Tunable Hybrid Qubit in a Triple Quantum Dot
Wang, Bao-Chuan; Cao, Gang; Li, Hai-Ou; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Hu, Xuedong; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Guo, Guo-Ping
2017-12-01
We experimentally demonstrate quantum-coherent dynamics of a triple-dot-based multielectron hybrid qubit. Pulsed experiments show that this system can be conveniently initialized, controlled, measured electrically, and has a good ratio Q ˜29 between the coherence time and gate time. Furthermore, the current multielectron hybrid qubit has an operation frequency that is tunable in a wide range, from 2 to about 15 GHz. We also provide a qualitative understanding of the experimental observations by mapping them onto a three-electron system. The demonstration of the high tunability in a triple dot system could be potentially useful for future quantum control.
A triple quantum dot based nano-electromechanical memory device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pozner, R.; Lifshitz, E.; Peskin, U.
2015-01-01
Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are free-standing nano-structures with chemically tunable electronic properties. This tunability offers intriguing possibilities for nano-electromechanical devices. In this work, we consider a nano-electromechanical nonvolatile memory (NVM) device incorporating a triple quantum dot (TQD) cluster. The device operation is based on a bias induced motion of a floating quantum dot (FQD) located between two bound quantum dots (BQDs). The mechanical motion is used for switching between two stable states, “ON” and “OFF” states, where ligand-mediated effective interdot forces between the BQDs and the FQD serve to hold the FQD in each stable position under zero bias. Considering realistic microscopic parameters, our quantum-classical theoretical treatment of the TQD reveals the characteristics of the NVM
A triple quantum dot in a single-wall carbon nanotube
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grove-Rasmussen, Kasper; Jørgensen, Henrik Ingerslev; Hayashi, T.
2008-01-01
A top-gated single-wall carbon nanotube is used to define three coupled quantum dots in series between two electrodes. The additional electron number on each quantum dot is controlled by top-gate voltages allowing for current measurements of single, double, and triple quantum dot stability diagrams...
Physics of lateral triple quantum-dot molecules with controlled electron numbers.
Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Shim, Yun-Pil; Korkusinski, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel
2012-11-01
We review the recent progress in theory and experiments with lateral triple quantum dots with controlled electron numbers down to one electron in each dot. The theory covers electronic and spin properties as a function of topology, number of electrons, gate voltage and external magnetic field. The orbital Hund's rules and Nagaoka ferromagnetism, magnetic frustration and chirality, interplay of quantum interference and electron-electron interactions and geometrical phases are described and related to charging and transport spectroscopy. Fabrication techniques and recent experiments are covered, as well as potential applications of triple quantum-dot molecule in coherent control, spin manipulation and quantum computation.
Influences of a Side-Coupled Triple Quantum Dot on Kondo Transport Through a Quantum Dot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Zhaotan; Yang Yannan; Qin Zhijie
2010-01-01
Kondo transport properties through a Kondo-type quantum dot (QD) with a side-coupled triple-QD structure are systematically investigated by using the non-equilibrium Green's function method. We firstly derive the formulae of the current, the linear conductance, the transmission coefficient, and the local density of states. Then we carry out the analytical and numerical studies and some universal conductance properties are obtained. It is shown that the number of the conductance valleys is intrinsically determined by the side-coupled QDs and at most equal to the number of the QDs included in the side-coupled structure in the asymmetric limit. In the process of forming the conductance valleys, the side-coupled QD system plays the dominant role while the couplings between the Kondo-type QD and the side-coupled structure play the subsidiary and indispensable roles. To testify the validity of the universal conductance properties, another different kinds of side-coupled triple-QD structures are considered. It should be emphasized that these universal properties are applicable in understanding this kind of systems with arbitrary many-QD side structures.
Photon-assisted tunneling in an asymmetrically coupled triple quantum dot
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Bao-Chuan; Cao, Gang, E-mail: gcao@ustc.edu.cn; Chen, Bao-Bao; Yu, Guo-Dong; Li, Hai-Ou; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guo-Ping, E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, CAS, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)
2016-08-14
The gate-defined quantum dot is regarded as one of the basic structures required for scalable semiconductor quantum processors. Here, we demonstrate a structure that contains three quantum dots scaled in series. The electron number of each dot and the tunnel coupling between them can be tuned conveniently using splitting gates. We tune the quantum dot array asymmetrically such that the tunnel coupling between the right dot and the central dot is much larger than that between the left dot and the central dot. When driven by microwaves, the sidebands of the photon-assisted tunneling process appear not only in the left-to-central dot transition region but also in the left-to-right dot transition region. These sidebands are both attributed to the left-to-central transition for asymmetric coupling. Our result shows that there is a region of a triple quantum dot structure that remains indistinct when studied with a normal two-dimensional charge stability diagram; this will be helpful in future studies of the scalability of quantum dot systems.
Photon-assisted tunneling in an asymmetrically coupled triple quantum dot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Bao-Chuan; Cao, Gang; Chen, Bao-Bao; Yu, Guo-Dong; Li, Hai-Ou; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guo-Ping
2016-01-01
The gate-defined quantum dot is regarded as one of the basic structures required for scalable semiconductor quantum processors. Here, we demonstrate a structure that contains three quantum dots scaled in series. The electron number of each dot and the tunnel coupling between them can be tuned conveniently using splitting gates. We tune the quantum dot array asymmetrically such that the tunnel coupling between the right dot and the central dot is much larger than that between the left dot and the central dot. When driven by microwaves, the sidebands of the photon-assisted tunneling process appear not only in the left-to-central dot transition region but also in the left-to-right dot transition region. These sidebands are both attributed to the left-to-central transition for asymmetric coupling. Our result shows that there is a region of a triple quantum dot structure that remains indistinct when studied with a normal two-dimensional charge stability diagram; this will be helpful in future studies of the scalability of quantum dot systems.
Fano interferences in the transport properties of triple quantum dot T-shaped systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tifrea, I; Crisan, M; Grosu, I
2009-01-01
We consider the transport and the noise characteristic in the case of a triple quantum dots T-shaped system where two of the dots form a two-level system and the other works in a detector-like setup. Our theoretical results are obtained using the equation of motion method for the case of zero on-site Coulomb interaction in the detector dot. The transport trough the T-shaped system can be controlled by varying the coupling between the two-level system dots or the coupling between the detector dot and the exterior electrodes. The Fano dips in the system's conductance can be observe both for strong (fast detector) and weak coupling (slow detector) between the detector dot and the external electrodes. Due to stronger electronic correlations the noise in the case of a slow detector are much higher. This setup may be of interest for the practical realization of qubit states in quantum dots systems.
Coherent electron-spin-resonance manipulation of three individual spins in a triple quantum dot
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noiri, A. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Yoneda, J.; Nakajima, T.; Otsuka, T.; Delbecq, M. R.; Takeda, K.; Tarucha, S. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); RIKEN, Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Amaha, S.; Allison, G. [RIKEN, Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ludwig, A.; Wieck, A. D. [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)
2016-04-11
Quantum dot arrays provide a promising platform for quantum information processing. For universal quantum simulation and computation, one central issue is to demonstrate the exhaustive controllability of quantum states. Here, we report the addressable manipulation of three single electron spins in a triple quantum dot using a technique combining electron-spin-resonance and a micro-magnet. The micro-magnet makes the local Zeeman field difference between neighboring spins much larger than the nuclear field fluctuation, which ensures the addressable driving of electron-spin-resonance by shifting the resonance condition for each spin. We observe distinct coherent Rabi oscillations for three spins in a semiconductor triple quantum dot with up to 25 MHz spin rotation frequencies. This individual manipulation over three spins enables us to arbitrarily change the magnetic spin quantum number of the three spin system, and thus to operate a triple-dot device as a three-qubit system in combination with the existing technique of exchange operations among three spins.
Electrical and optical control of entanglement entropy in a coupled triple quantum dot system
Mehmannavaz, Mohammad Reza
2015-10-01
We investigated theoretically the entanglement creation through tunneling rate and fields in a four-level triple quantum dot molecule based on InAs/GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure in both steady state and transient state. We demonstrate that the entanglement entropy among the QDM and its spontaneous emission fields can be controlled by coherent and incoherent pumping field and tunnel-coupled electronics levels. The results may provide some new possibilities for technological applications in solid-state quantum information science, quantum computing, teleportation, encryption, compression codec, and optoelectronics.
Leakage and sweet spots in triple-quantum-dot spin qubits: A molecular-orbital study
Zhang, Chengxian; Yang, Xu-Chen; Wang, Xin
2018-04-01
A triple-quantum-dot system can be operated as either an exchange-only qubit or a resonant-exchange qubit. While it is generally believed that the decisive advantage of the resonant-exchange qubit is the suppression of charge noise because it is operated at a sweet spot, we show that the leakage is also an important factor. Through molecular-orbital-theoretic calculations, we show that when the system is operated in the exchange-only scheme, the leakage to states with double electron occupancy in quantum dots is severe when rotations around the axis 120∘ from z ̂ is performed. While this leakage can be reduced by either shrinking the dots or separating them further, the exchange interactions are also suppressed at the same time, making the gate operations unfavorably slow. When the system is operated as a resonant-exchange qubit, the leakage is three to five orders of magnitude smaller. We have also calculated the optimal detuning point which minimizes the leakage for the resonant-exchange qubit, and have found that although it does not coincide with the double sweet spot for the charge noise, they are rather close. Our results suggest that the resonant-exchange qubit has another advantage, that leakage can be greatly suppressed compared to the exchange-only qubit, and operating at the double sweet spot point should be optimal both for reducing charge noise and suppressing leakage.
Quasienergy spectrum and tunneling current in ac-driven triple quantum dot shuttles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Villavicencio, J [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Ensenada (Mexico); Maldonado, I [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada (Mexico); Cota, E [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ensenada (Mexico); Platero, G, E-mail: villavics@uabc.edu.mx [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)
2011-02-15
The dynamics of electrons in ac-driven double quantum dots have been extensively analyzed by means of Floquet theory. In these systems, coherent destruction of tunneling has been shown to occur for certain ac field parameters. In this work we analyze, by means of Floquet theory, the electron dynamics of a triple quantum dot in series attached to electric contacts, where the central dot position oscillates. In particular, we analyze the quasienergy spectrum of this ac-driven nanoelectromechanical system as a function of the intensity and frequency of the ac field and of external dc voltages. For strong driving fields, we derive, by means of perturbation theory, analytical expressions for the quasienergies of the driven oscillator system. From this analysis, we discuss the conditions for coherent destruction of tunneling (CDT) to occur as a function of detuning and field parameters. For zero detuning, and from the invariance of the Floquet Hamiltonian under a generalized parity transformation, we find analytical expressions describing the symmetry properties of the Fourier components of the Floquet states under such a transformation. By using these expressions, we show that in the vicinity of the CDT condition, the quasienergy spectrum exhibits exact crossings which can be characterized by the parity properties of the corresponding eigenvectors.
Ultraclean single, double, and triple carbon nanotube quantum dots with recessed Re bottom gates
Jung, Minkyung; Schindele, Jens; Nau, Stefan; Weiss, Markus; Baumgartner, Andreas; Schoenenberger, Christian
2014-03-01
Ultraclean carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that are free from disorder provide a promising platform to manipulate single electron or hole spins for quantum information. Here, we demonstrate that ultraclean single, double, and triple quantum dots (QDs) can be formed reliably in a CNT by a straightforward fabrication technique. The QDs are electrostatically defined in the CNT by closely spaced metallic bottom gates deposited in trenches in Silicon dioxide by sputter deposition of Re. The carbon nanotubes are then grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) across the trenches and contacted using conventional electron beam lithography. The devices exhibit reproducibly the characteristics of ultraclean QDs behavior even after the subsequent electron beam lithography and chemical processing steps. We demonstrate the high quality using CNT devices with two narrow bottom gates and one global back gate. Tunable by the gate voltages, the device can be operated in four different regimes: i) fully p-type with ballistic transport between the outermost contacts (over a length of 700 nm), ii) clean n-type single QD behavior where a QD can be induced by either the left or the right bottom gate, iii) n-type double QD and iv) triple bipolar QD where the middle QD has opposite doping (p-type). Research at Basel is supported by the NCCR-Nano, NCCR-QIST, ERC project QUEST, and FP7 project SE2ND.
Dark states in spin-polarized transport through triple quantum dot molecules
Wrześniewski, K.; Weymann, I.
2018-02-01
We study the spin-polarized transport through a triple-quantum-dot molecule weakly coupled to ferromagnetic leads. The analysis is performed by means of the real-time diagrammatic technique, including up to the second order of perturbation expansion with respect to the tunnel coupling. The emphasis is put on the impact of dark states on spin-resolved transport characteristics. It is shown that the interplay of coherent population trapping and cotunneling processes results in a highly nontrivial behavior of the tunnel magnetoresistance, which can take negative values. Moreover, a super-Poissonian shot noise is found in transport regimes where the current is blocked by the formation of dark states, which can be additionally enhanced by spin dependence of tunneling processes, depending on the magnetic configuration of the device. The mechanisms leading to those effects are thoroughly discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kouwenhoven, L.; Marcus, C.
1998-01-01
Quantum dots are man-made ''droplets'' of charge that can contain anything from a single electron to a collection of several thousand. Their typical dimensions range from nanometres to a few microns, and their size, shape and interactions can be precisely controlled through the use of advanced nanofabrication technology. The physics of quantum dots shows many parallels with the behaviour of naturally occurring quantum systems in atomic and nuclear physics. Indeed, quantum dots exemplify an important trend in condensed-matter physics in which researchers study man-made objects rather than real atoms or nuclei. As in an atom, the energy levels in a quantum dot become quantized due to the confinement of electrons. With quantum dots, however, an experimentalist can scan through the entire periodic table by simply changing a voltage. In this article the authors describe how quantum dots make it possible to explore new physics in regimes that cannot otherwise be accessed in the laboratory. (UK)
Tartakovskii, Alexander
2012-07-01
Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by
Fano–Kondo Effect in a Triple Quantum Dots Coupled to Ferromagnetic Leads
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ai-Hua, Bi; Shao-Quan, Wu; Tao, Hou; Wei-Li, Sun
2008-01-01
Using the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green function and equation-of-motion technique, we have qualitatively studied the spin-dependent transport of a triple-QD system in the Kondo regime. It is shown that the Kondo resonance and Fano interference coexist, and in this system the Fano–Kondo effect shows dip behaviours richer than that in the T-shaped QDs. The interdot coupling, the energy level of the side coupled QDs and the spin polarization strength greatly influence the DOS of the central quantum dot QD 0 . Either the increase of the coupling strength between the two QDs or that of the energy levels of the side coupled QDs enhances the Kondo resonance. Especially, the Kondo resonance is strengthened greatly when the side dot energy is fixed at the Fermi energy. Meanwhile, the Kondo resonance splits for the spin-up and spin-down configurations due to the polarization: the down-spin resonance is enhanced, and the up-spin resonance is suppressed. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Dynamical localization of two electrons in triple-quantum-dot shuttles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qu, Jinxian; Duan, Suqing; Yang, Ning
2012-01-01
The dynamical localization phenomena in two-electron quantum-dot shuttles driven by an ac field have been investigated and analyzed by the Floquet theory. The dynamical localization occurs near the anti-crossings in Floquet eigenenergy spectrum. The oscillation of the quantum-dot shuttles may increase the possibility of the dynamical localization. Especially, even if the two electrons are initialized in two neighbor dots, they can be localized there for appropriate intensity of the driven field. The studies may help the understanding of dynamical localization in electron shuttles and expand the application potential of nanoelectromechanical devices. -- Highlights: ► The dynamical localization in electron shuttle is studied by Floquet theory. ► There is a relation between quasi-energy anti-crossings and dynamical localization. ► The oscillation of quantum dot increases the dynamical localization. ► Even the electrons are initialized in different dots, the localization can occur.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guan, Chun; Xing, Yunhui; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Zhongshui
2014-01-01
Due to quantum interference, light can transmit through dense atomic media, a phenomenon known as electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We propose that EIT is not limited to light transmission and there is an electronic analog where resonant transparency in charge transport in an opaque structure can be induced by electromagnetic radiation. A triple-quantum-dots system with Λ-type level structure is generally opaque due to the level in the center dot being significantly higher and therefore hopping from the left dot to the center dot is almost forbidden. We demonstrate that an electromagnetically induced electron transparency (EIET) in charge of transport can indeed occur in the Λ-type system. The direct evidence of EIET is that an electron can travel from the left dot to the right dot, while the center dot apparently becomes invisible. We analyze EIET and the related shot noise in both the zero and strong Coulomb blockade regimes. It is found that the EIET (position, height, and symmetry) can be tuned by several controllable parameters of the radiation fields, such as the Rabi frequencies and detuning frequencies. The result offers a transparency/opaque tuning technique in charge transport using interfering radiation fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Studenikin, S. A.; Gaudreau, L.; Kataoka, K.; Austing, D. G.; Lu, Tzu-Ming; Luhman, Dwight; Bethke, Donald Thomas; Wanke, Michael; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Sachrajda, A. S.
2017-12-01
We demonstrate coupled triple dot operation and charge sensing capability for the recently introduced quantum dot technology employing undoped Si/Si_{0.8}Ge_{0.2} hetero-structures which also incorporate a single metal-gate layer to simplify fabrication [T. M. Lu et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 093102 (2016)]. Si/SiGe hetero-structures with a Ge concentration of 20% rather than the more usual 30% typically encountered offer higher electron mobility. The devices consist of two in-plane parallel electron channels that host a double dot in one channel and a single dot in the other channel. In a device where the channels are sufficiently close a triple dot in a triangular configuration is induced leading to regions in the charge stability diagram where three addition lines of different slope approach each other and anti-cross. In a device where the channels are further apart the single dot charge-senses the double dot with relative change of ~2% in the sensor current. We also highlight temporal drifting and metastability of the Coulomb oscillations. These effects are induced if the temperature environment of the device is not kept constant and arise from non-equilibrium charge redistribution and subsequent slow recovery.
Coherent Transport in a Linear Triple Quantum Dot Made from a Pure-Phase InAs Nanowire.
Wang, Ji-Yin; Huang, Shaoyun; Huang, Guang-Yao; Pan, Dong; Zhao, Jianhua; Xu, H Q
2017-07-12
A highly tunable linear triple quantum dot (TQD) device is realized in a single-crystalline pure-phase InAs nanowire using a local finger gate technique. The electrical measurements show that the charge stability diagram of the TQD can be represented by three kinds of current lines of different slopes and a simulation performed based on a capacitance matrix model confirms the experiment. We show that each current line observable in the charge stability diagram is associated with a case where a QD is on resonance with the Fermi level of the source and drain reservoirs. At a triple point where two current lines of different slopes move together but show anticrossing, two QDs are on resonance with the Fermi level of the reservoirs. We demonstrate that an energetically degenerated quadruple point at which all three QDs are on resonance with the Fermi level of the reservoirs can be built by moving two separated triple points together via sophistically tuning of energy levels in the three QDs. We also demonstrate the achievement of direct coherent electron transfer between the two remote QDs in the TQD, realizing a long-distance coherent quantum bus operation. Such a long-distance coherent coupling could be used to investigate coherent spin teleportation and superexchange effects and to construct a spin qubit with an improved long coherent time and with spin state detection solely by sensing the charge states.
GaAs/AlAs triple-coupled cavity with InAs quantum dots for ultrafast wavelength conversion devices
Lu, Xiangmeng; Ota, Hiroto; Kumagai, Naoto; Kitada, Takahiro; Isu, Toshiro
2017-04-01
We have investigated a GaAs/AlAs triple-coupled multilayer cavity structure with InAs quantum dots for an ultrafast wavelength conversion device. Three cavity modes with the resonance frequencies ω1, ω2, and ω3 were used for efficient wavelength conversion via a four-wave mixing (FWM) process. Identical frequency separation between two adjacent modes (ω1 - ω2 = ω2 - ω3) was successfully realized using a controlled lateral thickness variation across the wafer. Time-resolved FWM signals from the triple-coupled multilayer cavity were measured using 100 fs laser pulses. The incident laser pulses were divided into two pulses and each of them was spectrally shaped individually so that the input and control pulses only covered the ω1 and ω2 modes, respectively. The wavelength-converted FWM signal with a frequency of ω3 (= 2ω2 - ω1) was clearly observed when the sample was simultaneously irradiated with the input and control laser pulses.
Wang, Yuyuan; Wang, Yidan; Chen, Guojun; Li, Yitong; Xu, Wei; Gong, Shaoqin
2017-09-13
A quantum-dot (QD)-based micelle conjugated with an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nanobody (Nb) and loaded with an anticancer drug, aminoflavone (AF), has been engineered for EGFR-overexpressing cancer theranostics. The near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence of the indium phosphate core/zinc sulfide shell QDs (InP/ZnS QDs) allowed for in vivo nanoparticle biodistribution studies. The anti-EGFR nanobody 7D12 conjugation improved the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of the QD-based micelles in EGFR-overexpressing MDA-MB-468 triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. In comparison with the AF-encapsulated nontargeted (i.e., without Nb conjugation) micelles, the AF-encapsulated Nb-conjugated (i.e., targeted) micelles accumulated in tumors at higher concentrations, leading to more effective tumor regression in an orthotopic triple-negative breast cancer xenograft mouse model. Furthermore, there was no systemic toxicity observed with the treatments. Thus, this QD-based Nb-conjugated micelle may serve as an effective theranostic nanoplatform for EGFR-overexpressing cancers such as TNBCs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leosson, Kristjan
Semiconductor quantum dots ("solid-state atoms") are promising candidates for quantum computers and future electronic and optoelectronic devices. Quantum dots are zero-dimensional electronic systems and therefore have discrete energy levels, similar to atoms or molecules. The size distribution...... of quantum dots, however, results in a large inhomogeneous broadening of quantum dot spectra. Work on self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots will be presented. Properties of atom-like single-dot states are investigated optically using high spatial and spectral resolution. Single-dot spectra can be used...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leosson, Kristjan
1999-01-01
Semiconductor quantum dots ("solid state atoms") are promising candidates for quantum computers and future electronic and optoelectronic devices. Quantum dots are zero-dimensional electronic systems and therefore have discrete energy levels, similar to atoms or molecules. The size distribution...... of quantum dots, however, results in a large inhomogeneous broadening of quantum dot spectra.Work on self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots will be presented. Properties of atom-like single-dots states are investigated optically using high spatial and spectral resolution. Single-dot spectra can be used...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vukmirovic, Nenad; Wang, Lin-Wang
2009-11-10
This review covers the description of the methodologies typically used for the calculation of the electronic structure of self-assembled and colloidal quantum dots. These are illustrated by the results of their application to a selected set of physical effects in quantum dots.
Ultrasmall silicon quantum dots
Zwanenburg, F.A.; Van Loon, A.A.; Steele, G.A.; Rijmenam, C.E.W.M.; Balder, T.; Fang, Y.; Lieber, C.M.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.
2009-01-01
We report the realization of extremely small single quantum dots in p-type silicon nanowires, defined by Schottky tunnel barriers with Ni and NiSi contacts. Despite their ultrasmall size the NiSi–Si–NiSi nanowire quantum dots readily allow spectroscopy of at least ten consecutive holes, and
McDaniel, Hunter
2017-10-17
Common approaches to synthesizing alloyed quantum dots employ high-cost, air-sensitive phosphine complexes as the selenium precursor. Disclosed quantum dot synthesis embodiments avoid these hazardous and air-sensitive selenium precursors. Certain embodiments utilize a combination comprising a thiol and an amine that together reduce and complex the elemental selenium to form a highly reactive selenium precursor at room temperature. The same combination of thiol and amine acts as the reaction solvent, stabilizing ligand, and sulfur source in the synthesis of quantum dot cores. A non-injection approach may also be used. The optical properties of the quantum dots synthesized by this new approach can be finely tuned for a variety of applications by controlling size and/or composition of size and composition. Further, using the same approach, a shell can be grown around a quantum dot core that improves stability, luminescence efficiency, and may reduce toxicity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deus, Fernanda; Continetino, Mucio
2011-01-01
Full text. In this work we study the time dependent transport in interacting quantum dot. This is a zero-dimensional nano structure system which has quantized electronic states. In our purpose, we are interested in studying such system in a Coulomb blockade regime where a mean-field treatment of the electronic correlations are appropriate. The quantum dot is described by an Anderson type of Hamiltonian where the hybridization term arises from the contact with the leads. We consider a time dependence of both the energy of the localized state in the quantum dot and of the hybridization-like term. These time dependent parameters, under certain conditions, induce a current in the quantum dot even in the absence of difference on the chemical potential of the leads. The approach to this non-equilibrium problem requires the use of a Keldysh formalism. We calculate the non- equilibrium Green's functions and obtain results for the average (equilibrium term) and the non-equilibrium values of the electronic occupation number in the dot. we consider the possibility of a magnetic solution, with different values for the average up and down spins in the quantum dot. Our results allow to obtain, for instance, the tunneling current through the dot. The magnetic nature of the dot, for a certain range of parameters should give rise also to an induced spin current through the dot
Wu, Jiang
2014-01-01
This book reviews recent advances in the exciting and rapidly growing field of quantum dot molecules (QDMs). It offers state-of-the-art coverage of novel techniques and connects fundamental physical properties with device design.
Güçlü, Alev Devrim; Korkusinski, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel
2014-01-01
This book reflects the current status of theoretical and experimental research of graphene based nanostructures, in particular quantum dots, at a level accessible to young researchers, graduate students, experimentalists and theorists. It presents the current state of research of graphene quantum dots, a single or few monolayer thick islands of graphene. It introduces the reader to the electronic and optical properties of graphite, intercalated graphite and graphene, including Dirac fermions, Berry's phase associated with sublattices and valley degeneracy, covers single particle properties of
Wu, Jiang
2013-01-01
The third generation of solar cells includes those based on semiconductor quantum dots. This sophisticated technology applies nanotechnology and quantum mechanics theory to enhance the performance of ordinary solar cells. Although a practical application of quantum dot solar cells has yet to be achieved, a large number of theoretical calculations and experimental studies have confirmed the potential for meeting the requirement for ultra-high conversion efficiency. In this book, high-profile scientists have contributed tutorial chapters that outline the methods used in and the results of variou
Quantum optics with single quantum dot devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwiller, Valery; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver
2004-01-01
A single radiative transition in a single-quantum emitter results in the emission of a single photon. Single quantum dots are single-quantum emitters with all the requirements to generate single photons at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. It is also possible to generate more than single photons with single quantum dots. In this paper we show that single quantum dots can be used to generate non-classical states of light, from single photons to photon triplets. Advanced solid state structures can be fabricated with single quantum dots as their active region. We also show results obtained on devices based on single quantum dots
Quantum Dot Spectrometer (GSFC IRAD)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are developing an ultra-compact, low mass, low-cost, yet high resolution, multispectral imager based on an innovative quantum dot array concept. The quantum dot...
Hexagonal graphene quantum dots
Ghosh, Sumit
2016-12-05
We study hexagonal graphene quantum dots, using density functional theory, to obtain a quantitative description of the electronic properties and their size dependence, considering disk and ring geometries with both armchair and zigzag edges. We show that the electronic properties of quantum dots with armchair edges are more sensitive to structural details than those with zigzag edges. As functions of the inner and outer radii, we find in the case of armchair edges that the size of the band gap follows distinct branches, while in the case of zigzag edges it changes monotonically. This behaviour is further analyzed by studying the ground state wave function and explained in terms of its localisation.
Klimov, Victor I
2010-01-01
""Soft"" Chemical Synthesis and Manipulation of Semiconductor Nanocrystals, J.A. Hollingsworth and V.I. Klimov Electronic Structure in Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Optical Experiment, D.J. NorrisFine Structure and Polarization Properties of Band-Edge Excitons in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, A.L. EfrosIntraband Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Dots, P. Guyot-Sionnest, M. Shim, and C. WangMultiexciton Phenomena in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, V.I. KlimovOptical Dynamics in Single Semiconductor Quantum Do
Sapmaz, S.
2006-01-01
Low temperature electron transport measurements on individual single wall carbon nanotubes are described in this thesis. Carbon nanotubes are small hollow cylinders made entirely out of carbon atoms. At low temperatures (below ~10 K) finite length nanotubes form quantum dots. Because of its small
Correlation effects in side-coupled quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zitko, R; Bonca, J
2007-01-01
Using Wilson's numerical renormalization group (NRG) technique, we compute zero-bias conductance and various correlation functions of a double quantum dot (DQD) system. We present different regimes within a phase diagram of the DQD system. By introducing a negative Hubbard U on one of the quantum dots, we simulate the effect of electron-phonon coupling and explore the properties of the coexisting spin and charge Kondo state. In a triple quantum dot (TQD) system, a multi-stage Kondo effect appears where localized moments on quantum dots are screened successively at exponentially distinct Kondo temperatures
Taylor, Robert A.
2010-09-01
These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at Quantum Dot 2010 (QD2010). The conference was held in Nottingham, UK, on 26-30 April 2010. The conference addressed topics in research on: 1. Epitaxial quantum dots (including self-assembled and interface structures, dots defined by electrostatic gates etc): optical properties and electron transport quantum coherence effects spin phenomena optics of dots in cavities interaction with surface plasmons in metal/semiconductor structures opto-electronics applications 2. Novel QD structures: fabrication and physics of graphene dots, dots in nano-wires etc 3. Colloidal quantum dots: growth (shape control and hybrid nanocrystals such as metal/semiconductor, magnetic/semiconductor) assembly and surface functionalisation optical properties and spin dynamics electrical and magnetic properties applications (light emitting devices and solar cells, biological and medical applications, data storage, assemblers) The Editors Acknowledgements Conference Organising Committee: Maurice Skolnick (Chair) Alexander Tartakovskii (Programme Chair) Pavlos Lagoudakis (Programme Chair) Max Migliorato (Conference Secretary) Paola Borri (Publicity) Robert Taylor (Proceedings) Manus Hayne (Treasurer) Ray Murray (Sponsorship) Mohamed Henini (Local Organiser) International Advisory Committee: Yasuhiko Arakawa (Tokyo University, Japan) Manfred Bayer (Dortmund University, Germany) Sergey Gaponenko (Stepanov Institute of Physics, Minsk, Belarus) Pawel Hawrylak (NRC, Ottawa, Canada) Fritz Henneberger (Institute for Physics, Berlin, Germany) Atac Imamoglu (ETH, Zurich, Switzerland) Paul Koenraad (TU Eindhoven, Nethehrlands) Guglielmo Lanzani (Politecnico di Milano, Italy) Jungil Lee (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Korea) Henri Mariette (CNRS-CEA, Grenoble, France) Lu Jeu Sham (San Diego, USA) Andrew Shields (Toshiba Research Europe, Cambridge, UK) Yoshihisa Yamamoto (Stanford University, USA) Artur
Silicon quantum dots: surface matters
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dohnalová, K.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Kůsová, Kateřina
2014-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 17 (2014), 1-28 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP204/12/P235 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon quantum dots * quantum dot * surface chemistry * quantum confinement Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.346, year: 2014
Quantum dots for quantum information technologies
2017-01-01
This book highlights the most recent developments in quantum dot spin physics and the generation of deterministic superior non-classical light states with quantum dots. In particular, it addresses single quantum dot spin manipulation, spin-photon entanglement and the generation of single-photon and entangled photon pair states with nearly ideal properties. The role of semiconductor microcavities, nanophotonic interfaces as well as quantum photonic integrated circuits is emphasized. The latest theoretical and experimental studies of phonon-dressed light matter interaction, single-dot lasing and resonance fluorescence in QD cavity systems are also provided. The book is written by the leading experts in the field.
Quantum Dots in Liquid Scintillator
Gooding, Diana
2017-09-01
Quantum dots are semiconducting crystals with dimensions on the order of nanometers. Due to quantum confinement, their size gives rise to optical properties that resemble those of single atoms, rather than bulk material. One of these is their absorption of light shorter than a characteristic wavelength and reemission in a narrow peak around that wavelength. This unique photoluminescence makes quantum dots ideal wavelength shifters. Moreover, their chemistry provides a straight-forward method to suspend heavy elements in organic scintillators. The NuDot collaboration has been pursuing a variety of new quantum dots, and a review of the current results will be presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somsak Panyakeow
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called 'Droplet Epitaxy' has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390'C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7'8'10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200'C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or, which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vyacheslav A. Elyukhin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Arrays of single photon emitters with the same energy of luminescence are necessary for the development of quantum imformation technology. The studied epitaxial quantum dots have an undresired inhomogeneity of luminescence. Here, AxB1-xCyD1-y alloys of AC, AD, BC and BD compounds are presented as semiconductors in which non-random distribution of cations and anions may result in self-assembling of identical tetrahedral clusters. It can be due to the preference of AC and BD bonding over AD and BC one, a decrease of the strain energy or both of them. The self-assembling conditions of 1P4Ga clusters in AlN-rich AlxGa1-xPyN1-y alloys with Ga and phosphorus contents in the dilute and ultra dilute limits, correspondingly, are represented. All phosphorus atoms should be in 1P4Ga clusters at ~1000 oC if the Ga content reaches several percents. AlN-rich AlxGa1-xPyN1-y alloys with 1P4Ga clusters are promising semiconductors for fabrication of arrays of identical single photon emitters with the same energy of luminescence
Triple Rashba dots as a spin filter: Bound states in the continuum and Fano effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vallejo, M.L.; Ladron de Guevara, M.L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Orellana, P.A., E-mail: orellana@ucn.c [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile)
2010-11-01
We propose an efficient spin-filter device by exploiting bound states (BICs) in the continuum and Fano effect on a triple Rashba quantum dot molecule embedded in an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer. We find that the coexistence of a BIC and a Fano antiresonance result in polarizations close to 100% in wide regions in the space of parameters.
Quantum dots in photonic crystals for integrated quantum photonics
Kim, Je-Hyung; Richardson, Christopher J. K.; Leavitt, Richard P.; Waks, Edo
2017-08-01
Integrated quantum photonic technologies hold a great promise for application in quantum information processing. A major challenge is to integrate multiple single photon sources on a chip. Quantum dots are bright sources of high purity single photons, and photonic crystals can provide efficient photonic platforms for generating and manipulating single photons from integrated quantum dots. However, integrating multiple quantum dots with photonic crystal devices still remains as a challenging task due to the spectral randomness of the emitters. Here, we present the integration of multiple quantum dots with individual photonic crystal cavities and report quantum interference from chip-integrated multiple quantum dots. To solve the problem of spectral randomness, we introduce local engineering techniques for tuning multiple quantum dots and cavities. From integrated quantum dot devices we observe indistinguishable nature of single photons from individual quantum dots on the same chip. Therefore, our approach paves the way for large-scale quantum photonics with integrated quantum emitters.
From quantum dots to quantum circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ensslin, K.
2008-01-01
Full text: Quantum dots, or artificial atoms, confine charge carriers in three-dimensional islands in a semiconductor environment. Detailed understanding and exquisite control of the charge and spin state of the electrically tunable charge occupancy have been demonstrated over the years. Quantum dots with best quality for transport experiments are usually realized in n-type AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures. Novel material systems, such as graphene, nanowires and p-type heterostructures offer unexplored parameter regimes in view of spin-orbit interactions, carrier-carrier interactions and hyperfine coupling between electron and nuclear spins, which might be relevant for future spin qubits realized in quantum dots. With more sophisticated nanotechnology it has become possible to fabricate coupled quantum systems where classical and quantum mechanical coupling and back action is experimentally investigated. A narrow constriction, or quantum point contact, in vicinity to a quantum dot has been shown to serve as a minimally invasive sensor of the charge state of the dot. If charge transport through the quantum dot is slow enough (kHz), the charge sensor allows the detection of time-resolved transport through quantum-confined structures. This has allowed us to measure extremely small currents not detectable with conventional electronics. In addition the full statistics of current fluctuations becomes experimentally accessible. This way correlations between electrons which influence the current flow can be analyzed by measuring the noise and higher moments of the distribution of current fluctuations. Mesoscopic conductors driven out of equilibrium can emit photons which may be detected by another nearby quantum system with suitably tuned energy levels. This way an on-chip microwave single photon detector has been realized. In a ring geometry containing a tunable double quantum dot it has been possible to measure the self-interference of individual electrons as they traverse
Electronic triple-dot transport through a bilayer graphene island with ultrasmall constrictions
Bischoff, D.; Varlet, A.; Simonet, P.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.
2013-08-01
A quantum dot has been etched in bilayer graphene connected by two small constrictions to the leads. We show that this structure does not behave like a single quantum dot but consists of at least three sites of localized charge in series. The high symmetry and electrical stability of the device allowed us to triangulate the positions of the different sites of localized charge and find that one site is located in the island and one in each of the constrictions. Nevertheless we measure many consecutive non-overlapping Coulomb-diamonds in series. In order to describe these findings, we treat the system as a strongly coupled serial triple quantum dot. We find that the non-overlapping Coulomb diamonds arise due to higher order cotunneling through the outer dots located in the constrictions. We extract all relevant capacitances, simulate the measured data with a capacitance model and discuss its implications on electrical transport.
Quadra-quantum Dots and Related Patterns of Quantum Dot Molecules:
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somsak Panyakeow
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called ‘‘Droplet Epitaxy” has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390°C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7–8×10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200°C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or , which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.
Large quantum dots with small oscillator strength
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stobbe, Søren; Schlereth, T.W.; Höfling, S.
2010-01-01
We have measured the oscillator strength and quantum efficiency of excitons confined in large InGaAs quantum dots by recording the spontaneous emission decay rate while systematically varying the distance between the quantum dots and a semiconductor-air interface. The size of the quantum dots...... is measured by in-plane transmission electron microscopy and we find average in-plane diameters of 40 nm. We have calculated the oscillator strength of excitons of that size assuming a quantum-dot confinement given by a parabolic in-plane potential and a hard-wall vertical potential and predict a very large...... intermixing inside the quantum dots....
Quantum-dot based photonic quantum networks
Lodahl, Peter
2018-01-01
Quantum dots (QDs) embedded in photonic nanostructures have in recent years proven to be a very powerful solid-state platform for quantum optics experiments. The combination of near-unity radiative coupling of a single QD to a photonic mode and the ability to eliminate decoherence processes imply that an unprecedent light-matter interface can be obtained. As a result, high-cooperativity photon-emitter quantum interfaces can be constructed opening a path-way to deterministic photonic quantum gates for quantum-information processing applications. In the present manuscript, I review current state-of-the-art on QD devices and their applications for quantum technology. The overarching long-term goal of the research field is to construct photonic quantum networks where remote entanglement can be distributed over long distances by photons.
Electron correlations in quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tipton, Denver Leonard John
2001-01-01
Quantum dot structures confine electrons in a small region of space. Some properties of semiconductor quantum dots, such as the discrete energy levels and shell filling effects visible in addition spectra, have analogies to those of atoms and indeed dots are sometimes referred to as 'artificial atoms'. However, atoms and dots show some fundamental differences due to electron correlations. For real atoms, the kinetic energy of electrons dominates over their mutual Coulomb repulsion energy and for this reason the independent electron approximation works well. For quantum dots the confining potential may be shallower than that of real atoms leading to lower electron densities and a dominance of mutual Coulomb repulsion over kinetic energy. In this strongly correlated regime the independent electron picture leads to qualitatively incorrect results. This thesis concentrates on few-electron quantum dots in the strongly correlated regime both for quasi-one-dimensional and two-dimensional dots in a square confining potential. In this so-called 'Wigner' regime the ground-state electronic charge density is localised near positions of classical electrostatic minima and the interacting electronic spectrum consists of well separated spin multiplets. In the strongly correlated regime the structure of low-energy multiplets is explained by mapping onto lattice models with extended-Hubbard and Heisenberg effective Hamiltonians. The parameters for these effective models are calculated within a Hartree approximation and are shown to reproduce well the exact results obtained by numerical diagonalisation of the full interacting Hamiltonian. Comparison is made between square dots and quantum rings with full rotational symmetry. In the very low-density regime, direct diagonalisation becomes impractical due to excessive computer time for convergence. In this regime a numerical renormalisation group method is applied to one-dimensional dots, enabling effective spin-interactions to be
High Efficiency Quantum Dot III-V Multijunction Solar Cell for Space Power, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to utilize quantum dots to develop a super high-efficiency multijunction III-V solar cell for space. In metamorphic triple junction space solar...
Advanced Epitaxial Lift-Off Quantum Dot Photovoltaic Devices, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a high-efficiency, triple-junction, epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell by incorporating quantum dots (QDs) within the current-limiting...
On Spectral Triples in Quantum Gravity I
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aastrup, Johannes; M. Grimstrup, Jesper; Nest, Ryszard
2009-01-01
This paper establishes a link between Noncommutative Geometry and canonical quantum gravity. A semi-finite spectral triple over a space of connections is presented. The triple involves an algebra of holonomy loops and a Dirac type operator which resembles a global functional derivation operator. ...
Holonomy loops, spectral triples and quantum gravity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johannes, Aastrup; Grimstrup, Jesper Møller; Nest, Ryszard
2009-01-01
We review the motivation, construction and physical interpretation of a semi-finite spectral triple obtained through a rearrangement of central elements of loop quantum gravity. The triple is based on a countable set of oriented graphs and the algebra consists of generalized holonomy loops...
Spin storage in quantum dot ensembles and single quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heiss, Dominik
2009-10-15
This thesis deals with the investigation of spin relaxation of electrons and holes in small ensembles of self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques. Furthermore, a method to detect the spin orientation in a single quantum dot was developed in the framework of this thesis. A spin storage device was used to optically generate oriented electron spins in small frequency selected quantum dot ensembles using circularly polarized optical excitation. The spin orientation can be determined by the polarization of the time delayed electroluminescence signal generated by the device after a continuously variable storage time. The degree of spin polarized initialization was found to be limited to 0.6 at high magnetic fields, where anisotropic effects are compensated. The spin relaxation was directly measured as a function of magnetic field, lattice temperature and s-shell transition energy of the quantum dot by varying the spin storage time up to 30 ms. Very long spin lifetimes are obtained with a lower limit of T{sub 1}=20 ms at B=4 T and T=1 K. A strong magnetic field dependence T{sub 1}{proportional_to}B{sup -5} has been observed for low temperatures of T=1 K which weakens as the temperature is increased. In addition, the temperature dependence has been determined with T{sub 1}{proportional_to}T{sup -1}. The characteristic dependencies on magnetic field and temperature lead to the identification of the spin relaxation mechanism, which is governed by spin-orbit coupling and mediated by single phonon scattering. This finding is qualitatively supported by the energy dependent measurements. The investigations were extended to a modified device design that enabled studying the spin relaxation dynamics of heavy holes in self-assembled quantum dots. The measurements show a polarization memory effect for holes with up to 0.1 degree of polarization. Furthermore, investigations of the time dynamics of the hole spin relaxation reveal surprisingly long lifetimes T{sub 1}{sup h
Spin storage in quantum dot ensembles and single quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heiss, Dominik
2009-01-01
This thesis deals with the investigation of spin relaxation of electrons and holes in small ensembles of self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques. Furthermore, a method to detect the spin orientation in a single quantum dot was developed in the framework of this thesis. A spin storage device was used to optically generate oriented electron spins in small frequency selected quantum dot ensembles using circularly polarized optical excitation. The spin orientation can be determined by the polarization of the time delayed electroluminescence signal generated by the device after a continuously variable storage time. The degree of spin polarized initialization was found to be limited to 0.6 at high magnetic fields, where anisotropic effects are compensated. The spin relaxation was directly measured as a function of magnetic field, lattice temperature and s-shell transition energy of the quantum dot by varying the spin storage time up to 30 ms. Very long spin lifetimes are obtained with a lower limit of T 1 =20 ms at B=4 T and T=1 K. A strong magnetic field dependence T 1 ∝B -5 has been observed for low temperatures of T=1 K which weakens as the temperature is increased. In addition, the temperature dependence has been determined with T 1 ∝T -1 . The characteristic dependencies on magnetic field and temperature lead to the identification of the spin relaxation mechanism, which is governed by spin-orbit coupling and mediated by single phonon scattering. This finding is qualitatively supported by the energy dependent measurements. The investigations were extended to a modified device design that enabled studying the spin relaxation dynamics of heavy holes in self-assembled quantum dots. The measurements show a polarization memory effect for holes with up to 0.1 degree of polarization. Furthermore, investigations of the time dynamics of the hole spin relaxation reveal surprisingly long lifetimes T 1 h in the microsecond range, therefore, comparable with
Erlingsson, S.I.
2003-01-01
The main theme of this thesis is the hyperfine interaction between the many lattice nuclear spins and electron spins localized in GaAs quantum dots. This interaction is an intrinsic property of the material. Despite the fact that this interaction is rather weak, it can, as shown in this thesis,
Tomczak, N.; Liu, Rongrong; Vancso, Gyula J.
2013-01-01
Quantum Dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals with distinct photophysical properties finding applications in biology, biosensing, and optoelectronics. Polymeric coatings of QDs are used primarily to provide long-term colloidal stability to QDs dispersed in solutions and also as a source of
Coherent control of quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Jeppe; Lodahl, Peter; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
In recent years much effort has been devoted to the use of semiconductor quantum dotsystems as building blocks for solid-state-based quantum logic devices. One importantparameter for such devices is the coherence time, which determines the number ofpossible quantum operations. From earlier...... measurements the coherence time of the selfassembledquantum dots (QDs) has been reported to be limited by the spontaneousemission rate at cryogenic temperatures1.In this project we propose to alter the coherence time of QDs by taking advantage of arecent technique on modifying spontaneous emission rates...
Semiconductor quantum-dot lasers and amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Borri, Paola; Ledentsov, N. N.
2002-01-01
-power surface emitting VCSELs. We investigated the ultrafast dynamics of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. The dephasing time at room temperature of the ground-state transition in semiconductor quantum dots is around 250 fs in an unbiased amplifier, decreasing to below 50 fs when the amplifier...... is biased to positive net gain. We have further measured gain recovery times in quantum dot amplifiers that are significantly lower than in bulk and quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers. This is promising for future demonstration of quantum dot devices with high modulation bandwidth...
Ultrasmall colloidal PbS quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reilly, Nick; Wehrung, Michael; O'Dell, Ryan Andrew; Sun, Liangfeng
2014-01-01
Ultrasmall colloidal lead sulfide quantum dots can increase the open circuit voltages of quantum-dot-based solar cells because of their large energy gap. Their small size and visible or near infrared light-emitting property make them attractive to the applications of biological fluorescence labeling. Through a modified organometallic route, we can synthesize lead sulfide quantum dots as small as 1.6 nm in diameter. The low reaction temperature and the addition of a chloroalkane cosolvent decrease the reaction rate, making it possible to obtain the ultrasmall quantum dots. - Highlights: • Ultrasmall colloidal PbS quantum dots as small as 1.6 nm in diameter are synthesized. • The quantum dots emit red light with photoluminescence peak at 760 nm. • The growth temperature is as low as 50 °C. • Addition of cosolvent 1,2-dichloroethane in the reaction decreases the reaction rate
Quantum Logic Using Excitonic Quantum Dots in External Optical Microcavities
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Raymer, Michael
2003-01-01
An experimental project was undertaken to develop means to achieve quantum optical strong coupling between a single GaAs quantum dot and the optical mode of a microcavity for the purpose of quantum...
Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic nanowires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
We will review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices.......We will review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices....
Millimeter Wave Modulators Using Quantum Dots
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Prather, Dennis W
2008-01-01
In this effort electro-optic modulators for millimeter wave sensing and imaging were developed and demonstrated via design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of multi layer quantum dot...
Stark shifting two-electron quantum dot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dineykhan, M.; Zhaugasheva, S.A.; Duysebaeva, K.S.
2003-01-01
Advances in modern technology make it possible to create semiconducting nano-structures (quantum dot) in which a finite number of electrons are 'captured' in a bounded volume. A quantum dot is associated with a quantum well formed at the interface, between two finite-size semiconductors owing to different positions of the forbidden gaps on the energy scale in these semiconductors. The possibility of monitoring and controlling the properties of quantum dots attracts considerable attention to these objects, as a new elemental basis for future generations of computers. The quantum-mechanical effects and image potential play a significant role in the description of the formation mechanism quantum dot, and determined the confinement potential in a two-electron quantum dot only for the spherical symmetric case. In the present talk, we considered the formation dynamics of two-electron quantum dot with violation of spherical symmetry. So, we have standard Stark potential. The energy spectrum two-electron quantum dot were calculated. Usually Stark interactions determined the tunneling phenomena between quantum dots
Hydrogenic impurity in double quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, X.F.
2007-01-01
The ground state binding energy and the average interparticle distances for a hydrogenic impurity in double quantum dots with Gaussian confinement potential are studied by the variational method. The probability density of the electron is calculated, too. The dependence of the binding energy on the impurity position is investigated for GaAs quantum dots. The result shows that the binding energy has a minimum as a function of the distance between the two quantum dots when the impurity is located at the center of one quantum dot or at the center of the edge of one quantum dot. When the impurity is located at the center of the two dots, the binding energy decreases monotonically
On Spectral Triples in Quantum Gravity I
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aastrup, Johannes; M. Grimstrup, Jesper; Nest, Ryszard
2009-01-01
This paper establishes a link between Noncommutative Geometry and canonical quantum gravity. A semi-finite spectral triple over a space of connections is presented. The triple involves an algebra of holonomy loops and a Dirac type operator which resembles a global functional derivation operator....... The interaction between the Dirac operator and the algebra reproduces the Poisson structure of General Relativity. Moreover, the associated Hilbert space corresponds, up to a discrete symmetry group, to the Hilbert space of diffeomorphism invariant states known from Loop Quantum Gravity. Correspondingly......, the square of the Dirac operator has, in terms of canonical quantum gravity, the form of a global area-squared operator. Furthermore, the spectral action resembles a partition function of Quantum Gravity. The construction is background independent and is based on an inductive system of triangulations...
Quantum Dot Devices for Optical Signal Processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Yaohui
This thesis describes the physics and applications of quantum dot semiconductor optical ampliers through numerical simulations. As nano-structured materials with zero-dimensional quantum connement, semiconductor quantum dot material provides a number of unique physical properties compared...... with other semiconductor materials. The understanding of such properties is important in order to improve the performance of existing devices and to trigger the development of new semiconductor devices for dierent optical signal processing functionalities in the future. We present a detailed quantum dot...... semiconductor optical amplier model incorporating a carrier dynamics rate equation model for quantum dots with inhomogeneous broadening as well as equations describing propagation. A phenomenological description has been used to model the intradot electron scattering between discrete quantum dot states...
Colloidal quantum dot photodetectors
Konstantatos, Gerasimos
2011-05-01
We review recent progress in light sensors based on solution-processed materials. Spin-coated semiconductors can readily be integrated with many substrates including as a post-process atop CMOS silicon and flexible electronics. We focus in particular on visible-, near-infrared, and short-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on size-effect-tuned semiconductor nanoparticles made using quantum-confined PbS, PbSe, Bi 2S3, and In2S3. These devices have in recent years achieved room-temperature D values above 1013 Jones, while fully-depleted photodiodes based on these same materials have achieved MHz response combined with 1012 Jones sensitivities. We discuss the nanoparticle synthesis, the materials processing, integrability, temperature stability, physical operation, and applied performance of this class of devices. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spin Switching via Quantum Dot Spin Valves
Gergs, N. M.; Bender, S. A.; Duine, R. A.; Schuricht, D.
2018-01-01
We develop a theory for spin transport and magnetization dynamics in a quantum dot spin valve, i.e., two magnetic reservoirs coupled to a quantum dot. Our theory is able to take into account effects of strong correlations. We demonstrate that, as a result of these strong correlations, the dot gate voltage enables control over the current-induced torques on the magnets and, in particular, enables voltage-controlled magnetic switching. The electrical resistance of the structure can be used to read out the magnetic state. Our model may be realized by a number of experimental systems, including magnetic scanning-tunneling microscope tips and artificial quantum dot systems.
Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots
Hollingsworth, Jennifer A [Los Alamos, NM; Chen, Yongfen [Eugene, OR; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos, NM; Htoon, Han [Los Alamos, NM; Vela, Javier [Los Alamos, NM
2011-05-03
Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.
Many electron effects in semiconductor quantum dots
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 26; Issue 1. Many electron effects in ... Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) exhibit shell structures, very similar to atoms. Termed as 'artificial atoms' by some, ... Our calculations have been performed in a three-dimensional quantum dot. We have carried out a study of ...
Solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerard, J.M.; Gayral, B.; Moreau, E.; Robert, I.; Abram, I.
2001-01-01
We review the recent development of solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using single self-assembled InAs quantum dots and three-dimensional semiconductor microcavities. We discuss first prospects for observing a strong coupling regime for single quantum dots. We then demonstrate that the strong Purcell effect observed for single quantum dots in the weak coupling regime allows us to prepare emitted photons in a given state (the same spatial mode, the same polarization). We present finally the first single-mode solid-state source of single photons, based on an isolated quantum dot in a pillar microcavity. This optoelectronic device, the first ever to rely on a cavity quantum electrodynamics effect, exploits both Coulomb interaction between trapped carriers in a single quantum dot and single mode photon tunneling in the microcavity. (author)
Biocompatible Quantum Dots for Biological Applications
Rosenthal, Sandra J.; Chang, Jerry C.; Kovtun, Oleg; McBride, James R.; Tomlinson, Ian D.
2011-01-01
Semiconductor quantum dots are quickly becoming a critical diagnostic tool for discerning cellular function at the molecular level. Their high brightness, long-lasting, sizetunable, and narrow luminescence set them apart from conventional fluorescence dyes. Quantum dots are being developed for a variety of biologically oriented applications, including fluorescent assays for drug discovery, disease detection, single protein tracking, and intracellular reporting. This review introduces the science behind quantum dots and describes how they are made biologically compatible. Several applications are also included, illustrating strategies toward target specificity, and are followed by a discussion on the limitations of quantum dot approaches. The article is concluded with a look at the future direction of quantum dots. PMID:21276935
Magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Yuan; Huang, Chuankun; Liao, Tianjun; Chen, Jincan
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A three-terminal quantum dot refrigerator is proposed. • The effects of magnetic field, applied voltage, and polarization are considered. • The region that the system can work as a refrigerator is determined. • Two different magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators are compared. - Abstract: A new model of refrigerator consisting of a spin-splitting quantum dot coupled with two ferromagnetic reservoirs and a ferromagnetic insulator is proposed. The rate equation is used to calculate the occupation probabilities of the quantum dot. The expressions of the electron and magnon currents are obtained. The region that the system can work in as a refrigerator is determined. The cooling power and coefficient of performance (COP) of the refrigerator are derived. The influences of the magnetic field, applied voltage, and polarization of two leads on the performance are discussed. The performances of two different magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators are compared.
Quantum dot devices for optical communications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørk, Jesper
2005-01-01
-low threshold currents and amplifiers with record-high power levels. In this tutorial we will review the basic properties of quantum dots, emphasizing the properties which are important for laser and amplifier applications, as well as devices for all-optical signal processing. The high-speed properties....... The main property of semiconductor quantum dots compared to bulk material or even quantum well structures is the discrete nature of the allowed states, which means that inversion of the medium can be obtained for very low electron densities. This has led to the fabrication of quantum dot lasers with record...
Coherent optoelectronics with single quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zrenner, A; Ester, P; Michaelis de Vasconcellos, S; Huebner, M C; Lackmann, L; Stufler, S [Universitaet Paderborn, Department Physik, Warburger Strasse 100, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany); Bichler, M [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: zrenner@mail.upb.de
2008-11-12
The optical properties of semiconductor quantum dots are in many respects similar to those of atoms. Since quantum dots can be defined by state-of-the-art semiconductor technologies, they exhibit long-term stability and allow for well-controlled and efficient interactions with both optical and electrical fields. Resonant ps excitation of single quantum dot photodiodes leads to new classes of coherent optoelectronic functions and devices, which exhibit precise state preparation, phase-sensitive optical manipulations and the control of quantum states by electrical fields.
Electron transport in quantum dots
2003-01-01
When I was contacted by Kluwer Academic Publishers in the Fall of 200 I, inviting me to edit a volume of papers on the issue of electron transport in quantum dots, I was excited by what I saw as an ideal opportunity to provide an overview of a field of research that has made significant contributions in recent years, both to our understanding of fundamental physics, and to the development of novel nanoelectronic technologies. The need for such a volume seemed to be made more pressing by the fact that few comprehensive reviews of this topic have appeared in the literature, in spite of the vast activity in this area over the course of the last decade or so. With this motivation, I set out to try to compile a volume that would fairly reflect the wide range of opinions that has emerged in the study of electron transport in quantum dots. Indeed, there has been no effort on my part to ensure any consistency between the different chapters, since I would prefer that this volume instead serve as a useful forum for the...
Quantum dots: lasers and amplifiers
Bimberg, D
2003-01-01
Continuous wave room-temperature output power of approx 3 W for edge emitters and of 1.2 mW for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers is realized for GaAs-based devices using InAs quantum dots (QDs) operating at 1.3 mu m. Characteristic temperatures up to 170 K below 330 K are realized. Simultaneously, differential efficiency exceeds 80% for these devices. Lasers emitting up to 12 W at 1140-1160 nm are useful as pump sources for Tm sup 3 sup + -doped fibres for frequency up-conversion to 470 nm. Both types of lasers show transparency current densities of 6 A cm sup - sup 2 per dot layer, eta sub i sub n sub t = 98% and alpha sub i around 1.5 cm sup - sup 1. Long operation lifetimes (above 3000 h at 50 deg C heatsink temperature at 1.5 W CW) and improved radiation hardness as compared to quantum well (QW) devices are manifested. Cut-off frequencies of about 10 GHz at 1100 nm and 6 GHz at 1300 nm and low alpha factors resulting in reduced filamentation and improved M sup 2 values in single-mode operation are ...
Thermoelectric transport through quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Merker, Lukas Heinrich
2016-06-30
In this thesis the thermoelectric properties (electrical conductance, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductance)of quantum dots described by the Anderson impurity model have been investigated by using the numerical renormalization group (NRG) method. In order to make accurate calculations for thermoelectric properties of quantum impurity systems, a number of recent developments and refinements of the NRG have been implemented. These include the z-averaging and Campo discretization scheme, which enable the evaluation of physical quantities on an arbitrary temperature grid and at large discretization parameter Λ and the full density matrix (FDM) approach, which allows a more accurate calculation of spectral functions and transport coefficients. The implementation of the z-averaging and Campo discretization scheme has been tested within a new method for specific heats of quantum impurities. The accuracy of this new method was established by comparison with the numerical solution of the Bethe-ansatz equations for the Anderson model. The FDM approach was implemented and tested within a new approach to the calculation of impurity contributions to the uniform susceptibilities. Within this method a non-negligible contribution from the ''environmental'' degrees of freedom needs to be taken into account to recover the correct susceptibility, as shown by comparison with the Bethe-ansatz approach. An accurate method to calculate the conductance of a quantum dot is implemented, enabling the extraction of the Fermi liquid scaling coefficients c{sub T} and c{sub B} to high accuracy, being able to verify the results of the renormalized super perturbation theory approach (within its regime of validity). The method was generalized to higher order moments of the local level spectral function. This, as well as reduction of the SU(2) code to the U(1) symmetry, enabled the investigation of the effect of a magnetic field on the thermoelectric properties of quantum
The electronic properties of semiconductor quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barker, J.A.
2000-10-01
This work is an investigation into the electronic behaviour of semiconductor quantum dots, particularly self-assembled quantum dot arrays. Processor-efficient models are developed to describe the electronic structure of dots, deriving analytic formulae for the strain tensor, piezoelectric distribution and diffusion- induced evolution of the confinement potential, for dots of arbitrary initial shape and composition profile. These models are then applied to experimental data. Transitions due to individual quantum dots have a narrow linewidth as a result of their discrete density of states. By contrast, quantum dot arrays exhibit inhomogeneous broadening which is generally attributed to size variations between the individual dots in the ensemble. Interpreting the results of double resonance spectroscopy, it is seen that variation in the indium composition of the nominally InAs dots is also present. This result also explains the otherwise confusing relationship between the spread in the ground-state and excited-state transition energies. Careful analysis shows that, in addition to the variations in size and composition, some other as yet unidentified broadening mechanism must also be present. The influence of rapid thermal annealing on dot electronic structure is also considered, finding that the experimentally observed blue-shift and narrowing of the photoluminescence linewidth may both be explained in terms of normal In/Ga interdiffusion. InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots are commonly assumed to have a pyramidal geometry, so that we would expect the energy separation of the ground-state electron and hole levels in the dot to be largest at a positive applied field. This should also be the case for any dot of uniform composition whose shape tapers inwards from base to top, counter to the results of experimental Stark-shift spectroscopy which show a peak transition energy at a negative applied field. It is demonstrated that this inversion of the ground state
Quantum walks in an array of quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manouchehri, K; Wang, J B
2008-01-01
Quantum random walks are shown to have non-intuitive dynamics, which makes them an attractive area of study for devising quantum algorithms for well-known classical problems as well as those arising in the field of quantum computing. In this work, we propose a novel scheme for the physical implementation of a discrete-time quantum random walk using laser excitations of the electronic states of an array of quantum dots. These dots represent the discrete nodes of the walk, while transitions between the energy levels inside each dot correspond to the required coin operation and stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) processes are employed to induce the steps of the walk. The quantum dot design is tailored in such a way as to enable selective coupling of the energy levels. Our simulation results show a close agreement with the ideal quantum walk distribution as well as modest robustness toward noise disturbance
Electromagnetically induced transparency in quantum dot systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Yiwen; Zhu Kadi; Wu Zhuojie; Yuan Xiaozhong; Yao Ming
2006-01-01
Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in quantum dot exciton systems in which the exciton behaves as a two-level system is investigated theoretically. It is shown that due to strong exciton-phonon coupling EIT can occur in such a quantum dot system and ultraslow light can propagate. The nonlinear optical absorption and Kerr coefficient based on EIT are also calculated. The numerical results show that giant nonlinear optical effects can be obtained while the frequency of the signal field differs only by an amount of LO phonon frequency from the exciton frequency in quantum dot systems
Quantum Dots in Vertical Nanowire Devices
Van Weert, M.
2010-01-01
The research described in this thesis is aimed at constructing a quantum interface between a single electron spin and a photon, using a nanowire quantum dot. Such a quantum interface enables information transfer from a local electron spin to the polarization of a photon for long distance readout.
Entangled exciton states in quantum dot molecules
Bayer, Manfred
2002-03-01
Currently there is strong interest in quantum information processing(See, for example, The Physics of Quantum Information, eds. D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert and A. Zeilinger (Springer, Berlin, 2000).) in a solid state environment. Many approaches mimic atomic physics concepts in which semiconductor quantum dots are implemented as artificial atoms. An essential building block of a quantum processor is a gate which entangles the states of two quantum bits. Recently a pair of vertically aligned quantum dots has been suggested as optically driven quantum gate(P. Hawrylak, S. Fafard, and Z. R. Wasilewski, Cond. Matter News 7, 16 (1999).)(M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z.R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, Science 291, 451 (2001).): The quantum bits are individual carriers either on dot zero or dot one. The different dot indices play the same role as a "spin", therefore we call them "isospin". Quantum mechanical tunneling between the dots rotates the isospin and leads to superposition of these states. The quantum gate is built when two different particles, an electron and a hole, are created optically. The two particles form entangled isospin states. Here we present spectrocsopic studies of single self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dot molecules that support the feasibility of this proposal. The evolution of the excitonic recombination spectrum with varying separation between the dots allows us to demonstrate coherent tunneling of carriers across the separating barrier and the formation of entangled exciton states: Due to the coupling between the dots the exciton states show a splitting that increases with decreasing barrier width. For barrier widths below 5 nm it exceeds the thermal energy at room temperature. For a given barrier width, we find only small variations of the tunneling induced splitting demonstrating a good homogeneity within a molecule ensemble. The entanglement may be controlled by application of electromagnetic field. For
Optical Fiber Sensing Using Quantum Dots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Faramarz Farahi
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Recent advances in the application of semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantumdots, as biochemical sensors are reviewed. Quantum dots have unique optical properties thatmake them promising alternatives to traditional dyes in many luminescence basedbioanalytical techniques. An overview of the more relevant progresses in the application ofquantum dots as biochemical probes is addressed. Special focus will be given toconfigurations where the sensing dots are incorporated in solid membranes and immobilizedin optical fibers or planar waveguide platforms.
Electron Transport in Coupled Quantum Dots
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Antoniadis, D
1998-01-01
In the course of the investigation funded by this proposal we fabricated, modeled, and measured a variety of quantum dot structures in order to better understand how such nanostructures might be used for computation...
Optical Studies of Single Quantum Dots
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Gammon, Daniel; Steel, Duncan G
2002-01-01
...: the atomlike entities known as quantum dots (QDs). Measuring 1-100 nm across, QDs are semiconductor structures in which the electron wavefunction is confined in all three dimensions by the potential energy barriers that form the QD's boundaries...
Ge Quantum Dot Infrared Imaging Camera Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop a high performance Ge quantum dots-based infrared (IR) imaging camera on Si substrate. The high sensitivity, large...
Synthetic Developments of Nontoxic Quantum Dots.
Das, Adita; Snee, Preston T
2016-03-03
Semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots (QDs), are candidates for biological sensing, photovoltaics, and catalysis due to their unique photophysical properties. The most studied QDs are composed of heavy metals like cadmium and lead. However, this engenders concerns over heavy metal toxicity. To address this issue, numerous studies have explored the development of nontoxic (or more accurately less toxic) quantum dots. In this Review, we select three major classes of nontoxic quantum dots composed of carbon, silicon and Group I-III-VI elements and discuss the myriad of synthetic strategies and surface modification methods to synthesize quantum dots composed of these material systems. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Optical anisotropy in vertically coupled quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yu, Ping; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Leosson, Kristjan
1999-01-01
We have studied the polarization of surface and edge-emitted photoluminescence (PL) from structures with vertically coupled In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots (QD's) grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The PL polarization is found to be strongly dependent on the number of stacked layers. While single...... number due to increasing dot size....
Submonolayer Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector
Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Chang, Yia-Chang
2010-01-01
A method has been developed for inserting submonolayer (SML) quantum dots (QDs) or SML QD stacks, instead of conventional Stranski-Krastanov (S-K) QDs, into the active region of intersubband photodetectors. A typical configuration would be InAs SML QDs embedded in thin layers of GaAs, surrounded by AlGaAs barriers. Here, the GaAs and the AlGaAs have nearly the same lattice constant, while InAs has a larger lattice constant. In QD infrared photodetector, the important quantization directions are in the plane perpendicular to the normal incidence radiation. In-plane quantization is what enables the absorption of normal incidence radiation. The height of the S-K QD controls the positions of the quantized energy levels, but is not critically important to the desired normal incidence absorption properties. The SML QD or SML QD stack configurations give more control of the structure grown, retains normal incidence absorption properties, and decreases the strain build-up to allow thicker active layers for higher quantum efficiency.
Electron Spin Dynamics in Semiconductor Quantum Dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marie, X.; Belhadj, T.; Urbaszek, B.; Amand, T.; Krebs, O.; Lemaitre, A.; Voisin, P.
2011-01-01
An electron spin confined to a semiconductor quantum dot is not subject to the classical spin relaxation mechanisms known for free carriers but it strongly interacts with the nuclear spin system via the hyperfine interaction. We show in time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy experiments on ensembles of self assembled InAs quantum dots in GaAs that this interaction leads to strong electron spin dephasing.
Positioning of quantum dots on metallic nanostructures
Kramer, R. K.; Pholchai, N.; Sorger, V. J.; Yim, T. J.; Oulton, R.; Zhang, X.
2010-04-01
The capability to position individual emitters, such as quantum dots, near metallic nanostructures is highly desirable for constructing active optical devices that can manipulate light at the single photon level. The emergence of the field of plasmonics as a means to confine light now introduces a need for high precision and reliability in positioning any source of emission, which has thus far been elusive. Placing an emission source within the influence of plasmonic structures now requires accuracy approaching molecular length scales. In this paper we report the ability to reliably position nanoscale functional objects, specifically quantum dots, with sub-100-nm accuracy, which is several times smaller than the diffraction limit of a quantum dot's emission light. Electron beam lithography-defined masks on metallic surfaces and a series of surface chemical functionalization processes allow the programmed assembly of DNA-linked colloidal quantum dots. The quantum dots are successfully functionalized to areas as small as (100 nm)2 using the specific binding of thiolated DNA to Au/Ag, and exploiting the streptavidin-biotin interaction. An analysis of the reproducibility of the process for various pattern sizes shows that this technique is potentially scalable to the single quantum dot level with 50 nm accuracy accompanied by a moderate reduction in yield.
Positioning of quantum dots on metallic nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kramer, R K; Pholchai, N; Sorger, V J; Yim, T J; Oulton, R; Zhang, X, E-mail: xiang@berkeley.edu [NSF Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2010-04-09
The capability to position individual emitters, such as quantum dots, near metallic nanostructures is highly desirable for constructing active optical devices that can manipulate light at the single photon level. The emergence of the field of plasmonics as a means to confine light now introduces a need for high precision and reliability in positioning any source of emission, which has thus far been elusive. Placing an emission source within the influence of plasmonic structures now requires accuracy approaching molecular length scales. In this paper we report the ability to reliably position nanoscale functional objects, specifically quantum dots, with sub-100-nm accuracy, which is several times smaller than the diffraction limit of a quantum dot's emission light. Electron beam lithography-defined masks on metallic surfaces and a series of surface chemical functionalization processes allow the programmed assembly of DNA-linked colloidal quantum dots. The quantum dots are successfully functionalized to areas as small as (100 nm){sup 2} using the specific binding of thiolated DNA to Au/Ag, and exploiting the streptavidin-biotin interaction. An analysis of the reproducibility of the process for various pattern sizes shows that this technique is potentially scalable to the single quantum dot level with 50 nm accuracy accompanied by a moderate reduction in yield.
Universal quantum computing with nanowire double quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xue Peng
2011-01-01
We present a method for implementing universal quantum computing using a singlet and triplets of nanowire double quantum dots coupled to a one-dimensional transmission line resonator. This method is suitable and of interest for both quantum computing and quantum control with inhibition of spontaneous emission, enhanced spin qubit lifetime, strong coupling and quantum nondemolition measurements of spin qubits. We analyze the performance and stability of all the required operations and emphasize that all techniques are feasible with current experimental technology.
Spectroscopy characterization and quantum yield determination of quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ortiz, S N Contreras; Ospino, E Mejía; Cabanzo, R
2016-01-01
In this paper we show the characterization of two kinds of quantum dots: hydrophilic and hydrophobic, with core and core/shell respectively, using spectroscopy techniques such as UV-Vis, fluorescence and Raman. We determined the quantum yield in the quantum dots using the quinine sulphate as standard. This salt is commonly used because of its quantum yield (56%) and stability. For the CdTe excitation, we used a wavelength of 549nm and for the CdSe/ZnS excitation a wavelength of 527nm. The results show that CdSe/ZnS (49%) has better fluorescence, better quantum dots, and confirm the fluorescence result. The quantum dots have shown a good fluorescence performance, so this property will be used to replace dyes, with the advantage that quantum dots are less toxic than some dyes like the rhodamine. In addition, in this work we show different techniques to find the quantum dots emission: fluorescence spectrum, synchronous spectrum and Raman spectrum. (paper)
Advancements in the Field of Quantum Dots
Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha; Sinha, Swami Prasad.
2012-08-01
Quantum dots are defined as very small semiconductor crystals of size varying from nanometer scale to a few micron i.e. so small that they are considered dimensionless and are capable of showing many chemical properties by virtue of which they tend to be lead at one minute and gold at the second minute.Quantum dots house the electrons just the way the electrons would have been present in an atom, by applying a voltage. And therefore they are very judiciously given the name of being called as the artificial atoms. This application of voltage may also lead to the modification of the chemical nature of the material anytime it is desired, resulting in lead at one minute to gold at the other minute. But this method is quite beyond our reach. A quantum dot is basically a semiconductor of very tiny size and this special phenomenon of quantum dot, causes the band of energies to change into discrete energy levels. Band gaps and the related energy depend on the relationship between the size of the crystal and the exciton radius. The height and energy between different energy levels varies inversely with the size of the quantum dot. The smaller the quantum dot, the higher is the energy possessed by it.There are many applications of the quantum dots e.g. they are very wisely applied to:Light emitting diodes: LEDs eg. White LEDs, Photovoltaic devices: solar cells, Memory elements, Biology : =biosensors, imaging, Lasers, Quantum computation, Flat-panel displays, Photodetectors, Life sciences and so on and so forth.The nanometer sized particles are able to display any chosen colour in the entire ultraviolet visible spectrum through a small change in their size or composition.
Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids
Ning, Zhijun
2015-07-15
© 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Heteroepitaxy - atomically aligned growth of a crystalline film atop a different crystalline substrate - is the basis of electrically driven lasers, multijunction solar cells, and blue-light-emitting diodes. Crystalline coherence is preserved even when atomic identity is modulated, a fact that is the critical enabler of quantum wells, wires, and dots. The interfacial quality achieved as a result of heteroepitaxial growth allows new combinations of materials with complementary properties, which enables the design and realization of functionalities that are not available in the single-phase constituents. Here we show that organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots, combined in the solution phase, produce epitaxially aligned \\'dots-in-a-matrix\\' crystals. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, we reveal heterocrystals as large as about 60 nanometres and containing at least 20 mutually aligned dots that inherit the crystalline orientation of the perovskite matrix. The heterocrystals exhibit remarkable optoelectronic properties that are traceable to their atom-scale crystalline coherence: photoelectrons and holes generated in the larger-bandgap perovskites are transferred with 80% efficiency to become excitons in the quantum dot nanocrystals, which exploit the excellent photocarrier diffusion of perovskites to produce bright-light emission from infrared-bandgap quantum-tuned materials. By combining the electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix with the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots, we engineer a new platform to advance solution-processed infrared optoelectronics.
Electron Spins in Semiconductor Quantum Dots
Hanson, R.
2005-01-01
This thesis describes a series of experiments aimed at understanding and controlling the behavior of the spin degree of freedom of single electrons, confined in semiconductor quantum dots. This research work is motivated by the prospects of using the electron spin as a quantum bit (qubit), the basic
Quantum dot optoelectronic devices: lasers, photodetectors and solar cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Jiang; Chen, Siming; Seeds, Alwyn; Liu, Huiyun
2015-01-01
Nanometre-scale semiconductor devices have been envisioned as next-generation technologies with high integration and functionality. Quantum dots, or the so-called ‘artificial atoms’, exhibit unique properties due to their quantum confinement in all 3D. These unique properties have brought to light the great potential of quantum dots in optoelectronic applications. Numerous efforts worldwide have been devoted to these promising nanomaterials for next-generation optoelectronic devices, such as lasers, photodetectors, amplifiers, and solar cells, with the emphasis on improving performance and functionality. Through the development in optoelectronic devices based on quantum dots over the last two decades, quantum dot devices with exceptional performance surpassing previous devices are evidenced. This review describes recent developments in quantum dot optoelectronic devices over the last few years. The paper will highlight the major progress made in 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers, quantum dot infrared photodetectors, and quantum dot solar cells. (topical review)
Quantum computation with two-dimensional graphene quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jie-Sen; Li Zhi-Bing; Yao Dao-Xin
2012-01-01
We study an array of graphene nano sheets that form a two-dimensional S = 1/2 Kagome spin lattice used for quantum computation. The edge states of the graphene nano sheets are used to form quantum dots to confine electrons and perform the computation. We propose two schemes of bang-bang control to combat decoherence and realize gate operations on this array of quantum dots. It is shown that both schemes contain a great amount of information for quantum computation. The corresponding gate operations are also proposed. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Quantum Dots in Photonic Crystal Waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sollner, Immo Nathanael
This Thesis is focused on the study of quantum electrodynamics in photonic crystal waveguides. We investigate the interplay between a single quantum dot and the fundamental mode of the photonic crystal waveguide. We demonstrate experimental coupling eciencies for the spontaneous emission into the...... quantum-dot-waveguide coupling. Such a structure is ideally suited for a number of applications in quantum information processing and among others we propose an on-chip spin-photon interface, a single photon transistor, and a deterministic cNOT gate.......This Thesis is focused on the study of quantum electrodynamics in photonic crystal waveguides. We investigate the interplay between a single quantum dot and the fundamental mode of the photonic crystal waveguide. We demonstrate experimental coupling eciencies for the spontaneous emission...... into the mode exceeding 98% for emitters spectrally close to the band-edge of the waveguide mode. In addition we illustrate the broadband nature of the underlying eects, by obtaining coupling eciencies above 90% for quantum dots detuned from the band edge by as far as 20nm. These values are in good agreement...
Scalable quantum computer architecture with coupled donor-quantum dot qubits
Schenkel, Thomas; Lo, Cheuk Chi; Weis, Christoph; Lyon, Stephen; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Bokor, Jeffrey
2014-08-26
A quantum bit computing architecture includes a plurality of single spin memory donor atoms embedded in a semiconductor layer, a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, wherein a first voltage applied across at least one pair of the aligned quantum dot and donor atom controls a donor-quantum dot coupling. A method of performing quantum computing in a scalable architecture quantum computing apparatus includes arranging a pattern of single spin memory donor atoms in a semiconductor layer, forming a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, applying a first voltage across at least one aligned pair of a quantum dot and donor atom to control a donor-quantum dot coupling, and applying a second voltage between one or more quantum dots to control a Heisenberg exchange J coupling between quantum dots and to cause transport of a single spin polarized electron between quantum dots.
Quantum Dot Systems: a versatile platform for quantum simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barthelemy, Pierre; Vandersypen, Lieven M.K.
2013-01-01
Quantum mechanics often results in extremely complex phenomena, especially when the quantum system under consideration is composed of many interacting particles. The states of these many-body systems live in a space so large that classical numerical calculations cannot compute them. Quantum simulations can be used to overcome this problem: complex quantum problems can be solved by studying experimentally an artificial quantum system operated to simulate the desired hamiltonian. Quantum dot systems have shown to be widely tunable quantum systems, that can be efficiently controlled electrically. This tunability and the versatility of their design makes them very promising quantum simulators. This paper reviews the progress towards digital quantum simulations with individually controlled quantum dots, as well as the analog quantum simulations that have been performed with these systems. The possibility to use large arrays of quantum dots to simulate the low-temperature Hubbard model is also discussed. The main issues along that path are presented and new ideas to overcome them are proposed. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Inorganic passivation and doping control in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics
Hoogland, Sjoerd H.
2012-01-01
We discuss strategies to reduce midgap trap state densities in colloidal quantum dot films and requirements to control doping type and magnitude. We demonstrate that these improvements result in colloidal quantum dot solar cells with certified 7.0% efficiency.
Surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition
Sykora, Milan; Koposov, Alexey; Fuke, Nobuhiro
2015-02-03
Provided are methods of surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition so as to exchange the native ligands of the quantum dots for exchange ligands that result in improvement in charge extraction from the nanocrystals.
Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiltscher, Bastian
2012-10-05
The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in
Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiltscher, Bastian
2012-01-01
The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in
Coherence and dephasing in self-assembled quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Leosson, K.; Birkedal, Dan
2003-01-01
We measured dephasing times in InGaAl/As self-assembled quantum dots at low temperature using degenerate four-wave mixing. At 0K, the coherence time of the quantum dots is lifetime limited, whereas at finite temperatures pure dephasing by exciton-phonon interactions governs the quantum dot...... coherence. The inferred homogeneous line widths are significantly smaller than the line widths usually observed in the photoluminescence from single quantum dots indicating an additional inhomogeneours broadening mechanism in the latter....
Carbon quantum dots and a method of making the same
Zidan, Ragaiy; Teprovich, Joseph A.; Washington, Aaron L.
2017-08-22
The present invention is directed to a method of preparing a carbon quantum dot. The carbon quantum dot can be prepared from a carbon precursor, such as a fullerene, and a complex metal hydride. The present invention also discloses a carbon quantum dot made by reacting a carbon precursor with a complex metal hydride and a polymer containing a carbon quantum dot made by reacting a carbon precursor with a complex metal hydride.
Phonon impact on optical control schemes of quantum dots: Role of quantum dot geometry and symmetry
Lüker, S.; Kuhn, T.; Reiter, D. E.
2017-12-01
Phonons strongly influence the optical control of semiconductor quantum dots. When modeling the electron-phonon interaction in several theoretical approaches, the quantum dot geometry is approximated by a spherical structure, though typical self-assembled quantum dots are strongly lens-shaped. By explicitly comparing simulations of a spherical and a lens-shaped dot using a well-established correlation expansion approach, we show that, indeed, lens-shaped dots can be exactly mapped to a spherical geometry when studying the phonon influence on the electronic system. We also give a recipe to reproduce spectral densities from more involved dots by rather simple spherical models. On the other hand, breaking the spherical symmetry has a pronounced impact on the spatiotemporal properties of the phonon dynamics. As an example we show that for a lens-shaped quantum dot, the phonon emission is strongly concentrated along the direction of the smallest axis of the dot, which is important for the use of phonons for the communication between different dots.
Bright infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots
Sun, Liangfeng
2013-01-01
Record-brightness infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots have been achieved through control of the spacing between adjacent quantum-dots. By tuning the size of quantum-dots, the emission wavelengths can be tuned between 900nm and 1650nm. © 2013 Materials Research Society.
Imaging vasculature and lymphatic flow in mice using quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ballou, Byron; Ernst, Lauren A.; Andreko, Susan
2009-01-01
Quantum dots are ideal probes for fluorescent imaging of vascular and lymphatic tissues. On injection into appropriate sites, red- and near-infrared-emitting quantum dots provide excellent definition of vasculature, lymphoid organs, and lymph nodes draining both normal tissues and tumors. We detail...... methods for use with commercially available quantum dots and discuss common difficulties....
High resolution STEM of quantum dots and quantum wires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kadkhodazadeh, Shima
2013-01-01
This article reviews the application of high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wires (QWRs). Different imaging and analytical techniques in STEM are introduced and key examples of their application to QDs and QWRs...
THz quantum-confined Stark effect in semiconductor quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turchinovich, Dmitry; Monozon, Boris S.; Livshits, Daniil A.
2012-01-01
We demonstrate an instantaneous all-optical manipulation of optical absorption at the ground state of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) via a quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) induced by the electric field of incident THz pulses with peak electric fields reaching 200 kV/cm in the free space...
Some aspects of quantum dot toxicity.
Bottrill, Melanie; Green, Mark
2011-07-07
Quantum dot toxicity has become a hot topic in recent years due to the emergence of semiconductor nanoparticles as highly efficient biological imaging agents. The use of quantum dots in biology is arguably the most successful application of pure nanotechnology in recent times, although unfortunately, the most useful semiconductor particles contain elements that are often thought to be detrimental to health and the environment. In this article, we explore some key reports on this issue. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011
Cadmium telluride quantum dots advances and applications
Donegan, John
2013-01-01
Optical Properties of Bulk and Nanocrystalline Cadmium Telluride, Núñez Fernández and M.I. VasilevskiyAqueous Synthesis of Colloidal CdTe Nanocrystals, V. Lesnyak, N. Gaponik, and A. EychmüllerAssemblies of Thiol-Capped CdTe Nanocrystals, N. GaponikFörster Resonant Energy Transfer in CdTe Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Structures, M. Lunz and A.L. BradleyEmission of CdTe Nanocrystals Coupled to Microcavities, Y.P. Rakovich and J.F. DoneganBiological Applications of Cadmium Telluride Semiconductor Quantum Dots, A. Le Cign
Dynamic localization in quantum dots: Analytical theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basko, D.M.; Skvortsov, M.A.; Kravtsov, V.E.
2003-02-01
We analyze the response of a complex quantum-mechanical system (e.g., a quantum dot) to a time-dependent perturbation φ(t). Assuming the dot to be described by random matrix theory for GOE we find the quantum correction to the energy absorption rate as a function of the dephasing time t φ . If φ(t) is a sum of d harmonics with incommensurate frequencies, the correction behaves similarly to that to the conductivity δσ d (t φ ) in the d-dimensional Anderson model of the orthogonal symmetry class. For a generic periodic perturbation the leading quantum correction is absent as in the systems of the unitary symmetry class, unless φ(-t+τ)=φ(t+τ) for some τ, which falls into the quasi-1d orthogonal universality class. (author)
Magnetic control of dipolaritons in quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rojas-Arias, J S; Vinck-Posada, H; Rodríguez, B A
2016-01-01
Dipolaritons are quasiparticles that arise in coupled quantum wells embedded in a microcavity, they are a superposition of a photon, a direct exciton and an indirect exciton. We propose the existence of dipolaritons in a system of two coupled quantum dots inside a microcavity in direct analogy with the quantum well case and find that, despite some similarities, dipolaritons in quantum dots have different properties and can lead to true dark polariton states. We use a finite system theory to study the effects of the magnetic field on the system, including the emission, and find that it can be used as a control parameter of the properties of excitons and dipolaritons, and the overall magnetic behaviour of the structure. (paper)
Biosensing with Luminescent Semiconductor Quantum Dots
Sapsford, Kim E.; Pons, Thomas; Medintz, Igor L.; Mattoussi, Hedi
2006-01-01
Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) are a recently developed class of nanomaterial whose unique photophysical properties are helping to create a new generation of robust fluorescent biosensors. QD properties of interest for biosensing include high quantum yields, broad absorption spectra coupled to narrow size-tunable photoluminescent emissions and exceptional resistance to both photobleaching and chemical degradation. In this review, we examine the progress in adapti...
Hybrid quantum-classical modeling of quantum dot devices
Kantner, Markus; Mittnenzweig, Markus; Koprucki, Thomas
2017-11-01
The design of electrically driven quantum dot devices for quantum optical applications asks for modeling approaches combining classical device physics with quantum mechanics. We connect the well-established fields of semiclassical semiconductor transport theory and the theory of open quantum systems to meet this requirement. By coupling the van Roosbroeck system with a quantum master equation in Lindblad form, we introduce a new hybrid quantum-classical modeling approach, which provides a comprehensive description of quantum dot devices on multiple scales: it enables the calculation of quantum optical figures of merit and the spatially resolved simulation of the current flow in realistic semiconductor device geometries in a unified way. We construct the interface between both theories in such a way, that the resulting hybrid system obeys the fundamental axioms of (non)equilibrium thermodynamics. We show that our approach guarantees the conservation of charge, consistency with the thermodynamic equilibrium and the second law of thermodynamics. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated by numerical simulations of an electrically driven single-photon source based on a single quantum dot in the stationary and transient operation regime.
Photoluminescence studies of single InGaAs quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leosson, Kristjan; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
1999-01-01
Semiconductor quantum dots are considered a promising material system for future optical devices and quantum computers. We have studied the low-temperature photoluminescence properties of single InGaAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs. The high spatial resolution required for resolving single dots...... to resolve luminescence lines from individual quantum dots, revealing an atomic-like spectrum of sharp transition lines. A parameter of fundamental importance is the intrinsic linewidth of these transitions. Using high-resolution spectroscopy we have determined the linewidth and investigated its dependence...... on temperature, which gives information about how the exciton confined to the quantum dot interacts with the surrounding lattice....
Imaging and Manipulating Energy Transfer Among Quantum Dots at Individual Dot Resolution.
Nguyen, Duc; Nguyen, Huy A; Lyding, Joseph W; Gruebele, Martin
2017-06-27
Many processes of interest in quantum dots involve charge or energy transfer from one dot to another. Energy transfer in films of quantum dots as well as between linked quantum dots has been demonstrated by luminescence shift, and the ultrafast time-dependence of energy transfer processes has been resolved. Bandgap variation among dots (energy disorder) and dot separation are known to play an important role in how energy diffuses. Thus, it would be very useful if energy transfer could be visualized directly on a dot-by-dot basis among small clusters or within films of quantum dots. To that effect, we report single molecule optical absorption detected by scanning tunneling microscopy (SMA-STM) to image energy pooling from donor into acceptor dots on a dot-by-dot basis. We show that we can manipulate groups of quantum dots by pruning away the dominant acceptor dot, and switching the energy transfer path to a different acceptor dot. Our experimental data agrees well with a simple Monte Carlo lattice model of energy transfer, similar to models in the literature, in which excitation energy is transferred preferentially from dots with a larger bandgap to dots with a smaller bandgap.
System and method for making quantum dots
Bakr, Osman M.
2015-05-28
Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of making quantum dots (QDs) (passivated or unpassivated) using a continuous flow process, systems for making QDs using a continuous flow process, and the like. In one or more embodiments, the QDs produced using embodiments of the present disclosure can be used in solar photovoltaic cells, bio-imaging, IR emitters, or LEDs.
New small quantum dots for neuroscience
Selvin, Paul
2014-03-01
In "New Small Quantum Dots for Neuroscience," Paul Selvin (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign) notes how the details of synapsis activity in the brain involves chemical receptors that facilitate the creation of the electrical connection between two nerves. In order to understand the details of this neuroscience phenomenon you need to be able to "see" what is happening at the scale of these receptors, which is around 10 nanometers. This is smaller than the diffraction limit of normal microscopy and it takes place on a 3 dimensional structure. Selvin describes the development of small quantum dots (on the order of 6-9 microns) that are surface-sensitized to interact with the receptors. This allows the application of photo-activated localized microscopy (PALM), a superresolution microscopy that can be scanned through focus to develop a 3D map on a scale that is the same size as the emitter, which in this case are the small quantum dots. The quantum dots are stable in time and provide access to the receptors which allows the imaging of the interactions taking place at the synoptic level.
Quantum Dot Detectors with Plasmonic Structures
2015-05-15
high operating temperature quantum dots in a well photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061105 (2010). 18. J. D. Jackson, Classical ... Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 3rd Edition, 1999). Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited. 10 19. J. O. Kim, S. Sengupta, A. V. Barve, Y. D
Photoluminescence of hybrid quantum dot systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav
2015-01-01
Roč. 7, č. 4 (2015), 347-349 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12236; GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : quantum dots * energy transfer * electron-phonon interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism
Decoherence in Nearly-Isolated Quantum Dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Folk, J.; M. Marcus, C.; Harris jr, J.
2000-01-01
Decoherence in nearly-isolated GaAs quantum dots is investigated using the change in average Coulomb blockade peak height upon breaking time-reversal symmetry. The normalized change in average peak height approaches the predicted universal value of 1/4 at temperatures well below the single...
Many electron effects in semiconductor quantum dots
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) exhibit shell structures, very similar to atoms. Termed as 'artificial atoms' by some, they are much larger (1 100 nm) than real atoms. One can study a variety of manyelectron effects in them, which are otherwise difficult to observe in a real atom. We have treated these effects within the ...
Effect of temperature on quantum dots
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
MAHDI AHMADI BORJI
2017-07-12
Jul 12, 2017 ... Quantum dot semiconductor lasers, due to the discrete density of states, low threshold current and ... energy states, strain, and other physical features, and their change by varying some factors such as ... tion 2 explains the model and method of the numerical simulation. Our results and discussions on the ...
Competing interactions in semiconductor quantum dots
van den Berg, R.; Brandino, G.P.; El Araby, O.; Konik, R.M.; Gritsev, V.; Caux, J.S.
2014-01-01
We introduce an integrability-based method enabling the study of semiconductor quantum dot models incorporating both the full hyperfine interaction as well as a mean-field treatment of dipole-dipole interactions in the nuclear spin bath. By performing free-induction decay and spin-echo simulations
Magnetic quantum dots for multimodal imaging
Koole, Rolf; Mulder, Willem J. M.; van Schooneveld, Matti M.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Meijerink, Andries; Nicolay, Klaas
2009-01-01
Multimodal contrast agents based on highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) combined with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) or ions form an exciting class of new materials for bioimaging. With two functionalities integrated in a single nanoparticle, a sensitive contrast agent for two very powerful and
Effect of temperature on quantum dots
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
MAHDI AHMADI BORJI
2017-07-12
Jul 12, 2017 ... Abstract. In this paper, the strain, band-edge, and energy levels of pyramidal InxGa1−xAs/GaAs quantum dots are investigated by 1-band effective mass approach. It is shown that while temperature has no remarkable effect on the strain tensor, the band gap lowers and the radiation wavelength elongates ...
Quantum Dots Coupled to a Superconductor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jellinggaard, Anders Robert
are tuned electrostatically. This includes tuning the odd occupation of the dot through a quantum phase transition, where it forms a singlet with excitations in the superconductor. We detail the fabrication of these bottom gated devices, which additionally feature ancillary sensor dots connected......In this thesis, sub-gap states in bottom-gated InAs N–dot–S, N–double dot–S, and N–dot–S–dot–N devices are investigated, and several different theories are developed to model these states. Experimental results include tracking single levels of the dot in an N–dot–S device as the tunnel couplings...... with floating gates. A numerical technique is developed, which predicts the position of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov sub-gap states in the proximitized Anderson model as well as properties of these states. This theory is valid for all occupations of the dot and for weak to intermediate coupling. We compare...
Energy spectra and optical transitions in germanene quantum dots
Herath, Thakshila M.; Apalkov, Vadym
2016-04-01
The band gap of buckled graphene-like materials, such as silicene and germanene, depends on external perpendicular electric field. Then a specially design profile of electric field can produce trapping potential for electrons. We study theoretically the energy spectrum and optical transitions for such designed quantum dots (QDs) in graphene-like materials. The energy spectra depend on the size of the QD and applied electric field in the region of the QD. The number of the states in the QD increases with increasing the size of the dot and the energies of the states have almost linear dependence on the applied electric field with the slope which increases with increasing the dot size. The optical properties of the QDs are characterized by two types of absorption spectra: interband (optical transitions between the states of the valence and conduction bands) and intraband (transitions between the states of conduction/valence band). The interband absorption spectra have triple-peak structure with peak separation around 10 meV, while intraband absorption spectra, which depend on the number of electrons in the dot, have double-peak structure.
Efficient Luminescence from Perovskite Quantum Dot Solids
Kim, Younghoon
2015-11-18
© 2015 American Chemical Society. Nanocrystals of CsPbX3 perovskites are promising materials for light-emitting optoelectronics because of their colloidal stability, optically tunable bandgap, bright photoluminescence, and excellent photoluminescence quantum yield. Despite their promise, nanocrystal-only films of CsPbX3 perovskites have not yet been fabricated; instead, highly insulating polymers have been relied upon to compensate for nanocrystals\\' unstable surfaces. We develop solution chemistry that enables single-step casting of perovskite nanocrystal films and overcomes problems in both perovskite quantum dot purification and film fabrication. Centrifugally cast films retain bright photoluminescence and achieve dense and homogeneous morphologies. The new materials offer a platform for optoelectronic applications of perovskite quantum dot solids.
Vertical quantum dot with a vertically coupled charge detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaitsu, Koichiro; Kitamura, Yosuke; Ono, Keiji; Tarucha, Seigo
2008-01-01
We fabricated a vertical quantum dot equipped with a charge detector. The dot current flows vertically between the top and bottom contacts. The charge detector is formed at the bottom contact layer with a current channel constricted to the region just under the dot. This channel current is reduced by addition of an extra electron onto the dot due to the electrostatic coupling to the dot. The charge state of the vertical dot was detected, starting from zero electrons. The sensitivity of the charge detector was comparable to that previously reported for lateral dots with nearby quantum point contacts
Quantum Computation Using Optically Coupled Quantum Dot Arrays
Pradhan, Prabhakar; Anantram, M. P.; Wang, K. L.; Roychowhury, V. P.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
A solid state model for quantum computation has potential advantages in terms of the ease of fabrication, characterization, and integration. The fundamental requirements for a quantum computer involve the realization of basic processing units (qubits), and a scheme for controlled switching and coupling among the qubits, which enables one to perform controlled operations on qubits. We propose a model for quantum computation based on optically coupled quantum dot arrays, which is computationally similar to the atomic model proposed by Cirac and Zoller. In this model, individual qubits are comprised of two coupled quantum dots, and an array of these basic units is placed in an optical cavity. Switching among the states of the individual units is done by controlled laser pulses via near field interaction using the NSOM technology. Controlled rotations involving two or more qubits are performed via common cavity mode photon. We have calculated critical times, including the spontaneous emission and switching times, and show that they are comparable to the best times projected for other proposed models of quantum computation. We have also shown the feasibility of accessing individual quantum dots using the NSOM technology by calculating the photon density at the tip, and estimating the power necessary to perform the basic controlled operations. We are currently in the process of estimating the decoherence times for this system; however, we have formulated initial arguments which seem to indicate that the decoherence times will be comparable, if not longer, than many other proposed models.
High-resolution photoluminescence studies of single semiconductor quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leosson, Kristjan; Østergaard, John Erland; Jensen, Jacob Riis
2000-01-01
developed in the study of single quantum dots, characterized by sharp atomic-like transition lines revealing their zero-dimensional density of states. Substantial information about the fundamental properties of individual quantum dots, as well as their interactions with other dots and the host lattice, can...
Theory of the Quantum Dot Hybrid Qubit
Friesen, Mark
2015-03-01
The quantum dot hybrid qubit, formed from three electrons in two quantum dots, combines the desirable features of charge qubits (fast manipulation) and spin qubits (long coherence times). The hybridized spin and charge states yield a unique energy spectrum with several useful properties, including two different operating regimes that are relatively immune to charge noise due to the presence of optimal working points or ``sweet spots.'' In this talk, I will describe dc and ac-driven gate operations of the quantum dot hybrid qubit. I will analyze improvements in the dephasing that are enabled by the sweet spots, and I will discuss the outlook for quantum hybrid qubits in terms of scalability. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607), NSF (PHY-1104660), the USDOD, and the Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program. The views and conclusions contained in this presentation are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of the US government.
Single quantum dots fundamentals, applications, and new concepts
2003-01-01
This book reviews recent advances in the exciting and rapid growing field of semiconductor quantum dots by contributions from some of the most prominent researchers in the field. Special focus is given to the optical and electronic properties of single quantum dots due to their potential applications in devices operating with single electrons and/or single photons. This includes quantum dots in electric and magnetic fields, cavity-quantum electrodynamics, nonclassical light generation, and coherent optical control of excitons. Single Quantum Dots also addresses various growth techniques as well as potential device applications such as quantum dot lasers, and new concepts like a single-photon source, and a single quantum dot laser.
Peptide-Decorated Tunable-Fluorescence Graphene Quantum Dots.
Sapkota, Bedanga; Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Lin, Hao-Yu Greg; Liang, Wentao; Champion, Paul; Wanunu, Meni
2017-03-22
We report here the synthesis of graphene quantum dots with tunable size, surface chemistry, and fluorescence properties. In the size regime 15-35 nm, these quantum dots maintain strong visible light fluorescence (mean quantum yield of 0.64) and a high two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section (6500 Göppert-Mayer units). Furthermore, through noncovalent tailoring of the chemistry of these quantum dots, we obtain water-stable quantum dots. For example, quantum dots with lysine groups bind strongly to DNA in solution and inhibit polymerase-based DNA strand synthesis. Finally, by virtue of their mesoscopic size, the quantum dots exhibit good cell permeability into living epithelial cells, but they do not enter the cell nucleus.
Semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 8. Various Quantum Mechanical Concepts for Confinements in Semiconductor Nanocrystals. Jayakrishna Khatei Karuna Kar Nanda. Classroom Volume 18 Issue 8 August 2013 pp 771-776 ...
Reconfigurable quadruple quantum dots in a silicon nanowire transistor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Betz, A. C., E-mail: ab2106@cam.ac.uk; Broström, M.; Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F. [Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Tagliaferri, M. L. V. [Laboratorio MDM, CNR-IMM, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universit di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Vinet, M. [CEA/LETI-MINATEC, CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Sanquer, M. [SPSMS, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Ferguson, A. J. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)
2016-05-16
We present a reconfigurable metal-oxide-semiconductor multi-gate transistor that can host a quadruple quantum dot in silicon. The device consists of an industrial quadruple-gate silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. Exploiting the corner effect, we study the versatility of the structure in the single quantum dot and the serial double quantum dot regimes and extract the relevant capacitance parameters. We address the fabrication variability of the quadruple-gate approach which, paired with improved silicon fabrication techniques, makes the corner state quantum dot approach a promising candidate for a scalable quantum information architecture.
Reconfigurable quadruple quantum dots in a silicon nanowire transistor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Betz, A. C.; Broström, M.; Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F.; Tagliaferri, M. L. V.; Vinet, M.; Sanquer, M.; Ferguson, A. J.
2016-01-01
We present a reconfigurable metal-oxide-semiconductor multi-gate transistor that can host a quadruple quantum dot in silicon. The device consists of an industrial quadruple-gate silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. Exploiting the corner effect, we study the versatility of the structure in the single quantum dot and the serial double quantum dot regimes and extract the relevant capacitance parameters. We address the fabrication variability of the quadruple-gate approach which, paired with improved silicon fabrication techniques, makes the corner state quantum dot approach a promising candidate for a scalable quantum information architecture.
Quantum photonics with quantum dots in photonic wires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Munsch, Mathieu; Kuhlmann, Andreas; Cadeddu, Davide
2016-01-01
We present results from the spectroscopy of a single quantum dot in a photonic wire. The device presents a high photon extraction efficiency, and strong hybrid coupling to mechanical modes. We use resonance fluorescence to probe the emitter’s properties with the highest sensitivity. Weperform...
Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic wires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Munsch, Mathieu; Cadeddu, Davide; Teissier, Jean
2016-01-01
We present an exploration of the spectroscopy of a single quantum dot in a photonic wire. The device presents a high photon extraction efficiency, and strong hybrid coupling to mechanical modes. We use resonance fluorescence to probe the emitter's properties with the highest sensitivity, allowing...
Facile labeling of lipoglycans with quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morales Betanzos, Carlos; Gonzalez-Moa, Maria; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Svarovsky, Sergei A.
2009-01-01
Bacterial endotoxins or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are among the most potent activators of the innate immune system, yet mechanisms of their action and in particular the role of glycans remain elusive. Efficient non-invasive labeling strategies are necessary for studying interactions of LPS glycans with biological systems. Here we report a new method for labeling LPS and other lipoglycans with luminescent quantum dots. The labeling is achieved by partitioning of hydrophobic quantum dots into the core of various LPS aggregates without disturbing the native LPS structure. The biofunctionality of the LPS-Qdot conjugates is demonstrated by the labeling of mouse monocytes. This simple method should find broad applicability in studies concerned with visualization of LPS biodistribution and identification of LPS binding agents.
Quantum Dot Molecular Beacons for DNA Detection
Cady, Nathaniel C.
Molecular beacons have become an important fluorescent probe for sequence-specific DNA detection. To improve the sensitivity and robustness of molecular beacon assays, fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are now being used as the fluorescent moiety for molecular beacon synthesis. Multiple linkage strategies can be used for attaching molecular beacon DNA to QDs, and multiple quenchers, including gold particles, can be used for fluorescence quenching. Covalent attachment of QDs to DNA can be achieved through amide linkage, and affinity-based attachment can be achieved with streptavidin-biotin linkage. We have shown that these linkage strategies can be used to successfully create quantum dot molecular beacons that can be used in DNA detection assays with high specificity.
Strain-tunable quantum dot devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rastelli, A.; Trotta, R.; Zallo, E.; Atkinson, P.; Magerl, E.; Ding, F.; Plumhof, J.D.; Kumar, S.; Doerr, K.; Schmidt, O.G.
2011-01-01
We introduce a new class of quantum dot-based devices, in which the semiconductor structures are integrated on top of piezoelectric actuators. This combination allows on one hand to study in detail the effects produced by variable strains (up to about 0.2%) on the excitonic emission of single quantum dots and on the other to manipulate their electronic- and optical properties to achieve specific requirements. In fact, by combining strain with electric fields we are able to obtain (i) independent control of emission energy and charge-state of a QD, (II) wavelength-tunable single-QD light-emitting diodes and (III) frequency-stabilized sources of single photons at predefined wavelengths. Possible future extensions and applications of this technology will be discussed.
Single Molecule Applications of Quantum Dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Thomas Elmelund; Jauffred, Liselotte; Brewer, Jonathan R.
2013-01-01
Fluorescent nanocrystals composed of semiconductor materials were first introduced for biological applications in the late 1990s. The focus of this review is to give a brief survey of biological applications of quantum dots (QDs) at the single QD sensitivity level. These are described as follows:...... experiments held together with the prospects in localization microscopy and single molecule manipulation experiments gave QDs a promising future in single molecule research....
Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics
Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.
2011-05-26
The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
The Silicon:Colloidal Quantum Dot Heterojunction
Masala, Silvia
2015-10-13
A heterojunction between crystalline silicon and colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is realized. A special interface modification is developed to overcome an inherent energetic band mismatch between the two semiconductors, and realize the efficient collection of infrared photocarriers generated in the CQD film. This junction is used to produce a sensitive near infrared photodetector. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Polarization-insensitive quantum-dot coupled quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Lirong; Yu Yi; Tian Peng; Huang Dexiu
2009-01-01
The optical gain of a quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier is usually seriously dependent on polarization; we propose a quantum-dot coupled tensile-strained quantum-well structure to obtain polarization insensitivity. The tensile-strained quantum well not only serves as a carrier injection layer of quantum dots but also offers gain to the transverse-magnetic mode. Based on the polarization-dependent coupled carrier rate-equation model, we study carrier competition among quantum well and quantum dots, and study the polarization dependence of the quantum-dot coupled quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier. We also analyze polarization-dependent photon-mediated carrier distribution among quantum well and quantum dots. It is shown that polarization-insensitive gain can be realized by optimal design
Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic nanowires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Claudon, Julien; Munsch, Matthieu; Bleuse, Joel
2012-01-01
Besides microcavities and photonic crystals, photonic nanowires have recently emerged as a novel resource for solidstate quantum optics. We will review recent studies which demonstrate an excellent control over the spontaneous emission of InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in single-mode Ga...... quantum optoelectronic devices. Quite amazingly, this approach has for instance permitted (unlike microcavity-based approaches) to combine for the first time a record-high efficiency (72%) and a negligible g(2) in a QD single photon source....
Research Progress of Photoanodes for Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LI Zhi-min
2017-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the development status and tendency of quantum dot sensitized solar cells. Photoanode research progress and its related technologies are analyzed in detail from the three ways of semiconductor thin films, quantum dot co-sensitization and quantum dot doping, deriving from the approach that the conversion efficiency can be improved by photoanode modification for quantum dot sensitized solar cells. According to the key factors which restrict the cell efficiency, the promising future development of quantum dot sensitized solar cells is proposed,for example,optimizing further the compositions and structures of semiconductor thin films for the photoanodes, exploring new quantum dots with broadband absorption and developing high efficient techniques of interface modification.
Using of Quantum Dots in Biology and Medicine.
Pleskova, Svetlana; Mikheeva, Elza; Gornostaeva, Ekaterina
2018-01-01
Quantum dots are nanoparticles, which due to their unique physical and chemical (first of all optical) properties, are promising in biology and medicine. There are many ways for quantum dots synthesis, both in the form of nanoislands self-forming on the surfaces, which can be used as single-photon emitters in electronics for storing information, and in the form of colloidal quantum dots for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in living systems. The paper describes the main methods of quantum dots synthesis and summarizes medical and biological ways of their use. The main emphasis is laid on the ways of quantum dots surface modification. Influence of the size and form of nanoparticles, charge on the surfaces of quantum dots, and cover type on the efficiency of internalization by cells and cell compartments is shown. The main mechanisms of penetration are considered.
Electronic transport through a quantum dot chain with strong dot-lead coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Yu; Zheng, Yisong; Gong, Weijiang; Gao, Wenzhu; Lue, Tianquan
2007-01-01
By means of the non-equilibrium Green function technique, the electronic transport through an N-quantum-dot chain is theoretically studied. By calculating the linear conductance spectrum and the local density of states in quantum dots, we find the resonant peaks in the spectra coincides with the eigen-energies of the N-quantum-dot chain when the dot-lead coupling is relatively weak. With the increase of the dot-lead coupling, such a correspondence becomes inaccurate. When the dot-lead coupling exceeds twice the interdot coupling, such a mapping collapses completely. The linear conductance turn to reflect the eigen-energies of the (N-2)- or (N-1)-quantum dot chain instead. The two peripheral quantum dots do not manifest themselves in the linear conductance spectrum. More interestingly, with the further increase of the dot-lead coupling, the system behaves just like an (N-2)- or (N-1)-quantum dot chain in weak dot-lead coupling limit, since the resonant peaks becomes narrower with the increase of dot-lead coupling
Silicon quantum dots: fine-tuning to maturity.
Morello, Andrea
2015-12-18
Quantum dots in semiconductor heterostructures provide one of the most flexible platforms for the study of quantum phenomena at the nanoscale. The surging interest in using quantum dots for quantum computation is forcing researchers to rethink fabrication and operation methods, to obtain highly tunable dots in spin-free host materials, such as silicon. Borselli and colleagues report in Nanotechnology the fabrication of a novel Si/SiGe double quantum dot device, which combines an ultra-low disorder Si/SiGe accumulation-mode heterostructure with a stack of overlapping control gates, ensuring tight confining potentials and exquisite tunability. This work signals the technological maturity of silicon quantum dots, and their readiness to be applied to challenging projects in quantum information science.
Polarized quantum dot emission in electrohydrodynamic jet printed photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
See, Gloria G.; Xu, Lu; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Sutanto, Erick; Alleyne, Andrew G.; Cunningham, Brian T.
2015-01-01
Tailored optical output, such as color purity and efficient optical intensity, are critical considerations for displays, particularly in mobile applications. To this end, we demonstrate a replica molded photonic crystal structure with embedded quantum dots. Electrohydrodynamic jet printing is used to control the position of the quantum dots within the device structure. This results in significantly less waste of the quantum dot material than application through drop-casting or spin coating. In addition, the targeted placement of the quantum dots minimizes any emission outside of the resonant enhancement field, which enables an 8× output enhancement and highly polarized emission from the photonic crystal structure
Single-charge tunneling in ambipolar silicon quantum dots
Müller, Filipp
2015-01-01
Spin qubits in coupled quantum dots (QDs) are promising for future quantum information processing (QIP). A quantum bit (qubit) is the quantum mechanical analogon of a classical bit. In general, each quantum mechanical two-level system can represent a qubit. For the spin of a single charge carrier
Quantum size effect and thermal stability of carbon-nanotube-based quantum dot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, N.Y.; Peng, J.; Liang, S.D.; Li, Z.B.; Xu, N.S.
2004-01-01
Full text: Based on semi-experience quantum chemical calculation, we have investigated the quantum size effect and thermal stability of open-end carbon nanotube (5, 5) quantum dots of 20 to 400 atoms. It was found that there is a gap in the energy band of all carbon nanotube (5, 5) quantum dots although a (5, 5) carbon nanotube is metallic. The energy gap of quantum dots is much dependent of the number of atoms in a dot, as a result of the quantization rules imposed by the finite scales in both radial and axial directions of a carbon nanotube quantum dot. Also, the heat of formation of carbon nanotube quantum dots is dependent of the size of a quantum dot. (author)
Hybrid passivated colloidal quantum dot solids
Ip, Alex
2012-07-29
Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films allow large-area solution processing and bandgap tuning through the quantum size effect. However, the high ratio of surface area to volume makes CQD films prone to high trap state densities if surfaces are imperfectly passivated, promoting recombination of charge carriers that is detrimental to device performance. Recent advances have replaced the long insulating ligands that enable colloidal stability following synthesis with shorter organic linkers or halide anions, leading to improved passivation and higher packing densities. Although this substitution has been performed using solid-state ligand exchange, a solution-based approach is preferable because it enables increased control over the balance of charges on the surface of the quantum dot, which is essential for eliminating midgap trap states. Furthermore, the solution-based approach leverages recent progress in metal:chalcogen chemistry in the liquid phase. Here, we quantify the density of midgap trap states in CQD solids and show that the performance of CQD-based photovoltaics is now limited by electrong-"hole recombination due to these states. Next, using density functional theory and optoelectronic device modelling, we show that to improve this performance it is essential to bind a suitable ligand to each potential trap site on the surface of the quantum dot. We then develop a robust hybrid passivation scheme that involves introducing halide anions during the end stages of the synthesis process, which can passivate trap sites that are inaccessible to much larger organic ligands. An organic crosslinking strategy is then used to form the film. Finally, we use our hybrid passivated CQD solid to fabricate a solar cell with a certified efficiency of 7.0%, which is a record for a CQD photovoltaic device. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Amphoteric CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dots.
Islam, Mohammad A
2008-06-25
The nanocrystal quantum dot (NQD) charge states strongly influence their electrical transport properties in photovoltaic and electroluminescent devices, optical gains in NQD lasers, and the stability of the dots in thin films. We report a unique electrostatic nature of CdSe NQDs, studied by electrophoretic methods. When we submerged a pair of metal electrodes, in a parallel plate capacitor configuration, into a dilute solution of CdSe NQDs in hexane, and applied a DC voltage across the pair, thin films of CdSe NQDs were deposited on both the positive and the negative electrodes. Extensive characterizations including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman studies revealed that the films on both the positive and the negative electrodes were identical in every respect, clearly indicating that: (1) a fraction (<1%) of the CdSe NQDs in free form in hexane solution are charged and, more importantly, (2) there are equal numbers of positive and negative CdSe NQDs in the hexane solution. Experiments also show that the number of deposited dots is at least an order of magnitude higher than the number of initially charged dots, indicating regeneration. We used simple thermodynamics to explain such amphoteric nature and the charging/regeneration of the CdSe NQDs.
Quantum Dot Spectrum Converters for Enhanced High Efficiency Photovoltaics, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research proposes to enhance solar cell efficiency, radiation resistance and affordability. The Quantum Dot Spectrum Converter (QDSC) disperses quantum dots...
Device Characterization of High Performance Quantum Dot Comb Laser
Rafi, Kazi
2012-02-01
The cost effective comb based laser sources are considered to be one of the prominent emitters used in optical communication (OC) and photonic integrated circuits (PIC). With the rising demand for delivering triple-play services (voice, data and video) in FTTH and FTTP-based WDM-PON networks, metropolitan area network (MAN), and short-reach rack-to-rack optical computer communications, a versatile and cost effective WDM transmitter design is required, where several DFB lasers can be replaced by a cost effective broadband comb laser to support on-chip optical signaling. Therefore, high performance quantum dot (Q.Dot) comb lasers need to satisfy several challenges before real system implementations. These challenges include a high uniform broadband gain spectrum from the active layer, small relative intensity noise with lower bit error rate (BER) and better temperature stability. Thus, such short wavelength comb lasers offering higher bandwidth can be a feasible solution to address these challenges. However, they still require thorough characterization before implementation. In this project, we briefly characterized the novel quantum dot comb laser using duty cycle based electrical injection and temperature variations where we have observed the presence of reduced thermal conductivity in the active layer. This phenomenon is responsible for the degradation of device performance. Hence, different performance trends, such as broadband emission and spectrum stability were studied with pulse and continuous electrical pumping. The tested comb laser is found to be an attractive solution for several applications but requires further experiments in order to be considered for photonic intergraded circuits and to support next generation computer-communications.
Silicon Quantum Dots with Counted Antimony Donor Implants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Meenakshi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Pacheco, Jose L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Perry, Daniel Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Garratt, E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Ten Eyck, Gregory A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Wendt, Joel R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Manginell, Ronald P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Luhman, Dwight [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Bielejec, Edward S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Lilly, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Carroll, Malcolm S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies
2015-10-01
Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. A focused ion beam is used to implant close to quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of ions implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. Regular coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization, are observed in devices with counted implants.
Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, M., E-mail: msingh@sandia.gov; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)
2016-02-08
Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.
Near-field strong coupling of single quantum dots.
Groß, Heiko; Hamm, Joachim M; Tufarelli, Tommaso; Hess, Ortwin; Hecht, Bert
2018-03-01
Strong coupling and the resultant mixing of light and matter states is an important asset for future quantum technologies. We demonstrate deterministic room temperature strong coupling of a mesoscopic colloidal quantum dot to a plasmonic nanoresonator at the apex of a scanning probe. Enormous Rabi splittings of up to 110 meV are accomplished by nanometer-precise positioning of the quantum dot with respect to the nanoresonator probe. We find that, in addition to a small mode volume of the nanoresonator, collective coherent coupling of quantum dot band-edge states and near-field proximity interaction are vital ingredients for the realization of near-field strong coupling of mesoscopic quantum dots. The broadband nature of the interaction paves the road toward ultrafast coherent manipulation of the coupled quantum dot-plasmon system under ambient conditions.
Coherent Dynamics of Quantum Dots in Photonic-Crystal Cavities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kristian Høeg
In this thesis we have performed quantum-electrodynamics experiments on quantum dots embedded in photonic-crystal cavities. We perform a quantitative comparison of the decay dynamics and emission spectra of quantum dots embedded in a micropillar cavity and a photonic-crystal cavity. The light......-matter interaction in the micropiller caivty is so strong that we measure non-Markovian dynamics of the quantum dot, and we compare to the Jaynes-Cummings model with all parameters independently determined. We find an excellent agreement when comparing the dynamics, but the emission spectra show significant...... deviations. Similar measurements on a quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity sow a Rabi splitting on resonance, while time-resolved measurements prove that the system is in the weak coupling regime. Whle tuning the quantum dot through resonance of the high-Q mode we observe a strong and surprisingly...
Studies on silicon quantum dots prepared at different working pressure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Faisal A. Al-Agel
Full Text Available This research work describes the synthesis and characterization of Si quantum dots of thickness 20Â nm prepared on glass/quartz substrate by Physical Vapour Condensation Technique at the working pressure of 5 and 10Â Torr with fixed substrate temperature 77Â K using liquid nitrogen. The synthesized quantum dots were studied by FESEM, HRTEM, X-ray diffraction, UVâvisible spectroscopy, photoluminescence and FTIR spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction pattern of synthesized quantum dots shows the amorphous nature. FESEM images of synthesized quantum dots suggest that the size of quantum dots varies from 4â6Â nm which is further confirmed by HRTEM. On the basis of optical absorbance by UVâvisible spectroscopy, a direct band gap has been detected. FTIR spectra suggest that the as-grown Si quantum dots are partially oxidized which is due exposure of samples to air after taking out the samples from the chamber. PL spectra show a broad peak at 444Â nm, which may be attributed to the configuration of amorphous Si quantum dots. A slight shift in the peak position has been observed with increase in working pressure from 5Â Torr to 10Â Torr. The dc conductivity with temperature of Si quantum dots has also been studied from 303 to 454Â K. It is evident that the dc conductivity (Ïdc enhances linearly with temperature, showing that conduction in Si quantum dots is due to an activated action which further verify the semiconductor deportment of these quantum dots. Keywords: Si quantum dots, Thin films, XRD, Optical properties, Electrical properties
Highly Efficient Spontaneous Emission from Self-Assembled Quantum Dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Jeppe; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
2006-01-01
We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency.......We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency....
Systematic optimization of quantum junction colloidal quantum dot solar cells
Liu, Huan
2012-01-01
The recently reported quantum junction architecture represents a promising approach to building a rectifying photovoltaic device that employs colloidal quantum dot layers on each side of the p-n junction. Here, we report an optimized quantum junction solar cell that leverages an improved aluminum zinc oxide electrode for a stable contact to the n-side of the quantum junction and silver doping of the p-layer that greatly enhances the photocurrent by expanding the depletion region in the n-side of the device. These improvements result in greater stability and a power conversion efficiency of 6.1 under AM1.5 simulated solar illumination. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.
Correlated Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum-dot structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2016-01-01
We study theoretically Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum dots (CQDs) -- a biasdriven dot coupled to an unbiased dot where transport is due to Coulomb mediated energy transfer drag. To this end, we introduce a master-equation approach which accounts for higher-order tunneling (cotunneling...
Quantum error prevention and leakage elimination for quantum dots
Pegahan, Saeed; Byrd, Mark S.; Reddy Chinni, Karthik
2015-03-01
Decoherence-free, or noiseless subsystems, are used to encode spin qubits in quantum dots in order to achieve universal quantum computing using only the exchange interaction. We investigate the use of dynamical decoupling controls for the purposes of eliminating leakage for a logical qubit encoded using three physical qubits. These leakage elimination operators (LEOs) can be used to eliminate all leakage errors using exchange interactions between the physical spin qubits. Depending on the encoding and the decoupling control, different types of errors can be eliminated. We show several different possible controls and the consequential noise reduction for different encodings as well as our general method for determining the effectiveness of these pulses.
Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics: A Path Forward
Kramer, Illan J.
2011-11-22
Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) offer a path toward high-efficiency photovoltaics based on low-cost materials and processes. Spectral tunability via the quantum size effect facilitates absorption of specific wavelengths from across the sun\\'s broad spectrum. CQD materials\\' ease of processing derives from their synthesis, storage, and processing in solution. Rapid advances have brought colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic solar power conversion efficiencies of 6% in the latest reports. These achievements represent important first steps toward commercially compelling performance. Here we review advances in device architecture and materials science. We diagnose the principal phenomenon-electronic states within the CQD film band gap that limit both current and voltage in devices-that must be cured for CQD PV devices to fulfill their promise. We close with a prescription, expressed as bounds on the density and energy of electronic states within the CQD film band gap, that should allow device efficiencies to rise to those required for the future of the solar energy field. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Dynamics of Energy Transfer in Quantum Dot Arrays
Al-Ahmadi, A. N.; Ulloa, S. E.
2004-04-01
Förster-type coupling is one of the most important mechanisms that influence the energy transport properties in a quantum dot array. We explore this mechanism by calculating the coupling strength V_F, and by studying the dynamics of the exciton state created in an array of quantum dots using the time evolution of the density matrix approach. We first estimate the coupling strength VF of Förster interaction based on microscopic descriptions of the exciton levels in the quantum dot. We study this parameter for different materials (CdS, CdSe,InP, and GaAs) as function of the dot size. The results show that the maximum value of VF depends on the specific sizes and that each material has optimal coupling for different pairs of quantum dot radii. Other key parameters that govern energy transport are determined for various materials and sizes of quantum dots. Second, we consider a model of coupled quantum dots with two exciton levels in each dot, one optically passive and another active. Analysis of the population of each level when the Förster channel is opened shows this is responsible for interesting physical behavior in different coupling regimes. Realistic parameters used to study the dynamics of the exciton state for dimer and trimer quantum dot clusters, allow us direct comparison with recent experiments by Klimov et al. Supported by US DOE, and Indiana 21^st Century Fund Research and Technology.
Quantum computation with nuclear spins in quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christ, H.
2008-01-24
The role of nuclear spins for quantum information processing in quantum dots is theoretically investigated in this thesis. Building on the established fact that the most strongly coupled environment for the potential electron spin quantum bit are the surrounding lattice nuclear spins interacting via the hyperfine interaction, we turn this vice into a virtue by designing schemes for harnessing this strong coupling. In this perspective, the ensemble of nuclear spins can be considered an asset, suitable for an active role in quantum information processing due to its intrinsic long coherence times. We present experimentally feasible protocols for the polarization, i.e. initialization, of the nuclear spins and a quantitative solution to our derived master equation. The polarization limiting destructive interference effects, caused by the collective nature of the nuclear coupling to the electron spin, are studied in detail. Efficient ways of mitigating these constraints are presented, demonstrating that highly polarized nuclear ensembles in quantum dots are feasible. At high, but not perfect, polarization of the nuclei the evolution of an electron spin in contact with the spin bath can be efficiently studied by means of a truncation of the Hilbert space. It is shown that the electron spin can function as a mediator of universal quantum gates for collective nuclear spin qubits, yielding a promising architecture for quantum information processing. Furthermore, we show that at high polarization the hyperfine interaction of electron and nuclear spins resembles the celebrated Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum optics. This result opens the door for transfer of knowledge from the mature field of quantum computation with atoms and photons. Additionally, tailored specifically for the quantum dot environment, we propose a novel scheme for the generation of highly squeezed collective nuclear states. Finally we demonstrate that even an unprepared completely mixed nuclear spin
Quantum computation with nuclear spins in quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christ, H.
2008-01-01
The role of nuclear spins for quantum information processing in quantum dots is theoretically investigated in this thesis. Building on the established fact that the most strongly coupled environment for the potential electron spin quantum bit are the surrounding lattice nuclear spins interacting via the hyperfine interaction, we turn this vice into a virtue by designing schemes for harnessing this strong coupling. In this perspective, the ensemble of nuclear spins can be considered an asset, suitable for an active role in quantum information processing due to its intrinsic long coherence times. We present experimentally feasible protocols for the polarization, i.e. initialization, of the nuclear spins and a quantitative solution to our derived master equation. The polarization limiting destructive interference effects, caused by the collective nature of the nuclear coupling to the electron spin, are studied in detail. Efficient ways of mitigating these constraints are presented, demonstrating that highly polarized nuclear ensembles in quantum dots are feasible. At high, but not perfect, polarization of the nuclei the evolution of an electron spin in contact with the spin bath can be efficiently studied by means of a truncation of the Hilbert space. It is shown that the electron spin can function as a mediator of universal quantum gates for collective nuclear spin qubits, yielding a promising architecture for quantum information processing. Furthermore, we show that at high polarization the hyperfine interaction of electron and nuclear spins resembles the celebrated Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum optics. This result opens the door for transfer of knowledge from the mature field of quantum computation with atoms and photons. Additionally, tailored specifically for the quantum dot environment, we propose a novel scheme for the generation of highly squeezed collective nuclear states. Finally we demonstrate that even an unprepared completely mixed nuclear spin
Photon Cascade from a Single Crystal Phase Nanowire Quantum Dot
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bouwes Bavinck, Maaike; Jöns, Klaus D; Zieliński, Michal
2016-01-01
We report the first comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the optical properties of single crystal phase quantum dots in InP nanowires. Crystal phase quantum dots are defined by a transition in the crystallographic lattice between zinc blende and wurtzite segments and therefore offe...
Fractional decay of quantum dots in photonic crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Koenderink, Femius; Lodahl, Peter
2008-01-01
We define a practical measure for the degree of fractional decay and establish conditions for the effect to be observable for quantum dots in photonic crystals exhibiting absorptive losses.......We define a practical measure for the degree of fractional decay and establish conditions for the effect to be observable for quantum dots in photonic crystals exhibiting absorptive losses....
Single-photon superradiance from a quantum dot
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tighineanu, Petru; Daveau, Raphaël Sura; Lehmann, Tau Bernstorff
2016-01-01
We report on the observation of single-photon superradiance from an exciton in a semiconductor quantum dot. The confinement by the quantum dot is strong enough for it to mimic a two-level atom, yet sufficiently weak to ensure superradiance. The electrostatic interaction between the electron and t...
Electronic properties of assemblies of zno quantum dots
Roest, Aarnoud Laurens
2003-01-01
Electron transport in an assembly of ZnO quantum dots has been studied using an electrochemically gated transistor. The electron mobility shows a step-wise increase as a function of the electron occupation per quantum dot. When the occupation number is below two, transport occurs by tunnelling
Stark effect and polarizability of graphene quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Thomas Garm
2017-01-01
The properties of graphene quantum dots can be manipulated via lateral electric fields. Treating electrons in such structures as confined massless Dirac fermions, we derive an analytical expression for the quadratic Stark shift valid for arbitrary angular momentum and quantum dot size. Moreover, we...
Electron transport and coherence in semiconductor quantum dots and rings
Van der Wiel, W.G.
2002-01-01
A number of experiments on electron transport and coherence in semiconductor vertical and lateral quantum dots and semiconductor rings is described. Quantum dots are often referred to as "artificial atoms", because of their similarities with real atoms. Examples of such atom-like properties that
Quantum dots for multimodal molecular imaging of angiogenesis
Mulder, Willem J. M.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Nicolay, Klaas; Griffioen, Arjan W.
2010-01-01
Quantum dots exhibit unique optical properties for bioimaging purposes. We have previously developed quantum dots with a paramagnetic and functionalized coating and have shown their potential for molecular imaging purposes. In the current mini-review we summarize the synthesis procedure, the in
Fabrication of a graphene quantum dot device
Lee, Jeong Il; Kim, Eunseong
2014-03-01
Graphene, which exhibits a massless Dirac-like spectrum for its electrons, has shown impressive properties for nano-electronics applications including a high mobility and a width dependent bandgap. We will report the preliminary report on the transport property of the suspended graphene nano-ribbon(GNR) quantum dot device down to dilution refrigerator temperature. This GNR QD device was fabricated to realize an ideal probe to investigate Kondo physics--a characteristic phenomenon in the physics of strongly correlated electrons. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the National Research Foundation of Korea through the Creative Research Initiatives.
Quantum dot blueing and blinking enables fluorescence nanoscopy.
Hoyer, Patrick; Staudt, Thorsten; Engelhardt, Johann; Hell, Stefan W
2011-01-12
We demonstrate superresolution fluorescence imaging of cells using bioconjugated CdSe/ZnS quantum dot markers. Fluorescence blueing of quantum dot cores facilitates separation of blinking markers residing closer than the diffraction barrier. The high number of successively emitted photons enables ground state depletion microscopy followed by individual marker return with a resolving power of the size of a single dot (∼12 nm). Nanoscale imaging is feasible with a simple webcam.
Second-harmonic imaging of semiconductor quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østergaard, John Erland; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Pedersen, Kjeld
2000-01-01
Resonant second-harmonic generation is observed at room temperature in reflection from self-assembled InAlGaAs quantum dots grown on a GaAs (001) substrate. The detected second-harmonic signal peaks at a pump wavelength of similar to 885 nm corresponding to the quantum-dot photoluminescence maximum....... In addition, the second-harmonic spectrum exhibits another smaller but well-pronounced peak at 765 nm not found in the linear experiments. We attribute this peak to the generation of second-harmonic radiation in the AlGaAs spacer layer enhanced by the local symmetry at the quantum-dot interface. We further...... observe that second-harmonic images of the quantum-dot surface structure show wavelength-dependent spatial variations. Imaging at different wavelength is used to demonstrate second-harmonic generation from the semiconductor quantum dots. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics....
Interaction of porphyrins with CdTe quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Xing; Liu Zhongxin; Ma Lun; Hossu, Marius; Chen Wei, E-mail: weichen@uta.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Box 19059 Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)
2011-05-13
Porphyrins may be used as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy, photocatalysts for organic pollutant dissociation, agents for medical imaging and diagnostics, applications in luminescence and electronics. The detection of porphyrins is significantly important and here the interaction of protoporphyrin-IX (PPIX) with CdTe quantum dots was studied. It was observed that the luminescence of CdTe quantum dots was quenched dramatically in the presence of PPIX. When CdTe quantum dots were embedded into silica layers, almost no quenching by PPIX was observed. This indicates that PPIX may interact and alter CdTe quantum dots and thus quench their luminescence. The oxidation of the stabilizers such as thioglycolic acid (TGA) as well as the nanoparticles by the singlet oxygen generated from PPIX is most likely responsible for the luminescence quenching. The quenching of quantum dot luminescence by porphyrins may provide a new method for photosensitizer detection.
Numerical simulation of optical feedback on a quantum dot lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Khursan, Amin H.; Ghalib, Basim Abdullattif; Al-Obaidi, Sabri J.
2012-01-01
We use multi-population rate equations model to study feedback oscillations in the quantum dot laser. This model takes into account all peculiar characteristics in the quantum dots such as inhomogeneous broadening of the gain spectrum, the presence of the excited states on the quantum dot and the non-confined states due to the presence of wetting layer and the barrier. The contribution of quantum dot groups, which cannot follow by other models, is simulated. The results obtained from this model show the feedback oscillations, the periodic oscillations which evolves to chaos at higher injection current of higher feedback levels. The frequency fluctuation is attributed mainly to wetting layer with a considerable contribution from excited states. The simulation shows that is must be not using simple rate equation models to express quantum dots working at excited state transition.
3D super-resolution imaging with blinking quantum dots
Wang, Yong; Fruhwirth, Gilbert; Cai, En; Ng, Tony; Selvin, Paul R.
2013-01-01
Quantum dots are promising candidates for single molecule imaging due to their exceptional photophysical properties, including their intense brightness and resistance to photobleaching. They are also notorious for their blinking. Here we report a novel way to take advantage of quantum dot blinking to develop an imaging technique in three-dimensions with nanometric resolution. We first applied this method to simulated images of quantum dots, and then to quantum dots immobilized on microspheres. We achieved imaging resolutions (FWHM) of 8–17 nm in the x-y plane and 58 nm (on coverslip) or 81 nm (deep in solution) in the z-direction, approximately 3–7 times better than what has been achieved previously with quantum dots. This approach was applied to resolve the 3D distribution of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) molecules at, and inside of, the plasma membrane of resting basal breast cancer cells. PMID:24093439
Interaction of porphyrins with CdTe quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Xing; Liu Zhongxin; Ma Lun; Hossu, Marius; Chen Wei
2011-01-01
Porphyrins may be used as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy, photocatalysts for organic pollutant dissociation, agents for medical imaging and diagnostics, applications in luminescence and electronics. The detection of porphyrins is significantly important and here the interaction of protoporphyrin-IX (PPIX) with CdTe quantum dots was studied. It was observed that the luminescence of CdTe quantum dots was quenched dramatically in the presence of PPIX. When CdTe quantum dots were embedded into silica layers, almost no quenching by PPIX was observed. This indicates that PPIX may interact and alter CdTe quantum dots and thus quench their luminescence. The oxidation of the stabilizers such as thioglycolic acid (TGA) as well as the nanoparticles by the singlet oxygen generated from PPIX is most likely responsible for the luminescence quenching. The quenching of quantum dot luminescence by porphyrins may provide a new method for photosensitizer detection.
Biosensing with Luminescent Semiconductor Quantum Dots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hedi Mattoussi
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs are a recentlydeveloped class of nanomaterial whose unique photophysical properties are helping tocreate a new generation of robust fluorescent biosensors. QD properties of interest forbiosensing include high quantum yields, broad absorption spectra coupled to narrow sizetunablephotoluminescent emissions and exceptional resistance to both photobleaching andchemical degradation. In this review, we examine the progress in adapting QDs for severalpredominantly in vitro biosensing applications including use in immunoassays, asgeneralized probes, in nucleic acid detection and fluorescence resonance energy transfer(FRET - based sensing. We also describe several important considerations when workingwith QDs mainly centered on the choice of material(s and appropriate strategies forattaching biomolecules to the QDs.
Templated self-assembly of SiGe quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dais, Christian
2009-08-19
This PhD thesis reports on the fabrication and characterization of exact aligned SiGe quantum dot structures. In general, SiGe quantum dots which nucleate via the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode exhibit broad size dispersion and nucleate randomly on the surface. However, to tap the full potential of SiGe quantum dots it is necessary to control the positioning and size of the dots on a nanometer length, e.g. for electronically addressing of individual dots. This can be realized by so-called templated self-assembly, which combines top-down lithography with bottom-up selfassembly. In this process the lithographically defined pits serve as pre-defined nucleation points for the epitaxially grown quantum dots. In this thesis, extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at a wavelength of e=13.4 nm is employed for prepatterning of the Si substrates. This technique allows the precise and fast fabrication of high-resolution templates with a high degree of reproducibility. The subsequent epitaxial deposition is either performed by molecular beam epitaxy or low-pressure chemical vapour deposition. It is shown that the dot nucleation on pre-patterned substrates depends strongly on the lithography parameters, e.g. size and periodicity of the pits, as well as on the epitaxy parameters, e.g. growth temperature or material coverage. The interrelations are carefully analyzed by means of scanning force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. Provided that correct template and overgrowth parameters are chosen, perfectly aligned and uniform SiGe quantum dot arrays of different period, size as well as symmetry are created. In particular, the quantum dot arrays with the so far smallest period (35 nm) and smallest size dispersion are fabricated in this thesis. Furthermore, the strain fields of the underlying quantum dots allow the fabrication of vertically aligned quantum dot stacks. Combining lateral and vertical dot alignment results in three
Phonon-assisted decoherence and tunneling in quantum dot molecules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grodecka-Grad, Anna; Foerstner, Jens
2011-01-01
We study the influence of the phonon environment on the electron dynamics in a doped quantum dot molecule. A non-perturbative quantum kinetic theory based on correlation expansion is used in order to describe both diagonal and off-diagonal electron-phonon couplings representing real and virtual...... processes with relevant acoustic phonons. We show that the relaxation is dominated by phonon-assisted electron tunneling between constituent quantum dots and occurs on a picosecond time scale. The dependence of the time evolution of the quantum dot occupation probabilities on the energy mismatch between...
Andreev molecules in semiconductor nanowire double quantum dots.
Su, Zhaoen; Tacla, Alexandre B; Hocevar, Moïra; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Daley, Andrew J; Pekker, David; Frolov, Sergey M
2017-09-19
Chains of quantum dots coupled to superconductors are promising for the realization of the Kitaev model of a topological superconductor. While individual superconducting quantum dots have been explored, control of longer chains requires understanding of interdot coupling. Here, double quantum dots are defined by gate voltages in indium antimonide nanowires. High transparency superconducting niobium titanium nitride contacts are made to each of the dots in order to induce superconductivity, as well as probe electron transport. Andreev bound states induced on each of dots hybridize to define Andreev molecular states. The evolution of these states is studied as a function of charge parity on the dots, and in magnetic field. The experiments are found in agreement with a numerical model.Quantum dots in a nanowire are one possible approach to creating a solid-state quantum simulator. Here, the authors demonstrate the coupling of electronic states in a double quantum dot to form Andreev molecule states; a potential building block for longer chains suitable for quantum simulation.
Anisotropic morphology of nonpolar a-plane GaN quantum dots and quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Founta, S.; Bougerol, C.; Mariette, H.; Daudin, B.; Vennegues, P.
2007-01-01
The growth of (11-20) or a-plane quantum dots and quantum wells by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy has been studied. It is shown that Ga-rich conditions lead to the formation of quantum dots, whereas quantum wells are obtained in N-rich conditions. Combining various experimental techniques, it is furthermore demonstrated that quantum dot nucleation along [1-100] and quantum well morphology in the (1-100) plane are influenced by anisotropic growth of AlN buffer layer. Moreover, it is established that peculiar morphological features of quantum dots and quantum wells, in particular the asymmetric shape of quantum dots, are related to the polar character of the [0001] direction in wurtzite nitride material
Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vanessa Wood
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices (QD-LEDs have generated considerable interest for applications such as thin film displays with improved color saturation and white lighting with a high color rendering index (CRI. We review the key advantages of using quantum dots (QDs in display and lighting applications, including their color purity, solution processability, and stability. After highlighting the main developments in QD-LED technology in the past 15 years, we describe the three mechanisms for exciting QDs – optical excitation, Förster energy transfer, and direct charge injection – that have been leveraged to create QD-LEDs. We outline the challenges facing QD-LED development, such as QD charging and QD luminescence quenching in QD thin films. We describe how optical downconversion schemes have enabled researchers to overcome these challenges and develop commercial lighting products that incorporate QDs to achieve desirable color temperature and a high CRI while maintaining efficiencies comparable to inorganic white LEDs (>65 lumens per Watt. We conclude by discussing some current directions in QD research that focus on achieving higher efficiency and air-stable QD-LEDs using electrical excitation of the luminescent QDs.
Using quantum dot photoluminescence for load detection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Moebius
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We propose a novel concept for an integrable and flexible sensor capable to visualize mechanical impacts on lightweight structures by quenching the photoluminescence (PL of CdSe quantum dots. Considering the requirements such as visibility, storage time and high optical contrast of PL quenching with low power consumption, we have investigated a symmetrical and an asymmetrical layer stack consisting of semiconductor organic N,N,N′,N′-Tetrakis(3-methylphenyl-3,3′-dimethylbenzidine (HMTPD and CdSe quantum dots with elongated CdS shell. Time-resolved series of PL spectra from layer stacks with applied voltages of different polarity and simultaneous observation of power consumption have shown that a variety of mechanisms such as photo-induced charge separation and charge injection, cause PL quenching. However, mechanisms such as screening of external field as well as Auger-assisted charge ejection is working contrary to that. Investigations regarding the influence of illumination revealed that the positive biased asymmetrical layer stack is the preferred sensor configuration, due to a charge carrier injection at voltages of 10 V without the need of coincident illumination.
Ferritin-Templated Quantum-Dots for Quantum Logic Gates
Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Kim, Seon-Jeong; Elliott, James R.
2005-01-01
Quantum logic gates (QLGs) or other logic systems are based on quantum-dots (QD) with a stringent requirement of size uniformity. The QD are widely known building units for QLGs. The size control of QD is a critical issue in quantum-dot fabrication. The work presented here offers a new method to develop quantum-dots using a bio-template, called ferritin, that ensures QD production in uniform size of nano-scale proportion. The bio-template for uniform yield of QD is based on a ferritin protein that allows reconstitution of core material through the reduction and chelation processes. One of the biggest challenges for developing QLG is the requirement of ordered and uniform size of QD for arrays on a substrate with nanometer precision. The QD development by bio-template includes the electrochemical/chemical reconsitution of ferritins with different core materials, such as iron, cobalt, manganese, platinum, and nickel. The other bio-template method used in our laboratory is dendrimers, precisely defined chemical structures. With ferritin-templated QD, we fabricated the heptagonshaped patterned array via direct nano manipulation of the ferritin molecules with a tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). We also designed various nanofabrication methods of QD arrays using a wide range manipulation techniques. The precise control of the ferritin-templated QD for a patterned arrangement are offered by various methods, such as a site-specific immobilization of thiolated ferritins through local oxidation using the AFM tip, ferritin arrays induced by gold nanoparticle manipulation, thiolated ferritin positioning by shaving method, etc. In the signal measurements, the current-voltage curve is obtained by measuring the current through the ferritin, between the tip and the substrate for potential sweeping or at constant potential. The measured resistance near zero bias was 1.8 teraohm for single holoferritin and 5.7 teraohm for single apoferritin, respectively.
Charge-extraction strategies for colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics
Lan, Xinzheng
2014-02-20
The solar-power conversion efficiencies of colloidal quantum dot solar cells have advanced from sub-1% reported in 2005 to a record value of 8.5% in 2013. Much focus has deservedly been placed on densifying, passivating and crosslinking the colloidal quantum dot solid. Here we review progress in improving charge extraction, achieved by engineering the composition and structure of the electrode materials that contact the colloidal quantum dot film. New classes of structured electrodes have been developed and integrated to form bulk heterojunction devices that enhance photocharge extraction. Control over band offsets, doping and interfacial trap state densities have been essential for achieving improved electrical communication with colloidal quantum dot solids. Quantum junction devices that not only tune the optical absorption spectrum, but also provide inherently matched bands across the interface between p-and n-materials, have proven that charge separation can occur efficiently across an all-quantum-tuned rectifying junction. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Atomically precise, coupled quantum dots fabricated by cleaved edge overgrowth
Wegscheider, W.; Schedelbeck, G.; Bichler, M.; Abstreiter, G.
Recent progress in the fabrication of quantum dots by molecular beam epitaxy along three directions in space is reviewed. The optical properties of different sample structures consisting of individual quantum dots, pairs of coupled dots as well as of linear arrays of dots are studied by microscopic photoluminescence spectroscopy. The high degree of control over shape, composition and position of the 7×7×7 nm3 size GaAs quantum dots, which form at the intesection of three orthogonal quantum wells, allows a detailed investigation of the influence of coupling between almost identical zero-dimensional objects. In contrast to the inhomogeneously broadened quantum well and quantum wire signals originating from the complex twofold cleaved edge overgrowth structure, the photoluminescence spetrum of an individual quantum dot exhibits a single sharp line (full width at half maximum denomination "artificial atoms" for the quantum dots. It is further demonstrated that an "artifical molecule", characterized by the existence of bonding and antibonding states can be assembled from two of such "artificial atoms". The coupling strength between the "artificial atoms" is adjusted by the "interatomic" distance and is reflected in the energetic separation of the bonding and antibonding levels and the linewidths of the corresponding interband transitions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calarco, T.; Datta, A.; Fedichev, P.; Zoller, P.; Pazy, E.
2003-01-01
We present an all-optical implementation of quantum computation using semiconductor quantum dots. Quantum memory is represented by the spin of an excess electron stored in each dot. Two-qubit gates are realized by switching on trion-trion interactions between different dots. State selectivity is achieved via conditional laser excitation exploiting Pauli exclusion principle. Read out is performed via a quantum-jump technique. We analyze the effect on our scheme's performance of the main imperfections present in real quantum dots: exciton decay, hole mixing, and phonon decoherence. We introduce an adiabatic gate procedure that allows one to circumvent these effects and evaluate quantitatively its fidelity
Gate-defined quantum dots in intrinsic silicon.
Angus, Susan J; Ferguson, Andrew J; Dzurak, Andrew S; Clark, Robert G
2007-07-01
We report the fabrication and measurement of silicon quantum dots with tunable tunnel barriers in a narrow-channel field-effect transistor. Low-temperature transport spectroscopy is performed in both the many-electron ( approximately 100 electrons) regime and the few-electron ( approximately 10 electrons) regime. Excited states in the bias spectroscopy provide evidence of quantum confinement. These results demonstrate that depletion gates are an effective technique for defining quantum dots in silicon.
Pulse train amplification and regeneration based on semiconductor quantum dots waveguide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Yaohui; Öhman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper
2008-01-01
We numerical analyze pulse train amplification up to 200 Gbit/s in quantum dot amplifiers and present regeneration properties with saturable absorber based on semiconductor quantum dot waveguides.......We numerical analyze pulse train amplification up to 200 Gbit/s in quantum dot amplifiers and present regeneration properties with saturable absorber based on semiconductor quantum dot waveguides....
Exciton dephasing in single InGaAs quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leosson, Kristjan; Østergaard, John Erland; Jensen, Jacob Riis
2000-01-01
The homogeneous linewidth of excitonic transitions is a parameter of fundamental physical importance. In self-assembled quantum dot systems, a strong inhomogeneous broadening due to dot size fluctuations masks the homogeneous linewidth associated with transitions between individual states....... The homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening of InGaAs quantum dot luminescence is of central importance for the potential application of this material system in optoelectronic devices. Recent measurements of MOCVD-grown InAs/InGaAs quantum dots indicate a large homogeneous broadening at room temperature due...... to fast dephasing. We present an investigation of the low-temperature homogeneous linewidth of individual PL lines from MBE-grown In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots....
Spin current through quantum-dot spin valves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J; Xing, D Y
2006-01-01
We report a theoretical study of the influence of the Coulomb interaction on the equilibrium spin current in a quantum-dot spin valve, in which the quantum dot described by the Anderson impurity model is coupled to two ferromagnetic leads with noncollinear magnetizations. In the Kondo regime, electrons transmit through the quantum dot via higher-order virtual processes, in which the spin of either lead electrons or a localized electron on the quantum dot may reverse. It is found that the magnitude of the spin current decreases with increasing Coulomb interactions due to spin flip effects on the dot. However, the spatial direction of the spin current remains unchanged; it is determined only by the exchange coupling between two noncollinear magnetizations
On-chip quantum optics with quantum dots and superconducting resonators
Deng, Guang-Wei; Guo, Guo-Ping; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-11-01
Benefit from the recent nanotechnology process, people can integrate different nanostructures on a single chip. Particularly, quantum dots (QD), which behave as artificial atoms, have been shown to couple with a superconducting resonator, indicating that quantum-dot based quantum chip has a highly scalable possibility. Here we show a quantum chip architecture by combining graphene quantum dots and superconducting resonators together. A double quantum dot (DQD) and a microwave hybrid system can be described by the Jaynes-Cummings model, while a multi-quantum-dots system is conformed to the Tavis-Cummings model. These simple quantum optics models are experimentally realized in our device, providing a compelling platform for both graphene study and potential applications.
Quantum efficiency and oscillator strength of site-controlled InAs quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Albert, F.; Stobbe, Søren; Schneider, C.
2010-01-01
We report on time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to determine the oscillator strength (OS) and the quantum efficiency (QE) of site-controlled InAs quantum dots nucleating on patterned nanoholes. These two quantities are determined by measurements on site-controlled quantum dot (SCQD...
Quantum efficiency and oscillator strength of site-controlled InGaAs quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Albert, F.; Schneider, C.; Stobbe, Søren
2010-01-01
We report on time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to determine the oscillator strength (OS) and the quantum efficiency (QE) of site-controlled In(Ga)As quantum dots nucleating on patterned nanoholes. These two quantities are determined by measurements on site-controlled quantum dot (SCQD...
Quantum phase transition of light as a control of the entanglement between interacting quantum dots
Barragan, Angela; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Mondragon-Shem, Ian
We study coupled quantum dots arranged in a photonic crystal, interacting with light which undergoes a quantum phase transition. At the mean-field level for the infinite lattice, we compute the concurrence of the quantum dots as a measure of their entanglement. We find that this quantity smoothly
Quantum dot nanoparticle conjugation, characterization, and applications in neuroscience
Pathak, Smita
Quantum dot are semiconducting nanoparticles that have been used for decades in a variety of applications such as solar cells, LEDs and medical imaging. Their use in the last area, however, has been extremely limited despite their potential as revolutionary new biological labeling tools. Quantum dots are much brighter and more stable than conventional fluorophores, making them optimal for high resolution imaging and long term studies. Prior work in this area involves synthesizing and chemically conjugating quantum dots to molecules of interest in-house. However this method is both time consuming and prone to human error. Additionally, non-specific binding and nanoparticle aggregation currently prevent researchers from utilizing this system to its fullest capacity. Another critical issue that has not been addressed is determining the number of ligands bound to nanoparticles, which is crucial for proper interpretation of results. In this work, methods to label fixed cells using two types of chemically modified quantum dots are studied. Reproducible non-specific artifact labeling is consistently demonstrated if antibody-quantum dot conditions are less than optimal. In order to explain this, antibodies bound to quantum dots were characterized and quantified. While other groups have qualitatively characterized antibody functionalized quantum dots using TEM, AFM, UV spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis, and in some cases have reported calculated estimates of the putative number of total antibodies bound to quantum dots, no quantitative experimental results had been reported prior to this work. The chemical functionalization and characterization of quantum dot nanocrystals achieved in this work elucidates binding mechanisms of ligands to nanoparticles and allows researchers to not only translate our tools to studies in their own areas of interest but also derive quantitative results from these studies. This research brings ease of use and increased reliability to
Rabi oscillations a quantum dot exposed to quantum light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magyarov, A.; Slepyan, G.Ya.; Maksimenko, S.A.; Hoffmann, A.
2007-01-01
The influence of the local field on the excitonic Rabi oscillations in an isolated quantum dot driven by the coherent state of light has been theoretically investigated. Local field is predicted to entail the appearance of two oscillatory regimes in the Rabi effect separated by the bifurcation. In the first regime Rabi oscillations are periodic and do not reveal collapse-revivals phenomenon, while in the second one collapse and revivals appear, showing significant difference as compared to those predicted by the standard Jaynes-Cummings model
Imaging GABAc Receptors with Ligand-Conjugated Quantum Dots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ian D. Tomlinson
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We report a methodology for labeling the GABAc receptor on the surface membrane of intact cells. This work builds upon our earlier work with serotonin-conjugated quantum dots and our studies with PEGylated quantum dots to reduce nonspecific binding. In the current approach, a PEGylated derivative of muscimol was synthesized and attached via an amide linkage to quantum dots coated in an amphiphilic polymer derivative of a modified polyacrylamide. These conjugates were used to image GABAC receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.
Study of a Quantum Dot in an Excited State
Slamet, Marlina; Sahni, Viraht
We have studied the first excited singlet state of a quantum dot via quantal density functional theory (QDFT). The quantum dot is represented by a 2D Hooke's atom in an external magnetostatic field. The QDFT mapping is from an excited singlet state of this interacting system to one of noninteracting fermions in a singlet ground state. The results of the study will be compared to (a) the corresponding mapping from a ground state of the quantum dot and (b) to the similar mapping from an excited singlet state of the 3D Hooke's atom.
Quantum Dots Microstructured Optical Fiber for X-Ray Detection
DeHaven, Stan; Williams, Phillip; Burke, Eric
2015-01-01
Microstructured optical fibers containing quantum dots scintillation material comprised of zinc sulfide nanocrystals doped with magnesium sulfide are presented. These quantum dots are applied inside the microstructured optical fibers using capillary action. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The results of the fiber light output and associated effects of an acrylate coating and the quantum dot application technique are discussed.
PREFACE: Quantum dots as probes in biology
Cieplak, Marek
2013-05-01
The recent availability of nanostructured materials has resulted in an explosion of research focused on their unique optical, thermal, mechanical and magnetic properties. Optical imagining, magnetic enhancement of contrast and drug delivery capabilities make the nanoparticles of special interest in biomedical applications. These materials have been involved in the development of theranostics—a new field of medicine that is focused on personalized tests and treatment. It is likely that multimodal nanomaterials will be responsible for future diagnostic advances in medicine. Quantum dots (QD) are nanoparticles which exhibit luminescence either through the formation of three-dimensional excitons or excitations of the impurities. The excitonic luminescence can be tuned by changing the size (the smaller the size, the higher the frequency). QDs are usually made of semiconducting materials. Unlike fluorescent proteins and organic dyes, QDs resist photobleaching, allow for multi-wavelength excitations and have narrow emission spectra. The techniques to make QDs are cheap and surface modifications and functionalizations can be implemented. Importantly, QDs could be synthesized to exhibit useful optomagnetic properties and, upon functionalization with an appropriate biomolecule, directed towards a pre-selected target for diagnostic imaging and photodynamic therapy. This special issue on Quantum dots in Biology is focused on recent research in this area. It starts with a topical review by Sreenivasan et al on various physical mechanisms that lead to the QD luminescence and on using wavelength shifts for an improvement in imaging. The next paper by Szczepaniak et al discusses nanohybrids involving QDs made of CdSe coated by ZnS and combined covalently with a photosynthetic enzyme. These nanohybrids are shown to maintain the enzymatic activity, however the enzyme properties depend on the size of a QD. They are proposed as tools to study photosynthesis in isolated
Characterization of graphene quantum dot hybrid structures
Chung, Ting-Fung; Hu, Jiuning; Jauregui, Luis A.; Chen, Liangliang; Zhao, Qing; Ruan, Xiulin; Chen, Yong P.
2012-02-01
We report electrical transport, photo-electric response and Raman spectroscopy measurements in macroscopic samples of graphene decorated with inorganic quantum dots (CdSe QDs). QDs are deposited on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene by spin-coating. Raman measurements of graphene decorated with QDs on Si wafer show very similar spectra with clear G and 2D peaks that reveal no degradation of graphene during the QDs deposition process. Furthermore, two types of device architectures (QDs-graphene and graphene-QDs-graphene) are fabricated with graphene as a transparent electrode and QD as a light absorbent for electrical photoresponse characterization. Upon application of either a broadband light source or a 532-nm monochromatic laser source, graphene-QDs-graphene devices demonstrate photoconducting response, but not in the case of QDs-graphene devices.
Tellurium quantum dots: Preparation and optical properties
Lu, Chaoyu; Li, Xueming; Tang, Libin; Lai, Sin Ki; Rogée, Lukas; Teng, Kar Seng; Qian, Fuli; Zhou, Liangliang; Lau, Shu Ping
2017-08-01
Herein, we report an effective and simple method for producing Tellurium Quantum dots (TeQDs), zero-dimensional nanomaterials with great prospects for biomedical applications. Their preparation is based on the ultrasonic exfoliation of Te powder dispersed in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Sonication causes the van der Waals forces between the structural hexagons of Te to break so that the relatively coarse powder breaks down into nanoscale particles. The TeQDs have an average size of about 4 nm. UV-Vis absorption spectra of the TeQDs showed an absorption peak at 288 nm. Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and photoluminescence (PL) are used to study the optical properties of TeQDs. Both the PLE and PL peaks revealed a linear relationship against the emission and excitation energies, respectively. TeQDs have important potential applications in biological imaging and catalysis as well as optoelectronics.
Quantum dots: synthesis, bioapplications, and toxicity
Valizadeh, Alireza; Mikaeili, Haleh; Samiei, Mohammad; Farkhani, Samad Mussa; Zarghami, Nosratalah; kouhi, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Davaran, Soodabeh
2012-08-01
This review introduces quantum dots (QDs) and explores their properties, synthesis, applications, delivery systems in biology, and their toxicity. QDs are one of the first nanotechnologies to be integrated with the biological sciences and are widely anticipated to eventually find application in a number of commercial consumer and clinical products. They exhibit unique luminescence characteristics and electronic properties such as wide and continuous absorption spectra, narrow emission spectra, and high light stability. The application of QDs, as a new technology for biosystems, has been typically studied on mammalian cells. Due to the small structures of QDs, some physical properties such as optical and electron transport characteristics are quite different from those of the bulk materials.
Recent advances in quantum dot surface chemistry.
Hines, Douglas A; Kamat, Prashant V
2014-03-12
Quantum dot (QD) surface chemistry is an emerging field in semiconductor nanocrystal related research. Along with size manipulation, the careful control of QD surface chemistry allows modulation of the optical properties of a QD suspension. Even a single molecule bound to the surface can introduce new functionalities. Herein, we summarize the recent advances in QD surface chemistry and the resulting effects on optical and electronic properties. Specifically, this review addresses three main issues: (i) how surface chemistry affects the optical properties of QDs, (ii) how it influences the excited state dynamics, and (iii) how one can manipulate surface chemistry to control the interactions between QDs and metal oxides, metal nanoparticles, and in self-assembled QD monolayers.
Electronic levels of cubic quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aristone, Flavio [Federal De Mato Grosso Do Sul Univ., Campo Grande (Brazil); Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose [Autonoma De Madrid Univ., Madrid (Spain); Marques, Gilmar E. [Federal De Sao Carlos Univ., Sao Carlos (Brazil)
2003-09-01
We introduce an efficient variational method to solve the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation for any arbitrary potential V(x,y,z). The method uses a basis set of localized functions which are build up as products of one-dimensional cubic {beta}-splines. We calculated the energy levels of GaAs/AlGaAs cubic quantum dots and make a comparison with the results from two well-known simplification schemes based on a decomposition of the full potential problem into three separate one-dimensional problems. We show that the scheme making a sequential decomposition gives eigenvalues in better agreement with the ones obtained variationally, but an exact solution is necessary when looking for highly precise values.
Protease-activated quantum dot probes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Emmanuel; Miller, Jordan S.; Sun, Jiantang; Yu, William W.; Colvin, Vicki L.; Drezek, Rebekah; West, Jennifer L.
2005-01-01
We have developed a novel nanoparticulate luminescent probe with inherent signal amplification upon interaction with a targeted proteolytic enzyme. This construct may be useful for imaging in cancer detection and diagnosis. In this system, quantum dots (QDs) are bound to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via a proteolytically degradable peptide sequence to non-radiatively suppress luminescence. A 71% reduction in luminescence was achieved with conjugation of AuNPs to QDs. Release of AuNPs by peptide cleavage restores radiative QD photoluminescence. Initial studies observed a 52% rise in luminescence over 47 h of exposure to 0.2 mg/mL collagenase. These probes can be customized for targeted degradation simply by changing the sequence of the peptide linker
Decoherence and Entanglement Simulation in a Model of Quantum Neural Network Based on Quantum Dots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Altaisky Mikhail V.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We present the results of the simulation of a quantum neural network based on quantum dots using numerical method of path integral calculation. In the proposed implementation of the quantum neural network using an array of single-electron quantum dots with dipole-dipole interaction, the coherence is shown to survive up to 0.1 nanosecond in time and up to the liquid nitrogen temperature of 77K.We study the quantum correlations between the quantum dots by means of calculation of the entanglement of formation in a pair of quantum dots on the GaAs based substrate with dot size of 100 ÷ 101 nanometer and interdot distance of 101 ÷ 102 nanometers order.
Optimal tunneling enhances the quantum photovoltaic effect in double quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Chen; Cao, Jianshu; Ren, Jie
2014-01-01
We investigate the quantum photovoltaic effect in double quantum dots by applying the nonequilibrium quantum master equation. A drastic suppression of the photovoltaic current is observed near the open circuit voltage, which leads to a large filling factor. We find that there always exists an optimal inter-dot tunneling that significantly enhances the photovoltaic current. Maximal output power will also be obtained around the optimal inter-dot tunneling. Moreover, the open circuit voltage behaves approximately as the product of the eigen-level gap and the Carnot efficiency. These results suggest a great potential for double quantum dots as efficient photovoltaic devices
Application of Quantum Dots in Biological Imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shan Jin
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs are a group of semiconducting nanomaterials with unique optical and electronic properties. They have distinct advantages over traditional fluorescent organic dyes in chemical and biological studies in terms of tunable emission spectra, signal brightness, photostability, and so forth. Currently, the major type of QDs is the heavy metal-containing II-IV, IV-VI, or III-V QDs. Silicon QDs and conjugated polymer dots have also been developed in order to lower the potential toxicity of the fluorescent probes for biological applications. Aqueous solubility is the common problem for all types of QDs when they are employed in the biological researches, such as in vitro and in vivo imaging. To circumvent this problem, ligand exchange and polymer coating are proven to be effective, besides synthesizing QDs in aqueous solutions directly. However, toxicity is another big concern especially for in vivo studies. Ligand protection and core/shell structure can partly solve this problem. With the rapid development of QDs research, new elements and new morphologies have been introduced to this area to fabricate more safe and efficient QDs for biological applications.
First principles study of edge carboxylated graphene quantum dots
Abdelsalam, Hazem; Elhaes, Hanan; Ibrahim, Medhat A.
2018-05-01
The structure stability and electronic properties of edge carboxylated hexagonal and triangular graphene quantum dots are investigated using density functional theory. The calculated binding energies show that the hexagonal clusters with armchair edges have the highest stability among all the quantum dots. The binding energy of carboxylated graphene quantum dots increases by increasing the number of carboxyl groups. Our study shows that the total dipole moment significantly increases by adding COOH with the highest value observed in triangular clusters. The edge states in triangular graphene quantum dots with zigzag edges produce completely different energy spectrum from other dots: (a) the energy gap in triangular zigzag is very small as compared to other clusters and (b) the highest occupied molecular orbital is localized at the edges which is in contrast to other clusters where it is distributed over the cluster surface. The enhanced reactivity and the controllable energy gap by shape and edge termination make graphene quantum dots ideal for various nanodevice applications such as sensors. The infrared spectra are presented to confirm the stability of the quantum dots.
Collective Rabi dynamics of electromagnetically coupled quantum-dot ensembles
Glosser, Connor; Shanker, B.; Piermarocchi, Carlo
2017-09-01
Rabi oscillations typify the inherent nonlinearity of optical excitations in quantum dots. Using an integral kernel formulation to solve the three-dimensional Maxwell-Bloch equations in ensembles of up to 104 quantum dots, we observe features in Rabi oscillations due to the interplay of nonlinearity, nonequilibrium excitation, and electromagnetic coupling between the dots. This approach allows us to observe the dynamics of each dot in the ensemble without resorting to spatial averages. Our simulations predict synchronized multiplets of dots that exchange energy, dots that dynamically couple to screen the effect of incident external radiation, localization of the polarization due to randomness and interactions, as well as wavelength-scale regions of enhanced and suppressed polarization.
Aptamer-Modified Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Biosensing Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Wen
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Semiconductor quantum dots have attracted extensive interest in the biosensing area because of their properties, such as narrow and symmetric emission with tunable colors, high quantum yield, high stability and controllable morphology. The introduction of various reactive functional groups on the surface of semiconductor quantum dots allows one to conjugate a spectrum of ligands, antibodies, peptides, or nucleic acids for broader and smarter applications. Among these ligands, aptamers exhibit many advantages including small size, high chemical stability, simple synthesis with high batch-to-batch consistency and convenient modification. More importantly, it is easy to introduce nucleic acid amplification strategies and/or nanomaterials to improve the sensitivity of aptamer-based sensing systems. Therefore, the combination of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers brings more opportunities in bioanalysis. Here we summarize recent advances on aptamer-functionalized semiconductor quantum dots in biosensing applications. Firstly, we discuss the properties and structure of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers. Then, the applications of biosensors based on aptamer-modified semiconductor quantum dots by different signal transducing mechanisms, including optical, electrochemical and electrogenerated chemiluminescence approaches, is discussed. Finally, our perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this promising field are provided.
Aptamer-Modified Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Biosensing Applications.
Wen, Lin; Qiu, Liping; Wu, Yongxiang; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Xiaobing
2017-07-28
Semiconductor quantum dots have attracted extensive interest in the biosensing area because of their properties, such as narrow and symmetric emission with tunable colors, high quantum yield, high stability and controllable morphology. The introduction of various reactive functional groups on the surface of semiconductor quantum dots allows one to conjugate a spectrum of ligands, antibodies, peptides, or nucleic acids for broader and smarter applications. Among these ligands, aptamers exhibit many advantages including small size, high chemical stability, simple synthesis with high batch-to-batch consistency and convenient modification. More importantly, it is easy to introduce nucleic acid amplification strategies and/or nanomaterials to improve the sensitivity of aptamer-based sensing systems. Therefore, the combination of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers brings more opportunities in bioanalysis. Here we summarize recent advances on aptamer-functionalized semiconductor quantum dots in biosensing applications. Firstly, we discuss the properties and structure of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers. Then, the applications of biosensors based on aptamer-modified semiconductor quantum dots by different signal transducing mechanisms, including optical, electrochemical and electrogenerated chemiluminescence approaches, is discussed. Finally, our perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this promising field are provided.
Nodal ground states and orbital textures in semiconductor quantum dots
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lee, J.; Výborný, Karel; Han, J.E.; Žutič, I.
2014-01-01
Roč. 89, č. 4 (2014), "045315-1"-"045315-17" ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum dots * electronic structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014
Nonequilibrium electron transport through quantum dots in the Kondo regime
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wölfle, Peter; Paaske, Jens; Rosch, Achim
2005-01-01
Electron transport at large bias voltage through quantum dots in the Kondo regime is described within the perturbative renormalization group extended to nonequilibrium. The conductance, local magnetization, dynamical spin susceptibility and local spectral function are calculated. We show how the ...
Light Scattering Spectroscopies of Semiconductor Nanocrystals (Quantum Dots)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Peter Y; Gardner, Grat; Nozaki, Shinji; Berbezier, Isabelle
2006-01-01
We review the study of nanocrystals or quantum dots using inelastic light scattering spectroscopies. In particular recent calculations of the phonon density of states and low frequency Raman spectra in Ge nanocrystals are presented for comparison with experimental results
A fabrication guide for planar silicon quantum dot heterostructures
Spruijtenburg, Paul C.; Amitonov, Sergey V.; van der Wiel, Wilfred G.; Zwanenburg, Floris A.
2018-04-01
We describe important considerations to create top-down fabricated planar quantum dots in silicon, often not discussed in detail in literature. The subtle interplay between intrinsic material properties, interfaces and fabrication processes plays a crucial role in the formation of electrostatically defined quantum dots. Processes such as oxidation, physical vapor deposition and atomic-layer deposition must be tailored in order to prevent unwanted side effects such as defects, disorder and dewetting. In two directly related manuscripts written in parallel we use techniques described in this work to create depletion-mode quantum dots in intrinsic silicon, and low-disorder silicon quantum dots defined with palladium gates. While we discuss three different planar gate structures, the general principles also apply to 0D and 1D systems, such as self-assembled islands and nanowires.
Coal as an abundant source of graphene quantum dots
Ye, Ruquan; Xiang, Changsheng; Lin, Jian; Peng, Zhiwei; Huang, Kewei; Yan, Zheng; Cook, Nathan P.; Samuel, Errol L. G.; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Ruan, Gedeng; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O.; Martí, Angel A.; Tour, James M.
2013-12-01
Coal is the most abundant and readily combustible energy resource being used worldwide. However, its structural characteristic creates a perception that coal is only useful for producing energy via burning. Here we report a facile approach to synthesize tunable graphene quantum dots from various types of coal, and establish that the unique coal structure has an advantage over pure sp2-carbon allotropes for producing quantum dots. The crystalline carbon within the coal structure is easier to oxidatively displace than when pure sp2-carbon structures are used, resulting in nanometre-sized graphene quantum dots with amorphous carbon addends on the edges. The synthesized graphene quantum dots, produced in up to 20% isolated yield from coal, are soluble and fluorescent in aqueous solution, providing promise for applications in areas such as bioimaging, biomedicine, photovoltaics and optoelectronics, in addition to being inexpensive additives for structural composites.
Ge Quantum Dot Infrared Imaging Camera, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop a high performance Ge quantum dots-based infrared (IR) imaging camera on Si substrate. The high sensitivity, large...
Non-Markovian spontaneous emission from a single quantum dot
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Ates, Serkan; Lund-Hansen, Toke
2011-01-01
We observe non-Markovian dynamics of a single quantum dot when tuned into resonance with a cavity mode. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory is observed providing the first quantitative description of such a system....
Quantum dot conjugates in a sub-micrometer fluidic channel
Stavis, Samuel M.; Edel, Joshua B.; Samiee, Kevan T.; Craighead, Harold G.
2010-04-13
A nanofluidic channel fabricated in fused silica with an approximately 500 nm square cross section was used to isolate, detect and identify individual quantum dot conjugates. The channel enables the rapid detection of every fluorescent entity in solution. A laser of selected wavelength was used to excite multiple species of quantum dots and organic molecules, and the emission spectra were resolved without significant signal rejection. Quantum dots were then conjugated with organic molecules and detected to demonstrate efficient multicolor detection. PCH was used to analyze coincident detection and to characterize the degree of binding. The use of a small fluidic channel to detect quantum dots as fluorescent labels was shown to be an efficient technique for multiplexed single molecule studies. Detection of single molecule binding events has a variety of applications including high throughput immunoassays.
The impact of doped silicon quantum dots on human osteoblasts
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ostrovská, L.; Brož, Antonín; Fučíková, A.; Bělinová, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Kanno, T.; Fujii, M.; Valenta, J.; Kalbáčová, M.H.
2016-01-01
Roč. 6, č. 68 (2016), s. 63403-63413 ISSN 2046-2069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : silicon quantum dots * osteoblasts * cytotoxicity * photoluminiscence bioimaging Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016
CdS/CdSSe quantum dots in glass matrix
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Wintec
–5 nm are uniformly distributed into the glass matrix. Keywords. CdS; CdSSe; nanocrystals; glasses; optical filters. 1. Introduction. Today nanostructured materials and quantum dots have immense importance in the field of optoelectronics and.
Quantum Dots in the Therapy: Current Trends and Perspectives.
Pohanka, Miroslav
2017-01-01
Quantum dots are an emerging nanomaterial with broad use in technical disciplines; however, their application in the field of biomedicine becomes also relevant and significant possibilities have appeared since the discovery in 1980s. The current review is focused on the therapeutic applications of quantum dots which become an emerging use of the particles. They are introduced as potent carriers of drugs and as a material well suited for the diagnosis of disparate pathologies like visualization of cancer cells or pathogenic microorganisms. Quantum dots toxicity and modifications for the toxicity reduction are discussed here as well. Survey of actual papers and patents in the field of quantum dots use in the biomedicine is provided. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.
Multiple Wavelength Quantum Dot Lasers (MW-QDL)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative method to achieve optical gain over a wide spectral range using new laser materials is being investigated. Multiple wavelength quantum dot lasers...
Electron Energy Level Statistics in Graphene Quantum Dots
De Raedt, H.; Katsnellson, M. I.; Katsnelson, M.I.
2008-01-01
Motivated by recent experimental observations of size quantization of electron energy levels in graphene quantum dots [7] we investigate the level statistics in the simplest tight-binding model for different dot shapes by computer simulation. The results are in a reasonable agreement with the
Ultrafast gain and index dynamics in quantum dot amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang; Mørk, Jesper
1999-01-01
The ultrafast dynamics of gain and refractive index in an InAs/GaAs quantum dot amplifier are investigated at room temperature. The gain is observed to recover with a 90 fs time constant, ruling out problems of slow carrier capture into the dots, and making this component promising for high...
On dephasing and spin decay in open quantum dots
Michaelis, Björn Dieter
2006-01-01
The thesis contains three topics on transport in nanostructres. Chpt. 2 explains the loss of entanglement in electronic pairs that enter chaotic quantum dots. The quantitiy that is affected are timedependent and spaceresolving current measurements. Looking at statisticcs dots, it is discovered
Quantum computation: algorithms and implementation in quantum dot devices
Gamble, John King
In this thesis, we explore several aspects of both the software and hardware of quantum computation. First, we examine the computational power of multi-particle quantum random walks in terms of distinguishing mathematical graphs. We study both interacting and non-interacting multi-particle walks on strongly regular graphs, proving some limitations on distinguishing powers and presenting extensive numerical evidence indicative of interactions providing more distinguishing power. We then study the recently proposed adiabatic quantum algorithm for Google PageRank, and show that it exhibits power-law scaling for realistic WWW-like graphs. Turning to hardware, we next analyze the thermal physics of two nearby 2D electron gas (2DEG), and show that an analogue of the Coulomb drag effect exists for heat transfer. In some distance and temperature, this heat transfer is more significant than phonon dissipation channels. After that, we study the dephasing of two-electron states in a single silicon quantum dot. Specifically, we consider dephasing due to the electron-phonon coupling and charge noise, separately treating orbital and valley excitations. In an ideal system, dephasing due to charge noise is strongly suppressed due to a vanishing dipole moment. However, introduction of disorder or anharmonicity leads to large effective dipole moments, and hence possibly strong dephasing. Building on this work, we next consider more realistic systems, including structural disorder systems. We present experiment and theory, which demonstrate energy levels that vary with quantum dot translation, implying a structurally disordered system. Finally, we turn to the issues of valley mixing and valley-orbit hybridization, which occurs due to atomic-scale disorder at quantum well interfaces. We develop a new theoretical approach to study these effects, which we name the disorder-expansion technique. We demonstrate that this method successfully reproduces atomistic tight-binding techniques
Controlling the quantum dot nucleation site
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motta, Nunzio; Sgarlata, Anna; Rosei, Federico; Szkutnik, P.D.; Nufris, S.; Scarselli, M.; Balzarotti, A.
2003-01-01
Quantum dots (QDs) are actually easily produced by self-assembling during heteroepitaxial growth of semiconductors. In order to exploit the unique electronic properties of semiconductor QDs in novel quantum effect devices, the lateral dimensions of these structures have to be reduced to the order of tens of nanometers, which is the range of the De Broglie wavelength of electrons inside these materials. Moreover, millions of QDs must be arranged in dense ordered arrays to achieve the necessary active volume for optoelectronic applications. Nowadays it is possible to control size and shape of the nanocrystals, but it is still difficult to decide their nucleation site. Many approaches have been undertaken to overcome this problem, like using regular dislocation networks, lithographically and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) patterned substrates, naturally patterned surfaces. We present results obtained by some of these methods, visualized by Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM) or AFM microscopy. STM measurements at high temperature during the epitaxial growth are of great help in these studies. Images and movies of the growth of Ge on Si help to identify the real nucleation sites of the islands and to follow their evolution. The influence of the 'step bunching' on the self-organization of Ge islands on Si(111) surfaces will be analysed, as an example of growth on self-nanostructured surfaces
Bismides: 2D structures and quantum dots
Pačebutas, Vaidas; Butkutė, Renata; Čechavičius, Bronislovas; Stanionytė, Sandra; Pozingytė, Evelina; Skapas, Martynas; Selskis, Algirdas; Geižutis, Andrejus; Krotkus, Arūnas
2017-09-01
The growth and characterization of ternary GaAsBi and quaternary GaInAsBi compound quantum wells (QWs) on GaAs substrates is presented in this study. The influence of technological parameters, such as different growth modes, substrate temperatures, beam equivalent pressure ratios and thermal treating on structural and luminescent properties of QWs is discussed. The complex structural investigations using x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed high crystal structure, smooth surfaces and abrupt interfaces of both GaAsBi and GaInAsBi QWs. The temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements demonstrated emission wavelengths up to 1.43 µm in room temperature PL spectra measured for GaAsBi/GaAs QWs containing 12% Bi, whereas GaInAsBi QWs with 4.2% of bismuth inserted between GaAs barriers has reached 1.25 µm. Moreover, the annealing at high temperatures of GaAsBi/AlAs QWs stimulated agglomeration of bismuth to quantum dots in the well layers, emitting at 1.5 µm. The achieved wavelengths are the longest ones declared for the GaAsBi and GaInAsBi QW structures grown on the GaAs substrate, therefore bismide-based QWs are the promising structures for applications in infrared devices.
Cyto-molecular Tuning of Quantum Dots
Lee, Bong; Suresh, Sindhuja; Ekpenyong, Andrew
Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanoparticles composed of groups II-VI or III-V elements, with physical dimensions smaller than the exciton Bohr radius, and between 1-10 nm. Their applications and promising myriad applications in photovoltaic cells, biomedical imaging, targeted drug delivery, quantum computing, etc, have led to much research on their interactions with other systems. For biological systems, research has focused on biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of QDs in the context of imaging/therapy. However, there is a paucity of work on how biological systems might be used to tune QDs. Here, we hypothesize that the photo-electronic properties of QDs can be tuned by biological macromolecules following controlled changes in cellular activities. Using CdSe/ZnS core-shell QDs, we perform spectroscopic analysis of optically excited colloidal QDs with and without promyelocytic HL60 cells. Preliminary results show shifts in the emission spectra of the colloidal dispersions with and without cells. We will present results for activated HL60-derived cells where specific macromolecules produced by these cells perturb the electric dipole moments of the excited QDs and the associated electric fields, in ways that constitute what we describe as cyto-molecular tuning. Startup funds from the College of Arts and Sciences, Creighton University (to AEE).
Interaction of solitons with a string of coupled quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Vijendra, E-mail: vsmedphysics@gmail.com; Swami, O. P., E-mail: omg1789@gmail.com; Nagar, A. K., E-mail: ajaya.nagar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner, Rajasthan 334001 (India); Taneja, S., E-mail: sachintaneja9@gmail.com [Department of Radiotherapy, CHAF Bangalore, Karnataka 560007 (India)
2016-05-06
In this paper, we develop a theory for discrete solitons interaction with a string of coupled quantum dots in view of the local field effects. Discrete nonlinear Schrodinger (DNLS) equations are used to describe the dynamics of the string. Numerical calculations are carried out and results are analyzed with the help of matlab software. With the help of numerical solutions we demonstrate that in the quantum dots string, Rabi oscillations (RO) are self trapped into stable bright Rabi solitons. The Rabi oscillations in different types of nanostructures have potential applications to the elements of quantum logic and quantum memory.
Spin and edge channel dependent transport through quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ridder, T; Rogge, M C; Haug, R J [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)], E-mail: ridder@nano.uni-hannover.de
2008-11-12
We investigate the influence of spin polarized currents and non-equilibrated edge channels on the transport properties of a single quantum dot. Polarized currents are realized by the manual depletion of edge channels in high magnetic fields via a metallic top gate covering the source contact in the system. We observe a suppression and enhancement in the conductance of the quantum dot dependent on the edge channel configuration in the leads.
Spin-orbit-enhanced Wigner localization in quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavalli, Andrea; Malet, F.; Cremon, J. C.
2011-01-01
We investigate quantum dots with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the strongly-correlated regime. We show that the presence of the Rashba interaction enhances the Wigner localization in these systems, making it achievable for higher densities than those at which it is observed in Rashba-free quantum...... dots. Recurring shapes in the pair distribution functions of the yrast spectrum, which might be associated with rotational and vibrational modes, are also reported....
Solution-Processed Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Tandem Solar Cells
Choi, Joshua J.
2011-06-03
Solution-processed tandem solar cells created from nanocrystal quantum dots with size-tuned energy levels are demonstrated. Prototype devices featuring interconnected quantum dot layers of cascaded energy gaps exhibit IR sensitivity and an open circuit voltage, V oc, approaching 1 V. The tandem solar cell performance depends critically on the optical and electrical properties of the interlayer. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Self-Sustaining Dynamical Nuclear Polarization Oscillations in Quantum Dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rudner, Mark Spencer; Levitov, Leonid
2013-01-01
Early experiments on spin-blockaded double quantum dots revealed robust, large-amplitude current oscillations in the presence of a static (dc) source-drain bias. Despite experimental evidence implicating dynamical nuclear polarization, the mechanism has remained a mystery. Here we introduce......) and nuclear spin diffusion, which governs dynamics of the spatial profile of nuclear polarization. The proposed framework naturally explains the differences in phenomenology between vertical and lateral quantum dot structures as well as the extremely long oscillation periods....
On-chip generation and guiding of quantum light from a site-controlled quantum dot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jamil, Ayesha; Farrer, Ian; Griffiths, Jonathan P.; Jones, Geb A. C.; Ritchie, David A.; Skiba-Szymanska, Joanna; Kalliakos, Sokratis; Ward, Martin B.; Ellis, David J. P.; Shields, Andrew J.; Schwagmann, Andre; Brody, Yarden
2014-01-01
We demonstrate the emission and routing of single photons along a semiconductor chip originating from carrier recombination in an actively positioned InAs quantum dot. Device–scale arrays of quantum dots are formed by a two–step regrowth process. We precisely locate the propagating region of a unidirectional photonic crystal waveguide with respect to the quantum dot nucleation site. Under pulsed optical excitation, the multiphoton emission probability from the waveguide's exit is 12% ± 5% before any background correction. Our results are a major step towards the deterministic integration of a quantum emitter with the waveguiding components of photonic quantum circuits
Optical Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Disordered Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cundiff, Steven T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
2016-05-03
This final report describes the activities undertaken under grant "Optical Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Disordered Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots". The goal of this program was to implement optical 2-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy and apply it to electronic excitations, including excitons, in semiconductors. Specifically of interest are quantum wells that exhibit disorder due to well width fluctuations and quantum dots. In both cases, 2-D spectroscopy will provide information regarding coupling among excitonic localization sites.
Si quantum dot structures and their applications
Shcherbyna, L.; Torchynska, T.
2013-06-01
This paper presents briefly the history of emission study in Si quantum dots (QDs) in the last two decades. Stable light emission of Si QDs and NCs was observed in the spectral ranges: blue, green, orange, red and infrared. These PL bands were attributed to the exciton recombination in Si QDs, to the carrier recombination through defects inside of Si NCs or via oxide related defects at the Si/SiOx interface. The analysis of recombination transitions and the different ways of the emission stimulation in Si QD structures, related to the element variation for the passivation of surface dangling bonds, as well as the plasmon induced emission and rare earth impurity activation, have been presented. The different applications of Si QD structures in quantum electronics, such as: Si QD light emitting diodes, Si QD single union and tandem solar cells, Si QD memory structures, Si QD based one electron devices and double QD structures for spintronics, have been discussed as well. Note the significant worldwide interest directed toward the silicon-based light emission for integrated optoelectronics is related to the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatibility and the possibility to be monolithically integrated with very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. The different features of poly-, micro- and nanocrystalline silicon for solar cells, that is a mixture of both amorphous and crystalline phases, such as the silicon NCs or QDs embedded in a α-Si:H matrix, as well as the thin film 2-cell or 3-cell tandem solar cells based on Si QD structures have been discussed as well. Silicon NC based structures for non-volatile memory purposes, the recent studies of Si QD base single electron devices and the single electron occupation of QDs as an important component to the measurement and manipulation of spins in quantum information processing have been analyzed as well.
Enhanced thermoelectric properties in boron nitride quantum-dot
Pan, Changning; Long, Mengqiu; He, Jun
We have investigated the ballistic thermoelectric properties in boron nitride quantum dots by using the nonequilibrium Green's function approach and the Landauer transport theory. The result shows that the phonon transport is substantially suppressed by the interface in the quantum dots. The resonant tunneling effect of electron leads to the fluctuations of the electronic conductance. It enhances significantly the Seebeck coefficient. Combined with the low thermal conductance of phonon, the high thermoelectric figure of merit ZT ∼0.78 can be obtained at room temperature T = 300 K and ZT ∼0.95 at low temperature T = 100 K. It is much higher than that of graphene quantum dots with the same geometry parameters, which is ZT ∼0.29 at room temperature T = 300 K and ZT ∼0.48 at low temperature T = 100 K. The underlying mechanism is that the boron nitride quantum dots possess higher thermopower and lower phonon thermal conductance than the graphene quantum dots. Thus the results indicate that the thermoelectric properties of boron nitride can be significantly enhanced by the quantum dot and are better than those of graphene.
Graphene quantum dots probed by scanning tunneling microscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morgenstern, Markus; Freitag, Nils; Nent, Alexander; Nemes-Incze, Peter; Liebmann, Marcus [II. Institute of Physics B and JARA-FIT, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)
2017-11-15
Scanning tunneling spectroscopy results probing the electronic properties of graphene quantum dots are reviewed. After a short summary of the study of squared wave functions of graphene quantum dots on metal substrates, we firstly present data where the Landau level gaps caused by a perpendicular magnetic field are used to electrostatically confine electrons in monolayer graphene, which are probed by the Coulomb staircase revealing the consecutive charging of a quantum dot. It turns out that these quantum dots exhibit much more regular charging sequences than lithographically confined ones. Namely, the consistent grouping of charging peaks into quadruplets, both, in the electron and hole branch, portrays a regular orbital splitting of about 10meV. At low hole occupation numbers, the charging peaks are, partly, additionally grouped into doublets. The spatially varying energy separation of the doublets indicates a modulation of the valley splitting by the underlying BN substrate. We outline that this property might be used to eventually tune the valley splitting coherently. Afterwards, we describe graphene quantum dots with multiple contacts produced without lithographic resist, namely by local anodic oxidation. Such quantum dots target the goal to probe magnetotransport properties during the imaging of the corresponding wave functions by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics: The effect of polydispersity
Zhitomirsky, David
2012-02-08
The size-effect tunability of colloidal quantum dots enables facile engineering of the bandgap at the time of nanoparticle synthesis. The dependence of effective bandgap on nanoparticle size also presents a challenge if the size dispersion, hence bandgap variability, is not well-controlled within a given quantum dot solid. The impact of this polydispersity is well-studied in luminescent devices as well as in unipolar electronic transport; however, the requirements on monodispersity have yet to be quantified in photovoltaics. Here we carry out a series of combined experimental and model-based studies aimed at clarifying, and quantifying, the importance of quantum dot monodispersity in photovoltaics. We successfully predict, using a simple model, the dependence of both open-circuit voltage and photoluminescence behavior on the density of small-bandgap (large-diameter) quantum dot inclusions. The model requires inclusion of trap states to explain the experimental data quantitatively. We then explore using this same experimentally tested model the implications of a broadened quantum dot population on device performance. We report that present-day colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic devices with typical inhomogeneous linewidths of 100-150 meV are dominated by surface traps, and it is for this reason that they see marginal benefit from reduction in polydispersity. Upon eliminating surface traps, achieving inhomogeneous broadening of 50 meV or less will lead to device performance that sees very little deleterious impact from polydispersity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Heparin conjugated quantum dots for in vitro imaging applications.
Maguire, Ciaran Manus; Mahfoud, Omar Kazem; Rakovich, Tatsiana; Gerard, Valerie Anne; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Gun'ko, Yurii; Volkov, Yuri
2014-11-01
In this work heparin-gelatine multi-layered cadmium telluride quantum dots (QDgel/hep) were synthesised using a novel 'one-pot' method. The QDs produced were characterised using various spectroscopic and physiochemical techniques. Suitable QDs were then selected and compared to thioglycolic acid stabilised quantum dots (QDTGA) and gelatine coated quantum dots (QDgel) for utilisation in in vitro imaging experiments on live and fixed permeabilised THP-1, A549 and Caco-2 cell lines. Exposure of live THP-1 cells to QDgel/hep resulted in localisation of the QDs to the nucleus of the cells. QDgel/hep show affinity for the nuclear compartment of fixed permeabilised THP-1 and A549 cells but remain confined to cytoplasm of fixed permeabilised Caco-2 cells. It is postulated that heparin binding to the CD11b receptor facilitates the internalisation of the QDs into the nucleus of THP-1 cells. In addition, the heparin layer may reduce the unfavourable thrombogenic nature of quantum dots observed in vivo. In this study, heparin conjugated quantum dots were found to have superior imaging properties compared to its native counterparts. The authors postulate that heparin binding to the CD11b receptor facilitates QD internalization to the nucleus, and the heparin layer may reduce the in vivo thrombogenic properties of quantum dots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Design of quaternary logic circuit using quantum dot gate-quantum dot channel FET (QDG-QDCFET)
Karmakar, Supriya
2014-10-01
This paper presents the implementation of quaternary logic circuits based on quantum dot gate-quantum dot channel field effect transistor (QDG-QDCFET). The super lattice structure in the quantum dot channel region of QDG-QDCFET and the electron tunnelling from inversion channel to the quantum dot layer in the gate region of a QDG-QDCFET change the threshold voltage of this device which produces two intermediate states between its ON and OFF states. This property of QDG-QDCFET is used to implement multi-valued logic for future multi-valued logic circuit. This paper presents the design of basic quaternary logic operation such as inverter, AND and OR operation based on QDG-QDCFET.
High quantum yield ZnO quantum dots synthesizing via an ultrasonication microreactor method.
Yang, Weimin; Yang, Huafang; Ding, Wenhao; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Le; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu
2016-11-01
Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic microreactor. Ultrasonic radiation brought bubbles through ultrasonic cavitation. These bubbles built microreactor inside the microreactor. The photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots synthesized with different flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature were discussed. Flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature would influence the type and quantity of defects in ZnO quantum dots. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by those conditions as well. Flow rate affected the reaction time. With the increasing of flow rate, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots decreased and the quantum yields first increased then decreased. Ultrasonic power changed the ultrasonic cavitation intensity, which affected the reaction energy and the separation of the solution. With the increasing of ultrasonic power, sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased, while the quantum yields kept increasing. The effect of ultrasonic temperature on the photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots was influenced by the flow rate. Different flow rate related to opposite changing trend. Moreover, the quantum yields of ZnO QDs synthesized by ultrasonic microreactor could reach 64.7%, which is higher than those synthesized only under ultrasonic radiation or only by microreactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rainbow Emission from an Atomic Transition in Doped Quantum Dots.
Hazarika, Abhijit; Pandey, Anshu; Sarma, D D
2014-07-03
Although semiconductor quantum dots are promising materials for displays and lighting due to their tunable emissions, these materials also suffer from the serious disadvantage of self-absorption of emitted light. The reabsorption of emitted light is a serious loss mechanism in practical situations because most phosphors exhibit subunity quantum yields. Manganese-based phosphors that also exhibit high stability and quantum efficiency do not suffer from this problem but in turn lack emission tunability, seriously affecting their practical utility. Here, we present a class of manganese-doped quantum dot materials, where strain is used to tune the wavelength of the dopant emission, extending the otherwise limited emission tunability over the yellow-orange range for manganese ions to almost the entire visible spectrum covering all colors from blue to red. These new materials thus combine the advantages of both quantum dots and conventional doped phosphors, thereby opening new possibilities for a wide range of applications in the future.
Universal parametric correlations of conductance peaks in quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alhassid, Y.; Attias, H.
1996-01-01
We compute the parametric correlation function of the conductance peaks in chaotic and weakly disordered quantum dots in the Coulomb blockade regime and demonstrate its universality upon an appropriate scaling of the parameter. For a symmetric dot we show that this correlation function is affected by breaking time-reversal symmetry but is independent of the details of the channels in the external leads. We derive a new scaling which depends on the eigenfunctions alone and can be extracted directly from the conductance peak heights. Our results are in excellent agreement with model simulations of a disordered quantum dot. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Electronic transient processes and optical spectra in quantum dots for quantum computing
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Král, Karel; Zdeněk, Petr; Khás, Zdeněk
2004-01-01
Roč. 3, č. 1 (2004), s. 17-25 ISSN 1536-125X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : depopulation * electronic relaxation * optical spectra * quantum dots * self-assembled quantum dots * upconversion Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.176, year: 2004
Quantitative analysis of quantum dot dynamics and emission spectra in cavity quantum electrodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Lodahl, Peter
2013-01-01
-resolved measurements reveal that the actual coupling strength is significantly smaller than anticipated from the spectral measurements and that the quantum dot is rather weakly coupled to the cavity. We suggest that the observed Rabi splitting is due to cavity feeding by other quantum dots and/or multi...
Annealing-induced change in quantum dot chain formation mechanism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tyler D. Park
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot chains were grown using a modified Stranski-Krastanov method in which the InGaAs layer is deposited under a low growth temperature and high arsenic overpressure, which suppresses the formation of dots until a later annealing process. The dots are capped with a 100 nm GaAs layer. Three samples, having three different annealing temperatures of 460°C, 480°C, and 500°C, were studied by transmission electron microscopy. Results indicate two distinct types of dot formation processes: dots in the 460°C and 480°C samples form from platelet precursors in a one-to-one ratio whereas the dots in the sample annealed at 500°C form through the strain-driven self-assembly process, and then grow larger via an additional Ostwald ripening process whereby dots grow into larger dots at the expense of smaller seed islands. There are consequently significant morphological differences between the two types of dots, which explain many of the previously-reported differences in optical properties. Moreover, we also report evidence of indium segregation within the dots, with little or no indium intermixing between the dots and the surrounding GaAs barrier.
Transport properties of a Kondo dot with a larger side-coupled noninteracting quantum dot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Y S; Fan, X H; Xia, Y J; Yang, X F
2008-01-01
We investigate theoretically linear and nonlinear quantum transport through a smaller quantum dot in a Kondo regime connected to two leads in the presence of a larger side-coupled noninteracting quantum dot, without tunneling coupling to the leads. To do this we employ the slave boson mean field theory with the help of the Keldysh Green's function at zero temperature. The numerical results show that the Kondo conductance peak may develop multiple resonance peaks and multiple zero points in the conductance spectrum owing to constructive and destructive quantum interference effects when the energy levels of the large side-coupled noninteracting dot are located in the vicinity of the Fermi level in the leads. As the coupling strength between two quantum dots increases, the tunneling current through the quantum device as a function of gate voltage applied across the two leads is suppressed. The spin-dependent transport properties of two parallel coupled quantum dots connected to two ferromagnetic leads are also investigated. The numerical results show that, for the parallel configuration, the spin current or linear spin differential conductance are enhanced when the polarization strength in the two leads is increased
Mid-Infrared Quantum-Dot Quantum Cascade Laser: A Theoretical Feasibility Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephan Michael
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In the framework of a microscopic model for intersubband gain from electrically pumped quantum-dot structures we investigate electrically pumped quantum-dots as active material for a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser. Our previous calculations have indicated that these structures could operate with reduced threshold current densities while also achieving a modal gain comparable to that of quantum well active materials. Here, we study the influence of two important quantum-dot material parameters, namely inhomogeneous broadening and quantum-dot sheet density, on the performance of a proposed quantum cascade laser design. In terms of achieving a positive modal net gain, a high quantum-dot density can compensate for moderately high inhomogeneous broadening, but at a cost of increased threshold current density. However, by minimizing quantum-dot density with presently achievable inhomogeneous broadening and total losses, significantly lower threshold densities than those reported in quantum-well quantum-cascade lasers are predicted by our theory.
A theoretical study of exciton energy levels in laterally coupled quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barticevic, Z; Pacheco, M; Duque, C A; Oliveira, L E
2009-01-01
A theoretical study of the electronic and optical properties of laterally coupled quantum dots, under applied magnetic fields perpendicular to the plane of the dots, is presented. The exciton energy levels of such laterally coupled quantum-dot systems, together with the corresponding wavefunctions and eigenvalues, are obtained in the effective-mass approximation by using an extended variational approach in which the magnetoexciton states are simultaneously obtained. One achieves the expected limits of one single quantum dot, when the distance between the dots is zero, and of two uncoupled quantum dots, when the distance between the dots is large enough. Moreover, present calculations-with appropriate structural dimensions of the two-dot system-are shown to be in agreement with measurements in self-assembled laterally aligned GaAs quantum-dot pairs and naturally/accidentally occurring coupled quantum dots in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells.
Quantum description of nuclear spin cooling in a quantum dot
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giedke, Geza; Christ, H.; Cirac, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2007-07-01
We study theoretically the cooling of an ensemble of nuclear spins coupled to the spin of a localized electron in a quantum dot. We obtain a master equation for the state of the nuclear spins interacting with a sequence of polarized electrons that allows to study quantitatively the cooling process including the effect of nuclear spin coherences, which can lead to 'dark states' of the nuclear system in which further cooling is inhibited. We show that the inhomogeneous Knight field mitigates this effect strongly and that the remaining dark state limitations can be overcome by very few shifts of the electron wave function, allowing for cooling far beyond the dark state limit. Numerical integration of the master equation indicates that polarizations larger than 90% can be achieved within a millisecond timescale.
Fabrication of quantum-dot devices in graphene
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Satoshi Moriyama, Yoshifumi Morita, Eiichiro Watanabe, Daiju Tsuya, Shinya Uji, Maki Shimizu and Koji Ishibashi
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We describe our recent experimental results on the fabrication of quantum-dot devices in a graphene-based two-dimensional system. Graphene samples were prepared by micromechanical cleavage of graphite crystals on a SiO2/Si substrate. We performed micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements to determine the number of layers of graphene flakes during the device fabrication process. By applying a nanofabrication process to the identified graphene flakes, we prepared a double-quantum-dot device structure comprising two lateral quantum dots coupled in series. Measurements of low-temperature electrical transport show the device to be a series-coupled double-dot system with varied interdot tunnel coupling, the strength of which changes continuously and non-monotonically as a function of gate voltage.
Computer-automated tuning of semiconductor double quantum dots into the single-electron regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baart, T. A.; Vandersypen, L. M. K. [QuTech, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Eendebak, P. T. [QuTech, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), P.O. Box 155, 2600 AD Delft (Netherlands); Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)
2016-05-23
We report the computer-automated tuning of gate-defined semiconductor double quantum dots in GaAs heterostructures. We benchmark the algorithm by creating three double quantum dots inside a linear array of four quantum dots. The algorithm sets the correct gate voltages for all the gates to tune the double quantum dots into the single-electron regime. The algorithm only requires (1) prior knowledge of the gate design and (2) the pinch-off value of the single gate T that is shared by all the quantum dots. This work significantly alleviates the user effort required to tune multiple quantum dot devices.
Suppression of LO phonon scattering in Landau quantized quantum dots
Murdin, B. N.; Hollingworth, A. R.; Kamal-Saadi, M.; Kotitschke, R. T.; Ciesla, C. M.; Pidgeon, C. R.; Findlay, P. C.; Pellemans, H. P. M.; Langerak, Cjgm; Rowe, A. C.; Stradling, R. A.; Gornik, E.
1999-01-01
Picosecond time-resolved far-infrared measurements are presented of the scattering between conduction-band states in a doped quasi quantum dot. These states are created by the application of a magnetic field along the growth direction of an InAs/AlSb quantum well. A clear suppression of the cooling
Counted Sb donors in Si quantum dots
Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Bielejec, Edward; Perry, Daniel; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Bishop, Nathaniel; Wendt, Joel; Luhman, Dwight; Carroll, Malcolm; Lilly, Michael
2015-03-01
Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is critical for donor spin qubits in semiconductor based quantum computing. We have developed techniques using a focused ion beam and a diode detector integrated next to a silicon MOS single electron transistor to gain such control. With the diode detector operating in linear mode, the numbers of ions implanted have been counted and single ion implants have been detected. Poisson statistics in the number of ions implanted have been observed. Transport measurements performed on samples with counted number of implants have been performed and regular coulomb blockade and charge offsets observed. The capacitances to various gates are found to be in agreement with QCAD simulations for an electrostatically defined dot. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Selective targeting of microglia by quantum dots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minami S Sakura
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, have been implicated in brain injury and various neurological disorders. However, their precise roles in different pathophysiological situations remain enigmatic and may range from detrimental to protective. Targeting the delivery of biologically active compounds to microglia could help elucidate these roles and facilitate the therapeutic modulation of microglial functions in neurological diseases. Methods Here we employ primary cell cultures and stereotaxic injections into mouse brain to investigate the cell type specific localization of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs in vitro and in vivo. Two potential receptors for QDs are identified using pharmacological inhibitors and neutralizing antibodies. Results In mixed primary cortical cultures, QDs were selectively taken up by microglia; this uptake was decreased by inhibitors of clathrin-dependent endocytosis, implicating the endosomal pathway as the major route of entry for QDs into microglia. Furthermore, inhibiting mannose receptors and macrophage scavenger receptors blocked the uptake of QDs by microglia, indicating that QD uptake occurs through microglia-specific receptor endocytosis. When injected into the brain, QDs were taken up primarily by microglia and with high efficiency. In primary cortical cultures, QDs conjugated to the toxin saporin depleted microglia in mixed primary cortical cultures, protecting neurons in these cultures against amyloid beta-induced neurotoxicity. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that QDs can be used to specifically label and modulate microglia in primary cortical cultures and in brain and may allow for the selective delivery of therapeutic agents to these cells.
Quantum dot mediated imaging of atherosclerosis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jayagopal, Ashwath; Haselton, Frederick R [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Su Yanru; Blakemore, John L; Linton, MacRae F; Fazio, Sergio [Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)], E-mail: rick.haselton@vanderbilt.edu
2009-04-22
The progression of atherosclerosis is associated with leukocyte infiltration within lesions. We describe a technique for the ex vivo imaging of cellular recruitment in atherogenesis which utilizes quantum dots (QD) to color-code different cell types within lesion areas. Spectrally distinct QD were coated with the cell-penetrating peptide maurocalcine to fluorescently-label immunomagnetically isolated monocyte/macrophages and T lymphocytes. QD-maurocalcine bioconjugates labeled both cell types with a high efficiency, preserved cell viability, and did not perturb native leukocyte function in cytokine release and endothelial adhesion assays. QD-labeled monocyte/macrophages and T lymphocytes were reinfused in an ApoE{sup -/-} mouse model of atherosclerosis and age-matched controls and tracked for up to four weeks to investigate the incorporation of cells within aortic lesion areas, as determined by oil red O (ORO) and immunofluorescence ex vivo staining. QD-labeled cells were visible in atherosclerotic plaques within two days of injection, and the two cell types colocalized within areas of subsequent ORO staining. Our method for tracking leukocytes in lesions enables high signal-to-noise ratio imaging of multiple cell types and biomarkers simultaneously within the same specimen. It also has great utility in studies aimed at investigating the role of distinct circulating leukocyte subsets in plaque development and progression.
Exciton coherence in semiconductor quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Sasaki, Masahide; Kujiraoka, Mamiko; Ema, Kazuhiro
2009-01-01
The coherent dynamics of excitons in InAs quantum dots (QDs) was investigated in the telecommunication wavelength range using a transient four-wave mixing technique. The sample was fabricated on an InP(311)B substrate using strain compensation to control the emission wavelength. This technique also enabled us to fabricate a 150-layer stacked QD structure for obtaining a high S/N in the four-wave mixing measurements, although no high-sensitive heterodyne detection was carried out. The dephasing time and transition dipole moment were precisely estimated from the polarization dependence of signals, taking into account their anisotropic properties. The population lifetimes of the excitons were also measured by using a polarization-dependent pumpprobe technique. A quantitative comparison of these anisotropies demonstrates that in our QDs, non-radiative population relaxation, polarization relaxation and pure dephasing are considerably smaller than the radiative relaxation. A comparison of the results of the four-wave mixing and pump-probe measurements revealed that the pure dephasing could be directly estimated with an accuracy of greater than 0.1 meV by comparing the results of four-wave mixing and pump-probe measurements. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Microwave mediated synthesis of semiconductor quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Afrasiabi, Roodabeh; Sugunan, Abhilash; Shahid, Robina; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Muhammed, Mamoun [Division of Functional Materials, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden)
2012-07-15
Colloidal quantum dots (QD) have tuneable optoelectronic properties and can be easily handled by simple solution processing techniques, making them very attractive for a wide range of applications. Over the past decade synthesis of morphology controlled high quality (crystalline, monodisperse) colloidal QDs by thermal decomposition of organometallic precursors has matured and is well studied. Recently, synthesis of colloidal QDs by microwave irradiation as heating source is being studied due to the inherently different mechanisms of heat transfer, when compared to solvent convection based heating. Under microwave irradiation, polar precursor molecules directly absorb the microwave energy and heat up more efficiently. Here we report synthesis of colloidal II-VI semiconductor QDs (CdS, CdSe, CdTe) by microwave irradiation and compare it with conventional synthesis based on convection heating. Our findings show that QD synthesis by microwave heating is more efficient and the chalcogenide precursor strongly absorbs the microwave radiation shortening the reaction time and giving a high reaction yield (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Quantum dot lasers: From promise to high-performance devices
Bhattacharya, P.; Mi, Z.; Yang, J.; Basu, D.; Saha, D.
2009-03-01
Ever since self-organized In(Ga)As/Ga(AI)As quantum dots were realized by molecular beam epitaxy, it became evident that these coherently strained nanostructures could be used as the active media in devices. While the expected advantages stemming from three-dimensional quantum confinement were clearly outlined, these were not borne out by the early experiments. It took a very detailed understanding of the unique carrier dynamics in the quantum dots to exploit their full potential. As a result, we now have lasers with emission wavelengths ranging from 0.7 to 1.54 μm, on GaAs, which demonstrate ultra-low threshold currents, near-zero chip and α-factor and large modulation bandwidth. State-of-the-art performance characteristics of these lasers are briefly reviewed. The growth, fabrication and characteristics of quantum dot lasers on silicon substrates are also described. With the incorporation of multiple quantum dot layers as a dislocation filter, we demonstrate lasers with Jth=900 A/cm 2. The monolithic integration of the lasers with guided wave modulators on silicon is also described. Finally, the properties of spin-polarized lasers with quantum dot active regions are described. Spin injection of electrons is done with a MnAs/GaAs tunnel barrier. Laser operation at 200 K is demonstrated, with the possibility of room temperature operation in the near future.
Quantum computation in semiconductor quantum dots of electron-spin asymmetric anisotropic exchange
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hao Xiang; Zhu Shiqun
2007-01-01
The universal quantum computation is obtained when there exists asymmetric anisotropic exchange between electron spins in coupled semiconductor quantum dots. The asymmetric Heisenberg model can be transformed into the isotropic model through the control of two local unitary rotations for the realization of essential quantum gates. The rotations on each qubit are symmetrical and depend on the strength and orientation of asymmetric exchange. The implementation of the axially symmetric local magnetic fields can assist the construction of quantum logic gates in anisotropic coupled quantum dots. This proposal can efficiently use each physical electron spin as a logical qubit in the universal quantum computation
Folded-light-path colloidal quantum dot solar cells.
Koleilat, Ghada I
2013-01-01
Colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics combine low-cost solution processing with quantum size-effect tuning to match absorption to the solar spectrum. Rapid advances have led to certified solar power conversion efficiencies of over 7%. Nevertheless, these devices remain held back by a compromise in the choice of quantum dot film thickness, balancing on the one hand the need to maximize photon absorption, mandating a thicker film, and, on the other, the need for efficient carrier extraction, a consideration that limits film thickness. Here we report an architecture that breaks this compromise by folding the path of light propagating in the colloidal quantum dot solid. Using this method, we achieve a substantial increase in short-circuit current, ultimately leading to improved power conversion efficiency.
Simulating electron spin entanglement in a double quantum dot
Rodriguez-Moreno, M. A.; Hernandez de La Luz, A. D.; Meza-Montes, Lilia
2011-03-01
One of the biggest advantages of having a working quantum-computing device when compared with a classical one, is the exponential speedup of calculations. This exponential increase is based on the ability of a quantum system to create and operate on entangled states. In order to study theoretically the entanglement between two electron spins, we simulate the dynamics of two electron spins in an electrostatically-defined double quantum dot with a finite barrier height between the dots. Electrons are initially confined to separated quantum dots. Barrier height is varied and the spin entanglement as a function of this variation is investigated. The evolution of the system is simulated by using a numerical approach for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for two particles. Partially supported by VIEP-BUAP.
Bound state properties of ABC -stacked trilayer graphene quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiong, Haonan; Jiang, Wentao; Song, Yipu; Duan, Luming
2017-01-01
The few-layer graphene quantum dot provides a promising platform for quantum computing with both spin and valley degrees of freedom. Gate-defined quantum dots in particular can avoid noise from edge disorders. In connection with the recent experimental efforts (Song et al 2016 Nano Lett . 16 6245), we investigate the bound state properties of trilayer graphene (TLG) quantum dots (QDs) through numerical simulations. We show that the valley degeneracy can be lifted by breaking the time reversal symmetry through the application of a perpendicular magnetic field. The spectrum under such a potential exhibits a transition from one group of Landau levels to another group, which can be understood analytically through perturbation theory. Our results provide insight into the transport property of TLG QDs, with possible applications to study of spin qubits and valleytronics in TLG QDs. (paper)
Carbon quantum dots and applications in photocatalytic energy conversion.
Fernando, K A Shiral; Sahu, Sushant; Liu, Yamin; Lewis, William K; Guliants, Elena A; Jafariyan, Amirhossein; Wang, Ping; Bunker, Christopher E; Sun, Ya-Ping
2015-04-29
Quantum dots (QDs) generally refer to nanoscale particles of conventional semiconductors that are subject to the quantum-confinement effect, though other nanomaterials of similar optical and redox properties are also named as QDs even in the absence of strictly defined quantum confinement. Among such nanomaterials that have attracted tremendous recent interest are carbon dots, which are small carbon nanoparticles with some form of surface passivation, and graphene quantum dots in various configurations. In this article, we highlight these carbon-based QDs by focusing on their syntheses, on their photoexcited state properties and redox processes, and on their applications as photocatalysts in visible-light carbon dioxide reduction and in water-splitting, as well as on their mechanistic similarities and differences.
Wang, Wenran; Jiang, Guocan; Yu, Juan; Wang, Wei; Pan, Zhenxiao; Nakazawa, Naoki; Shen, Qing; Zhong, Xinhua
2017-07-12
Unambiguously direct adsorption (DA) of initial oil-soluble quantum dots (QDs) on TiO 2 film electrode is a convenient and simple approach in the construction of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Regrettably, low QD loading amount and poor reproducibility shadow the advantages of DA route and constrain its practical application. Herein, the influence of experimental variables in DA process on QD loading amount as well as on the photovoltaic performance of the resultant QDSCs was investigated and optimized systematically, including the choice of solvent, purification of QDs, and sensitization time, as well as QD concentration. Experimental results demonstrated that it is essential to choose appropriate solvent as well as control purification cycles of original QD suspensions so as to realize satisfactory QD loading amount and ensure the high reproducibility. In addition, DA mode renders efficient electron injection from QD to TiO 2 , yet low QD loading amount and adverse QD agglomeration in comparison with the well-developed capping ligand induced self-assembly (CLIS) deposition approach. Mg 2+ treatment on TiO 2 photoanodes can promote the QD loading amount in DA mode. The optimized QDSCs based on DA mode exhibited efficiencies of 6.90% and 9.02% for CdSe and Zn-Cu-In-Se QDSCs, respectively, which were comparable to the best results based on CLIS mode (6.88% and 9.56%, respectively).
Fast gain and phase recovery of semiconductor optical amplifiers based on submonolayer quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herzog, Bastian, E-mail: BHerzog@physik.tu-berlin.de; Owschimikow, Nina; Kaptan, Yücel; Kolarczik, Mirco; Switaiski, Thomas; Woggon, Ulrike [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Rosales, Ricardo; Strittmatter, André; Bimberg, Dieter; Pohl, Udo W. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)
2015-11-16
Submonolayer quantum dots as active medium in opto-electronic devices promise to combine the high density of states of quantum wells with the fast recovery dynamics of self-assembled quantum dots. We investigate the gain and phase recovery dynamics of a semiconductor optical amplifier based on InAs submonolayer quantum dots in the regime of linear operation by one- and two-color heterodyne pump-probe spectroscopy. We find an as fast recovery dynamics as for quantum dot-in-a-well structures, reaching 2 ps at moderate injection currents. The effective quantum well embedding the submonolayer quantum dots acts as a fast and efficient carrier reservoir.
Ultrafast optical control of individual quantum dot spin qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Greve, Kristiaan; Press, David; McMahon, Peter L; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2013-01-01
Single spins in semiconductor quantum dots form a promising platform for solid-state quantum information processing. The spin-up and spin-down states of a single electron or hole, trapped inside a quantum dot, can represent a single qubit with a reasonably long decoherence time. The spin qubit can be optically coupled to excited (charged exciton) states that are also trapped in the quantum dot, which provides a mechanism to quickly initialize, manipulate and measure the spin state with optical pulses, and to interface between a stationary matter qubit and a ‘flying’ photonic qubit for quantum communication and distributed quantum information processing. The interaction of the spin qubit with light may be enhanced by placing the quantum dot inside a monolithic microcavity. An entire system, consisting of a two-dimensional array of quantum dots and a planar microcavity, may plausibly be constructed by modern semiconductor nano-fabrication technology and could offer a path toward chip-sized scalable quantum repeaters and quantum computers. This article reviews the recent experimental developments in optical control of single quantum dot spins for quantum information processing. We highlight demonstrations of a complete set of all-optical single-qubit operations on a single quantum dot spin: initialization, an arbitrary SU(2) gate, and measurement. We review the decoherence and dephasing mechanisms due to hyperfine interaction with the nuclear-spin bath, and show how the single-qubit operations can be combined to perform spin echo sequences that extend the qubit decoherence from a few nanoseconds to several microseconds, more than 5 orders of magnitude longer than the single-qubit gate time. Two-qubit coupling is discussed, both within a single chip by means of exchange coupling of nearby spins and optically induced geometric phases, as well as over longer-distances. Long-distance spin–spin entanglement can be generated if each spin can emit a photon that is
Tuning Single Quantum Dot Emission with a Micromirror.
Yuan, Gangcheng; Gómez, Daniel; Kirkwood, Nicholas; Mulvaney, Paul
2018-02-14
The photoluminescence of single quantum dots fluctuates between bright (on) and dark (off) states, also termed fluorescence intermittency or blinking. This blinking limits the performance of quantum dot-based devices such as light-emitting diodes and solar cells. However, the origins of the blinking remain unresolved. Here, we use a movable gold micromirror to determine both the quantum yield of the bright state and the orientation of the excited state dipole of single quantum dots. We observe that the quantum yield of the bright state is close to unity for these single QDs. Furthermore, we also study the effect of a micromirror on blinking, and then evaluate excitation efficiency, biexciton quantum yield, and detection efficiency. The mirror does not modify the off-time statistics, but it does change the density of optical states available to the quantum dot and hence the on times. The duration of the on times can be lengthened due to an increase in the radiative recombination rate.
Imaging electrostatically confined Dirac fermions in graphene quantum dots
Lee, Juwon; Wong, Dillon; Velasco, Jairo, Jr.; Rodriguez-Nieva, Joaquin F.; Kahn, Salman; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Zettl, Alex; Wang, Feng; Levitov, Leonid S.; Crommie, Michael F.
2016-11-01
Electrostatic confinement of charge carriers in graphene is governed by Klein tunnelling, a relativistic quantum process in which particle-hole transmutation leads to unusual anisotropic transmission at p-n junction boundaries. Reflection and transmission at these boundaries affect the quantum interference of electronic waves, enabling the formation of novel quasi-bound states. Here we report the use of scanning tunnelling microscopy to map the electronic structure of Dirac fermions confined in quantum dots defined by circular graphene p-n junctions. The quantum dots were fabricated using a technique involving local manipulation of defect charge within the insulating substrate beneath a graphene monolayer. Inside such graphene quantum dots we observe resonances due to quasi-bound states and directly visualize the quantum interference patterns arising from these states. Outside the quantum dots Dirac fermions exhibit Friedel oscillation-like behaviour. Bolstered by a theoretical model describing relativistic particles in a harmonic oscillator potential, our findings yield insights into the spatial behaviour of electrostatically confined Dirac fermions.
Influence of surface states of CuInS{sub 2} quantum dots in quantum dots sensitized photo-electrodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peng, Zhuoyin; Liu, Yueli [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wu, Lei [School of Electronic and Electrical, Wuhan Railway Vocational College of Technology, Wuhan 430205 (China); Zhao, Yinghan; Chen, Keqiang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chen, Wen, E-mail: chenw@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)
2016-12-01
Graphical abstract: J–V curves of different ligands capped CuInS{sub 2} QDs sensitized TiO{sub 2} photo-electrodes. - Highlights: • DDT, OLA, MPA, and S{sup 2−} ligand capped CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot sensitized photo-electrodes are prepared. • Surface states of quantum dots greatly influence the electrochemical performance of CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot sensitized photo-electrodes. • S{sup 2−} ligand enhances the UV–vis absorption and electron–hole separation property as well as the excellent charge transfer performance of the photo-electrodes. - Abstract: Surface states are significant factor for the enhancement of electrochemical performance in CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot sensitized photo-electrodes. DDT, OLA, MPA, and S{sup 2−} ligand capped CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot sensitized photo-electrodes are prepared by thermolysis, solvethermal and ligand-exchange processes, respectively, and their optical properties and photoelectrochemical properties are investigated. The S{sup 2−} ligand enhances the UV–vis absorption and electron–hole separation property as well as the excellent charge transfer performance of the photo-electrodes, which is attributed to the fact that the atomic S{sup 2−} ligand for the interfacial region of quantum dots may improve the electron transfer rate. These S{sup 2−}-capped CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot sensitized photo-electrodes exhibit the excellent photoelectrochemical efficiency and IPCE peak value, which is higher than that of the samples with DDT, OLA and MPA ligands.
Forrest, Stephen R.
2008-08-19
A plurality of quantum dots each have a shell. The quantum dots are embedded in an organic matrix. At least the quantum dots and the organic matrix are photoconductive semiconductors. The shell of each quantum dot is arranged as a tunneling barrier to require a charge carrier (an electron or a hole) at a base of the tunneling barrier in the organic matrix to perform quantum mechanical tunneling to reach the respective quantum dot. A first quantum state in each quantum dot is between a lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and a highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the organic matrix. Wave functions of the first quantum state of the plurality of quantum dots may overlap to form an intermediate band.
SELF-ORGANIZATION OF LEAD SULFIDE QUANTUM DOTS INTO SUPERSTRUCTURES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena V. Ushakova
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The method of X-ray structural analysis (X-ray scattering at small angles is used to show that the structures obtained by self-organization on a substrate of lead sulfide (PbS quantum dots are ordered arrays. Self-organization of quantum dots occurs at slow evaporation of solvent from a cuvette. The cuvette is a thin layer of mica with teflon ring on it. The positions of peaks in SAXS pattern are used to calculate crystal lattice of obtained ordered structures. Such structures have a primitive orthorhombic crystal lattice. Calculated lattice parameters are: a = 21,1 (nm; b = 36,2 (nm; c = 62,5 (nm. Dimensions of structures are tens of micrometers. The spectral properties of PbS QDs superstructures and kinetic parameters of their luminescence are investigated. Absorption band of superstructures is broadened as compared to the absorption band of the quantum dots in solution; the luminescence band is slightly shifted to the red region of the spectrum, while its bandwidth is not changed much. Luminescence lifetime of obtained structures has been significantly decreased in comparison with the isolated quantum dots in solution, but remained the same for the lead sulfide quantum dots close-packed ensembles. Such superstructures can be used to produce solar cells with improved characteristics.
Synthesis of CdSe Quantum Dots Using Fusarium oxysporum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takaaki Yamaguchi
2016-10-01
Full Text Available CdSe quantum dots are often used in industry as fluorescent materials. In this study, CdSe quantum dots were synthesized using Fusarium oxysporum. The cadmium and selenium concentration, pH, and temperature for the culture of F. oxysporum (Fusarium oxysporum were optimized for the synthesis, and the CdSe quantum dots obtained from the mycelial cells of F. oxysporum were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Ultra-thin sections of F. oxysporum showed that the CdSe quantum dots were precipitated in the intracellular space, indicating that cadmium and selenium ions were incorporated into the cell and that the quantum dots were synthesized with intracellular metabolites. To reveal differences in F. oxysporum metabolism, cell extracts of F. oxysporum, before and after CdSe synthesis, were compared using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The results suggested that the amount of superoxide dismutase (SOD decreased after CdSe synthesis. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that cytoplasmic superoxide increased significantly after CdSe synthesis. The accumulation of superoxide may increase the expression of various metabolites that play a role in reducing Se4+ to Se2− and inhibit the aggregation of CdSe to make nanoparticles.
Electroluminescence of colloidal ZnSe quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dey, S.C.; Nath, S.S.
2011-01-01
The article reports a green chemical synthesis of colloidal ZnSe quantum dots at a moderate temperature. The prepared colloid sample is characterised by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. UV-vis spectroscopy reveals as-expected blue-shift with strong absorption edge at 400 nm and micrographs show a non-uniform size distribution of ZnSe quantum dots in the range 1-4 nm. Further, photoluminescence and electroluminescence spectroscopies are carried out to study optical emission. Each of the spectroscopies reveals two emission peaks, indicating band-to-band transition and defect related transition. From the luminescence studies, it can be inferred that the recombination of electrons and holes resulting from interband transition causes violet emission and the recombination of a photon generated hole with a charged state of Zn-vacancy gives blue emission. Meanwhile electroluminescence study suggests the application of ZnSe quantum dots as an efficient light emitting device with the advantage of colour tuning (violet-blue-violet). - Highlights: → Synthesis of ZnSe quantum dots by a green chemical route. → Characterisation: UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. → Analysis of UV-vis absorption spectrum and transmission electron micrographs. → Study of electro-optical properties by photoluminescence and electroluminescence. → Conclusion: ZnSe quantum dots can be used as LED with dual colour emission.
Carrier-phonon interaction in semiconductor quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seebeck, Jan
2009-03-10
In recent years semiconductor quantum dots have been studied extensively due to their wide range of possible applications, predominantly for light sources. For successful applications, efficient carrier scattering processes as well as a detailed understanding of the optical properties are of central importance. The aims of this thesis are theoretical investigations of carrier scattering processes in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots on a quantum-kinetic basis. A consistent treatment of quasi-particle renormalizations and carrier kinetics for non-equilibrium conditions is presented, using the framework of non-equilibrium Green's functions. The focus of our investigations is the interaction of carriers with LO phonons. Important for the understanding of the scattering mechanism are the corresponding quasi-particle properties. Starting from a detailed study of quantum-dot polarons, scattering and dephasing processes are discussed for different temperature regimes. The inclusion of polaron and memory effects turns out to be essential for the description of the carrier kinetics in quantum-dot systems. They give rise to efficient scattering channels and the obtained results are in agreement with recent experiments. Furthermore, a consistent treatment of the carrier-LO-phonon and the carrier-carrier interaction is presented for the optical response of semiconductor quantum dots, both giving rise to equally important contributions to the dephasing. Beside the conventional GaAs material system, currently GaN based light sources are of high topical interest due to their wide range of possible emission frequencies. In this material additionally intrinsic properties like piezoelectric fields and strong band-mixing effects have to be considered. For the description of the optical properties of InN/GaN quantum dots a procedure is presented, where the material properties obtained from an atomistic tight-binding approach are combined with a many-body theory for non
A Quantum Dot with Spin-Orbit Interaction--Analytical Solution
Basu, B.; Roy, B.
2009-01-01
The practical applicability of a semiconductor quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction gives an impetus to study analytical solutions to one- and two-electron quantum dots with or without a magnetic field.
Photovoltaic Performance of a Nanowire/Quantum Dot Hybrid Nanostructure Array Solar Cell.
Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin
2018-02-23
An innovative solar cell based on a nanowire/quantum dot hybrid nanostructure array is designed and analyzed. By growing multilayer InAs quantum dots on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires, not only the absorption spectrum of GaAs nanowires is extended by quantum dots but also the light absorption of quantum dots is dramatically enhanced due to the light-trapping effect of the nanowire array. By incorporating five layers of InAs quantum dots into a 500-nm high-GaAs nanowire array, the power conversion efficiency enhancement induced by the quantum dots is six times higher than the power conversion efficiency enhancement in thin-film solar cells which contain the same amount of quantum dots, indicating that the nanowire array structure can benefit the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot solar cells.
Comparison of the Optical Properties of Graphene and Alkyl-terminated Si and Ge Quantum Dots
de Weerd, C.; Shin, Y.; Marino, E.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Saeed, S.; Gregorkiewicz, T.
2017-01-01
Semiconductor quantum dots are widely investigated due to their size dependent energy structure. In particular, colloidal quantum dots represent a promising nanomaterial for optoelectronic devices, such as photodetectors and solar cells, but also luminescent markers for biotechnology, among other
Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control
Sun, Liangfeng
2012-05-06
Infrared light-emitting diodes are currently fabricated from direct-gap semiconductors using epitaxy, which makes them expensive and difficult to integrate with other materials. Light-emitting diodes based on colloidal semiconductor quantum dots, on the other hand, can be solution-processed at low cost, and can be directly integrated with silicon. However, so far, exciton dissociation and recombination have not been well controlled in these devices, and this has limited their performance. Here, by tuning the distance between adjacent PbS quantum dots, we fabricate thin-film quantum-dot light-emitting diodes that operate at infrared wavelengths with radiances (6.4 W sr \\'1 m \\'2) eight times higher and external quantum efficiencies (2.0%) two times higher than the highest values previously reported. The distance between adjacent dots is tuned over a range of 1.3 nm by varying the lengths of the linker molecules from three to eight CH 2 groups, which allows us to achieve the optimum balance between charge injection and radiative exciton recombination. The electroluminescent powers of the best devices are comparable to those produced by commercial InGaAsP light-emitting diodes. By varying the size of the quantum dots, we can tune the emission wavelengths between 800 and 1,850 nm.© 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Ka-Di; Li, Wai-Sang
2003-01-01
The quantum coherent oscillations in a coherently driven quantum dot-cavity system with the presence of strong exciton-phonon interactions are investigated theoretically in a fully quantum treatment. It is shown that even at zero temperature, the strong exciton-phonon interactions still affect the quantum coherent oscillations significantly
Biosensing with Quantum Dots: A Microfluidic Approach
Vannoy, Charles H.; Tavares, Anthony J.; Noor, M. Omair; Uddayasankar, Uvaraj; Krull, Ulrich J.
2011-01-01
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have served as the basis for signal development in a variety of biosensing technologies and in applications using bioprobes. The use of QDs as physical platforms to develop biosensors and bioprobes has attracted considerable interest. This is largely due to the unique optical properties of QDs that make them excellent choices as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and well suited for optical multiplexing. The large majority of QD-based bioprobe and biosensing technologies that have been described operate in bulk solution environments, where selective binding events at the surface of QDs are often associated with relatively long periods to reach a steady-state signal. An alternative approach to the design of biosensor architectures may be provided by a microfluidic system (MFS). A MFS is able to integrate chemical and biological processes into a single platform and allows for manipulation of flow conditions to achieve, by sample transport and mixing, reaction rates that are not entirely diffusion controlled. Integrating assays in a MFS provides numerous additional advantages, which include the use of very small amounts of reagents and samples, possible sample processing before detection, ultra-high sensitivity, high throughput, short analysis time, and in situ monitoring. Herein, a comprehensive review is provided that addresses the key concepts and applications of QD-based microfluidic biosensors with an added emphasis on how this combination of technologies provides for innovations in bioassay designs. Examples from the literature are used to highlight the many advantages of biosensing in a MFS and illustrate the versatility that such a platform offers in the design strategy. PMID:22163723
Progress and prospect of quantum dot lasers
Arakawa, Yasuhiko
2001-10-01
Optical properties and growth of self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs) for optoelectronic device applications are discussed. After briefly reviewing the history of research on QD lasers, we discuss growth of InAs SQDs including the light emission at the wavelength of 1.52)mum with a narrow linewidth (22 meV) and the area-controlled growth which demonstrates formation of SAQDs in selected local areas on a growth plane using a SiO)-2) mask with MOCVD growth. Then properties of the InGaAs AQDs are investigated by the near- field photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy which reveals gradually increasing continuum absorption connected with the two-dimensional-like (2D-like) wetting layer, resulting in faster relaxation of electrons due to a crossover between OD and 2D character in the density of states. Moreover, we have investigated InGaN self-assembled QDs on a GaN layer achieving the average diameter as small as 8.4nm and a strong light at room temperature. A laser structure with the stacked InGAN QDs embedded in the active layer was fabricated and room temperature operation of blue InGaN QD lasers was achieved under optical excitation. Carrier confinement in QDs was examined using near-field $DAL- photoluminescence measurement: A very sharp spectral line emitted from excitons in individual InGaN QDs was observed. Establishing AlGaN/GaN DBR of high quality, we succeeded in lasing action in InGaN blue light emitting VCSELs. Enhancement of spontaneous emission is demonstrated. Finally, perspective of QD lasers.
A quantum walk in phase space with resonator-assisted double quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bian Zhi-Hao; Qin Hao; Zhan Xiang; Li Jian; Xue Peng
2016-01-01
We implement a quantum walk in phase space with a new mechanism based on the superconducting resonator-assisted double quantum dots. By analyzing the hybrid system, we obtain the necessary factors implementing a quantum walk in phase space: the walker, coin, coin flipping and conditional phase shift. The coin flipping is implemented by adding a driving field to the resonator. The interaction between the quantum dots and resonator is used to implement conditional phase shift. Furthermore, we show that with different driving fields the quantum walk in phase space exhibits a ballistic behavior over 25 steps and numerically analyze the factors influencing the spreading of the walker in phase space. (paper)
Multiple Exciton Generation in Quantum Dot Solar Cells
Semonin, O. E.
Photovoltaics are limited in their power conversion efficiency (PCE) by very rapid relaxation of energetic carriers to the band edge. Therefore, photons from the visible and ultraviolet parts of the spectrum typically are not efficiently converted into electrical energy. One approach that can address this is multiple exciton generation (MEG), where a single photon of sufficient energy can generate multiple excited electron-hole pairs. This process has been shown to be more efficient in quantum dots than bulk semiconductors, but it has never been demonstrated in the photocurrent of a solar cell. In order to demonstrate that multiple exciton generation can address fundamental limits for conventional photovoltaics, I have developed prototype devices from colloidal PbS and PbSe quantum dot inks. I have characterized both the colloidal suspensions and films of quantum dots with the goal of understanding what properties determine the efficiency of the solar cell and of the MEG process. I have found surface chemistry effects on solar cells, photoluminescence, and MEG, and I have found some chemical treatments that lead to solar cells showing MEG. These devices show external quantum efficiency (EQE) greater than 100% for certain parts of the solar spectrum, and I extract internal quantum efficiency (IQE) consistent with previous measurements of colloidal suspensions of quantum dots. These findings are a small first step toward breaking the single junction Shockley-Queisser limit of present-day first and second generation solar cells, thus moving photovoltaic cells toward a new regime of efficiency.
Dynamically broken symmetry in periodically gated quantum dots: charge accumulation and DC-current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwapinski, T.; Kohler, S.; Hanggi, P.
2010-01-01
Time-dependent electron transport through a quantum dot and double quantum dot systems in the presence of polychromatic external periodic quantum dot energy-level modulations is studied within the time evolution operator method for a tight-binding Hamiltonian. Analytical relations for the dc-current flowing through the system and the charge accumulated on a quantum dot are obtained for the zero-temperature limit.
Double Rashba Quantum Dots Ring as a Spin Filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chi Feng
2008-01-01
Full Text Available AbstractWe theoretically propose a double quantum dots (QDs ring to filter the electron spin that works due to the Rashba spin–orbit interaction (RSOI existing inside the QDs, the spin-dependent inter-dot tunneling coupling and the magnetic flux penetrating through the ring. By varying the RSOI-induced phase factor, the magnetic flux and the strength of the spin-dependent inter-dot tunneling coupling, which arises from a constant magnetic field applied on the tunneling junction between the QDs, a 100% spin-polarized conductance can be obtained. We show that both the spin orientations and the magnitude of it can be controlled by adjusting the above-mentioned parameters. The spin filtering effect is robust even in the presence of strong intra-dot Coulomb interactions and arbitrary dot-lead coupling configurations.
Charge pumping in strongly coupled molecular quantum dots
Haughian, Patrick; Yap, Han Hoe; Gong, Jiangbin; Schmidt, Thomas L.
2017-11-01
The interaction between electrons and the vibrational degrees of freedom of a molecular quantum dot can lead to an exponential suppression of the conductance, an effect which is commonly termed Franck-Condon blockade. Here, we investigate this effect in a quantum dot driven by time-periodic gate voltages and tunneling amplitudes using nonequilibrium Green's functions and a Floquet expansion. Building on previous results showing that driving can lift the Franck-Condon blockade, we investigate driving protocols which can be used to pump charge across the quantum dot. In particular, we show that due to the strongly coupled nature of the system, the pump current at resonance is an exponential function of the drive strength.
Electro-optical properties of phosphorene quantum dots
Saroka, V. A.; Lukyanchuk, I.; Portnoi, M. E.; Abdelsalam, H.
2017-08-01
We study the electronic and optical properties of single-layer phosphorene quantum dots with various shapes, sizes, and edge types (including disordered edges) subjected to an external electric field normal to the structure plane. Compared to graphene quantum dots, in phosphorene clusters of similar shape and size there is a set of edge states with energies dispersed at around the Fermi level. These states make the majority of phosphorene quantum dots metallic and enrich the phosphorene absorption gap with low-energy absorption peaks tunable by the electric field. The presence of the edge states dispersed around the Fermi level is a characteristic feature that is independent of the edge morphology and roughness.
A tunable colloidal quantum dot photo field-effect transistor
Ghosh, Subir
2011-01-01
We fabricate and investigate field-effect transistors in which a light-absorbing photogate modulates the flow of current along the channel. The photogate consists of colloidal quantum dots that efficiently transfer photoelectrons to the channel across a charge-separating (type-II) heterointerface, producing a primary and sustained secondary flow that is terminated via electron back-recombination across the interface. We explore colloidal quantum dot sizes corresponding to bandgaps ranging from 730 to 1475 nm and also investigate various stoichiometries of aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) channel materials. We investigate the role of trap state energies in both the colloidal quantum dot energy film and the AZO channel. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Broadband room temperature strong coupling between quantum dots and metamaterials.
Indukuri, Chaitanya; Yadav, Ravindra Kumar; Basu, J K
2017-08-17
Herein, we report the first demonstration of room temperature enhanced light-matter coupling in the visible regime for metamaterials using cooperative coupled quasi two dimensional quantum dot assemblies located at precise distances from the hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) templates. The non-monotonic variation of the magnitude of strong coupling, manifested in terms of strong splitting of the photoluminescence of quantum dots, can be explained in terms of enhanced LDOS near the surface of such metamaterials as well as the plasmon mediated super-radiance of closely spaced quantum dots (QDs). Our methodology of enhancing broadband, room temperature, light-matter coupling in the visible regime for metamaterials opens up new possibilities of utilising these materials for a wide range of applications including QD based thresholdless nanolasers and novel metamaterial based integrated photonic devices.
Valley-orbit hybrid states in Si quantum dots
Gamble, John; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.
2013-03-01
The conduction band for electrons in layered Si nanostructures oriented along (001) has two low-lying valleys. Most theoretical treatments assume that these valleys are decoupled from the long-wavelength physics of electron confinement. In this work, we show that even a minimal amount of disorder (a single atomic step at the quantum well interface) is sufficient to mix valley states and electron orbitals, causing a significant distortion of the long-wavelength electron envelope. For physically realistic electric fields and dot sizes, this valley-orbit coupling impacts all electronic states in Si quantum dots, implying that one must always consider valley-orbit hybrid states, rather than distinct valley and orbital degrees of freedom. We discuss the ramifications of our results on silicon quantum dot qubits. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-08-1-0482) and NSF (DMR-0805045).
Colloidal quantum dot solids for solution-processed solar cells
Yuan, Mingjian
2016-02-29
Solution-processed photovoltaic technologies represent a promising way to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of solar energy harvesting. Among these, colloidal semiconductor quantum dot photovoltaics have the advantage of a spectrally tuneable infrared bandgap, which enables use in multi-junction cells, as well as the benefit of generating and harvesting multiple charge carrier pairs per absorbed photon. Here we review recent progress in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics, focusing on three fronts. First, we examine strategies to manage the abundant surfaces of quantum dots, strategies that have led to progress in the removal of electronic trap states. Second, we consider new device architectures that have improved device performance to certified efficiencies of 10.6%. Third, we focus on progress in solution-phase chemical processing, such as spray-coating and centrifugal casting, which has led to the demonstration of manufacturing-ready process technologies.
QCAD simulation and optimization of semiconductor double quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nielsen, Erik; Gao, Xujiao; Kalashnikova, Irina; Muller, Richard Partain; Salinger, Andrew Gerhard; Young, Ralph Watson
2013-12-01
We present the Quantum Computer Aided Design (QCAD) simulator that targets modeling quantum devices, particularly silicon double quantum dots (DQDs) developed for quantum qubits. The simulator has three di erentiating features: (i) its core contains nonlinear Poisson, e ective mass Schrodinger, and Con guration Interaction solvers that have massively parallel capability for high simulation throughput, and can be run individually or combined self-consistently for 1D/2D/3D quantum devices; (ii) the core solvers show superior convergence even at near-zero-Kelvin temperatures, which is critical for modeling quantum computing devices; (iii) it couples with an optimization engine Dakota that enables optimization of gate voltages in DQDs for multiple desired targets. The Poisson solver includes Maxwell- Boltzmann and Fermi-Dirac statistics, supports Dirichlet, Neumann, interface charge, and Robin boundary conditions, and includes the e ect of dopant incomplete ionization. The solver has shown robust nonlinear convergence even in the milli-Kelvin temperature range, and has been extensively used to quickly obtain the semiclassical electrostatic potential in DQD devices. The self-consistent Schrodinger-Poisson solver has achieved robust and monotonic convergence behavior for 1D/2D/3D quantum devices at very low temperatures by using a predictor-correct iteration scheme. The QCAD simulator enables the calculation of dot-to-gate capacitances, and comparison with experiment and between solvers. It is observed that computed capacitances are in the right ballpark when compared to experiment, and quantum con nement increases capacitance when the number of electrons is xed in a quantum dot. In addition, the coupling of QCAD with Dakota allows to rapidly identify which device layouts are more likely leading to few-electron quantum dots. Very efficient QCAD simulations on a large number of fabricated and proposed Si DQDs have made it possible to provide fast feedback for design
Long lived coherence in self-assembled quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Dan; Leosson, Kristjan; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
2001-01-01
We report measurements of ultralong coherence in self-assembled quantum dots. Transient four-wave mixing experiments at 5 K show an average dephasing time of 372 ps, corresponding to a homogeneous linewidth of 3.5 mu eV, which is significantly smaller than the linewidth observed in single-dot...... luminescence. Time-resolved luminescence measurements show a lifetime of the dot ground state of 800 ps, demonstrating the presence of pure dephasing at finite temperature. The homogeneous width is lifetime limited only at temperatures approaching 0 K....
Realization of electrically tunable single quantum dot nanocavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hofbauer, Felix Florian Georg
2009-03-15
We investigated the design, fabrication and optical investigation of electrically tunable single quantum dot-photonic crystal defect nanocavities operating in both the weak and strong coupling regimes of the light matter interaction. We demonstrate that the quantum confined Stark effect can be employed to quickly and reversibly switch the dot-cavity coupling, simply by varying a gate voltage. Our results show that exciton transitions from individual dots can be tuned by up to {proportional_to}4 meV relative to the nanocavity mode, before the emission quenches due to carrier tunneling escape from the dots. We directly probe spontaneous emission, irreversible polariton decay and the statistics of the emitted photons from a single-dot nanocavity in the weak and strong coupling regimes. New information is obtained on the nature of the dot-cavity coupling in the weak coupling regime and electrical control of zero dimensional polaritons is demonstrated for the first time. The structures investigated are p-i-n photodiodes consisting of an 180nm thick free-standing GaAs membrane into which a two dimensional photonic crystal is formed by etching a triangular lattice of air holes. Low mode volume nanocavities (V{sub mode}<1.6 ({lambda}/n){sup 3}) are realized by omitting 3 holes in a line to form L3 cavities and a single layer of InGaAs self-assembled quantum dots is embedded into the midpoint of the membrane. The nanocavities are electrically contacted via 35 nm thick p- and n-doped contact layers in the GaAs membrane. In the weak coupling regime, time resolved spectroscopy reveals a {proportional_to}7 x shortening of the spontaneous emission lifetime as the dot is tuned through the nanocavity mode, due to the Purcell effect. Upon strongly detuning the same quantum dot transition from the nanocavity mode we observe an additional {proportional_to}8 x lengthening of the spontaneous emission lifetime. These observations unequivocally highlight two regimes of dot
Long coherence times in self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Dan; Leosson, K.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
2002-01-01
We report measurements of ultra-long coherence in self-assembled quantum dots. Transient four-wave mixing experiments at 5 K show an average dephasing time of 372 ps, corresponding to a homogeneous linewidth of 3.5 mueV, which is significantly smaller than the linewidth observed in single-dot...... luminescence. Time-resolved luminescence measurements show a lifetime of the dot ground state of 800 ps demonstrating the presence of pure dephasing at finite temperature. The homogeneous width is lifetime limited only at temperatures approaching 0 K....
Preparation of carbon quantum dots based high photostability luminescent membranes.
Zhao, Jinxing; Liu, Cui; Li, Yunchuan; Liang, Jiyuan; Liu, Jiyan; Qian, Tonghui; Ding, Jianjun; Cao, Yuan-Cheng
2017-06-01
Urethane acrylate (UA) was used to prepare carbon quantum dots (C-dots) luminescent membranes and the resultants were examined with FT-IR, mechanical strength, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and quantum yields (QYs). FT-IR results showed the polyurethane acrylate (PUA) prepolymer -C = C-vibration at 1101 cm -1 disappeared but there was strong vibration at1687cm -1 which was contributed from the-C = O groups in cross-linking PUA. Mechanical strength results showed that the different quantity of C-dots loadings and UV-curing time affect the strength. SEM observations on the cross-sections of the membranes are uniform and have no structural defects, which prove that the C-dots are compatible with the water-soluble PUA resin. The C-dot loading was increased from 0 to 1 g, the maximum tensile stress was nearly 2.67 MPa, but the tensile strain was decreased from 23.4% to 15.1% and 7.2% respectively. QYs results showed that the C-dots in the membrane were stable after 120 h continuous irradiation. Therefore, the C-dots photoluminescent film is the promising material for the flexible devices in the future applications. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Room-temperature dephasing in InAs/GaAs quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
1999-01-01
Summary form only given. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are receiving increasing attention for fundamental studies on zero-dimensional confinement and for device applications. Quantum-dot lasers are expected to show superior performances, like high material gain, low and temperature...... stacked layers of InAs-InGaAs-GaAs quantum dots....
Incorporation of graphene in quantum dot sensitized solar cells based on ZnO nanorods.
Chen, Jing; Li, Chu; Eda, Goki; Zhang, Yan; Lei, Wei; Chhowalla, Manish; Milne, William I; Deng, Wei-Qiao
2011-06-07
We demonstrate a novel architecture of solar cell by incorporating graphene thin film in a quantum dot sensitized solar cell. Quantum dot sensitized nanorods with a graphene layer exhibited a 54.7% improvement comparing a quantum dot sensitized ZnO nanorods without graphene layer. A fill factor as high as ∼62% was also obtained.
Sub-diffraction positioning of a two-photon excited and optically trapped quantum dot
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Liselotte Jauffred; Kyrsting, Anders Højbo; Christensen, Eva Arnspang
2014-01-01
to blueshift. A quantum dot is much smaller than a diffraction limited laser focus and by mapping out the intensity of the focal volume and overlaying this with the positions visited by a quantum dot, a quantum dot is shown often to explore regions of the focal volume where the intensity is too low to render...
Self-organized formation of quantum dots of a material on a substrate
Zhang, Zhenyu; Wendelken, John F.; Chang, Ming-Che; Pai, Woei Wu
2001-01-01
Systems and methods are described for fabricating arrays of quantum dots. A method for making a quantum dot device, includes: forming clusters of atoms on a substrate; and charging the clusters of atoms such that the clusters of atoms repel one another. The systems and methods provide advantages because the quantum dots can be ordered with regard to spacing and/or size.
Computer-automated tuning of semiconductor double quantum dots into the single-electron regime
Baart, T.A.; Eendebak, P.T.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.
2016-01-01
We report the computer-automated tuning of gate-defined semiconductor double quantum dots in GaAs heterostructures. We benchmark the algorithm by creating three double quantum dots inside a linear array of four quantum dots. The algorithm sets the correct gate voltages for all the gates to tune the
Overview of Stabilizing Ligands for Biocompatible Quantum Dot Nanocrystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aaron Clapp
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Luminescent colloidal quantum dots (QDs possess numerous advantages as fluorophores in biological applications. However, a principal challenge is how to retain the desirable optical properties of quantum dots in aqueous media while maintaining biocompatibility. Because QD photophysical properties are directly related to surface states, it is critical to control the surface chemistry that renders QDs biocompatible while maintaining electronic passivation. For more than a decade, investigators have used diverse strategies for altering the QD surface. This review summarizes the most successful approaches for preparing biocompatible QDs using various chemical ligands.
Electric and Magnetic Interaction between Quantum Dots and Light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tighineanu, Petru
The present thesis reports research on the optical properties of quantum dots by developing new theories and conducting optical measurements. We demonstrate experimentally singlephoton superradiance in interface-uctuation quantum dots by recording the temporal decay dynamics in conjunction......-diusion during the growth process. The small size of excitons leads to a small oscillator strength of about 10. These ndings are crosschecked by an analysis of the phonon-broadened spectra revealing a small exciton wavefunction. We conclude that engineering large excitons with giant oscillator strength remains...
Landauer current and mutual information in a bosonic quantum dot
Shashikant Sable, Hrushikesh; Singh Bhakuni, Devendra; Sharma, Auditya
2018-02-01
We study the quantum transport of bosons through a quantum dot coupled to two macroscopic heat baths L and R, held at fixed temperatures TL and TR respectively. We manage to cast the particle as well as the heat current into the Landauer form. Following the correlation matrix approach, we compute the time-dependent mutual information of the dot with the baths. We find that mutual information goes logarithmically as the number of bosons, and at low temperatures, it is possible to set up the parameters in such a way that in steady-state, the mutual information goes quadratically as a function of current.
Design of Efficient Mirror Adder in Quantum- Dot Cellular Automata
Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Manju K.
2018-03-01
Lower power consumption is an essential demand for portable multimedia system using digital signal processing algorithms and architectures. Quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) is a rising nano technology for the development of high performance ultra-dense low power digital circuits. QCA based several efficient binary and decimal arithmetic circuits are implemented, however important improvements are still possible. This paper demonstrate Mirror Adder circuit design in QCA. We present comparative study of mirror adder cells designed using conventional CMOS technique and mirror adder cells designed using quantum-dot cellular automata. QCA based mirror adders are better in terms of area by order of three.
Gain recovery dynamics and limitations in quantum dot amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, Tommy Winther; Bischoff, Svend; Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg
2001-01-01
Summary form only given. While ultra-low threshold current densities have been achieved in quantum dot (QD) lasers, the predicted potential for high-speed modulation has not yet been realized despite the high differential gain. Furthermore, recent single pulse experiments demonstrated very fast...... gain recovery in a quantum dot amplifier, and it is thus not yet clear what the limiting processes for the device response are. We present the results of a comprehensive theoretical model, which agrees well with the experimental results, and indicates the importance of slow recovery of higher energy...
Quantum Dot Nanobioelectronics and Selective Antimicrobial Redox Interventions
Goodman, Samuel Martin
The unique properties of nanomaterials have engendered a great deal of interest in applying them for applications ranging from solid state physics to bio-imaging. One class of nanomaterials, known collectively as quantum dots, are defined as semiconducting crystals which have a characteristic dimension smaller than the excitonic radius of the bulk material which leads to quantum confinement effects. In this size regime, excited charge carriers behave like prototypical particles in a box, with their energy levels defined by the dimensions of the constituent particle. This is the source of the tunable optical properties which have drawn a great deal of attention with regards to finding appropriate applications for these materials. This dissertation is divided into multiple sections grouped by the type of application explored. The first sectoin investigates the energetic interactions of physically-coupled quantum dots and DNA, with the goal of gaining insight into how self-assembled molecular wires can bridge the energetic states of physically separated nanocrystals. Chapter 1 begins with an introduction to the properties of quantum dots, the conductive properties of DNA, and the common characterization methods used to characterize materials on the nanoscale. In Chapter 2 scanning tunneling measurements of QD-DNA constructs on the single particle level are presented which show the tunable coupling between the two materials and their resulting hybrid electronic structure. This is expanded upon in Chapter 3 where the conduction of photogenerated charges in QD-DNA hybrid thin films are characterized, which exhibit different charge transfer pathways through the constituent nucleobases depending on the energy of the incident light and resulting electrons. Complementary investigations of energy transfer mediated through DNA are presented in Chapter 4, with confirmation of Dexter-like transfer being facilitated through the oligonucleotides. The second section quantifies the
Gain dynamics and saturation in semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
2004-01-01
Quantum dot (QD)-based semiconductor optical amplifiers offer unique properties compared with conventional devices based on bulk or quantum well material. Due to the bandfilling properties of QDs and the existence of a nearby reservoir of carriers in the form of a wetting layer, QD semiconductor...... optical amplifiers may be operated in regimes of high linearity, i.e. with a high saturation power, but can also show strong and fast nonlinearities by breaking the equilibrium between discrete dot states and the continuum of wetting layer states. In this paper, we analyse the interplay of these two...
Clocked quantum-dot cellular automata shift register
Orlov, Alexei O.; Kummamuru, Ravi; Ramasubramaniam, R.; Lent, Craig S.; Bernstein, Gary H.; Snider, Gregory L.
2003-06-01
The quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) computational paradigm provides a means to achieve ultimately low limits of power dissipation by replacing binary coding in currents and voltages with single-electron switching within arrays of quantum dots ("cells"). Clocked control over the cells allows the realization of power gain, memory and pipelining in QCA circuits. We present an experimental demonstration of a clocked QCA two-stage shift register (SR) and use it to mimic the operation of a multi-stage SR. Error-bit rates for binary switching operations in a metal tunnel junction device are experimentally investigated, and discussed for future molecular QCAs.
Förster Resonance Energy Transfer between Quantum Dot Donors and Quantum Dot Acceptors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kenny F. Chou
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Förster (or fluorescence resonance energy transfer amongst semiconductor quantum dots (QDs is reviewed, with particular interest in biosensing applications. The unique optical properties of QDs provide certain advantages and also specific challenges with regards to sensor design, compared to other FRET systems. The brightness and photostability of QDs make them attractive for highly sensitive sensing and long-term, repetitive imaging applications, respectively, but the overlapping donor and acceptor excitation signals that arise when QDs serve as both the donor and acceptor lead to high background signals from direct excitation of the acceptor. The fundamentals of FRET within a nominally homogeneous QD population as well as energy transfer between two distinct colors of QDs are discussed. Examples of successful sensors are highlighted, as is cascading FRET, which can be used for solar harvesting.
Graphene quantum dots, graphene oxide, carbon quantum dots and graphite nanocrystals in coals
Dong, Yongqiang; Lin, Jianpeng; Chen, Yingmei; Fu, Fengfu; Chi, Yuwu; Chen, Guonan
2014-06-01
Six coal samples of different ranks have been used to prepare single-layer graphene quantum dots (S-GQDs). After chemical oxidation and a series of centrifugation separation, every coal could be treated into two fractions, namely, CoalA and CoalB. According to the characterization results of TEM, AFM, XRD, Raman and FTIR, CoalA was revealed to be mainly composed of S-GQDs, which have an average height of about 0.5 nm and an average plane dimension of about 10 nm. The obtained S-GQDs showed excitation-dependent fluorescence and excellent electrochemiluminescence. CoalB was found to be some other carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs), including agglomerated GQDs, graphene oxide, carbon quantum dots and agglomerated carbon nanocrystals. Generally, low-ranked coals might be more suitable for the preparation of S-GQDs. The production yield of S-GQDs from the six investigated coals decreased from 56.30% to 14.66% when the coal rank increased gradually. In contrast, high-ranked coals had high production yield of CoalB and might be more suitable for preparing other CNMs that were contained in CoalB, although those CNMs were difficult to separate from each other in our experiment.Six coal samples of different ranks have been used to prepare single-layer graphene quantum dots (S-GQDs). After chemical oxidation and a series of centrifugation separation, every coal could be treated into two fractions, namely, CoalA and CoalB. According to the characterization results of TEM, AFM, XRD, Raman and FTIR, CoalA was revealed to be mainly composed of S-GQDs, which have an average height of about 0.5 nm and an average plane dimension of about 10 nm. The obtained S-GQDs showed excitation-dependent fluorescence and excellent electrochemiluminescence. CoalB was found to be some other carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs), including agglomerated GQDs, graphene oxide, carbon quantum dots and agglomerated carbon nanocrystals. Generally, low-ranked coals might be more suitable for the preparation of
Förster Resonance Energy Transfer between Quantum Dot Donors and Quantum Dot Acceptors
Chou, Kenny F.; Dennis, Allison M.
2015-01-01
Förster (or fluorescence) resonance energy transfer amongst semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is reviewed, with particular interest in biosensing applications. The unique optical properties of QDs provide certain advantages and also specific challenges with regards to sensor design, compared to other FRET systems. The brightness and photostability of QDs make them attractive for highly sensitive sensing and long-term, repetitive imaging applications, respectively, but the overlapping donor and acceptor excitation signals that arise when QDs serve as both the donor and acceptor lead to high background signals from direct excitation of the acceptor. The fundamentals of FRET within a nominally homogeneous QD population as well as energy transfer between two distinct colors of QDs are discussed. Examples of successful sensors are highlighted, as is cascading FRET, which can be used for solar harvesting. PMID:26057041
Hybrid structures based on quantum dots and graphene nanobelts
Reznik, I. A.; Gromova, Yu. A.; Zlatov, A. S.; Baranov, M. A.; Orlova, A. O.; Moshkalev, S. A.; Maslov, V. G.; Baranov, A. V.; Fedorov, A. V.
2017-01-01
Luminescence and photoelectric properties of hybrid structures based on CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and multilayer graphene have been investigated. A correlation between the luminescence quantum yield of QDs and their photoelectric properties in hybrid structures is established. It is shown that a decrease in the QD luminescence quantum yield due to adsorption of 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphtol azo dye molecules onto the QD surface and a photoinduced increase in the QD luminescence quantum yield are accompanied by a symbate change in the hybrid structure photoconductivity.
Quantum Triple Point and Quantum Critical End Points in Metallic Magnets.
Belitz, D; Kirkpatrick, T R
2017-12-29
In low-temperature metallic magnets, ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) orders can exist, adjacent to one another or concurrently, in the phase diagram of a single system. We show that universal quantum effects qualitatively alter the known phase diagrams for classical magnets. They shrink the region of concurrent FM and AFM order, change various transitions from second to first order, and, in the presence of a magnetic field, lead to either a quantum triple point where the FM, AFM, and paramagnetic phases all coexist or a quantum critical end point.
Mesoscopic Elastic Distortions in GaAs Quantum Dot Heterostructures.
Pateras, Anastasios; Park, Joonkyu; Ahn, Youngjun; Tilka, Jack A; Holt, Martin V; Reichl, Christian; Wegscheider, Werner; Baart, Timothy A; Dehollain, Juan Pablo; Mukhopadhyay, Uditendu; Vandersypen, Lieven M K; Evans, Paul G
2018-04-23
Quantum devices formed in high-electron-mobility semiconductor heterostructures provide a route through which quantum mechanical effects can be exploited on length scales accessible to lithography and integrated electronics. The electrostatic definition of quantum dots in semiconductor heterostructure devices intrinsically involves the lithographic fabrication of intricate patterns of metallic electrodes. The formation of metal/semiconductor interfaces, growth processes associated with polycrystalline metallic layers, and differential thermal expansion produce elastic distortion in the active areas of quantum devices. Understanding and controlling these distortions present a significant challenge in quantum device development. We report synchrotron X-ray nanodiffraction measurements combined with dynamical X-ray diffraction modeling that reveal lattice tilts with a depth-averaged value up to 0.04° and strain on the order of 10 -4 in the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. Elastic distortions in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures modify the potential energy landscape in the 2DEG due to the generation of a deformation potential and an electric field through the piezoelectric effect. The stress induced by metal electrodes directly impacts the ability to control the positions of the potential minima where quantum dots form and the coupling between neighboring quantum dots.
Complex dynamics in planar two-electron quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schroeter, Sebastian Josef Arthur
2013-06-25
Quantum dots play an important role in a wide range of recent experimental and technological developments. In particular they are promising candidates for realisations of quantum bits and further applications in quantum information theory. The harmonically confined Hooke's atom model is experimentally verified and separates in centre-of-mass and relative coordinates. Findings that are contradictory to this separability call for an extension of the model, in particular changing the confinement potential. In order to study effects of an anharmonic confinement potential on spectral properties of planar two-electron quantum dots a sophisticated numerical approach is developed. Comparison between the Helium atom, Hooke's atom and an anharmonic potential model are undertaken in order to improve the description of quantum dots. Classical and quantum features of complexity and chaos are investigated and used to characterise the dynamics of the system to be mixed regular-chaotic. Influence of decoherence can be described by quantum fidelity, which measures the effect of a perturbation on the time evolution. The quantum fidelity of eigenstates of the system depends strongly on the properties of the perturbation. Several methods for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation are implemented and a high level of accuracy for long time evolutions is achieved. The concept of offset entanglement, the entanglement of harmonic models in the noninteracting limit, is introduced. This concept explains different questions raised in the literature for harmonic quantum dot models, recently. It shows that only in the groundstate the electrons are not entangled in the fermionic sense. The applicability, validity, and origin of Hund's first rule in general quantum dot models is further addressed. In fact Hund's first rule is only applicable, and in this case also valid, for one pair of singlet and triplet states in Hooke's atom. For more realistic models of two
Complex dynamics in planar two-electron quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroeter, Sebastian Josef Arthur
2013-01-01
Quantum dots play an important role in a wide range of recent experimental and technological developments. In particular they are promising candidates for realisations of quantum bits and further applications in quantum information theory. The harmonically confined Hooke's atom model is experimentally verified and separates in centre-of-mass and relative coordinates. Findings that are contradictory to this separability call for an extension of the model, in particular changing the confinement potential. In order to study effects of an anharmonic confinement potential on spectral properties of planar two-electron quantum dots a sophisticated numerical approach is developed. Comparison between the Helium atom, Hooke's atom and an anharmonic potential model are undertaken in order to improve the description of quantum dots. Classical and quantum features of complexity and chaos are investigated and used to characterise the dynamics of the system to be mixed regular-chaotic. Influence of decoherence can be described by quantum fidelity, which measures the effect of a perturbation on the time evolution. The quantum fidelity of eigenstates of the system depends strongly on the properties of the perturbation. Several methods for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation are implemented and a high level of accuracy for long time evolutions is achieved. The concept of offset entanglement, the entanglement of harmonic models in the noninteracting limit, is introduced. This concept explains different questions raised in the literature for harmonic quantum dot models, recently. It shows that only in the groundstate the electrons are not entangled in the fermionic sense. The applicability, validity, and origin of Hund's first rule in general quantum dot models is further addressed. In fact Hund's first rule is only applicable, and in this case also valid, for one pair of singlet and triplet states in Hooke's atom. For more realistic models of two-electron quantum dots an
Perspective: The future of quantum dot photonic integrated circuits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Justin C. Norman
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Direct epitaxial integration of III-V materials on Si offers substantial manufacturing cost and scalability advantages over heterogeneous integration. The challenge is that epitaxial growth introduces high densities of crystalline defects that limit device performance and lifetime. Quantum dot lasers, amplifiers, modulators, and photodetectors epitaxially grown on Si are showing promise for achieving low-cost, scalable integration with silicon photonics. The unique electrical confinement properties of quantum dots provide reduced sensitivity to the crystalline defects that result from III-V/Si growth, while their unique gain dynamics show promise for improved performance and new functionalities relative to their quantum well counterparts in many devices. Clear advantages for using quantum dot active layers for lasers and amplifiers on and off Si have already been demonstrated, and results for quantum dot based photodetectors and modulators look promising. Laser performance on Si is improving rapidly with continuous-wave threshold currents below 1 mA, injection efficiencies of 87%, and output powers of 175 mW at 20 °C. 1500-h reliability tests at 35 °C showed an extrapolated mean-time-to-failure of more than ten million hours. This represents a significant stride toward efficient, scalable, and reliable III-V lasers on on-axis Si substrates for photonic integrate circuits that are fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS foundries.
Field-emission from quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids.
García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Gong, Xiwen; Sabatini, Randy P; Liu, Min; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Sutherland, Brandon R; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Xu, Jixian; Pang, Yuangjie; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sinton, David; Sargent, Edward
2017-03-24
Quantum dot and well architectures are attractive for infrared optoelectronics, and have led to the realization of compelling light sensors. However, they require well-defined passivated interfaces and rapid charge transport, and this has restricted their efficient implementation to costly vacuum-epitaxially grown semiconductors. Here we report solution-processed, sensitive infrared field-emission photodetectors. Using quantum-dots-in-perovskite, we demonstrate the extraction of photocarriers via field emission, followed by the recirculation of photogenerated carriers. We use in operando ultrafast transient spectroscopy to sense bias-dependent photoemission and recapture in field-emission devices. The resultant photodiodes exploit the superior electronic transport properties of organometal halide perovskites, the quantum-size-tuned absorption of the colloidal quantum dots and their matched interface. These field-emission quantum-dot-in-perovskite photodiodes extend the perovskite response into the short-wavelength infrared and achieve measured specific detectivities that exceed 10 12 Jones. The results pave the way towards novel functional photonic devices with applications in photovoltaics and light emission.
Design strategy for terahertz quantum dot cascade lasers.
Burnett, Benjamin A; Williams, Benjamin S
2016-10-31
The development of quantum dot cascade lasers has been proposed as a path to obtain terahertz semiconductor lasers that operate at room temperature. The expected benefit is due to the suppression of nonradiative electron-phonon scattering and reduced dephasing that accompanies discretization of the electronic energy spectrum. We present numerical modeling which predicts that simple scaling of conventional quantum well based designs to the quantum dot regime will likely fail due to electrical instability associated with high-field domain formation. A design strategy adapted for terahertz quantum dot cascade lasers is presented which avoids these problems. Counterintuitively, this involves the resonant depopulation of the laser's upper state with the LO-phonon energy. The strategy is tested theoretically using a density matrix model of transport and gain, which predicts sufficient gain for lasing at stable operating points. Finally, the effect of quantum dot size inhomogeneity on the optical lineshape is explored, suggesting that the design concept is robust to a moderate amount of statistical variation.
Perspective: The future of quantum dot photonic integrated circuits
Norman, Justin C.; Jung, Daehwan; Wan, Yating; Bowers, John E.
2018-03-01
Direct epitaxial integration of III-V materials on Si offers substantial manufacturing cost and scalability advantages over heterogeneous integration. The challenge is that epitaxial growth introduces high densities of crystalline defects that limit device performance and lifetime. Quantum dot lasers, amplifiers, modulators, and photodetectors epitaxially grown on Si are showing promise for achieving low-cost, scalable integration with silicon photonics. The unique electrical confinement properties of quantum dots provide reduced sensitivity to the crystalline defects that result from III-V/Si growth, while their unique gain dynamics show promise for improved performance and new functionalities relative to their quantum well counterparts in many devices. Clear advantages for using quantum dot active layers for lasers and amplifiers on and off Si have already been demonstrated, and results for quantum dot based photodetectors and modulators look promising. Laser performance on Si is improving rapidly with continuous-wave threshold currents below 1 mA, injection efficiencies of 87%, and output powers of 175 mW at 20 °C. 1500-h reliability tests at 35 °C showed an extrapolated mean-time-to-failure of more than ten million hours. This represents a significant stride toward efficient, scalable, and reliable III-V lasers on on-axis Si substrates for photonic integrate circuits that are fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) foundries.
Interaction of Water-Soluble CdTe Quantum Dots with Bovine Serum Albumin
2011-01-01
Semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) are promising fluorescent markers, but it is very little known about interaction of quantum dots with biological molecules. In this study, interaction of CdTe quantum dots coated with thioglycolic acid (TGA) with bovine serum albumin was investigated. Steady state spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering methods were used. It was explored how bovine serum albumin affects stability and spectral properties of quantum dots in aqueous media. CdTe–TGA quantum dots in aqueous solution appeared to be not stable and precipitated. Interaction with bovine serum albumin significantly enhanced stability and photoluminescence quantum yield of quantum dots and prevented quantum dots from aggregating. PMID:27502633
Shamirzaev, T S; Abramkin, D S; Nenashev, A V; Zhuravlev, K S; Trojánek, F; Dzurnák, B; Malý, P
2010-04-16
Structures with self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in an AlAs matrix have been studied by steady-state and transient photoluminescence. It has been shown that in contrast to InAs/GaAs QD systems carriers are mainly captured by quantum dots directly from the AlAs matrix, while transfer of carriers captured by the wetting layer far away from QDs to the QDs is suppressed. At low temperatures the carriers captured by the wetting layer are localized by potential fluctuations at the wetting layer interface, while at high temperatures the carriers are delocalized but captured by nonradiative centers located in the wetting layer.
Transmission electron microscopy study of vertical quantum dots molecules grown by droplet epitaxy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernandez-Maldonado, D.; Herrera, M.; Sales, D.L.; Alonso-Gonzalez, P.; Gonzalez, Y.; Gonzalez, L.; Pizarro, J.; Galindo, P.L.; Molina, S.I.
2010-01-01
The compositional distribution of InAs quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs capped InAs quantum dots has been studied in this work. Upper quantum dots are nucleated preferentially on top of the quantum dots underneath, which have been nucleated by droplet epitaxy. The growth process of these nanostructures, which are usually called as quantum dots molecules, has been explained. In order to understand this growth process, the analysis of the strain has been carried out from a 3D model of the nanostructure built from transmission electron microscopy images sensitive to the composition.
Transmission electron microscopy study of vertical quantum dots molecules grown by droplet epitaxy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hernandez-Maldonado, D., E-mail: david.hernandez@uca.es [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I.M. y Q.I., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Rio San Pedro, s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Herrera, M.; Sales, D.L. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I.M. y Q.I., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Rio San Pedro, s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Alonso-Gonzalez, P.; Gonzalez, Y.; Gonzalez, L. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8 (PTM), 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Pizarro, J.; Galindo, P.L. [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, CASEM, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Rio San Pedro, s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Molina, S.I. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I.M. y Q.I., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Rio San Pedro, s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)
2010-07-01
The compositional distribution of InAs quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs capped InAs quantum dots has been studied in this work. Upper quantum dots are nucleated preferentially on top of the quantum dots underneath, which have been nucleated by droplet epitaxy. The growth process of these nanostructures, which are usually called as quantum dots molecules, has been explained. In order to understand this growth process, the analysis of the strain has been carried out from a 3D model of the nanostructure built from transmission electron microscopy images sensitive to the composition.
Cross-sectional nanophotoluminescence studies of Stark effects in self-assembled quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Htoon, H.; Keto, J. W.; Baklenov, O.; Holmes, A. L. Jr.; Shih, C. K.
2000-01-01
By using a cross-sectional geometry, we show the capability to perform single-dot spectroscopy in self-assembled quantum dots using far-field optics. By using this method, we study the quantum-confined Stark effect in self-assembled quantum dots. For single-stack quantum dots (QDs), we find that the spectra are redshifted with an increase in electric field. For vertically coupled double-stack quantum dots, while most of the QDs are redshifted, some QDs show blueshifted spectra, which can be interpreted as an evidence of coupled QD molecules. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
Wu, Nan; Zhang, Cong; Jin, Xing Ri; Zhang, Ying Qiao; Lee, YoungPak
2018-02-19
Unidirectional reflectionless phenomena are investigated theoretically in a non-Hermitian quantum system composed of several quantum dots and a plasmonic waveguide. By adjusting the phase shifts between quantum dots, single- and dual-band unidirectional reflectionlessnesses are realized at exceptional points based on two and three quantum dots coupled to a plasmonic waveguide, respectively. In addition, single- and dual-band unidirectional perfect absorptions with high quality factors are obtained at the vicinity of exceptional points.
Optically Driven Spin Based Quantum Dots for Quantum Computing - Research Area 6 Physics 6.3.2
2015-12-15
SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This program conducted experimental and theoretical research aimed at developing an optically driven quantum dot quantum ...computer, where, the qubit is the spin of the electron trapped in a self-assembled quantum dot in InAs. Optical manipulation using the trion state...reports. In this reporting period, we discovered the nuclear spin quieting first discovered in 2008 is present in vertically coupled quantum dots but
Palladium gates for reproducible quantum dots in silicon.
Brauns, Matthias; Amitonov, Sergey V; Spruijtenburg, Paul-Christiaan; Zwanenburg, Floris A
2018-04-09
We replace the established aluminium gates for the formation of quantum dots in silicon with gates made from palladium. We study the morphology of both aluminium and palladium gates with transmission electron microscopy. The native aluminium oxide is found to be formed all around the aluminium gates, which could lead to the formation of unintentional dots. Therefore, we report on a novel fabrication route that replaces aluminium and its native oxide by palladium with atomic-layer-deposition-grown aluminium oxide. Using this approach, we show the formation of low-disorder gate-defined quantum dots, which are reproducibly fabricated. Furthermore, palladium enables us to further shrink the gate design, allowing us to perform electron transport measurements in the few-electron regime in devices comprising only two gate layers, a major technological advancement. It remains to be seen, whether the introduction of palladium gates can improve the excellent results on electron and nuclear spin qubits defined with an aluminium gate stack.
One- and two-phonon capture processes in quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Uskov, Alexander; Bischoff, Svend
2002-01-01
Multiphonon capture processes are investigated theoretically and found to contribute efficiently to the carrier injection into quantum dots. It is shown that two-phonon capture contributes where single-phonon capture is energetically inhibited and can lead to electron capture times of a few...
Modelling exciton–phonon interactions in optically driven quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nazir, Ahsan; McCutcheon, Dara
2016-01-01
We provide a self-contained review of master equation approaches to modelling phonon effects in optically driven self-assembled quantum dots. Coupling of the (quasi) two-level excitonic system to phonons leads to dissipation and dephasing, the rates of which depend on the excitation conditions...
Semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers for optical signal processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, Tommy Winther; Uskov, A. V.; Bischoff, Svend
2001-01-01
The dynamics of quantum dot semiconductor amplifiers are investigated theoretically with respect to the potential for ultrafast signal processing. The high-speed signal processing capacity of these devices is found to be limited by the wetting layer dynamics in case of electrical pumping, while...... optical pumping partly removes this limitation. Also, the possibility of using spectral hole burning for signal processing is discussed....
Orientation-dependent imaging of electronically excited quantum dots
Nguyen, Duc; Goings, Joshua J.; Nguyen, Huy A.; Lyding, Joseph; Li, Xiaosong; Gruebele, Martin
2018-02-01
We previously demonstrated that we can image electronic excitations of quantum dots by single-molecule absorption scanning tunneling microscopy (SMA-STM). With this technique, a modulated laser beam periodically saturates an electronic transition of a single nanoparticle, and the resulting tunneling current modulation ΔI(x0, y0) maps out the SMA-STM image. In this paper, we first derive the basic theory to calculate ΔI(x0, y0) in the one-electron approximation. For near-resonant tunneling through an empty orbital "i" of the nanostructure, the SMA-STM signal is approximately proportional to the electron density |φi) (x0,y0)|imaged. We then show experimentally that we can nudge quantum dots on the surface and roll them, thus imaging excited state electronic structure of a single quantum dot at different orientations. We use density functional theory to model ODMs at various orientations, for qualitative comparison with the SMA-STM experiment. The model demonstrates that our experimentally observed signal monitors excited states, localized by defects near the surface of an individual quantum dot. The sub-nanometer super-resolution imaging technique demonstrated here could become useful for mapping out the three-dimensional structure of excited states localized by defects within nanomaterials.
Homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vieira, Kayo Oliveira [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Bettini, Jefferson [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, Jefferson Luis [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Schiavon, Marco Antonio, E-mail: schiavon@ufsj.edu.br [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil)
2015-01-15
The development of homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures based on electrostatic interactions has been investigated. We report a simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route that can be accomplished at room temperature, to prepare colloidal composites consisting of CdTe nanocrystals deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with a thin layer of polyelectrolytes by layer-by-layer technique. Specifically, physical adsorption of polyelectrolytes such as poly (4-styrene sulfonate) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) was used to deagglomerate and disperse MWCNTs, onto which we deposited CdTe quantum dots coated with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), as surface ligand, via electrostatic interactions. Confirmation of the CdTe quantum dots/carbon nanotubes heterostructures was done by transmission and scanning electron microscopies (TEM and SEM), dynamic-light scattering (DLS) together with absorption, emission, Raman and infrared spectroscopies (UV–vis, PL, Raman and FT-IR). Almost complete quenching of the PL band of the CdTe quantum dots was observed after adsorption on the MWCNTs, presumably through efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs. - Highlights: • Highly homogeneous CdTe-carbon nanotubes heterostructures were prepared. • Simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route. • CdTe nanocrystals homogeneously deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes. • Efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs.
Electronic Structure of Helium Atom in a Quantum Dot
Saha, Jayanta K.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Mukherjee, T. K.
2016-03-01
Bound and resonance states of helium atom have been investigated inside a quantum dot by using explicitly correlated Hylleraas type basis set within the framework of stabilization method. To be specific, precise energy eigenvalues of bound 1sns (1Se) (n = 1-6) states and the resonance parameters i.e. positions and widths of 1Se states due to 2sns (n = 2-5) and 2pnp (n = 2-5) configurations of confined helium below N = 2 ionization threshold of He+ have been estimated. The two-parameter (Depth and Width) finite oscillator potential is used to represent the confining potential due to the quantum dot. It has been explicitly demonstrated that the electronic structural properties become sensitive functions of the dot size. It is observed from the calculations of ionization potential that the stability of an impurity ion within a quantum dot may be manipulated by varying the confinement parameters. A possibility of controlling the autoionization lifetime of doubly excited states of two-electron ions by tuning the width of the quantum cavity is also discussed here. TKM Gratefully Acknowledges Financial Support under Grant No. 37(3)/14/27/2014-BRNS from the Department of Atomic Energy, BRNS, Government of India. SB Acknowledges Financial Support under Grant No. PSW-160/14-15(ERO) from University Grants Commission, Government of India
Quantum Dots for Live Cell and In Vivo Imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jason R. E. Shepard
2009-02-01
Full Text Available In the past few decades, technology has made immeasurable strides to enable visualization, identification, and quantitation in biological systems. Many of these technological advancements are occurring on the nanometer scale, where multiple scientific disciplines are combining to create new materials with enhanced properties. The integration of inorganic synthetic methods with a size reduction to the nano-scale has lead to the creation of a new class of optical reporters, called quantum dots. These semiconductor quantum dot nanocrystals have emerged as an alternative to organic dyes and fluorescent proteins, and are brighter and more stable against photobleaching than standard fluorescent indicators. Quantum dots have tunable optical properties that have proved useful in a wide range of applications from multiplexed analysis such as DNA detection and cell sorting and tracking, to most recently demonstrating promise for in vivo imaging and diagnostics. This review provides an in-depth discussion of past, present, and future trends in quantum dot use with an emphasis on in vivo imaging and its related applications.
Current noise in a vibrating quantum dot array
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flindt, Christian; Novotny, Tomas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2004-01-01
We develop methods for calculating the zero-frequency noise for quantum shuttles, i.e., nanoelectromechanical devices where the mechanical motion is quantized. As a model system we consider a three-dot array, where the internal electronic coherence both complicates and enriches the physics. Two...
Surface processes during purification of InP quantum dots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natalia Mordvinova
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Recently, a new simple and fast method for the synthesis of InP quantum dots by using phosphine as phosphorous precursor and myristic acid as surface stabilizer was reported. Purification after synthesis is necessary to obtain samples with good optical properties. Two methods of purification were compared and the surface processes which occur during purification were studied. Traditional precipitation with acetone is accompanied by a small increase in photoluminescence. It occurs that during the purification the hydrolysis of the indium precursor takes place, which leads to a better surface passivation. The electrophoretic purification technique does not increase luminescence efficiency but yields very pure quantum dots in only a few minutes. Additionally, the formation of In(OH3 during the low temperature synthesis was explained. Purification of quantum dots is a very significant part of postsynthetical treatment that determines the properties of the material. But this subject is not sufficiently discussed in the literature. The paper is devoted to the processes that occur at the surface of quantum dots during purification. A new method of purification, electrophoresis, is investigated and described in particular.
Fractional decay of quantum dots in real photonic crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Koenderink, A. Femius; Lodahl, Peter
2008-01-01
We show that fractional decay may be observable in experiments using quantum dots and photonic crystals with parameters that are currently achievable. We focus on the case of inverse opal photonic crystals and locate the position in the crystal where the effect is most pronounced. Furthermore, we...
Peptide-mediated intracellular delivery of quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lagerholm, B Christoffer
2007-01-01
Quantum dots (QDs) have received a great amount of interest for use as fluorescent labels in biological applications. QDs are brightly fluorescent and very photostable, satisfying even imaging applications that require single molecule detection at high repetition rates over long periods of time...
Quantum Dots Embedded in Graphene Nanoribbons by Chemical Substitution
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carbonell-Sanroma, Eduard; Brandimarte, Pedro; Balog, Richard
2017-01-01
Bottom-up chemical reactions of selected molecular precursors on a gold surface can produce high quality graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Here, we report on the formation of quantum dots embedded in an armchair GNR by substitutional inclusion of pairs of boron atoms into the GNR backbone. The boron...
Multi-Color Single Particle Tracking with Quantum Dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Brewer, J. R.; Lagerholm, B. C.
2012-01-01
Quantum dots (QDs) have long promised to revolutionize fluorescence detection to include even applications requiring simultaneous multi-species detection at single molecule sensitivity. Despite the early promise, the unique optical properties of QDs have not yet been fully exploited in e. g...
Thermoelectric effects in molecular quantum dots with contacts
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Koch, T.; Loos, Jan; Fehske, H.
2014-01-01
Roč. 89, č. 15 (2014), "155133-1"-"155133-11" ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : theory of electronic transport * scattering mechanisms * polarons and electron-phonon interactions * quantum dots Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014
Theory of coherent dynamic nuclear polarization in quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neder, Izhar; Rudner, Mark Spencer; Halperin, Bertrand
2014-01-01
We consider the production of dynamic nuclear spin polarization (DNP) in a two-electron double quantum dot, in which the electronic levels are repeatedly swept through a singlet-triplet avoided crossing. Our analysis helps to elucidate the intriguing interplay between electron-nuclear hyperfine...
Anomalous temperature dependence of excitation transfer between quantum dots
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav
2015-01-01
Roč. 7, č. 4 (2015), 325-330 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14011; GA MŠk LH12236; GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : excitation transfer * quantum dots * temperature dependence * electron-phonon interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism
Dephasing in InAs/GaAs quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Mørk, Jesper
1999-01-01
The room-temperature dephasing in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots is measured using two independent methods: spectal-hole burning and four-wave mixing. Dephasing times weakly dependent on the excitation density are found, with a low density value of 290+/-80 fs from spectal-hole burning...
THz Electro-absorption Effect in Quantum Dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turchinovich, Dmitry; Monozon, Boris S.; Livshits, Daniil A.
2011-01-01
In a THz pump - optical probe experiment we demonstrate an instantaneous electro-absorption effect in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots, induced by the electric field of a single-cycle THz pulse with 3 THz bandwidth and with free-space peak electric field reaching 220 kV/cm. The transient modulation of QD...
Spontaneous emission of quantum dots in disordered photonic crystal waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Stobbe, Søren
2010-01-01
We report on the enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate of single semiconductor quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide with engineered disorder. Random high-Q cavities, that are signature of Anderson localization, are measured in photoluminescence experiments and appear in th...
Magnetic anisotropies of quantum dots doped with magnetic ions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Výborný, Karel; Han, J.E.; Oszwałdowski, R.; Žutić, I.; Petukhov, A.G.
2012-01-01
Roč. 85, č. 15 (2012), "155312-1"-"155312-8" ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : magnetocrystalline anisotropy * quantum dot s * dilute magnetic semiconductors Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.767, year: 2012
Ultrafast Terahertz Dynamics and Switching in Quantum Dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.
2012-01-01
In this Chapter we describe the experimental studies of ultrafast carrier dynamics and all-optical switching in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) using ultrafast terahertz (THz) techniques. In the first part of this chapter we describe the studies of carrier capture into the QDs, and thermionic...
Quantum dots trace lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye
Tam, Alex L. C.; Gupta, Neeru; Zhang, Zhexue; Yücel, Yeni H.
2011-10-01
Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the world, often associated with elevated eye pressure. Currently, all glaucoma treatments aim to lower eye pressure by improving fluid exit from the eye. We recently reported the presence of lymphatics in the human eye. The lymphatic circulation is known to drain fluid from organ tissues and, as such, lymphatics may also play a role in draining fluid from the eye. We investigated whether lymphatic drainage from the eye is present in mice by visualizing the trajectory of quantum dots once injected into the eye. Whole-body hyperspectral fluorescence imaging was performed in 17 live mice. In vivo imaging was conducted prior to injection, and 5, 20, 40 and 70 min, and 2, 6 and 24 h after injection. A quantum dot signal was observed in the left neck region at 6 h after tracer injection into the eye. Examination of immunofluorescence-labelled sections using confocal microscopy showed the presence of a quantum dot signal in the left submandibular lymph node. This is the first direct evidence of lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye. The use of quantum dots to image this lymphatic pathway in vivo is a novel tool to stimulate new treatments to reduce eye pressure and prevent blindness from glaucoma.
Ultrafast Dynamics of Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poel, Mike van der; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
2007-01-01
We report on a series of experiments on the dynamical properties of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. We show how the amplifier responds to one or several ultrafast (170 fs) pulses in rapid succession and our results demonstrate applicability and ultimate limitations to application...
Site-controlled quantum dots coupled to photonic crystal waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rigal, B.; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Jarlov, C.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate selective optical coupling of multiple, site controlled semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) to photonic crystal waveguide structures. The impact of the exact position and emission spectrum of the QDs on the coupling efficiency is elucidated. The influence of optical disorder and end...
Exchange cotunneling through quantum dots with spin-orbit coupling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paaske, Jens; Andersen, Andreas; Flensberg, Karsten
2010-01-01
We investigate the effects of spin-orbit interaction (SOI) on the exchange cotunneling through a spinful Coulomb blockaded quantum dot. In the case of zero magnetic field, Kondo effect is shown to take place via a Kramers doublet and the SOI will merely affect the Kondo temperature. In contrast, we...
Efficient eco-friendly inverted quantum dot sensitized solar cells
Park, Jinhyung; Sajjad, Muhammad T.; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Faure-Vincent, Jérôme; Samuel, Ifor D. W.; Reiss, Peter; Aldakov, Dmitry
2016-01-01
Recent progress in quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells has demonstrated the possibility of low-cost and efficient photovoltaics. However, the standard device structure based on n-type materials often suffers from slow hole injection rate, which may lead to unbalanced charge transport. We have
Transport through a vibrating quantum dot: Polaronic effects
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Koch, T.; Loos, Jan; Alvermann, A.; Bishop, A. R.; Fehske, H.
2010-01-01
Roč. 220, č. 1 (2010), 012014/1-012014/9 ISSN 1742-6588 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : quantum dot, * polaronic effects * low-temperature transport properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism
Quantum dots trace lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tam, Alex L C; Gupta, Neeru; Zhang Zhexue; Yuecel, Yeni H, E-mail: yucely@smh.ca [Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, M5T 2S8 (Canada)
2011-10-21
Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the world, often associated with elevated eye pressure. Currently, all glaucoma treatments aim to lower eye pressure by improving fluid exit from the eye. We recently reported the presence of lymphatics in the human eye. The lymphatic circulation is known to drain fluid from organ tissues and, as such, lymphatics may also play a role in draining fluid from the eye. We investigated whether lymphatic drainage from the eye is present in mice by visualizing the trajectory of quantum dots once injected into the eye. Whole-body hyperspectral fluorescence imaging was performed in 17 live mice. In vivo imaging was conducted prior to injection, and 5, 20, 40 and 70 min, and 2, 6 and 24 h after injection. A quantum dot signal was observed in the left neck region at 6 h after tracer injection into the eye. Examination of immunofluorescence-labelled sections using confocal microscopy showed the presence of a quantum dot signal in the left submandibular lymph node. This is the first direct evidence of lymphatic drainage from the mouse eye. The use of quantum dots to image this lymphatic pathway in vivo is a novel tool to stimulate new treatments to reduce eye pressure and prevent blindness from glaucoma.
Application of zinc oxide quantum dots in food safety
Zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs) are nanoparticles of purified powdered ZnO. The ZnO QDs were directly added into liquid foods or coated on the surface of glass jars using polylactic acid (PLA) as a carrier. The antimicrobial activities of ZnO QDs against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteriti...
Study of Streptavidin-Modified Quantum Dots by Capillary Electrophoresis
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Stanisavljevic, M.; Janů, L.; Šmerková, K.; Křížková, S.; Pizúrová, Naděžda; Ryvolová, M.; Adam, V.; Hubálek, J.; Kizek, R.
2013-01-01
Roč. 76, 7-8 (2013), s. 335-343 ISSN 0009-5893 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Capillary electrophoresis * Gel electrophoresis * Avidin-biotin technology * Oligonucleotide * Nanoparticle * quantum dots Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.370, year: 2013
Slow light in quantum dot photonic crystal waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Mørk, Jesper
2009-01-01
A theoretical analysis of pulse propagation in a semiconductor quantum dot photonic crystal waveguide in the regime of electromagnetically induced transparency is presented. The slow light mechanism considered here is based on both material and waveguide dispersion. The group index n...
Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots
Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Mathew
2003-01-01
A proposed integrated circuit based on quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) would function as a bit-serial adder. This circuit would serve as a prototype building block for demonstrating the feasibility of quantum-dots computing and for the further development of increasingly complex and increasingly capable quantum-dots computing circuits. QCA-based bit-serial adders would be especially useful in that they would enable the development of highly parallel and systolic processors for implementing fast Fourier, cosine, Hartley, and wavelet transforms. The proposed circuit would complement the QCA-based circuits described in "Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots" (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42 and "Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots" (NPO-20855), which appears elsewhere in this issue. Those articles described the limitations of very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) circuitry and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA. To recapitulate: In a VLSI circuit, signal paths that are required not to interact with each other must not cross in the same plane. In contrast, for reasons too complex to describe in the limited space available for this article, suitably designed and operated QCA-based signal paths that are required not to interact with each other can nevertheless be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. To enable a meaningful description of the proposed bit-serial adder, it is necessary to further recapitulate the description of a quantum-dot cellular automation from the first-mentioned prior article: A quantum-dot cellular automaton contains four quantum dots positioned at the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the
Suppression of low-frequency charge noise in gates-defined GaAs quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
You, Jie; Li, Hai-Ou; Wang, Ke; Cao, Gang; Song, Xiang-Xiang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guo-Ping
2015-01-01
To reduce the charge noise of a modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot, we have fabricated shallow-etched GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots using the wet-etching method to study the effects of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) underneath the metallic gates. The low-frequency 1/f noise in the Coulomb blockade region of the shallow-etched quantum dot is compared with a non-etched quantum dot on the same wafer. The average values of the gate noise are approximately 0.5 μeV in the shallow-etched quantum dot and 3 μeV in the regular quantum dot. Our results show the quantum dot low-frequency charge noise can be suppressed by the removal of the 2DEG underneath the metallic gates, which provides an architecture for noise reduction
Multi-dimensional photonic states from a quantum dot
Lee, J. P.; Bennett, A. J.; Stevenson, R. M.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.
2018-04-01
Quantum states superposed across multiple particles or degrees of freedom offer an advantage in the development of quantum technologies. Creating these states deterministically and with high efficiency is an ongoing challenge. A promising approach is the repeated excitation of multi-level quantum emitters, which have been shown to naturally generate light with quantum statistics. Here we describe how to create one class of higher dimensional quantum state, a so called W-state, which is superposed across multiple time bins. We do this by repeated Raman scattering of photons from a charged quantum dot in a pillar microcavity. We show this method can be scaled to larger dimensions with no reduction in coherence or single-photon character. We explain how to extend this work to enable the deterministic creation of arbitrary time-bin encoded qudits.
Colloidal-Quantum-Dot Ring Lasers with Active Color Control.
le Feber, Boris; Prins, Ferry; De Leo, Eva; Rabouw, Freddy T; Norris, David J
2018-02-14
To improve the photophysical performance of colloidal quantum dots for laser applications, sophisticated core/shell geometries have been developed. Typically, a wider bandgap semiconductor is added as a shell to enhance the gain from the quantum-dot core. This shell is designed to electronically isolate the core, funnel excitons to it, and reduce nonradiative Auger recombination. However, the shell could also potentially provide a secondary source of gain, leading to further versatility in these materials. Here we develop high-quality quantum-dot ring lasers that not only exhibit lasing from both the core and the shell but also the ability to switch between them. We fabricate ring resonators (with quality factors up to ∼2500) consisting only of CdSe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots using a simple template-stripping process. We then examine lasing as a function of the optical excitation power and ring radius. In resonators with quality factors >1000, excitons in the CdSe cores lead to red lasing with thresholds at ∼25 μJ/cm 2 . With increasing power, green lasing from the CdS shell emerges (>100 μJ/cm 2 ) and then the red lasing begins to disappear (>250 μJ/cm 2 ). We present a rate-equation model that can explain this color switching as a competition between exciton localization into the core and stimulated emission from excitons in the shell. Moreover, by lowering the quality factor of the cavity we can engineer the device to exhibit only green lasing. The mechanism demonstrated here provides a potential route toward color-switchable quantum-dot lasers.
Scintillation properties of quantum-dot doped styrene based plastic scintillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, J.M.; Kim, H.J.; Hwang, Y.S.; Kim, D.H.; Park, H.W.
2014-01-01
We fabricated quantum-dot doped plastic scintillators in order to control the emission wavelength. We studied the characterization of the quantum-dots (CdSe/ZnS) and PPO (2, 5-diphenyloxazole) doped styrene based plastic scintillators. PPO is usually used as a dopant to enhance the scintillation properties of organic scintillators with a maximum emission wavelength of 380 nm. In order to study the scintillation properties of the quantum-dots doped plastic scintillators, the samples were irradiated with X-ray, photon, and 45 MeV proton beams. We observed that only PPO doped plastic scintillators shows a luminescence peak around 380 nm. However, both the quantum-dots and PPO doped plastic scintillators shows luminescence peaks around 380 nm and 520 nm. Addition of quantum-dots had shifted the luminescence spectrum from 380 nm (PPO) toward the region of 520 nm (Quantum-dots). Emissions with wavelength controllable plastic scintillators can be matched to various kinds of photosensors such as photomultiplier tubes, photo-diodes, avalanche photo-diodes, and CCDs, etc. Also quantum-dots doped plastic scintillator, which is irradiated 45 MeV proton beams, shows that the light yield of quantum-dots doped plastic scintillator is increases as quantum-dots doping concentration increases at 520 nm. And also the plastic scintillators were irradiated with Cs-137 γ-ray for measuring fluorescence decay time. -- Highlights: • Quantum-dot doped plastic scintillator is grown by the thermal polymerization method. • Quantum-dot doped plastic scintillators can control the emission wavelength to match with photo-sensor. • Quantum-dots and PPO doped plastic scintillators emitted luminescence peaks around 380 nm and 520 nm. • We observed the energy transfer from PPO to quantum-dot in the quantum-dot doped plastic scintillator
Coherently driven semiconductor quantum dot at a telecommunication wavelength.
Takagi, Hiroyuki; Nakaoka, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Kumagai, Naoto; Arakawa, Yasuhiko
2008-09-01
We proposed and demonstrate use of optical driving pulses at a telecommunication wavelength for exciton-based quantum gate operation. The exciton in a self-assembled quantum dot is coherently manipulated at 1.3 microm through Rabi oscillation. The telecom-band exciton-qubit system incorporates standard optical fibers and fiber optic devices. The coherent manipulation of the two-level system compatible with flexible and stable fiber network paves the way toward practical optical implementation of quantum information processing devices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Jianqi; Zeng Ruixi
2017-01-01
Quantum-dot-molecular phase coherence (and the relevant quantum-interference-switchable optical response) can be utilized to control electromagnetic wave propagation via a gate voltage, since quantum-dot molecules can exhibit an effect of quantum coherence (phase coherence) when quantum-dot-molecular discrete multilevel transitions are driven by an electromagnetic wave. Interdot tunneling of carriers (electrons and holes) controlled by the gate voltage can lead to destructive quantum interference in a quantum-dot molecule that is coupled to an incident electromagnetic wave, and gives rise to a quantum coherence effect (e.g., electromagnetically induced transparency, EIT) in a quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film. The tunable on- and off-resonance tunneling effect of an incident electromagnetic wave (probe field) through such a quantum-coherent quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film is investigated. It is found that a high gate voltage can lead to the EIT phenomenon of the quantum-dot-molecular systems. Under the condition of on-resonance light tunneling through the present quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film, the probe field should propagate without loss if the probe frequency detuning is zero. Such an effect caused by both EIT and resonant tunneling, which is sensitive to the gate voltage, can be utilized for designing devices such as photonic switching, transistors, and logic gates. (author)
Autonomous quantum Maxwell's demon based on two exchange-coupled quantum dots
Ptaszyński, Krzysztof
2018-01-01
I study an autonomous quantum Maxwell's demon based on two exchange-coupled quantum dots attached to the spin-polarized leads. The principle of operation of the demon is based on the coherent oscillations between the spin states of the system which act as a quantum iSWAP gate. Due to the operation of the iSWAP gate, one of the dots acts as a feedback controller which blocks the transport with the bias in the other dot, thus inducing the electron pumping against the bias; this leads to the locally negative entropy production. Operation of the demon is associated with the information transfer between the dots, which is studied quantitatively by mapping the analyzed setup onto the thermodynamically equivalent auxiliary system. The calculated entropy production in a single subsystem and information flow between the subsystems are shown to obey a local form of the second law of thermodynamics, similar to the one previously derived for classical bipartite systems.
Nanostructure assembly of indium sulphide quantum dots and their characterization.
Vigneashwari, B; Ravichandran, V; Parameswaran, P; Dash, S; Tyagi, A K
2008-02-01
Nanocrystals (approximately 5 nm) of the semiconducting wide band gap material beta-In2S3 obtained by chemical synthesis through a hydrothermal route were characterized for phase and compositional purity. These nanoparticles exhibited quantum confinement characteristics as revealed by a blue-shifted optical absorption. These quantum dots of beta-In2S3 were electrically driven from a monodisperse colloidal suspension on to conducting glass substrates by Electophoretic Deposition (EPD) technique and nanostructural thin films were obtained. The crystalline and morphological structures of these deposits were investigated by X-ray diffraction and nanoscopic techniques. We report here that certain interesting nanostructural morphologies were observed in the two-dimensional quantum dot assemblies of beta-In2S3. The effect of the controlling parameters on the cluster growth and deposit integrity was also systematically studied through a series of experiments and the results are reported here.
Fluorescence and Bonding of Quantum Dots on DNA Origami Constructs
Kessinger, Matthew; Corrigan, Timothy; Neff, David; Norton, Michael; Concord University Collaboration; Marshall University Collaboration
2015-03-01
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDots) have historically been of interest to the scientific community since their creation for various applications ranging from solar energy to optical labeling. In this study, bioconjugated CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDots were synthesized and functionalized with 3-mercaptopropionic acid using both traditional ligand exchange as well as newly developed in situ functionalization techniques used to increase the quantum yield of the QDots. Their fluorescence and bonding to both gold as well as DNA origami were investigated for use in self assembled DNA constructs. It is believed that controlling the attachment and spacing of these nanoparticles on DNA origami could be used in a variety of optical labeling and sensing applications. Commercially available biotin and streptavidin functionalized quantum dots were also examined, and subject to the same experiments with gold nanoparticles as the MPA functionalized QDots.
Open quantum dots: Physics of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferry, D.K.; Akis, R. [School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe AZ 85287-5706 (United States); Burke, A.M. [School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe AZ 85287-5706 (United States); School of Physics, The University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Knezevic, I. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706 (United States); Brunner, R.; Meisels, R.; Kuchar, F. [Institut fuer Physik, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Bird, J.P.; Bird, J.P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)
2013-02-15
Quantum dots provide a natural system in which to study both classical and quantum features of transport, as they possess a very rich set of eigenstates.When coupled to the environment through a pair of quantum point contacts, these dots possess a mixed phase space which yields families of closed, regular orbits as well as an expansive sea of chaos. In this latter case, many of the eigenstates are decohered through interaction with the environment, but many survive and are referred to as the set of pointer states. These latter states are described by a projected, non-Hermitian Hamiltonian which describes their dissipation through many-body interactions with particles in the external environment. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramírez-Porras, A., E-mail: aramirez@fisica.ucr.ac.cr [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales (CICIMA), Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); García, O. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Vargas, C. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Corrales, A. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Solís, J.D. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica)
2015-08-30
Highlights: • PL spectra of porous silicon samples have been studied using a stochastic model. • This model can deconvolute PL spectra into three components. • Quantum dots, quantum wires and localized states have been identified. • Nanostructure diameters are in the range from 2.2 nm to 4.0 nm. • Contributions from quantum wires are small compared to the others. - Abstract: Nanocrystallites of Silicon have been produced by electrochemical etching of crystal wafers. The obtained samples show photoluminescence in the red band of the visible spectrum when illuminated by ultraviolet light. The photoluminescence spectra can be deconvolved into three components according to a stochastic quantum confinement model: one band coming from Nanocrystalline dots, or quantum dots, one from Nanocrystalline wires, or quantum wires, and one from the presence of localized surface states related to silicon oxide. The results fit well within other published models.
Evidence for possible quantum dot interdiffusion induced by cap layer growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jasinski, J.; Czeczott, M.; Gladysz, A.; Babinski, A.; Kozubowski, J.
1999-01-01
Self-organised InGaAs quantum dots were grown on (001) GaAs substrates and covered with two different types of cap layers grown at significantly different temperatures. In order to determine quantum dot emission energy and dot size distribution, photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out on such samples. Simple theoretical model neglecting effect of interdiffusion allowed for correlation between quantum dot size and photoluminescence emission energy only in the case of dots covered by cap layers grown at the lower temperature. For dots covered by layers grown at the higher temperature such correlation was possible only when strong interdiffusion was assumed. (author)
Classical behavior of few-electron parabolic quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciftja, O.
2009-01-01
Quantum dots are intricate and fascinating systems to study novel phenomena of great theoretical and practical interest because low dimensionality coupled with the interplay between strong correlations, quantum confinement and magnetic field creates unique conditions for emergence of fundamentally new physics. In this work we consider two-dimensional semiconductor quantum dot systems consisting of few interacting electrons confined in an isotropic parabolic potential. We study the many-electron quantum ground state properties of such systems in presence of a perpendicular magnetic field as the number of electrons is varied using exact numerical diagonalizations and other approaches. The results derived from the calculations of the quantum model are then compared to corresponding results for a classical model of parabolically confined point charges who interact with a Coulomb potential. We find that, for a wide range of parameters and magnetic fields considered in this work, the quantum ground state energy is very close to the classical energy of the most stable classical configuration under the condition that the classical energy is properly adjusted to incorporate the quantum zero point motion.
A Complete Physical Germanium-on-Silicon Quantum Dot Self-Assembly Process
Alkhatib, Amro; Nayfeh, Ammar
2013-01-01
Achieving quantum dot self-assembly at precise pre-defined locations is of vital interest. In this work, a novel physical method for producing germanium quantum dots on silicon using nanoindentation to pre-define nucleation sites is described. Self-assembly of ordered ~10?nm height germanium quantum dot arrays on silicon substrates is achieved. Due to the inherent simplicity and elegance of the proposed method, the results describe an attractive technique to manufacture semiconductor quantum ...
Injection of a single electron from static to moving quantum dots.
Bertrand, Benoit; Hermelin, Sylvain; Mortemousque, Pierre-André; Takada, Shintaro; Yamamoto, Michihisa; Tarucha, Seigo; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Bäuerle, Christopher; Meunier, Tristan
2016-05-27
We study the injection mechanism of a single electron from a static quantum dot into a moving quantum dot. The moving quantum dots are created with surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in a long depleted channel. We demonstrate that the injection process is characterized by an activation law with a threshold that depends on the SAW amplitude and on the dot-channel potential gradient. By sufficiently increasing the SAW modulation amplitude, we can reach a regime where the transfer has unity probability and is potentially adiabatic. This study points to the relevant regime to use moving dots in quantum information protocols.
Transport in quantum spin Hall edges in contact to a quantum dot
Rizzo, Bruno; Camjayi, Alberto; Arrachea, Liliana
2016-09-01
We study the transport mechanisms taking place in a quantum spin Hall bar with an embedded quantum dot, where electrons localize and experience Coulomb interaction U as well as spin-flip processes λ . We solve the problem with nonequilibrium Green functions. We focus on the linear-response regime and treat the many-body interactions with quantum Monte Carlo. The effects of U and λ are competitive and the induced transport takes place through different channels. The two mechanisms can be switched by changing the occupation of the dot with a gate voltage.
Room-Temperature Dephasing in InAs Quantum Dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang; Mørk, Jesper
2000-01-01
The room temperature dephasing in InAs/InGaAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots, embedded in a waveguide for laser applications, is measured using two independent methods: spectral hole burning and four-wave mixing. Without the application of bias current for electrical carrier injection......, a dephasing time of ~260 fs, weakly dependent on the optical excitation density, is found and attributed to phonon interaction. The application of bias current, leading to population inversion in the dot ground state and optical gain, strongly decreases the dephasing time to less than 50 fs, likely due...
Carbon "Quantum" Dots for Fluorescence Labeling of Cells.
Liu, Jia-Hui; Cao, Li; LeCroy, Gregory E; Wang, Ping; Meziani, Mohammed J; Dong, Yiyang; Liu, Yuanfang; Luo, Pengju G; Sun, Ya-Ping
2015-09-02
The specifically synthesized and selected carbon dots of relatively high fluorescence quantum yields were evaluated in their fluorescence labeling of cells. For the cancer cell lines, the cellular uptake of the carbon dots was generally efficient, resulting in the labeling of the cells with bright fluorescence emissions for both one- and two-photon excitations from predominantly the cell membrane and cytoplasm. In the exploration on labeling the live stem cells, the cellular uptake of the carbon dots was relatively less efficient, though fluorescence emissions could still be adequately detected in the labeled cells, with the emissions again predominantly from the cell membrane and cytoplasm. This combined with the observed more efficient internalization of the same carbon dots by the fixed stem cells might suggest some significant selectivity of the stem cells toward surface functionalities of the carbon dots. The needs and possible strategies for more systematic and comparative studies on the fluorescence labeling of different cells, including especially live stem cells, by carbon dots as a new class of brightly fluorescent probes are discussed.
Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stano, P.
2007-01-01
Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)
Tandem luminescent solar concentrators based on engineered quantum dots
Wu, Kaifeng; Li, Hongbo; Klimov, Victor I.
2018-02-01
Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) can serve as large-area sunlight collectors for terrestrial and space-based photovoltaics. Due to their high emission efficiencies and readily tunable emission and absorption spectra, colloidal quantum dots have emerged as a new and promising type of LSC fluorophore. Spectral tunability of the quantum dots also facilitates the realization of stacked multilayered LSCs, where enhanced performance is obtained through spectral splitting of incident sunlight, as in multijunction photovoltaics. Here, we demonstrate a large-area (>230 cm2) tandem LSC based on two types of nearly reabsorption-free quantum dots spectrally tuned for optimal solar-spectrum splitting. This prototype device exhibits a high optical quantum efficiency of 6.4% for sunlight illumination and solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiency of 3.1%. The efficiency gains due to the tandem architecture over single-layer devices quickly increase with increasing LSC size and can reach more than 100% in structures with window sizes of more than 2,500 cm2.
Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stano, P.
2007-01-15
Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)
Infrared Colloidal Quantum Dots for Photovoltaics: Fundamentals and Recent Progress
Tang, Jiang
2010-09-14
Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are solution-processed semiconductors of interest in low-cost photovoltaics. Tuning of the bandgap of CQD films via the quantum size effect enables customization of solar cells\\' absorption profile to match the sun\\'s broad visible- and infrared-containing spectrum reaching the earth. Here we review recent progress in the realization of low-cost, efficient solar cells based on CQDs. We focus in particular on CQD materials and approaches that provide both infrared and visible-wavelength solar power conversion CQD photovoltaics now exceed 5% solar power conversion efficiency, achieved by the introduction of a new architecture, the depleted-heterojunction CQD solar cell, that jointly maximizes current, voltage, and fill factor. CQD solar cells have also seen major progress in materials processing for stability, recently achieving extended operating lifetimes in an air ambient. We summarize progress both in device operation and also in gaining new insights into materials properties and processing - including new electrical contact materials and deposition techniques, as well as CQD synthesis, surface treatments, film-forming technologies - that underpin these rapid advances. Infrared colloidal quantum dots that absorb most of the solar radiation enable potential efficient and low-cost photovoltaic devices. Careful optimization of quantum dot passivation and device configuration leads to solar cells with AM1.5G efficiency as high as 5.1% Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Taherkhani, Masoomeh; Gregersen, Niels; Willatzen, Morten
2017-01-01
The exciton oscillator strength (OS) in type-II quantum dot (QD) nanowires is calculated by using a fast and efficient method. We propose a new structure in Double-Well QD (DWQD) nanowire that considerably increases OS of type-II QDs which is a key parameter in optical quantum gating in the stimu...... in the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) process [1] for implementing quantum gates....
Qin, Zhongzhong; Cao, Leiming; Jing, Jietai
2015-05-01
Quantum correlations and entanglement shared among multiple modes are fundamental ingredients of most continuous-variable quantum technologies. Recently, a method used to generate multiple quantum correlated beams using cascaded four-wave mixing (FWM) processes was theoretically proposed and experimentally realized by our group [Z. Qin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023602 (2014)]. Our study of triple-beam quantum correlation paves the way to showing the tripartite entanglement in our system. Our system also promises to find applications in quantum information and precision measurement such as the controlled quantum communications, the generation of multiple quantum correlated images, and the realization of a multiport nonlinear interferometer. For its applications, the degree of quantum correlation is a crucial figure of merit. In this letter, we experimentally study how various parameters, such as the cell temperatures, one-photon, and two-photon detunings, influence the degree of quantum correlation between the triple beams generated from the cascaded two-FWM configuration.
Photoluminescence of patterned CdSe quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on paper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isnaeni,; Yulianto, Nursidik; Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha
2016-01-01
We successfully developed a method utilizing colloidal CdSe nanocrystalline quantum dot for anti-counterfeiting label on a piece of glossy paper. We deposited numbers and lines patterns of toluene soluble CdSe quantum dot using rubber stamper on a glossy paper. The width of line pattern was about 1-2 mm with 1-2 mm separation between lines. It required less than one minute for deposited CdSe quantum dot on glossy paper to dry and become invisible by naked eyes. However, patterned quantum dot become visible using long-pass filter glasses upon excitation of UV lamp or blue laser. We characterized photoluminescence of line patterns of quantum dot, and we found that emission boundaries of line patterns were clearly observed. The error of line size and shape were mainly due to defect of the original stamper. The emission peak wavelength of CdSe quantum dot was 629 nm. The emission spectrum of deposited quantum dot has full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 30-40 nm. The spectra similarity between deposited quantum dot and the original quantum dot in solution proved that our stamping method can be simply applied on glossy paper without changing basic optical property of the quantum dot. Further development of this technique is potential for anti-counterfeiting label on very important documents or objects.
Synthesis and Characterization of Mercaptoacetic Acid Capped Cadmium Sulphide Quantum Dots.
Wageh, S; Maize, Mai; Donia, A M; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A; Umar, Ahmad
2015-12-01
This paper reports the facile synthesis and detailed characterization of mercaptoacetic acid capped cadmium sulphide (CdS) quantum dots using various cadmium precursors. The mercaptoacetic acid capped CdS quantum dots were prepared by facile and simple wet chemical method and characterized by several techniques such as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis. spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM) and thremogravimetric analysis. The EDS studies revealed that the prepared quantum dots possess higher atomic percentage of sulfur compared to cadmium due to the coordination of thiolate to the quantum dots surfaces. The X-ray and absorption analyses exhibited that the size of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate is larger than the quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The increase in size can be attributed to the low stability constant of cadmium acetate in comparison with cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate. The FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis showed that the nature of capping molecule on the surface of quantum dots are different depending on the cadmium precursors which affect the emission from CdS quantum dots. Photoemission spectroscopy revealed that the emission of quantum dots prepared by cadmium acetate has high intensity band edge emission along with low intensity trapping state emission. However the CdS quantum dots prepared by cadmium chloride and cadmium nitrate produced only trapping state emissions.
Templated self-assembly of quantum dots from aqueous solution using protein scaffolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blum, Amy Szuchmacher [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Soto, Carissa M [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Wilson, Charmaine D [Geo-Centers, Incorporated, Newton, MA 02459 (United States); Whitley, Jessica L [Geo-Centers, Incorporated, Newton, MA 02459 (United States); Moore, Martin H [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Sapsford, Kim E [George Mason University, 10910 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA 20110 (United States); Lin, Tianwei [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Chatterji, Anju [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Johnson, John E [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Ratna, Banahalli R [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
2006-10-28
Short, histidine-containing peptides can be conjugated to lysine-containing protein scaffolds to controllably attach quantum dots (QDs) to the scaffold, allowing for generic attachment of quantum dots to any protein without the use of specially engineered domains. This technique was used to bind quantum dots from aqueous solution to both chicken IgG and cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), a 30 nm viral particle. These quantum dot-protein assemblies were studied in detail. The IgG-QD complexes were shown to retain binding specificity to their antigen after modification. The CPMV-QD complexes have a local concentration of quantum dots greater than 3000 nmol ml{sup -1}, and show a 15% increase in fluorescence quantum yield over free quantum dots in solution.
Aptamer-conjugated dendrimer-modified quantum dots for glioblastoma cells imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Zhiming; Huang Peng; He Rong; Bao Chenchen; Cui Daxiang; Zhang Xiaomin; Ren Qiushi
2009-01-01
Targeted quantum dots have shown potential as a platform for development of cancer imaging. Aptamers have recently been demonstrated as ideal candidates for molecular targeting applications. In present work, polyamidoamine dendrimers were used to modify surface of quantum dots and improve their solubility in water solution. Then, dendrimer-modified quantum dots were conjugated with DNA aptamer, GBI-10, can recognize the extracellular matrix protein tenascin-C on the surface of human glioblastoma cells. The dendrimer-modified quantum dots exhibit water-soluble, high quantum yield, and good biocompatibility. Aptamer-conjugated quantum dots can specifically target U251 human glioblastoma cells. High-performance aptamer-conjugated dendrimers modified quantum dot-based nanoprobes have great potential in application such as cancer imaging.
Quantum simulation of a Fermi-Hubbard model using a semiconductor quantum dot array
Hensgens, T.; Fujita, T.; Janssen, L.; Li, Xiao; van Diepen, C. J.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Das Sarma, S.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.
2017-08-01
Interacting fermions on a lattice can develop strong quantum correlations, which are the cause of the classical intractability of many exotic phases of matter. Current efforts are directed towards the control of artificial quantum systems that can be made to emulate the underlying Fermi-Hubbard models. Electrostatically confined conduction-band electrons define interacting quantum coherent spin and charge degrees of freedom that allow all-electrical initialization of low-entropy states and readily adhere to the Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonian. Until now, however, the substantial electrostatic disorder of the solid state has meant that only a few attempts at emulating Fermi-Hubbard physics on solid-state platforms have been made. Here we show that for gate-defined quantum dots this disorder can be suppressed in a controlled manner. Using a semi-automated and scalable set of experimental tools, we homogeneously and independently set up the electron filling and nearest-neighbour tunnel coupling in a semiconductor quantum dot array so as to simulate a Fermi-Hubbard system. With this set-up, we realize a detailed characterization of the collective Coulomb blockade transition, which is the finite-size analogue of the interaction-driven Mott metal-to-insulator transition. As automation and device fabrication of semiconductor quantum dots continue to improve, the ideas presented here will enable the investigation of the physics of ever more complex many-body states using quantum dots.
Quantum simulation of a Fermi-Hubbard model using a semiconductor quantum dot array.
Hensgens, T; Fujita, T; Janssen, L; Li, Xiao; Van Diepen, C J; Reichl, C; Wegscheider, W; Das Sarma, S; Vandersypen, L M K
2017-08-02
Interacting fermions on a lattice can develop strong quantum correlations, which are the cause of the classical intractability of many exotic phases of matter. Current efforts are directed towards the control of artificial quantum systems that can be made to emulate the underlying Fermi-Hubbard models. Electrostatically confined conduction-band electrons define interacting quantum coherent spin and charge degrees of freedom that allow all-electrical initialization of low-entropy states and readily adhere to the Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonian. Until now, however, the substantial electrostatic disorder of the solid state has meant that only a few attempts at emulating Fermi-Hubbard physics on solid-state platforms have been made. Here we show that for gate-defined quantum dots this disorder can be suppressed in a controlled manner. Using a semi-automated and scalable set of experimental tools, we homogeneously and independently set up the electron filling and nearest-neighbour tunnel coupling in a semiconductor quantum dot array so as to simulate a Fermi-Hubbard system. With this set-up, we realize a detailed characterization of the collective Coulomb blockade transition, which is the finite-size analogue of the interaction-driven Mott metal-to-insulator transition. As automation and device fabrication of semiconductor quantum dots continue to improve, the ideas presented here will enable the investigation of the physics of ever more complex many-body states using quantum dots.
[Effect of quantum dots CdSe/ZnS's concentration on its fluorescence].
Jin, Min; Huang, Yu-hua; Luo, Ji-xiang
2015-02-01
The authors measured the absorption and the fluorescence spectra of the quantum dots CdSe/ZnS with 4 nm in size at different concentration with the use of the UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectrometer. The effect of quantum dots CdSe/ZnS's concentration on its fluorescence was especially studied and its physical mechanism was analyzed. It was observed that the optimal concentration of the quantum dots CdSe/ZnS for fluorescence is 2 micromole x L(-1). When the quantum dot's concentration is over 2 micromol x L(-1), the fluorescence is decreased with the increase in the concentration. While the quantum dot's concentration is less than 2 micromol x L(-1), the fluorescence is decreased with the decrease in the concentration. There are two main reasons: (1) fluorescence quenching and 2) the competition between absorption and fluorescence. When the quantum dot's concentration is over 2 micromol x L(-1), the distance between quantum dots is so close that the fluorescence quenching is induced. The closer the distance between quantum dots is, the more serious the fluorescence quenching is induced. Also, in this case, the absorption is so large that some of the quantum dots can not be excited because the incident light can not pass through the whole sample. As a result, the fluorescence is decreased with the increase in the quantum dot's concentration. As the quantum dot's concentration is below 2 micromol x L(-1), the distance between quantum dots is far enough that no more fluorescence quenching is induced. In this case, the fluorescence is determined by the particle number per unit volume. More particle number per unit volume produces more fluorescence. Therefore, the fluorescence is decreased with the decrease in the quantum dot's concentration.
Elimination of Bimodal Size in InAs/GaAs Quantum Dots for Preparation of 1.3-μm Quantum Dot Lasers.
Su, Xiang-Bin; Ding, Ying; Ma, Ben; Zhang, Ke-Lu; Chen, Ze-Sheng; Li, Jing-Lun; Cui, Xiao-Ran; Xu, Ying-Qiang; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan
2018-02-21
The device characteristics of semiconductor quantum dot lasers have been improved with progress in active layer structures. Self-assembly formed InAs quantum dots grown on GaAs had been intensively promoted in order to achieve quantum dot lasers with superior device performances. In the process of growing high-density InAs/GaAs quantum dots, bimodal size occurs due to large mismatch and other factors. The bimodal size in the InAs/GaAs quantum dot system is eliminated by the method of high-temperature annealing and optimized the in situ annealing temperature. The annealing temperature is taken as the key optimization parameters, and the optimal annealing temperature of 680 °C was obtained. In this process, quantum dot growth temperature, InAs deposition, and arsenic (As) pressure are optimized to improve quantum dot quality and emission wavelength. A 1.3-μm high-performance F-P quantum dot laser with a threshold current density of 110 A/cm 2 was demonstrated.
A complete physical germanium-on-silicon quantum dot self-assembly process.
Alkhatib, Amro; Nayfeh, Ammar
2013-01-01
Achieving quantum dot self-assembly at precise pre-defined locations is of vital interest. In this work, a novel physical method for producing germanium quantum dots on silicon using nanoindentation to pre-define nucleation sites is described. Self-assembly of ordered ~10 nm height germanium quantum dot arrays on silicon substrates is achieved. Due to the inherent simplicity and elegance of the proposed method, the results describe an attractive technique to manufacture semiconductor quantum dot structures for future quantum electronic and photonic applications.
A Complete Physical Germanium-on-Silicon Quantum Dot Self-Assembly Process
Alkhatib, Amro; Nayfeh, Ammar
2013-06-01
Achieving quantum dot self-assembly at precise pre-defined locations is of vital interest. In this work, a novel physical method for producing germanium quantum dots on silicon using nanoindentation to pre-define nucleation sites is described. Self-assembly of ordered ~10 nm height germanium quantum dot arrays on silicon substrates is achieved. Due to the inherent simplicity and elegance of the proposed method, the results describe an attractive technique to manufacture semiconductor quantum dot structures for future quantum electronic and photonic applications.
Photoconductivity of Si/Ge multilayer structures with Ge quantum dots pseudomorphic to the Si matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talochkin, A. B.; Chistokhin, I. B.
2011-01-01
Longitudinal photoconductivity spectra of Si/Ge multilayer structures with Ge quantum dots grown pseudomorphically to the Si matrix are studied. Lines of optical transitions between hole levels of quantum dots and Si electronic states are observed. This allowed us to construct a detailed energy-level diagram of electron-hole levels of the structure. It is shown that hole levels of pseudomorphic Ge quantum dots are well described by the simplest “quantum box” model using actual sizes of Ge islands. The possibility of controlling the position of the long-wavelength photosensitivity edge by varying the growth parameters of Si/Ge structures with Ge quantum dots is determined.
Quantum Dot Systems : A versatile platform for quantum simulations
Barthelemy, P.J.C.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.
2013-01-01
Quantum mechanics often results in extremely complex phenomena, especially when the quantum system under consideration is composed of many interacting particles. The states of these many-body systems live in a space so large that classical numerical calculations cannot compute them. Quantum
InN Quantum Dot Based Infra-Red Photodetectors.
Shetty, Arjun; Kumar, Mahesh; Roull, Basanta; Vinoy, K J; Krupanidhj, S B
2016-01-01
Self-assembled InN quantum dots (QDs) were grown on Si(111) substrate using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). Single-crystalline wurtzite structure of InN QDs was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The dot densities were varied by varying the indium flux. Variation of dot density was confirmed by FESEM images. Interdigitated electrodes were fabricated using standard lithog- raphy steps to form metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector devices. The devices show strong infrared response. It was found that the samples with higher density of InN QDs showed lower dark current and higher photo current. An explanation was provided for the observations and the experimental results were validated using Silvaco Atlas device simulator.
Origins of low energy-transfer efficiency between patterned GaN quantum well and CdSe quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Xingsheng, E-mail: xsxu@semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Integration Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)
2015-03-02
For hybrid light emitting devices (LEDs) consisting of GaN quantum wells and colloidal quantum dots, it is necessary to explore the physical mechanisms causing decreases in the quantum efficiencies and the energy transfer efficiency between a GaN quantum well and CdSe quantum dots. This study investigated the electro-luminescence for a hybrid LED consisting of colloidal quantum dots and a GaN quantum well patterned with photonic crystals. It was found that both the quantum efficiency of colloidal quantum dots on a GaN quantum well and the energy transfer efficiency between the patterned GaN quantum well and the colloidal quantum dots decreased with increases in the driving voltage or the driving time. Under high driving voltages, the decreases in the quantum efficiency of the colloidal quantum dots and the energy transfer efficiency can be attributed to Auger recombination, while those decreases under long driving time are due to photo-bleaching and Auger recombination.
Silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants
Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Perry, Daniel; Wendt, Joel; Manginell, Ronald; Dominguez, Jason; Pluym, Tammy; Luhman, Dwight; Bielejec, Edward; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm
Antimony donor implants next to silicon quantum dots have been detected with integrated solid-state diode detectors with single ion precision. Devices with counted number of donors have been fabricated and low temperature transport measurements have been performed. Charge offsets, indicative of donor ionization and coupling to the quantum dot, have been detected in these devices. The number of offsets corresponds to 10-50% of the number of donors counted. We will report on tunneling time measurements and spin readout measurements on the donor offsets. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Photon control of phonons in mixed crystal quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ingale, Alka
2003-12-15
Coherent phonon oscillations in solids can be excited impulsively by a single femtosecond laser pulse whose duration is shorter than a phonon period. In the impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) experiment, scattering of probe is monitored as a function of time with respect to pump to generate time domain spectra of coherent phonons. In this paper, we present one such study of CdSe{sub 0.68}Te{sub 0.32} (d{approx}80 A) quantum dots in glass matrix, i.e semiconductor-doped glass (SDG) RG780 from Schott, USA and the experiment was performed at Prof. Merlin's laboratory at the University of Michigan, USA. Here, we present first report of selectively driving only CdSe-like modes in these mixed crystal quantum dots using photon control with two pump beams.
Confinement sensitivity in quantum dot singlet-triplet relaxation
Wesslén, C. J.; Lindroth, E.
2017-11-01
Spin-orbit mediated phonon relaxation in a two-dimensional quantum dot is investigated using different confining potentials. Elliptical harmonic oscillator and cylindrical well results are compared to each other in the case of a two-electron GaAs quantum dot subjected to a tilted magnetic field. The lowest energy set of two-body singlet and triplet states are calculated including spin-orbit and magnetic effects. These are used to calculate the phonon induced transition rate from the excited triplet to the ground state singlet for magnetic fields up to where the states cross. The roll of the cubic Dresselhaus effect, which is found to be much more important than previously assumed, and the positioning of ‘spin hot-spots’ are discussed and relaxation rates for a few different systems are exhibited.
Quantum dot nanoscale heterostructures for solar energy conversion.
Selinsky, Rachel S; Ding, Qi; Faber, Matthew S; Wright, John C; Jin, Song
2013-04-07
Quantum dot nanoscale semiconductor heterostructures (QDHs) are a class of materials potentially useful for integration into solar energy conversion devices. However, realizing the potential of these heterostructured systems requires the ability to identify and synthesize heterostructures with suitably designed materials, controlled size and morphology of each component, and structural control over their shared interface. In this review, we will present the case for the utility and advantages of chemically synthesized QDHs for solar energy conversion, beginning with an overview of various methods of heterostructured material synthesis and a survey of heretofore reported materials systems. The fundamental charge transfer properties of the resulting materials combinations and their basic design principles will be outlined. Finally, we will discuss representative solar photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical devices employing QDHs (including quantum dot sensitized solar cells, or QDSSCs) and examine how QDH synthesis and design impacts their performance.
Facile synthesis and photoluminescence mechanism of graphene quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Ping; Zhou, Ligang; Zhang, Shenli; Pan, Wei, E-mail: sjtushelwill@sjtu.edu.cn; Shen, Wenzhong, E-mail: wzshen@sjtu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Condensed Matter Spectroscopy and Opto-Electronic Physics, and Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wan, Neng [SEU-FEI Nano Pico Center, Key Laboratory of MEMS of Ministry of Education, School of Electronics Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)
2014-12-28
We report a facile hydrothermal synthesis of intrinsic fluorescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with two-dimensional morphology. This synthesis uses glucose, concentrate sulfuric acid, and deionized water as reagents. Concentrated sulfuric acid is found to play a key role in controlling the transformation of as-prepared hydrothermal products from amorphous carbon nanodots to well-crystallized GQDs. These GQDs show typical absorption characteristic for graphene, and have nearly excitation-independent ultraviolet and blue intrinsic emissions. Temperature-dependent PL measurements have demonstrated strong electron-electron scattering and electron-phonon interactions, suggesting a similar temperature behavior of GQDs to inorganic semiconductor quantum dots. According to optical studies, the ultraviolet emission is found to originate from the recombination of electron-hole pairs localized in the C=C bonds, while the blue emission is from the electron transition of sp{sup 2} domains.
Selective biosensing of Staphylococcus aureus using chitosan quantum dots
Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser; Wu, Hui-Fen
2018-01-01
Selective biosensing of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) using chitosan modified quantum dots (CTS@CdS QDs) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide is reported. The method is based on the intrinsic positive catalase activity of S. aureus. CTS@CdS quantum dots provide high dispersion in aqueous media with high fluorescence emission. Staphylococcus aureus causes a selective quenching of the fluorescence emission of CTS@CdS QDs in the presence of H2O2 compared to other pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The intrinsic enzymatic character of S. aureus (catalase positive) offers selective and fast biosensing. The present method is highly selective for positive catalase species and requires no expensive reagents such as antibodies, aptamers or microbeads. It could be extended for other species that are positive catalase.
Quantum dots, advantages and drawbacks for lighting applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidmayr, D.; Zehetner, J.
2014-01-01
At present 19% of the world-wide consumed electricity is used for lighting purposes. Compared e.g. to the well-known incandescent light bulb a modern warm white LED with a similar light quality has a 25 times higher lifetime and operates approximately ten times more efficient. One major component limiting the efficiency is the color conversion material (phosphor). Due to broad emission bandwidths of traditional phosphors energy is wasted. In order to further improve efficiency new robust fluorescent materials which allow selective, narrow band conversion are needed. In this paper we investigate the potential of quantum dots and show that they are able to increase both luminous flux and spectral coverage at the same time. Furthermore we evaluate the optical properties of quantum dot samples under thermal stress and aerial oxygen influence. Photoluminescence intensity degradation as well as a shift of the emission peak wavelength still pose a problem. (authors)
Room temperature excitation spectroscopy of single quantum dots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian Blum
2011-08-01
Full Text Available We report a single molecule detection scheme to investigate excitation spectra of single emitters at room temperature. We demonstrate the potential of single emitter photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy by recording excitation spectra of single CdSe nanocrystals over a wide spectral range of 100 nm. The spectra exhibit emission intermittency, characteristic of single emitters. We observe large variations in the spectra close to the band edge, which represent the individual heterogeneity of the observed quantum dots. We also find specific excitation wavelengths for which the single quantum dots analyzed show an increased propensity for a transition to a long-lived dark state. We expect that the additional capability of recording excitation spectra at room temperature from single emitters will enable insights into the photophysics of emitters that so far have remained inaccessible.
Far-infrared spectra of lateral quantum dot molecules
Helle, M.; Harju, A.; Nieminen, R. M.
2006-02-01
We study effects of electron electron interactions and confinement potential on the magneto-optical absorption spectrum in the far-infrared (FIR) range of lateral quantum dot molecules (QDMs). We calculate FIR spectra for three different QDM confinement potentials. We use an accurate exact diagonalization technique for two interacting electrons and calculate dipole transitions between two-body levels with perturbation theory. We conclude that the two-electron FIR spectra directly reflect the symmetry of the confinement potential and interactions cause only small shifts in the spectra. These predictions could be tested in experiments with non-parabolic quantum dots (QDs) by changing the number of confined electrons. We also calculate FIR spectra for up to six non-interacting electrons and observe some additional features in the spectrum.
Squeezed magnetobipolarons in two-dimensional quantum dot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yanmin; Wang Yunhua; Cheng Ze; Xu Qinfeng
2008-01-01
In this Letter, a different method was given for calculating the energies of the magnetobipolarons confined in a parabolic QD (quantum dot). We introduced single-mode squeezed states transformation, which are based on the Lee-Low-Pines and Huybrechts (LLP-H) canonical transformations. This method can provide results not only for the ground state energy but also for the excited states energies. Moreover, it can be applied to the entire range of the electron-phonon coupling strength. Comparing with the results of the LLP-H transformations, we have obtained more accurate results for the ground state energy, excited states energies and binding energy of the bipolarons. It shows that the magnetic field and the quantum dot can facilitate the formation of the bipolarons when η is smaller than some value
Ground state of the parallel double quantum dot system.
Zitko, Rok; Mravlje, Jernej; Haule, Kristjan
2012-02-10
We resolve the controversy regarding the ground state of the parallel double quantum dot system near half filling. The numerical renormalization group predicts an underscreened Kondo state with residual spin-1/2 magnetic moment, ln2 residual impurity entropy, and unitary conductance, while the Bethe ansatz solution predicts a fully screened impurity, regular Fermi-liquid ground state, and zero conductance. We calculate the impurity entropy of the system as a function of the temperature using the hybridization-expansion continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo technique, which is a numerically exact stochastic method, and find excellent agreement with the numerical renormalization group results. We show that the origin of the unconventional behavior in this model is the odd-symmetry "dark state" on the dots.
A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Claudon, Julien; Bleuse, Joel; Malik, Nitin Singh
2010-01-01
–4 or a semiconductor quantum dot5–7. Achieving a high extraction efficiency has long been recognized as a major issue, and both classical solutions8 and cavity quantum electrodynamics effects have been applied1,9–12. We adopt a different approach, based on an InAs quantum dot embedded in a GaAs photonic nanowire...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, Carsten
2008-07-01
This work is focused on the optical dynamics of mesoscopic semiconductor heterostructures, using as prototypes zero-dimensional quantum dots and quantum cascade lasers which consist of quasitwo- dimensional quantum wells. Within a density matrix theory, a microscopic many-particle theory is applied to study scattering effects in these structures: the coupling to external as well as local fields, electron-phonon coupling, coupling to impurities, and Coulomb coupling. For both systems, the investigated effects are compared to experimentally observed results obtained during the past years. In quantum dots, the three-dimensional spatial confinement leads to the necessity to consider a quantum kinetic description of the dynamics, resulting in non-Markovian electron-phonon effects. This can be seen in the spectral phonon sidebands due to interaction with acoustic phonons as well as a damping of nonlinear Rabi oscillations which shows a nonmonotonous intensity and pulse duration dependence. An analysis of the inclusion of the self-interaction of the quantum dot shows that no dynamical local field terms appear for the simple two-level model. Considering local fields which have their origin in many quantum dots, consequences for a two-level quantum dot such as a zero-phonon line broadening and an increasing signal in photon echo experiments are found. For the use of quantum dots in an optical spin control scheme, it is found that the dephasing due to the electron-phonon interaction can be dominant in certain regimes. Furthermore, soliton and breather solutions are studied analytically in nonlinear quantum dot ensembles. Generalizing to quasi-two-dimensional structures, the intersubband dynamics of quantum cascade laser structures is investigated. A dynamical theory is considered in which the temporal evolution of the subband populations and the current density as well as the influence of scattering effects is studied. In the nonlinear regime, the scattering dependence and
Quantum Optics with Near-Lifetime-Limited Quantum-Dot Transitions in a Nanophotonic Waveguide.
Thyrrestrup, Henri; Kiršanskė, Gabija; Le Jeannic, Hanna; Pregnolato, Tommaso; Zhai, Liang; Raahauge, Laust; Midolo, Leonardo; Rotenberg, Nir; Javadi, Alisa; Schott, Rüdiger; Wieck, Andreas D; Ludwig, Arne; Löbl, Matthias C; Söllner, Immo; Warburton, Richard J; Lodahl, Peter
2018-03-14
Establishing a highly efficient photon-emitter interface where the intrinsic linewidth broadening is limited solely by spontaneous emission is a key step in quantum optics. It opens a pathway to coherent light-matter interaction for, e.g., the generation of highly indistinguishable photons, few-photon optical nonlinearities, and photon-emitter quantum gates. However, residual broadening mechanisms are ubiquitous and need to be combated. For solid-state emitters charge and nuclear spin noise are of importance, and the influence of photonic nanostructures on the broadening has not been clarified. We present near-lifetime-limited linewidths for quantum dots embedded in nanophotonic waveguides through a resonant transmission experiment. It is found that the scattering of single photons from the quantum dot can be obtained with an extinction of 66 ± 4%, which is limited by the coupling of the quantum dot to the nanostructure rather than the linewidth broadening. This is obtained by embedding the quantum dot in an electrically contacted nanophotonic membrane. A clear pathway to obtaining even larger single-photon extinction is laid out; i.e., the approach enables a fully deterministic and coherent photon-emitter interface in the solid state that is operated at optical frequencies.
Quantum Optics with Near-Lifetime-Limited Quantum-Dot Transitions in a Nanophotonic Waveguide
Thyrrestrup, Henri; Kiršanskė, Gabija; Le Jeannic, Hanna; Pregnolato, Tommaso; Zhai, Liang; Raahauge, Laust; Midolo, Leonardo; Rotenberg, Nir; Javadi, Alisa; Schott, Rüdiger; Wieck, Andreas D.; Ludwig, Arne; Löbl, Matthias C.; Söllner, Immo; Warburton, Richard J.; Lodahl, Peter
2018-03-01
Establishing a highly efficient photon-emitter interface where the intrinsic linewidth broadening is limited solely by spontaneous emission is a key step in quantum optics. It opens a pathway to coherent light-matter interaction for, e.g., the generation of highly indistinguishable photons, few-photon optical nonlinearities, and photon-emitter quantum gates. However, residual broadening mechanisms are ubiquitous and need to be combated. For solid-state emitters charge and nuclear spin noise is of importance and the influence of photonic nanostructures on the broadening has not been clarified. We present near lifetime-limited linewidths for quantum dots embedded in nanophotonic waveguides through a resonant transmission experiment. It is found that the scattering of single photons from the quantum dot can be obtained with an extinction of $66 \\pm 4 \\%$, which is limited by the coupling of the quantum dot to the nanostructure rather than the linewidth broadening. This is obtained by embedding the quantum dot in an electrically-contacted nanophotonic membrane. A clear pathway to obtaining even larger single-photon extinction is laid out, i.e., the approach enables a fully deterministic and coherent photon-emitter interface in the solid state that is operated at optical frequencies.
Cooper Pair Splitting by Means of Graphene Quantum Dots
Tan, Z. B.; Cox, D.; Nieminen, T.; Lähteenmäki, P.; Golubev, D.; Lesovik, G. B.; Hakonen, P. J.
2015-03-01
A split Cooper pair is a natural source for entangled electrons which is a basic ingredient for quantum information in the solid state. We report an experiment on a superconductor-graphene double quantum dot (QD) system, in which we observe Cooper pair splitting (CPS) up to a CPS efficiency of ˜10 % . With bias on both QDs, we are able to detect a positive conductance correlation across the two distinctly decoupled QDs. Furthermore, with bias only on one QD, CPS and elastic cotunneling can be distinguished by tuning the energy levels of the QDs to be asymmetric or symmetric with respect to the Fermi level in the superconductor.
Atomistic Model of Fluorescence Intermittency of Colloidal Quantum Dots
Voznyy, O.
2014-04-16
Optoelectronic applications of colloidal quantum dots demand a high emission efficiency, stability in time, and narrow spectral bandwidth. Electronic trap states interfere with the above properties but understanding of their origin remains lacking, inhibiting the development of robust passivation techniques. Here we show that surface vacancies improve the fluorescence yield compared to vacancy-free surfaces, while dynamic vacancy aggregation can temporarily turn fluorescence off. We find that infilling with foreign cations can stabilize the vacancies, inhibiting intermittency and improving quantum yield, providing an explanation of recent experimental observations. © 2014 American Physical Society.
Single electron-spin memory with a semiconductor quantum dot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Young, Robert J; Dewhurst, Samuel J; Stevenson, R Mark; Atkinson, Paola; Bennett, Anthony J; Ward, Martin B; Cooper, Ken; Ritchie, David A; Shields, Andrew J
2007-01-01
We show storage of the circular polarization of an optical field, transferring it to the spin-state of an individual electron confined in a single semiconductor quantum dot. The state is subsequently read out through the electronically-triggered emission of a single photon. The emitted photon shares the same polarization as the initial pulse but has a different energy, making the transfer of quantum information between different physical systems possible. With an applied magnetic field of 2 T, spin memory is preserved for at least 1000 times more than the exciton's radiative lifetime
A Single Molecule Investigation of the Photostability of Quantum Dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Kulatunga, Pasad; Lagerholm, B. Christoffer
2012-01-01
Quantum dots (QDs) are very attractive probes for multi-color fluorescence applications. We report here however that single QDs that are subject to continuous blue excitation from a 100W mercury arc lamp will undergo a continuous blue-switching of the emission wavelength eventually reaching a per...... is especially detrimental for multi-color single molecule applications, as we regularly observe spectral blue-shifts of 50 nm, or more even after only ten seconds of illumination....
Probing electric and magnetic vacuum fluctuations with quantum dots
Tighineanu, Petru; Andersen, Mads Lykke; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter
2014-01-01
The electromagnetic-vacuum-field fluctuations are intimately linked to the process of spontaneous emission of light. Atomic emitters cannot probe electric- and magnetic-field fluctuations simultaneously because electric and magnetic transitions correspond to different selection rules. In this paper we show that semiconductor quantum dots are fundamentally different and are capable of mediating electric-dipole, magnetic-dipole, and electric-quadrupole transitions on a single electronic resonan...
Quantum Dots Based Rad-Hard Computing and Sensors
Fijany, A.; Klimeck, G.; Leon, R.; Qiu, Y.; Toomarian, N.
2001-01-01
Quantum Dots (QDs) are solid-state structures made of semiconductors or metals that confine a small number of electrons into a small space. The confinement of electrons is achieved by the placement of some insulating material(s) around a central, well-conducting region. Thus, they can be viewed as artificial atoms. They therefore represent the ultimate limit of the semiconductor device scaling. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Computational models for the berry phase in semiconductor quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prabhakar, S., E-mail: rmelnik@wlu.ca; Melnik, R. V. N., E-mail: rmelnik@wlu.ca [M2NeT Lab, Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Ave W, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5 (Canada); Sebetci, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mevlana University, 42003, Konya (Turkey)
2014-10-06
By developing a new model and its finite element implementation, we analyze the Berry phase low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures, focusing on quantum dots (QDs). In particular, we solve the Schrödinger equation and investigate the evolution of the spin dynamics during the adiabatic transport of the QDs in the 2D plane along circular trajectory. Based on this study, we reveal that the Berry phase is highly sensitive to the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit lengths.
Nonlinear laser dynamics from quantum dots to cryptography
Lüdge, Kathy
2012-01-01
A distinctive discussion of the nonlinear dynamical phenomena of semiconductor lasers. The book combines recent results of quantum dot laser modeling with mathematical details and an analytic understanding of nonlinear phenomena in semiconductor lasers and points out possible applications of lasers in cryptography and chaos control. This interdisciplinary approach makes it a unique and powerful source of knowledge for anyone intending to contribute to this field of research.By presenting both experimental and theoretical results, the distinguished authors consider solitary lase
Sexithiophenes as efficient luminescence quenchers of quantum dots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher R. Mason
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Sexithiophenes 1a and 1b, in which a 4-(dimethylaminophenyl unit is incorporated as an end-capping group, were synthesised and characterised by cyclic voltammetry, absorption spectroscopy and UV–vis spectroelectrochemistry. Additionally, their ability to function as effective luminescence quenchers for quantum dot emission was studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy and compared with the performance of alkyl end-capped sexithiophenes 2a and 2b.
Power-law photoluminescence decay in quantum dots
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav
2013-01-01
Roč. 5, č. 6 (2013), s. 608-610 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10007; GA MŠk LH12236; GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : quantum dots * indirect gap * photoluminescence * electron-phonon interaction * non-adiabatic Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering (UMCH-V)
Rapid detection of bacteria by carbon quantum dots.
Mandal, Tapas K; Parvin, Nargish
2011-12-01
This work demonstrated a fluorescence measurement method for rapid detection of bacteria and their counting by using water-soluble carbon quantum dots (CQDs) as a fluorescence marker while sewage water bacteria were detection target bacteria. Highly luminescent water-soluble CQDs were prepared by carbonizing waste part of rice straw materials in a furnace under in-sufficient air flow. Bacteria in a LB media with count the total number of bacteria within a shortest time from any sample of environment.
Quantum Dot-based Immunohistochemistry for Pathological Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Zhou
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs are novel light emitting semiconductor nanocrystals with diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. In comparison with traditional organic dyes and fluorescent proteins, QDs possess unique optical properties including extremely high fluorescence efficiency and minimal photobleaching which make them emerge as a new class of fluorescent labels for molecular imaging and biomedical analysis. Herein, recent advances in fundamental mechanisms and pathological applications of QD were reviewed.
Efficient spray-coated colloidal quantum dot solar cells
Kramer, Illan J.
2014-11-10
(Figure Presented). A colloidal quantum dot solar cell is fabricated by spray-coating under ambient conditions. By developing a room-temperature spray-coating technique and implementing a fully automated process with near monolayer control - an approach termed as sprayLD - an electronic defect is eliminated resulting in solar cell performance and statistical distribution superior to prior batch-processed methods along with a hero performance of 8.1%.
Graded Doping for Enhanced Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics
Ning, Zhijun
2013-02-05
A novel approach to improving all-inorganic colloidal quantum dot (CQD) homojunction solar cells by engineering the doping spatial profile to produce a doping gradient within the n-type absorber is presented. The doping gradient greatly improves carrier collection and enhances the voltages attainable by the device, leading to a 1 power point power conversion efficiency (PCE) improvement over previous inorganic CQD solar cells. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Lead-Salt Quantum-Dot Ionic Liquids
Sun, Liangfeng
2010-03-08
PbS quantum dots (QDs) are functionalized using ionic liquids with thiol moieties as capping ligands. The resulting amphiphilic QD ionic liquids exhibit fluidlike behavior at room temperature, even in the absence of solvents. The photostability of the QDs is dramatically improved compared to the as-synthesized oleic acid-capped QDs dispersed in toluene. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Electron Acceptor Materials Engineering in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells
Liu, Huan
2011-07-15
Lead sulfide colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells with a solar power conversion efficiency of 5.6% are reported. The result is achieved through careful optimization of the titanium dioxide electrode that serves as the electron acceptor. Metal-ion-doped sol-gel-derived titanium dioxide electrodes produce a tunable-bandedge, well-passivated materials platform for CQD solar cell optimization. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Nanogel-quantum dot hybrid nanoparticles for live cell imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, Urara; Nomura, Shin-ichiro M.; Kaul, Sunil C.; Hirano, Takashi; Akiyoshi, Kazunari
2005-01-01
We report here a novel carrier of quantum dots (QDs) for intracellular labeling. Monodisperse hybrid nanoparticles (38 nm in diameter) of QDs were prepared by simple mixing with nanogels of cholesterol-bearing pullulan (CHP) modified with amino groups (CHPNH 2 ). The CHPNH 2 -QD nanoparticles were effectively internalized into the various human cells examined. The efficiency of cellular uptake was much higher than that of a conventional carrier, cationic liposome. These hybrid nanoparticles could be a promising fluorescent probe for bioimaging
Dephasing and hyperfine interaction in carbon nanotubes double quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reynoso, Andres Alejandro; Flensberg, Karsten
2012-01-01
We study theoretically the return probability experiment, which is used to measure the dephasing time T-2*, in a double quantum dot (DQD) in semiconducting carbon nanotubes with spin-orbit coupling and disorder-induced valley mixing. Dephasing is due to hyperfine interaction with the spins of the C...... with these for DQDs in clean nanotubes, whereas the disorder effect is always relevant when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the nanotube axis....
Probing the energy reactance with adiabatically driven quantum dots
Ludovico, María Florencia; Arrachea, Liliana; Moskalets, Michael; Sánchez, David
2018-02-01
The tunneling Hamiltonian describes a particle transfer from one region to another. Although there is no particle storage in the tunneling region itself, it has an associated amount of energy. The corresponding energy flux was named reactance since, such as an electrical reactance, it manifests itself in time-dependent transport only. We show here that the existence of the energy reactance leads to the universal response of a mesoscopic thermometer, a floating contact coupled to an adiabatically driven quantum dot.
Zhu, Jinli; Tang, Yanfeng; Wang, Gang; Mao, Jiarong; Liu, Zhiduo; Sun, Tongming; Wang, Miao; Chen, Da; Yang, Yucheng; Li, Jipeng; Deng, Yuan; Yang, Siwei
2017-04-26
It is of great significance and importance to explore a mild, clean, and highly efficient universal approach for the synthesis of graphene quantum dots. Herein, we introduced a new green, rapid, and universal preparation approach for graphene quantum dots via the free-radical polymerization of oxygen-containing aromatic compounds under ultraviolet irradiation. This approach had a high yield (86%), and the byproducts are only H 2 O and CO 2 . The obtained graphene quantum dots were well-crystallized and showed remarkable optical and biological properties. The colorful, different-sized graphene quantum dots can be used in fluorescent bioimaging in vitro and in vivo. This approach is suitable not only for the preparation of graphene quantum dots but also for heteroatom-doped graphene quantum dots.
Functional Carbon Quantum Dots: A Versatile Platform for Chemosensing and Biosensing.
Feng, Hui; Qian, Zhaosheng
2017-11-24
Carbon quantum dot has emerged as a new promising fluorescent nanomaterial due to its excellent optical properties, outstanding biocompatibility and accessible fabrication methods, and has shown huge application perspective in a variety of areas, especially in chemosensing and biosensing applications. In this personal account, we give a brief overview of carbon quantum dots from its origin and preparation methods, present some advance on fluorescence origin of carbon quantum dots, and focus on development of chemosensors and biosensors based on functional carbon quantum dots. Comprehensive advances on functional carbon quantum dots as a versatile platform for sensing from our group are included and summarized as well as some typical examples from the other groups. The biosensing applications of functional carbon quantum dots are highlighted from selective assays of enzyme activity to fluorescent identification of cancer cells and bacteria. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Group-III vacancy induced InxGa1-xAs quantum dot interdiffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Djie, H. S.; Wang, D.-N.; Ooi, B. S.; Hwang, J. C. M.; Gunawan, O.
2006-01-01
The impact of group-III vacancy diffusion, generated during dielectric cap induced intermixing, on the energy state transition and the inhomogeneity reduction in the InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot structure is investigated. We use a three-dimensional quantum-dot diffusion model and photoluminescence data to determine the thermal and the interdiffusion properties of the quantum dot. The band gap energy variation related to the dot uniformity is found to be dominantly affected by the height fluctuation. A group-III vacancies migration energy H m for InGaAs quantum dots of 1.7 eV was deduced. This result is similar to the value obtained from the bulk and GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well materials confirming the role of SiO 2 capping enhanced group-III vacancy induced interdiffusion in the InGaAs quantum dots
Carrier transport in III–V quantum-dot structures for solar cells or photodetectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Wenqi; Wang Lu; Jiang Yang; Ma Ziguang; Sun Ling; Liu Jie; Sun Qingling; Zhao Bin; Wang Wenxin; Liu Wuming; Jia Haiqiang; Chen Hong
2016-01-01
According to the well-established light-to-electricity conversion theory, resonant excited carriers in the quantum dots will relax to the ground states and cannot escape from the quantum dots to form photocurrent, which have been observed in quantum dots without a p–n junction at an external bias. Here, we experimentally observed more than 88% of the resonantly excited photo carriers escaping from InAs quantum dots embedded in a short-circuited p–n junction to form photocurrent. The phenomenon cannot be explained by thermionic emission, tunneling process, and intermediate-band theories. A new mechanism is suggested that the photo carriers escape directly from the quantum dots to form photocurrent rather than relax to the ground state of quantum dots induced by a p–n junction. The finding is important for understanding the low-dimensional semiconductor physics and applications in solar cells and photodiode detectors. (rapid communication)
L-Cysteine Capped CdSe Quantum Dots Synthesized by Photochemical Route.
Singh, Avinash; Kunwar, Amit; Rath, M C
2018-05-01
L-cysteine capped CdSe quantum dots were synthesized via photochemical route in aqueous solution under UV photo-irradiation. The as grown CdSe quantum dots exhibit broad fluorescence at room temperature. The CdSe quantum dots were found to be formed only through the reactions of the precursors, i.e., Cd(NH3)2+4 and SeSO2-3 with the photochemically generated 1-hydroxy-2-propyl radicals, (CH3)2COH radicals, which are formed through the process of H atom abstraction by the photoexcited acetone from 2-propanol. L-Cysteine was found to act as a suitable capping agent for the CdSe quantum dots and increases their biocompatability. Cytotoxicty effects of these quantum dots were evaluated in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) epithelial cells, indicated a significant lower level for the L-cysteine capped CdSe quantum dots as compare to the bare ones.
Biosynthesis of luminescent quantum dots in an earthworm
Stürzenbaum, S. R.; Höckner, M.; Panneerselvam, A.; Levitt, J.; Bouillard, J.-S.; Taniguchi, S.; Dailey, L.-A.; Khanbeigi, R. Ahmad; Rosca, E. V.; Thanou, M.; Suhling, K.; Zayats, A. V.; Green, M.
2013-01-01
The synthesis of designer solid-state materials by living organisms is an emerging field in bio-nanotechnology. Key examples include the use of engineered viruses as templates for cobalt oxide (Co3O4) particles, superparamagnetic cobalt-platinum alloy nanowires and gold-cobalt oxide nanowires for photovoltaic and battery-related applications. Here, we show that the earthworm's metal detoxification pathway can be exploited to produce luminescent, water-soluble semiconductor cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots that emit in the green region of the visible spectrum when excited in the ultraviolet region. Standard wild-type Lumbricus rubellus earthworms were exposed to soil spiked with CdCl2 and Na2TeO3 salts for 11 days. Luminescent quantum dots were isolated from chloragogenous tissues surrounding the gut of the worm, and were successfully used in live-cell imaging. The addition of polyethylene glycol on the surface of the quantum dots allowed for non-targeted, fluid-phase uptake by macrophage cells.
Hybrid graphene-quantum dot phototransistors with ultrahigh gain.
Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Badioli, Michela; Gaudreau, Louis; Osmond, Johann; Bernechea, Maria; Garcia de Arquer, F Pelayo; Gatti, Fabio; Koppens, Frank H L
2012-05-06
Graphene is an attractive material for optoelectronics and photodetection applications because it offers a broad spectral bandwidth and fast response times. However, weak light absorption and the absence of a gain mechanism that can generate multiple charge carriers from one incident photon have limited the responsivity of graphene-based photodetectors to ∼10(-2) A W(-1). Here, we demonstrate a gain of ∼10(8) electrons per photon and a responsivity of ∼10(7) A W(-1) in a hybrid photodetector that consists of monolayer or bilayer graphene covered with a thin film of colloidal quantum dots. Strong and tunable light absorption in the quantum-dot layer creates electric charges that are transferred to the graphene, where they recirculate many times due to the high charge mobility of graphene and long trapped-charge lifetimes in the quantum-dot layer. The device, with a specific detectivity of 7 × 10(13) Jones, benefits from gate-tunable sensitivity and speed, spectral selectivity from the short-wavelength infrared to the visible, and compatibility with current circuit technologies.
Quantum Dot/Liquid Crystal Nanocomposites in Photonic Devices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea L. Rodarte
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Quantum dot/liquid crystal nano-composites are promising new materials for a variety of applications in energy harvesting, displays and photonics including the liquid crystal laser. To realize many applications, however, we need to control and stabilize nano-particle dispersion in different liquid crystal host phases and understand how the particles behave in an anisotropic fluid. An ideal system will allow for the controlled assembly of either well-defined nano-particle clusters or a uniform particle distribution. In this paper, we investigate mesogen-functionalized quantum dots for dispersion in cholesteric liquid crystal. These nanoparticles are known to assemble into dense stable packings in the nematic phase, and such structures, when localized in the liquid crystal defects, can potentially enhance the coupling between particles and a cholesteric cavity. Controlling the dispersion and assembly of quantum dots using mesogenic surface ligands, we demonstrate how resonant fluid photonic cavities can result from the co-assembly of luminescent nanoparticles in the presence of cholesteric liquid crystalline ordering.
Quantum-dot excitons in nanostructured environments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter
2010-01-01
determined the oscillator strength, quantum efficiency and spin-flip rates of QD excitons as well as their dependencies on emission wavelength and QD size. Enhancement and inhibition of QD spontaneous emission in photonic crystal membranes (PCMs) is observed. Efficient coupling to PCM waveguides...
Quantum-dot excitons in nanostructured environments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter
2011-01-01
determined the oscillator strength, quantum efficiency and spin-flip rates of QD excitons as well as their dependencies on emission wavelength and QD size. Enhancement and inhibition of QD spontaneous emission in photonic crystal membranes (PCMs) is observed. Efficient coupling to PCM waveguides...
Development and Application of Semiconductor Quantum Dots to Quantum Computing
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Steel, Duncan
2002-01-01
.... Several major milestones were achieved during the present program including the demonstration of optically induced and detected quantum entanglement of two qubits, Rabi oscillation (one bit rotation...
Modeling of phonon- and Coulomb-mediated capture processes in quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg
2003-01-01
This thesis describes modeling of carrier relaxation processes in self-assembled quantum-dot-structures, with particular emphasis on carrier capture processes in quantum dots. Relaxation by emission of lontitudinal optical (LO) phonons is very efficient in bulk semiconductors and nanostructures...... of a charge in the quantum-dot state to which the capture takes place. In general, capture rates are of the same order as capture rates into an empty dot state, but in some cases the dot-size interval for which the capture process is energetically allowed, is considerably reduced.The above calculations...
Improved Precursor Chemistry for the Synthesis of III-V Quantum Dots
Harris, Daniel K.; Bawendi, Moungi G.
2012-01-01
The synthesis of III-V Quantum Dots has been long known to be more challenging than the synthesis of other types of inorganic quantum dots. This is attributed to highly reactive group-V precursors. We synthesized molecules that are suitable for use as group-V precursors and characterized their reactivity using multiple complementary techniques. We show that the size distribution of indium arsenide quantum dots indeed improves with decreased precursor reactivity. PMID:23228014
Hyperbolic metamaterials based on quantum-dot plasmon-resonator nanocomposites
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhukovsky, Sergei; Ozel, T.; Mutlugun, E.
2014-01-01
We theoretically demonstrate that nanocomposites made of colloidal semiconductor quantum dot monolayers placed between metal nanoparticle monolayers can function as multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials. Depending on the thickness of the spacer between the quantum dot and nanoparticle layers......, the effective permittivity tensor of the nanocomposite is shown to become indefinite, resulting in increased photonic density of states and strong enhancement of quantum dot luminescence. This explains the results of recent experiments [T. Ozel et al., ACS Nano 5, 1328 (2011)] and confirms that hyperbolic...
Gate-induced carrier delocalization in quantum dot field effect transistors.
Turk, Michael E; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Oh, Soong Ju; Fafarman, Aaron T; Diroll, Benjamin T; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R; Kikkawa, James M
2014-10-08
We study gate-controlled, low-temperature resistance and magnetotransport in indium-doped CdSe quantum dot field effect transistors. We show that using the gate to accumulate electrons in the quantum dot channel increases the "localization product" (localization length times dielectric constant) describing transport at the Fermi level, as expected for Fermi level changes near a mobility edge. Our measurements suggest that the localization length increases to significantly greater than the quantum dot diameter.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund-Hansen, Toke; Stobbe, Søren; Julsgaard, Brian
2008-01-01
We present time-resolved spontaneous emission measurements of single quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal waveguides. Quantum dots that couple to a photonic crystal waveguide are found to decay up to 27 times faster than uncoupled quantum dots. From these measurements -factors of up to 0.89 ...... taking into account that the light-matter coupling is strongly enhanced due to the significant slow-down of light in the photonic crystal waveguides....
Nonadiabatic corrections to a quantum dot quantum computer ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The time of operation of an adiabatic quantum computer must be less than the decoherence time, otherwise the computer would be nonoperative. So far, the nonadiabatic corrections to an adiabatic quantum computer are merely theoretical considerations. By the above reason, we consider the particular case of a ...
Nonadiabatic corrections to a quantum dot quantum computer
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The time of operation of an adiabatic quantum computer must be less than the decoherence time, otherwise the computer would be nonoperative. So far, the nonadiabatic corrections to an adiabatic quantum computer are merely theoretical considerations. By the above reason, we consider the particular case of a ...
Nonadiabatic corrections to a quantum dot quantum computer ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-07-02
Jul 2, 2014 ... Abstract. The time of operation of an adiabatic quantum computer must be less than the decoherence time, otherwise the computer would be nonoperative. So far, the nonadiabatic cor- rections to an adiabatic quantum computer are merely theoretical considerations. By the above reason, we consider the ...
Influence of Si doping on InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells with AlAs cap layers
Kim, Dongyoung; Tang, Mingchu; Wu, Jiang; Hatch, Sabina; Maidaniuk, Yurii; Dorogan, Vitaliy; Mazur, Yuriy I.; Salamo, Gregory J.; Liu, Huiyun
2017-02-01
In this work, the effect of Si doping on InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cells with AlAs cap layers is studied. The AlAs cap layers suppress the formation of the wetting layer during quantum dot growth. This helps achieve quantum dot state filling, which is one of the requirements for strong sub-bandgap photon absorption in the quantum dot intermediate band solar cell, at lower Si doping density. Furthermore, the passivation of defect states in the quantum dots with moderate Si doping is demonstrated, which leads to an enhancement of the carrier lifetime in the quantum dots, and hence the open-circuit voltage.
Detection Systems and Algorithms for Multiplexed Quantum Dots
Goss, Kelly Christine
Quantum Dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals that absorb light and re-emit at a wavelength dependent on its size and shape. A group of quantum dots can be designed to have a unique spectral emission by varying the size of the quantum dots (wavelength) and number of quantum dots (optical power) [1]. This technology is refered to as Multiplexed Quantum Dots (MxQD) and when it was first proposed, MxQD tags were created with 6 optical power levels and one QD colour or 3 QD colours and 2 optical power levels. It was hypothesized that a realistic limit to the number of tags would be a system of 6 optical power levels and 6 QD colours resulting in 46655 unique tags. In recent work, the fabrication and detection of 9 unique tags [2] was demonstrated which is still far from the predicted capability of the technology. The limitations affecting the large number of unique tags are both the fabrication methods and the data detection algorithms used to read the spectral emissions. This thesis makes contributions toward improving the data detection algorithms for MxQD tags. To accomplish this, a communications system model is developed that includes the inteference between QD colours, Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI), and additive noise. The model is developed for the two optical detectors, namely a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) spectrometer and photodiode detectors. The model also includes an analytical expression for the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of the detectors. For the CCD spectrometer, this model is verified with an experimental prototype. With the models in place, communications systems tools are applied that overcome both ISI and noise. This is an improvement over previous work in the field that only considered algorithms to overcome the ISI or noise separately. Specifically, this thesis outlines the proposal of a matched filter to improve SNR, a Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) equalizer that mitigates ISI in the presence of noise and a Maximum Likelihood Sequence
Curcumin Quantum Dots Mediated Degradation of Bacterial Biofilms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashish K. Singh
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Bacterial biofilm has been reported to be associated with more than 80% of bacterial infections. Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol compound, has anti-quorum sensing activity apart from having antimicrobial action. However, its use is limited by its poor aqueous solubility and rapid degradation. In this study, we attempted to prepare quantum dots of the drug curcumin in order to achieve enhanced solubility and stability and investigated for its antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity. We utilized a newer two-step bottom up wet milling approach to prepare Curcumin Quantum Dots (CurQDs using acetone as a primary solvent. Minimum inhibitory concentration against select Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was performed. The antibiofilm assay was performed at first using 96-well tissue culture plate and subsequently validated by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. Further, biofilm matrix protein was isolated using formaldehyde sludge and TCA/Acetone precipitation method. Protein extracted was incubated with varying concentration of CurQDs for 4 h and was subjected to SDS–PAGE. Molecular docking study was performed to observe interaction between curcumin and phenol soluble modulins as well as curli proteins. The biophysical evidences obtained from TEM, SEM, UV-VIS, fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, and zeta potential analysis confirmed the formation of curcumin quantum dots with increased stability and solubility. The MICs of curcumin quantum dots, as observed against both select gram positive and negative bacterial isolates, was observed to be significantly lower than native curcumin particles. On TCP assay, Curcumin observed to be having antibiofilm as well as biofilm degrading activity. Results of SDS–PAGE and molecular docking have shown interaction between biofilm matrix proteins and curcumin. The results indicate that aqueous solubility and stability of Curcumin can be achieved by preparing its quantum dots. The study also demonstrates
Quantum dot transport in soil, plants, and insects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al-Salim, Najeh [Industrial Research Ltd, P.O. Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); Barraclough, Emma; Burgess, Elisabeth [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 92169, Victoria Street West, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Clothier, Brent, E-mail: brent.clothier@plantandfood.co.nz [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 11600, Manawatu Mail Centre, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Deurer, Markus; Green, Steve [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 11600, Manawatu Mail Centre, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Malone, Louise [New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd, Private Bag 92169, Victoria Street West, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Weir, Graham [Industrial Research Ltd, P.O. Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand)
2011-08-01
Environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials requires information not only on their toxicity to non-target organisms, but also on their potential exposure pathways. Here we report on the transport and fate of quantum dots (QDs) in the total environment: from soils, through their uptake into plants, to their passage through insects following ingestion. Our QDs are nanoparticles with an average particle size of 6.5 nm. Breakthrough curves obtained with CdTe/mercaptopropionic acid QDs applied to columns of top soil from a New Zealand organic apple orchard, a Hastings silt loam, showed there to be preferential flow through the soil's macropores. Yet the effluent recovery of QDs was just 60%, even after several pore volumes, indicating that about 40% of the influent QDs were filtered and retained by the soil column via some unknown exchange/adsorption/sequestration mechanism. Glycine-, mercaptosuccinic acid-, cysteine-, and amine-conjugated CdSe/ZnS QDs were visibly transported to a limited extent in the vasculature of ryegrass (Lolium perenne), onion (Allium cepa) and chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum sp.) plants when cut stems were placed in aqueous QD solutions. However, they were not seen to be taken up at all by rooted whole plants of ryegrass, onion, or Arabidopsis thaliana placed in these solutions. Leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae fed with these QDs for two or four days, showed fluorescence along the entire gut, in their frass (larval feces), and, at a lower intensity, in their haemolymph. Fluorescent QDs were also observed and elevated cadmium levels detected inside the bodies of adult moths that had been fed QDs as larvae. These results suggest that exposure scenarios for QDs in the total environment could be quite complex and variable in each environmental domain. - Research highlights: {yields} Quantum dots are transported rapidly through soil but half were retained. {yields} Intact roots of plants did not take up quantum dots. Excised plants
Two-layer synchronized ternary quantum-dot cellular automata wire crossings
2012-01-01
Quantum-dot cellular automata are an interesting nanoscale computing paradigm. The introduction of the ternary quantum-dot cell enabled ternary computing, and with the recent development of a ternary functionally complete set of elementary logic primitives and the ternary memorizing cell design of complex processing structures is becoming feasible. The specific nature of the ternary quantum-dot cell makes wire crossings one of the most problematic areas of ternary quantum-dot cellular automata circuit design. We hereby present a two-layer wire crossing that uses a specific clocking scheme, which ensures the crossed wires have the same effective delay. PMID:22507371
Switching CdSe quantum dot luminescence with a-Si:H.
Di Vece, M; van Duren, S N F; van den Heuvel, D J; Mitoraj, D; Kuang, Y; Gerritsen, H C; Schropp, R E I
2013-08-09
Dynamical control of the luminescence of quantum dots is highly important for technology in the field of telecommunication, displays, and photovoltaics. In this work we use an a-Si:H solar cell structure in which CdSe quantum dots are sandwiched. By applying a positive potential over the device, charge carriers generated in the quantum dots are transported to the a-Si:H layer and transformed into electrical energy, changing the luminescence intensity with a switching time lower than 60 ms. This is a promising new step towards using quantum dots in optical switching devices.
Single photon emission from charged excitons in CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots
Belyaev, K. G.; Rakhlin, M. V.; Sorokin, S. V.; Klimko, G. V.; Gronin, S. V.; Sedova, I. V.; Mukhin, I. S.; Ivanov, S. V.; Toropov, A. A.
2017-11-01
We report on micro-photoluminescence studies of individual self-organized CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots intended for single-photon-source applications in a visible spectral range. The quantum dots surface density below 1010 per cm2 was achieved by using a thermally activated regime of molecular beam epitaxy that allowed fabrication of etched mesa-structures containing only a few emitting quantum dots. The single photon emission with the autocorrelation function g(2)(0)<0.2 was detected and identified as recombination of charged excitons in the individual quantum dot.
Intracellular distribution of nontargeted quantum dots after natural uptake and microinjection
Damalakiene, Leona; Karabanovas, Vitalijus; Bagdonas, Saulius; Valius, Mindaugas; Rotomskis, Ricardas
2013-01-01
Background: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of natural uptake of nonfunctionalized quantum dots in comparison with microinjected quantum dots by focusing on their time-dependent accumulation and intracellular localization in different cell lines. Methods: The accumulation dynamics of nontargeted CdSe/ZnS carboxyl-coated quantum dots (emission peak 625 nm) was analyzed in NIH3T3, MCF-7, and HepG2 cells by applying the methods of confocal and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. Intracellular colocalization of the quantum dots was investigated by staining with Lysotracker®. Results: The uptake of quantum dots into cells was dramatically reduced at a low temperature (4°C), indicating that the process is energy-dependent. The uptake kinetics and imaging of intracellular localization of quantum dots revealed three accumulation stages of carboxyl-coated quantum dots at 37°C, ie, a plateau stage, growth stage, and a saturation stage, which comprised four morphological phases: adherence to the cell membrane; formation of granulated clusters spread throughout the cytoplasm; localization of granulated clusters in the perinuclear region; and formation of multivesicular body-like structures and their redistribution in the cytoplasm. Diverse quantum dots containing intracellular vesicles in the range of approximately 0.5–8 μm in diameter were observed in the cytoplasm, but none were found in the nucleus. Vesicles containing quantum dots formed multivesicular body-like structures in NIH3T3 cells after 24 hours of incubation, which were Lysotracker-negative in serum-free medium and Lysotracker-positive in complete medium. The microinjected quantum dots remained uniformly distributed in the cytosol for at least 24 hours. Conclusion: Natural uptake of quantum dots in cells occurs through three accumulation stages via a mechanism requiring energy. The sharp contrast of the intracellular distribution after microinjection of quantum dots in comparison
Onion like growth and inverted many-particle energies in quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bimberg, D.
2008-01-01
Use of surfactants like antimony in MOCVD growth enables novel growth regimes for quantum dots (QDs). The quantum dot ensemble luminescence no longer appears as a single inhomogeneously broadened peak but shows a multi-modal structure. Quantum dot subensembles are forming which differ in height by exactly one monolayer. For the first time the systematic dependence of excitonic properties on quantum dot size and shape can be investigated in detail. Both biexcitonic binding energy and excitonic fine-structure splitting vary from large positive through zero to negative values. Correlation and piezoelectric effects explain the observations
Property analysis of colloidal quantum dot in semiconductor nanostructure
Mary, Nusrat Irin Chowdhury; Islam, Md. Ariful
2017-12-01
Colloidal Quantum Dots (Semiconductor self-assembled QD), as a result of their fully quantized electronic states and high radiative efficiencies, which enable major advances in fundamental physics studies of electrons in zero-dimensionality semiconductor systems and in a variety of novel device applications. This paper reviews the analysis, covering the simulation reading of conical quantum dot with both-single QD and multi-layer QD structure as well as the analytical model for exploration of conical QD waveshape of the quantum-confined systems with different light polarized absorption and sweep parameters. The corresponding temperature of the electron Fermi level with different boundary conditions with the X, Y, and Z - dimensional of the QD conical structure is a responsible for unlike eigen-energy states. The paper shows a comprehensive understanding of the quantum confined 0D electronic structure with its conduction and valence energy band and with varying eigen-energy states, this dynamic process underpins the various device applications.
Shen, Jian Qi; Gu, Jing
2018-04-01
Atomic phase coherence (quantum interference) in a multilevel atomic gas exhibits a number of interesting phenomena. Such an atomic quantum coherence effect can be generalized to a quantum-dot molecular dielectric. Two quantum dots form a quantum-dot molecule, which can be described by a three-level Λ-configuration model { |0> ,|1> ,|2> } , i.e., the ground state of the molecule is the lower level |0> and the highly degenerate electronic states in the two quantum dots are the two upper levels |1> ,|2> . The electromagnetic characteristics due to the |0>-|1> transition can be controllably manipulated by a tunable gate voltage (control field) that drives the |2>-|1> transition. When the gate voltage is switched on, the quantum-dot molecular state can evolve from one steady state (i.e., |0>-|1> two-level dressed state) to another steady state (i.e., three-level coherent-population-trapping state). In this process, the electromagnetic characteristics of a quantum-dot molecular dielectric, which is modified by the gate voltage, will also evolve. In this study, the transient evolutional behavior of the susceptibility of a quantum-dot molecular thin film and its reflection spectrum are treated by using the density matrix formulation of the multilevel systems. The present field-tunable and frequency-sensitive electromagnetic characteristics of a quantum-dot molecular thin film, which are sensitive to the applied gate voltage, can be utilized to design optical switching devices.
Resonant tunneling spectroscopy of valley eigenstates on a donor-quantum dot coupled system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kobayashi, T., E-mail: t.kobayashi@unsw.edu.au; Heijden, J. van der; House, M. G.; Hile, S. J.; Asshoff, P.; Simmons, M. Y.; Rogge, S. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 New South Wales (Australia); Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F. [Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Vinet, M. [Université Grenoble-Alpes and CEA, LETI, MINATEC, 38000 Grenoble (France)
2016-04-11
We report on electronic transport measurements through a silicon double quantum dot consisting of a donor and a quantum dot. Transport spectra show resonant tunneling peaks involving different valley states, which illustrate the valley splitting in a quantum dot on a Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. The detailed gate bias dependence of double dot transport allows a first direct observation of the valley splitting in the quantum dot, which is controllable between 160 and 240 μeV with an electric field dependence 1.2 ± 0.2 meV/(MV/m). A large valley splitting is an essential requirement for implementing a physical electron spin qubit in a silicon quantum dot.
Shape, strain, and ordering of lateral InAs quantum dot molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krause, B.; Metzger, T.H.; Rastelli, A.; Songmuang, R.; Kiravittaya, S.; Schmidt, O. G.
2005-01-01
The results of an x-ray study on freestanding, self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy are presented. The studied samples cover the range from statistically distributed single quantum dots to quantum dot bimolecules, and finally to quantum dot quadmolecules. The x-ray diffraction data of the single quantum dots and the bimolecules, obtained in grazing incidence geometry, have been analyzed using the isostrain model. An extended version of the isostrain model has been developed, including the lateral arrangement of the quantum dots within a quantum dot molecule and the superposition of the scattering from different parts of the dots. This model has been applied to the scattering maps of all three samples. Quantitative information about the positions of the dots, the shape, and the lattice parameter distribution of their crystalline core has been obtained. For the single dot and the bimolecule, a strong similarity of the shape and lattice parameter distribution has been found, in agreement with the similarity of their photoluminescence spectra
Optically Controlled Quantum Dot Spins for Scaleable Quantum Computing
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Steel, Duncan G
2006-01-01
.... Sham is responsible for theoretical support & concept development. The group at Michigan along with this QuaCGR student are responsible for experimental demonstration of key experimental demonstrations for quantum computing...
Colloidal Quantum-Dot Photodetectors Exploiting Multiexciton Generation
Sukhovatkin, V.
2009-06-18
Multiexciton generation (MEG) has been indirectly observed in colloidal quantum dots, both in solution and the solid state, but has not yet been shown to enhance photocurrent in an optoelectronic device. Here, we report a class of solution-processed photoconductive detectors, sensitive in the ultraviolet, visible, and the infrared, in which the internal gain is dramatically enhanced for photon energies Ephoton greater than 2.7 times the quantum-confined bandgap Ebandgap. Three thin-film devices with different quantum-confined bandgaps (set by the size of their constituent lead sulfide nanoparticles) show enhancement determined by the bandgap-normalized photon energy, Ephoton/Ebandgap, which is a clear signature of MEG. The findings point to a valuable role for MEG in enhancing the photocurrent in a solid-state optoelectronic device. We compare the conditions on carrier excitation, recombination, and transport for photoconductive versus photovoltaic devices to benefit from MEG.
Multiple exciton generation in quantum dot-based solar cells
Goodwin, Heather; Jellicoe, Tom C.; Davis, Nathaniel J. L. K.; Böhm, Marcus L.
2018-01-01
Multiple exciton generation (MEG) in quantum-confined semiconductors is the process by which multiple bound charge-carrier pairs are generated after absorption of a single high-energy photon. Such charge-carrier multiplication effects have been highlighted as particularly beneficial for solar cells where they have the potential to increase the photocurrent significantly. Indeed, recent research efforts have proved that more than one charge-carrier pair per incident solar photon can be extracted in photovoltaic devices incorporating quantum-confined semiconductors. While these proof-of-concept applications underline the potential of MEG in solar cells, the impact of the carrier multiplication effect on the device performance remains rather low. This review covers recent advancements in the understanding and application of MEG as a photocurrent-enhancing mechanism in quantum dot-based photovoltaics.
All-Quantum-Dot Infrared Light-Emitting Diodes
Yang, Zhenyu
2015-12-22
© 2015 American Chemical Society. Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising candidates for infrared electroluminescent devices. To date, CQD-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have employed a CQD emission layer sandwiched between carrier transport layers built using organic materials and inorganic oxides. Herein, we report the infrared LEDs that use quantum-tuned materials for each of the hole-transporting, the electron-transporting, and the light-emitting layers. We successfully tailor the bandgap and band position of each CQD-based component to produce electroluminescent devices that exhibit emission that we tune from 1220 to 1622 nm. Devices emitting at 1350 nm achieve peak external quantum efficiency up to 1.6% with a low turn-on voltage of 1.2 V, surpassing previously reported all-inorganic CQD LEDs.
Kondo memory in driven strongly correlated quantum dots.
Zheng, Xiao; Yan, YiJing; Di Ventra, Massimiliano
2013-08-23
We investigate the real-time current response of strongly correlated quantum dot systems under sinusoidal driving voltages. By means of an accurate hierarchical equations of motion approach, we demonstrate the presence of prominent memory effects induced by the Kondo resonance on the real-time current response. These memory effects appear as distinctive hysteresis line shapes and self-crossing features in the dynamic current-voltage characteristics, with concomitant excitation of odd-number overtones. They emerge as a cooperative effect of quantum coherence-due to inductive behavior-and electron correlations-due to the Kondo resonance. We also show the suppression of memory effects and the transition to classical behavior as a function of temperature. All these phenomena can be observed in experiments and may lead to novel quantum memory applications.
Quantum interference effects for the electronic fluctuations in quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramos, J.G.G.S. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas; Hussein, M.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Barbosa, A.L.R. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UAEADTec/UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Ensino a Distancia. Pos-Graduacao em Fisica Aplicada
2014-07-01
For the main quantum interference term of coherent electronic transport, we study the effect of temperature, perpendicular and/or parallel magnetic fields, spin-orbit coupling and tunneling rates in both metallic grains and mesoscopic heterostructures. We show that the Zeeman effects determines a crucial way to characterize the quantum interference phenomena of the noise for anisotropic systems (mesoscopic heterostructures), qualitatively distinct from those observed in isotropic structures (metallic grains). (author)
Interplay between Kondo and Majorana Interactions in Quantum Dots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meng Cheng
2014-09-01
Full Text Available We study the properties of a quantum dot coupled to a topological superconductor and a normal lead and discuss the interplay between Kondo-and Majorana-induced couplings in quantum dots. The latter appears due to the presence of Majorana zero-energy modes localized, for example, at the ends of the one-dimensional superconductor. We investigate the phase diagram of the system as a function of Kondo and Majorana interactions using a renormalization-group analysis, a slave-boson mean-field theory, and numerical simulations using the density-matrix renormalization-group method. We show that, in addition to the well-known Kondo fixed point, the system may flow to a new fixed point controlled by the Majorana-induced coupling, which is characterized by nontrivial correlations between a localized spin on the dot and the fermion parity of the topological superconductor and the normal lead. We compute several measurable quantities, such as differential tunneling conductance and impurity-spin susceptibility, which highlight some peculiar features characteristic to the Majorana fixed point.
Readout of a single electron spin in a double quantum dot using a quantum point contact
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Jianping; Ouyang Shihua; You, J Q; Lam, C.-H.
2008-01-01
We study the dynamics of a single electron spin in a double quantum dot (DQD) and its readout via a quantum point contact (QPC). We model the system microscopically and derive rate equations for the reduced electron density matrix of the DQD. Two cases with one and two electrons in the DQD are studied. In the one-electron case, with different Zeeman splittings in the two dots, the electron spin states are distinctly characterized by a constant and an oscillatory current through the QPC. In the two-electron case, the readout of the spin state of the electron in one of the dots called the qubit dot is essentially similar after considering hyperfine interactions between the electrons and the nuclear spins of the host materials and a uniform magnetic field applied to the DQD. Moreover, to ensure that an electron is properly injected into the qubit dot, we propose to determine the success of the electron injection from the variations of the QPC current after applying an oscillating magnetic field to the qubit dot