a deep freeze cabinet at 0.38 atm of pressure. The toxin was then homogenized and the precipitated material removed by filtration through a HA millipore membrane. The filtrate was washed and concentrated in a membrane colloidal dialyzer. The resuspended material (particles estimated to be below 450 mpm in size) was highly toxic when injected into mice. Both the crude precipitate and the suspended toxin were injected into immunized mice and the animals autopsied at various times to determine the presence of radioactivity in the various inflammatory cells. These results were compared with those obtained when the toxins were neutralized and injected into non-immunized mice. In the inflammatory area produced by the injection of tritiated toxin, neutrophils containing radioactivity were found during the first 2 d, and macrophages containing radioactivity were found in the spleen as well as in the inflammatory area for as long as 15 d. Trace amounts of radioactivity were found in eosinophils. No radioactivity was found within mast cells in either the immunized or non-immunized animals. The significance of these results will be discussed in relation to initiation of antitoxin production. (author) [fr

  12. The determination of effective doses from the intake of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    To comply with the regulatory requirements relating to the dose from exposures to tritiated water (HTO), Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) licensees currently measure tritium concentration in urine to determine whole body dose. This approach has been based on the consideration that the time-integrated tritium concentration (which is proportional to accumulated dose) in any organ from urine concentrations are always conservative. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends that the average soft tissue dose be used to determine effective dose equivalents for HTO exposures. The ICRP also recommends that only the retention in body water be considered when committed doses from HTO exposures are calculated; this recommendation is based on the consideration that the errors introduced by neglecting the long-lived tritium component (those tritium atoms retained in organic molecules of the body cells) are small (only of the order of 10% of the committed dose equivalent to the whole body). The AECB position is presented in the following regulatory policy statement

  13. Bioaccumulation of tritiated water in phytoplankton and trophic transfer of organically bound tritium to the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, Benedict C; Bradshaw, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Large releases of tritium are currently permitted in coastal areas due to assumptions that it rapidly disperses in the water and has a low toxicity due to its low energy emissions. This paper presents a laboratory experiment developed to identify previously untested scenarios where tritium may concentrate or transfer in biota relevant to Baltic coastal communities. Phytoplankton populations of Dunaliella tertiolecta and Nodularia spumigena were exposed at different growth-stages, to tritiated water (HTO; 10 MBq l(-1)). Tritiated D. tertiolecta was then fed to mussels, Mytilus edulis, regularly over a period of three weeks. Activity concentrations of phytoplankton and various tissues from the mussel were determined. Both phytoplankton species transformed HTO into organically-bound tritium (OBT) in their tissues. D. tertiolecta accumulated significantly more tritium when allowed to grow exponentially in HTO than if it had already reached the stationary growth phase; both treatments accumulated significantly more than the corresponding treatments of N. spumigena. No effect of growth phase on bioaccumulation of tritium was detectable in N. spumigena following exposure. After mussels were given 3 feeds of tritiated D. tertiolecta, significant levels of tritium were detected in the tissues. Incorporation into most mussel tissues appeared to follow a linear relationship with number of tritiated phytoplankton feeds with no equilibrium, highlighting the potential for biomagnification. Different rates of incorporation in species from a similar functional group highlight the difficulties in using a 'representative' species for modelling the transfer and impact of tritium. Accumulations of organic tritium into the mussel tissues from tritiated-phytoplankton demonstrate an environmentally relevant transfer pathway of tritium even when water-concentrations are reduced, adding weight to the assertion that organically bound tritium acts as a persistent organic pollutant. The

  14. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 6. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S

    2007-09-05

    Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 792,000 Ci (29,300 TBq) of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); about 75% was tritium gas (HT) primarily from the accidental releases of 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 100,000 Ci (3,700 TBq) HT and about 75,000 Ci (2,800 TBq) tritiated water vapor (HTO) to the total. A Tritium Dose Reconstruction was undertaken to estimate both the annual doses to the public for each year of LLNL operations and the doses from the few accidental releases. Some of the dose calculations were new, and the others could be compared with those calculated by LLNL. Annual doses (means and 95% confidence intervals) to the potentially most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Predicted tritium concentrations in air were compared with observed mean annual concentrations at one location from 1973 onwards. Doses predicted from annual emissions were compared with those reported in the past by LLNL. The highest annual mean dose predicted from routine emissions was 34 {micro}Sv (3.4 mrem) in 1957; its upper confidence limit, based on very conservative assumptions about the speciation of the release, was 370 {micro}Sv (37 mrem). The upper confidence limits for most annual doses were well below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv (10 mrem) for dose to the public from release to the atmosphere; the few doses that exceeded this were well below the regulatory limits of the time. Lacking the hourly meteorological data needed to calculate doses from historical accidental releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from a time-dependent accident consequence model that accounts for the complex behavior of tritium in the environment. Ratios were modified to account for only those foods growing at the time of the releases. The highest dose from an

  15. Dose from organically bound tritium after an acute tritiated water intake in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Richardson, R.B.; Galeriu, D.

    1995-10-01

    We have analyzed the urinary excretion data from eight male workers following an acute intake of tritiated water (HTO) and assessed the dose contribution from organically bound tritium (OBT) in the body. The individuals affected increased their fluid intakes during the first month or more post-exposure, to accelerate the turnover of tritium in the body water for dose mitigation purposes. The volumes of cumulative 24 h urine samples were similar to Reference Man in the latter part of the study (100-300 d post-exposure). The workers' urine samples were analyzed for total tritium up to 300 d post-exposure. The results suggest that a measurement of the tritium activity per unit mass of organic matter in urine can provide an assessment of the specific activity of tritium in the organic fraction of the soft tissue, providing an equilibrium condition exists. A mathematical model is proposed to estimate the dose increase from the retained OBT by examining the kinetics of total tritium excretion in urine. The model accounts for the variable rates of fluid intake. The influence of measurement errors and the limited duration of the study (0-300 d post-exposure) on the OBT dose contribution was assessed through statistical analysis, while the role of direct OBT excretion in urine was estimated by using metabolic models. Based on the time series of tritium concentration in urine, the average dose increase to the workers from the metabolised OBT was calculated as 6.2 ± 1.3% of the HTO dose. 78 refs., 36 tabs., 11 figs

  16. Modeling and data analysis of a palladium membrane reactor for tritiated impurities cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsell, S.A.; Willms, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    A Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR) is under consideration for the tritium plant for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The ITER reactor exhaust will contain tritiated impurities such as water and methane. Tritium will need to be recovered from these impurities for environmental and economic reasons. For this purpose a promising device, PMR, has been proposed. The PMR is a combined permeator and catalytic reactor. Shift catalysts are used to foster reactions such as water-gas shift, H 2 O + CO → H 2 + CO 2 , and methane steam reforming, CH 4 + H 2 O → 3H 2 + CO. Due to thermodynamic limitations these reactions only proceed to partial completion. Thus, a Pd/Ag membrane, which is exclusively permeable to hydrogen isotopes, is incorporated into the reactor. By maintaining a vacuum on the permeate, product hydrogen isotopes are removed, enabling the reactions to proceed to completion. A model has been developed to study the complex interactions in a PMR so that the optimal design can be determined. The model accounts for the coupled effects of transport-limited permeation of hydrogen isotopes and chemical reactions. The permeation model is an extension of previous models that include the effects of temperature, wall thickness, reaction-side pressure, and permeate-side pressure. Reaction rates for methane steam reforming and the water-gas shift reaction are incorporated into the model along with the respective reverse reactions. The model is compared to PMR data and used to investigate the concentration and pressure profiles in the reactor. Due to the interactions of permeation and reaction complex profiles can be produced in a PMR. For example, the water concentration often increases after the inlet to the PMR to a maximum value, and then decreases to the low values expected with a PMR. Detailed information like this is required for the design and optimization of PMRs for the ITER tritium plant

  17. Genetic and haematopoietic effects of long-term tritiated water ingestion in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of large amounts of tritiated water (HTO) from reactors on the environment is evaluated. Randomly bred mice of the Hale-Stoner-Brookhaven strain have been maintained on HTO (3 μCi/mlitre) for extended periods. First-generation animals on HTO from four weeks of age have been evaluated for changes in growth pattern, and second-generation animals (also on HTO) for breeding efficiency, dominant lethal mutation rate and bone-marrow integrity. A total of 18831 embryos were examined. Statistical analysis of these results using either Student's ''t'' test or Kruskal and Wallis rank test indicates that there was a significant (p<0.01) reduction in viable embryos and an increase in early deaths in matings involving animals drinking HTO. Beginning at eight weeks of age and monthly thereafter, the haematopoietic stem cell content of the bone marrow was determined using the exogenous spleen colony technique. Although the total cellularity of the bone marrow remains comparable in the control and treated groups, the total number of stem cells (CFU) was reduced beginning after approximately 12-20 weeks on the tritium regime. These findings indicate a reduction in the total number of pluripotent stem cells in the marrow together with the ability of this reduced number of cells to maintain normal levels of total cellularity in the bone marrow. Thus, continuous ingestion of HTO at a concentration of 3 μCi/mlitre by mice results in: (1) Reduction in number of viable embryos present in the female at late pregnancy from matings when either the female or both parents have been on HTO; (2) Increase in number of early post-implantation deaths when both parents are on HTO; (3) Reduction in bone-marrow stem cell content after 12 weeks or longer on HTO; (4) No apparent effect on breeding efficiency (percentage of females pregnant) or body weight. These results are discussed in relation to the accumulated radiation dose

  18. Fixation and long-term accumulation of tritium from tritiated water in an experimental aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.; Templeton, W.L.; Olson, P.A.

    1975-01-01

    The accumulation of tritium in selected freshwater biota was studied in a 10 m diameter concrete-lined pond at the Hanford Atomic Energy Works. Tritium as tritiated water was introduced for 8 months continuously in the replacement water at a concentration of μCi per liter; and water, biota (carp, clams, crayfish, periphyton, pondweed), and sediments were sampled on a predetermined schedule. The pond was maintained on uncontaminated replacement waters for an additional 8 months to determine the rate of elimination from the ecosystem. After the first day, tissue-free-water tritium in all biota approached an equilibrium with pond water. Final concentration factors of 0.89, 0.87, 0.82, 0.92, 0.77, 0.88 were calculated for carp, clam, crayfish, snail, periphyton, and pondweed. Although highly variable, analyses of pond sediments suggested an initial rapid uptake by the loose water fraction, attaining 0.30 of the pond equilibrium level in three days. There was evidence to suggest a secondary slower rate of uptake that accounted for 0.65 of the pond equilibrium level as determined at seven months. Tissue-bond tritium initially increased rapidly in all biota sampled, but slowed with time. Equilibrium conditions were not reached. Final concentration factors for carp, clam, crayfish, snail, periphyton, and pondweed were calculated to be 0.49, 0.10, 0.53, 0.54, 0.15, and 0.62. Analyses of sediments after removal of the loose water fraction revealed little or no organically bound tritium

  19. Water/polyethylene system radiolysis: application to the tritiated water storage in polyethylene bottle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billamboz, N.

    2007-04-01

    This study deals with the validation and the search of the limitations for the storage of tritiated water (HTO) in polyethylene (PE) containers. The hydroxyl radical (HO . ), produced during the radiolysis of water, is known for its reactivity toward alkanes in water. Our competition experiments (with SCN - or coumarin) by pulse radiolysis shows the reactivity of HO . with PE, which gives rise to chemical modifications of PE. Some FTIR analysis of PE, irradiated in the presence of water, show that the amounts of C=C, C-O, and C=O functions are more important when the production of HO . is favoured. Moreover the reactivity of e aq - in the presence of PE has also been highlighted by time resolved spectroscopy. The study of permeability of the HTO/PE system shows that the volumetric activity within PE is 10 4 fold lower than the water activity after a one year immersion in 1853 Ci.L -1 HTO. The MCNP simulation of the irradiation by the β - of the tritium points out that 200 kGy is deposited within the first 250 nanometers of the PE. In spite of an early diffusion these results show a very weak solubility. Furthermore the value of the diffusion decreases following the modifications induced by the β - at the surface. Crosslinking is a parameter that directly acts on the diffusion of molecules through the polymer. We have adapted and used the thermo-poro-metry technique in order to assess the crosslinking of PE. Using this investigation we have characterized the cross linking as a function of the dose, especially with respect to the mesh size distribution. We have also established a relationship allowing the determination of the crosslinking density in a swelled PE sample by p-xylene by DSC analysis. (author)

  20. The long term effects of {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays and tritiated water on induction on teratogenesis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Shuneki [Hiroshima Univ., Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the teratogenesis caused by {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays radiation and tritiated water (tritium {beta}-rays, HTO) in rats under long-term exposures. Many congenital anomalies are caused by environmental factors, and it is likely that this assessment of teratogenesis will be very important in the future. Pregnant Donryu strain rats were irradiated with {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays on days 9-18 of gestation. The animals were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation and the contents of each uterine horn were examined. The numbers of surviving, dead and resorbed fetuses were recorded. The surviving fetuses were examined for external and visceral malformations. Also given here is a measure of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritiated water (HTO) compared to that for {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays regarding the induction of developmental anomalies such as neurocristopathy in pregnant Donryu rats. Radiation exposures were approximately 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 Gy for both tritiated water and {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays. Teratogenesis was dose dependent for both radiation groups. Our studies show that {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays and HTO irradiation induce similar malformations of the cardiovascular, respiratory and skeletal systems in rat fetuses. However, a number of fetuses exhibiting growth retardation, general edema, persistent atrioventricular canal, eye defects, microcephaly and craniofacial defects following maternal exposure to HTO. These include hypoplasia of the pulmonary trunk (tetralogy of Fallot), DORV, ventricular septal defect, right aortic arch, coarctation of the aorta, aberrant right subclavian artery, hypoplasia of the thymus, craniofacial anomalies, hypoplasia or incomplete lungs and trachea, as well as limb and tail malformations in HTO syndrome. These results are similar to those found in human DiGeorge syndrome, which are considered pharyngeal arch syndromes related to a cephalic neutrocristopathy. A best estimation

  1. Penetration of protective gloves as a route of intake for tritiated water and 125I-labelled sodium iodine solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.J.; Gilmore, A.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the rate at which tritiated water and 125 I-labelled sodium iodide solution penetrate various types of protective gloves, both isotopes being in common use in this form in universities and similar establishments. Diffusion coefficients relating to the glove materials are also determined. The health physics aspects are discussed and it is concluded that intakes by workers through intact gloves are not likely to be of major significance and can easily be minimised by the correct use and choice of glove. (author)

  2. The induction of Germinal and somatic mentions in drosophila following the treatment of larvae with tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, G.; Torres, C.; Velazquez, A.; Xamena, N.; Creus, A.; Marcos, R.

    1993-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the mutagenicity of tritium administered as tritiated water in Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae were fed on tritium-treated medium during their development. Germinal and somatic mutation induction was detected by means of the sex-linked recessive lethals (SLRLT), The unstable zeste (UZT), the quadruplicated white-ivory (QWIT) and the wing spot tests (WST). Our results show that B eta - radiation from tritium is able to induce significant increases in the frequency of both germinal and somatic mutations. (author)

  3. Platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in major depressive disorder. Binding of tritiated clonidine before and after tricyclic antidepressant drug treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Sevilla, J.A.; Zis, A.P.; Hollingsworth, P.J.; Greden, J.F.; Smith, C.B.

    1981-01-01

    The specific binding of tritiated (3H)-clonidine, an alpha 2-adrenergic receptor agonist, to platelet membranes was measured in normal subjects and in patients with major depressive disorder. The number of platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptors from the depressed group was significantly higher than that found in platelets obtained from the control population. Treatment with tricyclic antidepressant drugs led to significant decreases in the number of platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptors. These results support the hypothesis that the depressive syndrome is related to an alpha 2-adrenergic receptor supersensitivity and that the clinical effectiveness of tricyclic antidepressant drugs is associated with a decrease in the number of these receptors

  4. A new method for determining the metabolic activity of specific bacterial populations in soil using tritiated leucine and immunomagnetic separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Gitte; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Frette, Lone

    2000-01-01

    A new assay, using immunomagnetic separation and uptake of tritiated leucine ([3H]-Leu), was developed for measuring the in situ metabolic activity of specific bacterial populations in soil. Such assays are needed to assess the role individual species play in diverse microbial soil communities...... reduced this unspecific binding, resulting in metabolic activity of the target cells. As expected, a linear relationship...... between activity and temperature was observed, demonstrating the sensitivity of the assay. The method was applied to compare activities of the target strain in bulk soil and in the rhizosphere of barley. Contrary to what was anticipated, no significant difference in metabolic activity was observed....

  5. Mechanistic studies of catalytic hydrogenation: gas tritiation and deuteration of 2-acetamidoacrylic acid and alpha-acetamidocinnamic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.S.; Morimoto, H.; Un, S.; Rapoport, H.

    1986-01-01

    The difference of labeling in heterogeneous catalytic gas tritiations of 2-acetamidocinnamic acid and 2-acetamidoacrylic acid is demonstrated by 3 H NMR spectroscopy. The nonequivalent addition of tritium to the double bond of 2-acetamidoacrylic acid is due to simultaneous hydrogen-tritium exchange during adsorption on the catalyst surface. A new mechanistic interpretation has been proposed to explain the behavior of this substrate. These conclusions were substantiated by mass spectrometry results obtained using D 2 and deuterated solvents. Steric effects on vinylic exchange studied by GLRC were also reported. 2 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs

  6. Threshold dose to developing central nerve system of rats and mice from prenatal exposure to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiangyan; Wang Bing; Gao Weimin; Lu Huimin

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the threshold dose to the developing central nerve system of rats and mice from prenatal exposure to tritiated water. methods: Pregnant adult C 57 BL/6J strain mice and Wistar strain rats were irradiated with beta-rays from HTO by a single intraperitoneal injection on the 12.5 th and 13 th days of gestation. The activities of HTO were 24.09, 48.18 and 144.54 ( x 10 4 Bq/g bw), respectively. Fifty-six parameters including postnatal growth, neutro-behavior, pathology of brain, neuropeptide contents, changes of hippocampal neurons, Ca 2+ conductance of hippocampal neurons etc were used to test the teratogenic threshold dose the lowest dose was different from that of the control). Results: Of the observed 56 parameters of rats and mice 80.4% indicated that the threshold doses for prenatal HTO exposure ranged from 0.030 Gy to 0.092 Gy, and the other 19.6% showed the threshold doses from 0.093 to 0.300 Gy. Conclusions: There exists threshold dose from the low level tritiated water irradiation of the developing central nerve system

  7. The distribution of tritium among the amino acids of proteins obtained from mice exposed to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commerford, S.L.; Carsten, A.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of tritium among the amino acids of serum proteins in mice chronically exposed to tritiated water was determined by ion exchange chromatography of the protein hydrolysate. The specific activity of nonexchangeable tritium in these amino acids relative to the specific activity of tritium in the tissue water of mice ranged from 0.04 for phenylalanine and threonine to 1.0 for glycine and alanine. Since tritium from tissue water can enter the nonexchangeable positions of amino acids only as the result of metabolic processing, the relative specific activity of tritium in each amino acid is an indicator of the extent of such processing. The tritium content of tyrosine and all the amino acids required in the diet for survival is quite low, except for histidine, and can be entirely accounted for by transamination or, in the case of methionine, by transmethylation. The tritium content of the other amino acids is too high to result from such minor processing and must reflect primarily the fraction synthesized de novo. The implications of these findings with respect to the radiobiological consequences of a diet containing tritiated proteins are discussed

  8. Effect of prenatal exposure to low dose beta radiation from tritiated water on postnatal growth and neurobehavior of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Weimin; Zhou Xiangyan

    1998-01-01

    Objective: Effects of prenatal exposure to HTO (tritiated water) on postnatal growth and neurobehavior of rats were studied by determination of multiple parameters. Methods: Pregnant adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups, of which 3 groups were irradiated with beta-rays from tritiated water (HTO) by one single intraperitoneal injection on the 13th day of gestation. Offspring of these rats received cumulative doses of 0.000, 0.044, 0.088 and 0.264 Gy utero, respectively, and were observed for the appearance of three physiologic markers (eye opening, pinna detachment, incisor eruption), the age of acquisition of two reflexes (surface righting, negative geotaxis) and sensuous function (auditory startle), movement and coordination functions and activity (forelimb hanging, continuous corridor activity), and learning and memory (electric avoidance reflex in Y-maze, conditional reflex). Results: Results for most parameters in the 0.044 and 0.088 Gy groups were different significantly from those in the controls and for most parameters a dose-dependent effect was found. Conclusion: Offspring of rats having received prenatal low dose irradiation from HTO showed delayed growth and abnormal neurobehavior

  9. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, Juerg

    1997-01-01

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  10. Analysis of workstation: tritium atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigaud, S.; Lemontey, F.; Lecrique-Gelhay, C.; Chanal, S.; Maynadier, B.; Gaudet, F.; Colas, O.; Raufast, V.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive contamination, whether it is on the surface or in the atmosphere, could be the reason for individual internal exposure. The Practical Air Contamination Limit values enable the occupational health doctors as well as the 'Personne Competente en Radioprotection' (PCR: competent person in radioprotection) to pre-evaluate the risks resulting from atmospheric contamination. These values are used to determine the course of action regarding the workstation, but also as an optimisation tool for staff protection, within the framework of the application of the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principal. During the analysis of workstations, the PCRs at Pierre Fabre Laboratories were confronted with effective dose values which seemed to be, in their opinion, abnormally high. These values were in contradiction with the results of the urinary radio-toxicological exams, which are done within the framework of the reinforced medical monitoring of the technicians, and which have always been negative (whether the exams were done periodically or from time to time at the end of a radioactive experiment series). This is why it was considered relevant to rent bubble chamber systems, used for low-level concentrations of tritium and carbon-14. The measurements showed insignificant tritium atmospheric contamination levels in the laboratories, in particular for some experimental steps that were considered a priori problematic. This study, carried out within the framework of the workstation, enabled us to decrease the volatility factor value of tritiated compounds intervening in the effective dose calculation. (authors)

  11. Database dictionary for the results of groundwater tracer tests using tritiated water, conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Huff, D.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1997-05-01

    In 1977, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted two tracer tests at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using tritiated water to study the relative importance of bedding-plane openings on shallow groundwater flow. Through a cooperative agreement between the USGS and the US Department of Energy (DOE), the data were made available to researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), who organized the data into a data management format. The results of these groundwater tracer tests have been compiled into a collection of four SAS data sets. This report documents these SAS data sets, including their structure, methodology, and content. The SAS data sets include information on precipitation, tritium, water levels, and well construction for wells at or near ORNL radioactive waste burial grounds 4, 5, and 6.

  12. Depressed patients have decreased binding of tritiated imipramine to platelet serotonin ''transporter''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.M.; Rehavi, M.; Skolnick, P.; Ballenger, J.C.; Goodwin, F.K.

    1981-12-01

    The high-affinity tritiated (3H) imipramine binding sites are functionally (and perhaps structurally) associated with the presynaptic neuronal and platelet uptake sites for serotonin. Since there is an excellent correlation between the relative potencies of a series of antidepressants in displacing 3H-imipramine from binding sites in human brain and platelet, we have examined the binding of 3H-imipramine to platelets from 14 depressed patients and 28 age- and sex-matched controls. A highly significant decrease in the number of 3H-imipramine binding sites, with no significant change in the apparent affinity constants, was observed in platelets from the depressed patients compared with the controls. These results, coupled with previous studies showing a significant decrease in the maximal uptake of serotonin in platelets from depressed patients, suggest that an inherited or acquired deficiency of the serotonin transport protein or proteins may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression.

  13. Effects of prenatal exposure to low dose beta radiation from tritiated water on postnatal growth and neurobehavior of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Weimin; Zhou Xiangyan

    1998-01-01

    Pregnant adult C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups and 3 of them were irradiated with beta-rays from tritiated water (HTO) by a single intraperitoneal injection on the 12.5 th day of gestation. Their offsprings received cumulative dose of 0.036, 0.071 and 0.213 Gy, respectively. Offspring of mice were observed for postnatal growth (body weight), the appearance of four physiologic makers (eye opening, pinna detachment, testes decent, vaginal opening), the age of acquisition of two reflexes (cloff avoidance, air righting) and sensuous functions (auditory startle, pain threshold), movement and coordination functions and activity (pivoting, foot splay, continuous corridor activity), and learning and memory (electric avoidance reflex in Y-maze, conditioning reflex). It was found that results for the parameters in 0.036 or 0.071 Gy group were differed significantly from those for the controls, and for most parameters, a dose dependent effect was found

  14. Effects of low level prenatal beta-irradiation of tritiated water on postnatal behavior, learning and memory ability in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bing; Zhou Xiangyan

    1993-01-01

    Pregnant adult C57 BL/6J strain mice, randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups, were irradiated with exponentially decreasing doses of tritium beta-rays but group 1 (used as a control) by single injection of tritiated water (HTO) at their 12.5 th day of gestation. Offsprings of male, received accumulative doses of 0, 0.5, 1.10 or 0.30 Gy in uterus were trained or examined on learning and memory ability or with behavioral tests. Significant dose-response relationships for alternations in those test were found due to exposure to 0.10 Gy or above. These results indicate that exposure to HTO during the fetal period in mice results in dose-dependent alteration in postnatal behavior, learning and memory ability. 0.05-0.10 Gy exposure may represent a threshold for the experimental conditions of this research using these parameters

  15. Experimental contamination and decontamination studies on JET remote handling tools and materials when exposed to tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesini, A.

    1988-01-01

    Tests were performed to investigate the tritium release processes occuring when using Remote Handling tools on tritium contaminated INCONEL 600 material. Tritium surface contamination of these tools after operation on tritium contaminated material and following exposure to HTO was also investigated. One Remote Handling tool, in particular, was decontaminated using high temperature technique. Additional tests were performed to evaluate the degree of contamination of materials including INCONEL 600, Aluminium alloy, PVC rigid and Stainless steel 316 and 304 exposed to tritium gas and/or tritiated water. Exposure time and temperature of exposure, post exposure off-gassing time and tritium concentration were varied during the experiments. The effectiveness of various decontamination techniques on materials exposed for different periods of time was also assessed. (author)

  16. Corrosion behavior of 316 L stainless steel simulated by studying the influence of the species produced in the radiolysis in tritiated aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, G.

    1991-10-01

    The corrosion of 316 L stainless steel in tritiated aqueous solutions was simulated by studying the influence of species produced or present in the radiolysis in these solutions. The species studied were nitrates, fluorides, nitrites, hydrogen peroxide and components of the steel, as well as the pH. The method used was voltammetry. The corroded or passivated surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy and the corrosion rates were determined by measuring the electrochemical impedance. The depletion of the component elements of the stainless steel at the surface was observed by X-ray fluorescence. From our results we propose methods to limit the corrosion in an industrial tritiated water installation by controlling the pH, the oxidation-reduction potential of the water and the voltage of the installation [fr

  17. Isomerization and self-condensation reactions subsequent the. beta. -decay of tritiated naphthalene in the presence of liquid and gaseous benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, G.; Keheyan, Y.; Lilla, E.; Perez, G. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Chimica Nucleare)

    1990-01-01

    Tritiated napththylium ions, generated by spontaneous {beta}-decay of (1,4-{sup 3}H) naphthalene, have been allowed to react with benzene molecules in gaseous and liquid phase. The isomeric phenylnaphthalenes and fluoranthene have been found among the reaction products. The differences between the reactivity pattern of naphthylium ion in the two phases can be explained by the different efficiency of collisional stabilization of the excited reaction intermediates. (orig.).

  18. Experimental study and phenomenological modeling of the hydrolysis of tritiated sodium: influence of experimental conditions on the tritium distribution in the effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassery, Aurelien

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of the decommissioning of fast reactors, several processes are under investigation regarding sodium disposal. One of them rests on the implementation of the sodium-water reaction (SWR), in a controlled and progressive way, to remove residual sodium containing impurities such as sodium hydrides, sodium oxides and tritiated sodium hydrides. Such a hydrolysis releases some amount of energy and produces a liquid effluent, composed of a solution of soda, and a gaseous effluent, composed of hydrogen, steam and an inert gas. The tritium, originally into the sodium as a soluble (T - ) or precipitate form (NaT), will be distributed between the liquid and gaseous effluent, and according to two chemical forms, the tritium hydride HT and the tritiated water HTO. HTO being 10,000 times more radio-toxic than HT, a precise knowledge of the mechanisms governing the distribution of tritium is necessary in order to estimate the exhaust gas releases and design the process needed to treat the off-gas before its release into the environment. An experimental study has been carried out in order to determine precisely the phenomena involved in the hydrolysis. The influence of the experimental conditions on the tritium distribution has been tested. The results of this study leaded to a phenomenological description of the tritiated sodium hydrolysis that will help to predict the composition of the effluents, regarding tritium. (author) [fr

  19. Tritium β-radiation induction of chromosomal damage: a calibration curve for low dose, low dose rate exposures of human cells to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, D.P.; Gale, K.L.; Lucas, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation exposures from tritium contribute to the occupational radiation exposures associated with CANDU reactors. Tritiated water is of particular interest since it is readily taken up by human cells and its elimination from the body, and, consequently, the radiation exposure of the cells, is spread over a period of days. Occupational exposures to tritiated water result in what are effectively chronic β-radiation exposures. The doses and dose rates ordinarily used in the definition of cellular responses to radiation in vitro, for use in biological dosimetry (the assessment of radiation exposures based on the observed levels of changes in the cells of exposed individuals), are usually much higher than for most occupational exposures and involve radiations other than tritium β-rays. As a result, their use in assessing the effects from tritiated water exposures may not be appropriate. We describe here an in vitro calibration curve for chronic tritium β-radiation induction of reciprocal chromosomal translocations in humn peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) for use in biodosimetry. (author)

  20. Effects of prenatal exposure to low-dose β radiation from tritiated water on the neutrobehavior of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bing; Zhou Xiangyan.

    1995-01-01

    Pregnant adult C57BL/6J mice, randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups, 3 of them were irradiated with β-rays from tritiated water (HTO) by a single intraperitoneal injection on the 12.5th day of gestation. Their offspring received cumulative doses of 0, 5, 10 or 30 cGy in utero. Male pups were trained and examined using a set of behavioral tests that included avoidance acquisition and avoidance maintenance, open field test, hole-board dipping, a water maze, and a food labyrinth. Results were found for most parameters in the 10 and 30 cGy groups that differed significantly from results for the controls, indicating that the behavioral teratogenic effect of prenatal exposure to chronic β-ray radiation from HTO may be greater than the same dose of acute X- or γ-irradiation and that 10 cGy may be the lowest detectable dose level at which behavioral changes is detectable under the conditions used in this experiment. (author) 56 refs

  1. Tritiated 2-deoxy-D-glucose: a high-resolution marker for autoradiographic localization of brain metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, R.P. Jr.; Herkenham, M.

    1984-01-01

    The technique for autoradiographic localization of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) uptake has become a useful method for observing alterations of functional brain activity resulting from experimental manipulation. Autoradiographic resolution is improved using tritiated ((3H)) rather than carbon-14 ((14C))2DG, due to the lower energy and shorter path of tritium emissions. In addition, lower 2DG uptake by white matter relative to gray matter is exaggerated in the (3H)2DG autoradiographs due to the greater absorption of tritium emissions by lipids. Using (3H)2DG, it is possible to observe differential metabolic labeling in various individual nuclei or portions of nuclei that is unresolvable using (14C)2DG in the awake, normal animal. Heterogeneous patterns of 2DG uptake seen only with (3H)2DG are found in the nucleus accumbens, the anterior portion of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, specific nuclei of the inferior olivary complex, various hypothalamic regions, and a region straddling the border of the medial and lateral habenular nuclei. The lamination of differential 2DG uptake in the hippocampus is better localized using (3H)2DG. Autoradiographic resolution of labeled 2DG is further improved when the brain is perfused prior to frozen sectioning, due perhaps to selective fixation and retention of intracellular labeled 2-deoxy-glycogen. A series of (3H)2DG autoradiographs are presented together with views of the Nissl-stained sections that produced the autoradiographs.

  2. Kinetics of the formation of a G2 block from tritiated thymidine in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, A.; Bagwell, C.B.; Irvin, G.L.; Jensen, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to monitor the radiation effects promoted by incorporated tritiated thymidine ( 3 H-TdR) on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes stained with propidium iodide (PI). Lymphocyte microcultures were continuously labeled or pulse-labeled for various periods of time with different 3 H-TdR concentrations. Two types of DNA histogram analyses were performed on unperturbed and 3 H]TdR perturbed lymphocytes. The data analyses consisted of statistical analyses between averaged groups of histograms (nonparametric analysis) and cell cycle analyses (parametric analysis) to determine the percentages of cells in G0 + G1, S and G2 + M. The results showed that (a) 3 H-TdR when added to proliferating lymphocytes under certain conditions (both short-term continuous and pulse-labeling) caused a highly significant increase in the proportion of tetraploid (4C) cells by FCM, (b) the increase in the proportion of 4C cells represented a block in G2 and (c) the relative increase in the percentage of 4C cells was proportional to 3 H-TdR incorporation which was proportional to labeling time and concentration. Therefore, it was concluded that short labeling times be used to minimize adverse radiation effects when 3 H-TdR is used to assay substances affecting lymphocyte proliferation or in the estimation of cell cycle time

  3. Influences of gas stream conditions on efficiency of tritiated moisture collection with P2O5-desiccant and isotope effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotoh, Kenji; Miura, Katsuya; Kashio, Yousuke; Nishikawa, Masabumi

    1991-01-01

    A method was proposed previously for collection and measurement of tritiated moisture in gas stream using P 2 O 5 -desiccant. Influences of the gas humidity, the gas flow rate and the distance between gas nozzle and P 2 O 5 -desiccant layer surface on the moisture collection efficiency have been examined through experiments, and the isotope effect on the collection has been investigated. The collection efficiency is the ratio of collected to supplied moisture, and the moisture supplying rate is in proportion to the humidity and flow rate of feed gas. The experiments show that; the collection efficiency dose not depend on the gas humidity, but is affected by the gas flow rate and by the nozzle-layer distance. The effects of the flow rate and the nozzle position are related to the mass transfer distance from the bulk of gas stream to the desiccant layer surface in the collection cell. The moisture collecting rate is promoted by the approach of the gas stream to the layer surface. An expression of effective separation factor has been derived to explain the isotope effect on the moisture collection. Experimental data distribution of the separation factor have been reasonably simulated by the analysis. (author)

  4. Measurement of transpiration in Pinus taeda L. and Liquidambar styraciflua L. in an environmental chamber using tritiated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, G. F.; Sonenshine, D. E.; Czoch, J. K.

    1976-01-01

    Transpiration rates of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) were measured at two different atmospheric water vapor pressure deficits (V.P.D.) in a controlled environment growth chamber using tritiated water as a tracer. The trees were maintained in a sealed plant bed containing a hydroponic nutrient solution into which labeled water (spike) was introduced. Samples of leaves, chamber air, spiked nutrient solution and control water were assayed for ratio-activity using liquid scintillation techniques to determine transpiration rates. The transpiration rate of sweetgum in ml./hr./gm. (4.95) was found to be 5 times greater than that of loblolly pine (1.03) at 1.84 V.P.D. and 8 times greater at 6.74 V.P.D. (15.99 for sweetgum vs. 2.19 for pine). Transpiration (based on measurements of leaf radioactivity) in both species rose with increasing deficit; however sweetgum increased its output by 3 times while pine only doubled its rate. Cyclical changes in transpiration rates were noted in both species; the sweetgum cycle required a 6 hour interval whereas the pine cycle required a 9 hour interval.

  5. Evaluation of an ambient air sampling system for tritium (as tritiated water vapor) using silica gel adsorbent columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.; Tinker, M.R.

    1995-08-01

    Ambient air samples for tritium analysis (as the tritiated water vapor [HTO] content of atmospheric moisture) are collected for the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) using the solid adsorbent silica gel. The silica gel has a moisture sensitive indicator which allows for visual observation of moisture movement through a column. Despite using an established method, some silica gel columns showed a complete change in the color indicator for summertime samples suggesting that breakthrough had occurred; thus a series of tests was conducted on the sampling system in an environmental chamber. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum practical sampling volume and overall collection efficiency for water vapor collected on silica gel columns. Another purpose was to demonstrate the use of an impinger-based system to load water vapor onto silica gel columns to provide realistic analytical spikes and blanks for the Hanford Site SESP. Breakthrough volumes (V b ) were measured and the chromatographic efficiency (expressed as the number of theoretical plates [N]) was calculated for a range of environmental conditions. Tests involved visual observations of the change in the silica gel's color indicator as a moist air stream was drawn through the column, measurement of the amount of a tritium tracer retained and then recovered from the silica gel, and gravimetric analysis for silica gel columns exposed in the environmental chamber

  6. Effects of prenatal low dose beta radiation from tritiated water on rat hippocampus neurons. Electrophysiological and neuro behavioural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Weimin; Zhou Xiangyan

    1997-01-01

    Pregnent Wistar rats were exposed to tritiated water (HTO) on day 13 of gestation so that for their offsprings, the absorbed doses were estimated to be 0.000, 0.044, 0.088 and 0.264 Gy. The influence of HTO to the morphology and number of hippocampus pyramidal neurons and the maximum electric current of Ca 2+ in neurons was observed for the in-vitro-cultured hippocampus of new-born rats and the learning and memory behaviours were assessed by the electric avoidance reflex test in a Y-maze and the condition reflex test for young rats. The results show that prenatal exposure to HTO in a cumulative dose of 0.088 Gy can cause a reduction in number of neurons in hippocampus cultured in vitro, and that the electric current of Ca 2+ tends to decline with cumulative dose increasing, with the significant decrease in offsprings prenatally exposed to HTO in dose of 0.264 Gy. The results of electric avoidance reflex test in a Y-maze and condition reflex test indicate that for young rats prenatally exposed to HTO, a cumulative dose of 0.088 Gy could induce damage in their learning and memory behaviours

  7. Localization of tritiated vitamin A in lymph nodes of the mouse: an autoradiographic study of vitamin A-storing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosawa, K.; Yamada, E.

    1981-01-01

    Localization of tritiated vitamin A in lymph nodes of the mouse was investigated by the use of light- and electron-microscopic autoradiography. Young male mice were fed a diet containing 3H-vitamin A acetate for a week. Lymph nodes were removed and prepared for autoradiography. Lipid droplets in fibroblast-like cells showed high concentrations of radioactivity. These cells were distributed around lymphatic sinuses and blood vessels. The cells can, therefore, be classified as ''vitamin A-storing cells'' according to criteria proposed earlier by Yamada and Hirosawa (1976). Control animals from the same litter were maintained on ordinary laboratory food for the same period and examined by electron microscopy. Lipid-droplet-containing cells were found in the same areas as in the experimental animals but in fewer numbers. This suggests that the increased number of vitamin A-containing lipid droplets is due to hypervitaminosis A in the experimental animals. The presence of some cells containing these droplets in the control animals would imply that even under normal feeding conditions the animals ingested excess amounts of vitamin A, which was retained in lipid droplets. The stored vitamin A probably participates in metabolic processes such as the formation of glycoproteins in ground substance

  8. Metabolism of tritium uptake due to handling of metal surfaces exposed to tritiated hydrogen gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Peterman, B.F.

    1987-08-01

    Hairless rats were exposed to tritium by rubbing HT contaminated stainless steel planchets on them. The pattern of tritium excretion in the urine (n=4), shows the OBT (organically bound tritium) retention curve to be approximated by the sum of 2 exponential curves, one with a half-life of 0.4 days and another with a half-life of 1.4 days. The retention of HTO fit a single exponential curve with a half-life of 3.1 days. Exposed skin, unexposed skin, liver, muscle and blood (n=6) were assayed for HBO, and free HTO. Highest activity was found in the exposed skin, other organs with high activity are the unexposed skin and liver. Examination of the exposed skin showed HTO to be concentrated in the uppermost layers. The distribution of OBT was similar but was incorporated at a faster rate. The basal layer is exposed to a tritium concentration between 70-90% of that of the surface. The two macromolecule fractions with the highest amount of radioactivity were lipid and insoluble protein (mainly collagen)

  9. Light contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda Pena, William Enrique

    1998-01-01

    The article tries on the wrong use of the artificial light, of the main problems of the light contamination, dispersion of the light, noxious effects of the light contamination, ecological effects, effects on the man's biological rhythm, economic effects and effects about the civic and vial security, among other topics

  10. Tritiated water uptake kinetics in tissue-free water and organically-bound fractions of tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, F.S.

    1984-03-01

    The kinetics of tritiated water (HTO) vapour uptake into tissue-free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) fractions of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv Vendor, were investigated under controlled growing conditions. Most uptake data fitted a first-order kinetic model, C t = C ∞ (1-e -kt ), where C t is the tritium concentration at time t, Ca the steady-state concentration and k the uptake rate constant. During atmospheric-HTO exposure with clean-water irrigation in open pots the TFWT k values were 0.024 ± 0.023 h -1 for new foliage, 0.104 ± 0.067 h -1 for old foliage and 0.042 ± to 0.136 h -1 for new green fruit. OBT uptake rate constants were 20 percent less for new foliage and 76 percent less for new green fruit. Under steady-state conditions the ratio of tritium specific activities of TWFT to atmospheric HTO were 0.43 in new foliage, 0.46 in old foliage and 0.19 in green fruit. Within the plant, OBT and TFWT ratios were 0.70 for new foliage, 0.63 for old foliage (maximum) and between 0.72 and 1.92 for green fruit. The greater than unity tritium specific activity ratios in green fruit were not attributed to tritium enrichment but rather to the translocation of foliar OBT to the growing fruit which contained lower specific activity TFWT derived from soil water

  11. Tritium contamination of concrete walls and floors in tritium-handling laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, T.; Kuroyanagi, M.; Tabei, T.

    2006-01-01

    A tritium handling laboratory was constructed at the National Institute for Fusion Science about twenty years ago and it was recently closed down. We completed the necessary work that is legally required in Japan at the laboratory, when the use of radioisotopes is discontinued, involving measurements of radioactive contamination. We mainly used smear and direct-immersion methods for the measurements. In applying the smear method, we used a piece of filter paper to wipe up the tritium staining the surfaces. The filter paper containing the tritium was placed directly into a dedicated vial, a scintillation cocktail was then poured over it, and the tritium was measured with a liquid scintillation counter. With the direct-immersion method, a piece of concrete was placed directly into a vial containing a scintillation cocktail, and the tritium in the concrete was measured with a liquid scintillation counter. As well as these measurements, we investigated water-extraction and heating-cooling methods for measuring tritium contamination in concrete. With the former, a piece of concrete was placed into water in a tube to extract the tritium, the water containing the extracted tritium was then poured into a dedicated vial containing a scintillation cocktail, and the tritium contamination was measured. With the latter, a piece of concrete was placed into a furnace and heated to 800 degrees centigrade to vaporize the tritiated water into flowing dry air. The flowing air was then cooled to collect the vaporized tritiated water in a tube. The collected water was placed in a vial for scintillation counting. To evaluate the direct-immersion method, ratios were determined by dividing the contamination measured with the heating-cooling method by that measured with the direct-immersion method. The average ratio was about 2.5, meaning a conversion factor from contamination obtained with the direct-immersion method to that with the heating-cooling method. We also investigated the

  12. Electrochemical impedance spectrometry using 316L steel, hastelloy, maraging, Inconel 600, Elgiloy, carbon steel, TiN and NiCr. Simulation in tritiated water. 2 volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, G.

    1994-03-01

    Polarization and electrochemical impedance spectrometry curves are presented and discussed. These curves make it possible to ascertain the corrosion domains and to compare the slow and fast kinetics (voltammetry) of different stainless steel alloys. These corrosion kinetics, the actual or simulated tritiated water redox potentials, and the corrosion potentials provide a classification of the steels studied here: 316L, Hastelloy, Maraging, Inconel 600, Elgiloy, carbon steel and TiN and NiCr deposits. From the results it can be concluded that Hastelloy and Elgiloy have the best corrosion resistance. (author). 49 refs., 695 figs., tabs

  13. Estimation of tritiated water concentration in vegetables and milk around argentine nuclear power plants obtained from discharge sites and meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, Valeria A.; Lopez, Fabio O.; Sartori, Francisco M.

    2009-01-01

    The present work shows a methodology to assess the concentration of tritiated water in vegetation and milk. Calculations are depending on the release rate and the meteorological data of the nuclear installations. Methodology is based on existing models that had been modified taking in account available data and specific conditions in the vicinity of the nuclear power plants in Argentina. The predictions of the models are compared with the measurements of tritium concentrations in sampling of vegetables and milk occurred monthly during 2007, near of the plants. (author) [es

  14. Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Water Contamination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  15. Contamination vs. Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Matters Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Contamination vs. exposure Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... contaminate their surroundings and personal property. Types of Contamination Internal Contamination Internal contamination occurs when people swallow ...

  16. Underestimation of glucose turnover corrected with high-performance liquid chromatography purification of [6-3H]glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenk, W.F.; Butler, P.C.; Haymond, M.W.; Rizza, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    We have recently reported that during infusion of commercially available [6-3H]glucose, a radioactive nonglucose contaminant may accumulate in plasma causing errors in the measurement of glucose turnover. To determine whether purification of this tracer by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) before infusion would eliminate the contaminant in plasma and remove the underestimation of glucose turnover reported during hyperinsulinemia, four normal subjects each underwent two 5-h euglycemic clamps during infusion of insulin (1 mU.kg-1.min-1). Glucose turnover was measured with either commercially available [6-3H]glucose or with HPLC-purified [6-3H]glucose. HPLC analysis of samples from the clamps done with commercially available [6-3H]glucose showed that 9.7% of the infused tracer and 26% of the plasma glucose 3H radioactivity were contaminants. In contrast, no contaminant was observed in the plasma during infusion of HPLC-purified [6-3H]glucose. During the last hour of the clamp, mean glucose turnover using commercially available [6-3H]glucose was less (P less than 0.01) than the mean glucose infusion rate (7.6 +/- 0.3 vs. 10.5 +/- 0.3 mg.kg-1.min-1) yielding apparent negative (P less than 0.001) hepatic glucose release. In contrast, when HPLC-purified [6-3H]glucose was employed, glucose turnover equaled the glucose infusion rate (10.4 +/- 0.9 vs. 10.2 +/- 0.9 mg.kg-1.min-1) and hepatic glucose release was no longer negative. We conclude that removal of a tritiated nonglucose contaminant in [6-3H]glucose by HPLC yields correct estimations of glucose turnover at steady state

  17. Radioactive contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Toru; Hashimoto, Tadao; Hashimoto, Manabu

    2007-01-01

    In order to prevent radioactive materials from spreading contamination from nuclear power plants outside the radiation control area, the surface contamination of all material transferred outside from the control area is monitored. This paper presents an overview and describes features of: (1) personnel surface contamination monitoring assemblies for measuring the surface contamination on workers, (2) article surface contamination monitoring assemblies for measuring the surface contamination on articles, (3) laundry monitors for measuring the surface contamination on worker clothes worn inside the control area, and (4) hand-foot-clothing contamination monitors for measuring the surface contamination on hands, feet and clothing. (author)

  18. Treatment of plutonium contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three kinds of plutonium contaminations were considered: skin contamination; contaminated wounds; contamination by inhalation. The treatment of these contaminations was studied for insoluble (oxide and metal forms) and soluble plutonium (complexes). The use of DTPA and therapeutic problems encountered with stable plutonium complexes were analyzed. The new possibilities of internal decontamination using Puchel and LICAM were evaluated [fr

  19. Chronic low-level tritium contamination effects on humoral immune response in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petcu, I.; Bejan, A.; Stinga, A.

    1993-01-01

    Using an adaptation of the radioimmunoassay technique, the present study reports on immunochemical parameters of the antibodies synthesized in vivo against bovine serum albumin by rats previously exposed to long-term internal contamination with tritiated water. The corresponding dose range of the irradiation was between 0.6 and 6.2 mGy. A slight increase of a affinity constant of the antibodies produced by the irradiated organisms was found. This experimental fact might sustain the hypothesis of a humoral immune response associated to adaptation increase in cell renewal mechanisms, rather than to selective cell deletion. We also observed a total dissimilarity between the modifications induced by chronic low-dose irradiation and those induced by physiological aging. For old rats the concentration of antibodies is higher by almost an order of magnitude, but they are much less efficient as the decreased value of the affinity constant indicates. (Author)

  20. HTO transfer from contaminated surfaces to the atmosphere: a database for model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.A.; Amiro, B.D.; Workman, W.J.G.; Corbett, B.J.

    1996-12-01

    This report comprises a detailed database that can be used to validate models of the emission of tritiated water vapour (HTO) from natural contaminated surfaces to the atmosphere. The data were collected in 1992 July during an intensive field study based on the flux-gradient method of micrometeorology. The measurements were made over a wetland area at the Chalk River Laboratories, and over a grassed field near the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. The study sites, the sampling protocols and the analytical techniques are described in detail, and the measured fluxes are presented. The report also contains a detailed listing of HTO concentrations in air at two heights, HTO concentrations in the source compartments (soil, surface water and vegetation), supporting meteorological data, and various vegetation and soil properties. The uncertainties in all of the measured data are estimated. (author). 15 refs., 23 tabs., 9 figs

  1. A study of lipogenesis de novo: kinetics of tritiated water 3H incorporation in vivo into fatty acids and total lipids of the liver, plasma, adipose tissue and carcass of the male rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandemer, Gille; Pascal, Gerard; Durand, Georges

    1980-01-01

    Tritiated water 3 H, injected by intraperitoneal route into 7-week old male Rats, was incorporated into lipids synthesized de novo. The Rats were killed 0, 3, 7, 10, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min. after tracer injection. The results show that an optimal interval of about 10 min. between tracer injection and animal sacrifice was necessary to obtain a correct estimate of lipogenesis de novo by avoiding intertissue exchanges [fr

  2. Radiation contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tsutomu; Iba, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    To make sure of no contamination on people, used articles and working uniforms coming out of the radiation controlled area, nuclear power plants are equipped with radioactive contamination monitors. This paper outlines the basic specifications and advantages of our personnel surface contamination monitors to inspect whole-body surface contamination of people coming out, article surface contamination monitors to inspect the surface and inside contamination of used articles brought out, laundry monitors to inspect surface contamination of working uniforms used in the area before and after a wash, and whole-body counters to inspect and measure the internal contamination of a person out of the area. (author)

  3. Placental transport of radionuclides. Terminal report, May 1, 1973--July 31, 1975. [Tritiated water, tritium, /sup 14/C, /sup 45/C, and /sup 47/C tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronfeld, D.S.

    1977-08-01

    Four successful experiments were conducted with tritiated water on pregnant sheep. This came into equilibrium between fetal and maternal circulations within 60 seconds after injection into the ewe or the fetus. The estimates of total water transport rate averaged 85% of the daily water intake. Six successful experiments were conducted with /sup 3/H- and /sup 14/C-glucose on pregnant ewes. The results for glucose space and transport rate in the ewes agree closely with previously published data. The fetal glucose pool size was large, presumably reflecting the relatively large volume of fetal-placental fluids in exchange with fetal blood. Six successful experiments were conducted with /sup 45/Ca and /sup 47/Ca for 5 days or more on pregnant ewes. The smallest compartment size of exchangeable calcium in mother and fetus were about 2 to 6 hours duration, and the net daily gain of calcium by the fetus was just slightly less in the chronic than in the acute experiments, 0.75 and 0.83 g/day respectively.

  4. The lack of cytotoxic effect and radioadaptive response in splenocytes of mice exposed to low level internal β-particle irradiation through tritiated drinking water in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, Matthew; Blimkie, Melinda; Roch-Lefevre, Sandrine; Gregoire, Eric; Klokov, Dmitry

    2013-12-05

    Health effects of tritium, a β-emitter and a by-product of the nuclear industry, is a subject of significant controversy. This mouse in vivo study was undertaken to monitor biological effects of low level tritium exposure. Mice were exposed to tritiated drinking water (HTO) at 10 KBq/L, 1 MBq/L and 20 MBq/L concentrations for one month. The treatment did not result in a significant increase of apoptosis in splenocytes. To examine if this low level tritium exposure alters radiosensitivity, the extracted splenocytes were challenged in vitro with 2 Gy γ-radiation, and apoptotic responses at 1 and 24 h were measured. No alterations in the radiosensitivity were detected in cells from mice exposed to tritium compared to sham-treated mice. In contrast, low dose γ-irradiation at 20 or 100 mGy, resulted in a significant increase in resistance to apoptotic cell death after 2 Gy irradiation; an indication of the radioadaptive response. Overall, our data suggest that low concentrations of tritium given to mice as HTO in drinking water do not exert cytotoxic effect in splenocytes, nor do they change cellular sensitivity to additional high dose γ-radiation. The latter may be considered as the lack of a radioadaptive response, typically observed after low dose γ-irradiation.

  5. Localization of tritiated 1-(2, 4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid ([3H] AF 1890) in rat testis using freeze-drying autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilderbrandt-Stark, H.E.; Mills, J.W.; Fawcett, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Tritiated 1-(2, 4-dichlorobenzyl)- 1 H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid ([ 3 H]AF 1890) was localized within rat testis using freeze-drying autoradiographic techniques. Ligated seminiferous tubule preparations were exposed in vitro to 80 microCi of [ 3 H]AF 1890 in the absence or presence of excess unlabeled AF 1890 for 30 min at 31 degrees C. Autoradiographs showed a generalized distribution of silver grains over the seminiferous epithelium, in the tubular lumen, and in the interstitial spaces. In addition, clusters of grains were concentrated over the seminiferous epithelium in regions of spermatid heads and tails and in the basal portion of the Sertoli cell cytoplasm, and over Leydig cells in the interstitial space. The generalized distribution was reduced and the grain clusters eliminated by incubation in an excess of unlabeled AF 1890. [ 3 H]inulin was used to assess the effectiveness of the tubular ligation because inulin does not normally penetrate the blood-testis barrier. This extracellular marker was not localized in the tubular lumen or in the seminiferous epithelium. Therefore, the labeling observed with [ 3 H]AF 1890 indicates that this compound crosses the blood-testis barrier

  6. Deuterium and tritium labelling of aromatic hydrocarbons by zeolite-catalysed exchange with perdeuteriobenzene, tritiated benzene, and [p-3H]toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, M.A.; Garnett, J.L.; Williams, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    Three hydrogen zeolites, HNaY, H-Mordenite, and HZSM-5, have been employed as catalysts for hydrogen isotope exchange reactions. The zeolites catalysed exchange between the isotope sources perdeuteriobenzene, tritiated benzene, and [p- 3 H]toluene, and a wide range of organic substrates, thus providing a useful labelling technique. The extent and orientation of exchange in reaction products were assessed through the techniques of radio-gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and 3 H n.m.r. spectroscopy. Substituted benzenoid compounds were non-specifically labelled in the aromatic centres at temperatures from 40 to 175 deg C, but heterocyclic compounds and alkanes were not exchanged. A series of competitive exchange experiments gave an insight into the reasons for the lack of reactivity of some substrates. Inspection of the multiple exchange parameters and relative rates of exchange of substrates of different bulk suggested correlations between zeolite pore sizes, substrate reactivity, and labelling patterns. Consideration of these experimental results together with those from redistribution reactions with [p- 3 H]toluene led to interpretation of results in terms of acid exchange mechanisms, where these mechanisms are mediated by the constraints of zeolite pore geometry. (author)

  7. Effects of the combinations of caffeine with 137Cs-gamma rays or tritiated water on the proliferation and malignant transformation CHL-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Shuai; Wang Shoufang

    1989-01-01

    The effects of the combinations of caffeine with 137 Cs-gamma rays or tritiated water on the proliferation and malignant transformation in vitro in CHL-1 cells were observed in experiments. At the concentrations of caffeine from 1 mmol/L to 2 mmol/L, the dose ranges of 137 Cs-gamma rays from 0.837 Gy and to 2.51 Gy and of tritium-beta radiation from 0.837 Gy to 0.528 Gy, the cell proliferation of CHL-1 cells was found to be inbigited when cells were exposed to caffeine, gamma and beta radiations, respectively, as well as when they were exposed to various combinations of caffeine with the two latters. The degree of inhibition of cell proliferation was dependent upon the concentration of caffeine and on the doses of radiation. In the transformation experiments, cell malignant transformation rates for all treated groups were higher than that for contol group and the rates for irradiated plus caffeine-treated groups were higher than those for corresponding single-agent-treated ones. After the subcutaneous injection of transformed cells into irradiated mice, tumours in size of about 2 mm 3 were found in some animals and the tumour cells were identical with in-vitro-transformed CHL-1 cells histopathologically

  8. The Lack of Cytotoxic Effect and Radioadaptive Response in Splenocytes of Mice Exposed to Low Level Internal β-Particle Irradiation through Tritiated Drinking Water in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Flegal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Health effects of tritium, a β-emitter and a by-product of the nuclear industry, is a subject of significant controversy. This mouse in vivo study was undertaken to monitor biological effects of low level tritium exposure. Mice were exposed to tritiated drinking water (HTO at 10 KBq/L, 1 MBq/L and 20 MBq/L concentrations for one month. The treatment did not result in a significant increase of apoptosis in splenocytes. To examine if this low level tritium exposure alters radiosensitivity, the extracted splenocytes were challenged in vitro with 2 Gy γ-radiation, and apoptotic responses at 1 and 24 h were measured. No alterations in the radiosensitivity were detected in cells from mice exposed to tritium compared to sham-treated mice. In contrast, low dose γ-irradiation at 20 or 100 mGy, resulted in a significant increase in resistance to apoptotic cell death after 2 Gy irradiation; an indication of the radioadaptive response. Overall, our data suggest that low concentrations of tritium given to mice as HTO in drinking water do not exert cytotoxic effect in splenocytes, nor do they change cellular sensitivity to additional high dose γ-radiation. The latter may be considered as the lack of a radioadaptive response, typically observed after low dose γ-irradiation.

  9. Proton transfer in methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase from Propionibacterium shermanii. The reaction of (2R)-methylmalonyl-CoA in tritiated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, J Q; Leadlay, P F

    1983-01-01

    The reaction catalysed by methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase from Propionibacterium shermanii was studied in tritiated water, in the direction with (2R)-methylmalonyl-CoA as substrate, under 'irreversible' conditions. After partial reaction, even when most of the substrate had been converted into product (isolated as propionyl-CoA) essentially no solvent tritium appeared in residual (2R)-methylmalonyl-CoA. The product, however, did contain tritium, and the specific radioactivity of the (2S)-epimer was deduced to be 0.33 times that of the solvent. These results provide further support for the mechanism proposed for the epimerase-catalysed reaction in the accompanying paper [Leadlay & Fuller (1983) Biochem. J. 213, 635-642], in which two enzyme bases act respectively as proton donor and acceptor. The observed low discrimination against solvent tritium entering the product can be accounted for by a mechanism in which the release of product is slow, and the re-protonation step on the enzyme is reversible, without leading to isotopic exchange with the solvent. PMID:6311170

  10. Influence of enhanced fluid intake on reduction of committed dose after acute intake of tritiated water vapour by occupational workers at Narora Atomic Power Station, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.K.; Mitra, S.R.; Chand, Lal

    2001-01-01

    The study of acute exposure cases of male radiation workers to tritiated water vapour (HTO) in Narora Atomic Power Station, using the bi-exponential function has provided direct practical evidence that the committed dose following an HTO exposure is directly proportional to effective half-life which in turn is inversely proportional to the fluid intake. Urine samples from these workers apparently in good health, were collected and measured for tritium concentration in urine up to maximum of 163 days after the exposure. They were advised to increase their fluid intakes to accelerate the elimination of tritium for dose mitigation. Their fluid intakes reverted to normal levels in the later stage of the post exposure period. The non-linear regression analysis of the data of tritium concentration in urine showed an effective half-life of 1.5 to 3.8 days during the period of enhanced fluid intake, 3.4 to 6.9 days during the period of normal and slightly above normal fluid intake and 23.6 to 52.3 days due to elimination of metabolized organically bound tritium. This increase in elimination rate due to enhanced fluid intake directly resulted in dose mitigation of 45.1 to 76.0 percent in different subjects. (author)

  11. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  12. Food contamination assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.

    1992-01-01

    This article explains the different modes of contamination transfer from the atmosphere, from the soil and from the water to plants, animals, aquatic organisms and food. The importance of food contamination depends on radionuclide, contamination mode and time. The author analyses the contamination levels according to the sources: natural radioactivity, nuclear explosion fallout, radioactive effluents of nuclear facilities and Chernobyl accident. Until today, the food contamination has always been limited and has never set sanitary problems. 8 figs

  13. The influence of large deletions on the mutation frequency induced by tritiated water and X-radiation in male Drosophila melanogaster post-meiotic germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossett, N.G.; Byrne, B.J.; Kelley, S.J.; Tucker, A.B.; Arbour-Reily, P.; Lee, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    Tritium beta radiation ( 3 H β-radiation) in the form of tritiated water was used to induce mutations at the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) locus in male Drosophila melanogaster post-meiotic germ cells. All 23 Adh null mutations were large deletions (>20 kb), determined by genetic complementation and Southern blot analyses. 27 Adh null mutations have been induced by 100-kVp X-rays and have been genetically and molecularly characterized. In contrast to 3 H β-radiation, 100-kVp X-rays induced a bimodal distribution of Adh null mutations, intragenic mutations, ≤250 bp, and large deletions, >100 kb. A statistically significant difference was observed between the frequency of large deletions (23/23 or 1.0) induced by 3 H β-radiation and the frequency of large deletions (19/27 or 0.7) induced by 100-kVp X-rays. However, a statistical difference was not observed between the size distribution of the large deletions induced by 3 H β-radiation and X-rays. The relative deletion frequency (RDF) induced by 3 H β-radiation and 100-kVp X-rays was (1.0/0.7=1.4). The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of these two radiation sources was 1.4, determined from the ratio of the regression coefficients of the respective 3 H β-radiation and X-ray sex-linked recessive lethal (SLRL) dose-response data. The large difference in size between the two classes of X-ray-induced Adh null mutations and the increase in mutation frequency and deletion frequency for 3 H β-radiation with respect to X-rays may indicate that the relative deletion frequency (RDF) is the molecular biological basis for the increase in the RBE for radiation sources with a mean LET value ≤10 keV/μm

  14. Contaminated Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Sites contaminated by hazardous materials or wastes. These sites are those administered by the Contaminated Sites Section of Iowa DNR. Many are sites which are...

  15. Center for Contaminated Sediments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Center for Contaminated Sediments serves as a clearinghouse for technology and expertise concerned with contaminated sediments. The...

  16. Urban atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldasano Jose, M.

    1997-01-01

    The problems of contamination are not only limited to this century, pale pathology evidences of the effects of the contamination of the air exist in interiors in the health of the old ones; the article mention the elements that configure the problem of the atmospheric contamination, atmospheric pollutants and emission sources, orography condition and effects induced by the urbanization process

  17. Restoration of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda J, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A great variety of techniques are used for the restoration of contaminated soils. The contamination is present by both organic and inorganic pollutants. Environmental conditions and soil characteristics should take into account in order to implement a remedial technique. The bioremediation technologies are showed as help to remove a variety of soil contaminants. (author) [es

  18. Contaminant mass estimation of powder contaminated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Timothy J.; Messinger, David W.

    2017-05-01

    How can we determine the physical characteristics of a mixture of multiple materials within a single pixel? Intimate mixing occurs when different materials within the region encompassed by a pixel interact with each other prior to reaching the sensor. For powder contaminated surfaces, nonlinear mixing is unavoidable. The Nonconventional Exploitation Factors Data System (NEFDS) Contamination Model can make longwave hyperspectral mixture signatures, but only for a small subset of their spectral library. In addition, the model uses percent coverage as its only physical property input despite it not being informative to the contaminants physical properties. Through a complex parameter inversion, the NEFDS contamination model can be used to derive various physical properties. These physical characteristics were estimated by using empirically measured data of varying contaminant amounts using a Designs and Prototypes Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Once estimated parameters are found, the mixture spectra was recreated and compared to the measured data. The estimated areal coverage density is used to derive a total deposited mass on the surface based on the area of contaminated surface. This is compared to the known amount deposited that was measured during the experimental campaign. This paper presents some results of those measurements and model estimates.

  19. In vitro and in vivo effects of low dose HTO contamination modulated by dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petcu, I.; Savu, D.; Moisoi, N.; Koeteles, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    The experiment performed in vitro intended to examine whether an adaptive response could be elicited on lymphocytes by low-level contamination of whole blood with tritiated water and if the modification of the dose rate has any influence on it. Lymphocytes pre-exposed to 3 HOH (0.2 - 6.6 MBq/ml) and subsequently irradiated with I Gy γ-rays showed micronuclei frequency significantly lower (40% - 45%) than the expected member (sum of the yields induced by 3 HOH and γ-rays separately). The degree of the radioresistance induced by HTO pre-treatments became higher with decreasing dose-rate for a rather similar total adapting dose. In vivo, the aim of the study was to investigate if different dose rates are inducing modulation of the lipid peroxidation level and of the thymidine uptake in different tissues of animals contaminated by HTO ingestion. The total doses varied between 5 and 20 cGy and were delivered as chronic (100 days) or acute contamination (5 days). It was observed that only doses about 20 cGy caused a dose-rate dependent increase of the lipid peroxidation level in the tissues of small intestine, kidney and spleen. Both chronic and acute contamination did produce reduced incorporation of thymidine in the cells of bone marrow. The most effective decrease of thymidine uptake was induced by the acute contamination in the lower dose domain (approx. 5 cGy). Our hypothesis is that in this dose domain the modification of thymidine uptake could be due to changes at the level of membrane transport. (author)

  20. JPL Contamination Control Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakkolb, Brian

    2013-01-01

    JPL has extensive expertise fielding contamination sensitive missions-in house and with our NASA/industry/academic partners.t Development and implementation of performance-driven cleanliness requirements for a wide range missions and payloads - UV-Vis-IR: GALEX, Dawn, Juno, WFPC-II, AIRS, TES, et al - Propulsion, thermal control, robotic sample acquisition systems. Contamination control engineering across the mission life cycle: - System and payload requirements derivation, analysis, and contamination control implementation plans - Hardware Design, Risk trades, Requirements V-V - Assembly, Integration & Test planning and implementation - Launch site operations and launch vehicle/payload integration - Flight ops center dot Personnel on staff have expertise with space materials development and flight experiments. JPL has capabilities and expertise to successfully address contamination issues presented by space and habitable environments. JPL has extensive experience fielding and managing contamination sensitive missions. Excellent working relationship with the aerospace contamination control engineering community/.

  1. Contamination analysis unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig

  2. Preparation of a tritiated ginkgolide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Suehiro, Makiko; Nakanishi, Koji

    2004-01-01

    Ginkgolide B, a constituent of the tree Ginkgo biloba, was radiolabeled with the beta-emitter tritium ([(3)H]) in two steps from ginkgolide C. First, a triflate precursor was prepared utilizing the selective reactivity of 7-OH in ginkgolide C; the triflate was then reduced with sodium borotritide...

  3. Analysis of food contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, John

    1984-01-01

    ... quantification methods used in the analysis of mycotoxins in foods - Confirmation and quantification of trace organic food contaminants by mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring - Chemiluminescence...

  4. Development of a Novel Contamination Resistant Ion Chamber for Process Tritium Measurement and Use in the JET First Trace Tritium Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worth, L.B.C.; Pearce, R.J.H.; Bruce, J.; Banks, J.; Scales, S.

    2005-01-01

    The accuracy of process measurements of tritium with conventional ion chambers is often affected by surface tritium contamination. The measurement of tritium in the exhaust of the JET torus is particularly difficult due to surface contamination with highly tritiated hydrocarbons. JET's first unsuccessful attempt to overcome the contamination problem was to use an ion chamber, with a heating element as the chamber wall so that it could be periodically decontaminated by baking. The newly developed ion chamber works on the principle of minimising the surface area within the boundary of the anode and cathode.This paper details the design of the ion chamber, which utilises a grid of 50-micron tungsten wire to define the ion chamber wall and the collector electrode. The effective surface area which, by contamination, is able to effect the measurement of tritium within the process gas has been reduced by a factor of ∼200 over a conventional ion chamber. It is concluded that the new process ion chamber enables sensitive accurate tritium measurements free from contamination issues. It will be a powerful new tool for future tritium experiments both to improve tritium tracking and to help in the understanding of tritium retention issues

  5. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In

  6. Contamination Control Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics

  7. Contamination Control Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  8. Surface tritium contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienkiewicz, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    Glovebox wipe surveys were conducted to correlate surface tritium contamination with atmospheric tritium levels. Surface contamination was examined as a function of tritium concentration and limited to the HT/T 2 form. The previously predicted relationship between atmospheric HTO concentration and cleanup times was examined in order to predict a model for atmospheric detritiation of stainless steel enclosures. 2 figures, 2 tables

  9. Bioremediation of contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balba, M.T.; Ying, A.C.; McNeice, T.G.

    1992-01-01

    Microorganisms, especially bacteria, yeast and fungi are capable of degrading many kinds of xenobiotic compounds and toxic chemicals such as petroleum hydrocarbon compounds. These microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and, despite their enormous versatility, there are numerous cases in which long-term contamination of soil and groundwater has been observed. The persistence of the contamination is usually caused by the inability of microorganisms to metabolize these compounds under the prevailing environmental condition. This paper reports on biological remediation of contaminated sites which can be accomplished by using naturally-occurring microorganisms to treat the contaminants. The development of a bioremediation program for a specific contaminated soil system usually includes: A thorough site/soil/waste characterization; Treatability studies

  10. Contaminated water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for processing of a liquid ("contaminant liquid") containing water and containing urine and/or other contaminants in a two step process. Urine, or a contaminated liquid similar to and/or containing urine and thus having a relatively high salt and urea content is passed through an activated carbon filter to provide a resulting liquid, to remove most of the organic molecules. The resulting liquid is passed through a semipermeable membrane from a membrane first side to a membrane second side, where a fortified drink having a lower water concentration (higher osmotic potential) than the resulting liquid is positioned. Osmotic pressure differential causes the water, but not most of the remaining inorganic (salts) contaminant(s) to pass through the membrane to the fortified drink. Optionally, the resulting liquid is allowed to precipitate additional organic molecules before passage through the membrane.

  11. Contamination sources, prevention, and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination is defined as anything other than cotton in cotton lint. Worldwide, contamination is on the rise and plastic contamination has increased at a faster rate than contamination overall. In the U.S., there are many sources of plastic contaminants, such as plastic trash that collects in cott...

  12. Potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity and DNA damage in swallows from the Rio Grande and Somerville, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzlar, M.A.; Mora, M.A.; Fleming, J.G.W.; Bazer, F.W.; Bickham, J.W.; Matson, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and cave swallows (P. fulva) were sampled during the breeding season at several locations in the Rio Grande, Texas, to evaluate the potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity in brain and gonads and DNA damage in blood cells. The tritiated water-release aromatase assay was used to measure aromatase activity and flow cytometry was used to measure DNA damage in nucleated blood cells. There were no significant differences in brain and gonadal aromatase activities or in estimates of DNA damage (HPCV values) among cave swallow colonies from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) and Somerville. However, both brain and gonadal aromatase activities were significantly higher (P future studies. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  13. The electrochemical corrosion behavior of austenitic alloys, cobalt or nickel based super alloys, structurally hardened martensitic, Inconel, zircaloy, super austenitic, duplex and of Ni-Cr or NTi deposits in tritiated water. 3 volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, G.

    1994-01-01

    The redox potential of 3 H 2 O, as well as the corrosion potentials in this medium are found, abnormally, in the trans-passive region. This is completely different from the behavior in the chemical industry or in the water in nuclear powers. With such behavior, there will be breakdowns of the protective oxide layers, and in the presence of chloride there will be immediate pitting. The steels that are most resistant to this behavior are the super austenitic and super Duplex. To avoid corrosion, another solution is to decompose the radiolytic products by imposing a slight reducing potential. Corrosion inhibitors, which are stable in tritiated water, can be used. (author). 69 refs., 421 figs., tabs

  14. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  15. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  16. Direct contamination - seasonality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1994-01-01

    Direct contamination is the primary pathway to terrestrial vegetation in the first period after an activity release to the atmosphere. All radionuclides are able to be transferred via this pathway. Deposition, interception and retention are the three processes involved in direct contamination of crops. Wet deposition is more important than dry deposition in temperature regions. Resuspension and rainsplash both belong to secondary direct deposition and became evident for e.g. radiocaesium after the Chernobyl accident. Seasonality is the varying response to radioactive contamination of crops according to the time of the year when the contamination occurs. Shortlived radionuclides (as 131 I) and those that mainly enter the foodchain by direct contamination (e.g. 137 Cs) are especially important in this connection. In particular, the contamination of cereal crops is influenced by seasonality. As a result of seasonality the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the radioactive contamination of human diet was for the same deposition density higher in southern than in northern Europe. (orig.)

  17. Tungsten contamination in ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polignano, M.L., E-mail: maria.polignano@st.com; Barbarossa, F.; Galbiati, A.; Magni, D.; Mica, I.

    2016-06-15

    In this paper the tungsten contamination in ion implantation processes is studied by DLTS analysis both in typical operating conditions and after contamination of the implanter by implantation of wafers with an exposed tungsten layer. Of course the contaminant concentration is orders of magnitude higher after contamination of the implanter, but in addition our data show that different mechanisms are active in a not contaminated and in a contaminated implanter. A moderate tungsten contamination is observed also in a not contaminated implanter, however in that case contamination is completely not energetic and can be effectively screened by a very thin oxide. On the contrary, the contamination due to an implantation in a previously contaminated implanter is reduced but not suppressed even by a relatively thick screen oxide. The comparison with SRIM calculations confirms that the observed deep penetration of the contaminant cannot be explained by a plain sputtering mechanism.

  18. Contaminant Candidate List 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 1 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  19. Contaminant Candidate List 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 2 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  20. Contaminant Candidate List 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 3 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  1. Cleanup of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beone, G.; Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of contaminated areas cleanup, in order to eliminate every possible damage for man safety and environment and to site recovery for some utilization, The first step of cleanup operation is site characterization, that is followed by a pianificazion activity for a better definition of staff qualification, technology to be used, protection and prevention instruments for the risks due to contaminants handling. The second section describes the different remedial technologies for contaminated sites. Remedial technologies may be divided into on-site/off-site and in-situ treatments, according to whether materials (waste, soil, water) are moved to another location or not, respectively. Finally, it is outlined that contaminated areas cleanup is a typical multidisciplinary activity because very different competences are required. (author)

  2. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-08-31

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of

  3. Hydrocarbons as food contaminants:

    OpenAIRE

    Lommatzsch, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The contamination of foods with hydrocarbon mixtures migrating from food contact materials (FCM) was first observed for jute and sisal bags treated with batching oil in the 1990s. Since the millennium, the focus has shifted to printing inks and recycled cardboard packaging as most recognized sources for hydrocarbon contamination from FCM. Mineral oil containing printing inks can either release hydrocarbons directly from the printing of folding boxes into food or indirectly entering the recycl...

  4. Emerging contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, M.E.; Manamsa, K.; Talbot, J.C.; Crane, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    The term ‘emerging contaminants’ is generally used to refer to compounds previously not considered or known to be significant to groundwater (in terms of distribution and/or concentration) which are now being more widely detected. As analytical techniques improve, previously undetected organic micropollutants are being observed in the aqueous environment. Many emerging contaminants remain unregulated, but the number of regulated contaminants will continue to grow slowly over th...

  5. Reconditioning contaminated gravel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, H.; Bowers, J.S.; Cadwell, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a portable screening system that will recondition radioactively contaminated gravel in the field. The separation technique employed by this system removes dirt, contaminated debris, and other fine particles from gravel. At LLNL, gravel is used in conjunction with the experimental testing of explosives to reduce shock wave propagation. The gravel surrounds the experimental device and buffers the energy generated from the explosion. During an explosion, some of the gravel is broken down into small particles and mixed with contaminants. Contaminants in the used gravel originate from metal sheathing and other parts comprising, the experimental device. These contaminants may consist of radionuclides and metals that are considered hazardous by the State of California when disposed. This paper describes the process that conveys contaminated material into the screener system, sprays the material with recycled water or other mild cleaning chemicals, and separates particles based on size. Particles greater than a specified size are discharged out of the screener separator and recycled back into use, thereby reducing the amount of mixed waste generated and minimizing the need for new gravel. The fines or silt are flushed out of the separator with the water and are removed from the water and consolidated into a drum with the use of a hydrocyclone separator and drum decant system. Because the water in the spray system is recycled, minimal makeup water is needed. The system monitors pH and total dissolved solids

  6. Surgical wound infection in clean-contaminated and contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Surgical wound (site) infection is the commonest complication following laparotomy for clean-contaminated and contaminated abdominal operations. Good surgical technique and perioperative prophylactic antibiotics in clean-contaminated and contaminated abdominal operations contribute to the low rate of ...

  7. Contamination Control for Thermal Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Rachel B.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). This course will cover the basics of Contamination Control, including contamination control related failures, the effects of contamination on Flight Hardware, what contamination requirements translate to, design methodology, and implementing contamination control into Integration, Testing and Launch.

  8. Stainless steel electrochemical behaviour - application to the decontamination of steel parts contaminated by tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, G.

    1991-01-01

    This purpose of this work is the study of an electrochemical decontamination process of stainless steel in which tritium is present on the surface of the metal, in the oxide layer and in the metal. We have first investigated the behaviour of the oxide layer. Then we have studied the hydrogen evolution, its diffusion and retrodiffusion in the metal. The results are applied to the decontamination of steel parts contamined by tritium. Part of the tritium can be eliminated by reducing the oxyde layer, which contains large amounts of tritium. However, it is more beneficial to electrolyse at the potential at which the H + ions are reduced. The hydrogen on the steel surface enters in the metal and displaces most of tritium located in the metallic layers near the surface. The tritium surface elimination rate is about 95%. The tritium eliminated through electrolysis is only a small fraction of all the tritium contained in the metal. However, according to conservation experiments of parts after electrolysis, it can be concluded that hydrogen, probably more strongly bound than tritium to steel, forms near the surface a barrier that prevents tritium retrodiffusion. Electrolysis appears as a satisfactory process for the surface decontamination of slightly tritiated steel parts. A decontamination automaton based on the preceding results is described using a pad electrolyser. This type of decontamination is little polluting, and the parts can be recycled after the in situ treatment [fr

  9. The Contaminant Cobweb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech Albertsen, Anita Nell

    2017-01-01

    This article maps out character complexity in Penny Dreadful by focusing on the intertextuality of monstrous female characters. The aim of this study is twofold. First, it seeks to examine show how mashup characters gain complexity through textual contamination as they are woven into an intertext......This article maps out character complexity in Penny Dreadful by focusing on the intertextuality of monstrous female characters. The aim of this study is twofold. First, it seeks to examine show how mashup characters gain complexity through textual contamination as they are woven...... into an intertextual cobweb of signification. Secondly, it aims at examining how monstrous complex characters like Vanessa Ives can be conceived as mashups contaminated by different manifestations of the monstrous-feminine as coined by Barbara Creed. An overarching hypothesis of this study is that interfigural...

  10. Resistivity profiling for mapping gravel layers that may control contaminant migration at the Amargosa Desert Research Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Abraham, Jared D.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2008-01-01

    Gaseous contaminants, including CFC 113, chloroform, and tritiated compounds, move preferentially in unsaturated subsurface gravel layers away from disposal trenches at a closed low-level radioactive waste-disposal facility in the Amargosa Desert about 17 kilometers south of Beatty, Nevada. Two distinct gravel layers are involved in contaminant transport: a thin, shallow layer between about 0.5 and 2.2 meters below the surface and a layer of variable thickness between about 15 and 30 meters below land surface. From 2003 to 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey used multielectrode DC and AC resistivity surveys to map these gravel layers. Previous core sampling indicates the fine-grained sediments generally have higher water content than the gravel layers or the sediments near the surface. The relatively higher electrical resistivity of the dry gravel layers, compared to that of the surrounding finer sediments, makes the gravel readily mappable using electrical resistivity profiling. The upper gravel layer is not easily distinguished from the very dry, fine-grained deposits at the surface. Two-dimensional resistivity models, however, clearly identify the resistive lower gravel layer, which is continuous near the facility except to the southeast. Multielectrode resistivity surveys provide a practical noninvasive method to image hydrogeologic features in the arid environment of the Amargosa Desert.

  11. Contamination Analysis Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieda, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    This talk presents 3 different tools developed recently for contamination analysis:HTML QCM analyzer: runs in a web browser, and allows for data analysis of QCM log filesJava RGA extractor: can load in multiple SRS.ana files and extract pressure vs. time dataC++ Contamination Simulation code: 3D particle tracing code for modeling transport of dust particulates and molecules. Uses residence time to determine if molecules stick. Particulates can be sampled from IEST-STD-1246 and be accelerated by aerodynamic forces.

  12. Transportation cask contamination weeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.C.; Doughty, D.H.; Chambers, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the problem of cask contamination weeping, and efforts to understand the phenomenon and to eliminate its occurrence during spent nuclear fuel transport. The paper summarizes analyses of field experience and scoping experiments, and concentrates on current modelling and experimental validation efforts. (J.P.N.)

  13. DSCOVR Contamination Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    The Triana observatory was built at NASA GSFC in the late 1990's, then placed into storage. After approximately ten years it was removed from storage and repurposed as the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). This presentation outlines the contamination control program lessons learned during the integration, test and launch of DSCOVR.

  14. Automatic personnel contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattin, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    United Nuclear Industries, Inc. (UNI) has developed an automatic personnel contamination monitor (APCM), which uniquely combines the design features of both portal and hand and shoe monitors. In addition, this prototype system also has a number of new features, including: micro computer control and readout, nineteen large area gas flow detectors, real-time background compensation, self-checking for system failures, and card reader identification and control. UNI's experience in operating the Hanford N Reactor, located in Richland, Washington, has shown the necessity of automatically monitoring plant personnel for contamination after they have passed through the procedurally controlled radiation zones. This final check ensures that each radiation zone worker has been properly checked before leaving company controlled boundaries. Investigation of the commercially available portal and hand and shoe monitors indicated that they did not have the sensitivity or sophistication required for UNI's application, therefore, a development program was initiated, resulting in the subject monitor. Field testing shows good sensitivity to personnel contamination with the majority of alarms showing contaminants on clothing, face and head areas. In general, the APCM has sensitivity comparable to portal survey instrumentation. The inherit stand-in, walk-on feature of the APCM not only makes it easy to use, but makes it difficult to bypass. (author)

  15. Mercury contamination extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Mark [Silver Spring, MD; Heiser, John [Bayport, NY; Kalb, Paul [Wading River, NY

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  16. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  17. Subsurface Contamination Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Yuan

    2001-12-12

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the

  18. Emerging Contaminants and Federal Facility Contaminants of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page links to fact sheets summarizing contaminants of concern and emerging contaminants that present unique issues and challenges to the environmental community in general and to FFRRO in particular.

  19. Probability mapping of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.; Kaplan, P.G.; McGraw, M.A.; Istok, J.D.; Sigda, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Exhaustive characterization of a contaminated site is a physical and practical impossibility. Descriptions of the nature, extent, and level of contamination, as well as decisions regarding proposed remediation activities, must be made in a state of uncertainty based upon limited physical sampling. The probability mapping approach illustrated in this paper appears to offer site operators a reasonable, quantitative methodology for many environmental remediation decisions and allows evaluation of the risk associated with those decisions. For example, output from this approach can be used in quantitative, cost-based decision models for evaluating possible site characterization and/or remediation plans, resulting in selection of the risk-adjusted, least-cost alternative. The methodology is completely general, and the techniques are applicable to a wide variety of environmental restoration projects. The probability-mapping approach is illustrated by application to a contaminated site at the former DOE Feed Materials Production Center near Fernald, Ohio. Soil geochemical data, collected as part of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project, have been used to construct a number of geostatistical simulations of potential contamination for parcels approximately the size of a selective remediation unit (the 3-m width of a bulldozer blade). Each such simulation accurately reflects the actual measured sample values, and reproduces the univariate statistics and spatial character of the extant data. Post-processing of a large number of these equally likely statistically similar images produces maps directly showing the probability of exceeding specified levels of contamination (potential clean-up or personnel-hazard thresholds)

  20. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Program Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA uses the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring (UCM) program to collect data for contaminants suspected to be present in drinking water, but that do not have...

  1. Facile N-oxygenation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine by the flavin-containing monooxygenase. A convenient synthesis of tritiated [methyl-3H]-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydropyridinium species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid, efficient procedure useful for the radiosynthesis of [Me- 3 H]-MPDP+ ([methyl- 3 H]-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydropyridinium species) is described. Hog liver microsomes or the highly purified flavin-containing monooxygenase from hog liver quantitatively biotransforms [Me- 3 H]-MPTP to its corresponding radiolabeled N-oxide. For the small-scale synthesis required for radiolabeling procedures, this enzymatic process is superior to H 2 O 2 -mediated N-oxygenation of MPTP. In the presence of 0.5 mM NADPH, 4.5 mM n-octylamine, and 2 microCi [Me- 3 H]-MPTP, the only product detected in extracts from incubations performed with hog liver microsomes or purified hog liver flavin-containing monooxygenase is [Me- 3 H]-MPTP N-oxide. [Me- 3 H]-MPTP N-oxide is almost completely converted to [Me- 3 H]-MPDP+ by the action of trifluoroacetic anhydride. This procedure has the advantage of using a commercially available tritiated starting material, efficient transformations, and easily accomplished purification to afford a rapid synthesis of [Me- 3 H]-MPDP+

  2. Management of tritium contaminated wastes national strategies and practices at some European countries, USA and Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannone, F.

    1992-01-01

    The European Tritium Handling Experiment Laboratory (ETHEL) is the Commission of European Communities facility designed for handling multigram quantities of tritium for safety inherent R and D purposes. Tritium contamined wastes in gaseous, liquid and solid forms will be generated in ETHEL during the experiments as well as during the maintenance operations. All such wastes must be adequately managed under the safest operating conditions to minimize the releases of tritium to the environment and the consequent radiological risks to workers and general population. This safety requirement can be met by carefully defining strategies and practices to be applied for the safe management of these wastes. To this end an adequate background information must be collected which is the intent of this report. Through an exhaustive literature survey current strategies and practices applied in Europe, USA and Canada for managing tritiated wastes from specific tritium handling laboratories and plant have been assessed. For some countries, where only tritium bearing wastes simultaneously contaminated with nuclear fission products are generated, the attention has been focused on the strategies and practices currently applied for managing fission wastes. Operational criteria for waste collection, sorting, classification, conditioning and packaging as well as acceptance criteria for their storage or disposal have been identified. Waste storage or disposal options already applied in various countries or still being investigated in terms of safety have also been considered. Even if the radwaste management strategy is submitted to a nearly continuing process of review, some general comments resulting from the assessment of the present waste management scenario are presented. 60 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs

  3. Contamination Control: a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donck, J.C.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Contamination influences a wide variety of industrial processes. For complex systems, contamination control, the collective effort to control contamination to such a level that it guarantees or even improves process or product functionality, offers a way for finding workable solutions. Central in

  4. The contamination factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In 1989 the Senate Committee on Armed Services asked the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to investigate the environmental and public health impacts of contamination at the nation's nuclear weapons complex and to review the Department of Energy's (DOE) program to clean up past contamination and manage huge quantities of radioactive and hazardous wastes. The DOE Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Program is a massive, multibillion-dollar effort engaging state governments and several federal agencies, and including some of the most technically challenging environmental characterization and remediation projects ever attempted. Congress recognized the enormity of DOE's environmental and legal problems and is interested in insuring that the cleanup program is both adequate and efficient. This summary of the OTA report has been adapted for publication in the Bulletin

  5. Indexing contamination surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The responsibility for safely managing the Tank Farms at Hanford belongs to Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation which is part of the six company Project Hanford Management Team led by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc.. These Tank Farm Facilities contain numerous outdoor contamination areas which are surveyed at a periodicity consistent with the potential radiological conditions, occupancy, and risk of changes in radiological conditions. This document describes the survey documentation and data tracking method devised to track the results of contamination surveys this process is referred to as indexing. The indexing process takes a representative data set as an indicator for the contamination status of the facility. The data are further manipulated into a single value that can be tracked and trended using standard statistical methodology. To report meaningful data, the routine contamination surveys must be performed in a manner that allows the survey method and the data collection process to be recreated. Three key criteria are necessary to accomplish this goal: Accurate maps, consistent documentation, and consistent consolidation of data meeting these criteria provides data of sufficient quality to be tracked. Tracking of survey data is accomplished by converting the individual survey results into a weighted value, corrected for the actual number of survey points. This information can be compared over time using standard statistical analysis to identify trends. At the Tank Farms, the need to track and trend the facility's radiological status presents unique challenges. Many of these Tank Farm facilities date back to the second world war. The Tank Farm Facilities are exposed to weather extremes, plant and animal intrusion, as well as all of the normal challenges associated with handling radiological waste streams. Routine radiological surveys did not provide a radiological status adequate for continuing comparisons

  6. Emerging contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Lapworth, Dan; Stuart, Marianne; Hart, Alwyn; Crane, Emily; Baran, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The term ‘emerging contaminants’ (ECs) is used to cover not only newly developed compounds but also includes newly discovered compounds in the environment (often due to analytical developments), and compounds that have been recently categorised as contaminants. ECs include a huge array of different compounds (and their metabolites) that are used by society for a range of purposes and include; pharmaceuticals, pesticides, personal care products, veterinary medicines, engineered nano-materials,...

  7. Radiocesium contamination in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomme, S.; Genicot, J.L.; Hardeman, F.; Uyttenhove, J.

    1998-01-01

    Radiocesium contamination of air, rain, grass, milk and humans in Belgium from the late 1950s to present was measured. The main sources of fallout were atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl accident; in Belgium the average impact of the first on the human body burden was more than six times higher. The geographical distribution of radiocesium fallout in Belgium was surveyed by means of in-situ gamma-spectrometry with HPGe detectors. (author)

  8. Contaminant Hazard Reviews (compilation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.; Munro, R.E.; Loges, L.M.; Boone, K.; Paul, M.M.; Garrett, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This compact disc (CD) contains the 35 reports in the Contaminant Hazard Reviews (CHR) that were published originally between 1985 and 1999 in the U.S. Department of the Interior Biological Report series. The CD was produced because printed supplies of these reviews--a total of 105,000--became exhausted and demand remained high. Each review was prepared at the request of environmental specialists of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and each contained specific information on the following: mirex, cadmium, carbofuran, toxaphene, selenium, chromium, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, diazinon, mercury, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, chlorpyrifos, lead, tin, index issue, pentachlorophenol, atrazine, molybdenum, boron, chlordane, paraquat, cyanide, fenvalerate, diflubenzuron, zinc, famphur, acrolein, radiation, sodium monofluoroacetate, planar PCBs, silver, copper, nickel, and a cumulative index to chemicals and species. Each report reviewed and synthesized the technical literature on a single contaminant and its effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic plants and animals, avian and mammalian wildlife, and other natural resources. The subtopics include contaminant sources and uses; physical, chemical, and metabolic properties; concentrations in field collections of abiotic materials and living organisms; deficiency effects, where appropriate; lethal and sublethal effects, including effects on survival, growth, reproduction, metabolism, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity; proposed criteria for the protection of human health and sensitive natural resources; and recommendations for additional research.

  9. Remediation for contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivekaes, L. [Lohja Envirotec, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    A versatile remediation centre for contaminated soils has operated at Virkkala close to Helsinki since 1998. It is the first regional soil remediation centre in Finland and serves a large area in south- western Finland. Contaminated soils are collected from tens of small and large sites each year and transported to Virkkala for a very high class and environmentally safe treatment under controlled conditions. The centre consists of a 2 ha large hall for storage and treatment of the soils, a 1 ha outside bio-remediation field and a service and truck washing hall. Three treatment technologies are available at the centre: Stabilization/solidification, washing and bio-remediation. With these methods all the most common types of contamination can be treated: Heavy metals, oils, PAHs, creosotes and chlorophenols. Special care has been taken with prevention of environmental emissions, because the centre is located close to a housing area and on a lake-front. All the storage and treatment areas are covered with a double or triple bottom liner system and all environmental emissions are being monitored constantly. EU's Life Environment -fund has supported the project. (orig.)

  10. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors

  11. Project report: Tritiated oil repackaging highlighting the ISMS process. Historical radioactive and mixed waste disposal request validation and waste disposal project (HDRV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriner, J.A.

    1998-08-01

    The Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) was established to define a framework for the essential functions of managing work safely. There are five Safety Management Functions in the model of the ISMS process: (1) work planning, (2) hazards analysis, (3) hazards control, (4) work performance, and (5) feedback and improve. Recent activities at the Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility underscored the importance and effectiveness of integrating the ISMS process to safely manage high-hazard work with a minimum of personnel in a timely and efficient manner. This report describes how project personnel followed the framework of the ISMS process to successfully repackage tritium-contaminated oils. The main objective was to open the boxes without allowing the gaseous tritium oxide, which had built up inside the boxes, to release into the sorting room. The boxes would be vented out the building stack until tritium concentration levels were acceptable. The carboys would be repackaged into 30-gallon drums and caulked shut. Sealing the drums would decrease the tritium off-gassing into the RMWMF

  12. Understanding Mechanisms of Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; John Drake; Ryan James, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the study of radiological contamination and decontamination has expanded significantly. This paper addresses the mechanisms of radiological contamination that have been reported and then discusses which methods have recently been used during performance testing of several different decontamination technologies. About twenty years ago the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL began a search for decontamination processes which could minimize secondary waste. In order to test the effectiveness of these decontamination technologies, a new simulated contamination, termed SIMCON, was developed. SIMCON was designed to replicate the types of contamination found on stainless steel, spent fuel processing equipment. Ten years later, the INL began research into methods for simulating urban contamination resulting from a radiological dispersal device (RDD). This work was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and included the initial development an aqueous application of contaminant to substrate. Since 2007, research sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advanced that effort and led to the development of a contamination method that simulates particulate fallout from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). The IND method diverges from previous efforts to create tenacious contamination by simulating a reproducible “loose” contamination. Examining these different types of contamination (and subsequent decontamination processes), which have included several different radionuclides and substrates, sheds light on contamination processes that occur throughout the nuclear industry and in the urban environment.

  13. NCRP soil contamination task group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recently established a Task Group on Soil Contamination to describe and evaluate the migration pathways and modes of radiation exposure that can potentially arise due to radioactive contamination of soil. The purpose of this paper is to describe the scientific principles for evaluation of soil contamination which can be used as a basis for derivation of soil contamination limits for specific situations. This paper describes scenarios that can lead to soil contamination, important characteristics of soil contamination, the subsequent migration pathways and exposure modes, and the application of principles in the report in deriving soil contamination limits. The migration pathways and exposure modes discussed in this paper include: direct radiation exposure; and exhalation of gases

  14. Contamination monitoring activities in Kanupp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, S.S. [Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Pakistan)

    1997-06-01

    The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Kanupp) is a 137 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor, designed and erected by the Canadian General Electric Company as a turn key project. The plant is in operation since it was commissioned in the year 1972. It is located at the Arabian Sea Coast about 15 miles to the west of Karachi. During its more than two decades of operation, the plant has generated about 8 billion units of electricity with an average life time availability factor of 60%. In Kanupp, radioactive contamination may exit due to the release of fission product, activation products etc., which may somehow escape from its confinement and may contaminate surface or other media such as air, water etc. In this paper, following items are described: main aspects of contamination, status of contamination monitoring, need of contamination monitoring, radiation protection activity, instruments, contamination, current status of contamination survey materials and their disposal, and environmental monitoring. (G.K.)

  15. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  16. [Perceived risks of food contaminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Severine; Lohmann, Mark; Epp, Astrid; Böl, Gaby-Fleur

    2017-07-01

    Food contaminants can pose a serious health threat. In order to carry out adequate risk communication measures, the subjective risk perception of the public must be taken into account. In this context, the breadth of the topic and insufficient terminological delimitations from residues and food additives make an elaborate explanation of the topic to consumers indispensable. A representative population survey used language adequate for lay people and a clear definition of contaminants to measure risk perceptions with regard to food contaminants among the general public. The study aimed to assess public awareness of contaminants and the perceived health risks associated with them. In addition, people's current knowledge and need for additional information, their attitudes towards contaminants, views on stakeholder accountability, as well as compliance with precautionary measures, such as avoiding certain foods to reduce health risks originating from contaminants, were assessed. A representative sample of 1001 respondents was surveyed about food contaminants via computer-assisted telephone interviewing. The majority of respondents rated contaminants as a serious health threat, though few of them spontaneously mentioned examples of undesirable substances in foods that fit the scientific or legal definition of contaminants. Mercury and dioxin were the most well-known contaminants. Only a minority of respondents was familiar with pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The present findings highlight areas that require additional attention and provide implications for risk communication geared to specific target groups.

  17. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  18. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include 234 Th, 234 Pa, 137 Cs, 239 Pu (trace), 60 Co, U, 99 Tc, and 237 Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs

  19. Adsorption and desorption of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, A.V.; Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; DeFlaun, M.; Ensley, B.

    1994-01-01

    The microbial remediation of sites Contaminated with organics is well documented, however, there are some significant problems that remain to be solved in the areas of contaminants sorbed to soils and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination. Methods of in situ bioremediation techniques employ either the stimulation of indigenous populations by nutrient addition, or the addition of prepared bacterial cultures to the subsurface environment. Problems of contaminant sorption and NAPL's are related in that both encompass reduced contaminant bioavailability. Non-aqueous phase liquids have been identified as a priority area for research in the In situ Program due to their presence at DOE sites and the lack of adequate technology to effectively treat this contamination. Bioremediation technologies developed as a result of this project are easily transferred to industry

  20. Skin contamination - prevention and decontaminating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, K.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed examination is made of the structure of human skin. Measures were drawn up to prevent skin contamination in nuclear installations as well as contaminated skin was decontaminated from the personnel. By systematically applying these measures a significant level of success was achieved in preventing contamination in nuclear installations. Cases where more far-reaching chemical methods had to be used were kept to a minimum. (R.P.)

  1. Energy Recovery from Contaminated Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Moskalík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on thermal gasification methods of contaminated biomass in an atmospheric fluidized bed, especially biomass contaminated by undesirable substances in its primary use. For the experiments, chipboard waste was chosen as a representative sample of contaminated biomass. In the experiments, samples of gas and tar were taken for a better description of the process of gasifying chipboard waste. Gas and tar samples also provide information about the properties of the gas that is produced.

  2. Environmental restoration: Integrating hydraulic control of groundwater, innovative contaminant removal technologies and wetlands restoration--A case study at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.M.; Serkiz, S.M.; Adams, J.; Welty, M.

    1992-01-01

    The groundwater remediation program at the F and H Seepage Basins, Savannah River Sits (SRS) is a case study of the integration of various environmental restoration technologies at a single waste site. Hydraulic control measures are being designed to mitigate the discharge of groundwater plumes to surface water. One of the primary constituents of the plumes is tritium. An extraction and reinjection scenario is being designed to keep the tritium in circulation in the shallow groundwater, until it can naturally decay. This will be accomplished by extracting groundwater downgradient of the waste sites, treatment, and reinjection of the tritiated water into the water table upgradient of the basins. Innovative in-situ technologies, including electrolytic migration, are being field tested at the site to augment the pump-treat-reinject system. The in-situ technologies target removal of contaminants which are relatively immobile, yet represent long term risks to human health and the environment. Wetland restoration is an integral part of the F and H remediation program. Both in-situ treatment of the groundwater discharging the wetlands to adjust the pH, and replacement of water loss due to the groundwater extraction program ar being considered. Toxicity studies indicate that drought and the effects of low pH groundwater discharge have been factors in observed tree mortality in wetlands near the waste sites

  3. Sutured and open clean-contaminated and contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Whether to close or leave open an abdominal incision wound depends on the degree of wound contamination at the end of operation. The aim of this study was to compare the complication rates between delayed primary closure and primarily closed laparotomy wounds for clean-contaminated and ...

  4. Bioremediation of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, C.

    1996-01-01

    By volatilizing aromatic compounds through aeration, landfarming is a recognized approach to the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. With this method, the soil is cultivated and aided with fertilizer amendment to provide a nutrient source for the microbial population involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons. The effectiveness of bioremediation will depend on several factors, including topographic features, soil properties, and biochemistry. Since bioremediation is inhibited by anaerobic conditions, sites that are sloped or have trenches to collect runoff water are preferable. As for soil properties, the percentage of sand should not be too high, but aeration is essential to avoid anaerobic conditions. Addition of straw is generally beneficial, and fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium will help degrading hydrocarbons. Temperature, pH, and salt content are also important factors since they facilitate microbial activity. 3 refs

  5. Sources of groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaf, H.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2007-09-01

    In spite of the importance of water for life, either for drinking, irrigation, industry or other wide uses in many fields, human beings seem to contaminate it and make it unsuitable for human uses. This is due to disposal of wastes in the environment without treatment. In addition to population increase and building expanding higher living costs, industrial and economical in growth that causes an increase in water consumption. All of these factors have made an increase pressure on our water environment quantitatively and qualitatively. In addition, there is an increase of potential risks to the water environmental due to disposal of domestic and industrial wastewater in areas near the water sources. Moreover, the use of unacceptable irrigation systems may increase soil salinity and evaporation rates. The present report discusses the some groundwater sources and problem, hot and mineral waters that become very important in our life and to our health due to its chemical and radioactivity characteristics.(authors)

  6. PRAMU. Contamination sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, Armando R.

    2000-01-01

    Mining and milling activities have been carried out in Argentina during the last 40 years, and nowadays National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) of Argentina is undertaking the Uranium Mining Environmental Restoration Project (PRAMU). The aim of this project is to achieve that in all the places where uranium mining activities were developed, to restore the environment as much as it is possible, according to the legislation in force. The sites which are studied are: Malargue (Mendoza province), Cordoba (Cordoba province), Los Gigantes (Cordoba province), Huemul (Mendoza province), Pichinan (Chubut province), Tonco (Salta province), La Estela (San Luis province), Los Colorados (La Rioja province). In order to develop the restoration project in each site, one of the first task to be performed is to know quantities and the chemical, physicals and radiological characteristics of the contamination sources. In the present paper the activities of PRAMU in this field, are informed. (author)

  7. Management of contaminated forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.; Tikhomirov, F.A.; Grebenkov, A.; Dubourg, M.; Belli, M.; Arkhipov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the main radioecological issues, the consequence of which are the distribution of doses for critical group of populations living in the vicinity of contaminated forest after the Chernobyl accident and the effects on the forestry economy. The main problems that have to be tackled are to avert doses for the population and forest workers, mitigate the economical burden of the lost forestry production and comply with the permissible levels of radionuclides in forest products. Various options are examined with respect to their application, and their cost effectiveness in terms of dose reduction when such attribute appears to be relevant. It is found that the cost effectiveness of the various options is extremely dependant of the case in which it is intended to be applied. Little actions are available for decreasing the doses, but most of them can lead to an economical benefit

  8. Electrochemical impedance spectrometry using 316L steel, hastelloy, maraging, Inconel 600, Elgiloy, carbon steel, TiN and NiCr. Simulation in tritiated water. 2 volumes; Spectrometrie d`impedance electrochimique sur acier 316L, hastelloy, maraging inconel 600, elgiloy, acier au carbone, TiN, NiCr. Simulations en eau tritiee. 2 volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellanger, G.

    1994-03-01

    Polarization and electrochemical impedance spectrometry curves are presented and discussed. These curves make it possible to ascertain the corrosion domains and to compare the slow and fast kinetics (voltammetry) of different stainless steel alloys. These corrosion kinetics, the actual or simulated tritiated water redox potentials, and the corrosion potentials provide a classification of the steels studied here: 316L, Hastelloy, Maraging, Inconel 600, Elgiloy, carbon steel and TiN and NiCr deposits. From the results it can be concluded that Hastelloy and Elgiloy have the best corrosion resistance. (author). 49 refs., 695 figs., tabs.

  9. Management of internal contamination accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipsztein, J.L.; Melo, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper concerns with the techniques for intakes assessment which depend on the mode and level of intake, the type of energy of the radiation emitted, the biokinetic of the contaminant, and the sensitivity and availability of measurement facilities. In vivo and in vitro techniques are used to quantify internal contaminations

  10. Direct probability mapping of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Exhaustive characterization of a contaminated site is a physical and practical impossibility. Descriptions of the nature, extent, and level of contamination, as well as decisions regarding proposed remediation activities, must be made in a state of uncertainty based upon limited physical sampling. Geostatistical simulation provides powerful tools for investigating contaminant levels, and in particular, for identifying and using the spatial interrelationships among a set of isolated sample values. This additional information can be used to assess the likelihood of encountering contamination at unsampled locations and to evaluate the risk associated with decisions to remediate or not to remediate specific regions within a site. Past operation of the DOE Feed Materials Production Center has contaminated a site near Fernald, Ohio, with natural uranium. Soil geochemical data have been collected as part of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project. These data have been used to construct a number of stochastic images of potential contamination for parcels approximately the size of a selective remediation unit. Each such image accurately reflects the actual measured sample values, and reproduces the univariate statistics and spatial character of the extant data. Post-processing of a large number of these equally likely, statistically similar images produces maps directly showing the probability of exceeding specified levels of contamination. Evaluation of the geostatistical simulations can yield maps representing the expected magnitude of the contamination for various regions and other information that may be important in determining a suitable remediation process or in sizing equipment to accomplish the restoration

  11. Contamination Sensitivity in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Share, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Revealed that children were able to indicate that an apparently safe substance such as juice may be contaminated by contact with a foreign body such as a cockroach. Supported the hypothesis that early sensitivity to substances that contain invisible contaminates may be guided by knowledge of a distinction between appearance and reality. (RH)

  12. Field based plastic contamination sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States has a long-held reputation of being a dependable source of high quality, contaminant-free cotton. Recently, increased incidence of plastic contamination from sources such as shopping bags, vegetable mulch, surface irrigation tubing, and module covers has threatened the reputation o...

  13. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming

  14. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Cosmetics with high water content are at a risk of being contaminated by micro-organisms that can alter the composition of the product or pose a health risk to the consumer. Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently found in contaminated...

  15. Radiation surveys in contaminated communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, G.B.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation surveys of uranium contamination in Uranium City and Port Hope, Canada, are described. Samples of soil, water, and crops grown in contaminated soil and air in homes were analyzed for radon content. Following decontamination, measurements were made of γ exposure rates both inside and outside of buildings

  16. Rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilov, A.V.; Uspenskaya, E.Ju.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of radiation accidents and nuclear-weapon tests at the territory of the former USSR a part of the Forest Fund of 23 subjects of the Russian Federation has been contaminated by radionuclides. The contaminated forests, which are included in a structure of more than 130 forest management units (leskhozes) and more then 330 local forest management units, as a rule, are located in highly inhabited regions with traditionally intensive forestry management and high level of forest resources use. To provide radiologically safe forest management in the contaminated areas, the Federal Forest Service has developed and validated a special system of countermeasures. Use of this system makes it possible to diminish significantly the dose to personnel, to exclude the use of forest products with contamination exceeding radiological standards and to provide protection of the forest as a biogeochemical barrier to radionuclide migration from contaminated areas to human habitat. (author)

  17. 77 FR 27057 - Request for Nominations of Drinking Water Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... Drinking Water Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Agency (EPA) is requesting nominations of chemical and microbial contaminants for possible inclusion in the fourth drinking water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL 4). EPA is also requesting supporting...

  18. Groundwater contamination and community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, K.

    2004-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company LLC ('Westinghouse') acquired a nuclear fuel processing plant at Hematite, Missouri ('Hematite', the 'Facility', or the 'Plant') in April 2000. The plant has subsequently been closed, and its operations have been relocated to a newer, larger facility. Westinghouse has announced plans to complete its clean-up, decommissioning, and License retirement in a safe, socially responsible, and environmentally sound manner as required by internal policies, as well as those of its parent company, British Nuclear Fuels plc. (BNFL). Preliminary investigations have revealed the presence of environmental contamination in various areas of the facility and grounds, including both radioactive contamination and various other substances related to the nuclear fuel processing operations. Most noteworthy among the areas of contamination are seven private drinking water wells up to 3 000 feet to the southeast, and one private drinking water well approximately 1 000 feet to the northeast, that have been found to contain tetra-chloro-ethylene ('PCE'), trichloroethylene ('TCE'), and other contaminants associated with their environmental degradation. Potential sources of this contamination include approximately 40 large unlined on-site burial pits and 2 evaporation ponds in which previous operators of the facility disposed of uranium contaminated wastes and a variety of other hazardous substances. This paper discusses Westinghouse's response to the discovery of drinking water contamination, and the significance of its community relations program within that response. (author)

  19. Contaminants in groundwater: Chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, J.A.; Gillham, R.W.; Barker, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    The movement of most toxic contaminants in groundwater is affected by chemical reactions that cause transfer of contaminant mass between the liquid and solid phases or conversion of dissolved species from one form to another. The chemical attenuation of inorganic contaminants occurs mainly by adsorption, precipitation, oxidation, or reduction. organic contaminants can be adsorbed or degraded by microbiological processes, but at present little is known about their behavior, particularly under the anaerobic conditions that are common in contaminated groundwater. Field and laboratory studies have established that various toxic heavy metals, transition metals, metalloids, radionuclides, and other inorganic species can be mobile or immobile in the groundwater zone, depending on the hydrogeochemical conditions represented by the pH, the redox condition, the ionic strength, the mineralogy, the solid-phase surface area, and the complexing capacity. Although the importance of chemical reactions in the attenuation of contaminants is widely recognized, the capabilities for attenuation predictions are not well developed. This is the case because the chemical processes within dynamic groundwater systems are complex; consequently, many of the geochemical parameters in predictive models are problematic. The prediction problem is complicated by the fact that the chemical processes are continually influenced by the redistribution of dissolved species caused by molecular diffusion and mechanical dispersion. The complexities of these mixing processes contribute to the difficulties in developing reliable methods for predicting the chemical behavior of contaminants in the groundwater zone

  20. Drinking Water Contaminants -- Standards and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agency Search Search Contact Us Share Drinking Water Contaminants – Standards and Regulations EPA identifies contaminants to regulate ... other partners to implement these SDWA provisions. Regulated Contaminants National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs) - table of ...

  1. Dosimeter for measuring gaseous contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kring, E.V.; Lautenberger, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    A personal dosimeter for measuring the time-average concentration of a gaseous contaminant in the atmosphere in a manner substantially independent of atmospheric motion relative to the dosimeter is provided. The dosimeter comprises a detector substance capable of chemically or physically combining with the gaseous contaminant disposed tightly between two substantially flat members, at least one of which has a plurality of throughand-through channels. The members have corresponding, meshing shapes such that the channels provide the only communication between the atmosphere and the detector substance, allowing the gaseous contaminant to diffuse through the channels

  2. Hand and foot contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakati, R.K.; Kaptral, R.S.; Ananthkrishnan, T.S.; Pansare, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to make quick measurements of beta and gamma contaminations on hands and feet of personnel working in radioactive environments, hand and foot contamination monitors are widely used. This paper describes such a monitor system designed with Intel 8085 based microcomputer. The monitoring and warning system is designed to perform measurement of activity spread over surface of hands and soles of shoes or feet. Even though the system has many features to aid testing and maintainance operation, it is easy to use for unskilled persons. In order to check the contamination, the person stands on platform and inserts both his hands into detector assemblies thereby actuating the sensing switches. After a preset interval, annunciation of clean or contaminated status is declared by the system. (author)

  3. Emerging Contaminants in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter explores the use of mass spectrometry and its application to emerging contaminants (ECs) in the environment; such classes of compounds as organometallics, pharmaceuticals/drugs, nanomaterials, and dispersants (surfactants). Table 1 shows the variety of ECs that are...

  4. Contaminated sediment transport during floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 48 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of parts of the White Oak Creek catchment. The contaminants presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in the White Oak Creek drainage system. The erosion of these sediments during floods can result in the transport of contaminants both within the catchment and off-site into the Clinch River. A data collection program and a modeling investigation are being used to evaluate the probability of contaminated sediment transport during floods and to develop strategies for controlling off-site transport under present and future conditions

  5. Environmental analysis of contaminated sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sunahara, G.I; Renoux, A; Thellen, C; Gaudet, C.L; Pilon, A

    2002-01-01

    .... Topics addressed include: the integration of terrestrial ecotoxicity testing with respect to a chemical's behaviour in soil, developments in contaminated soil risk assessment, and the use of advanced scientific data...

  6. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  7. Particle contamination in vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martignac, J.; Bonin, B.; Henriot, C.; Poupeau, J.P.; Koltchakian, I.; Kocic, D.; Herbeaux, Ch.; Marx, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Many vacuum devices, like RF cavities, are sensitive to particle contamination. This fact has motivated a considerable effort of cleanliness from the SRF community. The first results of a general study trying to identify the most contaminating steps during assembly and vacuum operation of the cavity is reported. The steps investigated here are gasket assembly, evacuation and venting of the vacuum system, and operation of sputter ion pumps. (author)

  8. Human Forward Contamination Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. Unlike the Mars rovers that we cleaned once and sent on their way, humans will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations?

  9. Isotope hydrology: Investigating groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinchuk, V.; Froehlich, K.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater quality has worsened in many regions, with sometimes serious consequences. Decontaminating groundwater is an extremely slow process, and sometimes impossible, because of the generally long residence time of the water in most geological formations. Major causes of contamination are poor groundwater management (often dictated by immediate social needs) and the lack of regulations and control over the use and disposal of contaminants. These types of problems have prompted an increasing demand for investigations directed at gaining insight into the behaviour of contaminants in the hydrological cycle. Major objectives are to prevent pollution and degradation of groundwater resources, or, if contamination already has occurred, to identify its origin so that remedies can be proposed. Environmental isotopes have proved to be a powerful tool for groundwater pollution studies. The IAEA has had a co-ordinated research programme since 1987 on the application of nuclear techniques to determine the transport of contaminants in groundwater. An isotope hydrology project is being launched within the framework of the IAEA's regional co-operative programme in Latin America (known as ARCAL). Main objectives are the application of environmental isotopes to problems of groundwater assessment and contamination in Latin America. In 1989, another co-ordinated research programme is planned under which isotopic and other tracers will be used for the validation of mathematical models in groundwater transport studies

  10. Experiences of animal experiments with tritiated Oradexon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veszelovszky, I.; Falkay, Gy.; Nagy, Z.; Morvay, J.; Bodis, L.

    1979-01-01

    50 μCi 1.2(n) -3 H labelled dexamethason was given to pregnant sheep 24, 36 or 48 hours before the planned artificial abortion. Caesarean section was performed on the 120. day of pregnancy and the radioactivity of the different organs of the premature sheep was determined. The steroid administered to the mother appeared rapidly in the foetus. 24 hours after the injection 3/4 of the total activity was found in the kidneys and in the liver. The radioactivity of the lungs increased as a function of time, and 12 hours later a parallel increase of the level of lecithin+surfactant was observed, too. It is suggested that the lecithin-synthesis is stimulated by the steroid by means of enzyme-induction. The increasing radioactivity of the amniotic fluid originates from the foetal kidneys. (author)

  11. Precipitation scavenging of tritiated water vapour (HTO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogram, G.L.

    1985-10-01

    Precipitation scavenging (or washout) is an important mechanism for the removal of HTO from the atmosphere. Methods of parameterizing the depletion of a plume of HTO released to the atmosphere are examined. Simple approaches, commonly used for atmospheric transport modelling purposes, such as the use of a constant washout coefficient or washout ratio, or the use of parameters based on equilibrium assumptions, are often not justified. It is shown that these parameters depend strongly on ambient temperature and plume dimensions, as well as rainfall rate. An approximate expression for washout ratio, as a function of these variables, is developed, and it is shown that near equilibrium washout conditions are only expected to hold at long plume travel distances. A possible method of treating scavenging by snow is also suggested

  12. Automated system for handling tritiated mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, D.K.; Merrill, R.D.; Reitz, T.C.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM-developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely, using the robot in a teleoperational mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive operations. Initially, this system will be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous-phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this development program, provides background related to LLNL's robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans

  13. Tritiation of protein hormones. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A non-catalytic tritium exchange system using a microwave discharge technique was bult and calibrated in order to optomize the labelling of small organic molecules such as benzoic acid. Analytical and preparative chromatographic procedures, including ion exchange and molecular sieve chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, were standardized for use in the publication of tritium and labelled bovine ACTH. Results are reported from extensive studies of the control of chemical and biologic stability of labelled and unlabelled ACTH were carried out

  14. Iron-catalysed tritiation of pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pony Yu, Renyuan; Hesk, David; Rivera, Nelo; Pelczer, István; Chirik, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a drug in animal models is a critical component of drug discovery and development. Such studies are performed in vivo and in vitro at various stages of the development process—ranging from preclinical absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) studies to late-stage human clinical trials—to elucidate a drug molecule’s metabolic profile and to assess its toxicity. Radiolabelled compounds, typically those that contain 14C or 3H isotopes, are one of the most powerful and widely deployed diagnostics for these studies. The introduction of radiolabels using synthetic chemistry enables the direct tracing of the drug molecule without substantially altering its structure or function. The ubiquity of C-H bonds in drugs and the relative ease and low cost associated with tritium (3H) make it an ideal radioisotope with which to conduct ADME studies early in the drug development process. Here we describe an iron-catalysed method for the direct 3H labelling of pharmaceuticals by hydrogen isotope exchange, using tritium gas as the source of the radioisotope. The site selectivity of the iron catalyst is orthogonal to currently used iridium catalysts and allows isotopic labelling of complementary positions in drug molecules, providing a new diagnostic tool in drug development.

  15. Tritiation of unsaturated tricyclic antidepressants for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchman, O.; Azran, J.; Shimoni, M.

    1983-01-01

    A rapid and convenient method to obtain specific an high activity tritium labelling of tricyclic antidepressants which have a double bond, is described. The procedure is based on the halogenation of the active benzylic positions of the unlabelled material and the selective catalytic removal of the halogen atom by tritium in the presence of a base which inhibits the attack on the olefin bond

  16. Iron-catalysed tritiation of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Renyuan Pony; Hesk, David; Rivera, Nelo; Pelczer, István; Chirik, Paul J

    2016-01-14

    A thorough understanding of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a drug in animal models is a critical component of drug discovery and development. Such studies are performed in vivo and in vitro at various stages of the development process--ranging from preclinical absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) studies to late-stage human clinical trials--to elucidate a drug molecule's metabolic profile and to assess its toxicity. Radiolabelled compounds, typically those that contain (14)C or (3)H isotopes, are one of the most powerful and widely deployed diagnostics for these studies. The introduction of radiolabels using synthetic chemistry enables the direct tracing of the drug molecule without substantially altering its structure or function. The ubiquity of C-H bonds in drugs and the relative ease and low cost associated with tritium ((3)H) make it an ideal radioisotope with which to conduct ADME studies early in the drug development process. Here we describe an iron-catalysed method for the direct (3)H labelling of pharmaceuticals by hydrogen isotope exchange, using tritium gas as the source of the radioisotope. The site selectivity of the iron catalyst is orthogonal to currently used iridium catalysts and allows isotopic labelling of complementary positions in drug molecules, providing a new diagnostic tool in drug development.

  17. In vitro and in vivo effects of low dose HTO contamination modulated by dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petcu, I.; Savu, D.; Moisoi, N.; Koeteles, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The interest about possible 3 H induced health detriment corresponding to low dose domain is justified by the use of nuclear power as well as by the ongoing research on fusion reactor technology. During the past decade a large number of radiobiological studies have become available for 3 H, most of them focusing on the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium beta rays. A point of interest concerning the tritium induced low-level effects came from the research on the adaptive response of mitogen stimulated human lymphocytes to low-LET (linear energy transfer) radiation exposure. The present paper reports the results of two different types of experiments: one is referring to in vitro induced effects on human lymphocytes, while the other one is referring to in vivo effects observed on internally contaminated animals. The experiment performed in vitro intended to examine whether an adaptive response could be elicited on lymphocytes by low-level contamination of whole blood with tritiated water and if the modification of the dose rate has any influence on it. The response induced by the pre-treatment of the human lymphocytes with HTO of different specific 3 H activities and for different time intervals was subsequently provoked by acute gamma irradiation of the cells. The frequency of micronucleus induction, used as biological end-point, was evaluated after culturing the whole blood. Lymphocytes pre-exposed to HTO (0.2 - 6.6 MBq/ml) and subsequently irradiated with 1 Gy gamma-rays showed an induction frequency of micronuclei significantly lower (40%) than the sum of the yields induced by HTO and gamma-rays separately. The degree of the radioresistance induced by HTO pre-treatments became higher with decreasing dose-rate for a rather similar total adapting dose. In vivo, the aim of the study was to investigate if different dose rates are inducing modulation of the lipid peroxidation level and of the thymidine uptake in different tissues of animals contaminated

  18. Remediation Technologies Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    All research and development has a story behind it, says Jacqueline Quinn, environmental engineer at Kennedy Space Center. For Quinn, one such story begins with the Saturn 1B launch stand at Kennedy and ends with a unique solution to a challenging environmental problem. Used in a number of Apollo missions and during the Skylab program, the Saturn 1B launch stand was dismantled following the transition to the Space Shuttle Program and stored in an open field at Kennedy. Decades later, the Center s Environmental Program Office discovered evidence of chemicals called polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the field s soil. The findings were puzzling since PCBs a toxin classified as a probable carcinogen by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been banned in the United States since 1979. Before the ban, PCBs were commonly used in transformer oils that leached into the ground when the oils were changed out and dumped near transformer sites, but there were no electrical transformers near the dismantled stand. It soon became apparent that the source of the PCBs was the launch stand itself. Prior to the ban, PCBs were used extensively in paints to add elasticity and other desirable characteristics. The PCB-laden paint on the Saturn 1B launch stand was flaking off into the field s soil. Nobody knew there were PCBs in the paint, says Quinn, noting that the ingredient was not monitored carefully when it was in use in 1960s. In fact, she says, the U.S. EPA was not even established until 1970, a year after Neil Armstrong first set foot on the Moon. Nobody knew any better at the time, Quinn says, but today, we have the responsibility to return any natural environmental media to as close to pristine a condition as possible. Quinn, fellow engineer Kathleen Loftin, and other Kennedy colleagues already had experience developing unprecedented solutions for environmental contamination; the team invented the emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) technology to safely treat

  19. 9 CFR 381.91 - Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contamination. 381.91 Section 381.91... § 381.91 Contamination. (a) Carcasses of poultry contaminated by volatile oils, paints, poisons, gases... station away from the main processing line, by any method that will remove the contamination, such as...

  20. URINE CULTURE CONTAMINATION: A ONE-YEAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Results: Overall contamination rate was 13.1%. Females had a contamination rate of 16.9%, which was significantly higher than the contamination rate of 6.8% in males. The Gynaecology and Antenatal clinics had the highest contamination rates amongst departments with 22.5% and 21.3% respectively. Lowest ...

  1. Radioactive contamination in imported foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Kimiko; Maki, Toshio; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawai, Yuka; Kobayashi, Maki; Shioda, Hiroko; Nishima, Taichiro

    1990-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, explosion occurred in Chernobyl nuclear power station in USSR, and radioactivity contamination was brought about in almost all countries in the world. In European countries, crops were contaminated directly with radioactive fallout to high concentration. Also in Japan, after one week the radioactivity higher than usual was detected in environment, and also in vegetables, milk, tea leaves and others. Thereafter, in order to cope with the import of contaminated foods, inspection and watch system was strengthened by deciding the interim limit of radioactive concentration. However the cases of exceeding the interim limit were often reported. In order to remove the harmful foods due to radioactive contamination and to meet the fear of consumers, the authors measured the radioactive concentration in foods distributed in Tokyo and investigated the actual state of contamination. The samples were 920 imported foods. The experimental method, the preparation of samples, the method of analysis and the results are reported. The samples in which the radioactive concentration exceeding 50 Bq/kg was detected were 25 cases. The food having the high frequency of detection was flavors. (K.I.)

  2. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water–rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agricultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3–, N2, Cl, SO42–, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well as a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3–, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  3. Bacterial contamination of blood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavecino, Elizabeth; Jacobs, Michael; Yomtovian, Roslyn

    2004-11-01

    The occurrence of a septic reaction resulting from bacterial contamination of blood products, particularly with room-temperature stored platelets, is the most common transfusion-associated infectious risk in the United States. Bacterial contamination of blood products was first identified more than 60 years ago; yet, strategies to resolve this problem have proved daunting despite ongoing awareness and increasing concern especially in the last few years. With the recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of culture methods for quality control testing of platelet units and the promulgation of accreditation standards by the College of American Pathologists and American Association of Blood Banks to detect bacterially contaminated platelet units and to prevent transfusion of these units, blood banks and transfusion services have finally started to address this problem, in a more standardized manner. Furthermore, as new methods of interdicting, inactivating and detecting bacterially contaminated blood products emerge, it is hoped that the problem of bacterial contamination of blood products will be overcome.

  4. Method of removing radioactive contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Katsumasa.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct the decontaminating operation for radioactive contamination by distinctly indicating the contaminated range visually and while judging the residual range of the radioactive contamination visually. Method: Pigments are coated over a range where radioactive contaminations are detected and, after pigmenting the contaminated range, decontaminations are repeated by a wet decontaminating process till the pigments are reduced to a predetermined amount thereby eliminating the radioactive materials. The pigments within the grain size ranging from 1 to 10 μm is adequate, since this is substantially the same as the grain size of the radioactive cruds from nuclear power plant and exhibits the similar physical behaviors. Further, when an organic pigment is used in admixture with water, the pigments are not secured to the coating surface but can removed by waste cloth wiping easily. Thus, the radioactivity can be eliminated to a detectable limit by merely taking notice of the residual amount of the pigments thereby making it possible to improve the working efficiency, decrease the radiation dose and save the inspection frequency. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Radiocesium contamination and the reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, O.; Raunistola, T.; Jones, B.E.V.

    1991-01-01

    The high transfer factors calculated for radiocesium in this study are partly due to the feeding habits of the reindeer with a substantial intake of lichens, especially in the wintertime. Seasonal changes in grazing plant selection caused a considerable cyclic, seasonal variation in radiocesium content of soft tissues. The effective half-life of radiocesium in reindeer during winter feeding conditions was determined to about 30 days in an experiment where a herd of reindeer was moved from a high (> 20 kBq/m 2 Cs-137) to a low (> 3 kBq/m 2 Cs-137) contamination area. During natural grazing conditions the fractional transfer of Cs-137 was determined to about 0.65 d/kg during wintertime in the low-contamination area and about 0.30 d/kg in summertime after grazing on highly contaminated pastures. The effective half-life of Cs-137 in reindeer lichens was seven to ten years both before and after the Chernobyl accident. In areas with initially high contamination the half-life was shorter, 6.2±0.9 years, than in areas with lower contamination, 15.0 ± 5.1 years. In heather, bilberry and crowberry negative effective half-lives, increasing concentrations, were observed. Precipitation during the growth period could change the Cs-137 activity of some plant species. (au) (32 refs.)

  6. Modeling subsurface contamination at Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.W.; Flinn, J.C.; Ruwe, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Fernald site is located about 20 miles northwest of Cincinnati. Fernald produced refined uranium metal products from ores between 1953 and 1989. The pure uranium was sent to other DOE sites in South Carolina, Tennessee, Colorado,and Washington in support of the nation's strategic defense programs. Over the years of large-scale uranium production, contamination of the site's soil and groundwater occurred.The contamination is of particular concern because the Fernald site is located over the Great Miami Aquifer, a designated sole-source drinking water aquifer. Contamination of the aquifer with uranium was found beneath the site, and migration of the contamination had occurred well beyond the site's southern boundary. As a result, Fernald was placed on the National Priorities (CERCLA/Superfund) List in 1989. Uranium production at the site ended in 1989,and Fernald's mission has been changed to one of environmental restoration. This paper presents information about computerized modeling of subsurface contamination used for the environmental restoration project at Fernald

  7. Contaminant exposure in terrestrial vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Philip N.; Cobb, George P.; Godard-Codding, Celine; Hoff, Dale; McMurry, Scott T.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reynolds, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    Here we review mechanisms and factors influencing contaminant exposure among terrestrial vertebrate wildlife. There exists a complex mixture of biotic and abiotic factors that dictate potential for contaminant exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial vertebrates. Chemical fate and transport in the environment determine contaminant bioaccessibility. Species-specific natural history characteristics and behavioral traits then play significant roles in the likelihood that exposure pathways, from source to receptor, are complete. Detailed knowledge of natural history traits of receptors considered in conjunction with the knowledge of contaminant behavior and distribution on a site are critical when assessing and quantifying exposure. We review limitations in our understanding of elements of exposure and the unique aspects of exposure associated with terrestrial and semi-terrestrial taxa. We provide insight on taxa-specific traits that contribute, or limit exposure to, transport phenomenon that influence exposure throughout terrestrial systems, novel contaminants, bioavailability, exposure data analysis, and uncertainty associated with exposure in wildlife risk assessments. Lastly, we identify areas related to exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial organisms that warrant additional research. - Both biotic and abiotic factors determine chemical exposure for terrestrial vertebrates

  8. Psychological aspects of personnel contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.L.

    1985-04-01

    This paper discusses some of the major emotional considerations involved in the treatment of people who have been contaminated with potentially hazardous materials. Although the principal focus is the treatment of people trained to work with these materials, an attempt is also made to extend these methods to people having little or no knowledge of such matters. Accidents always result in emotional trauma. When the accident involves radioactive or other potentially toxic, carcinogenic, or mutagenic materials, there is a possibility of enhanced emotional stress due to the mystique surrounding these substances. Several psychological principles that have emerged from the treatment of radioactively-contaminated workers are: (1) provide pre-accident training for all radiation workers; (2) avoid secrets; (3) as rapidly as possible following a contamination accident, bring the worker into contact with others; (4) recognize the emotions of the family and the family's fears and trauma; and (5) do not desert the worker after decontamination has been completed. 1 ref

  9. The gamma contamination food factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukoc, A.H.; Anicin, I.V.; Adzic, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    We suggest that radioactive food contamination, as determined solely by a quantitative gamma-ray spectroscopic measurement, may, apart from the total activity per unit mass, be for quick reference conveniently characterized by another single figure which we call the ''Gamma Contamination Food Factor'' (GCFF). This factor may be defined as the ratio of the total specific activity of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides in the food sample (except that of 40 K) to the specific activity of 40 K either in the sample itself or in an ''average man''. We discuss briefly the meaning and advantages of these definitions. (author)

  10. Environmental contamination and breathing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona A, Jose D

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric contamination is the main component of the environmental contamination and it can be defined as the presence in the atmosphere of an or several substances in enough quantity to produce alterations of the health, it is presented in aerosol form, with its gassy and specific components, altering the quality of the population's life and the degradation of the ecosystems. The main pollutant, as much for the frequency as for the importance of its effects, is the smoke of cigarettes. The paper mentions other types of polluting agents and their effects in the breathing apparatus

  11. Plutonium contaminated materials research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    The paper is a progress report for 1985 from the Plutonium Contaminated Materials Working Party (PCMWP). The PCMWP co-ordinates research and development on a national basis in the areas of management, treatment and immobilisation of plutonium contaminated materials, for the purpose of waste management. The progress report contains a review of the development work carried out in eight areas, including: reduction of arisings, plutonium measurement, sorting and packaging, washing of shredded combustible PCM, decommissioning and non-combustible PCM treatment, PCM immobilisation, treatment of alpha bearing liquid wastes, and engineering objectives. (UK)

  12. Instruments Sniff Organic Surface Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Matthew, Michael W.

    1995-01-01

    Portable instruments detecting both nonvolatile and volatile organic surface contaminants in real time developed. Instruments easy to use: operate under ordinary ambient atmospheric conditions, without need to use messy liquid solvents or install and remove witness plates, and without need to cut specimens from surfaces to be inspected. Principle of detection involves sweeping pure, activated gas across surface spot inspected, then monitoring light emitted at wavelengths characteristic of excited molecules formed by chemical reactions between activated gas and contaminants. Gas activated by dc discharge, radio-frequency induction, microwave radiation, laser beam, hot filaments, or any other suitable means that excites some of gas molecules.

  13. Human Contamination in Public Genome Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukov, Kirill; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Contamination in genome assembly can lead to wrong or confusing results when using such genome as reference in sequence comparison. Although bacterial contamination is well known, the problem of human-originated contamination received little attention. In this study we surveyed 45,735 available genome assemblies for evidence of human contamination. We used lineage specificity to distinguish between contamination and conservation. We found that 154 genome assemblies contain fragments that with high confidence originate as contamination from human DNA. Majority of contaminating human sequences were present in the reference human genome assembly for over a decade. We recommend that existing contaminated genomes should be revised to remove contaminated sequence, and that new assemblies should be thoroughly checked for presence of human DNA before submitting them to public databases.

  14. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing...

  15. Prohibited Contaminants in Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Neilson M

    With the increasing use of unregulated dietary supplements, athletes are at continued risk from adverse medical events and inadvertent doping. A review of Clinical Key, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases from 2012 to 2017 was performed using search terms, including dietary supplement, contamination, doping in athletes, inadvertent doping, and prohibited substances. The references of pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 3. Poor manufacturing processes and intentional contamination with many banned substances continue to occur in dietary supplements sold in the United States. Certain sectors, such as weight loss and muscle-building supplements, pose a greater threat because they are more likely to be contaminated. Athletes will continue to be at risk for adverse events and failed doping tests due to contaminated dietary supplements until legislation changes how they are regulated. In the interim, there are several steps that can be taken to mitigate this risk, including improved education of medical staff and athletes and use of third party-certified products.

  16. Rehabilitation of the contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageets, V.Yu.; Kenigsberg, Ya.Eh.; Skurat, V.V.; Tikhonova, L.E.; Shevchuk, V.E.; Ipat'ev, V.A.; Klimova, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the activity is development of the scientific reasonable projects of socio-economic and social-psychological rehabilitation of specific areas and populated localities on the contaminated territories of the both Gomel and Mogilev Regions. The results of economic researches allow to decrease expenses for realization of protective measures, to increase feedback of counter-measures, to speed up process of development of the plans and their realization, to decrease the labour input of planning of the rehabilitation measures, to increase quantity of considered alternative variants of strategy of the contaminated regions rehabilitation. On the basis of the sociological and psychological researches the recommendations for the most effective formation of adaptation strategies of behaviour of the people on the contaminated territories, formation of post accidental culture and active life image at teenagers, ways of fastening of youth in these areas, more address specialized social support and protection of the irradiated persons, perfection of social demographic policy on rehabilitated territories are offered. In the report are described following directions: scientific ground and development of the complex programmes of rehabilitation of administrative regions on the contaminated territories; development of administration system of the social economical development of the territories having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; social support and socio-psychological rehabilitation of the population of Belarus

  17. Early contamination of European flounder (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, M.; Martinho, F.; Vernisseau, A.; Marchand, P.; Le Bizec, B.; van der Veer, H.W.; Cabral, H.N.; Ramos, F.; Pardal, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Contamination levels and profiles of 7 polychlorinated-p-dioxins, 10 polychlorinated furans (PCDD/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were investigated in juvenile European flounder (Platichthys flesus) captured in different nursery areas in the northeastern Atlantic coast

  18. Atmospheric contamination during ultrasonic scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, MF; Menso, L; Steinfort, J; van Winkelhoff, AJ; van der Weijden, GA

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the microbial atmospheric contamination during initial periodontal treatment using a piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler in combination with either high-volume evacuation (HVE) or conventional dental suction (CDS). Methods: The study included 17

  19. Environmental Contamination of Normal Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Trevor A.

    1990-01-01

    Environmentally contaminated speech errors (irrelevant words or phrases derived from the speaker's environment and erroneously incorporated into speech) are hypothesized to occur at a high level of speech processing, but with a relatively late insertion point. The data indicate that speech production processes are not independent of other…

  20. Melting of contaminated metallic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-S.; Cheng, S.-Y.; Kung, H.-T.; Lin, L.-F.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 100 tons of contaminated metallic wastes were produced each year due to maintenance for each TPC's nuclear power reactor and it was roughly estimated that there will be 10,000 tons of metallic scraps resulted from decommissioning of each reactor in the future. One means of handling the contaminated metal is to melt it. Melting process owns not only volume reduction which saves the high cost of final disposal but also resource conservation and recycling benefits. Melting contaminated copper and aluminum scraps in the laboratory scale have been conducted at INER. A total of 546 kg copper condenser tubes with a specific activity of about 2.7 Bq/g was melted in a vacuum induction melting facility. Three types of products, ingot, slag and dust were derived from the melting process, with average activities of 0.10 Bq/g, 2.33 Bq/g and 84.3 Bq/g respectively. After the laboratory melting stage, a pilot plant with a 500 kg induction furnace is being designed to melt the increasingly produced contaminated metallic scraps from nuclear facilities and to investigate the behavior of different radionuclides during melting. (author)

  1. Contaminant resorption during soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the applicability of soil washing to a specific site requires some basic research in how contaminants are bound. Much can be learned from sequential extraction methodology based on micronutrient bioavailability studies wherein the soil matrix is chemically dissected to selectively remove particular fixation mechanisms independently. This procedure uses a series of progressively more aggressive solvents to dissolve the principle phases that make up a soil, however, the published studies do not appear to consider the potential for a contaminant released from one type of site to resorb on another site during an extraction. This physical model assumes no ion exchange or adsorption at sites either previously occupied by other ions, or exposed by the dissolution. Therefore, to make engineering use of the sequential extraction data, the release of contamination must be evaluated relative to the effects of resorption. Time release studies were conducted to determine the optimum duration for extraction to maximize complete destruction of the target matrix fraction while minimizing contaminant resorption. Tests with and without a potassium brine present to inhibit cesium resorption indicated extraction efficiency could be enhanced by as much as a factor of ten using the brine

  2. Airborne radioactive contamination following aerosol ventilation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, A.; Hart, G.C.; Ibbett, D.A.; Whitehead, R.J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Lung aerosol ventilation studies may be accompanied by airborne contamination, with subsequent surface contamination. Airborne contamination has been measured prior to, during and following 59 consecutive 99 Tc m -diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) aerosol studies using a personal air sampler. Airborne contamination ranging between 0 and 20 330 kBq m -3 has been measured. Airborne contamination increases with degree of patient breathing difficulty. The effective dose equivalent (EDE) to staff from ingested activity has been calculated to be 0.3 μSv per study. This figure is supported by data from gamma camera images of a contaminated staff member. However, surface contamination measurements reveal that 60% of studies exceed maximum permissible contamination limits for the hands; 16% of studies exceed limits for controlled area surfaces. (author)

  3. Contamination-Free Electrical-Discharge Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mark G.

    1987-01-01

    Contamination of parts by electrical-discharge machining (EDM) almost completely eliminated by reversing flow of coolant. Flow reversed from usual direction so coolant carries contaminants out through passage in electrode. Coolant for reverse flow is pressurized dichlorodifluoromethane vapor.

  4. Regenerable Contaminant Removal System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Regenerable Contaminant Removal System (RCRS) is an innovative method to remove sulfur and halide compounds from contaminated gas streams to part-per-billion...

  5. Development of remote operated floor contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.; Gangamohan, M.; Kannan, R.K.; Rajan, S.

    2005-01-01

    Contamination check of floors and walkways in and around Reactor building areas forms an integral part of Radiation Protection Program in Power Stations. Though random swipe check method is adopted for the detection of loose contamination, this method has the disadvantage of leaving the fixed contamination and hotspots undetected. Hence, scanning the area with a sensitive detector, held close to the surface provides positive means for the detection of contamination. Checking large areas and walkways by holding the detector close to the surface involves physical work. Also, areas which are unapproachable due to congestion of equipment, may go uncovered by contamination monitoring in order to eliminate the physical strain involved in such contamination monitoring and to cover unapproachable areas, a small size prototype device that can be operated remotely was fabricated. This device detects contamination instantaneously and accurately. This paper describes design and fabrication of the device used for floor contamination monitoring. (author)

  6. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  7. Air contamination analysis during emergency medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y.; Fukutsu, K.; Yuuki, M.; Akashi, M.

    2009-01-01

    After radiological emergencies, patients contaminated with radioactivity are taken to radiation emergency hospitals for treatment. Numerical simulations using the computer software 'Flow Designer R were made in order to evaluate indoor air contamination caused by the breathing out of contaminated air. The National Inst. of Radiological Sciences facility was used for the numerical evaluation. Results indicate that the dispersion of contaminated air depends on the characteristics of the contaminants, and that the dispersion range was limited and localised. Only medical staff standing in a special position near the patient was exposed to almost un-diluted contaminated air. Highly contaminated air was evacuated with a local exhaust pump system. Room air quality was monitored using a continuous air sampling system, but it was found that the sampling point was not representative for the purpose of radiation protection. From the air-flow analysis, some problems that affect radiological safety were revealed and valuable information and measures for preventing secondary contamination were determined. (authors)

  8. Materials contamination control in the microelectronic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardif, F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with many aspects of the contamination of materials in the microelectronic industry. The contamination's control of chemicals, process gases, silicon and the survey of the ions free water's purity are treated. (TEC). 29 figs., 7 tabs

  9. Contaminations Occurring in Fungal PCR Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Juergen; Hebart, Holger; Bialek, Ralf; Hagmeyer, Lars; Schmidt, Diethard; Serey, Francois-Prâseth; Hartmann, Matthias; Eucker, Jan; Einsele, Hermann

    1999-01-01

    Successful in vitro amplification of fungal DNA in clinical specimens has been reported recently. In a collaboration among five European centers, the frequency and risk of contamination due to airborne spore inoculation or carryover contamination in fungal PCR were analyzed. The identities of all contaminants were specified by cycle sequencing and GenBank analysis. Twelve of 150 PCR assays that together included over 2,800 samples were found to be contaminated (3.3% of the negative controls were contaminated during the DNA extraction, and 4.7% of the PCR mixtures were contaminated during the amplification process). Contaminants were specified as Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Acremonium spp. Further analysis showed that commercially available products like zymolyase powder or 10× PCR buffer may contain fungal DNA. In conclusion, the risk of contamination is not higher in fungal PCR assays than in other diagnostic PCR-based assays if general precautions are taken. PMID:10074553

  10. Meaning and Mental Contamination: Focus on Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Corinna M.; Radomsky, Adam S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recent expansion of interest in contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has fostered the description of mental contamination and a series of experiments designed to understand associated factors. This supports a cognitive approach to the understanding and treatment of contamination-related OCD--especially when the…

  11. Collection methods and contamination of bank milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Tyson, J E; Edwards, W H; Rosenfeld, A M; Beer, A E

    1982-01-01

    Bank milk collected by manual expression was less likely to be contaminated than milk collected by other methods. Contamination with coliforms and gentamicin-resistant Gram-negative rods was related to the pumps used by donors in their homes. Stringent precautions reduced but did not eliminate contamination.

  12. 49 CFR 173.443 - Contamination control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contamination control. 173.443 Section 173.443... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.443 Contamination control. (a) The level of non-fixed (removable) radioactive contamination on the external surfaces of each package offered for...

  13. 49 CFR 176.715 - Contamination control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contamination control. 176.715 Section 176.715... Requirements for Radioactive Materials § 176.715 Contamination control. Each hold, compartment, or deck area... the removable (non-fixed) radioactive surface contamination is not greater than the limits prescribed...

  14. The Induction of Mental and Contact Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle; Shafran, Roz; Burgess, Charlotte; Carpenter, Jodi; Millard, Emma; Thorpe, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Extreme fear of contamination within obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is traditionally conceptualised as a physical phenomenon. More recent research has supported the notion of "mental" contamination (MC) in which people feel contaminated in the absence of physical contact. The current research sought to determine whether…

  15. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present or...

  16. 21 CFR 211.176 - Penicillin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin contamination. 211.176 Section 211.176... Penicillin contamination. If a reasonable possibility exists that a non-penicillin drug product has been exposed to cross-contamination with penicillin, the non-penicillin drug product shall be tested for the...

  17. Groundwater fluoride contamination: A reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Banerjee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dissolution of fluorite (CaF2 and/or fluorapatite (FAP [Ca5(PO43F], pulled by calcite precipitation, is thought to be the dominant mechanism responsible for groundwater fluoride (F− contamination. Here, one dimensional reactive–transport models are developed to test this mechanism using the published dissolution and precipitation rate kinetics for the mineral pair FAP and calcite. Simulation results correctly show positive correlation between the aqueous concentrations of F− and CO32− and negative correlation between F− and Ca2+. Results also show that precipitation of calcite, contrary to the present understanding, slows down the FAP dissolution by 106 orders of magnitude compared to the FAP dissolution by hydrolysis. For appreciable amount of fluoride contamination rock–water interaction time must be long and of order 106 years.

  18. Organization of internal contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badreddine, A.

    1986-07-01

    The nuclear energy takes a big part in the world's energy production. The nuclear techniques are used in most fields of life. Nevertheless the use of radioactive materials may cause prejudice to human beings by radiation contamination. The International Commission on Radiological Protection gives the general rules and regulations to avoid this danger. In the publication No. 30, the ICRP gives a metabolic model for the respiratory system and values of Annual Limit of Intake. The ALI for inhalation supposes a standard AMAD (Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter) of 1 um. We have measured the AMAD in a laboratory under different conditions of functioning in order to show its variation. Then we have analysed the effect of this variation on the internal contamination monitoring. Thus we have calculated the Effective Committed Dose (ECD), the ALI, then the Derived Investigation Level (DIL) for different values of AMAD for Whole-Body Counting (WBC)

  19. Biological cycles of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michon, M.-G.

    1959-01-01

    Artificial radio-elements (synthesized for scientific or industrial purposes)having been released, may be absorbed by plants or animals, and may eventually involve a catenation of organisms as some feed on the others. All organisms living in a polluted river become more radioactive than the water, which was to be expected, in as much as organisms are hypertonic in respect to sweet water. Conversely, soil brings into play physico-chemical phenomena (absorption) such that plants can get only a small portion of contaminating radio-elements, land animal feeding on such plants are relatively less exposed to contamination, and carnivorous animals feeding on herbivorous are still less exposed. Man, notably is fairly well protected, whereas lower organisms, notably unicellular organisms may suffer (mutations..). Reprint of a paper published in 'Revue de Pathologie Generale et de Physiologie Clinique', n. 707, April 1959, p. 505-514 [fr

  20. Review of soil contamination guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-08-01

    A review of existing and proposed radioactive soil contamination standards and guidance was conducted for United Nuclear Corporation (UNC), Office of Surplus Facilities Management. Information was obtained from both government agencies and other sources during a literature survey. The more applicable standards were reviewed, evaluated, and summarized. Information pertaining to soil contamination for both facility operation and facility decommissioning was obtained from a variety of sources. These sources included: the Code of Federal Regulations, regulatory guides, the Federal Register, topical reports written by various government agencies, topical reports written by national laboratories, and publications from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It was difficult to directly compare the standards and guidance obtained from these sources since each was intended for a specific situation and different units or bases were used. However, most of the information reviewed was consistent with the philosophy of maintaining exposures at levels as low as reasonably achievable

  1. RADIATION CONTAMINATION INCIDENT AT ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On 27 June 2000 three specialists were investigating a problem with the extraction electrode of the high-resolution separator (HRS) in Isolde. Whilst using an endoscope in order to have a closer look at the interior, they came into contact with radioactive dust and became contaminated. The level of contamination was low and the radiation dose received by the 3 persons was far below the effective dose limit given in the CERN Radiation Safety Manual and in the regulations of the Host States.According to the usual procedure, the Director General has set up a Fact-Finding Group and an Accident Board in order to advise him on the steps and decisions tobe taken following this incident and in particular to avoid a recurrence.

  2. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  3. Beta contamination monitor energy response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjork, C.W.; Olsher, R.H.

    1998-12-31

    Beta contamination is monitored at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with portable handheld probes and their associated counters, smear counters, air-breathing continuous air monitors (CAM), personnel contamination monitors (PCM), and hand and foot monitors (HFM). The response of these monitors was measured using a set of anodized-aluminum beta sources for the five isotopes: Carbon-14, Technetium-99, Cesium-137, Chlorine-36 and Strontium/Yttrium-90. The surface emission rates of the sources are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with a precision of one relative standard deviation equal to 1.7%. All measurements were made in reproducible geometry, mostly using aluminum source holders. All counts, significantly above background, were collected to a precision of 1% or better. The study of the hand-held probes included measurements of six air gaps from 0.76 to 26.2 mm. The energy response of the detectors is well-parameterized as a function of the average beta energy of the isotopes (C14=50 keV, Tc99=85, Cs137=188, C136=246, and Sr/Y90=934). The authors conclude that Chlorine-36 is a suitable beta emitter for routine calibration. They recommend that a pancake Geiger-Mueller (GM) or gas-proportional counter be used for primarily beta contamination surveys with an air gap not to exceed 6 mm. Energy response varies about 30% from Tc99 to Sr/Y90 for the pancake GM detector. Dual alpha/beta probes have poor to negligible efficiency for low-energy betas. The rugged anodized sources represent partially imbedded contamination found in the field and they are provided with precise, NIST-traceable, emission rates for reliable calibration.

  4. Environmental contamination in Antarctic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, R

    2008-08-01

    Although the remote continent of Antarctica is perceived as the symbol of the last great wilderness, the human presence in the Southern Ocean and the continent began in the early 1900s for hunting, fishing and exploration, and many invasive plant and animal species have been deliberately introduced in several sub-Antarctic islands. Over the last 50 years, the development of research and tourism have locally affected terrestrial and marine coastal ecosystems through fuel combustion (for transportation and energy production), accidental oil spills, waste incineration and sewage. Although natural "barriers" such as oceanic and atmospheric circulation protect Antarctica from lower latitude water and air masses, available data on concentrations of metals, pesticides and other persistent pollutants in air, snow, mosses, lichens and marine organisms show that most persistent contaminants in the Antarctic environment are transported from other continents in the Southern Hemisphere. At present, levels of most contaminants in Antarctic organisms are lower than those in related species from other remote regions, except for the natural accumulation of Cd and Hg in several marine organisms and especially in albatrosses and petrels. The concentrations of organic pollutants in the eggs of an opportunistic top predator such as the south polar skua are close to those that may cause adverse health effects. Population growth and industrial development in several countries of the Southern Hemisphere are changing the global pattern of persistent anthropogenic contaminants and new classes of chemicals have already been detected in the Antarctic environment. Although the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty provides strict guidelines for the protection of the Antarctic environment and establishes obligations for all human activity in the continent and the Southern Ocean, global warming, population growth and industrial development in countries of the Southern

  5. Assessment of emerging groundwater contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan; Manamsa, Katya; Crane, Emily; White, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Emerging contaminants in groundwater are important. These have been studied at a range of scales. An increasing range of compounds is being detected Urban areas show impact of sewage and industrial wastewater. Some ECs are probably no threat to drinking water at such µg/L concentrations, e.g. caffeine Others may prove to be in the future. There is little information on their impact on other groundwater receptors in the environment. We are still far from understanding which of these comp...

  6. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Marianne; Lapworth, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (ECs) are compounds now being found in groundwater from agricultural, urban sources that were previously not detectable, or thought to be significant. ECs include pesticides and degradates, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds, personal care products, fragrances, water treatment by-products, flame retardants and surfactants, as well as ‘life-style’ compounds such as caffeine and nicotine. ECs may have adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Freq...

  7. Rehabilitation of the contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lych, G.M.; Babosov, E.M.; Firsakova, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    In the chapter the system of management of socio economical development of contaminated territories in conditions of transition of the republic to market economy is described. The scientific substantiation of the complex programs of rehabilitation of both Bragin and Vetka areas of the Gomel Region is given. The methods of social support and socio psychological rehabilitation of the population having suffered after the Chernobyl accident are offered

  8. CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATION AND PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Terek, Olga; Laphyna, Olga; Velychko, Oksana; Bunyo, Lyubov; Dovgaiuk-Semeniuk, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the physiological mechanisms of plant adaptation under crude oil contamination of soil. Different plant species used in the study sedge (Carex hirta L.), bean (Faba bona Medic.), alfalfa (Medicago lupulina L.) and clover (Trifolium pratense L.) showed various biochemical and morphological reactions under oil pollution. The effect of crude oil on root elongation, shoot growth and dry matter accumulation of the four species was evaluated. All invest...

  9. Bioremediation of Creosote - contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    BYSS, Marius

    2008-01-01

    Bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was studied employing the methods of soil microbial biology and using new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry analytical approach. The changes of the soil microbial community under the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) pollution impact were analyzed and described, as well as the changes during the bioremediation experiments. Laboratory-scale bioremediation experiments using the soil microbial community (consisted of bacteria...

  10. Contaminant immobilization via microbial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The aim of this study was to search the literature to identify biological techniques that could be applied to the restoration of contaminated groundwaters near uranium milling sites. Through bioremediation it was hypothesized that the hazardous heavy metals could be immobilized in a stable, low-solubility form, thereby halting their progress in the migrating groundwater. Three basic mechanisms were examined: reduction of heavy metals by microbially produced hydrogen sulfide; direct microbial mediated reduction; and biosorption

  11. Toothbrush contamination in family members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Contreras

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the bacterial contamination of toothbrushes in family members. Materials and Methods: One hundred and two healthy subjects were included in this descriptive study. Every individual was examined clinically and microbiologically using the CPITN index and collecting subgingival plaque samples. Each participant received a toothbrush for home use and after one month they returned it to the investigators. All toothbrushes were cultured to determine the presence of periodontopathic bacteria and enteric rods. Wilkoxon signed rank test and t student test (P d"0.05 were used to compare differences in the subgingival microbiota and toothbrush contamination and CPITN index among family members. Results: A high proportion of toothbrushes resulted highly contaminated with enteric rods (P d"0.001 compared to the subgingival environment where periodontopathic bacteria were more prevalent. The most frequent microorganisms found in toothbrushes used by parents and children for one month were Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae species (>50% and Fusobacterium spp (30%. Conclusions: High levels of enteric rods were commonly detected in toothbrushes used for 1 month among members of the families. These opportunistic organisms may have an important role in oral infections including gingivitis and periodontitis. Monthly replacement or disinfection of the toothbrush can reduce the risk of bacterial transmission/translocation and thus diminish the incidence of biofilm associated oral diseases.

  12. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants. 141.61 Section 141.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.61 Maximum contaminant...

  13. Underwater Coatings for Contamination Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann-Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included (1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; (2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; (3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and (4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55 F to 80 F dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature. The following criteria were used during this evaluation. The underwater coating must: (1) Be easy to apply; (2) Adhere well to the four surfaces of interest; (3) Not change or have a negative impact on water chemistry or clarity; (4) Not be hazardous in final applied form; and (5) Be proven in other underwater applications. In addition, it is desirable for the coating to have a high pigment or high cross-link density to prevent radiation from penetrating. This paper will detail the testing completed and the test results. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates

  14. Auburn Steel Company radioactive contamination incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, F.J.; Cabasino, L.; Kelly, R.; Awai, A.; Kasyk, G.

    1986-04-01

    On February 21, 1983, workers at the Auburn Steel Company, Auburn, New York discovered that about 120 tons of steel poured that day had become contaminated with 60 Co. In addition to the steel, the air cleaning system and portions of the mill used in casting the steel were contaminated. Approximately 25 curies of 60 Co were involved. Decontamination and disposal of the contamination cost in excess of $2,200,000. This report details the discovery of the contamination, decontamination of the plant and disposal of the contamination

  15. Dispersion of Contaminants in Indoor Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    In rooms ventilated by mixing ventilation, in order to remove contaminants from the occupied zone, the goal of the air distribution system is to achieve a low and even concentration distribution in the room. The experiments showed that the contaminant distribution in a room always will depend...... on the location of the contamination source and in practice also on the supplied air flow rate and the contaminant density. The results showed that it is important for the removal of contaminants in a room that the ventilation system is working in the same direction as the existing buoyancy forces....

  16. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Brady, Patrick V.

    1997-01-01

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination, and further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed.

  17. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  18. Oral chlorhexidine and microbial contamination during endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donatsky, Anders Meller; Holzknecht, Barbara Juliane; Arpi, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the biggest concerns associated with transgastric surgery is contamination and risk of intra-abdominal infection with microbes introduced from the access route. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral decontamination with chlorhexidine on microbial contamin......BACKGROUND: One of the biggest concerns associated with transgastric surgery is contamination and risk of intra-abdominal infection with microbes introduced from the access route. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral decontamination with chlorhexidine on microbial...... contamination of the endoscope. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, clinical trial the effect of chlorhexidine mouth rinse was evaluated. As a surrogate for the risk of intra-abdominal contamination during transgastric surgery, microbial contamination of the endoscope during upper endoscopy...... microbial contamination of the endoscope, but micro-organisms with abscess forming capabilities were still present. PPI treatment significantly increased CFU and should be discontinued before transgastric surgery....

  19. A nursing conceptual model for contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Pauline M; Polk, Laura V

    2012-02-01

    To propose a nursing model of contamination that describes the key features of contamination at a level of abstraction needed for clinical decision making. Relevant literature on contamination, biopreparedness, and classic epidemiologic literature were reviewed and analyzed. A model of contamination was created along with a description of benefits of use in practice, education, and research. The nursing profession is called to respond to contamination incidents on a local, national, and global level. Achieving optimum health outcomes while managing contamination incidents is enhanced by nurses' use of a model that incorporates six elements to identify and name instances of contamination and select suitable outcomes and interventions. © 2011, The Authors. International Journal of Nursing Knowledge © 2011, NANDA International.

  20. Transformations of carbon hydrocarbon-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, V. L.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon 1 4 labelled organic contaminants were used to describe the transformation of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons into new biomass, carbon dioxide, or partially transformed metabolites by soil microorganisms in two aged contaminated soil samples. Both soils have mineralized 50 per cent of the applied C 1 4 to 14 C O 2 within the first three months of a 12-month incubation period. The addition of dichloromethane to these soils reduced the degree to which the contaminants were transformed. There was a 50 per cent decrease in oil-contaminated soil and a 98 per cent decrease in soil contaminated by creosote. The addition of non-type model organic contaminants appeared to limit the ability of indigenous micro-organism to mineralize the soil. It appears that contaminant-derived carbon is no obstacle to bioremediation; rather, the compounds added simply serve as additional substrate for the indigenous microbial populations

  1. Transformations of carbon hydrocarbon-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, V. L.

    1999-07-01

    Carbon{sup 1}4 labelled organic contaminants were used to describe the transformation of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons into new biomass, carbon dioxide, or partially transformed metabolites by soil microorganisms in two aged contaminated soil samples. Both soils have mineralized 50 per cent of the applied C{sup 1}4 to 14{sup C}O{sub 2} within the first three months of a 12-month incubation period. The addition of dichloromethane to these soils reduced the degree to which the contaminants were transformed. There was a 50 per cent decrease in oil-contaminated soil and a 98 per cent decrease in soil contaminated by creosote. The addition of non-type model organic contaminants appeared to limit the ability of indigenous micro-organism to mineralize the soil. It appears that contaminant-derived carbon is no obstacle to bioremediation; rather, the compounds added simply serve as additional substrate for the indigenous microbial populations.

  2. Desiccant contamination research: Report on the desiccant contamination test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Bingham, C.E.

    1991-07-01

    The activity in the cooling systems research involves research on high performance dehumidifiers and chillers that can operate efficiently with the variable thermal outputs and delivery temperatures associated with solar collectors. It also includes work on advanced passive cooling techniques. This report describes the work conducted to improve the durability of solid desiccant dehumidifiers by investigating the causes of degradation of desiccant materials from airborne contaminants and thermal cycling. The performance of a dehumidifier strongly depends on the physical properties and durability of the desiccant material. To make durable and reliable dehumidifiers, an understanding is needed of how and to what degree the performance of a dehumidifier is affected by desiccant degradation. This report, an account of work under Cooling Systems Research, documents the efforts to design and fabricate a test facility to investigate desiccant contamination based on industry and academia recommendations. It also discusses the experimental techniques needed for obtaining high-quality data and presents plans for next year. Researchers of the Mechanical and Industrial Technology Division performed this work at the Solar Energy Research Institute in FY 1988 for DOE's Office of Solar Heat Technologies. 7 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Soil sampling for environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    The Consultants Meeting on Sampling Strategies, Sampling and Storage of Soil for Environmental Monitoring of Contaminants was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency to evaluate methods for soil sampling in radionuclide monitoring and heavy metal surveys for identification of punctual contamination (hot particles) in large area surveys and screening experiments. A group of experts was invited by the IAEA to discuss and recommend methods for representative soil sampling for different kinds of environmental issues. The ultimate sinks for all kinds of contaminants dispersed within the natural environment through human activities are sediment and soil. Soil is a particularly difficult matrix for environmental pollution studies as it is generally composed of a multitude of geological and biological materials resulting from weathering and degradation, including particles of different sizes with varying surface and chemical properties. There are so many different soil types categorized according to their content of biological matter, from sandy soils to loam and peat soils, which make analytical characterization even more complicated. Soil sampling for environmental monitoring of pollutants, therefore, is still a matter of debate in the community of soil, environmental and analytical sciences. The scope of the consultants meeting included evaluating existing techniques with regard to their practicability, reliability and applicability to different purposes, developing strategies of representative soil sampling for cases not yet considered by current techniques and recommending validated techniques applicable to laboratories in developing Member States. This TECDOC includes a critical survey of existing approaches and their feasibility to be applied in developing countries. The report is valuable for radioanalytical laboratories in Member States. It would assist them in quality control and accreditation process

  4. Hanford contaminated sediment stabilization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, L.E.; Key, K.T.; Higley, B.A.

    1977-03-01

    The major problems with radionuclide waste sites in the 200 Area plateau on the Hanford Reservation is the high degree of toxicity or Hazard Index (HI). Transport Factors (TF) are fortunately low but can increase with time and certainly with episodic events such as explosions or earthquakes. Two major tests involving surface affixation were sponsored by the Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company, one by Dowell using M-166 and the other by Battelle-Northwest comparing many different surface affixants. The latex emulsion, M-166, appeared to be well suited for the Hanford desert type area. Of the many surface affixants tested by Battelle-Northwest, Coherex and Aerospray appeared to be the best. As an emergency precaution, 200 barrels of M-166 were purchased for surface affixation in case of a range fire. The subsurface affixants laboratory and field tests include organic polymers, asphalt emulsions, concrete, AM-9, and sodium silicate-calcium chloride-foramide grouts. The applications were second containment (or leak prevention) of subsurface waste tanks and piping, grouting water wells to prevent contamination leaking to the water table, and encompassing cribs, trenches, burial grounds, and other subsurface sediment contaminations. Organic polymers added strength to the soil, but penetration of the viscous liquid was not as deep as desired; it may be good for situations requiring only a few inches penetration, such as well grouting. The asphalt emulsion looked promising as an easily injected well grouting material and it may also be good for encompassing subsurface contaminated sediment plumes. The sodium silicate-calcium chloride-foramide affixant appeared best for second containment of waste tanks but may require the help of asphalt emulsion to ensure good coverage.

  5. Radioactive food and environment contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Food and Environment Control Centre of Abu Dhabi Municipality with the help of IAEA has established facilities for regular monitoring of food and environmental samples for radioactive contamination. The Centre is now capable of measuring gamma, beta as well as alpha activity in different types of samples. The main activities in the area of food monitoring are as follows: General monitoring of food gamma radionuclides in foodstuffs by high resolution gamma spectrometry; Determination of specific gamma radionuclides in foodstuffs by high resolution gamma spectrometry; Radiochemical determination of Sr-90 using liquid scintillation analyzer or by gas flow proportional counter; Measurement of gross alpha activity in drinking water

  6. Contaminant analysis automation, an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollen, R.; Ramos, O. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    To meet the environmental restoration and waste minimization goals of government and industry, several government laboratories, universities, and private companies have formed the Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) team. The goal of this consortium is to design and fabricate robotics systems that standardize and automate the hardware and software of the most common environmental chemical methods. In essence, the CAA team takes conventional, regulatory- approved (EPA Methods) chemical analysis processes and automates them. The automation consists of standard laboratory modules (SLMs) that perform the work in a much more efficient, accurate, and cost- effective manner

  7. Atmospheric contaminant sensor, book 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, B. W.; Stuart, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Design and fabrication of a mass spectrometer system for use as an atmospheric monitor by submarine is reported. The performance design goals are presented. The operation of the system is essentially automatic, providing continuous display of the partial pressures of the principal atmospheric constituents and a pushbutton update display of two freon trace contaminants. The freon update cycle takes 15 or 30 seconds, depending on which are measured. Trouble free, long term, reliable operation, and ease of maintenance are the primary system requirements. The requirement of the freon detection with high sensitivity and high resolution made redesign of the overall analyzer housing and magnet necessary.

  8. Los Alamos racquetball contamination incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAtee, J.L.; Stafford, R.G.; Dowdy, E.J.; Prestwood, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several employees of the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility were found to have low levels of radioactivity on their hands and clothing when they arrived for work one morning. The initial concern was that the stringent contamination or material controls at the facility had failed, and that one or more of the employees had either accidentally or intentionally removed plutonium from the Laboratory premises. Fortunately, however, an investigation revealed that the source of the radioactivity was radon daughters electrostatically collected upon the surface of the racquetball and transferred by physical contact to the employees during an early morning racquetball game. This paper describes the events leading to the discovery of this phenomenon. 1 figure

  9. Mental contamination: The effects of religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilekli, Ilgun; Inozu, Mujgan

    2018-03-01

    Mental contamination, which occurs in the absence of contact with a contaminant, has a moral element. Previous studies evoked feelings of mental contamination via listening to a scenario, which described a non-consensual kiss. Since mental contamination has a moral element, we tested the effects of the level of religiosity on feelings of mental contamination and related variables in an experimental design. Female undergraduates of high religiosity (n = 48) and low religiosity (n = 44) were randomly assigned to listen to one of two audio recordings involving a consensual or non-consensual kiss from a man described as moral. Mental contamination feelings were evoked successfully in both groups. Effects of scenario condition and religiosity level were seen in mental contamination and related negative feelings. Participants who imagined a non-consensual kiss reported greatest feelings of mental contamination, and internal and external negative feelings. More importantly, high religiosity resulted in greater feelings of mental contamination, internal negative feelings, as well as urges to wash and actual washing behaviors. The current study was conducted on non-clinical Muslim females. This limits the generalization of the findings to the wider population. Mental contamination and related feelings can be seen in different forms at different levels of religiosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbial contamination of hematopoietic progenitor cell products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdaroğlu, Sinem; Tekgündüz, Emre; Bozdağ, Sinem Civriz; Durgun, Gamze; Sarıca, Abdurrahman; Demiriz, Itır Şirinoğlu; Koçubaba, Serife; Iskender, Gülşen; Kayıkçı, Omür; Altuntaş, Fevzi

    2013-06-01

    Microbial screening for contamination is a part of hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) collection and infusion procedure. We aimed to find out our microbial contamination rates during collection, processing and infusion steps of HPC products. We also evaluated the clinical course of patients who received contaminated HPC products. We retrospectively analyzed microbial contamination records of HPC grafts between 2010 and 2012. HPC products of autologous donors were evaluated for contamination at three steps: at the end of mobilization, following processing with DMSO and just before stem cell infusion. Grafts of allogeneic donors were assessed only before HPC transplantation (HCT). Microbiological analysis of HPC samples were performed with an automated system (BacT/Alert®). During the study period a total of 492 mobilization procedures were performed on 329 (214 autologous and 115 allogeneic) donors. Bacterial contamination has been detected in 103 of 1630 samples (6%). Ninety-seven out of 1162 blood samples (8%) from 265 patients who were treated with HCT were contaminated. Forty-six patients (41 autologous and 5 allogeneic) were transplanted with contaminated HPC products. During HCT 42 patients experienced febrile neutropenic attack and 34 of them had positive blood culture results. In none of these 34 patients the isolated pathogens were the same organisms with those found in the final contaminated stem cell product before stem cell infusion. None of the patients who received contaminated products died because of sepsis within the posttransplant 30days. There was no significant difference between patients who received contaminated and non-contaminated products in terms of the first day of fever, duration of fever, engraftment kinetics and duration of hospitalization. Our results suggest that microbial contamination of HPC products is an issue to be prevented, although it may not have a major impact on the general success of HCT. Copyright © 2013. Published by

  11. Bioremediation of oil contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeson, D.L.; Hogue, J.I.; Peterson, J.C.; Guerra, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Baldwin Waste Oil Site was an abandoned waste oil recycling facility located in Robstown, Nueces County, Texas. As part of their site assessment activities, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requested that the Ecology and Environment, Inc., Technical Assistance Team (TAT) investigate the feasibility of using in-situ bioremediation to remediate soils contaminated with oil and grease components, petroleum hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds. Bioremediation based on the land treatment concept was tested. The land treatment concept uses techniques to optimize indigenous microbial populations and bring them in contact with the contaminants. The study was designed to collect data upon which to base conclusions on the effectiveness of bioremediation, to demonstrate the effectiveness of bioremediation under field conditions, and to identify potential problems in implementing a full-scale project. Bioremediation effectiveness was monitored through total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and Oil and Grease (O and G) analyses. Site specific treatment goals for the pilot project were concentrations of less than 1% for O and G and less than 10,000 mg/kg for TPH. Based on the reduction of TPH and O and G concentrations and the cost effectiveness of bioremediation based on the land treatment concept, full-scale in-situ bioremediation was initiated by the EPA at the Baldwin Waste Oil Site in February of 1993

  12. Method of washing contaminated clothings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Fumiaki.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of washing contaminated clothings deposited with contaminates such as radioactive materials. The clothings are put into an extractor, and gaseous carbon dioxide is supplied under pressure and heating to the extractor. The clothings are brought into contact with gaseous carbon dioxide for a predetermined period of time, to separate oils and fats and water content deposited to the clothings by dissolving them into the gaseous carbon dioxide. The gaseous carbon dioxide containing the oils and fats and the water content are taken out from the extractor and charged to a separator, in which the oils and fats and the water content are separated, and then released to the atmosphere passing through a high performance filter. The clothings are transferred from the extractor to a water-washing vessel and immersed in a fresh water to remove salts derived from man's body, powdery dusts in the air, radioactive substances, etc. by rinsing. Then, the clothings are dried by a dryer. This can eliminate worries of undesired effects on circumstances by a simple method. (I.N.)

  13. Integrating risks at contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.; Habegger, L.; Nieves, L.; Schreiber, Z.; Travis, C.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for a number of large sites across the country that were radioactively and chemically contaminated by past nuclear research, development, and production activities. Multiple risk assessments are being conducted for these sites to evaluate current conditions and determine what measures are needed to protect human health and the environment from today through the long term. Integrating the risks associated with multiple contaminants in different environmental media across extensive areas, over time periods that extend beyond 1,000 years, and for a number of different impact categories--from human health and ecological to social and economic--represents a considerable challenge. A central element of these integrated analyses is the ability to reflect key interrelationships among environmental resources and human communities that may be adversely affected by the actions or inactions being considered for a given site. Complicating the already difficult task of integrating many kinds of risk is the importance of reflecting the diverse values and preferences brought to bear by the multiple parties interested in the risk analysis process and outcome. An initial conceptual framework has been developed to provide an organized structure to this risk integration, with the aim of supporting effective environmental management decisions. This paper highlights key issues associated with comprehensive risk integration and offers suggestions developed from preliminary work at a complex DOE site

  14. Country report on contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyuntulkhuur, Navaangalsan [National Centre for Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology (Mongolia). Central Radiological Laboratory

    1997-06-01

    Mongolia is a non-nuclear country and has currently neither nuclear power plants nor research reactors. This country joined the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA) for the Asia Pacific region for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology in 1993. Various measures has been taken for strengthening of radiation protection, cooperated with several international organizations mainly with IAEA. In Mongolia radioactive substances and sources are used for the following purposes: for research work; medical radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology in hospitals; industrial enterprises for technological processes; and for non-destructive testing in industry. Radiation safety inspection is conducted by the CRL. The inspections consist of verification of compliance with radiation safety requirements and with any additional requirements specified in the authorization of accounting records and a physical check on the presence of radiation sources; check on the work carried out by the radiation safety services to monitor radioactive contamination of the environment; and measurements and sampling. CRL should take much attention for improvement and development of the activities in the field of surface contamination monitoring concerning a wide use of radionuclides in different field of economy. (G.K.)

  15. Integrating risks at contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonell, M.; Habegger, L.; Nieves, L.; Schreiber, Z.; Travis, C.

    2000-02-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for a number of large sites across the country that were radioactively and chemically contaminated by past nuclear research, development, and production activities. Multiple risk assessments are being conducted for these sites to evaluate current conditions and determine what measures are needed to protect human health and the environment from today through the long term. Integrating the risks associated with multiple contaminants in different environmental media across extensive areas, over time periods that extend beyond 1,000 years, and for a number of different impact categories--from human health and ecological to social and economic--represents a considerable challenge. A central element of these integrated analyses is the ability to reflect key interrelationships among environmental resources and human communities that may be adversely affected by the actions or inactions being considered for a given site. Complicating the already difficult task of integrating many kinds of risk is the importance of reflecting the diverse values and preferences brought to bear by the multiple parties interested in the risk analysis process and outcome. An initial conceptual framework has been developed to provide an organized structure to this risk integration, with the aim of supporting effective environmental management decisions. This paper highlights key issues associated with comprehensive risk integration and offers suggestions developed from preliminary work at a complex DOE site.

  16. Toothbrush Contamination: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R. Frazelle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toothbrushes are commonly used in hospital settings and may harbor potentially harmful microorganisms. A peer-reviewed literature review was conducted to evaluate the cumulative state of knowledge related to toothbrush contamination and its possible role in disease transmission. A systematic review was conducted on adult human subjects through three distinct searches. The review resulted in seven experimental and three descriptive studies which identified multiple concepts related to toothbrush contamination to include contamination, methods for decontamination, storage, design, and environmental factors. The selected studies found that toothbrushes of healthy and oral diseased adults become contaminated with pathogenic bacteria from the dental plaque, design, environment, or a combination of factors. There are no studies that specifically examine toothbrush contamination and the role of environmental factors, toothbrush contamination, and vulnerable populations in the hospital setting (e.g., critically ill adults and toothbrush use in nursing clinical practice.

  17. Toothbrush contamination: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazelle, Michelle R; Munro, Cindy L

    2012-01-01

    Toothbrushes are commonly used in hospital settings and may harbor potentially harmful microorganisms. A peer-reviewed literature review was conducted to evaluate the cumulative state of knowledge related to toothbrush contamination and its possible role in disease transmission. A systematic review was conducted on adult human subjects through three distinct searches. The review resulted in seven experimental and three descriptive studies which identified multiple concepts related to toothbrush contamination to include contamination, methods for decontamination, storage, design, and environmental factors. The selected studies found that toothbrushes of healthy and oral diseased adults become contaminated with pathogenic bacteria from the dental plaque, design, environment, or a combination of factors. There are no studies that specifically examine toothbrush contamination and the role of environmental factors, toothbrush contamination, and vulnerable populations in the hospital setting (e.g., critically ill adults) and toothbrush use in nursing clinical practice.

  18. Process Upsets Involving Trace Contaminant Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John C.; Perry, Jay; Wright, John; Bahr, Jim

    2000-01-01

    Paradoxically, trace contaminant control systems that suffer unexpected upsets and malfunctions can release hazardous gaseous contaminants into a spacecraft cabin atmosphere causing potentially serious toxicological problems. Trace contaminant control systems designed for spaceflight typically employ a combination of adsorption beds and catalytic oxidation reactors to remove organic and inorganic trace contaminants from the cabin atmosphere. Interestingly, the same design features and attributes which make these systems so effective for purifying a spacecraft's atmosphere can also make them susceptible to system upsets. Cabin conditions can be contributing causes of phenomena such as adsorbent "rollover" and catalyst poisoning can alter a systems performance and in some in stances release contamination into the cabin. Evidence of these phenomena has been observed both in flight and during ground-based tests. The following discussion describes specific instances of system upsets found in trace contaminant control systems, groups these specific upsets into general hazard classifications, and recommends ways to minimize these hazards.

  19. Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In support of its vision for technological excellence, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) has identified three strategic goals. The three goals of the SCFA are: Contain and/or stabilize contamination sources that pose an imminent threat to surface and ground waters; Delineate DNAPL contamination in the subsurface and remediate DNAPL-contaminated soils and ground water; and Remove a full range of metal and radionuclide contamination in soils and ground water. To meet the challenges of remediating subsurface contaminants in soils and ground water, SCFA funded more than 40 technologies in fiscal year 1997. These technologies are grouped according to the following product lines: Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids; Metals and Radionuclides; Source Term Containment; and Source Term Remediation. This report briefly describes the SCFA 1997 technologies and showcases a few key technologies in each product line

  20. Evaluation of certain contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various contaminants or groups of contaminants in food. The first part of the report contains a brief description of general considerations addressed at the meeting, including updates on matters of interest to the work of the Committee. A summary follows of the Committee’s evaluations of technical, toxicological and/or dietary exposure data for six contaminants or groups of contaminants (aflatoxins, 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol, fumonisins, glycidyl esters, 3-MCPD esters and 3-MCPD, sterigmatocystin) as well as an evaluation of co-exposure of fumonisins with aflatoxins. Annexed to the report is a summary of the toxicological and dietary exposure information as well as the Committee’s recommendations on the contaminants and groups of contaminants considered at this meeting.

  1. Evaluation of Unfixed Tritium Surface Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, C.; Matei, Lidia

    2005-01-01

    Surface unfixed radioactive contamination represents the amount of surface total radioactive contamination which can be eliminated by pure mechanical processes. This unfixed contamination represents the main risk factor for contamination of the personnel which operates in tritium laboratories. Unfixed contamination was determined using sampling smears type FPCSN-PSE-AA. Those FPCSN-PSE-AA smears are disks of expanded polystyrene which contain acrylic acid fragments superficially grafted. Sampling factor was determinated by contaminated surface wiping with moisten smears in 50 μL butylic alcohol and activity measuring at liquid scintillation measuring device. Sampling factor was determined by the ratio between measured activity and initially real conventional activity. The sampling factor was determined for Tritium Laboratory existent surfaces: stainless steel, aluminum, glass, ceramics, linoleum, washable coats, epoxy resins type ALOREX LP-52.The sampling factors and the reproducibility were determined in function of surface nature

  2. Mycoplasma contamination of Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huniche, BS; Jensen, Lise Torp; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    We examined 6 C. pneumonia isolates from The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and 2 Finnish isolates for Mycoplasma contamination. Three of the ATCC isolates and both of the Finnish isolates were Mycoplasma-contaminated. The contaminants were characterized by means of growth in BEa and BEg...... media, immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two of the 6 ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1355 (TWAR strain 2043) and ATCC VR1356 (TWAR strain 2023)] were infected with Mycoplasma hominis and 1 isolate [ATCC VR2282 (TWAR strain TW183)] was contaminated with both...... Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma orale, whereas 3 of the ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1310, ATCC VR1360 (TWAR strain CM-1) and ATCC 53592 (TWAR strain AR39)] were not contaminated. The Finnish C. pneumoniae isolates Kajaani 6 and Parola were found to be contaminated with M. hominis and M. orale, respectively...

  3. Abnormal ''Contamination' Levels On Garden Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, U.; Levinson, S.; Elmelech, V.; Pelled, O.; Tshuva, A.; Laichter, Y.

    1999-01-01

    During routine contamination checks we encountered an abnormal high level of Alpha and Beta emitting radioisotopes on working gloves of employees of the gardening department. It came out that the source was due to ''contamination'' levels on steering wheels of some gardening machines. In order to ensure that no real contamination of these workers was involved , a series of checks was started to identity the source of the abnormal levels found during monitoring

  4. Contaminant transport modeling studies of Russian sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    1993-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) established mechanisms that promoted cooperation between U.S. and Russian scientists in scientific research as well as environmental technology transfer. Using Russian experience and U.S technology, LBL developed approaches for field investigations, site evaluation, waste disposal, and remediation at Russian contaminated sites. LBL assessed a comprehensive database as well as an actual, large-scale contaminated site to evaluate existing knowledge of and test mathematical models used for the assessment of U.S. contaminated sites

  5. Waste management of actinide contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Thompson, G.H.; Kochen, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Waste management processes have been developed to reduce the volume of Rocky Flats soil contaminated with plutonium and americium and to prepare the contaminated fraction for terminal storage. The primary process consists of wet-screening. The secondary process uses attrition scrubbing and wet screening with additives. The tertiary process involves volume reduction of the contaminated fraction by calcination, or fixation by conversion to glass. The results of laboratory scale testing of the processes are described

  6. The isotopic contamination in electromagnetic isotope separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassignol, Ch.

    1959-01-01

    In the early years of isotope separation, and in particular electromagnetic isotope separation, needs for rapid results have conducted to empiric research. This paper describes fundamental research on the electromagnetic isotope separation to a better understanding of isotope separators as well as improving the performances. Focus has been made on the study of the principle of isotope contamination and the remedial action on the separator to improve the isotope separation ratio. In a first part, the author come back to the functioning of an electromagnetic separator and generalities on isotope contamination. Secondly, it describes the two stages separation method with two dispersive apparatus, an electromagnetic separation stage followed by an electrostatic separation stage, both separated by a diaphragm. The specifications of the electrostatic stage are given and its different settings and their consequences on isotope separation are investigated. In a third part, mechanisms and contamination factors in the isotope separation are discussed: natural isotope contamination, contamination by rebounding on the collector, contamination because of a low resolution, contamination by chromatism and diffusion effect, breakdown of condenser voltage. Analysis of experimental results shows the diffusion as the most important contamination factor in electromagnetic isotope separation. As contamination factors are dependent on geometric parameters, sector angle, radius of curvature in the magnetic field and clearance height are discussed in a fourth part. The better understanding of the mechanism of the different contamination factors and the study of influential parameters as pressure and geometric parameters lead to define a global scheme of isotope contamination and determinate optima separator design and experimental parameters. Finally, the global scheme of isotope contamination and hypothesis on optima specifications and experimental parameters has been checked during a

  7. Monitoring of overalls and personnel skin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkin, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Organization of monitoring of overalls and personnel skin contamination wastes is considered. The devices used for this purpose are enumerated. In sanitary sluices through which the personnel leaving the repair zone it is recommended to particularly thoroughly control hand skin contamination and most contaminated parts of overalls (sleeves, breeches lower parts, pockets, stomack region). In sanitary check points during personnel leaving the operator zone monitoring of overalls and skin contamination is performed. The overalls and other individual protective clothing are subjected to control in a special loundry before and after washing (decontamination) [ru

  8. Microbial contaminants in Pakistan: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida Kanwal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide contamination of surface waters with microbial pathogens is of substantial health concern. These contaminants are usually transmitted by improper sanitation measures, unsafe waste disposal, excretions from patients, and physical contacts, i.e., sexual and nonsexual. Majority of these microbial pathogens have been categorized into three classes, i.e., bacteria, viruses and protozoa. Pakistan, being a developing country, is facing a noteworthy threat due to microbial contamination. In Pakistan, bacterial contaminants are reported extensively followed by viral and protozoa contaminants. The health issues associated with bacterial population includes dysentery, abdominal pain, headache, diarrhea etc.; and usually includes faecal and total coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Campylobacter. The cases related to viral contamination are lesser but chronic and evidenced the presence of HCV, HAV, HEV viruses causing hepatitis, and other hepatic disorders. Lastly, the health impacts associated with protozoans are least reported; and a number of diseases such as giardia, cryptosporidium and toxoplasma have been linked with this class of contaminants. The current review compiles information of these biological contaminants along with their health issues in Pakistan. Moreover, potential sources and fate of microbial contaminants are also discussed.

  9. Global contamination trends of persistent organic chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loganathan, Bommanna G; Lam, Paul K. S

    2012-01-01

    "Composed by a diverse group of experts, this reference covers the history, present status, and projected future trends of environmental contamination from highly toxic synthetic chemical pollutants...

  10. Status on contamination monitoring in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou Quanlu [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    1997-06-01

    The air contaminated by radioactive materials in nuclear enterprises and radioactive workplaces and forming radioactive aerosol and the leakage of radioactive materials in operation cause internal exposure damage in workers. It is necessary and important to monitor air and surface contaminations for the health of public and workers, and for protecting environment. At present, many institutes engage in the studies on surface contamination monitoring in China, and the government has formulated the control limits of surface contamination in the Regulations of Radiation Protection. The monitors for surface contamination monitoring are almost home-made. The methods being used often are smear test and placing surface sample test. Scintillation counters, semiconductor detectors and G-M counters have been used for detecting alpha surface contamination. Plastic scintillator meters and thin wall/window G-M counters are used for beta surface contamination. Special detectors have been designed for monitoring low energy nuclides. The status of airborne contamination monitoring in China is reported. As the studies for future, the development of the surface contamination monitor for low energy beta nuclides, especially H-3, the monitoring methods for the special shapes of surfaces, the technology of decontamination and the calibration method and device for on-line radioactive aerosol continuous monitors are taken up. (K.I.)

  11. Forensic recovery within contaminated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Exhibit Handling System, operated by the Anti-Terrorist Branch, has evolved from experiences whilst dealing with long term domestic terrorism and the subsequent prosecution of the offenders. Stringent U.K. criminal law in regard to exhibits and forensic evidence required a strict system in order to provide continuity and integrity to every item that came into possession of the Police. This system also applies to items that are eventually deemed 'unused', as nearly all evidence is disclosed to the defence. I believe that if a system can withstand the close examination that British Criminal Law provides, it will probably be suitable in most countries. The system relies on each item being supplied with a documented trail of all persons who have had possession of it and who have opened the security packaging for examination purposes. In contaminated environments the initial process within the system has to be adapted in order that strict monitoring of the items can be carried out during the packaging process. It is also recognized that access to many exhibits will be heavily restricted and therefore protocols are in place to interrogate the evidence at the packaging stage in order to avoid unnecessary spread of contamination. The protocols are similar for both radiological and nuclear incidents as well as chemical and biological. Regardless of the type of incident the system can be adapted on the advice of the relevant scientific authority. In the U.K. for radiological and nuclear incidents that authority would be the A.W.E. Aldermaston. The integrity and continuity regime should be continued within laboratories which are conducting examinations of exhibits recovered. It is also important that Nuclear Forensic Laboratories do not overlook possibilities of traditional evidence, such as DNA, Fingerprints and fibre traces. Good record photography of items which are unlikely to be released by the laboratory is essential. Finally, cross-contamination has in

  12. Contaminated sites: memory loss experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieber, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Over a period of 50 years, the district of Zurich has financed four projects to catalogue contaminated sites. One lesson is that as soon as there is a new register, the older one fades, so any data that did not get transferred is lost. Several concrete case studies were also presented: - The Glattbrug case, where heavy contamination was discovered to be caused by a carbolineum plant that had been registered at the wrong place and was completely forgotten only 40 years after its closure. - A case where contaminated municipal waste slag was used as compost by wine-growers, and where it was impossible afterwards to find any reliable data concerning the amount or location of compost deliveries. - The Toessegg remediation case, where a number of steel barrels filled with acidic tar were buried above an important aquifer and below grassland. It took the combination of the local level delivering knowledge and the higher political level delivering power to come to action. - The Harwald case, which shows a gap between risk assessment on the one hand and the implementation of results of such risk assessments on the other hand. All of these cases reveal power game between state officials, representatives of the industry, technical experts, politics and the common man. Information may be out there, but not in the right place or not with the right people. It was thus pointed out that RK and M preservation is not only a scientific or a technical problem, but at least as much a social, political, economic, issue. Differences in institutional interests, rivalry, politics and power imbalances play a major role. An important lesson was thus that one may improve the process of archiving, but one also needs to improve the distribution of information and its correct use. The principle of subsidiarity, which delegates power to the lowest competent authority, was judged to be helpful in potentially solving some of these problems, since the international and national level may be too

  13. Microconductometric Detection of Bacterial Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarra EL ICHI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches can be used for the electrochemical detection of bacterial contamination. Their performance can be assessed by the ability to detect bacteria at very low concentrations within a short-time response. We have already demonstrated that a conductometric biosensor based on interdigitated thin-film electrodes is adapted to detect bacteria in clinical samples like serum and compatible with microfluidic fabrication. The type of interdigitated microelectrodes influences the performance of the biosensor. This was shown by the results obtained in this work. A magnetic-nanoparticles based immunosensor was designed using gold screen-printed electrodes. The immunosensor was able to specifically detect E. coli in the range of 1-103 CFU mL-1. The new transducer offered a larger active sensing surface with a lower cost and a robust material. Accuracy of the conductance value was enhanced by differential measurements. The immunosensor is compatible with a microfluidic system.

  14. Rulison: radiation contamination clearance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    Under contract with Austral Oil Company, Eberline Instrument Corporation provided supervision and technicians to radiologically support the well plugging and site abandonment activities at the Project Rulison site during the period September 1, 1976 through October 12, 1976. The purpose of the support was to identify and prepare for removal of all radioactively contaminated materials remaining on site. The emplacement and reentry wells were successfully plugged without a serious radiological incident. There was no measurable radiation exposure above natural background to participating personnel. Decontamination and monitoring procedures assured that no equipment or material was improperly released to unrestricted use. A review of the history of project operations, the conduct of comprehensive sampling programs, and an extensive final survey, ensures that the extent of radioactivity on the site is identified and that such activity is well below established guide lines. Except for appropriate restrictions regarding deep drilling, the radiological condition of the Project Rulison site permits its return to unrestricted use

  15. Contamination and decontamination of skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Knajfl, J.

    1983-01-01

    In external contamination the beta radiation dose is the prevalent component of the total dose absorbed by the skin. There exist four types of radionUclide bonds to the skin: mechanical retention of solid particles or solution on the surface and in the pores, physical adsorption of nondissociated molecules or colloids, the ion exchange effect, and chemisorption. Radionuclides then penetrate the skin by transfollicular transfer. The total amount of radioactive substances absorbed into the skin depends on the condition of the skin. Skin is decontaminated by washing with lukewarm water and soap or with special decontamination solutions. The most widely used components of decontamination solutions are detergents, chelaton, sodium hexametaphosphate, oxalic acid, citric acid. The main principles of the decontamination of persons are given. (M.D.)

  16. Derived limits for surface contamination

    CERN Document Server

    Wrixon, A D; Linsley, G S; White, D F

    1979-01-01

    Derived limits (DLs) for surface contamination were first established for use in the nuclear energy industry where a wide variety of radionuclides is encountered. They were later used in factories, hospitals, and universities, where the radionuclides used are normally fewer in number, either known or readily identifiable, and often of low toxicity. In these situations the current limits are frequently over-restrictive. This report describes a reassessment of the values in the light of more recent information on the possible pathways of exposure and the dose equivalent limits given in ICRP Publication 26. The reassessment is prompted also by the introduction of SI units. The results of the reassessment are used to produce a classification of DLs for all radionuclides for active and inactive area surfaces and for skin.

  17. Organochlorine contaminants (PCBs, DDTs, HCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of organochlorine compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB and hexachlorobutadiene (HBDE were determined in three fish species: goby (Neogobius melanostomus, golden grey mullet (Mugil auratus and silverside (Atherina boyeri. Samples were collected from the Lake Varna and the Lake Beloslav in 2014. The edible fish tissues were analyzed in order to investigate the presence of pollutants in species from the lakes near Varna City, Bulgaria and compared the results to the levels in other aquatic ecosystems. The fifteen congeners of PCBs, HCB, HCBD, DDT and its two main metabolites DDE and DDD were determined by capillary gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. The OCPs levels in the wild fish were found in the order DDTs > PCBs. The other contaminants HCB and HCBD were not detected or were below the analytical detection limit. Among the pesticides, essentially only the metabolites p, p’- DDE and p, p’- DDD were found.

  18. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2014-02-13

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings.

  19. Coastal marine contamination in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garay T, Jesus A; Marin Z, Bienvenido; Velez G, Ana Maria

    2002-01-01

    The paper tries about the problem of the marine contamination and their marked influence in the health of the coastal ecosystems, of their narrow relationship with the growing increase of the populations that they inhabit the coastal areas and of equal it forms, with the increment of the domestic, agricultural and industrial activities that, for the wrong handling and inadequate control of the solid and liquid waste, they affect the marine environment with significant implications at ecological, socioeconomic level and of health. Another component of the environmental problem of the marine ecosystems in the country, resides in that don't exist in general normative on the chemical quality and sanitary for its marine waters, that which limits the categorization of this agreement ecosystems with its environmental quality, conditioning this the lack of adequate mechanisms to mitigate the causes that originate the deterioration of the quality of the Colombian coasts

  20. Characterize Human Forward Contamination Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Let's face it: wherever we go, we will inevitably carry along the little critters that live in and on us. Conventional wisdom has long held that it's unlikely those critters could survive the space environment, but in 2007 microscopic animals called Tardigrades survived exposure to space and in 2008 Cyanobacteria lived for 548 days outside the International Space Station (ISS). But what about the organisms we might reasonably expect a crewed spacecraft to leak or vent? Do we even know what they are? How long might our tiny hitch-hikers survive in close proximity to a warm spacecraft that periodically leaks/vents water or oxygen-and how might they mutate with long-duration exposure? Unlike the Mars rovers that we cleaned once and sent on their way, crew members will provide a constantly regenerating contaminant source. Are we prepared to certify that we can meet forward contamination protocols as we search for life at new destinations? This project has four technical objectives: 1. TEST: Develop a test plan to leverage existing equipment (i.e. ISS) to characterize the kinds of organisms we can reasonably expect pressurized, crewed volumes to vent or leak overboard; as part of testing, we'll need to develop an Extravehicular Activity (EVA)-compatible tool that can withstand the pressure and temperature extremes of space, as well as collect, separate, and store multiple samples; 2. ANALYSIS: Develop an analysis plan to study those organisms in relevant destination environments, including spacecraft-induced conditions; 3. MODEL: Develop a modeling plan to model organism transport mechanisms in relevant destination environments; 4. SHARE: Develop a plan to disseminate findings and integrate recommendations into exploration requirements & ops. In short, we propose a system engineering approach to roadmap the necessary experiments, analysis, and modeling up front--rather than try to knit together disparate chunks of data into a sensible conclusion after the fact.

  1. Fungi and mycotoxins: Food contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of fungi on food causes physical and chemical changes which, further affect negatively the sensory and nutritive quality of food. Species from genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternariа, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Eurotium and Emericella are usually found. Some of them are potentially dangerous for humans and animals, due to possible synthesis and excretion of toxic secondary metabolites - mycotoxins into the food. Their toxic syndroms in animals and humans are known as mycotoxicoses. The pathologic changes can be observed in parenhimatic organs, and in bones and central nervous system also. Specific conditions are necessary for mycotoxin producing fungi to synthetize sufficient quantities of these compounds for demonstration of biologic effects. The main biochemical paths in the formation of mycotoxins include the polyketide (aflatoxins, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone, citrinine, patulin, terpenic (trichothecenes, aminoacid (glicotoxins, ergotamines, sporidesmin, malformin C, and carbonic acids path (rubratoxins. Aflatoxins are the most toxigenic metabolites of fungi, produced mostly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus species. Aflatoxins appear more frequently in food in the tropic and subtropic regions, while the food in Europe is more exposed to also very toxic ochratoxin A producing fungi (A. ochraceus and some Penicillium species. The agricultural products can be contaminated by fungi both before and after the harvest. The primary mycotoxicoses in humans are the result of direct intake of vegetable products contaminated by mycotoxins, while the secondary mycotoxicoses are caused by products of animal origin. The risk of the presence of fungi and mycotoxin in food is increasing, having in mind that some of them are highly thermoresistent, and the temperatures of usual food sterilization is not sufficient for their termination. The paper presents the review of most important mycotoxins, their biologic effects

  2. Removing high-level contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Using biomimicry, an Australian cleantech innovation making inroads intoChinas's industrial sector offers multiple benefits to miners and processors in Australia. Stephen Shelley, the executive chairman of Creative Water Technology (CWT), was on hand at a recent trade show to explain how his Melbourne company has developed world-class techniques in zero liquid discharge and fractional crystallization of minerals to apply to a wide range of water treatment and recycling applications. “Most existing technologies operate with high energy distillation, filters or biological processing. CWT's appliance uses a low temperature, thermal distillation process known as adiabatic recovery to desalinate, dewater and/or recycle highly saline and highly contaminated waste water,” said Shelley. The technology has been specifically designed to handle the high levels of contaminant that alternative technologies struggle to process, with proven water quality results for feed water samples with TDS levels over 300,000ppm converted to clean water with less than 20ppm. Comparatively, reverse osmosis struggles to process contaminant levels over 70,000ppm effectively. “CWT is able to reclaim up to 97% clean usable water and up to 100% of the contaminants contained in the feed water,” said Shelley, adding that soluble and insoluble contaminants are separately extracted and dried for sale or re-use. In industrial applications CWT has successfully processed feed water with contaminant levels over 650,000 mg/1- without the use of chemicals. “The technology would be suitable for companies in oil exploration and production, mining, smelting, biofuels, textiles and the agricultural and food production sectors,” said Shelley. When compared to a conventional desalination plant, the CWT system is able to capture the value in the brine that most plants discard, not only from the salt but the additional water it contains. “If you recover those two commodities

  3. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Level...

  4. 40 CFR 141.52 - Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants. 141.52 Section 141.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Level...

  5. 40 CFR 141.63 - Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for microbiological contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for microbiological contaminants. 141.63 Section 141.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Water Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.63 Maximum...

  6. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-9 - Acid contaminated and explosive contaminated property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... section. (2) Excess acid contaminated or explosive contaminated property shall be properly labeled under..., such as a washdown. (2) Acid or explosive contaminated property shall be considered extremely hazardous property as defined in § 101-42.001, and shall be described as such in sales offerings. Normally, acid or...

  7. for Phytoremediation of Motor Oil Contaminated Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, phytoremediation study was made with laterite soil artificially contaminated with motor oil. Three replicates of 3 kg of the air dried soil fertilized with 10% (w/w) organic fertilizer were each contaminated with 200ml of motor oil thoroughly mixed and placed in a 35 cm high plastic bowl. Six young plants of sweet ...

  8. Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    to effect clean up of radioactive and metallic contaminants. However, recently, the concern over the persistence, ... Field studies of metal contaminated soils have demonstrated that elevated metal concentrations can ..... weakness of the bond between the nucleus and the outer electrons is responsible for the susceptibility of.

  9. Minimizing electrode contamination in an electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Zelenay, Piotr; Johnston, Christina

    2014-12-09

    An electrochemical cell assembly that is expected to prevent or at least minimize electrode contamination includes one or more getters that trap a component or components leached from a first electrode and prevents or at least minimizes them from contaminating a second electrode.

  10. Bioremediation of PAH contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1994-01-01

    Soils contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose a hazard to life. The remediation of such sites can be done using physical, chemical, and biological treatment methods or a combination of them. It is of interest to study the decontamination of soil using bioremediation. The experiments were conducted using Acinetobacter (ATCC 31012) at room temperature without pH or temperature control. In the first series of experiments, contaminated soil samples obtained from Alberta Research Council were analyzed to determine the toxic contaminant and their composition in the soil. These samples were then treated using aerobic fermentation and removal efficiency for each contaminant was determined. In the second series of experiments, a single contaminant was used to prepare a synthetic soil sample. This sample of known composition was then treated using aerobic fermentation in continuously stirred flasks. In one set of flasks, contaminant was the only carbon source and in the other set, starch was an additional carbon source. In the third series of experiments, the synthetic contaminated soil sample was treated in continuously stirred flasks in the first set and in fixed bed in the second set and the removal efficiencies were compared. The removal efficiencies obtained indicated the extent of biodegradation for various contaminants, the effect of additional carbon source, and performance in fixed bed without external aeration

  11. Have we to harvest the contaminated wheats?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenberg, P. de

    1997-01-01

    The institute of nuclear protection and safety (IPSN) has just developed a calculation method allowing to evaluate the radioactive contamination of harvesting. This tool would allow, in case of nuclear accident, to determine if the contaminated lands under cultivation are eatable or not. Two radionuclides have been chosen: cesium 137 and strontium 90. The experiments are conclusive: the experimental releases of cesium and strontium were comparable to these ones of the Chernobyl forbidden zone (between 10 and 40 millions of becquerels/m 2 ): the foliar contamination is proportional to the plants development. Wheats ready to be harvested capture more than 80% of the radioactivity that contaminates them. Leaves of young plants keep only 20 to 40 %. Second result: cesium is more easily washable than strontium. Third results: more late is the contamination more the plant will be irradiated; then,the wheats contaminated when they are just out of ground are nine times less contaminated than cereals contaminated just before the harvest. (N.C.)

  12. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  13. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert,George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand,Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); Delaurentiis,Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  14. Cleaning up soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arniella, E.F.; Holley, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes one new technology used to clean up soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons from underground storage tanks. Topics covered include cleanup criteria, soil remediation technologies, air stripping-soil venting system and process design and performance. This contaminated site was located in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area

  15. Owls as biomonitors of environmental contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven R. Sheffield

    1997-01-01

    Much like the caged canary used by miners, a plethora of wildlife species have been promoted as biomonitors of environmental contamination. These species provide an "early warning system" for toxic contaminants in the environment. Species promoted as useful biomonitors share many common life history characters, such as wide distribution, territorial, non-...

  16. Enhanced Electrokinetic Remediation of Cadmium Contaminated Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to remediate contaminated soil, a new technique of purging cadmium from soil is examined by enhanced electrokinetic method. It involves the passage of low level direct current between two electrodes in the soil to remove contaminant. An apparatus consisting of four principal parts; soil cell, electrode ...

  17. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  18. Chemical barriers for controlling groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.J.; Spangler, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical barriers are being explored as a low-cost means of controlling groundwater contamination. The barrier can intercept a contaminant plume and prevent migration by transferring contaminants from the groundwater to immobile solids. A chemical barrier can be emplaced in a landfill liner or in an aquifer cutoff wall or can be injected into a contaminant plume. Chemical barriers can be classified as either precipitation barriers or sorption barriers depending upon the dominant mode of contaminant extraction. In a precipitation barrier, contaminants are bound in the structures of newly formed phases; whereas, in a sorption barrier, contaminants attach to the surfaces of preexisting solids by adsorption or some other surface mechanism. Sorption of contaminants is pH dependent. A precipitation barrier can control the pH of the system, but alkaline groundwater may dominate the pH in a sorption barrier. A comparison is made of the characteristics of precipitation and sorption barriers. Experimental data on the extraction of uranium and molybdenum from simulated groundwater are used to demonstrate these concepts. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  19. Relationship between rainfall and microbiological contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outbreaks of contamination events in many developing countries occur during periods of peak rainfall. This study presents evidence of direct pulse response of shallow groundwater contamination events to rainfall in Northern Mozambique. The objective of the paper is to establish both a statistical relationship between ...

  20. Total aflatoxin, fumonisin and deoxynivalenol contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycotoxin contamination is a common problem in developing countries, particularly in cereals, and this poses a serious health risk to its consumers. Busaa is a Kenyan traditional brew whose cereal ingredients are prone to mycotoxin contamination. This study aimed at detecting the presence and subsequently quantifying ...

  1. Electro kinetic remediation of contaminated habitats | Shenbagavalli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrokinetics (EK) is a process that separates and extracts heavy metals, radionuclides and organic contaminants from saturated or unsaturated soils, sludge, and sediments. A low intensity direct current is applied across electrode pairs that have been implanted in the ground on each side of the contaminated soil mass.

  2. Prevalence of antibacterial resistant bacterial contaminants from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mobile phones contaminated with bacteria may act as fomites. Antibiotic resistant bacterial contamination of mobile phones of inpatients was studied. One hundred and six samples were collected from mobile phones of patients admitted in various hospitals in Jazan province of Saudi Arabia. Eighty-nine (83.9%) out of 106 ...

  3. Remediation of soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine ways of remediating soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with crude oil. The study involves the use of planted cowpeas, mushrooms, algae, dead vegetable and live earthworm, and fire-heating of the contaminated garden soil collected from the ...

  4. Using Tracer Technology to Characterize Contaminated Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maresca, Joseph, W., Jr., Ph.D.; Bratton, Wesley, L., Ph.D., P.E.; Dickerson, Wilhelmina; Hales, Rochelle

    2005-12-30

    The Pipeline Characterization Using Tracers (PCUT) technique uses conservative and partitioning, reactive or other interactive tracers to remotely determine the amount of contaminant within a run of piping or ductwork. The PCUT system was motivated by a method that has been successfully used to characterize subsurface soil contaminants and is similar in operation to that of a gas chromatography column. By injecting a ?slug? of both conservative and partitioning tracers at one end (or section) of the piping and measuring the time history of the concentration of the tracers at the other end (or another section) of the pipe, the presence, location, and amount of contaminant within the pipe or duct can be determined. The tracers are transported along the pipe or duct by a gas flow field, typically air or nitrogen, which has a velocity that is slow enough so that the partitioning tracer has time to interact with the contaminant before the tracer slug completely passes over the contaminate region. PCUT not only identifies the presence of contamination, it also can locate the contamination along the pipeline and quantify the amount of residual. PCUT can be used in support of deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of piping and ducts that may have been contaminated with hazardous chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, petroleum products, radioactive materials, or heavy metals, such as mercury.

  5. Revelations of an overt water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Kaushik, S K; Mukherji, S

    2017-07-01

    Contaminated water sources are major cause of water borne diseases of public health importance. Usually, contamination is suspected after an increase in patient load. Two health teams investigated the episode. First team conducted sanitary survey, and second team undertook water safety and morbidity survey. On-site testing was carried out from source till consumer end. Investigation was also undertaken to identify factors which masked the situation. Prevention and control measures included super chlorination, provision of alternate drinking water sources, awareness campaign, layout of new water pipeline bypassing place of contamination, repair of sewers, flushing and cleaning of water pipelines, and repeated water sampling and testing. Multiple sources of drinking water supply were detected. Water samples from consumer end showed 18 coliforms per 100 ml. Sewer cross connection with active leakage in water pipeline was found and this was confirmed by earth excavation. Water safety and morbidity survey found majority of households receiving contaminated water supply. This survey found no significant difference among households receiving contaminated water supply and those receiving clean water. Average proportion of household members with episode of loose motions, pain abdomen, vomiting, fever, and eye conditions was significantly more among households receiving contaminated water. The present study documents detailed methodology of investigation and control measures to be instituted on receipt of contaminated water samples. Effective surveillance mechanisms for drinking water supplies such as routine testing of water samples can identify water contamination at an early stage and prevent an impending outbreak.

  6. Influence of Blood Contamination During Multimode Adhesive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... However, differing acidic monomer type, ratio, pH, and some new monomers may change bond ... systems, contamination (from saliva, blood, astringents, water, or hand piece lubricant) during the ..... adhesives to enamel and dentin under normal and contaminated conditions. Dent Mater 1993;9:295‑9.

  7. HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION OF TOPSOIL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ABSTRACT. Growing concern about reclamation of auto-repair workshop areas for residential and agricultural purposes makes risk assessment of heavy metal contamination of the study area imperative. In addition, the study is aimed at ascertaining the dispersion of contaminated Zn, Ni, Cr, Hg, and Pb within the soil profile ...

  8. Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effect of lead and chromium on the rate of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated clay soil. Naphthalene was used as a target PAH. The soil was sterilized by heating at 120oC for one hour. 100g of the soil was contaminated with lead, chromium, nickel and mercury ...

  9. Environmental contamination, product contamination and workers exposure using a robotic system for antineoplastic drug preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessink, Paul J M; Leclercq, Gisèle M; Wouters, Dominique-Marie; Halbardier, Loïc; Hammad, Chaïma; Kassoul, Nassima

    2015-04-01

    Environmental contamination, product contamination and technicians exposure were measured following preparation of iv bags with cyclophosphamide using the robotic system CytoCare. Wipe samples were taken inside CytoCare, in the clean room environment, from vials, and prepared iv bags including ports and analysed for contamination with cyclophosphamide. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was also measured in environmental air and on the technicians hands and gloves used for handling the drugs. Exposure of the technicians to cyclophosphamide was measured by analysis of cyclophosphamide in urine. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was mainly observed inside CytoCare, before preparation, after preparation and after daily routine cleaning. Contamination outside CytoCare was incidentally found. All vials with reconstituted cyclophosphamide entering CytoCare were contaminated on the outside but vials with powdered cyclophosphamide were not contaminated on the outside. Contaminated bags entering CytoCare were also contaminated after preparation but non-contaminated bags were not contaminated after preparation. Cyclophosphamide was detected on the ports of all prepared bags. Almost all outer pairs of gloves used for preparation and daily routine cleaning were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide was not found on the inner pairs of gloves and on the hands of the technicians. Cyclophosphamide was not detected in the stationary and personal air samples and in the urine samples of the technicians. CytoCare enables the preparation of cyclophosphamide with low levels of environmental contamination and product contamination and no measurable exposure of the technicians. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Private sector perspectives on hydrocarbon contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to effectively resolve a problem, one should attempt to gain a comprehensive understanding of all facets of the problem. With regard to hydrocarbon contamination, it is essential for regulators, consultants, attorneys, bankers, business owners, and others involved with this issue to develop a comprehensive understanding of the major perspectives associated with hydrocarbon contamination in order to address and effectively resolve the specific hydrocarbon contamination issues these groups are, or will be, facing. The purpose of this paper is to identify the hydrocarbon contamination issues from private and public sector perspectives. In doing so, the author hopes to present another important perspective that will provide those involved with hydrocarbon contamination a more complete picture of the scope of the problem

  11. Microbial contamination of haemodialysis catheter connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorke, A

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial contamination and colonisation of the haemodialysis catheter is a reason for infection in dialysis patients. One reason for contamination may be frequent routine connections at the beginning, during and end of dialysis. Higher infection rates observed with double lumen catheters may be due to the absence of the sterile, disposable device that is fitted between the blood tubing and the catheter hubs with single lumen catheters. A sterile, disposable extension was implemented at the author's unit for use in dialysis with double lumen catheters. The proximal and distal ends of the extension were assessed for microbial contamination after standard dialysis. Results show microbial contamination in almost 30% of the samples retrieved from the extensions. Experiences in PD and the behaviour of skin bacteria on polymers, suggest that disposable extensions might have the potential to serve as a barrier or absorber for bacterial contamination.

  12. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yihua

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  13. Association of leukemia with radium groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, G.H.; Lyman, C.G.; Johnson, W.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation exposure, including the ingestion of radium, has been causally associated with leukemia in man. Groundwater samples from 27 counties on or near Florida phosphate lands were found to exceed 5 pCi/L total radium in 12.4% of measurements. The incidence of leukemia was greater in those counties with high levels of radium contamination (greater than 10% of the samples contaminated) than in those with low levels of contamination. Rank correlation coefficients of .56 and .45 were observed between the radium contamination level and the incidence of total leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia, respectively. The standardized incidence density ratio for those in high-contamination counties was 1.5 for total leukemia and 2.0 for acute myeloid leukemia. Further investigation is necessary, however, before a causal relationship between groundwater radium content and human leukemia can be established

  14. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Yihua [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1997-06-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  15. Incorporation of tritium contaminated oil in cement using an absorbent polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, Marcos Maciel de; Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Isiki, Vera Lucia Keiko

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a study carried out to determine whether a absorbent polymer can be used to pretreat tritiated vacuum pump oils, before solidification in cement matrix. The experiments were conducted with samples prepared with simulated waste, absorbent polymer, portland cement and silica fume, in some cases, and evaluating the performance according to compressive strength, workability and bleeding. Despite the low quantity of oil incorporated, this study showed that it can be a feasible method, since it provided a stable product. (author)

  16. Food irradiation: contaminating our food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccioni, R.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry has promoted food irradiation as an effective and safe means of preserving food at minimum risk to the public. However, wide-scale food irradiation programmes such as that approved in the United States of America would have an adverse impact on public health in the following ways: through the consumption of carcinogenic substances generated in irradiated foods, through the use of irradiation to mask bacteriological contamination of spoiled food, through the replacement of fresh foods with nutritionally depleted foods, through accidents with leaks or mishandling of the radiation sources used and through the environmental damage resulting from reactor operation or spent fuel reprocessing necessary to produce the required isotopes for food irradiation. The food irradiation market is potentially enormous, requiring a large number of facilities and isotopes, some, such as caesium-137, would come from the production of nuclear weapons. Evidence of the presence of carcinogenic or mutagenic activity in irradiated foods is discussed. Although the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a food irradiation programme it would actually be against the FDA's legal obligation which is to protect the health and safety of the American people. (UK)

  17. [Environmental contaminants and endocrine disruptors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenele, Eveline Gadelha Pereira; Martins, Manoel Ricardo Alves; Quidute, Ana Rosa Pinto; Montenegro, Renan Magalhães

    2010-02-01

    The toxicity of various pollutants has been routinely investigated according to their teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. In the last few decades, however, many of such pollutants have been shown to adversely affect the endocrine system of human beings and other species. Currently, more than eleven million chemical substances are known in the world, and approximately 3,000 are produced on a large scale. Numerous chemical composites of domestic, industrial and agricultural use have been shown to influence hormonal activity. Examples of such chemical products with estrogenic activity are substances used in cosmetics, anabolizing substances for animal feeding, phytoestrogens and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). These agents are seen in residential, industrial and urban sewerage system effluents and represent an important source of environmental contamination. The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) defines as endocrine disruptors substances or mixtures seen in the environment capable of interfering with endocrine system functions resulting in adverse effects in an intact organism or its offspring. In this article the authors present a current literature review about the role of these pollutants in endocrine and metabolic diseases, probable mechanisms of action, and suggest paths of investigation and possible strategies for prevention and reduction of its possible damages.

  18. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil has been demonstrated for saturated and unsaturated sand in preliminary experiments using a novel transport visualization technique. Large anionic organic dyes were mixed with a portion of soil and the rate of electromigration of the dye in an imposed electric field was monitored photographically. One of the fastest current-normalized electromigration rates was measured in the driest sand, which contained 7% water by weight. This moisture content is typical of the moisture content in the unsaturated zone of subsurface native soils found in New Mexico. The characteristics of the electromigration were similar in both the saturated and unsaturated sand. The leading edge of the dye migration front was diffuse while the trailing edge was sharp and concentrated. This and other observed behavior may indicate a concentration effect, where the electromigration rate of dilute dye is greater than that of concentrated dye. The soil left after the trailing edge passed seemed to contain no residual dye in both the saturated and unsaturated cases. The success of demonstrating electromigration of large molecules in unsaturated soil is encouraging and indicates that it may be feasible to remediate in situ anionic heavy metals such as chromate from unsaturated soil with electrokinetic techniques. 23 refs., 7 figs

  19. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear contamination of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl accident, the vulnerability of the water cycle to radionuclide contamination has been an issue of great concern. The impact of the event throughout Europe has been highly variable and wide-ranging, and has demonstrated the need to evaluate the potential risk to drinking water supplies, soilwater and the food chain. This book provides information on radiological standards as they exist at present, on the methods of monitoring, and on concepts in design to minimize risk and to highlight the possible consequences of a nuclear event. With contributions from engineers and scientists from eight countries, this book is a unique source of information about present radiological standards and monitoring requirements. It also includes comprehensive coverage of the effects on water resources of, and deals with the development of management strategies designed to cope with, a nuclear event. There are 19 papers all indexed separately. These are divided into sections -introduction, present radiological standards relating to drinking water, radiological monitoring requirements, the consequences of a nuclear event on water resources and water resource management strategy. The discussion at the end of each section is recorded. (author)

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION FROM WEAPON TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1958-10-01

    The program of the Atomic Energy Commission on environmental contamination from weapons tests is designed for the overall evaluation of the hazard to humans from test operations. It is limited to studies of the deposition of activity at long range rather than the problems associated with immediate, close-in fallout. The program has largely been a study of Sr{sup 90}, since considerations based on experience and measurement indicate that it is the isotope of greatest potential hazard. Data are presented pertinent to the monitoring of long-range fallout, particularly Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137}. Values are tabulated for the fallout deposition, air concentrations, water concentrations, and the amounts in foods and human bone. In addition, results are given for some experimental investigations. The report of these results is not interpretative although certain papers that do attempt to interpret the present situation with respect to Sr{sup 90} in particular are reprinted. Bibliographies are presented covering the period since the 1957 hearings before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy concerning the nature of radioactive fallout and its effects on man. A document list of submissions to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation is given to illustrate the work done in other countries. Several papers on the subject, which have not been generally available, are reprinted.

  2. Complexity of Groundwater Contaminants at DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, T.C.; Faybishenko, B.; Jordan, P.

    2010-12-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the remediation and long-term stewardship of one of the world's largest groundwater contamination portfolios, with a significant number of plumes containing various contaminants, and considerable total mass and activity. As of 1999, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management was responsible for remediation, waste management, or nuclear materials and facility stabilization at 144 sites in 31 states and one U.S. territory, out of which 109 sites were expected to require long-term stewardship. Currently, 19 DOE sites are on the National Priority List. The total number of contaminated plumes on DOE lands is estimated to be 10,000. However, a significant number of DOE sites have not yet been fully characterized. The most prevalent contaminated media are groundwater and soil, although contaminated sediment, sludge, and surface water also are present. Groundwater, soil, and sediment contamination are present at 72% of all DOE sites. A proper characterization of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites is critical for accomplishing one of the primary DOE missions -- planning basic research to understand the complex physical, chemical, and biological properties of contaminated sites. Note that the definitions of the terms 'site' and 'facility' may differ from one publication to another. In this report, the terms 'site,' 'facility' or 'installation' are used to identify a contiguous land area within the borders of a property, which may contain more than one plume. The term 'plume' is used here to indicate an individual area of contamination, which can be small or large. Even though several publications and databases contain information on groundwater contamination and remediation technologies, no statistical analyses of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites has been prepared since the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The DOE Groundwater Data Base

  3. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, R.A.; Clay, M.E.; Eichorst, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work, (2) working conditions, (3) type of anti-contamination material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-contamination clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. Monitoring of surface and airborne contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep Kumar, K.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1997-06-01

    Indian nuclear energy programme aims at total safety in all activities involved in the entire fuel cycle for the occupational workers, members of the public and the environment as a whole. Routine radiation monitoring with clearly laid out procedures are followed for ensuring the safety of workers and public. Radiation monitoring carried out for the nuclear installations comprises of process monitoring, monitoring of effluent releases and also of the radiation protection monitoring of the individuals, work place and environment. Regulations like banning of smoking and consumption of food and drink etc. reduces the risk of direct ingestion even if inadvertent spread of contamination takes place. Though limit of transportable surface contamination is prescribed, the health physicists always follow a ``clean on swipe`` philosophy which compensates any error in the measurement of surface contamination. In this paper, the following items are contained: Necessity of contamination monitoring, accuracy required in the calibration of surface contamination monitors, methodology for contamination monitoring, air monitoring, guidelines for unrestricted release of scrap materials, and problems in contamination monitoring. (G.K.)

  5. [Construction of groundwater contamination prevention mapping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jie; He, Jiang-Tao; Lu, Yan; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater contamination prevention mapping is an important component of groundwater contamination geological survey and assessment work, which could provide the basis for making and implementing groundwater contamination prevention planning. A groundwater contamination prevention mapping system was constructed in view of the synthetic consideration on nature perspective derived from groundwater contamination sources and aquifer itself, social-economic perspective, policy perspective derived from outside. During the system construction process, analytic hierarchy process and relevant overlaying principles were used to couple groundwater contamination risk assessment, groundwater value as well as wellhead protection area zoning. Data processing and visualization of mapping results were achieved in the GIS environment. The research on groundwater contamination prevention mapping in Beijing Plain indicated that the final groundwater prevention map was in accordance with the actual conditions and well reflected the priorities of groundwater prevention, which could play a guidance role in designing and implementing further practical prevention and supervision measures. Besides, because of the dynamical properties of the system components, it was suggested to analyze the update frequency of the mapping.

  6. Catalyst Substrates Remove Contaminants, Produce Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A spacecraft is the ultimate tight building. We don t want any leaks, and there is very little fresh air coming in, says Jay Perry, an aerospace engineer at Marshall Space Flight Center. As a result, there is a huge potential for a buildup of contaminants from a host of sources. Inside a spacecraft, contaminants can be introduced from the materials that make spacecraft components, electronics boxes, or activities by the crew such as food preparation or cleaning. Humans also generate contaminants by breathing and through the body s natural metabolic processes. As part of the sophisticated Environmental Control and Life Support System on the International Space Station (ISS), a trace contaminant control system removes carbon dioxide and other impurities from the cabin atmosphere. To maintain healthy levels, the system uses adsorbent media to filter chemical contaminant molecules and a high-temperature catalytic oxidizer to change the chemical structure of the contaminants to something more benign, usually carbon dioxide and water. In the 1990s, while researching air quality control technology for extended spaceflight travel, Perry and others at Marshall were looking for a regenerable process for the continuous removal of carbon dioxide and trace chemical contaminants on long-duration manned space flights. At the time, the existing technology used on U.S. spacecraft could only be used once, which meant that a spacecraft had to carry additional spare parts for use in case the first one was depleted, or the spacecraft would have to return to Earth to exchange the components.

  7. Management of tritium-contaminated wastes a survey of alternative options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannone, F.

    1990-01-01

    The European Tritium Handling Experimental Laboratory (ETHEL) under construction on the site of Ispra Joint Research Centre of the Commission of European Communities has been commissioned to experimentally develop operational and environmental safety aspects related to the tritium technology in fusion, i.e. dealing with the behaviour and reliability of materials, equipment and containment systems under tritium impact. For this reason a part of the experimental activities to be performed in ETHEL will be devoted to laboratory research on tritiated waste management. However, since all experimental activities planned for the execution in ETHEL will by itselves generate tritiated wastes, current strategies and practices to be applied for the routine management of these wastes need also to be defined. To attain this target an adequate background information must be provided, which is the intent of this report. Through an exhaustive literature survey tritiated waste management options till now investigated or currently applied in several countries have been assessed. A particular importance has been attached to the tritium leach test programmes, whose results enable to assess the tritium retention efficiency of the various waste immobilization options. The conclusions resulting from the overall assessment are presented

  8. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - MDC_ContaminatedSite

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A point feature class of open DERM Contaminated sites - see phase code for status of site. Contaminated sites identifies properties where environmental contamination...

  9. Technologies for remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This report presents particulars on environmental restoration technologies (control and treatment) which can be applied to land based, radioactively contaminated sites. The media considered include soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, air, and terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The technologies addressed in this report can be categorized as follows: self-attenuation (natural restoration); in-situ treatment; removal of contamination; ex-situ treatment; and transportation and final disposal. The report provides also background information about and a general approach to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites as well as some guidance for the selection of a preferred remediation technology. Examples of remediation experience in Australia and Canada are given it annexes

  10. Recycle of radiologically contaminated austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imrich, K.J.; Leader, D.R.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy owns large quantities of radiologically contaminated austenitic stainless steel which could by recycled for reuse if appropriate release standards were in place. Unfortunately, current policy places the formulation of a release standard for USA industry years, if not decades, away. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and various university and industrial partners are participating in initiative to recycle previously contaminated austenitic stainless steels into containers for the storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. This paper describes laboratory scale experiments which demonstrated the decontamination and remelt of stainless steel which had been contaminated with radionuclides

  11. Escherichia coli Field Contamination of Pecan Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Karen A.; Amling, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    More pecan samples collected from grazed orchards were contaminated with Escherichia coli than were samples from nongrazed orchards. No differences in frequency of contamination between mechanically and manually harvested nuts occurred. Nutmeats from whole uncracked pecans that were soaked for 24 h in a lactose broth solution containing E. coli did not become contaminated. Twentyfour percent of the whole pecans soaked in water for 48 h to simulate standing in a rain puddle developed openings along shell suture lines which did not completely close when the nuts were redried. PMID:4584575

  12. Mie Scattering of Growing Molecular Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herren, Kenneth A.; Gregory, Don A.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular contamination of optical surfaces from outgassed material has been shown in many cases to proceed from acclimation centers and to produce many roughly hemispherical "islands" of contamination on the surface. The mathematics of the hemispherical scattering is simplified by introducing a Virtual source below the plane of the optic, in this case a mirror, allowing the use of Mie theory to produce a solution for the resulting sphere .in transmission. Experimentally, a fixed wavelength in the vacuum ultraviolet was used as the illumination source and scattered light from the polished and coated glass mirrors was detected at a fixed angle as the contamination islands grew in time.

  13. Efficient reconstruction of contaminant release history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alezander, Francis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anghel, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gulbahce, Natali [NON LANL; Tartakovsky, Daniel [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    We present a generalized hybrid Monte Carlo (GHMC) method for fast, statistically optimal reconstruction of release histories of reactive contaminants. The approach is applicable to large-scale, strongly nonlinear systems with parametric uncertainties and data corrupted by measurement errors. The use of discrete adjoint equations facilitates numerical implementation of GHMC, without putting any restrictions on the degree of nonlinearity of advection-dispersion-reaction equations that are used to described contaminant transport in the subsurface. To demonstrate the salient features of the proposed algorithm, we identify the spatial extent of a distributed source of contamination from concentration measurements of a reactive solute.

  14. Spectral imaging for contamination detection in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Jens Michael

    application of the technique is finding anomalies I supposedly homogeneous matter or homogeneous mixtures. This application occurs frequently in the food industry when different types of contamination are to be detected. Contaminants could be e.g. foreign matter, process-induced toxins, and microbiological...... spoilage. Many of these contaminants may be detected in the wavelength range visible to normal silicium-based camera sensors i.e. 350-1050 nm with proper care during sample preparation, sample presentation, image acquisition and analysis. This presentation will give an introduction to the techniques behind...

  15. Environmental contaminants, ecosystems and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S.K.; Miller, E.W.; Brenner, F.J. [eds.] [Lafayette College, Easton, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-12-31

    The authors cover a variety of concerns regarding the adverse impacts of contaminants on ecosystems and human health. The twelve chapters in the first section of the text address the impact of contaminants on ecosystem function, and ten of the remaining twenty-two chapters are devoted to the effects of contaminants on human health. Part three presents eight case studies in humans, while the final four chapters provide the reader with an assessment of environmental problems and analyses. Two chapters, on the health effects of power plant generated air pollution and on black lung disease, have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  16. Biological processes influencing contaminant release from sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reible, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of biological processes, including bioturbation, on the mobility of contaminants in freshwater sediments is described. Effective mass coefficients are estimated for tubificid oligochaetes as a function of worm behavior and biomass density. The mass transfer coefficients were observed to be inversely proportional to water oxygen content and proportional to the square root of biomass density. The sediment reworking and contaminant release are contrasted with those of freshwater amphipods. The implications of these and other biological processes for contaminant release and i n-situ remediation of soils and sediments are summarized. 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Cesium contamination of mosses in county Vas, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golya, I.; Sebestyen, R.

    1993-01-01

    Two species of mosses were examined to assess radiocesium contamination of Vas county, and to analyse some aspects of mosses for use as indicator of radioactive contamination. Experimental results demonstrated that the distribution of contamination in a given region could be characterized by the cesium contamination of mosses. Sampling sites should be selected with special attention paid to spots with high contamination. Regression analysis proved that the contamination of mosses originated from Chernobyl fallout. (author) 4 refs.; 2 figs

  18. Urban contamination and dose model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, E.; Barry, P.J.

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear power reactors and other nuclear facilities are being built near or even within urban centres. Accidental releases of radionuclides to the atmosphere in built-up areas result in radiological exposure pathways that differ from those caused by releases in rural environments. Other than inhalation, exposure pathways involve external radiation from the plume while it passes and from radioactivity deposited onto the many and varied surfaces after it has passed. Radiation fields inside buildings are attenuated but many people are potentially exposed so while individual doses may be relatively low, population integrated doses may be high enough to cause concern. It is important, therefore, to assess the potential exposures and to estimate the cost-effectiveness of dose reduction measures in urban environments. This report describes a model developed to carry out such assessments. The model draws heavily on experience gained in European cities after their contamination fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Input is time integrated concentrations of specific radionuclides in urban air, obtained either by direct measurement or by prediction using an atmospheric dispersion model. The code includes default values for site specific variables and transfer parameters but the user is invited if desired to enter other values from the keyboard. Output is the time integrated dose rates for individuals selected because of the characteristic living, working and recreational habits. An accompanying manual documents the technical background on which the model is based and leads a first-time suer through various steps and operations encountered while the model is running. (author). 60 refs., 10 tabs., 1 fig

  19. Microbial populations in contaminant plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    Efficient biodegradation of subsurface contaminants requires two elements: (1) microbial populations with the necessary degradative capabilities, and (2) favorable subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions. Practical constraints on experimental design and interpretation in both the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences have resulted in limited knowledge of the interaction between hydrogeological and microbiological features of subsurface environments. These practical constraints include: (1) inconsistencies between the scales of investigation in the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences, and (2) practical limitations on the ability to accurately define microbial populations in environmental samples. However, advances in application of small-scale sampling methods and interdisciplinary approaches to site investigations are beginning to significantly improve understanding of hydrogeological and microbiological interactions. Likewise, culture-based and molecular analyses of microbial populations in subsurface contaminant plumes have revealed significant adaptation of microbial populations to plume environmental conditions. Results of recent studies suggest that variability in subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions significantly influences subsurface microbial-community structure. Combined investigations of site conditions and microbial-community structure provide the knowledge needed to understand interactions between subsurface microbial populations, plume geochemistry, and contaminant biodegradation. La biodégradation efficace des polluants souterrains requiert deux éléments: des populations microbiennes possédant les aptitudes nécessaires à la dégradation, et des conditions géochimiques et hydrologiques souterraines favorables. Des contraintes pratiques sur la conception et l'interprétation des expériences à la fois en microbiologie et en hydrogéologie ont conduit à une connaissance limitée des interactions entre les

  20. Radiation exposure to skin following radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, H.; Beyermann, M.; Kraus, W.

    1989-01-01

    In the case of skin contamination intensive decontamination measures should not be carried out until the potential radiation exposure to the basal cell layer of the epidermis was assessed. Dose equivalent rates from alpha-, beta- or photon-emitting contaminants were calculated with reference to the surface activity for different skin regions as a function of radiation energy on the condition that the skin was healthy and uninjured and the penetration of contaminants through the epidermis negligible. The results have been presented in the form of figures and tables. In the assessment of potential skin doses, both radioactive decay and practical experience as to the decrease in the level of surface contamination by natural desquamation of the stratum corneum were taken into account. 9 figs., 5 tabs., 46 refs. (author)

  1. Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

    1992-01-01

    This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage

  2. Radioactive contamination mapping system detailed design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.G.; O'Callaghan, P.B.

    1996-08-01

    The Hanford Site's 100 Area production reactors released radioactively and chemically contaminated liquids into the soil column. The primary source of the contaminated liquids was reactor coolant and various waste waters released from planned liquid discharges, as well as pipelines, pipe junctions, and retention basins leaking into the disposal sites. Site remediation involves excavating the contaminated soils using conventional earthmoving techniques and equipment, treating as appropriate, transporting the soils, and disposing the soils at ERDF. To support remediation excavation, disposal, and documentation requirements, an automated radiological monitoring system was deemed necessary. The RCMS (Radioactive Contamination Mapping System) was designed to fulfill this need. This Detailed Design Report provides design information for the RCMS in accordance with Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Engineering Design Project Instructions

  3. Flotation of PAH contaminated dredged sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulleneers, H.; Roubroeks, S.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.; Koopal, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    The applicability of dissolved air flotation to remediate contaminated sediments of "Overschie" (Rotterdam) and "Petrol Harbor" (Amsterdam) is studied. Several flotation reagents (Diesel Fuel, Montanol, Aerophine, Aerofroth) are applied to enhance the flotation efficiency. The physical chemical

  4. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from...

  5. Th biodistribution in internal contamination of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciubotariu, M.; Danis, A.; Dumitrescu, G.; Cucu, M.

    1999-01-01

    Fissionable elements (U,Th) internal contamination have been studied using the fission track method as analysis method of the U and/or Th contaminant elements and Wistar-London breed rats as experiment animals. Different ways to obtain internal contaminations have been investigated: ingestion, inhalation, absorption by skin and through wounds. After the U internal contamination study was carried out, in this stage the Th internal contamination by ingestion is in progress. Using the identical aliquot parts of a solution calibrated in Th, corresponding to an Annual Limit Intake, three Wistar-London breed rats were contaminated. They were kept in normal life conditions and under permanent medical surveillance up to their sacrification. The animals were sacrificed at different time intervals after their contamination: 2 days, 7 days and 14 days, respectively. After the sacrification, their vital organs were sampled, weighed, calcined, re-weighed and finally analysed by track detection using the fission track micro-mappings technique. Also, their evacuations were sampled every 24 hours weighed, calcined and analysed in the same way as the vital organs. The Th fission track micro-mappings technique was used in the following conditions: - mica-muscovite as track detector pre-etched for fossil tracks 18 h in HF-40 per cent at room temperature; - the neutron irradiations were performed in the nuclear reactor VVR-S Bucharest at the neutron fluences of 3.10 15 - 2.10 16 fast neutrons/c m 2 ; - the visualization of the Th induced fission tracks were obtained by chemical etching in HF-40 per cent, 3 h at room temperature; - the Th track micro-mappings obtained in track detectors were studied by optical microscopy using a stereo microscope WILD M7S for ensemble study (X6-X31) and a binocular ZEISS JENA microscope for qualitative and quantitative studies (X150). The biological reference materials calibrated in Th were prepared in our laboratory using the calcined organs and the

  6. Occurrence of Surface Water Contaminations: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabudin, M. M.; Musa, S.

    2018-04-01

    Water is a part of our life and needed by all organisms. As time goes by, the needs by human increased transforming water quality into bad conditions. Surface water contaminated in various ways which is pointed sources and non-pointed sources. Pointed sources means the source are distinguished from the source such from drains or factory but the non-pointed always occurred in mixed of elements of pollutants. This paper is reviewing the occurrence of the contaminations with effects that occurred around us. Pollutant factors from natural or anthropology factors such nutrients, pathogens, and chemical elements contributed to contaminations. Most of the effects from contaminated surface water contributed to the public health effects also to the environments.

  7. Estimating exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    This report describes generalized models for the estimation of contaminant exposure experienced by wildlife on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The primary exposure pathway considered is oral ingestion, e.g. the consumption of contaminated food, water, or soil. Exposure through dermal absorption and inhalation are special cases and are not considered hereIN. Because wildlife mobile and generally consume diverse diets and because environmental contamination is not spatial homogeneous, factors to account for variation in diet, movement, and contaminant distribution have been incorporated into the models. To facilitate the use and application of the models, life history parameters necessary to estimate exposure are summarized for 15 common wildlife species. Finally, to display the application of the models, exposure estimates were calculated for four species using data from a source operable unit on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  8. Contamination monitoring: an overview and its objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangena, S.

    2013-04-01

    The study presents and objectively summarises the aspect of contamination monitoring. This envisages reviewing sources of contamination and evaluating the scientific basis for practice specific courses of action for rehabilitation in a bid to restore pristine conditions wherever possible. The practices considered include nuclear medicine, reprocessing plants, fuel production plants, uranium and thorium mining and milling together with near surface disposal facilities (for radioactive waste). It also deals with monitoring sites contaminated as a consequence of past practices. General issues related to the design and operation of monitoring systems during and in the aftermath of a nuclear or radiological accident are also discussed including monitoring for long lived radionuclides widely dispersed in the environment following an accidental release. Thus the above discourse provides a framework for both quantitative and qualitative measures undertaken to enable effective response in the event of radioactive contamination. (au)

  9. Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

    1992-08-04

    This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage.

  10. Potential Well Water Contaminants and Their Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first step to protect your health and the health of your family is learning about what may pollute your source of drinking water. Potential contamination may occur naturally, or as a result of human activity.

  11. Bioremediation of Benzene-contaminated Underground Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Takahata, Yoh

    Contamination of underground aquifers with gasoline occurs frequently. Among the gasoline constituents, benzene is of great environmental concern, since it is carcinogenic, water-soluble and persistent under anaerobic conditions. We have analyzed a gasoline-contaminated underground aquifer undergoing natural attenuation, where benzene was degraded, albeit slowly, under anaerobic conditions. RNA-based stable-isotope probing identified that bacteria affiliated with the genus AZOARCUS was responsible for benzene degradation under nitrate-reducing conditions. This result was confirmed by isolating an anaerobic benzene-degrading bacterium AZOARCUS sp. strain DN11. This strain degraded benzene at relatively low concentrations (as low as 10 ppb). It could also degrade toluene and xylenes. In laboratory bioaugmentation experiments using benzene-contaminated groundwater, it was demonstrated that supplementation with DN11 significantly accelerated benzene degradation under a nitrate-reducing condition. These results indicate that DN11 is potentially useful for degrading benzene that contaminates underground aquifers at relatively low concentrations.

  12. Infrared characterized spacecraft contaminants and related compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, F. C.

    1977-01-01

    The limits of the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum are discussed, together with an explanation of some of the shortcomings of obtaining data in this range. Similarities and differences in the interest taken by the chemist/spectroscopist and the space/spectroscopist in the IR spectrum are discussed. The chemist uses IR spectra to identify materials and contaminants associated with spacecraft fabrication and testing. The space scientist, using IR spectrometry, can determine atmospheric conditions around planets, stars, and galaxies. He could also determine the temperature profile of the Earth's atmosphere at different altitudes, or even the temperature profile of the Sun. The importance of detecting contamination of spacecraft and the possible results of not taking corrective action are explored. All space experiments contain some contaminants, to a lesser or greater degree; the responsible personnel involved must determine the level of toleration. A collection of IR spectra of known spacecraft contaminants is presented as a guide for cognizant scientists and engineers.

  13. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ; indexed wells; river basin; ... contamination. The numerical values of principal component (PC) loadings and scores are used (i) to interpret the relative importance of the chemi- ...... Berner E K and Berner R A 1987 The global water cycle ...

  14. Technology for reuse of contaminated concrete constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkhorst, I.P.; Cornelissen, H.A.W.

    1998-01-01

    During decommissioning activities of nuclear installations, large amounts of contaminated concrete will have to be processed. All this concrete has to be treated and stored as radioactive waste, which implies major economical and environmental consequences. It was shown that the contamination is mainly concentrated in the porous cement stone. By separating this cement stone from the clean dense aggregate particles, a considerable volume reduction can be reached. KEMA has developed, designed and constructed a pilot plant scale test installation for separation of aggregate from contaminated concrete. The separation is based on a thermal treatment followed by milling and sieving. The clean aggregate can be re-used in concrete, whereas the (slightly) contaminated cement stone could be upgraded to a binder for concrete used in the nuclear industry. (author)

  15. Estimating exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes generalized models for the estimation of contaminant exposure experienced by wildlife on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The primary exposure pathway considered is oral ingestion, e.g. the consumption of contaminated food, water, or soil. Exposure through dermal absorption and inhalation are special cases and are not considered hereIN. Because wildlife mobile and generally consume diverse diets and because environmental contamination is not spatial homogeneous, factors to account for variation in diet, movement, and contaminant distribution have been incorporated into the models. To facilitate the use and application of the models, life history parameters necessary to estimate exposure are summarized for 15 common wildlife species. Finally, to display the application of the models, exposure estimates were calculated for four species using data from a source operable unit on the Oak Ridge Reservation

  16. Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Contaminants in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photocatalytic treatment of organics, including regulated and contaminants of emerging concern, has been an important area of this field. Details are provided on the mechanism of degradation, reaction intermediates, kinetics, and nanointerfacial adsorption phenomena. The degradat...

  17. Calibration of alpha surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, I.S.M. de; Goncalez, O.L.

    1990-01-01

    In this work, the results, as well as the methodology, of the calibration of an alpha surface contamination monitor are presented. The calibration factors are obtained by least-squares fitting with effective variance. (author)

  18. Groundwater resources and regional environmental radionuclide contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zektser, Igor S.; Rogachevskaya, Liliya M.

    2002-01-01

    Drinking water of good quality is considered as an absolutely necessary component of sustainable development of territories and their inhabitants. The environmental radionuclide contamination problem after human activities is at the edge in modern world in accordance with the sustainable development task. The regional contamination is affected the local and regional surface water-catchment areas, as well as the recharge areas of shallow unconfined and some stratum aquifers used for centralized water supply of the population. The obtained new data (UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) Project RUS/95/004 of the Russian Federation) on the radioecological state and the preliminary predictions within contaminated territories do not enable to consider groundwater as throughout reliably protected against radionuclide contamination. During exploitation shallow water the location of water wells within divides essentially decreases the low-quality drinking water obtaining risk The strategy must be aimed at obligatory of reliably protected deep groundwater in water supply systems. (author)

  19. Variable pattern contamination control under positive pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippi, H.M.

    1997-01-01

    Airborne contamination control in nuclear and biological laboratories is traditionally achieved by directing the space ventilation air at subatmospheric pressures in one fixed flow pattern. However, biological and nuclear contamination flow control in the new Biological Research Facility, to be commissioned at the Chalk River Laboratories in 1996, will have the flexibility to institute a number of contamination control patterns, all achieved at positive (above atmospheric) pressures. This flexibility feature, made possible by means of a digitally controlled ventilation system, changes the facility ventilation system from being a relatively rigid building service operated by plant personnel into a flexible building service which can be operated by the facility research personnel. This paper focuses on and describes the application of these unique contamination control features in the design of the new Biological Research Facility. 3 refs., 7 figs

  20. Calculational Tool for Skin Contamination Dose Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, R L

    2002-01-01

    Spreadsheet calculational tool was developed to automate the calculations preformed for dose assessment of skin contamination. This document reports on the design and testing of the spreadsheet calculational tool.