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Sample records for triinu trv oliver

  1. Olive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ozonated olive oil) is promoted for everything from bee stings and insect bites to bacterial and fungal ... care seems to improve eczema. Cancer. People who eat more olive oil seem to have a lower ...

  2. Stability Performance Dilemma in Hydronic Radiators with TRV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Thermostatic Radiator Valves (TRV) have proved their significant contribution in energy savings for several years. However, at low heat demands, an unstable oscillatory behavior is usually observed and well known for these devices. It happens due to the nonlinear dynamics of the radiator itself w...

  3. Investigation of Transformer Model for TRV Calculation by EMTP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, Myo Min; Ikeda, Hisatoshi; Harada, Katsuhiko; Ohtsuka, Shinya; Hikita, Masayuki; Haginomori, Eiichi; Koshiduka, Tadashi

    Analysis of the EMTP transformer model was performed with the 4kVA two windings low voltage transformer with the current injection (CIJ) measurement method to study a transient recovery voltage (TRV) at the transformer limited fault (TLF) current interrupting condition. Tested transformer's impedance was measured by the frequency response analyzer (FRA). From FRA measurement graphs leakage inductance, stray capacitance and resistance were calculated. The EMTP transformer model was constructed with those values. The EMTP simulation was done for a current injection circuit by using transformer model. The experiment and simulation results show a reasonable agreement.

  4. Thermostatic Radiator Valve (TRV) Demonstration Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This research measured the energy savings associated with installing thermostatic radiator valves (TRVs) on one-pipe low-pressure steam systems in New York City multifamily buildings. There were three primary objectives: to determine whether fuel consumption was lower in buildings using TRVs; to determine if occupants would accept the TRVs; and to determine if overheating in apartments could be eliminated using TRVs. Eight buildings, ranging in size from 15 to 26 apartments, were monitored for three years. Each building was audited to determine fuel history and quick-payback energy conservation measures. The project covered three phases; phase-1 consisted of installing low-cost energy conservation measures such as pipe insulation, air vents and burner tune-tips; determining each building`s baseline energy use, and recording baseline apartment temperatures. TRV installations occurred in phases 2 and 3. In phase-2, TRVs were installed in half the apartments in four buildings. In phase-3, TRVs were installed in the remainder of the apartments. Experimental results were conclusive. Buildings with overheated apartments achieved energy savings through the installation of TRVs. The authors research shows an average reduction of 9.45% in space heating energy use occurred with partial installation of TRVs, and savings of 15.5% were achieved after full installation. Buildings with the highest average apartment temperatures during the base year showed the greatest energy savings. Simple payback, based on an installed price of $50 per TRV, averaged 3.1 years.

  5. Noortele ja lastele mõeldud kevadhooaeg Endla teatris / Triinu Ojalo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojalo, Triinu, 1979-

    2010-01-01

    Peatselt saja aastane Endla teater on endiselt nooruslik – viiest uuslavastusest kolm on mõeldud lastele ja koolinoortele: Triinu Ojalo ja Katrin Maimik „Mis valemiga?”, lavastaja Enn Keerd, Mati Unt „Kolm põrsakest ja hea hunt”, lavastaja Enn Keerd, Astrid Lindgren „Röövlitütar Ronja” lavastaja Kalju Komissarov

  6. Activity and specificity of TRV-mediated gene editing in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Zahir

    2015-06-03

    © 2015 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Plant trait engineering requires efficient targeted genome-editing technologies. Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPRs)/ CRISPR associated (Cas) type II system is used for targeted genome-editing applications across eukaryotic species including plants. Delivery of genome engineering reagents and recovery of mutants remain challenging tasks for in planta applications. Recently, we reported the development of Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-mediated genome editing in Nicotiana benthamiana. TRV infects the growing points and possesses small genome size; which facilitate cloning, multiplexing, and agroinfections. Here, we report on the persistent activity and specificity of the TRV-mediated CRISPR/Cas9 system for targeted modification of the Nicotiana benthamiana genome. Our data reveal the persistence of the TRVmediated Cas9 activity for up to 30 d post-agroinefection. Further, our data indicate that TRV-mediated genome editing exhibited no off-target activities at potential off-targets indicating the precision of the system for plant genome engineering. Taken together, our data establish the feasibility and exciting possibilities of using virus-mediated CRISPR/Cas9 for targeted engineering of plant genomes.

  7. Oliver Twist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Oliver Twist is one of Dickens's most popular novels, with many famous film, television and musical adaptations. It is a classic story of good against evil, packed with humour and pathos, drama and suspense, in which the orphaned Oliver is brought up in a harsh workhouse, and then taken in and

  8. olive ray

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. OLIVE RAY. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 42 Issue 8 August 2017 pp 1227-1238. Switched-boost action: a phenomenon for achieving time-divisionmultiplexed multi-port power transfer for nanogrid applications · OLIVE RAY SANTANU MISHRA · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  9. Milliste plaanidega lähed vastu uuele õppeaastale? / Triinu Lepp, Gleb Tšurbanov, Erik Paemurru, Steven Huang...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad hariduskolleegiumi algkooli 3. klassi õpilane Egert, prantsuse lütseumi 12. klassi õpilane Triinu Lepp, Sillamäe kutsekooli 3. kursuse õpilane Gleb Tšurbanov, Tallinna reaalkooli 11. klassi õpilane Erik Paemurru, Toronto Crescenti keskkooli õpilane Steven Huang, kunstiakadeemia muinsuskaitse- ja restaureerimisosakonna õppejõud Jaan Tamm, Tartu Miina Härma gümnaasiumi 2. a klassi õpilane Erki Külaots, Tallinna 21. kooli 11. klassi õpilane Sander Kaur ja Tapa gümnaasiumi 7. klassi õpilane Evelin Orgse

  10. Olives and olive oil in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, R W; Haubner, R; Würtele, G; Hull, E; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H

    2004-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the latter part of the twentieth century demonstrate fairly conclusively that the people of the Mediterranean basin enjoy a healthy lifestyle with decreased incidence of degenerative diseases. The data show that populations within Europe that consume the so-called 'Mediterranean diet' have lower incidences of major illnesses such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Studies have suggested that the health-conferring benefits of the Mediterranean diet are due mainly to a high consumption of fibre, fish, fruits and vegetables. More recent research has focused on other important factors such as olives and olive oil. Obviously fibre (especially wholegrain-derived products), fruits and vegetables supply an important source of dietary antioxidants. What is the contribution from olives and olive oil? Apparently the potential is extremely high but epidemiologic studies rarely investigate consumption of these very important products in-depth, perhaps due to a lack of exact information on the types and amounts of antioxidants present. Recent studies have shown that olives and olive oil contain antioxidants in abundance. Olives (especially those that have not been subjected to the Spanish brining process) contain up to 16 g/kg typified by acteosides, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and phenyl propionic acids. Olive oil, especially extra virgin, contains smaller amounts of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, but also contains secoiridoids and lignans in abundance. Both olives and olive oil contain substantial amounts of other compounds deemed to be anticancer agents (e.g. squalene and terpenoids) as well as the peroxidation-resistant lipid oleic acid. It seems probable that olive and olive oil consumption in southern Europe represents an important contribution to the beneficial effects on health of the Mediterranean diet.

  11. TRV0109101, a G Protein-Biased Agonist of the µ-Opioid Receptor, Does Not Promote Opioid-Induced Mechanical Allodynia following Chronic Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblish, Michael; Carr, Richard; Siuda, Edward R; Rominger, David H; Gowen-MacDonald, William; Cowan, Conrad L; Crombie, Aimee L; Violin, Jonathan D; Lark, Michael W

    2017-08-01

    Prescription opioids are a mainstay in the treatment of acute moderate to severe pain. However, chronic use leads to a host of adverse consequences including tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), leading to more complex treatment regimens and diminished patient compliance. Patients with OIH paradoxically experience exaggerated nociceptive responses instead of pain reduction after chronic opioid usage. The development of OIH and tolerance tend to occur simultaneously and, thus, present a challenge when studying the molecular mechanisms driving each phenomenon. We tested the hypothesis that a G protein-biased µ -opioid peptide receptor (MOPR) agonist would not induce symptoms of OIH, such as mechanical allodynia, following chronic administration. We observed that the development of opioid-induced mechanical allodynia (OIMA), a model of OIH, was absent in β -arrestin1 -/- and β -arrestin2 -/- mice in response to chronic administration of conventional opioids such as morphine, oxycodone and fentanyl, whereas tolerance developed independent of OIMA. In agreement with the β -arrestin knockout mouse studies, chronic administration of TRV0109101, a G protein-biased MOPR ligand and structural analog of oliceridine, did not promote the development of OIMA but did result in drug tolerance. Interestingly, following induction of OIMA by morphine or fentanyl, TRV0109101 was able to rapidly reverse allodynia. These observations establish a role for β -arrestins in the development of OIH, independent of tolerance, and suggest that the use of G protein-biased MOPR ligands, such as oliceridine and TRV0109101, may be an effective therapeutic avenue for managing chronic pain with reduced propensity for opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  12. Prevalence and distribution of parasites and pathogens of triatominae from Argentina, with emphasis on Triatoma infestans and Triatoma virus TrV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Gerardo A; Echeverria, María G; Susevich, María L; Becnel, James J; Pelizza, Sebastián A; García, Juan J

    2009-11-01

    Chagas' disease is the most important endemic arthropod-zoonosis in Argentina with an estimated 1.6 million people infected with the causative agent Trypanosoma cruzi. Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas' disease in Argentina. A survey for parasites and pathogens of Triatominae was conducted from August 2002 to February 2005. Collections of insects were made in domiciles, peridomiciles, and in the natural habitats of the Triatominae. Insects from these collections were dissected and their organs and tissues examined for flagellates. Frass from these insects was collected and examined for detection of the entomopathogenic virus Triatoma virus (TrV) using AC-ELISA and PCR. Triatominae belonging to four species, T. infestans (n=1646), Triatoma guasayana (n=4), Triatoma platensis (n=1) and Triatoma sordida (n=5) were collected from 62 sites located in 13 provinces of Argentina. Triatoma virus and two protozoan species, Blastocrithidia triatomae and T. cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, were found infecting Triatominae. The total prevalence of TrV in 1646 T. infestans analyzed by ELISA was 9.66% (159/1646) from 7 to 13 provinces where collections were made. Triatoma virus positive triatomines were found in 17 of 62 populations when examined by AC-ELISA but in 38 of 62 populations when PCR was used for detection. The prevalence of B. triatomae in T. infestans was 0.43% (7/1646), while the prevalence of T. cruzi was 1.3% (21/1646). This is the first study on the diversity, distribution and prevalence of flagellated protozoa and TrV of Triatominae in endemic Chagas' disease regions of Argentina.

  13. Olive oil's extra benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-17

    Could a Mediterranean diet including extra virgin olive oil reduce the risk of breast cancer? Niki Mourouti and Demosthenes Panagiotakos' study in Evidence Based Nursing examined the effects on cancer risks of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil.

  14. Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) based silencing of cotton enoyl-CoA reductase (ECR) gene and the role of very long chain fatty acids in normal leaf development and resistance to wilt disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) assay was employed as a reverse genetic approach to study gene function in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). This approach was used to investigate the function of Enoyl-CoA reductase (GhECR) in pathogen defense. Amino acid sequence al...

  15. Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragakis, George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil processing is introduced in food industry at the end of the nineteenth century and a lot of improvements have been initialized since. The steps for refining are, settling, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing. Monitoring of effective refining and the use of processes that remove less minor components of olive oil, like polyphenols and tocopherols are some issues for the process. The stringent environmental requirements and the target of industry for continuous improvements and cost savings, forcing equipment manufacturers to innovations and new products. The complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pomace oil process and the utilization of distillates are also important areas for research and development.El procesado del aceite de oliva se introdujo en la industria alimentaria a finales del siglo diecinueve y desde entonces se han realizado considerables mejoras. Los pasos de refinación son: decantado, neutralización, decoloración, y desodorización. La monitorización de una refinación efectiva así como el uso de procesos que eliminen una menor proporción de componentes menores del aceite de oliva, tales como polifenoles y tocoferoles, son algunos de los objetivos del proceso. La rigurosa normativa medioambiental y el interés de la industria por introducir mejoras y ahorro de costes han forzado a los fabricantes de equipos a innovar y desarrollar nuevos productos. La eliminación completa de los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos durante el refinado del aceite de orujo y la utilización de los destilados son también áreas importantes de investigación y desarrollo.

  16. Oliver St John Gogarty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R W

    1997-01-01

    Oliver St John Gogarty--Otolaryngologist to fashionable Edwardian Dublin--was a distinguished poet and a Senator in the fledgling Irish Free State after its establishment in 1922. He numbered amongst his acquaintances the poet William Butler Yeats, the novelist James Joyce and a host of political and literary persona who helped to shape modern Ireland. He was satirised as 'stately plump Buck Mulligan' in Joyce's novel Ulysses.

  17. Olive oil and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covas, María-Isabel; Konstantinidou, Valentini; Fitó, Montserrat

    2009-12-01

    The Mediterranean diet, in which olive oil is the primary source of fat, is associated with a low mortality for cardiovascular disease. Data concerning olive oil consumption and primary end points for cardiovascular disease are scarce. However, a large body of knowledge exists providing evidence of the benefits of olive oil consumption on secondary end points for the disease. Besides the classical benefits on the lipid profile provided by olive oil consumption compared with that of saturated fat, a broad spectrum of benefits on cardiovascular risk factors is now emerging associated with olive oil consumption. We review the state of the art concerning the knowledge of the most important biological and clinical effects related to olive oil and its minor components. The recent advances in human nutrigenomics associated with olive oil consumption will also be assessed. The wide range of benefits associated with olive oil consumption could contribute to explaining the low rate of cardiovascular mortality found in southern European-Mediterranean countries, in comparison with other westernized countries, despite a high prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors.

  18. Olive oil and haemostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Christine M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the traditional Mediterranean diet; a diet that may explain the low rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Southern European. (Extra virgin Olive oil is a good source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and phenolic compounds, both of which have been investigated for their effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, measures of oxidation and factors related to thrombosis. This issue aims to summarise the current understanding of the effects of such dietary components on the haemostatic system and subsequent risk of CVD. To date, evidence suggests that diets rich in MUFA and thus in olive oil attenuate the thrombotic response via a reduction in platelet aggregation and in postprandial FVII levels. Thrombosis is a key event in causing heart attacks and strokes, which if modulated by diet could pose a cost-effective way of reducing CVD incidence in populations that adhere to MUFA/olive oil-rich diets long-term.El aceite de oliva es un componente esencial de la dieta Mediterránea que puede explicar el bajo índice de enfermedad cardiovascular (CVD en los países del sur de Europa. El aceite de oliva (extra virgen es una fuente de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA y de compuestos fenólicos, de gran interés por sus efectos, entre otros, sobre las lipoproteínas y los lípidos plasmáticos, su capacidad antioxidante y su papel en la expresión de factores relacionados con la trombosis. En este capítulo se presenta un resumen del conocimiento actual sobre la influencia derivada del consumo de aceite de oliva (extra virgen en el sistema hemostático y el riesgo de CVD. Por ahora se sabe que dietas ricas en MUFA (aceite de oliva pueden atenuar la respuesta trombótica mediante la reducción de la agregación plaquetaria y de las concentraciones postprandiales del factor VII de coagulación (FVII. La trombosis es un evento relevante en los ataques al corazón y el ictus, de manera que su modulación con la dieta puede

  19. Olive oil and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decreased risk of some cancers. However, the epidemiological data do not fully agree with the experimental ones previously published. Minor compounds from (extra virgin olive oil, mainly phenolics like hydroxytyrosol and tocopherol, are antioxidants and radical scavenging. They can minimize the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by fatty acid peroxidation and in the case of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA the DNA damage can be reduced by a lower lipid peroxidation.Numerosos estudios en los últimos años han determinado la existencia de una asociación entre las grasas procedentes de la dieta y el cáncer. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA de la familia n -6 pueden tener efectos proliferativos y angiogénicos, lo cual se debe en parte a que son especialmente sensibles a la peroxidación lipídica, formándose aldehídos que reaccionan con las bases del ADN y por lo tanto aductos exocíclicos con propiedades genotóxicas. Por el contrario, el consumo de dietas ricas en ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA está relacionado con un menor riesgo de distintos tipos de cáncer. Si bien, los datos epidemiológicos no siempre concuerdan con los datos experimentales. Los componentes menores del aceite de oliva (extra virgen, fundamentalmente el hidroxitirosol y tocoferol, son antioxidantes y secuestradores de radicales libres. Pueden minimizar la cantidad de especies reactivas de oxígeno que se generan por la peroxidación lipídica y además los

  20. Exploring Japanese olive oil consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mtimet, Nadhem; Kashiwagi, Kenichi; Zaibet, Lokman; Masakazu, N.

    2008-01-01

    During the last two decades, olive oil consumption in Japan is showing an increasing trend due to dietary and health concerns. Traditional olive oil producer and exporter countries such as Italy, Spain and Tunisia have interest to reinforce and to increase their penetration in the Japanese market. This study examines Japanese olive oil consumer behaviour by the use of the conjoint analysis technique. Five attributes have been chosen to design the experiment: region of origin, price, olive oil...

  1. Sensitization to olive oil (olea europeae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Joost, T.; Smitt, J. H.; van Ketel, W. G.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitization to olive oil is seldom reported in the literature. By use of epicutaneous tests a delayed type of hypersensitivity to pure freshly-prepared olive oil could be demonstrated in two patients. Patch tests with certain major constituents of olive oil; the methyl ester of linoleic acid, the

  2. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. F.; Jespersen, J.; Marckmann, Peter

    1999-01-01

    compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... oil, sunflower oil, or rapeseed oil for periods of 3 wk. On the final day of each period, participants consumed standardized high-fat meals (42% of energy as fat). Fasting and nonfasting blood samples were collected after each period. RESULTS: Mean (+/-SEM) nonfasting peak concentrations of activated...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P

  3. Chemistry and health of olive oil phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerale, Sara; Conlan, Xavier A; Sinclair, Andrew J; Keast, Russell S J

    2009-03-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially attributed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Most recent interest has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have shown that olive oil phenolics have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, and antimicrobial activity. Presumably, regular dietary consumption of virgin olive oil containing phenolic compounds manifests in health benefits associated with a Mediterranean diet. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the physiological effects of olive oil phenolics. Moreover, a number of factors have the ability to affect phenolic concentrations in virgin olive oil, so it is of great importance to understand these factors in order to preserve the essential health promoting benefits of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  4. Potential Contributions of Olives and Olive Oil in the Developing Tourism in Mudanya (Bursa)

    OpenAIRE

    UYLAŞER, Vildan

    2017-01-01

    Turkey is the 3rd country in olive production and 4th country in olive oil production in the world. Olive oil and olive farming has significant economic value both in the national and international arena for Turkey. Olive and olive oil, which are irreplaceable ingredients in our breakfasts, many meals and salads in Turkish kitchen, are the primary source of income for the families in Mudanya. Mudanya has a historical past and it has a significant potential in terms ...

  5. "Oliver Twist": A Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Carol; Fischer, Diana

    This teacher's guide for public television's 3-part adaptation of Charles Dickens's "Oliver Twist" provides information that will help enrich students' viewing of the series, whether or not they read the novel. The guide includes a wide range of discussion and activity ideas; there is also a series Web site and a list of Web resources.…

  6. Olives: less kilos, more watts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flandroy, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ancestral mediterranean basin food, oil olive holds more and more the scientist attention for its high dietetic value. The valorization or the traditional or more and more refining of its by-products or wastes illustrates exemplary the ''lasting development'' concept. 10 refs

  7. Direct olive oil analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, F.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The practical impact of “direct analysis” is undeniable as it strong contributes to enhance the so-called productive analytical features such as expeditiousness, reduction of costs and minimisation of risks for the analysts and environment. The main objective is to establish a reliable bypass to the conventional preliminary operations of the analytical process. This paper offers a systematic approach in this context and emphasises the great field of action of direct methodologies in the routine analysis of olive oil. Two main types of methodologies are considered. On the one hand, the direct determination of volatile components is systematically considered. On the other hand, simple procedures to automatically implement the preliminary operations of the oil analysis using simple devices in which the sample is directly introduced with/without a simple dilution are present and discussed.El impacto práctico del análisis directo es tan innegable como que el contribuye decisivamente a mejorar las denominadas características analíticas relacionadas con la productividad como la rapidez, la reducción de costes y la minimización de riesgos para los analistas y el ambiente. El principal objetivo es establecer un adecuado "bypass" a las operaciones convencionales preliminares del proceso analítico. Este artículo ofrece una propuesta sistemática en este contexto y resalta el gran campo de acción de las metodologías directas en los análisis de rutina del aceite de oliva. Se analizan los dos tipos principales de metodologías. Por una lado, se analiza la determinación directa de los compuestos volátiles. Por el otro, se presentan y discuten los procedimientos simples para implementar automáticamente las operaciones preliminares del análisis del aceite usando sistemas simples en los que la muestra se introduce directamente con/sin un dilución simple.

  8. Olive oil and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galli, Claudio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the fatty acid profile of olive oil, which is high in the monounsaturated oleic acid and appears to be beneficial in reducing several risk factors for coronary heart disease and certain cancers, extra virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, e.g. hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar taste and for its high stability. A body of evidence demonstrates that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants. Although most of these studies have been carried out in vitro, some in vivo experiments confirm that olive oil phenolics are dose-dependently absorbed and that they retain their biological activities after ingestion. These data could in part explain the lower incidence of coronary heart disease in the Mediterranean area, where (extra virgin olive oil is the principal source of fat.La composición del aceite de oliva virgen extra se caracteriza por su contenido en ácidos grasos, fundamentalmente monoinsaturados (ácido oleico beneficiosos para reducir el riesgo de enfermedad coronaria, y en componentes menores, particularmente polifenoles (p.e. hidroxitirosol y oleuropeína responsables de su sabor y estabilidad. Diversos estudios demuestran el poder antioxidante de los compuestos fenólicos del aceite de oliva (virgen extra. Aunque la mayoría de ellos se han realizado in vitro, algunos in vivo parecen confirmar que los polifenoles se absorben dependiendo de la dosis y que retienen las actividades biológicas después de su ingestión. Estos resultados pueden explicar en parte la menor incidencia de enfermedad coronaria en los países del área Mediterránea, donde el aceite de oliva (extra virgen es la principal fuente de grasas.

  9. Physical and chemical properties of olive oil extracted from olive cultivars grown in Shiraz and Kazeroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homapour, M.; Hamedi, M.; Moslehishad, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon......, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Materials and methods: The composition of olive oil is significantly affected by the cultivar and climatic conditions. The present study determined the chemical characteristics of olive oil extracted from two major Iranian varieties of olive (yellow...... and local oil-grade) in Shiraz and Kazeroon, two major olive-producing areas in Fars province. Results: The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of both cultivars are in accordance with national and international standards. There was a significant difference in acidity, iodine content...

  10. 75 FR 22363 - United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... attributes. Sediment often forms at the bottom of containers of virgin olive oil. This vegetable water can... olive-pomace oil are not necessary because this measurement determines the degree of refining. AMS... occurring alpha-tocopherol which is removed during the refining process of producing olive-pomace oil. AMS...

  11. Sample preparation approaches for the analysis of pesticide residues in olives and olive oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural practices generally require the use of pesticides by olive growers for the best olive and olive oil production. Thus, analytical methods are needed to identify and quantify the pesticide residues that may be present, and ensure that the product complies with regulatory requirements. I...

  12. Solar drying in greenhouse of mixture of olive mill wastewater and olive cake in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhytar, H.; Ismaili-Alaoui, M.; Perraud-Gaime, L.; Macarie, H.; Roussos, S.

    2009-01-01

    Morocco is a country which produces olive oil extensively and this industry within the country is currently under huge expansion. This particular industry, which is usually realized with triphasic processes using the technique of pressing, generates tons of wastes: olive mill wastewater (OMWW) (liquid waste) and olive cake (solid waste). (Author)

  13. Olive Mill wastewater bioremediation towards detoxification

    OpenAIRE

    Paixão, Susana M.; Ribeiro, Belina; Sàágua, M. C.; Baeta-Hall, Lina; Correia, Anabela; Duarte, José Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Olive oil production is a traditional agricultural industry in Mediterranean countries and Portugal is one of the ten major producers. This industry generates an effluent, olive mill wastewater (OMW), which does not undergo any treatment and, usually, is stored in evaporation lagoons or spread on the land. Disposal of olive oil mill wastewaters is a serious environmental problem due to its high organic loading, presence of polyphenols and tannins, high content in suspended solids and acidity,...

  14. Virgin olive oil yeasts: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, Gino; Zullo, Biagi Angelo

    2018-04-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on virgin olive oil yeasts. Newly produced olive oil contains solid particles and micro drops of vegetation water in which yeasts reproduce to become the typical microbiota of olive oil. To date, about seventeen yeast species have been isolated from different types of olive oils and their by-products, of which six species have been identified as new species. Certain yeast species contribute greatly to improving the sensorial characteristics of the newly produced olive oil, whereas other species are considered harmful as they can damage the oil quality through the production of unpleasant flavors and triacylglycerol hydrolysis. Studies carried out in certain yeast strains have demonstrated the presence of defects in olive oil treated with Candida adriatica, Nakazawaea wickerhamii and Candida diddensiae specific strains, while other olive oil samples treated with other Candida diddensiae strains were defect-free after four months of storage and categorized as extra virgin. A new acetic acid producing yeast species, namely, Brettanomyces acidodurans sp. nov., which was recently isolated from olive oil, could be implicated in the wine-vinegary defect of the product. Other aspects related to the activity of the lipase-producing yeasts and the survival of the yeast species in the flavored olive oils are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Olive oil: composition and health benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, D.M.; López Cortés, I.; Salazar García, Domingo C.

    2017-01-01

    The production of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) in Spain is very high, it reached 1 million tonnes in the last olive oil campaign, with over two million hectares planted with olive trees. This crop is distributed in over six different bioclimatic zones and with more than 100 cultivars, many of them native from a pomological point of view. Among the olive areas of Spain, Andalusia, Extremadura, Catalonia and Valencia stand out, next to the Central Region (Castilla-La Mancha). Each one of them ...

  16. A randomized, Phase IIb study investigating oliceridine (TRV130, a novel µ-receptor G-protein pathway selective (µ-GPS modulator, for the management of moderate to severe acute pain following abdominoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singla N

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Neil Singla,1 Harold S Minkowitz,2 David G Soergel,3 David A Burt,3 Ruth Ann Subach,3 Monica Y Salamea,3 Michael J Fossler,3 Franck Skobieranda3 1Lotus Clinical Research, Pasadena, CA, 2Memorial Hermann Memorial City Medical Center, Houston, TX, 3Trevena, Inc, King of Prussia, PA, USA Background: Oliceridine (TRV130, a novel µ-receptor G-protein pathway selective (µ-GPS modulator, was designed to improve the therapeutic window of conventional opioids by activating G-protein signaling while causing low β-arrestin recruitment to the µ receptor. This randomized, double-blind, patient-controlled analgesia Phase IIb study was conducted to investigate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of oliceridine compared with morphine and placebo in patients with moderate to severe pain following abdominoplasty (NCT02335294; oliceridine is an investigational agent not yet approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Methods: Patients were randomized to receive postoperative regimens of intravenous oliceridine (loading/patient-controlled demand doses [mg/mg]: 1.5/0.10 [regimen A]; 1.5/0.35 [regimen B], morphine (4.0/1.0, or placebo with treatment initiated within 4 hours of surgery and continued as needed for 24 hours. Results: Two hundred patients were treated (n=39, n=39, n=83, and n=39 in the oliceridine regimen A, oliceridine regimen B, morphine, and placebo groups, respectively. Patients were predominantly female (n=198 [99%] and had a mean age of 38.2 years, weight of 71.2 kg, and baseline pain score of 7.7 (on 11-point numeric pain rating scale. Patients receiving the oliceridine regimens had reductions in average pain scores (model-based change in time-weighted average versus placebo over 24 hours of 2.3 and 2.1 points, respectively (P=0.0001 and P=0.0005 versus placebo; patients receiving morphine had a similar reduction (2.1 points; P<0.0001 versus placebo. A lower prevalence of adverse events (AEs related to nausea, vomiting, and respiratory

  17. APPLICATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON PREPARED FROM OLIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olive stones is produced in large quantities during the manufacture process of the olive oil in the Tunisian oleic industry. This by-product. have been converted to granular activated carbon by carbonisation in the nitrogen atmosphere followed by steam activation. Activated carbon so obtained with 1150 m2/g specific surface ...

  18. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from

  19. Olive Banks (1923-2006): An Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, June

    2008-01-01

    This Appreciation of Olive Banks (1923-2006) draws upon her memoir published in Women's History Review, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1999, pp. 401-410, and upon the author's recollections of and correspondence with her. Born into a solidly working-class family, Olive Banks overcame the disadvantages of her social class background and gender to become an…

  20. Olive oil phenols are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Leenen, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies suggest that olive oil phenols are effective antioxidants. The most abundant phenols in olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein- and ligstroside-aglycones and the polar hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the metabolism of those

  1. OLIVE: Speech-Based Video Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Gauvain, Jean-Luc; den Hartog, Jurgen; den Hartog, Jeremy; Netter, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the Olive project which aims to support automated indexing of video material by use of human language technologies. Olive is making use of speech recognition to automatically derive transcriptions of the sound tracks, generating time-coded linguistic elements which serve as the

  2. Olive and olive pomace oil packing and marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzosa, Juan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the industrial installations and equipments used by the olive oil sector for olive oil packing, the different types of containers used (plastic, glass, tin, and carton, and the diverse technologies applied for filling, stoppering, labelling, and packing as well as the trend and new technologies developed according to the material of the containers and the markets’ demands.Some logistic aspects such as palletization, storage, and shipment of final products are also discussed. The use of modern tools and codification systems like EAN 128 permits to follow the product distribution and assure the traceability of packed oils.The last part of the article includes the world and EU production and consumption of olive oil, paying special attention to the peculiarities of the main EU producers (Spain, Italy, Greece, and Portugal. Finally, the olive oil consumption in third countries is analysed and the consumption and its trend in merging markets like USA, Australia, and Japan commented.En este artículo se describen los equipos e instalaciones industriales que utiliza el sector del aceite de oliva para el envasado de los aceites de oliva, los tipos de envases más empleados (plástico, vidrio, metálicos y cartón y las diferentes tecnologías de llenado, taponado, etiquetado y embalado, así como las tendencias y nuevas tecnologías en función del material de los envases y la demanda de los mercados.Se contemplan también aspectos logísticos como el paletizado, el almacenamiento y la expedición del producto terminado. El uso de modernas herramientas y sistemas de codificación como el EAN 128 permite el seguimiento del producto y la trazabilidad de los aceites envasados a lo largo de la cadena de distribución.En la última parte del artículo, se indican cifras de producción y consumo de aceite de oliva en el mundo y en la Unión Europea. Se comentan especialmente las peculiaridades de los principales países productores de la

  3. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Kalogeropoulos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars—excluding clonal selections—is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis.

  4. Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater With Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    YEŞİLADA, Özer

    1999-01-01

    : Olive oil mills produce a liquid waste called olive black water in the olive oil production process. In this study, olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) was analysed and then treated aerobically with fungi. Consequently, high chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenol and color reduction were obtained. High biomass yields and laccase enzyme activities were also determined.

  5. Olive oil in clinical nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The different beneficial effects of olive oil have a rational and scientific basis due to advances in the knowledge of lipid metabolism. The evidence that for a similar plasma cholesterol concentration, the rate of cardiovascular deaths is lower in the Mediterranean countries than in other ones, suggests that the beneficial effects of olive oil may not be only related to the known quantitative changes in plasma lipoproteins, but also to other, as yet unknown or little known, anti-atherogenic factors. The peculiarities of olive oil in terms of certain biochemical, biological and nutritional characteristics, open up a field of application in normal clinical practice. The benefits of olive oil in clinical nutrition correlate with its action on lipid metabolism and the cardiovascular system. Even a moderate increase in the ingestion of monounsaturated fats and a reduction in the ingestion of carbohydrates could be more advantageous in those patients with diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia and/or in those where loss of weight is not a priority. Different studies have also demonstrated the benefits of olive oil in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The chemical composition of extra virgin olive oil contributes to daily requirements of essential fatty acids and active antioxidant nutrients in vitamin E deficiency. This particular and well-balanced situation [oleic acid (18:1 n -9 and minor components in an ideal ratio] undoubtedly has a significant relevance in human clinical nutrition.Los avances en el conocimiento del metabolismo lipídico están permitiendo establecer las bases científicas de los efectos saludables del aceite de oliva. En los países del área Mediterránea, la mortalidad cardiovascular es menor que en otros, aunque la concentración de colesterol en sangre es similar. Es muy probable que la capacidad cardio-protectora del aceite de oliva se relacione con otros factores de riesgo, algunos

  6. The activity of healthy olive microbiota during virgin olive oil extraction influences oil chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichi, Stefania; Romero, Agustí; Tous, Joan; Caixach, Josep

    2011-05-11

    The activity of olive microbiota during the oil extraction process could be a critical point for virgin olive oil quality. With the aim to evaluate the role of microbiological activity during the virgin olive oil extraction process, just before oil extraction freshly collected healthy olive fruits were immersed in contaminated water from an olive mill washing tank. The oils extracted were then compared with control samples from the same batch of hand-picked olives. The presence of lactic and enteric bacteria, fungi and Pseudomonas on the surface of olives was proved to be much higher in washed than in control olives, with increments in cfu/g between 2 and 3 orders of magnitude. The biogenesis of volatile compounds and the extraction of olive polyphenols and pigments were significantly influenced by the microbiological profile of olives even without any previous storage. In most cases the effect of olive microbiota on oil characteristics was greater than the effect exerted by malaxation time and temperature. Oils from microbiologically contaminated olives showed lower amounts of C5 volatiles and higher levels of C6 volatiles from the lipoxygenase pathway and some fermentation products. On the other hand, a decrease of chlorophylls, pheophytins, xanthophylls and the ratio chlorophyll/pheophytin was observed in these oils. Likewise, the microbiological activity during oil extraction led to significantly lower amounts of polyphenols, in particular of oleuropein derivatives. These differences in olive oil chemical composition were reflected in oil sensory characteristics by the decrease of the green and bitter attributes and by the modification of the oil color chromatic ordinates.

  7. The postharvest of mill olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, Khaled

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The greatest deterioration of olive oil is due to poor handling of the olives during the time between harvesting and processing. Storage of olive fruits is carried out by simple heaping in fruit piles, waiting their processing. These fruits develop all kinds of degenerative processes in a short period of time. Oils obtained from them show characteristics hydrolytic and oxidative deteriorations confirmed by their high acidity values, peroxide value or ultraviolet absorbance at 232 and 270 nm. To avoid this situation, the industry is currently reducing the interval between harvesting and processing, through an increase in milling capacity. However, the equipment necessary for preventing the accumulation of fruit in January would be unnecessary for the rest of the season. In this chapter, refrigeration of the olive fruits, or the use of physical treatments, to allow the processing of unripe fruits, are analysed as possible alternatives.El mayor deterioro del aceite de oliva es debido a la inadecuada manipulación de las aceitunas durante el tiempo que media entre su cosecha y su procesado. El almacenamiento de las aceitunas se lleva acabo mediante el simple amontonamiento del fruto, esperando su procesamiento. Estos frutos desarrollan toda clase de procesos degenerativos en un corto periodo de tiempo. Los aceites obtenidos a partir de estos frutos exhiben deterioros hidrolíticos y oxidativos característicos, confirmados por sus valores altos de acidez, de índice de peróxidos o de absorbancia en la región ultravioleta a 232 y 270 nm. Para evitar esta situación, la industria intenta reducir al máximo el intervalo entre la cosecha y el procesado del fruto, mediante un aumento de la capacidad de molturación. Sin embargo, el equipo necesario para prevenir la acumulación de fruto en Enero no se precisa para el resto de la campaña. En este capítulo, la refrigeración de las aceitunas o el uso de tratamientos físicos, que permiten el procesado

  8. The historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uylaşer, Vildan; Yildiz, Gökçen

    2014-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea) is widely cultivated for the production of both oil and table olives and very significant because of its economic value. Olive and olive oil, a traditional food product with thousands of years of history, are the essential components of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. Beside of their economical contribution to national economy, these are an important food in terms of their nutritional value. Olive and olive oil may have a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease and certain cancers because of their high levels of monosaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds. In addition, olives (Olea europaea L.) and olive oils provide a rich source of natural antioxidants. These make them both fairly stable against auto-oxidation and suitable for human health. The aim of this paper is to define the historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

  9. Olives and Bone: A Green Osteoporosis Prevention Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal degeneration due to aging, also known as osteoporosis, is a major health problem worldwide. Certain dietary components confer protection to our skeletal system against osteoporosis. Consumption of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols has been shown to improve bone health. This review aims to summarize the current evidence from cellular, animal and human studies on the skeletal protective effects of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols. Animal studies showed that supplementation of olives, olive oil or olive polyphenols could improve skeletal health assessed via bone mineral density, bone biomechanical strength and bone turnover markers in ovariectomized rats, especially those with inflammation. The beneficial effects of olive oil and olive polyphenols could be attributed to their ability to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. However, variations in the bone protective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects between studies were noted. Cellular studies demonstrated that olive polyphenols enhanced proliferation of pre-osteoblasts, differentiation of osteoblasts and decreased the formation of osteoclast-like cells. However, the exact molecular pathways for its bone health promoting effects are yet to be clearly elucidated. Human studies revealed that daily consumption of olive oil could prevent the decline in bone mineral density and improve bone turnover markers. As a conclusion, olives, olive oil and its polyphenols are potential dietary interventions to prevent osteoporosis among the elderly.

  10. Olive oil and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covas, María-Isabel

    2007-03-01

    Olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet which is associated with a low mortality for cardiovascular disease. In spite of this, data concerning olive oil consumption and primary end points for cardiovascular disease are scarce. However, a large body of knowledge exists providing evidence of the benefits of olive oil consumption on secondary end points for cardiovascular disease. The benefits of olive oil consumption are beyond a mere reduction of the low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Here, we review the state of the art concerning the knowledge of the most important biological and clinical effects related to the intake of olive oil rich diets on lipoprotein metabolism, oxidative damage, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, blood pressure, thrombosis, and carbohydrate metabolism. The extent to which we possess evidence of the health benefits of olive oil minor components is also assessed. The wide range of anti-atherogenic effects associated with olive oil consumption could contribute to explain the low rate of cardiovascular mortality found in Southern European Mediterranean countries, in comparison with other western countries, despite a high prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors.

  11. Application of compost of two-phase olive mill waste on olive grove: effects on soil, olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Hernández, Antonia; Roig, Asunción; Serramiá, Nuria; Civantos, Concepción García-Ortiz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a method for preparing organic fertilizers that represents a suitable management option for the recycling of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in agriculture. Four different composts were prepared by mixing TPOMW with different agro-industrial by-products (olive pruning, sheep manure and horse manure), which were used either as bulking agents or as N sources. The mature composts were added during six consecutive years to a typical "Picual" olive tree grove in the Jaén province (Spain). The effects of compost addition on soil characteristics, crop yield and nutritional status and also the quality of the olive oil were evaluated at the end of the experiment and compared to a control treated only with mineral fertilization. The most important effects on soil characteristics included a significant increase in the availability of N, P, K and an increase of soil organic matter content. The application of TPOMW compost produced a significant increase in olive oil content in the fruit. The compost amended plots had a 15% higher olive oil content than those treatment with inorganic fertilization. These organics amendments maintained the composition and quality of the olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of Volatile Compounds of Virgin Olive Oils with 'Frostbitten Olives' Sensory Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Inmaculada; García-González, Diego L; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Morales, María T

    2017-05-31

    Freeze injuries in olives are responsible for the 'frostbitten olives' sensory defect that is sometimes detected in virgin olive oil. This defect is becoming one of the most common negative attributes today because climate change has modified weather patterns. The temperature changes can take place abruptly, with rapid freeze-thaw cycles, or gradually. These changes produce significant alterations in the quality of the oils. This study analyzed the volatile composition of virgin olive oils characterized with 'frostbitten olives' defect. The volatile information allowed grouping these oils into two types characterized with two different profiles. One of them is characterized by 'soapy' and 'strawberry-like' perceptions and the presence of two volatile compounds (ethyl 2-methyl butanoate and ethyl propanoate). The second profile is characterized by 'wood' and 'humidity' descriptors and a high concentration of two volatiles (pentanal and octanal). These results on volatiles explain the existence of two sensory profiles associated with the 'frostbitten olives' defect.

  13. [Oliver Sacks and literary neurology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Elena; Banos, Josep E

    2014-03-16

    Popular medical literature attempts to discuss medical topics using a language that is, as far as possible, free of all medical jargon so as to make it more easily understandable by the general public. The very complexity of neurology makes it more difficult for the stories dealing with this specialty to be understood easily by an audience without any kind of medical training. This paper reviews the works written by Oliver Sacks involving the field of neurology aimed at the general public, and the main characteristics and the clinical situation discussed by the author are presented. Some biographical notes about Oliver Sacks are also included and the 11 books published by this author over the last 40 years are also analysed. In each case they are put into a historical context and the most outstanding aspects justifying what makes them an interesting read are commented on. In most cases, the genesis of the work is explained together with its most significant features. The works of Sacks contain a wide range of very interesting clinical situations that are usually explained by means of a language that is readily comprehensible to the general public. It also provides neurologists with a holistic view of different clinical situations, together with a discussion of their biographical, historical and developmental components.

  14. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candid...

  15. Extraction of Squalene from Lebanese Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Henri El Zakhem; Christina Romanos; Charlie Bakhos; Hassan Chahal; Jessica Koura

    2016-01-01

    Squalene is a valuable component of the oil composed of 30 carbon atoms and is mainly used for cosmetic materials. The main concern of this article is to study the Squalene composition in the Lebanese olive oil and to compare it with foreign oil results. To our knowledge, extraction of Squalene from the Lebanese olive oil has not been conducted before. Three different techniques were studied and experiments were performed on three brands of olive oil, Al Wadi Al Akhdar, Virgo Bio and Boulos. ...

  16. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Resultados de tres años de ensayo en el ajuste de la tecnología de “Tree Row Volume” (TRV para el control de mancha negra en naranja Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HABERLE, T.J.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, los consumidores de fruta son altamente exigentes tanto en la calidad externa como interna de la fruta. En el aspecto externo, exigen ausencia de daños causados por plagas y/o enfermedades con énfasis en aquellas consideradas cuarentenarias como es Mancha Negra (MN causada por el hongo Guignardia citricarpa Kiely. Con respecto a los aspectos internos, se considera que debe tener alta calidad organoléptica y, sobre todo, tener mínimos residuos de plaguicidas. Para contribuir con ambos objetivos, se están realizando desde hace varios años tratamientos para optimizar la dosis de fungicidas y volúmenes aplicados a lotes con frutas con destino de exportación. A tal efecto se han realizado ensayos por tres años para el ajuste del volumen de caldo a aplicar por hectárea en función del tamaño de los árboles aplicando la fórmula del TRV (“Tree Row Volume” en un lote de naranja Valencia (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. con alta incidencia de (MN. Los ensayos consistieron en la utilización de picos inyectores de aire ID instalados en turbinas de alto volumen con el fin de reducir el volumen total de caldo de modo similar al logrado con la tecnología de bajo volumen. Los resultadosobtenidos en diferentes campañas con picos ID en tratamientos reducidos al 50% en volumen ejercieron un muy buen control de la enfermedad sin diferencias significativas con respecto a los tratamientos de alto volumen convencionales. Esta estrategia permite optimizar la utilización de equipos existentes con el beneficiodel ahorro de agua, insumos y, además, sustentable con el ambiente.

  18. A randomized, Phase IIb study investigating oliceridine (TRV130), a novel µ-receptor G-protein pathway selective (μ-GPS) modulator, for the management of moderate to severe acute pain following abdominoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Neil; Minkowitz, Harold S; Soergel, David G; Burt, David A; Subach, Ruth Ann; Salamea, Monica Y; Fossler, Michael J; Skobieranda, Franck

    2017-01-01

    Oliceridine (TRV130), a novel μ-receptor G-protein pathway selective (μ-GPS) modulator, was designed to improve the therapeutic window of conventional opioids by activating G-protein signaling while causing low β-arrestin recruitment to the μ receptor. This randomized, double-blind, patient-controlled analgesia Phase IIb study was conducted to investigate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of oliceridine compared with morphine and placebo in patients with moderate to severe pain following abdominoplasty (NCT02335294; oliceridine is an investigational agent not yet approved by the US Food and Drug Administration). Patients were randomized to receive postoperative regimens of intravenous oliceridine (loading/patient-controlled demand doses [mg/mg]: 1.5/0.10 [regimen A]; 1.5/0.35 [regimen B]), morphine (4.0/1.0), or placebo with treatment initiated within 4 hours of surgery and continued as needed for 24 hours. Two hundred patients were treated (n=39, n=39, n=83, and n=39 in the oliceridine regimen A, oliceridine regimen B, morphine, and placebo groups, respectively). Patients were predominantly female (n=198 [99%]) and had a mean age of 38.2 years, weight of 71.2 kg, and baseline pain score of 7.7 (on 11-point numeric pain rating scale). Patients receiving the oliceridine regimens had reductions in average pain scores (model-based change in time-weighted average versus placebo over 24 hours) of 2.3 and 2.1 points, respectively ( P =0.0001 and P =0.0005 versus placebo); patients receiving morphine had a similar reduction (2.1 points; P opioids; no serious AEs were reported with oliceridine. These results suggest that oliceridine may provide effective, rapid analgesia in patients with moderate to severe postoperative pain, with an acceptable safety/tolerability profile and potentially wider therapeutic window than morphine.

  19. DNA markers for Portuguese olive oil fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Lopes, Paula; Gomes, Sónia; Santos, Elisabete; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique

    2008-12-24

    The certification of olive oil has led to the definition of Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) producing regions in European countries. PDO products should be protected, and a solution could be by using DNA fingerprinting. In this work we evaluate the efficiency of RAPD, ISSR, and SSR molecular markers for olive oil varietal identification and their possible use in certification purposes. Twenty-three Portuguese olive oil samples (11 obtained monovarietal and 12 purchased commercial oils) were screened by means of two RAPD, four ISSR, and four SSR markers. The quality of amplified products was used to evaluate the reproducibility and the level of polymorphism. Principal component analysis was performed with DCENTER using unweighted pair group mathematical average (UPGMA) that allowed group formation according to olive oil varietal geographic origin.

  20. Influence of microwaves on olive oil stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, R.S.; El-Baroty, G.; Abd El-Aziz, N.; Basuny, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The fruits of Picual and Shemlalli olive cultivars were exposed to microwaves generated from an oven at low and moderate power settings for 3, 6, 9 and 12 min. The physicochemical constants and fatty acid composition of the olive oil samples extracted from nonmicrowaved and microwaved fruits were determined. The data demonstrated that microwaves did not alter the values of the above mentioned parameters compared with the oil extracted from nonmicrowaved fruits. Quality assurance tests (acid, peroxide and TBA values) elucidated that microwaves generally increased the olive oil stability of Picual and Shemlalli cultivars during storage. In addition, microwaves generated from oven ot moderate power setting for 12 min. exhibited an antioxidant power on olive oil equivalent to that possessed by BHT at 200 ppm [es

  1. Bioactivity of Olive Oil Phenols in Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeloni, Cristina; Barbalace, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and few or no effective options are available for their treatment. These disorders share common pathological characteristics like the induction of oxidative stress, abnormal protein aggregation, perturbed Ca2+ homeostasis, excitotoxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. A large body of evidence supports the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet in preventing neurodegeneration. As the Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high consumption of extra-virgin olive oil it has been hypothesized that olive oil, and in particular its phenols, could be responsible for the beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet. This review provides an updated vision of the beneficial properties of olive oil and olive oil phenols in preventing/counteracting both acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:29068387

  2. Production of pomace olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Méndez, Mª Victoria

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pomace oil is the principal by-product in olive oil processing and is currently developing considerably due to the technological advances which the mills have undergone in recent years. This investigation aims at presenting an overview of the complexity of this sector which, with around 100 years of existence, is searching for a role in the new integral strategy of the olive oil industry after the crisis suffered in 2001. Physical extraction, drying and solvent extraction are discussed, along with the influence of the technological treatments on the chemical composition of pomace oil.El aceite de orujo es el principal subproducto en el procesado de aceite de oliva y su obtención se ha transformado considerablemente en los últimos tiempos debido a los avances tecnológicos que han experimentado las almazaras. Este trabajo tiene la finalidad de presentar una panorámica de la complejidad de este sector, de casi 100 años de existencia, que se afana en encontrar su función dentro de la nueva estrategia integral de la industria oleícola después de la crisis sufrida en el año 2001. En el mismo se comentan la extracción física, el secado, así como la extracción con disolvente, y la influencia que tienen los tratamientos tecnológicos sobre la composición química del aceite de orujo.

  3. Olive oil biophenols and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistonić, Ivan; Situm, Mirna; Bulat, Vedrana; Harapin, Mario; Fistonić, Nikola; Verbanac, Donatella

    2012-02-01

    Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates from the Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, and premenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducing blood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal, and genital tract infections.

  4. The Microbiology of Olive Mill Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependant. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes. PMID:24199199

  5. Contribution of olive seed to the phenolic profile and related quality parameters of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luaces, Pilar; Romero, Carmen; Gutierrez, Francisca; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2007-11-01

    Conflicting results have been reported about the effect of fruit de-stoning on the virgin olive oil (VOO) phenolic profile. The aim of the present study was to determine whether olive seed plays any role in the synthesis of this oil phenolic fraction. Increases of around 25% of total phenolic compounds were observed in oils obtained from de-stoned olive fruits in three main Spanish cultivars. To investigate the involvement of olive seed in determining the phenolic profile of VOO, whole intact olive fruits were added with up to 400% olive stones. Excellent regression coefficients were found in general for the decrease of total phenolic compounds and, particularly, of o-diphenolics in the resulting oils. On the other hand, it was found that olive seed contains a high level of peroxidase (POX) activity (72.4 U g(-1) FW), accounting for more than 98% of total POX activity in the whole fruit. This activity is able to modify VOO phenolics in vitro, similar to the effect of adding stones during VOO extraction. Olive seed plays an important role in determining VOO phenolic profile during the process to obtain an oil that seems to be associated with a high level of POX activity. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. [Determination of olive oil content in olive blend oil by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wanfeng; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Fengyan; Yang, Zhao

    2017-07-08

    A method for the determination of the content of olive oil in olive blend oil by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SH-GC/MS) was established. The amount of the sample, the heating temperature, the heating time, the amount of injection, the injection mode and the chromatographic column were optimized. The characteristic compounds of olive oil were found by chemometric method. A sample of 1.0 g was placed in a 20 mL headspace flask, and heated at 180℃ for 2700 s. Then, 1.0 mL headspace gas was taken into the instrument. An HP-88 chromatographic column was used for the separation and the analysis was performed by GC/MS. The results showed that the linear range was 0-100%(olive oil content). The linear correlation coefficient ( r 2 ) was more than 0.995, and the limits of detection were 1.26%-2.13%. The deviations of olive oil contents in the olive blend oil were from -0.65% to 1.02%, with the relative deviations from -1.3% to 6.8% and the relative standard deviations from 1.18% to 4.26% ( n =6). The method is simple, rapid, environment friendly, sensitive and accurate. It is suitable for the determination of the content of olive oil in olive blend oil.

  7. Charred olive stones: experimental and archaeological evidence for recognizing olive processing residues used as fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, Freek; Marinova, E.; Sarpaki, A.

    After extracting oil from olives a residue is left usually referred to as the olive oil processing residue (OPR). This study explores the way in which ancient societies may have used OPR as fuel for fires to generate heat and the various issues that are related to the residues of this fuel. After

  8. Factors influencing phenolic compounds in table olives (Olea europaea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenprasert, Suthawan; Mitchell, Alyson

    2012-07-25

    The Mediterranean diet appears to be associated with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular and Alzheimer's diseases. Olive products (mainly olive oil and table olives) are important components of the Mediterranean diet. Olives contain a range of phenolic compounds; these natural antioxidants may contribute to the prevention of these chronic conditions. Consequently, the consumption of table olives and olive oil continues to increase worldwide by health-conscious consumers. There are numerous factors that can affect the phenolics in table olives including the cultivar, degree of ripening, and, importantly, the methods used for curing and processing table olives. The predominant phenolic compound found in fresh olive is the bitter secoiridoid oleuropein. Table olive processing decreases levels of oleuropein with concomitant increases in the hydrolysis products hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. Many of the health benefits reported for olives are thought to be associated with the levels of hydroxytyrosol. Herein the pre- and post-harvest factors influencing the phenolics in olives, debittering methods, and health benefits of phenolics in table olives are reviewed.

  9. Antioxidant activity of olive pulp and olive oil phenolic compounds of the arbequina cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelló, José-Ramón; Vuorela, Satu; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José; Heinonen, Marina

    2005-03-23

    The aim of this study was to characterize antioxidant activities of phenolic compounds that appear in olive pulp and olive oils using both radical scavenging and antioxidant activity tests. Antiradical and antioxidant activities of olive pulp and olive oil phenolic compounds were due mainly to the presence of a 3,4-dihydroxy moiety linked to an aromatic ring, and the effect depended on the polarity of the phenolic compound. Glucosides and more complex phenolics exhibited higher antioxidant activities toward oxidation of liposomes, whereas in bulk lipids aglycons were more potent antioxidants with the exception of oleuropein. Lignans acted as antioxidants only in liposomes, which could partly be due to their chelating activity, because liposome oxidation was initiated by cupric acetate. The antioxidant activity of virgin olive oil is principally due to the dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), a secoiridoid derivative (peak RT 36, structure unidentified), and luteolin.

  10. An Oleuropein β-Glucosidase from Olive Fruit Is Involved in Determining the Phenolic Composition of Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Velázquez-Palmero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic composition of virgin olive oil is determined by the enzymatic and/or chemical reactions that take place during olive fruit processing. Of these enzymes, β-glucosidase activity plays a relevant role in the transformation of the phenolic glycosides present in the olive fruit, generating different secoiridoid derivatives. The main goal of the present study was to characterize olive fruit β-glucosidase genes and enzymes responsible for the phenolic composition of virgin olive oil. To achieve that, we have isolated an olive β-glucosidase gene from cultivar Picual (OepGLU, expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and purified its corresponding recombinant enzyme. Western blot analysis showed that recombinant OepGLU protein is detected by an antibody raised against the purified native olive mesocarp β-glucosidase enzyme, and exhibits a deduced molecular mass of 65.0 kDa. The recombinant OepGLU enzyme showed activity on the major olive phenolic glycosides, with the highest levels with respect to oleuropein, followed by ligstroside and demethyloleuropein. In addition, expression analysis showed that olive GLU transcript level in olive fruit is spatially and temporally regulated in a cultivar-dependent manner. Furthermore, temperature, light and water regime regulate olive GLU gene expression in olive fruit mesocarp. All these data are consistent with the involvement of OepGLU enzyme in the formation of the major phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil.

  11. Exploration and Selection of the Wild Olive Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    , H. Ismaili; , C. Cantini; , G. Ianni; , I. Lloshi

    2016-01-01

    Exploration on wild olive diversity carried out during the period 20002011, recorded a number of 27 wild forms. Morphological marker based analysis were performed for olive identity characterization, to determine their localization, usage limits as well as to build in-situ & ex-situ collection of 27 wild olive forms. Morphological description (Rezgen) was done for each olive genotype, in total of 49 characters; of tree, leaf, inflorescence, fruit and endocarp were measured during the ...

  12. Bioactive properties of the main triterpenes found in olives, virgin olive oil, and leaves of Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quesada, Cristina; López-Biedma, Alicia; Warleta, Fernando; Campos, María; Beltrán, Gabriel; Gaforio, José J

    2013-12-18

    Oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, uvaol, and erythrodiol are the main triterpenes present in olives, olive tree leaves, and virgin olive oil. Their concentration in virgin olive oil depends on the quality of the olive oil and the variety of the olive tree. These triterpenes are described to present different properties, such as antitumoral activity, cardioprotective activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and antioxidant protection. Olive oil triterpenes are a natural source of antioxidants that could be useful compounds for the prevention of multiple diseases related to cell oxidative damage. However, special attention has to be paid to the concentrations used, because higher concentration may lead to cytotoxic or biphasic effects. This work explores all of the bioactive properties so far described for the main triterpenes present in virgin olive oil.

  13. Regulatiivsus ja selle sisustamise problemaatika / Triinu Rauk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rauk, Triinu, 1988-

    2013-01-01

    Haldustegevuse vormidest. Haldusaktist, haldusakti andmisest keeldumise regulatiivsest olemusest ja tuvastava haldusakti regulatiivsest olemusest. Artikkel põhineb autori 2013. a. Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonnas kaitstud magistritööl "Haldusakti, toimingu ja menetlustoimingu eristamise kriteeriumid ja vaidlustamine halduskohtus"

  14. Kirjandussügis Prantsusmaal / Triinu Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Triinu

    2010-01-01

    2010. a. kirjanduselust Prantsusmaal, seal toimunud mitmete kirjandusauhindade, sh Goncourt'i, jagamisest, mille võitis Michel Houellebecq romaani eest "Kaart ja territoorium" ("La carte et le territoire")

  15. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitaglione, P.; Savarese, M.; Paduano, A.; Scalfi, L.; Fogliano, V.; Sacchi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives to VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by

  16. Genetic variation within the olive ( Olea europaea L. ) cultivar Oblica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oblica is the predominant olive cultivar in Croatia, spread widely in all the olive growing regions. Morphological variability within the cultivar is well documented but often it has been attributed to environmental factors rather than to genetic ones. In order to investigate intracultivar variability on the molecular level, olive ...

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME IMPORTANT AGRICULTURAL SOILS UNDER OLIVE TREES

    OpenAIRE

    AYDINALP, Cumhur; CRESSER, Malcolm S.; MCCLEAN, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Olive production is important and intensive agricultural activity in this region. Generally, olive trees occur coastal side of the region under brown forest soils. Ten olive tree plantations were selected in this research. The some important physical, chemical and morphological properties were investigated and classifi ed according to USDA Soil Taxonomy as Typic Xerochrepts.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME IMPORTANT AGRICULTURAL SOILS UNDER OLIVE TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUMHUR AYDINALP

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Olive production is important and intensive agricultural activity in this region. Generally, olive trees occur coastal side of the region under brown forest soils. Ten olive tree plantations were selected in this research. The some important physical, chemical and morphological properties were investigated and classifi ed according to USDA Soil Taxonomy as Typic Xerochrepts.

  19. Current knowledge and attitudes: Russian olive biology, ecology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharlene E. Sing; Kevin J. Delaney

    2016-01-01

    The primary goals of a two-day Russian olive symposium held in February 2014 were to disseminate current knowledge and identify data gaps regarding Russian olive biology and ecology, distributions, integrated management, and to ascertain the feasibility and acceptance of a proposed program for classical biological control of Russian olive. The symposium was...

  20. RAPD-PCR analysis of cultured type olives in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... The aim of this study was to detect genetic similarities and distances among cultured type olive trees by RAPD-PCR technique. Olives are raised in a high range from the Aegean, Mediterranean, Marmara and Black Sea to Southeast Anatolia regions of Turkey. Olive breeding had a rapid increase in Turkey.

  1. Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: Sustainability or abandonment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, F.; Jones, N.; Fleskens, L.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional olive orchards account for a large share of the area under olives in the EU, particularly in marginal areas, like those analysed in the OLIVERO project. In general, traditional olive growing can be described as a low-intensity production system, associated with old (sometimes very old)

  2. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  3. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles

  4. Effect of consumption of phenols from olives and extra virgin olive oil on LDL oxidizability in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has been proposed as an explanation for the low incidence of coronary heart disease in Mediterranean countries, but it is unclear whether olive oil offers specific benefits beyond a low content of saturated fat. Some types of extra virgin olive oil are rich in non-polar

  5. Problems and agricultural solutions in olive groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2017-04-01

    The most important and extensive crops in the Mediterranean area are olive groves. Within the last 50 years, the surface occupied by olive groves has progressively increased in Spain including more complex topographies, poorer soils and worse climatic conditions. This situation has caused serious problems based on the losses of soil, nutrients and soil quality among others (Lozano-García and Parras-Alcántara, 2014). Therefore, alternative practices that avoid soil erosion and soil degradation must be considered. As a consequence, farmers together with scientist are innovating by the development of different practices in olive groves in order to avoid these problems and to improve soil conditions. There is a huge range of new practices. Some of them are: i. alternative management techniques such as organic farming, no tillage and minimum tillage. These techniques have a positive impact in soils (Parras-Alcántara and Lozano-García, 2014; Fernández-Romero et al., 2016). ii. the addition of different substances on the soil. For example, oil mill by-products that are thus potentially useful as soil amendments since they are effective sources of organic matter and nitrogen, improve soil quality and alleviate the environmental and agronomic limitations of Mediterranean agricultural soils, even those under using conventional tillage (Lozano-García et al., 2011; Lozano-García and Parras-Alcántara, 2013). iii. the use of covers as secondary crops inside the olive grove. These offer secondary benefits derived from alternative crops and soil protection due to fact that in olive groves the main problem is the high quantity of bare surface. With this contribution we want to show the current situation in olive groves and how better results could be obtained when both trustworthy information is available and farmers and scientist work together. REFERENCES Fernández-Romero, M.L., Parras-Alcántara, L., Lozano-García, B., Clark, J.M., Collins, C.D. 2016. Soil quality

  6. Genetic similarity among Tunisian cultivated olive estimated through SSR markers

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelhamid, S.; Grati_kamoun, N.; Marra, F.; Caruso, T.

    2013-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. europaea) is one of the oldest fruit tree in the Mediterranean basin, and is cultivated for oil and canned fruit. Part of this interest is driven by the economic importance of olive oil which is increasing throughout the world due to its beneficial effect to human health. In Tunisia, olive has great socio-economic importance, with more than 60 millions olive trees cultivated for olive oil production including a wide range of cultivars which are wid...

  7. Olive oil in food spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids is a commonly applied reaction to food industries. The process may imply the movement of double bonds in their positions on the fatty acid carbon chain, producing positional and geometrical isomers ( trans fatty acids. Through hydrogenation, unsaturated oils are converted to margarines and vegetable shortenings. The presence of trans fatty acids in foods is undesirable, as trans fatty acids raise the plasma levels of total and low-density lipoproteins (LDL, while decrease the plasma level of high-density lipoproteins (HDL, among other effects. The use of olive oil to prepare fat spread opens new insights into the commercial development of healthy novel foods with a positive image in terms of consumer appeal.La hidrogenación química de los ácidos grasos insaturados es una reacción que se utiliza con frecuencia en la industria alimentaria. El proceso implica el movimiento de los dobles enlaces en la cadena hidrocarbonada de los ácidos grasos, y la aparición de isómeros posicionales y geométricos (ácidos grasos trans . La ingesta inadecuada de alimentos que pueden contener cantidades significativas de ácidos grasos trans se asocia con el aumento en sangre de colesterol total y LDL, y la disminución de HDL, entre otros efectos. Por lo tanto, el uso de aceite de oliva en la preparación de grasas para untar constituye un importante avance en el desarrollo comercial de nuevos alimentos saludables con una imagen positiva para el consumidor.

  8. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen...... from the olive pulp, and c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H-2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp...... and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production....

  9. Characterization of Virgin Olive Oils with Two Kinds of 'Frostbitten Olives' Sensory Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Inmaculada; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Oliver-Pozo, Celia; Aparicio, Ramón; García-González, Diego L

    2016-07-13

    The frost of olives on the tree due to drops of temperature can produce sensory defects in virgin olive oil (VOO). Temperature changes can be abrupt with freeze-thaw cycles or gradual, and they produce sensory and chemical variations in the oil. This study has analyzed the quality parameters (free fatty acids, peroxide value, UV absorption, and fatty acid ethyl esters) and phenols of VOOs described with the 'frostbitten olives' sensory defect. The phenol profiles allowed grouping these VOOs into two types. One of them, characterized with "soapy" and "strawberry-like" aroma descriptors, had higher values of 1-acetoxypinoresinol, pinoresinol, and aldehydic form of the ligstroside aglycon. The other one, characterized with "wood" and "humidity" descriptors, had higher concentrations of luteolin and apigenin. Most VOOs (75%) from the first group, associated with abrupt drops of temperature, have concentration of phenols higher than the value established by the health claim on olive oil polyphenols approved by the European Commission.

  10. Effective assay for olive vinegar production from olive oil mill wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leonardis, Antonella; Macciola, Vincenzo; Iorizzo, Massimo; Lombardi, Silvia Jane; Lopez, Francesco; Marconi, Emanuele

    2018-02-01

    In this work, an effective and simple approach for vinegar production from olive oil press-mill wastewaters (OMW) is presented. Effects of sterilization and yeast presence on the acetic acid production were investigated. Sugar addition and inoculum of selected yeast starter have been crucial for a satisfactory acidification. In the obtained olive vinegar, the pH and total acidity were 2.92 and 5.6%, respectively. A considerable high level of ash (2%) and total phenols (3600mg/L as GAE) characterized olive vinegar, in comparison with samples of apple, wine and balsamic commercial vinegars. Moreover, a high presence of hydroxytyrosol (1019mg/L) was obtained. This abundant presence of antioxidants makes olive vinegar a promising nutraceutical and environmentally-friendly product, based upon a waste material such as OMW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pedologic Factors Affecting Virgin Olive Oil Quality of "Chemlali" Olive Trees (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rached, Mouna Ben; Galaverna, Gianni; Cirlini, Martina; Boujneh, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Guerfel, Mokhtar

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study examined the characterization of extra virgin olive oil samples from the main cultivar Chemlali, grown in five olive orchards with different soil type (Sandy, Clay, Stony, Brown, Limestone and Gypsum). Volatile compounds were studied using headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technics. Moreover, the sterol profile was established using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 35 different volatile compounds were identified: alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction was characterized by the preeminence of 2-hexenal (32.75%) and 1-hexanol (31.88%). Three sterols were identified and characterized. For all olive oil samples, ß-sitosterol (302.25 mg/kg) was the most abundant sterol. Interestingly, our results showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the levels of the volatile compounds and sterols from oils obtained from olive trees grown in different soil type.

  12. Oliver Kruuda : Valitsus on loll. Riiki ei juhi keegi / Oliver Kruuda ; interv. Urmo Soonvald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruuda, Oliver, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vesti Dnja 28. mai lk. 4. Ärimees Oliver Kruuda majandusprobleemide põhjustest Eestis, peaminister Andrus Ansipist, hüpoteegipanga rajamise vajadusest, Eesti ajakirjanduse erapoolikust suhtumisest tema ja Edgar Savisaare tegevusse, Kalevi ja Tere müümisest, Kalev Meedia asutamise ajenditest ja perspektiividest, jõukusest, võlgadest, poegade kasvatamisest. Lisad: Kuidas riigi raha säästa; Kes on Oliver Kruuda?

  13. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/ PMID:26827236

  15. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in processing...

  16. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with phenolic compounds from olive cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2010-10-13

    The recent information regarding the healthy properties of virgin olive oil phenols and the interest in increasing the value of byproducts from the oil extraction processs support the standardized development of phenol-enriched olive oil. Accordingly, the aim of this research work was to evaluate strategies for the development of a virgin olive oil enriched with phenolic compounds obtained from olive cake to increase phenolic ingestion without the drawback of a higher calorie intake. For this proposal, different combinations of phenolic extracts were evaluated at a range of concentrations to obtain the best prototype of enriched olive oil. To study the functionality of the phenol enrichments, the total phenolic content and the oxidative stability were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu and Rancimat tests, respectively. In addition, the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity (ORAC assay) of the oils were studied. Finally, the stability and potential bioaccesibility of the phenolic fraction of the enriched oils were tested by an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Results of the study showed different strategies to select the best prototype of enriched olive oil, taking into consideration not only their phenolic content but also other important factors such as the feasibility of implementing the preparation process in the food industry.

  17. Syngas production from olive tree cuttings and olive kernels in a downdraft fixed-bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoulou, V.; Zabaniotou, A. [Laboratory of Plant Design, Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Box 455, University Campus, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Stavropoulos, G.; Sakelaropoulos, G. [Chemical Process Engineering Laboratory (CPEL), Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Box 455, University Campus, Thessalonki 54124 (Greece)

    2008-02-15

    This study presents a laboratory fixed-bed gasification of olive kernels and olive tree cuttings. Gasification took place with air, in a temperature range of 750-950 C, for various air equivalence ratios (0.14-0.42) and under atmospheric pressure. In each run, the main components of the gas phase were CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. Experimental results showed that gasification with air at high temperatures (950 C) favoured gas yields. Syngas production increased with reactor temperature, while CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, light hydrocarbons and tar followed the opposite trend. An increase of the air equivalence ratio decreased syngas production and lowered the product gas heating value, while favouring tar destruction. It was found that gas from olive tree cuttings at 950 C and with an air equivalence ratio of 0.42 had a higher LHV (9.41MJ/Nm{sup 3}) in comparison to olive kernels (8.60MJ/Nm{sup 3}). Olive kernels produced more char with a higher content of fixed carbon (16.39 w/w%) than olive tree cuttings; thus, they might be considered an attractive source for carbonaceous material production. (author)

  18. Effect of olive stoning on the volatile and phenolic composition of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servili, Maurizio; Taticchi, Agnese; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Selvaggini, Roberto; Montedoro, GianFrancesco

    2007-08-22

    Olive stoning during the virgin olive oil (VOO) mechanical extraction process was studied to show the effect on the phenolic and volatile composition of the oil. To study the impact of the constitutive parts of the fruit in the composition of olive pastes during processing, the phenolic compounds and several enzymatic activities such as polyphenoloxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), and lipoxygenase (LPO) of the olive pulp, stone, and seed were also studied. The olive pulp showed large amounts of oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, and lignans, while the contribution of the stone and the seed in the overall phenolic composition of the fruit was very low. The occurrence of crushed stone in the pastes, during malaxation, increased the peroxidase activity in the pastes, reducing the phenolic concentration in VOO and, at the same time, modifying the composition of volatile compounds produced by the lipoxygenase pathway. The oil obtained from stoned olive pastes contained higher amounts of secoiridoid derivatives such as the dialdehydic forms of elenolic acid linked to (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol and (p-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EDA, respectively) and the isomer of the oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA) and, at the same time, did not show significant variations of lignans. The stoning process modified the volatile profile of VOO by increasing the C6 unsaturated aldehydes that are strictly related to the cut-grass sensory notes of the oil.

  19. Seasonal elevational movements of Eastern Olive Sunbird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about the seasonal elevational movements for most tropical avifauna species. Seasonal elevational movements of the Eastern Olive Sunbird Cyanomitra olivacea were studied along an elevational gradient from 600 to 1 500 m above sea level in the Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania, between May 2005 and ...

  20. Olive Oil: What Are the Health Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In addition, some research shows that MUFA s may benefit insulin levels and blood sugar control, which can be helpful if you have or are at risk of type 2 diabetes. But even healthier fats like olive oil are high in calories, so use them in ...

  1. Olive oil and the haemostatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Jimenez-Gómez, Yolanda; Fuentes, Francisco; Ruano, Juan; Marin, Carmen

    2007-10-01

    Interest in the Mediterranean diet (MD) has grown worldwide due to its link with greater longevity and lower cardiovascular disease rate, cancer and age cognitive decline. Despite the high complexity of its nutrients composition, olive oil emerges as its principal food, since it provides the higher percent of energy and a lot of bioactive compounds. In this review we will discuss the benefits of diets enriched in virgin olive oil, whose effects are probably due not only to its oleic acid content but also to its other potentially health-promoting components. Traditionally, the benefits of MD were linked to its effect on lipoprotein metabolism but today we realise that there exists a whole sheaf of other benefits, including the components of haemostasis: platelet function, thrombogenesis and fibrinolysis. A diet enriched in virgin olive oil can reduce the sensitivity of platelets to aggregation, decreasing von Willebrand and tromboxane B2 plasma levels. Moreover a particular interest has arisen about its capacity to decrease fasting Factor VII plasma levels and to avoid or modulate its postprandial activation. Also Tissue Factor expression in mononuclear cells could be reduced with the chronic intake of virgin olive oil and finally, studies performed in different experimental situation have shown that it could also increase fibrinolytic activity, reducing plasma concentration of Plasma Activator Inhibitor type-1.

  2. On the Montonen-Olive conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1981-06-01

    Ways in which the conjecture of Montonen and Olive might be realized are discussed. The interesting possibility of a ''self-dual'' model is considered. Finally, the Osborn formula for the mass spectrum in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory is addressed

  3. Genetic transformation of olive somatic embryos through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-20

    Jun 20, 2011 ... 2Department of Biochemistry, National Center of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran. Accepted 9 March, 2011. Transformed olive plants were regenerated from inoculated somatic embryos with Agrobacterium tumefacience strain GV3101, which carries the plasmid pBI-P5CS containing ...

  4. The sensory wheel of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojet, Jos

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available During a 3-year FLAIR study extra virgin olive oils, varying in species, degree of ripeness and extraction method, were evaluated by 6 different institutes according to QDA or GDI-methods in order to identify parameters related to the quality of extra virgin olive oil. The current COI-method yields a poor between-panel reproducibility. This could well be caused by a difference in the perception of positive quality aspects. Whereas the QDA-method is especially suitable for determining sensory profiles according to the perception of the consumer, the COI-method should be tailored to detect possible defects only.
    In order to cluster all attributes to one condensed set of sensory attributes for describing virgin olive oil, the COI and QDA data of ail panels were pooled and analyzed separately for appearance, texture and flavour. This approach resulted in a set of 3 appearance, 3 texture and 12 flavour descriptors which can be conveniently represented graphically in the form of a "sensory wheel".
    On the basis of the findings it is recommended to base the "extra virgin" qualification for olive oils solely on the absence of defects. The between-panel reproducibility of such a simplified COI-test can be assessed by means of ring tests and improved by training with reference products. When an oil passes this screening it can be profiled subsequently using the attributes of the sensory wheel. Such a profile can be linked to preferential profiles derived from consumer studies enabling the production of most preferred olive oils.

  5. Modeling olive-crop forecasting in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Dhiab, Ali; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Oteros, Jose; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio; Galán, Carmen; Abichou, Mounir; Msallem, Monji

    2017-05-01

    Tunisia is the world's second largest olive oil-producing region after the European Union. This paper reports on the use of models to forecast local olive crops, using data for Tunisia's five main olive-producing areas: Mornag, Jemmel, Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis. Airborne pollen counts were monitored over the period 1993-2011 using a Cour trap. Forecasting models were constructed using agricultural data (harvest size in tonnes of fruit/year) and data for several weather-related and phenoclimatic variables (rainfall, humidity, temperature, Growing Degree Days, and Chilling). Analysis of these data revealed that the amount of airborne pollen emitted over the pollen season as a whole (i.e., the Pollen Index) was the variable most influencing harvest size. Findings for all local models also indicated that the amount, timing, and distribution of rainfall (except during blooming) had a positive impact on final olive harvests. Air temperature also influenced final crop yield in three study provinces (Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis), but with varying consequences: in the model constructed for Chaal, cumulative maximum temperature from budbreak to start of flowering contributed positively to yield; in the Menzel Mhiri model, cumulative average temperatures during fruit development had a positive impact on output; in Zarzis, by contrast, cumulative maximum temperature during the period prior to flowering negatively influenced final crop yield. Data for agricultural and phenoclimatic variables can be used to construct valid models to predict annual variability in local olive-crop yields; here, models displayed an accuracy of 98, 93, 92, 91, and 88 % for Zarzis, Mornag, Jemmel, Chaal, and Menzel Mhiri, respectively.

  6. Centennial olive trees as a reservoir of genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Concepción M; Trujillo, Isabel; Barrio, Eladio; Belaj, Angjelina; Barranco, Diego; Rallo, Luis

    2011-10-01

    Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the oldest trees could be a powerful tool both for germplasm collection and for understanding the earliest origins of clonally propagated fruit crops. The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a suitable model to study the origin of cultivars due to its long lifespan, resulting in the existence of both centennial and millennial trees across the Mediterranean Basin. The genetic identity and diversity as well as the phylogenetic relationships among the oldest wild and cultivated olives of southern Spain were evaluated by analysing simple sequence repeat markers. Samples from both the canopy and the roots of each tree were analysed to distinguish which trees were self-rooted and which were grafted. The ancient olives were also put into chronological order to infer the antiquity of traditional olive cultivars. Only 9·6 % out of 104 a priori cultivated ancient genotypes matched current olive cultivars. The percentage of unidentified genotypes was higher among the oldest olives, which could be because they belong to ancient unknown cultivars or because of possible intra-cultivar variability. Comparing the observed patterns of genetic variation made it possible to distinguish which trees were grafted onto putative wild olives. This study of ancient olives has been fruitful both for germplasm collection and for enlarging our knowledge about olive domestication. The findings suggest that grafting pre-existing wild olives with olive cultivars was linked to the beginnings of olive growing. Additionally, the low number of genotypes identified in current cultivars points out that the ancient olives from southern Spain constitute a priceless reservoir of genetic diversity.

  7. Centennial olive trees as a reservoir of genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Concepción M.; Trujillo, Isabel; Barrio, Eladio; Belaj, Angjelina; Barranco, Diego; Rallo, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the oldest trees could be a powerful tool both for germplasm collection and for understanding the earliest origins of clonally propagated fruit crops. The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a suitable model to study the origin of cultivars due to its long lifespan, resulting in the existence of both centennial and millennial trees across the Mediterranean Basin. Methods The genetic identity and diversity as well as the phylogenetic relationships among the oldest wild and cultivated olives of southern Spain were evaluated by analysing simple sequence repeat markers. Samples from both the canopy and the roots of each tree were analysed to distinguish which trees were self-rooted and which were grafted. The ancient olives were also put into chronological order to infer the antiquity of traditional olive cultivars. Key Results Only 9·6 % out of 104 a priori cultivated ancient genotypes matched current olive cultivars. The percentage of unidentified genotypes was higher among the oldest olives, which could be because they belong to ancient unknown cultivars or because of possible intra-cultivar variability. Comparing the observed patterns of genetic variation made it possible to distinguish which trees were grafted onto putative wild olives. Conclusions This study of ancient olives has been fruitful both for germplasm collection and for enlarging our knowledge about olive domestication. The findings suggest that grafting pre-existing wild olives with olive cultivars was linked to the beginnings of olive growing. Additionally, the low number of genotypes identified in current cultivars points out that the ancient olives from southern Spain constitute a priceless reservoir of genetic diversity. PMID:21852276

  8. Domestication of olive fly through a multi-regional host shift to cultivated olives: comparative dating using complete mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, F; Carapelli, A; Boore, J L; Roderick, G K; Dallai, R; Frati, F

    2010-11-01

    The evolutionary history of the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, was reconstructed in a phylogenetic and coalescent framework using full mitochondrial genome data from 21 individuals covering the entire worldwide distribution of the species. Special attention was given to reconstructing the timing of the processes under study. The early subdivision of the olive fly reflects the Quaternary differentiation between Olea europea subsp. europea in the Mediterranean area and the two lineages of Olea europea subsp. cuspidata in Africa and Asia, pointing to an early and close association between the olive fly and its host. The geographic structure and timing of olive fly differentiation in the Mediterranean indicates a clear connection with the post-glacial recolonization of wild olives in the area, and is irreconcilable with the early historical process of domestication and spread of the cultivated olive from its Levantine origin. Therefore, we suggest an early co-history of the olive fly with its wild host during the Quaternary and post-glacial periods and a multi-regional shift of olive flies to cultivated olives as these cultivars gradually replaced wild olives in historical times. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-02-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism.

  10. Sterol composition of virgin olive oil of forty-three olive cultivars from the World Collection Olive Germplasm Bank of Cordoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyçyk, Onejda; Aguilera, Maria Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Jiménez, Antonio; Beltrán, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    In olive oil, sterols constitute the majority of the unsaponifiable fraction. In recent years there has been increased interest in the sterols of olive oil for their health benefits and their importance to virgin olive oil (VOO) quality regulation. Forty-three olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars from the World Olive Germplasm Bank, IFAPA Centro 'Alameda de Obispo', Cordoba, Spain were studied for their oil sterol composition and total content. The main sterols found in olive oil were β-sitosterol, Δ(5) -avenasterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, most of them showing high variability. Most cultivars showed total sterol contents within the limits established by EU regulations, although 28% of VOOs analysed were outside the limits established for total content and/or for individual sterols. Over the group of cultivars, total sterol contents ranged from 855 to 2185 mg kg(-1) . The high variability observed was due to the genetic component, since other agronomic and technological factors were similar. Because of the high variability, the sterol fraction can be considered as a useful tool to characterize and discriminate monovarietal VOOs. The results can be useful for nutritionists for VOO inclusion in nutrition studies. Furthermore, the variability observed can be applied in olive breeding projects to select the parents of new olive cultivars with an improved sterol fraction. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Virgin olive oil: a key food for cardiovascular risk protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covas, María-Isabel; de la Torre, Rafael; Fitó, Montserrat

    2015-04-01

    Olive oil is considered to be one of the most healthy dietary fats. However, several types of olive oils are present in the market. A key question for the consumer is: What of the olive oils is the best when concerning nutritional purposes? With the data available at present, the answer is: the Virgin Olive Oil (VOO), rich in phenolic compounds. On November 2011, the European Food Safety Authority released a claim concerning the benefits of daily ingestion of olive oil rich in phenolic compounds, such as VOO. In this review, we summarised the key work that has provided the evidence of the benefits of VOO consumption on other types of edible oils, even olive oils. We focused on data from randomised, controlled human studies, which are capable of providing the evidence of Level I that is required for performing nutritional recommendations at population level.

  13. Matter transfer during virgin olive oil elaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Herrera, Carlos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the process of elaboration of virgin olive oil (whose main stages are crushing, malaxation and centrifugation the transfer of several minor components to the triacylglycerol constituent of the oily globules originally present in the cells of the fruit mesocarp is produced. Such minor components are chemical species present in the olive fruits, as well as those resulting from chemical or enzymatic processes which take place in the olive paste upon crushing. In this paper several types of transferable minor components, as well as those parameters affecting the rates of transfer are studied.Geometric and physical variations of interfacial regions between the oil and other systems in contact with it are discussed. These systems are olive vegetation water, olive pulp components, and fragments of the woody endocarp, as well as the atmospheric air and the tools and equipment of the oil mill.This article concludes with some considerations about the improvements of virgin olive oils achieved by controlling the transfer of minor components.Durante la elaboración del aceite de oliva virgen (cuyas principales etapas son molturación, batido y centrifugación se producen transferencias de diversos componentes menores a los triacilgliceroles originalmente presentes en los glóbulos oleosos de las células del mesocarpio de los frutos. Estos componentes menores son especies químicas presentes en las aceitunas, así como especies resultantes de procesos químicos o enzimáticos que se producen en la pasta a partir de la molturación. En este artículo se estudian diversos tipos de componentes menores transferibles, así como aquellos parámetros que afectan sus velocidades de transferencia.Se discuten las variaciones geométricas y físicas de las regiones interfaciales situadas entre el aceite y los otros sistemas en contacto con el mismo. Estos sistemas son el agua de vegetación, los componentes de la pulpa y los fragmentos de endocarpio

  14. Monumental olive trees of Cyprus contributed to the establishment of the contemporary olive germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestiadou, Katerina; Nikoloudakis, Nikolaos; Hagidimitriou, Marianna; Katsiotis, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Even though Cyprus was an important crossing point for the westward spread of olive, and one of the primary regions of domestication, its genetic recourses remain uncharted at a great extent. Throughout the centuries, a number of ancient olive trees remain in the same orchards, contributing to Cypriot oleiculture and society. In an attempt to explore this monumental genetic pool, a survey was conducted to identify centennial olive trees in rural provinces of Cyprus. Microsatellites were employed in order to study their genetic composition (including rootstocks when feasible) and to establish possible associations among genotypes. High numbers of specific alleles, suggestive of the distinctiveness of this germplasm, were detected, and both grafting and rootstock propagation was verified. Moreover, it was determined by Bayesian structural and network reticulate analysis that centennial olives can be divided in two discrete genetic clusters having intermediate admixed accessions. Furthermore, it was determined that all contemporary Cypriot cultivars, that were included in the present study, were highly affiliated exclusively to one genetic group, a strong evidence of selection among elite clones. The information acquired from the current study reveals the genetic rareness of this material and its contribution to the current olive germplasm.

  15. Monumental olive trees of Cyprus contributed to the establishment of the contemporary olive germplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Anestiadou

    Full Text Available Even though Cyprus was an important crossing point for the westward spread of olive, and one of the primary regions of domestication, its genetic recourses remain uncharted at a great extent. Throughout the centuries, a number of ancient olive trees remain in the same orchards, contributing to Cypriot oleiculture and society. In an attempt to explore this monumental genetic pool, a survey was conducted to identify centennial olive trees in rural provinces of Cyprus. Microsatellites were employed in order to study their genetic composition (including rootstocks when feasible and to establish possible associations among genotypes. High numbers of specific alleles, suggestive of the distinctiveness of this germplasm, were detected, and both grafting and rootstock propagation was verified. Moreover, it was determined by Bayesian structural and network reticulate analysis that centennial olives can be divided in two discrete genetic clusters having intermediate admixed accessions. Furthermore, it was determined that all contemporary Cypriot cultivars, that were included in the present study, were highly affiliated exclusively to one genetic group, a strong evidence of selection among elite clones. The information acquired from the current study reveals the genetic rareness of this material and its contribution to the current olive germplasm.

  16. Olives and olive oil are sources of electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Fazzari

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO and olives, key sources of unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet, provide health benefits to humans. Nitric oxide (•NO and nitrite (NO2 (--dependent reactions of unsaturated fatty acids yield electrophilic nitroalkene derivatives (NO2-FA that manifest salutary pleiotropic cell signaling responses in mammals. Herein, the endogenous presence of NO2-FA in both EVOO and fresh olives was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The electrophilic nature of these species was affirmed by the detection of significant levels of protein cysteine adducts of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA-cysteine in fresh olives, especially in the peel. Further nitration of EVOO by NO2 (- under acidic gastric digestive conditions revealed that human consumption of olive lipids will produce additional nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA and nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA. The presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FA in both mammalian and plant lipids further affirm a role for these species as signaling mediators. Since NO2-FA instigate adaptive anti-inflammatory gene expression and metabolic responses, these redox-derived metabolites may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet.

  17. Olives and olive oil are sources of electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzari, Marco; Trostchansky, Andrés; Schopfer, Francisco J; Salvatore, Sonia R; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Vitturi, Dario; Valderrama, Raquel; Barroso, Juan B; Radi, Rafael; Freeman, Bruce A; Rubbo, Homero

    2014-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and olives, key sources of unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet, provide health benefits to humans. Nitric oxide (•NO) and nitrite (NO2 (-))-dependent reactions of unsaturated fatty acids yield electrophilic nitroalkene derivatives (NO2-FA) that manifest salutary pleiotropic cell signaling responses in mammals. Herein, the endogenous presence of NO2-FA in both EVOO and fresh olives was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The electrophilic nature of these species was affirmed by the detection of significant levels of protein cysteine adducts of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA-cysteine) in fresh olives, especially in the peel. Further nitration of EVOO by NO2 (-) under acidic gastric digestive conditions revealed that human consumption of olive lipids will produce additional nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA) and nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA). The presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FA in both mammalian and plant lipids further affirm a role for these species as signaling mediators. Since NO2-FA instigate adaptive anti-inflammatory gene expression and metabolic responses, these redox-derived metabolites may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet.

  18. Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-05-01

    The ability of olive endogenous enzymes β-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the β-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Monumental olive trees of Cyprus contributed to the establishment of the contemporary olive germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagidimitriou, Marianna

    2017-01-01

    Even though Cyprus was an important crossing point for the westward spread of olive, and one of the primary regions of domestication, its genetic recourses remain uncharted at a great extent. Throughout the centuries, a number of ancient olive trees remain in the same orchards, contributing to Cypriot oleiculture and society. In an attempt to explore this monumental genetic pool, a survey was conducted to identify centennial olive trees in rural provinces of Cyprus. Microsatellites were employed in order to study their genetic composition (including rootstocks when feasible) and to establish possible associations among genotypes. High numbers of specific alleles, suggestive of the distinctiveness of this germplasm, were detected, and both grafting and rootstock propagation was verified. Moreover, it was determined by Bayesian structural and network reticulate analysis that centennial olives can be divided in two discrete genetic clusters having intermediate admixed accessions. Furthermore, it was determined that all contemporary Cypriot cultivars, that were included in the present study, were highly affiliated exclusively to one genetic group, a strong evidence of selection among elite clones. The information acquired from the current study reveals the genetic rareness of this material and its contribution to the current olive germplasm. PMID:29112969

  20. Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf as a waste by-product of table olive and olive oil industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Selin; Bilgin, Mehmet

    2018-03-01

    Research into finding new uses for by-products of table olive and olive oil industry are of great value not only to the economy but also to the environment where olives are grown and to the human health. Since leaves represent around 10% of the total weight of olives arriving at the mill, it is worth obtaining high added-value compounds from those materials for the preparation of dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, functional food ingredients or cosmeceuticals. In this review article, olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf is reviewed as being a potential inexpensive, renewable and abundant source of biophenols. The importance of this agricultural and industrial waste is emphasised by means of describing its availability, nutritional and therapeutic effects and studies conducted on this field. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Assessing the Comparative Advantage of Albanian Olive Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Mane-Kapaj, Ana; Kapaj, Ilir; Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Totojani, Orkida

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the comparative advantage of olive oil production in Albania using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) method. The result indicates that olive oil production in Albania is profitable for the producers. Whereas the DRC ratio equals to 2.2, meaning that olive oil production in Albania does not have a comparative advantage for the given situation of production, prices and technology. This means that while it is profitable for private producers to manufact...

  2. Effects of the planting density on virgin olive oil quality of "Chemlali" olive trees (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerfel, Mokhtar; Zaghdoud, Chokri; Jebahi, Khaled; Boujnah, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2010-12-08

    Here, we report the characterization of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali) grown in four planting densities (156, 100, 69, and 51 trees ha(-1)). Olive oil samples obtained from fruits of trees grown at 100 trees ha(-1) had a higher content of oleic acid (65.5%), a higher content of chlorophyll and carotenoids, and a higher content in total phenols (1059.08 mg/kg). Interestingly, olives grown at the two highest planting densities yielded more stable oils than olives grown at the two lowest ones. Thus planting density is found to be a key factor for the quality of olive oils in arid regions.

  3. Evaluation of processing factors for selected organic contaminants during virgin olive oil production: Distribution of BTEXS during olives processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Rojas-Jiménez, Rubén; Robles-Molina, José; Ramos-Martos, Natividad; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-05-15

    The presence of BTEXS (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene) in virgin olive oils can be attributed to environmental contamination, but also to biological processes during oil lipogenesis (styrene). In this work, the processing factor of BTEXS from olives to olive oil during its production was evaluated at lab-scale with an Abencor system. Benzene showed the lowest processing factor (15%), whereas toluene and xylenes showed an intermediate behavior (with 40-60% efficiency), and ethylbenzene and styrene were completely transferred (100%). In addition, an attempt to examine the contribution of potential sources to olives contamination with BTEXS was carried out for the first time. Two types of olives samples were classified according to their proximity to the contamination source (road). Although higher levels of BTEXS were found in samples close to roads, the concentrations were relatively low and do not constitute a major contribution to BTEXS usually detected in olive oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cooling treatment of olive paste during the oil processing: Impact on the yield and extra virgin olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, G; Esposto, S; Taticchi, A; Urbani, S; Selvaggini, R; Di Maio, I; Sordini, B; Servili, M

    2017-04-15

    In recent years, the temperature of processed olives in many olive-growing areas was often close to 30°C, due to the global warming and an early harvesting period. Consequently, the new trends in the extraction process have to include the opportunity to cool the olives or olive paste before processing to obtain high quality EVOO. A tubular thermal exchanger was used for a rapid cooling treatment (CT) of olive paste after crushing. The results did not show a significant difference in the oil yield or any modifications in the legal parameters. The cooling process determined a significant improvement of phenolic compounds in all the three Italian cultivar EVOOs analyzed, whereas the volatile compounds showed a variability largely affected by the genetic origin of the olives with C 6 aldehydes that seem to be more stable than C 6 alcohols and esters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of some chemical parameters of a naturally debittered olive (Olea europaea L.) type with regular olive varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Ayse Burcu; Ozen, Banu; Tokatli, Figen; Sen, Ilknur

    2014-10-15

    Some olives grown in Karaburun peninsula in the west part of Turkey and mostly coming from Erkence variety lose their bitterness while still on the tree and are called Hurma among locals. This olive type does not require further processing to remove the bitter compounds. In this study, sugar, organic acid and fatty acid profiles of Hurma, Erkence (not naturally debittered) and Gemlik (commonly consumed as table olive) olives were determined throughout 8weeks of maturation period for two consecutive harvest seasons, and the results were analysed by principal component analysis (PCA). PCA of sugar and organic acid data revealed a differentiation in terms of harvest year but not on variety. Hurma olive is separated from others due to its fatty acid profile, and it has higher linoleic acid content compared to others. This might be an indication of increased desaturase enzyme activity for Hurma olives during natural debittering phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary supplementation with olive stone meal in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive stone meal is a low-digested fibre source potentially useful in the prevention of digestive troubles in growing rabbit permitting a better balance of dietary fibre fractions. To evaluate its efficacy, three experimental diets containing 0, 3 or 6% olive stone meal were fed to 222 rabbits from weaning (28 d to slaughter (73 d. Olive stone inclusion increased the proportion of large dietary particles while did not affect growth performance, digestive physiology and carcass and meat quality. Due to optimum health status observed in all experimental groups, the preventive action of olive stone meal against the occurrence of digestive troubles was not proven.

  7. Effect of olive waste (Husk on behavior of cement paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharaf Alkheder

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jordan is a famous country in terms of olive trees agriculture that resulted in a mass production of olive oil products. The huge amounts of olive waste (husk that resulted from olives processing to produce olive oil represent an environmental challenge in the country. The idea in this paper comes to use olive waste as a partial replacement for Portland cement in cement paste to conserve the environment, reduce cement consumption and increase cost efficiency. The wastes were burned properly in an oven and maintained for 6 h until it was fully transformed into ashes. Then, the oven was turned off and ashes were allowed to cool. After cooling, the material passed sieve #200 were used. The sieved ashes were used in the cement mix as a partial cement replacement for making the mortar and cement paste. Normal consistency and setting time were determined as well as soundness, compressive strength. Results indicated that normal consistency of the cement pastes containing different percentage of olive waste is somehow lower than that of the ordinary cement paste and slightly decreases with increasing the percentage. The results also indicated that the compressive strength of hardened blended cement paste containing different percentages of olive waste slightly decrease with olive waste content at 3, 7, and 28 days.

  8. Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: sustainability or abandonment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Filomena; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

    2008-11-01

    Traditional olive orchards account for a large share of the area under olives in the EU, particularly in marginal areas, like those analysed in the OLIVERO project. In general, traditional olive growing can be described as a low-intensity production system, associated with old (sometimes very old) trees, grown at a low density, giving small yields and receiving low inputs of labour and materials. Though such systems are environmentally sustainable, their economic viability has become an issue, since EU policies favour more intensive and competitive systems. Orchards that have not been intensified seem to be threatened by the recent reform of the EU olive and olive oil policy, as income support has been decoupled from production. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the present constraints to traditional olive growing, and to recommend some private and public interventions to prevent its abandonment. During the OLIVERO project, traditional olive production systems were identified and described in five target areas (Trás-os-Montes--Portugal, Cordoba and Granada/Jaen--Spain, Basilicata/Salerno--Italy, and West Crete--Greece). The causes and consequences of abandonment are discussed, based on the analysis of the costs and returns, which revealed that these systems are barely economically sustainable. Their viability is only assured if reduced opportunity costs for family labour are accepted, and the olive growing is part-time. Based on these results, recommendations are made to prevent the abandonment of traditional olive growing and to preserve its environmental benefits.

  9. IRONY IN CHARLES DICKEN'S OLIVER TWIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Kana Trisnawati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the types of irony used by Charles Dickens in his notable early work, Oliver Twist, as well as the reasons the irony was chosen. As a figurative language, irony is utilized to express one’s complex feelings without truly saying them. In Oliver Twist, Dickens brought the readers some real social issues wrapped in dark, deep written expressions of irony uttered by the characters of his novel. Undoubtedly, the novel had left an impact to the British society at the time. The irony Dickens displayed here includes verbal, situational, and dramatic irony. His choice of irony made sense as he intended to criticize the English Poor Laws and to touch the public sentiment. He wanted to let the readers go beyond what was literally written and once they discovered what the truth was, they would eventually understand Dickens’ purposes.

  10. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from olive fruit and leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinda, Angeles; Rada, Mirela; Delgado, Teresa; Gutiérrez-Adánez, Pilar; Castellano, José María

    2010-09-08

    This work establishes a new procedure for the extraction and analysis of pentacyclic triterpenes, with which fruits and leaves from three Spanish olive cultivars ("Picual", "Hojiblanca", and "Arbequina") has been studied. The leaf contains important amounts of oleanolic acid (3.0-3.5% DW), followed by significant concentrations of maslinic acid and minor levels of ursolic acid, erythrodiol, and uvaol. The abundance and profile of triterpenoids change during the leaf ontogeny. In the fruit, triterpenes are exclusively located in the epicarp at concentrations 30-fold lower than that in the leaf. Maslinic acid is the main triterpenoid, only accompanied of oleanolic acid. Along the ripening the levels of these triterpenes decreased. All the analyzed leaves and fruits come from the same agricultural estate, with identical climate and culturing conditions. For this reason, the found differences could majorly be attributable to the genetic factors of the olive cultivars.

  11. Olive oil: maternal and pediatric health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Trapani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The new base of the pyramid that represents the Mediterranean Diet (MD includes a balanced lifestyle, healthy cooking methods, traditional, local and eco-friendly products, conviviality, physical activity with an adequate amount of rest, as well as caloric restriction and food frugality. Moreover, it has been confirmed that the main source of MD fat is Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO. EVOO is considered a key feature of the healthy properties of the MD, due to its fatty acid, vitamin and polyphenol composition. However, these components need to be bioavailable to allow EVOO to exert its nutraceutical properties, which include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral and hypoglycemic properties, as well as protective effects on the heart and brain, and during pregnancy and breast feeding. The main phenolic components responsible for the nutraceutical properties of EVOO are hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and oleuropein. The adopted oil production and extraction technologies, such as extraction at low oxidative stress, determine the final polyphenol content in virgin olive oil.Limited information on the epigenetic effects of olive polyphenols is presently available, although the epigenetic effects of many other plant polyphenols have been well documented. In this context, it has been found that, if mothers consume an adequate amount of olive oil during pregnancy, their children will be exposed to a lower risk of wheezing in the first period of their lives. In addition, EVOO, because of its oleochantal content, a natural anti-inflammatory substance, may have an effect on many inflammatory diseases, even in the early period of life.

  12. A taste sensor device for unmasking admixing of rancid or winey-vinegary olive oil to extra virgin olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Harzalli, Ussama; Rodrigues, Nuno; Veloso, Ana C.A.; Dias, L.G.; Pereira, J.A.; Oueslati, Souheib; Peres, António M.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical sensor devices have gathered great attention in food analysis namely for olive oil evaluation. The adulteration of extra-virgin olive oil with lower-grade olive oil is a common worldwide fraudulent practice, which detection is a challenging task. The potentiometric fingerprints recorded by lipid polymeric sensor membranes of an electronic tongue, together with linear discriminant analysis and simulated annealing meta-heuristic algorithm, enabled the detection of extra-virgin o...

  13. Long-Term Effects of Olive oil Mill wastewater spreading on soil and olive trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben rouina, B.; Ben Ahmed, C.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-07-01

    The olive oil extraction process produces huge amounts of liquid waste called olive mill waste water (OMWW). Large amounts of OMWW (30 million m{sup 3}) are produced in the Mediterranean regions that accounts for 95% of the total olive oil production worldwide. In Tunisia, OMWW constitutes a serious environmental problem due to the features associated with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L and is mained with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L is mainly due to sugars. lipids, phenols, and tannins. (Author)

  14. Long-Term Effects of Olive oil Mill wastewater spreading on soil and olive trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben rouina, B.; Ben Ahmed, C.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-01-01

    The olive oil extraction process produces huge amounts of liquid waste called olive mill waste water (OMWW). Large amounts of OMWW (30 million m 3 ) are produced in the Mediterranean regions that accounts for 95% of the total olive oil production worldwide. In Tunisia, OMWW constitutes a serious environmental problem due to the features associated with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L and is mained with this type of agro-waste and to its diverse organic load which may reach values as high as 100 g/L is mainly due to sugars. lipids, phenols, and tannins. (Author)

  15. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Olive trees protected from the olive bark beetle, Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard 1788) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) with a pyrethroid insecticide: Effect on the insect community of the olive grove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Francisca; Campos, Mercedes; Sánchez-Raya, A Juan; Peña, Aránzazu

    2010-06-01

    Field studies were performed in two successive years, 2005 and 2006, in different olive groves of the province of Granada (South-eastern Spain) by spraying olive trees (Olea europaea) with a pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin, for the control of the olive bark beetle Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard 1788) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae). Three olive groves received each year three treatments in June consisting of water (control) and two insecticide doses, which were halved the second year. From June to September six olives trees per site were inspected every 15d for feeding galleries in olive branches; the arthropods, collected in traps placed below the olive trees (three traps per site), were identified and counted. Results show that feeding galleries were significantly reduced, what proves that the pyrethroid insecticide efficiently protected the olive trees from the olive bark beetle with a single application and even at the lower dose employed in 2006. Some repellent effect may occur as deduced from the number of P. scarabaeoides individuals captured. Other individuals from the insect community were also affected to a great extent by insecticide application, though no statistical differences were found among the treatments due to the high variability in insect captures. Among the parasitoids, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae, Eurytomidae and Pteromalidae were captured in great numbers. Mirids were the predators whose numbers drastically increased in traps placed under the treated trees, while spiders and ants were less affected. A knock-down effect was noticed for some insect groups, for instance mirids and Euphyllura olivina. Approximately 80% of their captures corresponded to the first date of sampling after insecticide application. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Residual biomass potential in olive tree cultivation and olive oil industry in Spain: valorization proposal in a biorefinery context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Manzanares

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive crop and olive oil industry generates several residues, i.e., olive tree pruning biomass (OTPB, extracted olive pomace (EOP and olive leaves (OL that could be used to produce high-added value products in an integrated biorefinery. OTPB is generated in the field as a result of pruning operation to remove old branches; EOP is the main residue of the pomace olive oil extracting industry after extraction with hexane of residual oil contained in olive pomace; and OL comes from the olive cleaning process carried out at olive mills, where small branches and leaves are separated by density. In this work, an analysis of the potential of OTPB, EOP and OL residues was addressed by estimating the production volumes at national level and the spatial distribution of these residues using geographic information system software. Information provided by public institutions and personal surveys to the industries was evaluated. Moreover, chemical analysis of the residues was undertaken and the results used to make a first assessment of valorization into biofuels such as bioethanol and bio based chemicals. Results show that close to 4.2 million tons/year of EOP, OL and OTPB derived from olive oil industry and olive tree cultivation in Spain could be available as a raw material for biorefineries in Spain. The analysis of the chemical characteristics indicates the relevant potential of these feedstocks for the production of bioethanol and other compounds such as phenols based on suitable processing and conversion routes, although techno-economic evaluations must be tackled to refine this approach.

  18. Genetic and environmental features for oil composition in olive varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Bervillé André Jean; Breton Catherine Marie

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of olive oil helps both prevent and cure heart disease. Olive oils vary in their fatty acid profiles as well as those of other secondary metabolites (phenols, sterols, and terpene compounds). We seek to distinguish the genetic bases from the environmental factors that cause these variations. The genetic base is indeed wide: varieties originate in different domestication occurrences, from different oleaster trees and ...

  19. Standardization of RAPD assay for genetic analysis of olive | Sesli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... also PCR cycles I and II; however, favorable results were attained by PCR Mix III and. PCR cycle III. Evaluable bands were obtained for defining the olive samples by using primers from OP-I. Thus, it was concluded that RAPD profiles are effective in the study of genetic similarities and distances of wild and cultivated olives ...

  20. Molecular characterization of olive cultivars grown in Iraq using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this research confirmed AFLP and SSR to be useful tools in genetic relationships among olive cultivars, in creating a molecular database for Iraqi olive cultivars, in breeding strategies and in correct cultivar identification. Keywords: Olea europaea, genetic diversity, amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

  1. Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The newly formulated cream of virgin olive oil proved to exhibit a number of promising properties and attributes that might open new opportunities for the construction of more efficient, safe, and cost-effective skin-care, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. Key words: Virgin olive oil, o/w emulsion, stability, pH.

  2. 75 FR 9536 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased... Department of Agriculture (USDA) is issuing this rule in conformance with Executive Order 12866. This rule... the Committee are producers and handlers of California olives. They are familiar with the Committee's...

  3. 77 FR 33104 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased... Department of Agriculture (USDA) is issuing this rule in conformance with Executive Order 12866. This rule... members of the Committee are producers and handlers of California olives. They are familiar with the...

  4. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sliced or cut. (b) The importation into the United States of any canned ripe olives is prohibited unless... not been sliced or cut. (v) A lot of canned ripe olives is considered to meet the requirements of this... such lots by variety and their identifying marks, or (3) a list identifying lots by variety of imported...

  5. Short Communications Fruit selection in the olive thrush: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free-living olive thrushes Turdus olivaceus were offered a choice of wild olive Olea africana fruit of four colours, representing four ripeness categories. The thrushes ate mostly black fruit (ripest), followed by maroon (ripe) and olivecoloured (partially ripe) fruit. When riper fruit was unavailable, the thrushes selected more ...

  6. Comparative molecular analysis of old olive ( Olea europaea L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We compared the genetic profiles of six old olive cultivars from an Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey to 15 modern Turkish olive cultivars from different geographical origins. The RAPD profiles successfully clarified the molecular relationships among the genotypes tested. Seventeen RAPD primers generated 153 ...

  7. Sustainable technologies for olive mill wastewater management (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The California olive oil industry produces more than 600 million gallons of wastewater each year. Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is considered a highly polluting effluent due to its high organic load and resistance to biological degradation. A current trend in OMWW management is to not only decrease e...

  8. Soil conservation options for olive orchards on sloping land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleskens, L.; Graaff, de J.

    2003-01-01

    Olive production is an important and growing agricultural activity throughout the Meditteranean zone. At the same time, soil erosion is one of the environmental key problems in this zone. Actual erosion in olive production areas is high, in particular on sloping land. Several erosion risk factors

  9. Carbonyl trapping and antiglycative activities of olive oil mill wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, M.; Fiore, A.; Fogliano, V.; Morales, F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of natural compounds as antiglycative agents to reduce the load of advanced glycation end products from diet is very promising. Olive mill wastewater is a by-product of the olive oil extraction processes with a high content of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives and molecules

  10. Mining olive genome through library sequencing and bioinformatics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As one of the initial steps of olive (Olea europaea L.) genome analysis, a small insert genomic DNA library was constructed (digesting olive genomic DNA with SmaI and cloning the digestion products into pUC19 vector) and randomly picked 83 colonies were sequenced. Analysis of the insert sequences revealed 12 clones ...

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve the growth of olive trees and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    quality olive plants. To study the potential of the mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices to stimulate the growth of micropropagated olive plants and to compare their ... phosphate, 15% potassium oxide, 2% magnesium oxide, 4.5% sulphur, 0.02% ..... Our results indicate the feasibility of G. mosseae and.

  12. Vibration and noise characteristics of hook type olive harvesters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to obtain and evaluate the vibration and noise characteristics of portable hook type mechanical olive harvesters. Experiments included five hook type olive harvesters. In this study, the vibration and sound pressure levels of different harvesters were measured at idling and full load condition.

  13. Outcrossing rate in olive assessed by microsatellite and inter simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olive is known to be an allogamous species. The aim of this study was to estimate the magnitude of cross-pollination rate using microsatellite simple sequence repeats (SSR) and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) molecular markers in olive genotypes. The DNA from maternal plants and 23 progenies of two different ...

  14. Behavioural Patterns of a Troop of Olive Baboons ( Papio Anubis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olive baboons forage viciously on agricultural crops causing huge losses of farm produce to farmers. In this study, behavioural pattern of a troop of crop raiding olive baboons, Papio anubis which dwell at the periphery of Gashaka Gumti National Park and forage on crops were studied as they raided maize farms. Successful ...

  15. Effects of olive scale (Parlatoria oleae (Colvée attack on yield, quality and fatty acid profile of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krapac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive scale (Parlatoria oleae (Colvée is a common pest in Mediterranean olive orchards which primarily causes damage on olive fruits. The quality of virgin olive oil is strongly related to the health status of the olive fruits from which is extracted. In this paper the effects of olive scale (Parlatoria oleae (Colvée attack on the oil yield, chemical and sensorial quality, as well as on the fatty acid profile of virgin olive oil were studied. Olive fruits (Olea europea L. from Bova cultivar (Istria, Croatia were collected and divided into different groups according to the presence or absence of infestation by the olive scale. Olive scale attack did not induce ripening process nor stimulate oil synthesis in the infested fruits. Healthy and infested fruit groups were processed separately to produce corresponding olive oils. As regards the oil acidity, the oil samples obtained from infested fruits had similar values as samples obtained from healthy fruits. However, olive scale attack led to slight oxidative deterioration of oil, but had no effect on sensory characteristics of obtained olive oils. Fatty acid profile was slightly affected by olive scale attack: an increase of linoleic (about 13 % and palmitoleic acid (about 8 %, but a decrease of oleic (about 3 % and stearic acid (about 4 % in oils obtained from infested fruits was detected. Oleic to linoleic ratio was lower in oils obtained from infested fruits indicating its lower oxidative stability.

  16. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassima Talhaoui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO. The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate. ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  17. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-03-04

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%-65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%-0.67% of total transfer rate). 'Picual' was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas 'Changlot Real' was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  18. Influence of Picual olive ripening on virgin olive oil alteration and stability during potato frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-David, Raul; Mena, Carmen; Pérez-Jimenez, M Angeles; Sastre, Blanca; Bastida, Sara; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2014-12-03

    Ripening modifies oil attributes and composition. However, the influence of olive ripening on virgin olive oil (VOO) thermal oxidative stability on food-frying has not been studied yet. Oils from Picual olives of low (VOO1), medium (VOO2), and high (VOO3) ripeness were obtained, and their thermal oxidative stability during 40 potato-fryings was tested. Unused VOO1 showed higher antioxidant content and oxidative stability than VOO2 and VOO3. Polar compounds (PC), oligomers, and altered fatty acid methyl esters (polar-FAME) increased, whereas linoleic acid, polyphenols, and tocopherols decreased in the three VOOs through frying. The alteration was lower in VOO1, followed by VOO2 (0.105, 0.117, and 0.042 g/100 g oil less of PC, oligomers and polar-FAME per frying, respectively, in VOO1 than in VOO3). In conclusion, VOO obtained from low-ripeness Picual olives should be preferred when frying fresh-potatoes due to its higher thermal and oxidative stability, permitting a higher number of potato-frying uses.

  19. Triterpenic content and chemometric analysis of virgin olive oils from forty olive cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouche, Yosra; Jiménez, Antonio; Uceda, Marino; Aguilera, M Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Beltrán, Gabriel

    2009-05-13

    Forty olive cultivars (Olea europaea, L.) from the World Olive Germoplasm Bank Collection of Cordoba (Spain) were studied for their oil triterpenic dialcohol (uvaol and erythrodiol) and acid (oleanolic, ursolic, maslinic) composition. Dialcohol content ranged from 8.15 to 85.05 mg/kg, erythrodiol being the most predominant (from 5.89 to 73.78 mg/kg), whereas uvaol content was found at lower levels (from 1.50 to 19.35 mg/kg). Triterpenic acid concentration oscillated between 8.90 to 112.36 mg/kg. Among them, ursolic acid was found at trace levels, while the mean values of oleanolic and maslinic acids ranged from 3.39 to 78.83 mg/kg and 3.93 to 49.81 mg/kg, respectively. The variability observed for both triterpenic dialcohols and acid content was emphasized by principal component and cluster analyses. Both analyses were able to discriminate between oil samples, especially by erythrodiol, oleanolic acid, and maslinic acids. Regarding these results, we conclude that the virgin olive oil triterpenic fraction can be considered as a useful tool to characterize monovarietal virgin olive oil.

  20. A MODELLING APPROACH TO EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Daou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work is described a feasibility assessment for a new approach in virgin olive oil production control system. A predicting or simulating algorithm is implemented as artificial neural network based software, using literature found data concerning parameters related to olive grove, process, machine. Test and validation proved this tool is able to answer two different frequently asked questions by olive oil mill operators, using few agronomic and technological parameters with time and cost saving: – which quality level is up to oil extracted from defined olive lot following a defined process (predicting mode; – which process and machine parameters set would determine highest quality level for oil extracted from a defined olive lot (simulating mode.

  1. Development of a bank for ultrasonic characterization of olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabra Gemayel, M.N.; Zaatar, Y.; Zaouk, D.; El Hajj, A.; Honein, E.; Assaad, J.

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil has long been renowned for its nutritional and healthy values. These values are being continuously verified by new scientific results. Not all olive oils found in the market are, however,authentic. One of the ways to cheat in olive oil is to mix it with other, cheaper oils. The aim of our study is to develop an ultrasonic measurement system that would quickly detect the fraud in the olive oil and thus protect and preserve this quality product. By using ultrasonic waves of frequency 1.7MHz in transmission through the oils, we have obtained promising results for detection of different mixtures of olive oil with pure sunflower oil. Our results have shown an increasing ultrasonic speed for an increasing percentage of sunflower oil in the mixture. (author)

  2. Olive cake dietary supplementation in rabbit: immune and oxidative status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Taticchi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to study the effect of three different types of dehydrated olive cakes on immunitary and oxidative status of growing rabbits. One hundred and sixty New Zealand White weaned rabbits, 30 day old, were divided into four homogeneous groups. To experimental groups was administered a similar diet integrated with 5% of three types of olive cake (A, B, C obtained from local olive oil mills. The olive cakes A and C were both of high quality (C better than A, while the by-product B had the lowest level of total polyphenols, o-diphenols and oleic acid and the highest peroxide number. The aspecific immunitary and oxidative status was improved in animals fed olive cakes richer in antioxidant components.

  3. Quantitative assessment of different phenolic compounds in Texas olive oils versus foreign oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Olive Ranch is the first one to produce olive oil and has the sole product in the Texas market place; several growers are now starting to cultivate olive at various sites in Texas. The quality of olive oil produced and pressed in Texas has never been explored. This study was conducted to inv...

  4. Assessment of the Genotoxicity of olive mill waste water (OMWW) with the Vicia faba Micronucleus test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hajjouji, H.; Pinelli, E.; Revel, J. C.; Hafidi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Olive mill waste water (OMW) can cause serious environmental hazards in olive producing countries, especially around the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, olive mills are noe of the foremost polluters: the volume of OMW produced annually is estimated at 250 000 m 3 during the season of production. the present study concerns the genotoxicity of OMW generated in mills producing olive oil in Morocco. (Author)

  5. Sector Modeling for the Prediction and Evaluation of Cretan olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migdalas, A.; Baourakis, G.; Kalogeras, N.; Meriem, H.B.

    2004-01-01

    Greece is a major international olive oil producer. Olive oil varieties constitute the major crops for Greek farmers growing certain oriental olive oil varieties. Currently, the olive oil sector in Greece is undergoing substantial changes and the response of farmers and consumers to this will be a

  6. Effect of three types of composts of olive oil by-products on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extraction of olive oil generates colossal by-products quantities; generally unexploited and causes serious environmental problems in Algeria. In tackling this problem, we performed three types of composts (C1: 50% cows manure, 50% olive husks and olive mill wastewaters; C2: 50% olive husks treated by the lime, ...

  7. Characterization by chemometry of the most important domestic and foreign olive cultivars from the National Olive Collection Orchard of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diraman, H.

    2010-07-01

    In this study, twelve samples from domestic olive cultivars (Memecik, Uslu, Domat, Ayvalik, Celebi, Memeli, Erkence, Gemlik, Cakir, olive cultivars (Picholine, Arbequnia, Hojiblanca, Manzanilla, Frontoio, Leccio, Saurani, Baroui and Meski) were investigated. All olive samples were collected from the National Olive Collection Orchard at Kemalpa - Izmir, Turkey. Basic qualitative parameters (free fatty acidity, peroxide value and spectrophotometric indexes), color scale and fatty acid profiles were determined in virgin olive oils obtained from domestic and foreign olive cultivars growing in the same pedoclimatic conditions. Large variations were observed among the cultivars, despitethe fact that the cultivars are planted in the same pedoclimatic conditions. Oils extracted from 21 samples obtained from domestic and foreign olive cultivars in the National Olive Genetic Bank of Turkey were classified with the multivariete stastistical method (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA) based on their fatty acid profiles. According to the HCA results (Euclidian method), the oils obtained from the domestic and foreign cultivars were separated into two and three groups, respectively. (Author).

  8. Impact of repeated two-phase olive mill waste application on phosphorus fractionation in a degraded olive grove soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Flores, S.; Rato, J. M.; Munoz, A.; Cabrera, D.; Pena, D.; Fernandez, S.

    2009-01-01

    Loss of organic matter is one of the main forms of soil degradation in Mediterranean agricultural soils, and external sources of organic matter are required to improve soil properties. the two-phase centrifugation system in the olive-oil extraction industry produces a large amount of olive mill waste sludge (TPOMW) which can be used to add organic C to degraded soils. (Author)

  9. Effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on chemical, oxidative and sensorial quality of marinated anchovy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Osman Kadir; Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Büyükbenli, Hanife Aydan

    2014-07-01

    This study describes the potential use of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces as antioxidant, preservative and flavoring agent in fish marinades. The olive oil and sauces, produced from emulsifying of olive oil and pomegranate juice with gums, were blended with marinated anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) fillets. The aim of the present study was to produce a new polyphenol-rich marinade sauces by emulsifying pomegranate juice with olive oil in different proportions (25%, 35% and 50%v:v). In order to evaluate the effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on quality of anchovy marinades, the chemical (TVB-N and TMA), oxidative (peroxides value, K230, thiobarbituric acid and K270) and sensory analyses were carried out during storage at 4°C. The present study showed that saucing of anchovy marinades with olive oil-pomegranate sauce can retard the undesirable quality changes, prolong the lipid oxidation and improve the sensory properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Digestion and absorption of olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98 % and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and colipase-dependent pancreatic lipases and bile secretion. Gastric lipolysis leads to the hydrolysis of 10-30 % of ingested triglycerides, generating mainly diglycerides (DG and free fatty acids. This facilitates subsequent triglyceride hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase by allowing fat emulsification. Pancreatic lipase cleaves the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of triglycerides and/or DG obtaining sn-2 monoglycerides. Different lipid metabolites are quickly absorbed along the epithelial cells of the small intestine, acting olive oil as a supplier of oleic-acid-rich hydrocarbon skeletons for cellular synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids. Absorption of mostly minor compounds of (extra virgin olive oil takes place in the small intestine, as native or derivatives. Compared to diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, olive oil suppresses gastric acid secretion and is a potent releasing factor of cholecystokinin peptide, which consistently indicate that the consumption of olive oil might be beneficial in digestive diseases.El aceite de oliva es una grasa monoinsaturada (rica en ácido oleico, compuesta por triglicéridos (>98% y componentes menores. En los procesos de digestión y absorción de los triglicéridos participan enzimas y se producen cambios fisicoquímicos. La lipasa gástrica es el componente mayoritario de la actividad lipolítica gástrica en humanos. La hidrólisis de los triglicéridos continúa en el duodeno, por la acción sinérgica de las lipasas g

  11. THE EXISTENCE OF OLIVE TREES IN TURKEY AND SEYİTOBA VILLAGE WHICH IS AN EXAMPLE OF CULTIVATION OF OLIVE SEEDLING (SARUHANLI, MANİSA)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dursun ÇİTÇİ; Bülent GÜNER; Zeki BOYRAZ

    2010-01-01

    A significant portion of our country furits field is the olive grove. The number of olive trees and, applied with a large range of support has been growing rapidly in Turkey. In just the last five years, 40 million olive trees planted with olive trees in our country the number has exceeded 150 million. This situation needs a significant amount of olive seedlings are exposed in many parts of our country.Olive trees prodcution is mainly based on the private companies. Manisa's Saruhanlı Seyitob...

  12. Effect of Olive Branch Aging and Extracts on the Attraction of Olive Neiroun Beetles Phloeotribus Scarabeioides (Bern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mustafa

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of the olive neiroun beetle Phloeorribus scarabeiuides (Bern to the aging of detached olive branches at different periods of time was investigated in the laboratory using an olfactometer and in the field. Results showed that ten-day aged branches were the most attractive to the olive neiroun, indicating that semi-dried branches were more preferred than dry or fresh ones. Furthermore,  the efficiency of certain chemical solvents including n-hexane. Chloroform, acetone, methanol and distilled water in extracting the attractive substances in olive branches was studied using an olfactometer. Acetone extract was found to be the most efficient in attracting adults P. Scarabeioides. The study indicates that the olive neiroun may locate the stressed host trees or detached branches by olfactory perception of volatile compounds resulting from the stressed host tissues.

  13. Qualitative evaluation of Tunisian olive oils using an electronic tongue and chemometric tools: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Slim, Souihli; Rodrigues, Nuno; Dias, L.G.; Veloso, Ana C.A.; Pereira, J.A.; Oueslati, Souheib; Peres, António M.

    2016-01-01

    Olive oil commercialization has a great impact in the regional economy of several countries including Tunisia. It is a high-value food product, quite prone to frauds. So, it is important to establish analytical techniques that can ensure labelling correctness regarding olive oil quality as well as its origin, namely concerning the olive(s) cultivar(s) used in the production, which is of major importance for monovarietal olive oils. Traditional analytical techniques like those base...

  14. IMPROVEMENT OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TIRANA’S BLACK OLIVE THROUGH THE CLONE SELECTION.

    OpenAIRE

    Valdete Vorpsi; Hajri Ismaili; Uran Abazi; Ilir Cici

    2010-01-01

    The olive is among the oldest cultivated trees in the world, olive cultivation is associated with several countries of the Mediterranean See basin and plays an important role in the diets economies and cultures of the region. There are different region in Albania that are suitable for olive cultivation in our country. The olive growing is very ancient in Tirana district and constitutes an important sector of economy. "Black of Tirana" olive cultivar has originated from Tirana district and occ...

  15. Table Olive Fermentation Using Starter Cultures with Multifunctional Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatoula Bonatsou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Table olives are one of the most popular plant-derived fermented products. Their enhanced nutritional value due to the presence of phenolic compounds and monounsaturated fatty acids makes olives an important food commodity of the Mediterranean diet. However, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is mainly craft-based and empirically driven by the autochthonous microbiota of the olives depending on various intrinsic and extrinsic factors, leading to a spontaneous process and a final product of variable quality. The use of microorganisms previously isolated from olive fermentations and studied for their probiotic potential and technological characteristics as starter cultures may contribute to the reduction of spoilage risk resulting in a controlled fermentation process. This review focuses on the importance of the development and implementation of multifunctional starter cultures related to olives with desirable probiotic and technological characteristics for possible application on table olive fermentation with the main purpose being the production of a health promoting and sensory improved functional food.

  16. DNA Fingerprinting of Olive Varieties by Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Bandelj

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites combine several features of an ultimate molecular marker and they are used increasingly in various plant genetic studies and applications. In this work we report on the utilisation of fourteen previously developed olive microsatellite markers for the identification and differentiation of a set of nineteen olive varieties. All analysed microsatellite markers revealed a high level of polymorphism that allowed unique genotyping of the examined varieties. Ninety-six alleles were detected at all 14 loci, which multiplied into a large number of observed genotypes, giving high discrimination value for varietal identification. A minimum number of three microsatellite markers was chosen for the rapid and unambiguous varietal identification of nineteen olive varieties and only two markers were sufficient for differentiation of five local varieties. DNA fingerprints of olive cultivars by means of microsatellites provided meaningful data, which can be extended by additional olive varieties or new microsatellites and used for accurate inter-laboratory comparison. The data obtained can be used for the varietal survey and construction of a database of all olive varieties grown in Slovenia providing also additional genetic information on the agronomic and quality characteristics of the olive varieties.

  17. Effect of washing on pesticide residues in olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia-Rubio, M; Ayora-Cañada, M J; Ruiz-Medina, A

    2007-03-01

    The present work aims at contributing to the knowledge of the fate of 5 pesticides in olives in order to evaluate how washing may affect the presence of these residues in this fruit (and consequently in olive oil). For this purpose, olives were sprayed with commercial formulations containing the active ingredients and a series of analyses were performed for 64 d by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Selected pesticides, ranked by their importance, were diuron, terbuthylazine, simazine, alpha-endosulfan, and beta-endosulfan. The pesticide fraction, which was not removable from olives by washing, increased with time after treatment until their degradation started at week 6. Washing performed 1 d after treatment was the most effective in reducing residues, especially for simazine. Consequently, the washing step performed in olive mills could be effective in removing those herbicide residues present in olives as a consequence of contact with contaminated soil for a short time. This happens when olives are dropped and harvested off the ground by means of brushes or suction equipment.

  18. Active components and clinical applications of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Emily; Lockwood, Brian

    2007-12-01

    The olive tree, Olea europaea, is native to the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia Minor. The fruit and compression-extracted oil have a wide range of therapeutic and culinary applications. Olive oil also constitutes a major component of the "Mediterranean diet." The chief active components of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolics include hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein, which occur in highest levels in virgin olive oil and have demonstrated antioxidant activity. Antioxidants are believed to be responsible for a number of olive oil's biological activities. Oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, has shown activity in cancer prevention, while squalene has also been identified as having anticancer effects. Olive oil consumption has benefit for colon and breast cancer prevention. The oil has been widely studied for its effects on coronary heart disease (CHD), specifically for its ability to reduce blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Antimicrobial activity of hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein has been demonstrated against several strains of bacteria implicated in intestinal and respiratory infections. Although the majority of research has been conducted on the oil, consumption of whole olives might also confer health benefits.

  19. The origin of aliphatic hydrocarbons in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Manuel; Rojas, María; Gálvez-Valdivieso, Gregorio; Aguilar, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    There are many substances that can interfere with olive oil quality. Some of them are well characterized, but many others have an unknown origin. Saturated hydrocarbons make an extraordinary complex family of numerous molecules, some of them present naturally in vegetable oils. When major natural saturated hydrocarbons are analyzed by standard chromatographic methods, this complex mixture of saturated hydrocarbons appears as a hump in the chromatogram and is commonly named as unresolved complex mixture (UCM), whose origin remains unknown. In this work we studied the occurrence and the origin of aliphatic saturated hydrocarbons in olive oil. Hydrocarbons were analyzed in olive oil and along the industrial process of oil extraction. We also analyzed n-alkanes and the UCM fraction of hydrocarbons in leaf, fruit and oil from different varieties and different locations, and we also analyzed the soils at these locations. We conclude that the hydrocarbons present in olive oil do not necessarily have their origin in a contamination during olive oil elaboration; they seem to have a natural origin, as a result of olive tree metabolism and/or as the result of an intake and accumulation by the olive tree directly from the environment during its entire life cycle. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Brown, Curtis A.; Merritt, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary intent of this document is to provide the science assessment called for under The Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320; the Act). A secondary purpose is to provide a common background for applicants for prospective demonstration projects, should funds be appropriated for this second phase of the Act. This document synthesizes the state-of-the-science on the following topics: the distribution and abundance (extent) of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in the Western United States, potential for water savings associated with controlling saltcedar and Russian olive and the associated restoration of occupied sites, considerations related to wildlife use of saltcedar and Russian olive habitat or restored habitats, methods to control saltcedar and Russian olive, possible utilization of dead biomass following removal of saltcedar and Russian olive, and approaches and challenges associated with revegetation or restoration following control efforts. A concluding chapter discusses possible long-term management strategies, needs for additional study, potentially useful field demonstration projects, and a planning process for on-the-ground projects involving removal of saltcedar and Russian olive.

  1. The effect of different processing stages of olive fruit on the extracted olive oil polyphenol content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutsaftakis, A.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the distribution of olive fruit polyphenolic fraction through the phases of olive oil extraction by a classical and a centrifugal system has been investigated. Olives of two Cretan origin varieties were used. Consequently, samples from different stages of oil extraction with and without their polyphenols were stored for a month under 64 ºC by periodical testing their peroxide value. In olive oils extracted by the centrifugal factory a large reduction of polyphenols content was noticed during their elaboration that reached to the half amount compared with that of classical type. During oven test the control sample of olive oil obtained from the separation phase of centrifugal system was oxidized easier than that of classic one. The variation of polyphenol content as well as of the main olive oil quality characteristics with the temperature and the mixing time was also studied for a period of time.En el presente estudio se ha investigado la distribución de la fracción fenólica de aceitunas a través de las fases de extracción del aceite de oliva mediante los sistemas clásico y por centrifugación. Se han utilizado dos variedades de aceitunas cuya procedencia es la isla de Creta. Por otra parte, se han estudiado los aceites obtenidos en las diferentes etapas con y sin sus polifenoles, conservadolos durante un mes a 64 ºC y evaluándoles durante este tiempo el índice de peróxidos. En los aceites de oliva extraídos mediante centrífuga se ha observado una gran reducción en el contenido de polifenoles, reducción que alcanzó el 50 % comparado con el sistema clásico. Durante las pruebas en horno los aceites obtenidos mediante el sistema de centrifugación se oxidaron mas fácilmente que los obtenidos mediante el sistema clásico. La variación en el contenido de polifenoles así como los principales parámetros de calidad han sido estudiados en función de la temperatura y del tiempo.

  2. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  3. Olive bagasse (Olea europea L.) pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensöz, Sevgi; Demiral, Ilknur; Ferdi Gerçel, Hasan

    2006-02-01

    Olive bagasse (Olea europea L.) was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rates on the yields of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using pyrolysis temperatures between 350 and 550 degrees C with heating rates of 10 and 50 degrees C min(-1). The particle size and sweep gas flow rate varied in the ranges 0.224-1.8mm and 50-200 cm3 min(-1), respectively. The bio-oil obtained at 500 degrees C was analysed and at this temperature the liquid product yield was the maximum. The various characteristics of bio-oil obtained under these conditions were identified on the basis of standard test methods. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.8 MJ kg(-1) was established as CH(1.65)O(0.25)N(0.03). The chemical characterization showed that the bio-oil obtained from olive bagasse may be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemical feedstock.

  4. Olive bagasse (Olea europa L.) pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensoz, S.; Demiral, I. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Gercel, H.F. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Olive bagasse (Olea europea L.) was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rates on the yields of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using pyrolysis temperatures between 350 and 550 {sup o}C with heating rates of 10 and 50 {sup o}C min{sup -} {sup 1}. The particle size and sweep gas flow rate varied in the ranges 0.224-1.8 mm and 50-200 cm{sup 3} min {sup -1}, respectively. The bio-oil obtained at 500 {sup o}C was analysed and at this temperature the liquid product yield was the maximum. The various characteristics of bio-oil obtained under these conditions were identified on the basis of standard test methods. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.8 MJ kg{sup -1} was established as CH{sub 1.65}O{sub 0.25}N{sub 0.03}. The chemical characterization showed that the bio-oil obtained from olive bagasse may be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemical feedstock. (author)

  5. The activity of ozonated olive oil against Leishmania major promastigotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Omid; Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Abbasi, Fatemeh; Layegh, Pouran

    2015-09-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a common and endemic disease in Khorasan province in North-East of Iran. The pentavalant antimony (Sb V) is the mainstay of treatment that has many side effects and resistance to the drug has been reported. The microbicidal effect of ozone was proven in different microorganisms. Since there is no study in this respect and to achieve a low cost and effective treatment, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of ozone against promastigotes of Leishmania major, in vitro. Ozonated olive oil was prepared after production of ozone by bubbling ozone-oxygen gas produced by ozone generator through olive oil until it solidified. Promastigotes of L. major were cultivated in two phasic media. After calculation of the number of promastigotes, they were incubated with ozonated olive oil (0, 0.626, 0.938, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 mcg/ml) at 28 °c for 24 hr. Parasites survival percentage was evaluated using MTS and microscopic assay, and then compared with Glucantime and non-ozonated olive oil. According to the results, there were significant differences in parasites survival percentage between ozonated olive oil and non-ozonated olive oil, at similar concentrations (POzonated olive oil was more effective than Glucantime. According to MTS results, Glucantime and ozonated olive oil gel concentrations that are required to inhibit the growth of L. major promastigotes by 50% (IC50), were 165 and 0.002 mg/ml, respectively. Ozonated olive oil has in vitro activity against the promastigotes of L. major and this effect is dose dependent.

  6. Reduction in pesticide residue levels in olives by ozonated and tap water treatments and their transfer into olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kırış, Sevilay; Velioglu, Yakup Sedat

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different wash times (2 and 5 min) with tap and ozonated water on the removal of nine pesticides from olives and the transfer ratios of these pesticides during olive oil production were determined. The reliability of the analytical methods was also tested. The applied methods of analysis were found to be suitable based on linearity, trueness, repeatability, selectivity and limit of quantification all the pesticides tested. All tap and ozonated water wash cycles removed a significant quantity of the pesticides from the olives, with a few exceptions. Generally, extending the wash time increased the pesticide reduction with ozonated water, but did not make significant differences with tap water. During olive oil processing, depending on the processing technique and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, eight of nine pesticides were concentrated into olive oil (processing factor > 1) with almost no significant difference between treatments. Imidacloprid did not pass into olive oil. Ozonated water wash for 5 min reduced chlorpyrifos, β-cyfluthrin, α-cypermethrin and imidacloprid contents by 38%, 50%, 55% and 61% respectively in olives.

  7. Evaluation of the Incidence and Severity of Olive Leaf Spot caused by Spilocaea oleaginain different olive cultivars in Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Ruba Abuamsha; Mohammed Abueid; Hajaj Hajjeh; Mazen Salman

    2013-01-01

    Twelve olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars including Nabali Baladi, Nabali Mohassan, Santa Augustino, Nasohi Jaba`a 1, Nasohi Jaba`a 2, Yunani, Talmasani, Chemlali, Arbequino, Frantoio, Coca and Barouni, were sampled for their susceptibility to Spilocaea oleagina the causal agent for Olive leaf spot (OLS) disease on olive trees in Palestine. Investigations were carried out to measure the incidence and severity of the disease at Qabatyia station in Jenin district area Susceptible olive cultivar...

  8. Genetic similarity among Tunisian olive cultivars and two unknown feral olive trees estimated through SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ayed, Rayda; Sans-Grout, Cinderella; Moreau, Fabienne; Grati-Kamoun, Naziha; Rebai, Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    We used eight informative microsatellite markers for fingerprinting and evaluation of genetic similarity among 15 Tunisian olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars and two feral unknown trees named Soulela 1 and Soulela 2. Thirty-one alleles were revealed, and the number of alleles per SSR varied from 2 (UDO12) to 6 (GAPU71A). Cluster analysis grouped cultivars into three main clusters. The two unknown varieties could not be reliably classified into any of these cultivar groups. SSR analysis indicated the presence of three erroneous denominations of cultivars. We resolved two synonymy cases (Zalmati and Chemlali; Rkhami and Chetoui) and one case of homonymy (Chemlali Tataouine). Genetic analyses of DNA extracted from leaves, oils, and embryos of the two unknown cultivars and the two major Tunisian olive cultivars (Chemlali and Chetoui) were also studied. We conclude that the reliable identification of these two feral cultivars needs to be addressed by a larger set of markers.

  9. Association of SSR markers with contents of fatty acids in olive oil and genetic diversity analysis of an olive core collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, M; Ipek, A; Seker, M; Gul, M K

    2015-03-27

    The purpose of this research was to characterize an olive core collection using some agronomic characters and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to determine SSR markers associated with the content of fatty acids in olive oil. SSR marker analysis demonstrated the presence of a high amount of genetic variation between the olive cultivars analyzed. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated that olive cultivars did not cluster on the basis of their geographic origin. Fatty acid components of olive oil in these cultivars were determined. The results also showed that there was a great amount of variation between the olive cultivars in terms of fatty acid composition. For example, oleic acid content ranged from 57.76 to 76.9% with standard deviation of 5.10%. Significant correlations between fatty acids of olive oil were observed. For instance, a very high negative correlation (-0.812) between oleic and linoleic acids was detected. A structured association analysis between the content of fatty acids in olive oil and SSR markers was performed. STRUCTURE analysis assigned olive cultivars to two gene pools (K = 2). Assignment of olive cultivars to these gene pools was not based on geographical origin. Association between fatty acid traits and SSR markers was evaluated using the general linear model of TASSEL. Significant associations were determined between five SSR markers and stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids of olive oil. Very high associations (P olive.

  10. Chemometric analysis for discrimination of extra virgin olive oils from whole and stoned olive pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Michele; Restuccia, Donatella; Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Puoci, Francesco; Ragno, Gaetano

    2016-07-01

    Chemometric discrimination of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from whole and stoned olive pastes was carried out by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) data and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS1-DA) approach. Four Italian commercial EVOO brands, all in both whole and stoned version, were considered in this study. The adopted chemometric methodologies were able to describe the different chemical features in phenolic and volatile compounds contained in the two types of oil by using unspecific IR spectral information. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed in cluster analysis to capture data patterns and to highlight differences between technological processes and EVOO brands. The PLS1-DA algorithm was used as supervised discriminant analysis to identify the different oil extraction procedures. Discriminant analysis was extended to the evaluation of possible adulteration by addition of aliquots of oil from whole paste to the most valuable oil from stoned olives. The statistical parameters from external validation of all the PLS models were very satisfactory, with low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and relative error (RE%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek eHeperkan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures.

  12. Biorefinery based on olive biomass. State of the art and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-García, J M; Niño, L; Martínez-Patiño, C; Álvarez, C; Castro, E; Negro, M J

    2014-05-01

    With currently more than nine million hectares, olive tree cultivation has spread worldwide, table olives and olive oil as the main products. Moreover, a number of by-products and residues derived from both tree cultivation and the process of industrial olive oil production, most having no practical applications, are obtained yearly. This paper reviews the research regarding these by-products, namely biomass from olive tree pruning, olive stones, olive pomace and wastewaters obtained from the process of olive oil production. Furthermore, a wide range of compounds has been identified and can be produced using a broad definition of the term biorefinery based on olive tree biomass. As an example, this paper reviews ethanol production as one of the main proposed applications, as well as research on other value-added products. Finally, this paper also assesses recent technological advances, future perspectives and challenges in each stage of the process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Õnnetu saatusega Oliver Twist Polanski meelevallas / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm Charles Dickensi romaani järgi "Oliver Twist" : stsenarist Ronald Harwood : režissöör Roman Polanski : nimiosas Barney Clark, Fagin - Ben Kingsley : Suurbritannia - Tšehhi - Prantsusmaa - Itaalia 2005

  14. Polanski lavastas filmi "Oliver Twist" oma lastele / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm "Oliver Twist" Charles Dickensi romaani ainetel esilinastus Prahas, kus toimusid ka filmivõtted. Tšehhi, Suurbritannia, Prantsusmaa ja Itaalia koostöös valminud filmi lavastas Roman Polanski

  15. Immune adjuvant activity of the olive, soybean and corn oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Marinho da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last half of the century, a large amount of substances has been used as immune adjuvant. The immune adjuvant effect of olive, soybean and corn oils in Swiss mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA plus aluminum hydroxide or emulsified in Marcol, soybean, olive or corn oils was evaluated through the OVA-specific antibodies determined by ELISA and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis. In this work the comparison of the intensity of the immune response was established by the Bayesian analysis. The adjuvant effect of the vegetable oils was shown to be more effective than aluminium hydroxide. Regarding to OVA-specific IgE synthesis, olive oil had the slowest adjuvant effect of the three vegetable oils. Accordingly, olive oil was the most convenient among the vegetable oils to be used as immune adjuvant, since it stimulated a higher production of OVA-specific Ig and lower levels of anti-OVA IgE.

  16. Comment on "Rachel Oliver's article on religion and environment"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardekker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306644398

    2008-01-01

    I enjoyed reading Rachel Oliver's article on religion and environment. These differences (both between and within religions) in how people see the relation between mankind, nature and God are quite interesting indeed.

  17. Chemical thinning of 'Barouni' and 'Manzanilla' olives with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barouni' and 'Manzanilla', the most important green table olive cultivars grown in South Africa. NAA is used elsewhere in the world, but local research is required since the efficacy of NAA is modulated by environmental conditions and genotype.

  18. Biological pretreatment and ethanol production from olive cake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Baroi, George Nabin

    2010-01-01

    -producing Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus has been applied on olive cake supplemented with glucose in order to evaluate any inhibitory effect that olive cake might have on the microbial growth and metabolism. It was shown that the strain was able to grow and produce ethanol up to a TS content of 100 g per L. Further...... of the three-phase olive oil production process could be used as low price feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production due to its high concentration in carbohydrates. However, the binding of the carbohydrates with lignin may significantly hinder the necessary enzymatic hydrolysis of the polymeric sugars...... before ethanol fermentation. Treatment with three white rot fungi, Phaneroachaete chrysosporium, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Ceriolopsis polyzona has been applied on olive cake in order to investigate the potential for performing delignification and thus enhancing the efficiency of the subsequent...

  19. Biological activities of phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2010-02-02

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  20. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Keast

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  1. Use of solid residue from the olive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guinda, Ángeles

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Research into finding new uses for olive products, particularly by-products of olive oil production, is of great relevance not only to the economy, but also to the environment, in the towns where olives are grown. A large number of research articles has been published dealing with the chemical composition of olives and olive oil; however, only a few studies have centered on isolating and identifying compounds in the olive leaf. In this article an overview of the present body of knowledge on the chemical composition of the olive leaf will be presented. Also to be discussed is the use of solid residue, namely, the olive leaf and the olive stone. Both of these types of residue result from olive oil and table olive production, and can be used as a renewable energy source, as well as to obtain high added-value compounds. The latter, bioactive compounds are directed towards the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and natural food supplements markets, all of which are currently highly receptive to products of natural origin.La investigación de nuevos aprovechamientos del olivar y en particular de lo subproductos del proceso de producción del aceite, tiene gran relevancia tanto en la economía como en el medio ambiente de los pueblos donde se desarrolla este cultivo. Son numerosos los trabajos publicados sobre la composición química de la aceituna y el aceite de oliva, en cambio sólo existen algunos estudios sobre el aislamiento e identificación de los compuestos de la hoja de olivo, en esta contribución se revisan los conocimientos sobre la composición química de la hoja de olivo, así como, las utilizaciones de los residuos sólidos -hoja de olivo y hueso de aceituna- que se originan en la producción del aceite de oliva y de aceitunas de mesa, como energía renovable y para la obtención de compuestos de alto valor añadido. Estos últimos, compuestos bioactivos dirigidos a los mercados de los aditivos alimentarios naturales, farmacéutico y cosm

  2. Olive Oil effectively mitigates ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Hanan A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis, a reduction in bone mineral density, represents the most common metabolic bone disease. Postmenopausal women are particularly susceptible to osteoporosis when their production of estrogen declines. For these women, fracture is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of olive oil supplementation against osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Methods We studied adult female Wistar rats aged 12-14 months, divided into three groups: sham-operated control (SHAM, ovariectomized (OVX, and ovariectomized rats supplemented with extravirgin olive oil (Olive-OVX orally for 12 weeks; 4 weeks before ovariectomy and 8 weeks after. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected. Plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, malondialdehyde (MDA, and nitrates were assayed. Specimens from both the tibia and the liver were processed for light microscopic examination. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was also performed. Results The OVX-rats showed a significant decrease in plasma calcium levels, and a significant increase in plasma ALP, MDA, and nitrates levels. These changes were attenuated by olive oil supplementation in the Olive-OVX rats. Light microscopic examination of the tibia of the OVX rats revealed a significant decrease in the cortical bone thickness (CBT and the trabecular bone thickness (TBT. In addition, there was a significant increase in the osteoclast number denoting bone resorption. In the Olive-OVX rats these parameters were markedly improved as compared to the OVX group. Examination of the liver specimens revealed mononuclear cellular infiltration in the portal areas in the OVX-rats which was not detected in the Olive-OVX rats. Conclusions Olive oil effectively mitigated ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats, and is a promising candidate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  3. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a trad...

  4. NMR Fingerprints of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Yang-ming

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The 1H NMR fingerprint of Eucommia ulmoides acquired with a CPMG pulse sequence was analyzed with the complete reduction to amplitude-frequency table (CRAFT approach. The signals of target compounds were extracted without chemical separation and purification. Quantitative analysis showed that the average concentration of pinoresinol glucoside (PDG in Eucommia ulmoides got from Guiyang medical plant garden was 0.275 6% with a relative standard deviation (RSD of 1.69%. The results were consistent with those obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (average content of 0.269 6% and RSD of 0.65%. NMR fingerprint and multivariate statistical analysis also revealed that there existed significant differences between Hunan and Guizhou Eucommia ulmoides Oliver.

  5. ROLE OF OLIVE OIL IN CANCER PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAP Ratih Pradnyandari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. From this fact showshow ferociously the disease if not treated well. The emergence of this disease is causedby various factors, but often caused by damage to the structure of DNA and othermolecular structures by a reactive oxygen species (ROS. Early prevention that can beimplemented, is to improve the lifestyle and diet that contains a substance that canprotect our body cells from damage caused by ROS. These molecules calledantioxidants. Therefore, antioxidants are often called reducing agents (thiol orpolyphenols. Olive oil is the one of the exogenous antioxidants have many benefitsespecially polyphenols that have chemo preventive effects on several types of cancer,and can inhibit the process of carcinogenesis by several mechanisms such as inhibitionof DNA synthesis in the process, reducing the production of ROS, regulate cell cycle,regulate proliferation and survival mechanisms of cells.

  6. Oliver Sacks e a "neurofenomenologia do self"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Gomes da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A neurologia é um ramo da medicina que busca estudar uma diversidade de distúrbios neurológicos tais como perda da fala, da linguagem, da memória, da visão, da percepção dos sentidos e da identidade, entre outros distúrbios, e construiu um conjunto de conhecimentos específicos, sobretudo a partir do desenvolvimento da tecnologia médica através de modernos aparelhos de imagem cerebral. Este trabalho objetiva analisar as contribuições do neurologista Oliver Sacks a partir daquilo que ele definiu como uma "neurofenomenologia do self", da subjetividade, da identidade e da imagem corporal. Evidencia-se a abordagem fenomenológica em conjunto com as contribuições da neurologia e ressalta-se o papel da subjetividade buscando novas narrativas da mente.

  7. Treatment and valorization of olive mill wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Slimani Alaoui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the physicochemical process with lime and ferric chloride in removing the pollution generated by the olive mill wastewaters (OMW .The characterization of the samples has shown that they are acidic, with a black color and a strong organic load due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The combination of the lime and the ferric chloride allows the removal of 87% of the total suspended solid (TSs, 58% of chemical oxygen demand (COD and 75% of Phenolic compounds. After purification the treated OMW were valorised as wash water or used for irrigation of green spaces and the generated sludge were dried and used to combustion. 

  8. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Genetic similarity among Tunisian cultivated olive estimated through SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Abdelhamid

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. europaea is one of the oldest fruit tree in the Mediterranean basin, and is cultivated for oil and canned fruit. Part of this interest is driven by the economic importance of olive oil which is increasing throughout the world due to its beneficial effect to human health. In Tunisia, olive has great socio-economic importance, with more than 60 millions olive trees cultivated for olive oil production including a wide range of cultivars which are widely extended from the north to the south regions of the country for its high economic value. Here, we applied microsatellites (SSRs molecular markers to assess the genetic variability of the most important Tunisian olive cultivars. In total, the 10 simple sequence repeats (SSR loci revealed 73 alleles with a mean number of 07 alleles per locus were detected. The polymorphism index content (PIC values were high (0.72 ranging from 0.86 at GAPU 103 to 0.56 at EMO 90. The analysis of the dendrogram showed six main separate groups.

  10. Nutrigenomics of extra-virgin olive oil: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroddi, Marta; Albini, Adriana; Fabiani, Roberto; Giovannelli, Lisa; Luceri, Cristina; Natella, Fausta; Rosignoli, Patrizia; Rossi, Teresa; Taticchi, Agnese; Servili, Maurizio; Galli, Francesco

    2017-01-02

    Nutrigenomics data on the functional components of olive oil are still sparse, but rapidly increasing. Olive oil is the main source of fat and health-promoting component of the Mediterranean diet. Positive effects have been observed on genes involved in the pathobiology of most prevalent age- and lifestyle-related human conditions, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Other effects on health-promoting genes have been identified for bioactive components of olives and olive leafs. Omics technologies are offering unique opportunities to identify nutritional and health biomarkers associated with these gene responses, the use of which in personalized and even predictive protocols of investigation, is a main breakthrough in modern medicine and nutrition. Gene regulation properties of the functional components of olive oil, such as oleic acid, biophenols and vitamin E, point to a role for these molecules as natural homeostatic and even hormetic factors with applications as prevention agents in conditions of premature and pathologic aging. Therapeutic applications can be foreseen in conditions of chronic inflammation, and particularly in cancer, which will be discussed in detail in this review paper as major clinical target of nutritional interventions with olive oil and its functional components. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):17-41, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. The activity of ozonated olive oil against Leishmania major promastigotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Rajabi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a common and endemic disease in Khorasan province in North-East of Iran. The pentavalant antimony (Sb V is the mainstay of treatment that has many side effects and resistance to the drug has been reported. The microbicidal effect of ozone was proven in different microorganisms. Since there is no study in this respect and to achieve a low cost and effective treatment, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of ozone against promastigotes of Leishmania major,in vitro. Materials and Methods: Ozonated olive oil was prepared after production of ozone by bubbling ozone-oxygen gas produced by ozone generator through olive oil until it solidified. Promastigotes of L. major were cultivated in two phasic media. After calculation of the number of promastigotes, they were incubated with ozonated olive oil (0, 0.626, 0.938, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 mcg/ml at 28 °c for 24 hr. Parasites survival percentage was evaluated using MTS and microscopic assay, and then compared with Glucantime and non-ozonated olive oil. Results:According to the results, there were significant differences in parasites survival percentage between ozonated olive oil and non-ozonated olive oil, at similar concentrations (P

  12. Mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds in olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafehi, Haloom; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2012-06-01

    Olive oil, an oil rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFCs) and minor constituents including phenolic compounds, is a major component of the Mediterranean diet. The potential health benefits of the Mediterranean diet were highlighted by the seminal Seven Countries Study, and more contemporary research has identified olive oil as a major element responsible for these effects. It is emerging that the phenolic compounds are the most likely candidates accounting for the cardioprotective and cancer preventative effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). In particular, the phenolic compound, hydroxytyrosol has been identified as one of the most potent antioxidants found in olive oil. This review will briefly consider historical aspects of olive oil research and the biological properties of phenolic compounds in olive oil will be discussed. The focus of the discussion will be related to the mechanisms of action of hydroxytyrosol. Studies have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. Further, research has shown that hydroxytyrosol can prevent cardiovascular disease by reducing the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells and preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The molecular mechanisms accounting for these effects are reviewed.

  13. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activities of olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Abbassi, Abdelilah; Kiai, Hajar; Hafidi, Abdellatif

    2012-05-01

    Olive trees play an important role in the Moroccan agro-economy, providing both employment and export revenue. However, the olive oil industry generates large amounts of wastes and wastewaters. The disposal of these polluting by-products is a significant environmental problem that needs an adequate solution. On one hand, the phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of olive mill wastewaters are mainly due to their phenolic content. The hydrophilic character of the polyphenols results in the major proportion of natural phenols being separated into the water phase during the olive processing. On other hand, the health benefits arising from a diet containing olive oil have been attributed to its richness in phenolic compounds that act as natural antioxidants and are thought to contribute to the prevention of heart diseases and cancers. Olive mill wastewater (OMW) samples have been analysed in terms of their phenolic constituents and antioxidant activities. The total phenolic content, flavonoids, flavanols, and proanthocyanidins were determined. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of phenolic extracts and microfiltred samples was evaluated using different tests (iron(II) chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH assays and lipid peroxidation test). The obtained results reveal the considerable antioxidant capacity of the OMW, that can be considered as an inexpensive potential source of high added value powerful natural antioxidants comparable to some synthetic antioxidants commonly used in the food industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Olive oil biophenols and women’s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Fistonić

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates fromthe Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, andpremenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducingblood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal,and genital tract infections.

  15. Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2012-01-01

    PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes. PMID:22772038

  16. Evaluation of the Incidence and Severity of Olive Leaf Spot caused by Spilocaea oleaginain different olive cultivars in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruba Abuamsha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Twelve olive (Olea europaea L. cultivars including Nabali Baladi, Nabali Mohassan, Santa Augustino, Nasohi Jaba`a 1, Nasohi Jaba`a 2, Yunani, Talmasani, Chemlali, Arbequino, Frantoio, Coca and Barouni, were sampled for their susceptibility to Spilocaea oleagina the causal agent for Olive leaf spot (OLS disease on olive trees in Palestine. Investigations were carried out to measure the incidence and severity of the disease at Qabatyia station in Jenin district area Susceptible olive cultivars grown commercially in Palestine include Arbequino, Frantoio and ?Barouni’.The “Nabali” is the most dominant and highly susceptible olive cultivar grown in Palestine. Disease incidence varied greatly among the cultivars F=59.4, df=11, 251, p?0.0001 and was correlated with the severity (y = 0.42x + 9.3, P ? 0.0001, R² = 0.84, y = disease severity and x = disease incidence. Disease severity also varied among different cultivars F=13.9, df=11, 251, p?0.0001. Nabali Mohassan was the most affected susceptible while Barouni was most resistant. Progress of disease severity over time fit the logistic function for all cultivars except for highly susceptible cultivars F=1.56, df=6, 83, p?0.169. The assessment method may be useful to screen olive cultivars for OLS resistance in Palestine.

  17. Transcriptional Analysis of Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase Genes from Olive (Olea europaea) in Relation to the Oleic Acid Content of the Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Farshid; Sicardo, M Dolores; Hosseini-Mazinani, Mehdi; Martinez-Rivas, Jose M; Hernandez, M Luisa

    2016-10-02

    The specific contribution of different stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) genes to the oleic acid content in olive (Olea europaea) fruit has been studied. Towards that end, we isolated three distinct cDNA clones encoding three SAD isoforms from olive (cv. Picual), as revealed by sequence analysis. The expression levels of olive SAD genes were determined in different tissues from Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including developing mesocarp and seed, together with the unsaturated fatty acid content. Lipid and gene expression analysis indicate that OeSAD2 seems to be the main gene contributing to the oleic acid content of the olive fruit and, therefore, of the virgin olive oil. This conclusion was confirmed when the study was extended to Hojiblanca, Picudo and Manzanilla cultivars. Furthermore, our data indicate that the olive microsomal oleate desaturase gene OeFAD2-2, but not OeSAD2, is responsible for the linoleic acid content in the virgin olive oil.

  18. Partitioning of olive oil antioxidants between oil and water phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Panayotis S; Karathanos, Vaios T; Mantzavinou, Antonia

    2002-01-30

    The partition coefficient (K(p)) of the natural phenolic antioxidant compounds in the olive fruit between aqueous and olive oil phases was determined. The antioxidants of olive oil are either present in the olive fruit or formed during the olive oil extraction process. The antioxidants impart stability to and determine properties of the oil and are valuable from the nutritional point of view. The olive oil antioxidants are amphiphilic in nature and are more soluble in the water than in the oil phase. Consequently, a large amount of the antioxidants is lost with the wastewater during processing. The determination of antioxidants was performed using HPLC, and the K(p) was estimated to be from as low as 0.0006 for oleuropein to a maximum of 1.5 for 3,4-DHPEA-EA (di-hydroxy-phenyl-ethanol-elenolic acid, oleuropein aglycon). Henry's law fitted very well to the experimental data. The partition coefficients were also estimated by applying the activity coefficients of the antioxidants in the two phases using a predictive group contribution method, the UNIFAC equation. The K(p) values estimated with UNIFAC method were of the same order of magnitude but varied from the experimental values. Nevertheless, this method may be a rough predictive tool for process optimization or design. Because the K(p) values were very low, some changes in the process are recommended in order to achieve a higher concentration of antioxidants in the oil. A temperature increase may lead to increasing the partition coefficient. Also, limiting the quantity of water during oil extraction could be a basis for designing alternative processes for increasing the antioxidant concentration in the olive oil.

  19. Olive phenolic compounds: metabolic and transcriptional profiling during fruit development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagna Fiammetta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olive (Olea europaea L. fruits contain numerous secondary metabolites, primarily phenolics, terpenes and sterols, some of which are particularly interesting for their nutraceutical properties. This study will attempt to provide further insight into the profile of olive phenolic compounds during fruit development and to identify the major genetic determinants of phenolic metabolism. Results The concentration of the major phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, 3–4 DHPEA-EDA, ligstroside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside and lignans, were measured in the developing fruits of 12 olive cultivars. The content of these compounds varied significantly among the cultivars and decreased during fruit development and maturation, with some compounds showing specificity for certain cultivars. Thirty-five olive transcripts homologous to genes involved in the pathways of the main secondary metabolites were identified from the massive sequencing data of the olive fruit transcriptome or from cDNA-AFLP analysis. Their mRNA levels were determined using RT-qPCR analysis on fruits of high- and low-phenolic varieties (Coratina and Dolce d’Andria, respectively during three different fruit developmental stages. A strong correlation was observed between phenolic compound concentrations and transcripts putatively involved in their biosynthesis, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of the corresponding pathways. OeDXS, OeGES, OeGE10H and OeADH, encoding putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-P synthase, geraniol synthase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase and arogenate dehydrogenase, respectively, were almost exclusively present at 45 days after flowering (DAF, suggesting that these compounds might play a key role in regulating secoiridoid accumulation during fruit development. Conclusions Metabolic and transcriptional profiling led to the identification of some major players putatively involved in biosynthesis of secondary compounds in the

  20. Olive phenolic compounds: metabolic and transcriptional profiling during fruit development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits contain numerous secondary metabolites, primarily phenolics, terpenes and sterols, some of which are particularly interesting for their nutraceutical properties. This study will attempt to provide further insight into the profile of olive phenolic compounds during fruit development and to identify the major genetic determinants of phenolic metabolism. Results The concentration of the major phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, 3–4 DHPEA-EDA, ligstroside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside and lignans, were measured in the developing fruits of 12 olive cultivars. The content of these compounds varied significantly among the cultivars and decreased during fruit development and maturation, with some compounds showing specificity for certain cultivars. Thirty-five olive transcripts homologous to genes involved in the pathways of the main secondary metabolites were identified from the massive sequencing data of the olive fruit transcriptome or from cDNA-AFLP analysis. Their mRNA levels were determined using RT-qPCR analysis on fruits of high- and low-phenolic varieties (Coratina and Dolce d’Andria, respectively) during three different fruit developmental stages. A strong correlation was observed between phenolic compound concentrations and transcripts putatively involved in their biosynthesis, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of the corresponding pathways. OeDXS, OeGES, OeGE10H and OeADH, encoding putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-P synthase, geraniol synthase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase and arogenate dehydrogenase, respectively, were almost exclusively present at 45 days after flowering (DAF), suggesting that these compounds might play a key role in regulating secoiridoid accumulation during fruit development. Conclusions Metabolic and transcriptional profiling led to the identification of some major players putatively involved in biosynthesis of secondary compounds in the olive tree. Our data

  1. Clinical, hematological and biochemical alterations in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus following experimental infection by Vibrio scophthalmi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hematological analysis can provide key values for monitoring fish health conditions. There is no information available on hematological changes of olive flounder following infection by Vibrio scophthalmi. In this study, hematological and biochemical alterations were determined for olive flounder inf...

  2. Characterization by chemometry of the most important domestic and foreign olive cultivars from the National Olive Collection Orchard of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dıraman, Harun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, twelve samples from domestic olive cultivars (Memecik, Uslu, Domat, Ayvalik, Çelebi, Memeli, Erkence, Gemlik, Çakir, Izmir Sofralik, Çekişte and Çilli and nine samples from foreign olive cultivars (Picholine, Arbequnia, Hojiblanca, Manzanilla, Frontoio, Leccio, Saurani, Baroui and Meski were investigated. All olive samples were collected from the National Olive Collection Orchard at Kemalpaşa – Izmir, Turkey. Basic qualitative parameters (free fatty acidity, peroxide value and spectrophotometric indexes, color scale and fatty acid profiles were determined in virgin olive oils obtained from domestic and foreign olive cultivars growing in the same pedoclimatic conditions. Large variations were observed among the cultivars, despitethe fact that the cultivars are planted in the same pedoclimatic conditions. Oils extracted from 21 samples obtained from domestic and foreign olive cultivars in the National Olive Genetic Bank of Turkey were classified with the multivariete stastistical method (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA based on their fatty acid profiles. According to the HCA results (Euclidian method, the oils obtained from the domestic and foreign cultivars were separated into two and three groups, respectively.

    En este estudio, doce muestras de diferentes variedades de aceituna autóctonas (Memecik, Uslu, Domat, Ayvalik, Çelebi, Memeli, Erkence, Gemlik, Çakir, Izmir Sofralik, Çekişte y Çilli y nueve muestras de diferentes variedades foráneas (Picholine, Arbequnia, Hojiblanca, Manzanilla, Frontoio, Leccio, Saurani, Baroui and Meski fueron investigadas. Todas las muestras de aceitunas fueron obtenidas del National Olive Collection Orchard de Kemalpaşa – Izmir, Turquía. Los parámetros básicos cualitativos (acidez, valor de peróxidos e índices espectrofotométrico, escala de color y perfil de ácidos grasos fueron determinados en aceites de oliva virgen obtenidos de las aceitunas de las variedades aut

  3. Oliver Peek: me pole teeninud 100 miljonit ebaseaduslikult / Oliver Peek ; interv. Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peek, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    LHV analüütik Oliver Peek, keda USA väärtpaberituru järelevalveasutus SEC süüdistab infovarguses ja ebaseaduslikus tulu teenimises, põhjendab, miks ta ei näe oma tegevuses midagi seadusevastast. Lisad: Meestel energiat ka eraettevõtluseks; Mõni LHV Traderi kasutaja võib siiski raha kaotada; LHV pensionifondidega pole probleeme; SEC: enamiku kohtuasju võidame. Tabel: Ost ja müük. Vt. samas: LHV tehingute anatoomia. Kommenteerib Tõnu Samuel

  4. Development of organic olive cultivation and its importance for the sustainability in the Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Migliorini, P

    2011-01-01

    Olive is the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world counting 9,2 million hectares of area harvested in 2009: 8,3 million are in the Mediterranean countries. This paper explain why the development of organic olive cultivation (5% of the total olive cultivation) can increase the sustainability of the Mediterranean. Regarding the ecological aspects, organic farming has benefits on landscape, biodiversity soil, water and air. Regarding economic sustainability organic olive oil produc...

  5. Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blana, Vasiliki A; Grounta, Athena; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2014-04-01

    The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermented table olives and screened in vitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined cultures and the dynamics of their population on the surface of olives was monitored for a period of 114 days. The survival of inoculated strains on olives was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both probiotic strains successfully colonized the olive surface at populations ranged from 6.0 to 7.0 log CFU/g throughout fermentation. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 presented higher colonization in both salt levels at the end of fermentation (81.2% and 93.3% in 8% and 10% NaCl brines, respectively). For L. plantarum B282 a high survival rate (83.3%) was observed in 8% NaCl brines, but in 10% NaCl the strain could not colonize the surface of olives. L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282 in inoculated fermentations when the two strains were used as combined culture. The biochemical profile (pH, organic acids, volatile compounds) attained during fermentation and the sensory analysis of the final product indicated a typical lactic acid fermentation process of green olives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  7. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of the mixture of olive oil and lime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mixture of olive oil and lime cream has been traditionally used to treat external burns in the region of Hatay/Antakya and middle Anatolia. Olive oil and lime cream have been employed by many physicians to treat many ailments in the past. A limited number of studies have shown the antibacterial effect of olive oil and ...

  8. Olive quick decline in Italy is associated with unique strain of Xylella fastidiosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS) is a destructive new disease currently affecting approximately 20,000 acres of olive in southern Italy—an area approximately the size of California’s table olive production in California. Symptoms of OQDS include extensive branch and twig dieback, yellow and brown...

  9. 78 FR 42122 - Bridge Builder Trust and Olive Street Investment Advisers, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... Builder Trust and Olive Street Investment Advisers, LLC; Notice of Application July 9, 2013. AGENCY...: Bridge Builder Trust (the ``Trust'') and Olive Street Investment Advisers (the ``Adviser'') (collectively... Financial Way, Suite 100, Glendora, CA 91741; The Adviser: James A. Tricarico, Olive Street Investment...

  10. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of § 102...

  11. Determination of polar pesticides in olive oil and olives by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortes-Méndez, Rocío; Robles-Molina, José; López-Blanco, Rafael; Vass, Andrea; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Garcia-Reyes, Juan F

    2016-09-01

    This article reports the development of two HPLC-MS methods for the determination of polar pesticides in olive oil and olive samples by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) separation followed by mass spectrometry detection with tandem mass spectrometry using a triple quadrupole instrument operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode (HILIC-MS/MS) or electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HILIC-TOFMS). The selected polar pesticides included in the study were: amitrol, cyromazine, diquat, paraquat, mepiquat, trimethylsulfonium (trimesium, glyphosate counterion) and fosetyl aluminium. The simple sample treatment procedure was based on liquid partitioning with methanol. The performance of the sample extraction was evaluated in terms of recovery rates and matrix effects in both olive oil and olives matrices. The results obtained for olive oil were satisfactory while, due to the high complexity of olives, poor recovery rates were obtained for the extraction of diquat, paraquat and amitrol, although with a reasonable precision enabling its use in routine analysis. Similarly, matrix effects were minor in the case of olive oil (ca. 20% suppression average), while significantly higher suppression was observed for olives (30-50% suppression average). The studied approaches were found to be useful for the determination of the pesticides studied in olive oil and olives with limits of quantitation below 5µgkg(-1) in most cases when tandem mass spectrometry was used, thus being in compliance with MRLs set by current EU regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Co-liquefaction Behaviour of Elbistan Lignite and Olive Bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karta, Mesut; Depci, Tolga; Karaca, Huseyin; Onal, Mehmet; Coskun, M. Ali

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, co-liquefaction potential of Elbistan lignite and Balikesir olive bagasse were investigated by direct coal liquefaction process. The olive bagasse is a cheap and abundant biomass, so it is used to decrease the cost of oil production from the lignite. The effect of blending ratio of the lignite and the olive bagasse on liquefaction conversion and oil yield were investigated. Characterization studies of the starting materials were done using XRD, FTIR, DTA/TG and elemental analysis. Elemental compositions of liquefaction products were also determined and the composition of the obtained oil was identified by GC/MS. DTA and TGA results indicated the synergistic effect of the lignite and the olive bagasse and maximum oil conversion (36 %) was obtained from 1:3 blending ratio of lignite: olive bagasse. The results showed that the obtained oil was paraffinic-low waxy oil with 22.5 MJ/kg of calorific value and 95 g/cm3 density.

  13. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable [ 3 H]AMPA [(RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid] binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in [ 3 H]AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine] were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the [ 3 H]AMPA binding data

  14. Genetic and environmental features for oil composition in olive varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bervillé André Jean

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of olive oil helps both prevent and cure heart disease. Olive oils vary in their fatty acid profiles as well as those of other secondary metabolites (phenols, sterols, and terpene compounds. We seek to distinguish the genetic bases from the environmental factors that cause these variations. The genetic base is indeed wide: varieties originate in different domestication occurrences, from different oleaster trees and in differing climatic regimes. With the aid of diagrams, we set out briefly the oil synthesis pathway for fruits in comparison with that of seeds, and the specific aspects of olive oil in particular. Varieties of olive have appeared that are adapted to regions with harsh conditions where the oleaster could not thrive. Environmental stresses have consequences on drupes and their oil profiles; these have been highlighted in European countries through the use of appellations. Whilst stresses tend to enhance the quality of the end product, they do however decrease final yields with potential negative impacts on olive growers’ incomes. Irrigation experiments are underway in order to determine the optimal amount of watering. In breeding new varieties, the result sought is that of accumulating pest tolerances and fruit-quality characteristics; selection programmes are however expensive as they necessitate observations over many years. Consumers have choice across a range of appellations with different organoleptic specificities at different prices, and whatever the appellation of the oil they can expect a positive effect on their health.

  15. Symbiotic Bacteria Enable Olive Fly Larvae to Overcome Host Defenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein—the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. (author)

  16. Preference for olive oil consumption in the Spanish local market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabéu, R.; Díaz, M.

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming ever more important for the olive oil industry in Spain to adopt a business strategy based on client orientation. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to identify the preferences of olive oil consumers and propose a series of business strategies for the producing sector. The methodology consisted in a survey of 404 olive oil consumers during the months of January and February 2013, whose preferences were determined through several multivariate techniques (conjoint analysis, consumer segmentation and a simulation of market share). The preferred olive oil is low priced, extra virgin and organic. The type of bottle does not appear to be relevant in the buying decision process, although it might be a factor in increasing market share. The current economic crisis has resulted in the emergence of two consumer segments; 67.1% of consumers selected the olive oil they buy on the basis of price and 32.9% were guided by the product’s specific attributes, which include, for example, organic production, which can be another differentiating element for producing companies.

  17. Preference for olive oil consumption in the Spanish local market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Bernabéu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming ever more important for the olive oil industry in Spain to adopt a business strategy based on client orientation. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to identify the preferences of olive oil consumers and propose a series of business strategies for the producing sector. The methodology consisted in a survey of 404 olive oil consumers during the months of January and February 2013, whose preferences were determined through several multivariate techniques (conjoint analysis, consumer segmentation and a simulation of market share. The preferred olive oil is low priced, extra virgin and organic. The type of bottle does not appear to be relevant in the buying decision process, although it might be a factor in increasing market share. The current economic crisis has resulted in the emergence of two consumer segments; 67.1% of consumers selected the olive oil they buy on the basis of price and 32.9% were guided by the product’s specific attributes, which include, for example, organic production, which can be another differentiating element for producing companies.

  18. Harvest of table olives by mechanical harvesting equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Gambella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have evaluated the performance, of an electric comb equipped with five undulated fingers used for mechanized the harvesting of table olives. The first aim of the work was to test three different types of coating materials used for covering the fingers: Silicon (S, Vulcanized rubber (VR and Natural rubber (NR. The diameter of the coating materials tested were 7mm (D1, 14 mm (D2, 19 mm (D3 in order to evaluate the damage of different working conditions on the intact olives. During harvesting, silicon at 7mm and 14mm resulted in the largest percentage of undamaged the fruit (67% and 65%, natural rubber 63% and vulcanized rubber at the 54%. The second aim was to evaluate the combination, in terms of the best performance, of the machines used for mechanized harvesting of table olives. Several factors have been examined: undulating fingers variation thickness, different rotational speeds and different coating materials used to reduce the impact damage on olives. From the tests on olive tree we have determined that while plastic materials (S and (NR appear to have a positive role in harvest quality, the vibration transmitted to the operator’s hand is great from 6.48 m/s2 for S to 6.31 m/ s2 for NR and 2.92 m/s2 for VR, respect to the materials used.

  19. Genome sequence of the olive tree, Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fernando; Julca, Irene; Gómez-Garrido, Jèssica; Loska, Damian; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Cano, Emilio; Galán, Beatriz; Frias, Leonor; Ribeca, Paolo; Derdak, Sophia; Gut, Marta; Sánchez-Fernández, Manuel; García, Jose Luis; Gut, Ivo G; Vargas, Pablo; Alioto, Tyler S; Gabaldón, Toni

    2016-06-27

    The Mediterranean olive tree (Olea europaea subsp. europaea) was one of the first trees to be domesticated and is currently of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. The molecular bases underlying the phenotypic differences among domesticated cultivars, or between domesticated olive trees and their wild relatives, remain poorly understood. Both wild and cultivated olive trees have 46 chromosomes (2n). A total of 543 Gb of raw DNA sequence from whole genome shotgun sequencing, and a fosmid library containing 155,000 clones from a 1,000+ year-old olive tree (cv. Farga) were generated by Illumina sequencing using different combinations of mate-pair and pair-end libraries. Assembly gave a final genome with a scaffold N50 of 443 kb, and a total length of 1.31 Gb, which represents 95 % of the estimated genome length (1.38 Gb). In addition, the associated fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was partially sequenced. Genome annotation, assisted by RNA sequencing from leaf, root, and fruit tissues at various stages, resulted in 56,349 unique protein coding genes, suggesting recent genomic expansion. Genome completeness, as estimated using the CEGMA pipeline, reached 98.79 %. The assembled draft genome of O. europaea will provide a valuable resource for the study of the evolution and domestication processes of this important tree, and allow determination of the genetic bases of key phenotypic traits. Moreover, it will enhance breeding programs and the formation of new varieties.

  20. Preference for olive oil consumption in the Spanish local market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabéu, R.; Díaz, M.

    2016-07-01

    It is becoming ever more important for the olive oil industry in Spain to adopt a business strategy based on client orientation. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to identify the preferences of olive oil consumers and propose a series of business strategies for the producing sector. The methodology consisted in a survey of 404 olive oil consumers during the months of January and February 2013, whose preferences were determined through several multivariate techniques (conjoint analysis, consumer segmentation and a simulation of market share). The preferred olive oil is low priced, extra virgin and organic. The type of bottle does not appear to be relevant in the buying decision process, although it might be a factor in increasing market share. The current economic crisis has resulted in the emergence of two consumer segments; 67.1% of consumers selected the olive oil they buy on the basis of price and 32.9% were guided by the product’s specific attributes, which include, for example, organic production, which can be another differentiating element for producing companies.

  1. Trace Element Content of Monovarietal and Commercial Portuguese Olive Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvinhas, Irene; Machado, Nelson; Cunha, Maria; Pereira, Marisa; Matos, Carlos; Gomes, Sónia; Lopes, João; Martins-Lopes, Paula; Barros, Ana I R N A

    2015-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) represents one of the most important and ancient crops in the Mediterranean countries, being widely known due to the optimal organoleptic characteristics of its oil, besides the important health benefits assigned to this product in the last few years. Since olive oil composition, respecting specific trace elements, has a direct impact on the quality and safety of this product, eleven monovarietal and twelve commercial olive oils were analysed spectrometrically concerning their metal composition. Regarding quality parameters, the monovarietal olive oils display larger quantities of Mg, Fe, Mn, while the commercial samples are characterized by greater amounts of Na, Ca, Cu and Zn. In which respects to safety parameters, the commercial samples present higher values for Al and Pb, and lower quantities of Cd, respecting the monovarietal ones. The assessment of the values observed for the trace elements, resorting to multivariate statistical methods, allowed to clearly distinguish the type of olive oil production-monovarietal or commercial blend. For this purpose, besides Cluster analysis, the data have been subjected to Principal Component Analysis-undertaken for either all the evaluated parameters simultaneously, or the quality/safety parameters separately, both data sets allowing the discrimination of the samples.

  2. Benefits of olive oil phenolic compounds in disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martinez, Olga; Ruiz, Concepcion; Gutierrez-Ibanez, Alvaro; Illescas-Montes, Rebeca; Melguizo-Rodriguez, Lucia

    2018-02-12

    The preventive effects of olive oil against different diseases have been attributed to its high phenolic compound content. The objective of this study was to examine available scientific evidence on the beneficial effects against chronic diseases of olive oil phenolic compounds. This article examines recently published data on olive oil phenolic compounds and their potential benefits in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurodegenerative disease, and osteoporosis. The antioxidant, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities of olive oil phenolic compounds have preventive effects against heart disease and cancer. These compounds also exert neuroprotective and neuromodulator effects against neurodegenerative disease, inhibiting the development of amyloid plaques. Finally, they are known to protect against osteoporosis, favoring bone regeneration. Dietary intake of olive oil can be recommended by healthcare professionals as an important source of phenolic compounds that play a role in the prevention of chronic disease and the consequent improvement in quality of life. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Olive mill wastewater pretreatment by combination of filtration on olive stone filters and coagulation-flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enaime, Ghizlane; Baçaoui, Abdelaziz; Yaacoubi, Abdelrani; Wichern, Marc; Lübken, Manfred

    2018-02-15

    In the present study a new combined process, comprising filtration of raw olive mill wastewater (OMWW) on two successive olive stone (OS) filters followed by a coagulation-flocculation, was developed in order to perform an efficient pretreatment of OMWW. The results show that the use of OS filter leads to a higher removal of total suspended solids (TSS) and fatty matter (FM) from the raw OMWW (about 82.5% and 73.8%, respectively) and a depletion of total phenolic compounds (TP) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) (11.3% and 23.2%, respectively). The coagulation-flocculation was then applied to improve the removal of TP and COD from the filtered OMWW. For this purpose, a full-factorial design was used to study the effect of different factors involved in coagulation-flocculation. The studied variables were: pH (5-8), coagulant type (ferric chloride; FC and aluminum sulfate; AS), coagulant concentration (250-1000 mg/L) and flocculant (Anionique polyelectrolyte Superfloc A120 PWG) concentration (1-5 mg/L). The results reveal that the use of 250 mg/L FC and 5 mg/L flocculant at an acid pH (around 5) allows for, respectively, a removal of TP and COD of about 10.8% and 31.3%.

  4. Productive and vegetative behavior of olive cultivars in super high-density olive grove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primo Proietti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in interest in super high-density (SHD olive (Olea europaea L. groves because they offer early entry into production, increased productivity and the possibility of using modified mechanical vine harvesters. This study was carried out in a young SHD olive grove to examine vegetative, histo-anatomical and productive characteristics and oil quality of the Spanish Arbequina and Italian Maurino and Leccino cultivars, characterized by low, low-to-medium and high vigor, respectively. Arbequina had low vigor and limited development in height and width, as well as a high leaf/wood ratio. Maurino had a canopy volume similar to that of Arbequina and, despite a great tendency to grow in height, had low vigor, a rather compact vegetative habitus, but good lighting in the canopy and high production efficiency. In Maurino, a greater palisade parenchyma height and a larger exposed lateral surface area of the palisade parenchyma cells were observed. In the fourth year after planting, fruit production of Arbequina was about 30 % less than Leccino and Maurino. The oil content on a dry weight basis was slightly higher in Arbequina and Maurino than in Leccino. Oil quality was good for all cultivars.

  5. Virgin olive oil quality of hedgerow 'Arbequina' olive trees under deficit irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, José M; Morales-Sillero, Ana; Pérez-Rubio, Ana G; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Montero, Antonio; Fernández, José E

    2017-02-01

    Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is used in hedgerow olive orchards to achieve a sustainable balance between water savings, tree vigor and oil production. Its effects on the presence of compounds responsible for the taste of the oil and its nutritional value are controversial. The present 3-year study was conducted in an 'Arbequina' orchard (1667 trees ha -1 ) under a full irrigation (FI) treatment (470.1 mm year -1 of water) and two RDI treatments scaled to replace 60% and 30%, respectively, of FI. The quality parameters, antioxidant contents and volatiles of the extracted virgin olive oil (VOO) were analyzed. In general, oils from the 30% RDI treatment had higher contents of pigments and phenolic compounds, a higher oleic/linoleic ratio and the highest oxidative stability, despite their lower tocopherol content. FI oils showed higher (E)-2-hexenal, 1-penten-3-one, ocimene, E-2-pentenal and pentene dimer contents than 30RDI oils, but lower contents of (E)-2-pentenol and volatile esters. The results of the present study suggest that a RDI strategy supplying 30% of the total irrigation needs induces an increase in natural antioxidants in VOO. Neither yield, nor the rest of the quality parameters were affected by the reduced irrigation. However, abundant autumn precipitation can over-ride these effects of 30% RDI treatment on oil quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Virgin olive oil color and perceived quality among consumers in emerging olive-growing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gámbaro, A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Five virgin olive oil samples were evaluated by 122 consumers for their color acceptability and expected quality on 9-point structured scales. A description of the attributes expected in the different oils was obtained from the responding consumers by means of a check-all-that-apply questionnaire consisting of a list of 17 possible virgin olive oil attributes. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with distinct behavior. Whereas one consumer cluster attributed higher quality to those oils that were greener in color, which they described as tasty, rich-flavored, strong-tasting, herb-flavored and expensive, consumers in the other cluster assumed that greener olive oils were of a poorer quality, as they described them as strange-tasting, strong-tasting, herb-tasting and defective. Despite the contrasting perception of a virgin olive oil’s green color, the respondents, irrespective of cluster, presumed that the virgin olive oil that was the yellowest in color was of poor quality and cheap, also assuming that it had a milder taste than the other oils.122 consumidores evaluaron el color de 5 muestras de aceite de oliva virgen, midiendo su aceptabilidad y la calidad esperada por medio de una escala estructurada de 9 puntos y describiéndolas por medio de preguntas “marque todo lo que corresponde” que consiste en una lista de 17 términos posibles para atributos de aceites de oliva extra vírgenes. Mediante un análisis de conglomerados jerárquico se identificó a dos grupos de consumidores Los consumidores de ambos grupos consideraron que los aceites más amarillos eran de baja calidad, describiéndolos como baratos y de gusto suave. Un grupo de consumidores asignó puntuaciones de calidad alta a todos los aceites con colores verdes, describiéndolos como sabrosos, aromáticos, con gusto fuerte, con sabor a hierba y caros. El otro grupo de consumidores consideró que los aceites de color verde m

  7. Biological control of olive fruit fly in California – release, establishment and impact of Psyttalia lounsburyi and Psyttalia humilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) likely originated in sub-Saharan Africa, where the wild olive Olea europaea cuspidata L. (Wall. ex G. Don) is found and from which the domesticated olive O. europaea europaea L. was derived. Following the path of olive cult...

  8. Rapid NIR determination of alkyl esters in virgin olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayuela, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The regulation of The European Union for olive oil and olive pomace established the limit of 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acids ethyl ester contents in extra virgin olive oils, from grinding seasons after 2016. In this work, predictive models have been established for measuring fatty acid ethyl and methyl esters and to measure the total fatty acid alkyl esters based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and used successfully for this purpose. The correlation coefficients from the external validation exercises carried out with these predictive models ranged from 0.84 to 0.91. Different classification tests using the same models for the thresholds 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid ethyl esters and 75 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid alkyl esters provided success percentages from 75.0% to 95.2%. [es

  9. Technologies and Trends to Improve Table Olive Quality and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Campus

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Table olives are the most widely consumed fermented food in the Mediterranean countries. Peculiar processing technologies are used to process olives, which are aimed at the debittering of the fruits and improvement of their sensory characteristics, ensuring safety of consumption at the same time. Processors demand for novel techniques to improve industrial performances, while consumers' attention for natural and healthy foods has increased in recent years. From field to table, new techniques have been developed to decrease microbial load of potential spoilage microorganisms, improve fermentation kinetics and ensure safety of consumption of the packed products. This review article depicts current technologies and recent advances in the processing technology of table olives. Attention has been paid on pre processing technologies, some of which are still under-researched, expecially physical techniques, such ad ionizing radiations, ultrasounds and electrolyzed water solutions, which are interesting also to ensure pesticide decontamination. The selections and use of starter cultures have been extensively reviewed, particularly the characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts to fasten and safely drive the fermentation process. The selection and use of probiotic strains to address the request for functional foods has been reported, along with salt reduction strategies to address health concerns, associated with table olives consumption. In this respect, probiotics enriched table olives and strategies to reduce sodium intake are the main topics discussed. New processing technologies and post packaging interventions to extend the shelf life are illustrated, and main findings in modified atmosphere packaging, high pressure processing and biopreservaton applied to table olive, are reported and discussed.

  10. Modelling the number of olive groves in Spanish municipalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huete, M.D.; Marmolejo, J.A.

    2016-11-01

    The univariate generalized Waring distribution (UGWD) is presented as a new model to describe the goodness of fit, applicable in the context of agriculture. In this paper, it was used to model the number of olive groves recorded in Spain in the 8,091 municipalities recorded in the 2009 Agricultural Census, according to which the production of oil olives accounted for 94% of total output, while that of table olives represented 6% (with an average of 44.84 and 4.06 holdings per Spanish municipality, respectively). UGWD is suitable for fitting this type of discrete data, with strong left-sided asymmetry. This novel use of UGWD can provide the foundation for future research in agriculture, with the advantage over other discrete distributions that enables the analyst to split the variance. After defining the distribution, we analysed various methods for fitting the parameters associated with it, namely estimation by maximum likelihood, estimation by the method of moments and a variant of the latter, estimation by the method of frequencies and moments. For oil olives, the chi-square goodness of fit test gives p-values of 0.9992, 0.9967 and 0.9977, respectively. However, a poor fit was obtained for the table olive distribution. Finally, the variance was split, following Irwin, into three components related to random factors, external factors and internal differences. For the distribution of the number of olive grove holdings, this splitting showed that random and external factors only account about 0.22% and 0.05%. Therefore, internal differences within municipalities play an important role in determining total variability. (Author)

  11. Modelling the number of olive groves in Spanish municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Dolores Huete

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The univariate generalized Waring distribution (UGWD is presented as a new model to describe the goodness of fit, applicable in the context of agriculture. In this paper, it was used to model the number of olive groves recorded in Spain in the 8,091 municipalities recorded in the 2009 Agricultural Census, according to which the production of oil olives accounted for 94% of total output, while that of table olives represented 6% (with an average of 44.84 and 4.06 holdings per Spanish municipality, respectively. UGWD is suitable for fitting this type of discrete data, with strong left-sided asymmetry. This novel use of UGWD can provide the foundation for future research in agriculture, with the advantage over other discrete distributions that enables the analyst to split the variance. After defining the distribution, we analysed various methods for fitting the parameters associated with it, namely estimation by maximum likelihood, estimation by the method of moments and a variant of the latter, estimation by the method of frequencies and moments. For oil olives, the chi-square goodness of fit test gives p-values of 0.9992, 0.9967 and 0.9977, respectively. However, a poor fit was obtained for the table olive distribution. Finally, the variance was split, following Irwin, into three components related to random factors, external factors and internal differences. For the distribution of the number of olive grove holdings, this splitting showed that random and external factors only account about 0.22% and 0.05%. Therefore, internal differences within municipalities play an important role in determining total variability.

  12. COMPETITIVITE DE LA FILIERE HUILE D'OLIVE EN ALGERIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    temps une perte d'intérêt du consommateur pour l'huile d'olive. Ce qui a accéléré la baisse du niveau de sa consommation par les mé- nages. Dès les années 1960, la substitution des huiles de graines aux huiles d'olive a été observée dans l'ensemble des pays méditerranéens et aboutit, une décennie plus tard, à faire de ...

  13. Deficit irrigation principles applied to olive orchard in Slovene Istria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja PODGORNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree has anatomical-morphological and physiological adaptations which enable it to cope well with dry conditions and water deficits. However, if water shortage occurs during the development phases (shoot growth, flower bud development, bloom, fruit set, cell division and enlargement and oil accumulation, which are the most susceptible to stress, it can also have a negative effect on the growth and productivity of olive trees. The Slovenian Istria is facing with increased risk of drought. Due to increased occurrence and intensity of agricultural droughts controlled deficit irrigation will become an inevitable element of agricultural practice in Slovene Istria.

  14. Production of activated carbon from acorns and olive seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafi, W.K. [Amman College for Engineering Technology, Marka (Jordan)

    2001-07-01

    This study has been designed to produce activated carbon from acorns and olive seeds. The starting materials are low in cost and they are the cause of solid waste pollution problems in Jordan. A chemical procedure is used to produce the required activated carbon. The results indicate that activated carbon produced from acorns compares favourably with that from olive seeds which rank second, along side commercial type activated carbon which comes last with respect to adsorption capacity. However, the optimum activated temperature is 800 {sup o}C and the optimum regeneration temperature is also 800 {sup o}C. (Author)

  15. Rapid determination of phenol content in extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favati, F.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A quick extraction methodology was developed to reduce the time usually required to determine the phenol content in olive oil. The validity of this method, based on SPE technique, was tested against two other phenol extraction techniques.
    The statistical analysis of the analytical data showed that over a phenol content range of 110-550 μg/g oil, the proposed method can be a reliable alternative for a rapid extraction of the phenols from olive oil.

    No disponible.

  16. Multilocus sequence typing of Xylella fastidiosa isolated from olive affected by “olive quick decline syndrome” in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Toufic ELBEAINO; Franco VALENTINI; Raied ABOU KUBAA; Peter MOUBARAK; Thaer YASEEN; Michele DIGIARO

    2015-01-01

    The recent finding of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) in olive trees in southern Italy, the scanty molecular information on this bacterium and its association with the olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS) prompted the necessity to isolate and acquire more genetic data on the type of strain present in that region. For the first time, the bacterium was isolated from infected olive on culture media. Genetic information were obtained through genomic comparison with other subspecies or strains. The sequenc...

  17. Physiological models of the lateral superior olive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Ashida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In computational biology, modeling is a fundamental tool for formulating, analyzing and predicting complex phenomena. Most neuron models, however, are designed to reproduce certain small sets of empirical data. Hence their outcome is usually not compatible or comparable with other models or datasets, making it unclear how widely applicable such models are. In this study, we investigate these aspects of modeling, namely credibility and generalizability, with a specific focus on auditory neurons involved in the localization of sound sources. The primary cues for binaural sound localization are comprised of interaural time and level differences (ITD/ILD, which are the timing and intensity differences of the sound waves arriving at the two ears. The lateral superior olive (LSO in the auditory brainstem is one of the locations where such acoustic information is first computed. An LSO neuron receives temporally structured excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs that are driven by ipsi- and contralateral sound stimuli, respectively, and changes its spike rate according to binaural acoustic differences. Here we examine seven contemporary models of LSO neurons with different levels of biophysical complexity, from predominantly functional ones ('shot-noise' models to those with more detailed physiological components (variations of integrate-and-fire and Hodgkin-Huxley-type. These models, calibrated to reproduce known monaural and binaural characteristics of LSO, generate largely similar results to each other in simulating ITD and ILD coding. Our comparisons of physiological detail, computational efficiency, predictive performances, and further expandability of the models demonstrate (1 that the simplistic, functional LSO models are suitable for applications where low computational costs and mathematical transparency are needed, (2 that more complex models with detailed membrane potential dynamics are necessary for simulation studies where sub

  18. Antimicrobial activity of olive oil, vinegar, and various beverages against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Eduardo; Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel; De Castro, Antonio

    2007-05-01

    The survival of foodborne pathogens in aqueous extracts of olive oil, virgin olive oil, vinegar, and several beverages was evaluated. Vinegar and aqueous extracts of virgin olive oil showed the strongest bactericidal activity against all strains tested. Red and white wines also killed most strains after 5 min of contact, black and green tea extracts showed weak antimicrobial activity under these conditions, and no effect was observed for the remaining beverages (fruit juices, Coca-Cola, dairy products, coffee, and beer). The phenolic compound content of the aqueous olive oil and virgin olive oil extracts could explain their antibacterial activity, which was also confirmed in mayonnaises and salads used as food models. Virgin olive oil in mayonnaises and salads reduced the counts of inoculated Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes by approximately 3 log CFU/g. Therefore, olive oil could be a hurdle component in certain processed foods and exert a protective effect against foodborne pathogens when contaminated foods are ingested.

  19. 3D modeling of olive tree and simulating the harvesting forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glăvan Dan Ovidiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the study regarding the influence of shaking forces on olive tree harvesting systems. Shaking forces can be released through several methods. Important is the end result, namely the shaking force and the cadence of shaking speed. Mechanical and automatic harvesting methods collect more olives than traditional methods but may damage the olive trees. In order to prevent this damage, we need to calculate the necessary shaking force. An original research method is proposed to simulate shaking forces using a 3D olive tree model with Autodesk Inventor software. In the experiments, we use different shaking forces and various shaking speeds. We also use different diameters of the olive tree trunk. We analyze the results from this experiment to determine the optimal shaking force for harvesting olives without damaging the olive tree.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Some Turkish Olive Cultivars Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergün KAYA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europea L. is one of the oldest cultivated plants characteristic in the Mediterranean area, where it is the most important oilproducing crop. The cultivated olive (O. europaea L. var. europaea is propagated by cutting or grafting, whereas wild olive (O. europaea L. var. sylvestris is reproduced from seeds. These two olive types are interfertile and have led to a large number of varieties. Morphological descriptions are not entirely reliable, due to numerous synonyms and homonyms in designations, labelling mistakes, the presence of varietal clones, and the uncertain identification methods thus far applied. Molecular markers, as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers, are environment-independent and efficient to identify olive varieties and to detect synonymous and homonymous. In this study, fifteen selected RAPD markers are used for determination of relationships among twenty individuals belonging to four important Turkish olive cultivars. Our results showed that RAPD markers can be used to differentiate olive cultivars

  1. Polyphenols benefits of olive leaf (Olea europaea L) to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Patrícia; Kasper Machado, Isabel; Garavaglia, Juliano; Zani, Valdeni Terezinha; de Souza, Daiana; Morelo Dal Bosco, Simone

    2014-12-17

    The phenolic compounds present in olive leaves (Olea europaea L.) confer benefits to the human health. To review the scientific literature about the benefits of the polyphenols of olive leaves to human health. Literature review in the LILACS-BIREME, SciELO and MEDLINE databases for publications in English, Portuguese and Spanish with the descriptors "Olea europaea", "olive leaves", "olive leaf", "olive leaves extracts", "olive leaf extracts", "phenolic compounds", "polyphenols", "oleuropein", "chemical composition", and "health". There were identified 92 articles, but only 38 related to the objectives of the study and 9 articles cited in the works were included due to their relevance. The phenolic compounds present in olive leaves, especially the oleuropein, are associated to antioxidant, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and cardioprotective activity. Furthermore, studies associate the oleuropein to an anti-inflammatory effect in trauma of the bone marrow and as a support in the treatment of obesity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Soil management in rainfed olive orchards may result in conflicting effects on olive production and soil fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Q. Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of a sustainable soil management system is essential for the steep slopes and low fertility soils still supporting rainfed olive orchards in the Mediterranean basin. The effect of the soil management on olive yield, tree nutritional status and soil fertility was studied in a rainfed olive orchard located in NE Portugal that had been managed since its earliest days as a sheep-walk. In 2001, three different soil management systems were established: Sheep-walk, in which the vegetation was managed with a flock of sheep; Tillage, where the vegetation was controlled by conventional tillage; and Glyphosate, where a glyphosate-based herbicide was applied. The soil management systems had a pronounced effect on olive yield. The accumulated olive yields between 2002 and 2011 were 187.2, 142.9 and 89.5 kg tree-1, respectively in the Glyphosate, Tillage and Sheep-walk treatments. However, the effect of soil management on tree nutritional status was not so clear. On the other hand, the pools of organic carbon and N in the soil, and also the soil available N and phosphorus (P, were found to be less in the Glyphosate and Tillage treatments in comparison with the Sheep-walk. In these soils, N appeared as a much more limiting factor for crop growth than P. In rainfed orchards, the tolerance to herbaceous vegetation appears to be a determining factor in sustainability, which regulates annual crop yields and soil fertility. The higher the tolerance to herbaceous species, the lower the olive yields, but the better are the soil fertility parameters.

  3. Improvement of phenolic antioxidants and quality characteristics of virgin olive oil with the addition of enzymes and nitrogen during olive paste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inconomou, D.; Arapoglou, D.; Israilides, C.

    2010-07-01

    The evolution of phenolic compounds and their contribution to the quality characteristics in virgin olive oil during fruit processing was studied with the addition of a combination of various commercial enzymes containing pectinases, polygalacturonases, cellulase and {beta}-glucanase with or without nitrogen flush. Olive fruits (Olea europaea, L.) of the cultivar Megaritiki, at the semi black pigmentation stage of maturity, were used in a 3-phase extraction system in an experiment at industrial scale. The addition of enzymes in the olive paste during processing increased the total phenol and ortho-diphenol contents, as well as some simple phenolic compounds (3,4-DHPEA, p-HPEA) and the secoiridoid derivatives (3,4-DHPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEAEA) in olive oil and therefore improved its oxidative stability. Furthermore, enzyme treatment ameliorated the quality parameters of the produced olive oil (acidity and peroxide value) and their sensory attributes. The use of additional N{sub 2} flush with the enzyme treatments did not improve the quality parameters of olive oil any further; however it did not affect the concentration of individual and total sterols or most of the fatty acid composition. Consequently, olive paste treatment with enzymes not only improved the quality characteristics of olive oil and enhanced the overall organoleptic quality, but also increased the olive oil yield. (Author) 33 refs.

  4. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF proton (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2 curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively.

  5. Detection of olive oil adulteration by low-field NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy upon mixing olive oil with various edible oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ok, S.

    2017-01-01

    Adulteration of olive oil using unhealthy substitutes is considered a threat for public health. Low-field (LF) proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry and ultra-violet (UV) visible spectroscopy are used to detect adulteration of olive oil. Three different olive oil with different oleoyl acyl contents were mixed with almond, castor, corn, and sesame oils with three volumetric ratios, respectively. In addition, Arbequina olive oil was mixed with canola, flax, grape seed, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils with three volumetric ratios. Transverse magnetization relaxation time (T2) curves were fitted with bi-exponential decaying functions. T2 times of each mixture of olive oils and castor oils, and olive oils and corn oils changed systematically as a function of volumetric ratio. To detect the adulteration in the mixtures with almond and sesame oils, both LF 1H NMR relaxometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy were needed, where UV-Vis-spectroscopy detected the adulteration qualitatively. In the mixtures of Arbequina olive oil and flax, peanut, soybean, and sunflower seed oils, both T21 and T22 values became longer systematically as the content of the olive oil was decreased. The unique UV-Vis maximum absorbance of flax oil at 320.0 nm shows the adulteration of olive oil qualitatively. [es

  6. Multilocus sequence typing of Xylella fastidiosa isolated from olive affected by “olive quick decline syndrome” in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toufic ELBEAINO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent finding of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf in olive trees in southern Italy, the scanty molecular information on this bacterium and its association with the olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS prompted the necessity to isolate and acquire more genetic data on the type of strain present in that region. For the first time, the bacterium was isolated from infected olive on culture media. Genetic information were obtained through genomic comparison with other subspecies or strains. The sequences of thirteen genes from its genome, comprising seven housekeeping genes (leuA, petC, lacF, cysG, holC, nuoL and gltT usually used in multilocus sequence typing (MLST systems, and six genes involved in different biochemical functions (RNA Pol sigma-70 factor, hypothetical protein HL, 16S rRNA, rfbD, nuoN, and pilU, were analyzed. The sequences of the biochemical function genes were explored  individually to study the genetic structure of this bacterium, while the MLST genes were linked together into one concatameric sequence (4161 bp long to increase the resolution of the phylogenetic analysis when compared with Xf strains previously reported. Sequence analyses of single genes showed that the Xf olive strain is distinct from the four previously defined taxons (Xf subsp. fastidiosa, Xf subsp. multiplex, Xf subsp. sandyi and Xf subsp. pauca with a dissimilarity rate that reached 4%. In particular, Xf from olive shared the greatest identity with the strain “9a5c” (subsp. pauca, but was nevertheless distinct from it. Similarly, the MLST based on concatameric sequences confirmed the genetic variance of Xf from olive by generating a novel sequence type profile (ST53. Phylogenetic tree analyses showed that Xf from olive clustered in one clade close to subspecies pauca (strains “9a5c” and “CVC0018”, but was nevertheless distinct from them. These results indicate molecular divergence of this olive bacterium with all other strains yet reported.

  7. Chemical composition of virgin olive oils from the Chemlali cultivar with regard to the method of the olive tree propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerfel, M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports for the first time a discrimination study based on the antioxidant compounds, oxidative stability and volatile compounds of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali using two methods of olive tree propagation (suckers and cuttings. There were significant differences between the oils from the two methods. Olive oil samples obtained from the fruits of trees from suckers had a higher content of oleic acid (63.8%, higher contents of chlorophyll and carotenoids (3.01 mg/ kg and 1.9 mg/kg respectively, a higher content of (E-2 hexenal (66.1% and a higher content in total phenols (890 mg/kg. Interestingly, more stable oil was obtained from the olives from suckers compared to the olives from cuttings. These results can be used to discriminate and to characterize the Chemlali olive oils from each origin of olive tree.

    En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez un estudio de discriminación basado en compuestos antioxidantes, estabilidad oxidativa y compuestos volátiles de muestras de aceites de oliva virgen obtenidos de frutos de la principal variedad de aceitunas tunecinas (Chemlali a partir de dos métodos de propagación del olivo (chupones y estaquillas herbáceas. Se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre los aceites obtenidos por los dos métodos. Las muestras de aceites de oliva obtenidas de frutos de árboles de chupones tenían una mayor proporción de ácido oleico (63,8%, un mayor contenido de clorofila y de carotenoides (3,01 mg/kg y 1,9 mg/kg, respectivamente, un mayor contenido de (E-2 hexenal (66,1% y un mayor contenido en fenoles totales (890 mg/kg. Curiosamente, el aceite más estable se ha obtenido de las aceitunas de árboles de chupones, en comparación con las aceitunas de árboles de estaquillas herbáceas. Estos resultados pueden ser utilizados para discriminar y caracterizar los aceites de oliva Chamlali según el origen del olivo.

  8. EVALUATION OF THE MICROCLIMATE DURING OLIVE OIL EXTRACTION OPERATIONS INSIDE OLIVE MILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Panaro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Some oil mills, among the most representative in the Puglia Region in terms of quality and productivity have been considered, and the temperature and humidity of the environment and the sensations of temperature felt by the workers were registered inside them during the process of oil extraction. Subsequently, a numerical code in MATLAB language was created, able to calculate the PMV and PPD and a study was carried out of the conditions of global comfort in the environment during the oil extraction process. The results of the surveys carried out in the mills show the importance of microclimate risk analysis in these workplaces, since the instrumental surveys and the calculations have shown that climatic conditions are not comfortable in the olive storage bays. On the other hand, the data from the oil extraction areas shows an acceptable condition of thermal well-being.

  9. Olive (Olea europaea L.) tree nitrogen status is a key factor for olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, Ran; Kerem, Zohar; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon; Schwartz, Amnon; Zipori, Isaac; Basheer, Loai; Yermiyahu, Uri

    2013-11-27

    The influence of macronutrient status on olive oil properties was studied for three years. Data were analyzed by a multivariate model considering N, P, K, and fruiting year as explanatory factors. Oil quality parameters were primarily associated with N concentration in leaves and fruits which increased with N in irrigation solution. The effect of P on oil quality was mainly indirect since increased P availability increased N accumulation. The potassium level had negligible effects. The oil phenolic content decreased linearly as a function of increased leaf N, indicating protein-phenol competition in leaves. The overall saturation level of the fatty acids decreased with fruit N, resulting in increased polyunsaturated fatty acids. Free fatty acids increased with increased levels of fruit N. High fruit load tended to reduce fruit N and subsequently improve oil quality. The effect of N on oil properties depended solely on its concentration in leaves or fruits, regardless of the cause.

  10. Antithrombotic and Antiatherosclerotic Properties of Olive Oil and Olive Pomace Polar Extracts in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nektaria Tsantila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil polar lipid (OOPL extract has been reported to inhibit atherosclerosis development on rabbits. Olive pomace polar lipid (PPL extract inhibits PAF activity in vitro and the most potent antagonist has been identified as a glycerylether-sn-2-acetyl glycolipid with common structural characteristics with the respective potent antagonist of OOPL. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPL on early atherosclerosis development on rabbits and to compare it with the antiatherosclerotic effect of OOPL. OOPL and PPL inhibition potency, towards both PAF action and PAF binding, was tested in vitro on washed rabbit platelets. Consequently, rabbits were divided into three groups (A, B, and C. All groups were fed atherogenic diet for 22 days. Atherogenic diets in groups B and C were enriched with OOPL and PPL, respectively. At the end of the experimental time, rabbits were euthanized and aortic samples were examined histopathologically. OOPL and PPL inhibited PAF-induced aggregation, as well as specific PAF binding, with PPL being more potent. Free and bound PAF levels and PAF-AH activity were significantly elevated at the end of the experimental time. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were also found increased. Groups B and C exhibited significantly increased values of EC50 compared to group A. Histopathological examination revealed that the development of early atherosclerosis lesions in groups B and C were significantly inhibited compared to group A. Significant differences were noted in the early atherosclerosis lesions between groups B and C, thus indicating that PPL exhibit its anti-atherosclerotic activity by blocking PAF receptor. Specific PAF antagonists with similar in vitro and in vivo bioactivity to those that have been previously reported in OOPL exist in PPL.

  11. Situation of European SMEs in the olive oil and table olive area. Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador, Javier

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of the situation of European Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs in the olive oil and table olive sector is carried out in order to find their main needs in the following aspects: information, participation in Research, Development and Innovation (R+D+I programmes, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs implementation, quality control, environmental impacts, etc. The data used in this study were obtained through questionnaires sent to SMEs in France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Turkey. The results obtained show: a reasonable acceptance of ICTs, a high interest in training courses on the most recent and pertinent legislation, and in product quality improvement and marketing.En este trabajo, se realiza un estudio de la PYME europea en el sector olivarero para detectar las principales necesidades que tienen las empresas en información técnica, participación en proyectos de investigación, formación, Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación (TIC, calidad, impacto ambiental, etc. Los datos se obtuvieron a través de encuestas enviadas a empresas de Alemania, Francia, España, Grecia, Italia, Portugal y Turquía. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las TIC tienen un nivel razonable de implantación en este sector industrial. Así mismo, las empresas encuestadas manifiestan tener gran interés en actividades de formación e información en la legislación relacionada con el sector, el control de calidad y el marketing.

  12. Presence of toxic microbial metabolites in table olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eMedina-Pradas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Table olives have an enormous importance in the diet and culture of many Mediterranean countries. Albeit there are different ways to produce this fermented vegetable, brining/salting, fermentation and acidification are common practices for all of them. Preservation methods such as pasteurization or sterilization are frequently used to guarantee the stability and safety of fermented olives. However, final products are not always subjected to a heat treatment. Thus, microbiota is not always removed and appropriate levels of acidity and salt must be obtained before commercialization. Despite the physicochemical conditions not being favourable for the growth of foodborne pathogens, some illness outbreaks have been reported in the literature. Street markets, inappropriate manipulation and storage conditions were the origin of many of the samples in which foodborne pathogens or their metabolites were detected. Many authors have also studied the survival of pathogens in different styles of table olive elaboration, finding in general that olive environment is not appropriate for their presence. Inhibitory compounds such as polyphenols, low availability of nutrients, high salt content, low pH levels, bacteriocins or the addition of preservatives act as hurdles against undesirable microorganisms, which contribute to obtaining a safe and good quality product.

  13. Warming of olive oil processed by high hydrostatic pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houška, M.; Kubásek, M.; Strohalm, J.; Landfeld, A.; Kamarád, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2004), s. 303-308 ISSN 0895-7959 R&D Projects: GA MZe EP9026 Keywords : olive oil * food processing * high pressure * warming Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.504, year: 2004

  14. Commentary to Adam Oliver's 'Incentivising improvements in health care delivery'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrangbaek, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The commentary discusses key issues for assessment of performance management within health care. It supports the ambition to develop more realistic understandings of performance management based on insights from behavioral economics as suggested by Adam Oliver. However, it also points to several...

  15. Olive Schreiner, Undine, and Childhood Reading | Voss | English in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olive Schreiner, Undine, and Childhood Reading. T Voss. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eia.v42i1.1 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  16. 76 FR 35957 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... L. Simmons, Marketing Specialist, or Kurt J. Kimmel, Regional Manager, California Marketing Field... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of interim rule as final rule. SUMMARY: The...

  17. Genome of wild olive and the evolution of oil biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unver, Turgay; Wu, Zhangyan; Sterck, Lieven; Turktas, Mine; Lohaus, Rolf; Li, Zhen; Yang, Ming; He, Lijuan; Deng, Tianquan; Escalante, Francisco Javier; Llorens, Carlos; Roig, Francisco J; Parmaksiz, Iskender; Dundar, Ekrem; Xie, Fuliang; Zhang, Baohong; Ipek, Arif; Uranbey, Serkan; Erayman, Mustafa; Ilhan, Emre; Badad, Oussama; Ghazal, Hassan; Lightfoot, David A; Kasarla, Pavan; Colantonio, Vincent; Tombuloglu, Huseyin; Hernandez, Pilar; Mete, Nurengin; Cetin, Oznur; Van Montagu, Marc; Yang, Huanming; Gao, Qiang; Dorado, Gabriel; Van de Peer, Yves

    2017-10-31

    Here we present the genome sequence and annotation of the wild olive tree ( Olea europaea var. sylvestris ), called oleaster, which is considered an ancestor of cultivated olive trees. More than 50,000 protein-coding genes were predicted, a majority of which could be anchored to 23 pseudochromosomes obtained through a newly constructed genetic map. The oleaster genome contains signatures of two Oleaceae lineage-specific paleopolyploidy events, dated at ∼28 and ∼59 Mya. These events contributed to the expansion and neofunctionalization of genes and gene families that play important roles in oil biosynthesis. The functional divergence of oil biosynthesis pathway genes, such as FAD2 , SACPD, EAR , and ACPTE , following duplication, has been responsible for the differential accumulation of oleic and linoleic acids produced in olive compared with sesame, a closely related oil crop. Duplicated oleaster FAD2 genes are regulated by an siRNA derived from a transposable element-rich region, leading to suppressed levels of FAD2 gene expression. Additionally, neofunctionalization of members of the SACPD gene family has led to increased expression of SACPD2 , 3 , 5 , and 7 , consequently resulting in an increased desaturation of steric acid. Taken together, decreased FAD2 expression and increased SACPD expression likely explain the accumulation of exceptionally high levels of oleic acid in olive. The oleaster genome thus provides important insights into the evolution of oil biosynthesis and will be a valuable resource for oil crop genomics.

  18. Activity budgets on social and reproductive behaviour of olive baboons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the activity budgets on social interactions and reproductive behaviour of olive baboon (Papio anubis) at Gashaka Gumti ... Results of polyspecific association shows that the baboons spent 14.29% of the time in association with red flanked duikers, 14.29% with black-and-white ...

  19. Short Communications Fruit selection in the olive thrush: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-03-05

    Mar 5, 1996 ... When offered pieces of dyed pear. Pyrus communis, the thrushes preferentially selected orange pieces, followed by red and black pieces. Green pieces were never eaten. The results indicated that olive thrushes selected fruit on the basis of fruit colour, and that colour preferences differed between the two ...

  20. Therapeutic Impacts of Almond Oil and Olive Oil on Cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing to the +ve control group supplementations of the atherogenic diet with either almond or olive oils induced significant reductions (p<0.05) in plasma levels oftotal cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, VLDL-C, triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids(FFA) levels and TC/HDL ratio.The same was observed for the %oβ- apo ...

  1. EFFECT OF Dactyladenia barteri (Hook. f. ex Oliv.), Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two year field study was conducted to investigate the effects of prunings of Dactyladenia barteri (Hook. f. ex Oliv.), Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.), and Senna siamea (Lam.) on the activity of earthworms and soil and worm cast properties. Earthworm activity was measured by quantifying ...

  2. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Department of Agriculture (USDA) is issuing this rule in conformance with Executive Order 12866. This rule... members of the Committee are producers and handlers of California olives. They are familiar with the...

  3. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Department of Agriculture (USDA) is issuing this rule in conformance with Executive Order 12866. This rule... members of the Committee are producers and handlers of California olives. They are familiar with the...

  4. Improving Morocco's olive industry, from harvest to waste disposal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It's a scene that has changed little over the centuries in Morocco's countryside. In the late January sunlight streaming through the open door of the small outbuilding, a patient, blindfolded horse slowly circles a concrete vat. He is the engine of this olive crusher, pulling the stone grinding wheel under which family members ...

  5. Flowering in the wild olive ( Olea europaea L.) tree (oleaster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    flowers with absence or reduced stamens and flowers with absence of pistil) are frequently observed and may reduce fruit set. This study investigates the phenology evolution and the male and female abortion of the oleaster tree (or the wild olive ...

  6. Synthesis of hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers from olive oil waste waters

    OpenAIRE

    Espartero Sánchez, José Luis; Madrona, Andrés; Pereira Cano, Gema; Mateos, Raquel; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Trujillo, Mariana; Fernández Bolaños, Juan

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  7. Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernández-Bolaños

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  8. Water use efficiency in the midecinal plant Enantia chlorantha oliv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water use efficiency in the midecinal plant Enantia chlorantha oliv. AE Gbadamosi. Abstract. No Abstract. Bowen Journal of Agriculture Vol. 2 (1) 2005: pp. 18-24. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  9. Olive black water as raw material for butanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waehner, R.S.; Giulietti, A.M.; Mendez, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Solventogenic Clostridium spp. were used for butanol production from olive black water considering also the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Butanol yields ranging from 0.09 to 0.29 g per g of sugar content and COD removals as high as 85% were achieved in small-scale experiments.

  10. Screening of Candida boidinii from Chemlal spent olive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... cell/ml. That can be explained by the assimilation of free fatty acids by this strain after degradation of olive oil by the enzyme. The production of lipase and biomass, in solid state ... detergent, textile, biodiesel and oil processing industries .... flasks to study the effects of the selected strain in its origin media.

  11. Olive Banks and the Collective Biography of British Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Gaby

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers Olive Banks' work on charting the history and development of British feminism, and particularly her use of collective biography as a research and analytic tool. It is argued that while this has been seen as the least "fashionable" aspect of her work, it took forward C. Wright Mills' contention for one definition of…

  12. Olive Oil and its Potential Effects on Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Shan; Zhang, G. P.

    Alzheimer's disease is a neuro-degenerative brain disease that is responsible for affecting the lives of hundreds of thousands of people every year. There has been no evidence to suggest a cure for the disease and the only existing treatments have very low rates of success in trial patients. This is largely due to the fact that the brain is one of the most undiscovered parts of the human body. Brain chemistry is highly complex and responds to its environment in random and radical ways. My research includes testing the reactionary outcomes of combining compounds of olive oil with the 20 basic amino acids. Regions around the world with olive oil based diets show a direct correlation to lower rates of Alzheimer's. Testing few compounds of olive oil with chemicals already found in the brain may yield to a better understanding as to why that is. I took the compounds tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and oleocanthal, and combined them with the 20 basic amino acids and calculated the total energy of the new molecule. The molecules produced with acceptably low energy values will be the center of further research. These molecules could lead to truly understanding olive oil's effect on the brain, and ultimately, the cure or prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve the growth of olive trees and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve the growth of olive trees and their resistance to transplantation stress. ... This change in the root: shoot ratio permitted greater utilization of soil resources and strengthened the plant's capacity to resist transplantation shock and water stress. The abundance of the two fungi in the roots of ...

  14. Properties of Albizia schimperiana oliv.: a lesser-known agroforestry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albizia schimperiana Oliv. is a lesser- known and lesser-utilized timber species found in the tropical eastern Africa. In Tanzania, particularly Kilimanjaro region this species is incorporated in agro-forestry systems as a shade tree for coffee. Using standard methods, this study investigated some potentials of A. schimperiana ...

  15. Screening of Candida boidinii from Chemlal spent olive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphological, biochemical characterization and 18S rDNA gene analysis of the selected strain, confirms that it is Candida boidinii KF156789. The production of lipase and biomass were carried out in liquid and solid (spent olive) media. In submerged fermentation, it seemed that the production of enzyme reached its ...

  16. Extraction and utilization of saltcedar and Russian olive biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis P. Dykstra

    2010-01-01

    This chapter assesses technologies that might be useful for utilization of saltcedar and Russian olive trees as biomass. These are invasive species that are being targeted for eradication by the Bureau of Reclamation under federal legislation passed in 2007. One option is to utilize the biomass from stems and branches, and possibly even from roots and foliage,...

  17. Transesterification of Waste Olive Oil by "Candida" Lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiangping; Vasudevan, Palligarnai T.

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of waste olive oil with methanol and Novozym [R] 435. The effect of the molar ratio of methanol to triolein, mode of methanol addition, reaction temperature, and mixing speed on biodiesel yield was determined. The effect of different acyl acceptors and/or solvents on biodiesel yield was also evaluated.…

  18. Studies on drying kinetics of olive foot cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamlat, M. S.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The olive foot cake is a very important by-product of olive oil industry since it can contain until 12 % of oil which can be extracted using solvent. The used solvent is often immiscible with water. This is the reason why its effect is limited by the moisture of olive foot cake making its drying imperative. In this paper, we present the behaviour of olive foot cake subjected to convective drying. The experimental results show that the drying rate versus moisture presents only one period of decreasing rate. The influence of the main parameters on drying kinetics is studied.El orujo es un importante subproducto de la industria del aceite de oliva ya que puede contener hasta el 12 % del aceite, el cual puede ser extraído usando un disolvente apropiado. El uso del disolvente es a menudo inmiscible con el agua. Esta es la razón por la que su efecto está limitado por la humedad del orujo, haciendo su secado imperativo. En este artículo se presenta el comportamiento del orujo sometido a un secado por convección. Los resultados experimentales mostraron que la velocidad de secado frente a la humedad, presenta un solo período de disminución de dicha velocidad. Se ha estudiado la influencia de los principales parámetros sobre la cinética de secado.

  19. Modelling anaerobic codigestion of manure with olive oil mill effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    anaerobic codigestion of cattle manure together with olive oil mill effluent (OME) and the simulations were compared with experimental data. Simulation data indicated that lack of ammonia, needed as nitrogen source for synthesis of bacterial biomass and as an important pH buffer, could be responsible...

  20. Olive oil phenolic compounds and high-density lipoprotein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernáez, Alvaro; Farràs, Marta; Fitó, Montserrat

    2016-02-01

    The functional capacities of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) reflect the physiological role of the particle better than the quantity of HDL cholesterol. Owing to its phenolic compounds, the consumption of virgin olive oil has emerged as a promising therapy to promote these capacities. This review highlights the human studies that explain these benefits and explores some possible mechanisms. The consumption of olive oil phenolic compounds increased the ability of HDLs to pick up cholesterol excess in peripheral cells (the cholesterol efflux capacity). Olive oil phenolic compounds have also been shown to improve HDL antioxidant capacities and some anti-inflammatory traits. These changes respond to an improvement of HDL oxidative status and composition. Novel strategies to increase HDL functional capacities are in demand from clinicians. The attainment of a fully-functional HDL through dietary or lifestyle changes is a priority in cardiovascular research. Within this context, the consumption of virgin olive oil, because of its phenolic compounds, may be a relevant protective approach. Further studies in large-scale, randomized controlled trials are, however, required to confirm these effects in HDL functionality.

  1. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Savarese, Maria; Paduano, Antonello; Scalfi, Luca; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of a health claim for VOO polyphenols may represent an efficient stimulus to get the maximum health benefit from one of the most valuable traditional product of Mediterranean countries educating consumers to the relationship between the VOO bitterness and its health effect. Agronomical practices and new processing technology to avoid phenolic oxidation and hydrolysis and to enhance the aromatic components of the VOO have been developed and they can be used to modulate taste and flavor to diversify the products on the market. VOOs having high concentration of phenol compounds are bitter and pungent therefore many people do not consume them, thus loosing the health benefits related to their intake. In this paper, the chemist's and nutritionist's point of view has been considered to address possible strategies to overcome the existing gap between the quality perceived by consumer and that established by expert tasters. Educational campaigns emphasizing the bitter-health link for olive oils should be developed.

  2. Biosensor immunoassay for traces of hazelnut protein in olive oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Smits, N.G.E.; Haasnoot, W.

    2009-01-01

    The fraudulent addition of hazelnut oil to more expensive olive oil not only causes economical loss but may also result in problems for allergic individuals as they may inadvertently be exposed to potentially allergenic hazelnut proteins. To improve consumer safety, a rapid and sensitive direct

  3. Genetic variation within the olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar Oblica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... Genetic variation within the olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar Oblica detected using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Frane Strikic1*, Dunja Bandelj Mavsar2, Slavko Perica1, Zlatko Cmelik3, Zlatko Satovic3 and. Branka Javornik4. 1Institute for Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation ...

  4. Olive oil: an overview of the Japanese market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capogna Daniela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of olive oil consumption in Japan, Asia’s largest per capita consumer and at present 14th in the world. Since the early 1990s, total purchases have increased from 4943 t in the 1992/93 campaign to 61 903 t in 2014/15, a more than 12-fold increase over the space of 22 years. Olive oil, in particular extra virgin olive oil, is appreciated by Japanese people primarily for its beneficial effects on health, as well as for its agreeable taste and for its cultural and historical associations. Other key factors to be considered are economic and cultural. Japan is one of the world’s largest economies; disposable incomes are high and these are reflected in household consumption behavior. Culturally, the country is increasingly open to the outside world, discovering and adopting practices from elsewhere, notably the West. This openness, allied to the country’s relative affluence, is demonstrated in the consumption of olive oil, a pillar of the Mediterranean Diet.

  5. Efficient in vitro plantlet regeneration in Populus euphratica Oliver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Populus euphratica Oliver is highly tolerant against salt stress and thus very important for afforestation efforts of saline soils in sandy desert regions. Even if protocols already exist for the regeneration of shoots from leaf explants for this species, all are based on the hormones 6-benzylaminopurin (BAP) and ...

  6. Molecular characterization of olive cultivars grown in Iraq using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    husam

    database for Iraqi olive cultivars, in breeding strategies and in correct cultivar identification. Key words: Olea europaea, genetic diversity ... cultivated fruit tree species in the Mediterranean basin. It is a predominant allogamous species .... carried out using an automatic DNA analyzer (Model 3100 Prism;. Applied Biosystems).

  7. Olive plants (Olea europaea L.) as a bioindicator for pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliwa, Amal Mohamed; Kamel, Ehab Abdel-Razik

    2013-06-15

    In the present work, olive plant (Olea europaea L.) was used as a biological indicator for pollution in which, molecular and physiological parameters were studied. Olive plants were collected from polluted and non-polluted areas in Jeddah - Saudi Arabia, traffic area as an air polluted area, sewage treatment station as water polluted area, industrial area as solid waste polluted, costal area as marine polluted area and an area without a direct source of pollution far away from the city center, which was used as control. These changes conducted with nucleic acid content, minerals content, pigments and some growth parameters. Results showed significant reductions in DNA and RNA contents under all polluted sites. Mineral contents were varied widely depending on the different pollutants and locations of olive plant. Generally, micro-elements varied (increase/decrease) significantly within collected samples and the source of pollution. All growth parameters were decreased significantly within the studied samples of all pollutant areas except the relative water content was increased. The content of chlorophyll a has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. While the content of chlorophyll b has increased significantly in all polluted leaves especially in air polluted leaves. The total content of carotenoid pigments has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. It was concluded that olive plant can be used as a biological indicator to the environmental pollutants.

  8. Stakeholder perceptions: Biological control of Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharlene E. Sing; Kevin J. Delaney

    2016-01-01

    An online survey was distributed through email lists provided by various stakeholder groups on behalf of the International Consortium for Biological Control of Russian Olive in spring of 2012. A total of 392 respondents replied from 24 U.S. states and 1 Canadian province. Questions posed in the survey were designed to identify and categorize 1) stakeholders by...

  9. Olive Schreiner in Rhodesia: An Episode in a Biography | Walters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Vera Buchanan-Gould (see 1948, 198-99) – could be forgiven for doubting whether Olive Schreiner ever was in Rhodesia. Although her husband\\'s edition of her Letters includes three which cover this journey (Cronwright-Schreiner 1924a), he makes no mention of it in his Life (1924), and it is not touched on either in First ...

  10. Supplementation of olive mill wastes in broiler chicken feeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... This work was conducted in order to study the value of olive mill wastes as diet on the growth performance, abdominal ... proportion increases significantly in the pectoral muscle (p < 0.0001) with the three diets containing. OMW, but its level ... Many mediterranean countries have tried to study the use of this ...

  11. Assessment of Helicobacter pylori eradication by virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Manuel; Romero, Concepción; de Castro, Antonio; Vargas, Julio; Medina, Eduardo; Millán, Raquel; Brenes, Manuel

    2012-08-01

     A recent study conducted by Medina et al. disclosed that virgin olive oil has a bactericidal effect in vitro against Helicobacter pylori because of its contents of certain phenolic compounds with dialdehydic structures. We carried out two clinical trials to evaluate the effect of virgin olive oil on H. pylori-infected individuals.  Two different pilot studies were performed with 60 H. pylori-infected adults. In the first study, thirty subjects who tested positive for H. pylori received 30 g of washed virgin olive oil for 14 days, and after 1 month, the patients took 30 g of unwashed virgin olive oil for another 14 days. In a second study, a group of 30 subjects received 30 g of a different virgin olive oil for 14 days. Helicobacter pylori-infection status was checked by the urea breath test.  Helicobacter pylori was eradicated in 8 of 30 individuals when microorganism status was checked after 4-6 weeks from the first clinical intervention although 12 of 30 individuals did not show H. pylori infection at 24-72 hour of the last oil dose. Eradication rates were 27 and 40% by intention to treat and per protocol, respectively. Moreover, only 3 of 30 individuals were H. pylori negative after 4-6 weeks from the second clinical intervention but 5 of 30 were negative at 24-72 hour of the last oil dose. Eradication rates were 10 and 11% by intention to treat and per protocol, respectively. It must also be noted that 13 subjects withdrew from the studies because of taste and nausea drawbacks.  The administration of virgin olive oil showed moderate effectiveness in eradicating H. pylori. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings, especially with longer periods, different administration conditions, and several types of olive oils. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Computational annotation of genes differentially expressed along olive fruit development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinelli Federico

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olea europaea L. is a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean basin with a worldwide economical high impact. Differently from other fruit tree species, little is known about the physiological and molecular basis of the olive fruit development and a few sequences of genes and gene products are available for olive in public databases. This study deals with the identification of large sets of differentially expressed genes in developing olive fruits and the subsequent computational annotation by means of different software. Results mRNA from fruits of the cv. Leccino sampled at three different stages [i.e., initial fruit set (stage 1, completed pit hardening (stage 2 and veraison (stage 3] was used for the identification of differentially expressed genes putatively involved in main processes along fruit development. Four subtractive hybridization libraries were constructed: forward and reverse between stage 1 and 2 (libraries A and B, and 2 and 3 (libraries C and D. All sequenced clones (1,132 in total were analyzed through BlastX against non-redundant NCBI databases and about 60% of them showed similarity to known proteins. A total of 89 out of 642 differentially expressed unique sequences was further investigated by Real-Time PCR, showing a validation of the SSH results as high as 69%. Library-specific cDNA repertories were annotated according to the three main vocabularies of the gene ontology (GO: cellular component, biological process and molecular function. BlastX analysis, GO terms mapping and annotation analysis were performed using the Blast2GO software, a research tool designed with the main purpose of enabling GO based data mining on sequence sets for which no GO annotation is yet available. Bioinformatic analysis pointed out a significantly different distribution of the annotated sequences for each GO category, when comparing the three fruit developmental stages. The olive fruit-specific transcriptome dataset was

  13. SNP discovery by illumina-based transcriptome sequencing of the olive and the genetic characterization of Turkish olive genotypes revealed by AFLP, SSR and SNP markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Betul Kaya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The olive tree (Olea europaea L. is a diploid (2n = 2x = 46 outcrossing species mainly grown in the Mediterranean area, where it is the most important oil-producing crop. Because of its economic, cultural and ecological importance, various DNA markers have been used in the olive to characterize and elucidate homonyms, synonyms and unknown accessions. However, a comprehensive characterization and a full sequence of its transcriptome are unavailable, leading to the importance of an efficient large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP discovery in olive. The objectives of this study were (1 to discover olive SNPs using next-generation sequencing and to identify SNP primers for cultivar identification and (2 to characterize 96 olive genotypes originating from different regions of Turkey. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Next-generation sequencing technology was used with five distinct olive genotypes and generated cDNA, producing 126,542,413 reads using an Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx. Following quality and size trimming, the high-quality reads were assembled into 22,052 contigs with an average length of 1,321 bases and 45 singletons. The SNPs were filtered and 2,987 high-quality putative SNP primers were identified. The assembled sequences and singletons were subjected to BLAST similarity searches and annotated with a Gene Ontology identifier. To identify the 96 olive genotypes, these SNP primers were applied to the genotypes in combination with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP and simple sequence repeats (SSR markers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study marks the highest number of SNP markers discovered to date from olive genotypes using transcriptome sequencing. The developed SNP markers will provide a useful source for molecular genetic studies, such as genetic diversity and characterization, high density quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis, association mapping and map-based gene cloning in the olive. High levels

  14. An effective HPLC-based approach for the evaluation of the content of total phenolic compounds transferred from olives to virgin olive oil during the olive milling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, Lorenzo; Migliorini, Marzia; Zanoni, Bruno; Breschi, Carlotta; Mulinacci, Nadia

    2017-12-17

    Several studies demonstrate a strong interest in learning more about phenolic transfer during oil extraction, with the main goal of increasing the phenolic concentration in olive oils. We aimed to propose and apply a new methodological approach for evaluating phenolic transfer from olives into oil during milling, based on the quantification of phenolic content in whole lyophilized fruits and the corresponding oils and considering the oil extraction yields. We investigated the phenols transferred into the oil during olive milling in continuous extraction systems in Tuscany. In 2012, oils were extracted from cultivar Frantoio by a two-phase extraction system; in 2016, oils were extracted from cultivars Leccio del Corno and Arbequina by a three-phase extraction system. Results highlighted very low percentages of extracted phenols: up to 0.40% by the two-phase system and up to 0.19% by the three-phase system (0.08% for cultivar Arbequina and 0.19% for cultivar Leccio del Corno). The usefulness of a simple and effective methodological approach for evaluating the extracted phenols was highlighted. Values of extracted phenols were up to 25 times lower than previous literature data. The proposed approach is applicable in all types of milling processes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts of four Tunisian olive varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majda Elkateb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive leaves extracts of four olive varieties from Tunisian origin: Chitoui, Chimlali, Sahli and Zarrazi were studied for their phenolic contents, antioxidant activities and their effect on corn oil stability. The amounts of total polyphenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins were determined by spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activities of extracts were evaluated and compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT using a             β-carotene bleaching assay and a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging method. Chimlali ethanol extract showed the highest total phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins contents expressed respectively in gallic acid, in quercetin  and catechin equivalent per gram of dried matter 245.5; 9.12 and 40.92. Chimlali ethanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity coefficient (AAC of 863.636 at 200 mg/ml by the β-carotene bleaching method and the highest scavenging activity of 7.5 µg.mL-1 at 0.1 mg/mL by the DPPH method. The obtained results showed that the variety Chimlali is the richest in phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins and  the most potent of antioxidant activity. Analysis of the oxidation results of corn oil, heated to 110°C and during frying, showed a significant antioxidant effect of ethanolic olive leaves extracts relative to the BHT. Olive leaves extracts from varieties Chimlali and Sahli showed the highest antioxidant activity. The synthetic antioxidant BHT exhibits a lower antioxidant power than the extracts from varieties Sahli and Chimlali but is comparable to other varieties. The results suggest the introduction of olive leaves extracts in food preparation, both during storage or heating food, for better preservation.

  16. Year clustering analysis for modelling olive flowering phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteros, J.; García-Mozo, H.; Hervás-Martínez, C.; Galán, C.

    2013-07-01

    It is now widely accepted that weather conditions occurring several months prior to the onset of flowering have a major influence on various aspects of olive reproductive phenology, including flowering intensity. Given the variable characteristics of the Mediterranean climate, we analyse its influence on the registered variations in olive flowering intensity in southern Spain, and relate them to previous climatic parameters using a year-clustering approach, as a first step towards an olive flowering phenology model adapted to different year categories. Phenological data from Cordoba province (Southern Spain) for a 30-year period (1982-2011) were analysed. Meteorological and phenological data were first subjected to both hierarchical and "K-means" clustering analysis, which yielded four year-categories. For this classification purpose, three different models were tested: (1) discriminant analysis; (2) decision-tree analysis; and (3) neural network analysis. Comparison of the results showed that the neural-networks model was the most effective, classifying four different year categories with clearly distinct weather features. Flowering-intensity models were constructed for each year category using the partial least squares regression method. These category-specific models proved to be more effective than general models. They are better suited to the variability of the Mediterranean climate, due to the different response of plants to the same environmental stimuli depending on the previous weather conditions in any given year. The present detailed analysis of the influence of weather patterns of different years on olive phenology will help us to understand the short-term effects of climate change on olive crop in the Mediterranean area that is highly affected by it.

  17. Characterization of virgin olive oils produced with autochthonous Galician varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Valli, Enrico; Bendini, Alessandra; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Simal-Gandara, Jesus

    2016-12-01

    The interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering the ancient autochthonous olive varieties Brava and Mansa has increased substantially in recent years. Virgin olive oils produced by co-crushing both varieties in two different proportions, reflecting the usual and most common practice adopted in this region, have gradually emerged for the production of virgin olive oils. Herein, the sensory and chemical characteristics of such oils were characterized by quality and genuineness-related parameters. The results of chemical analysis are discussed in terms of their effective contribution to the sensory profile, which suggests useful recommendations for olive oil producers to improve the quality of oils. Antioxidant compounds, together with aromas and coloured pigments were determined, and their contribution in determining the functional value and the sensory properties of oils was investigated. In general, given the high levels of phenolic compounds (ranging between 254 and 375mg/kg oil), tocopherols (about 165mg/kg oil) and carotenoids (10-12mg/kg oil); these are oils with long stability, especially under dark storage conditions, because stability is reinforced with the contribution of chlorophylls (15-22mg/kg oil). A major content of phenolic compounds, as well as a predominance of trans-2-hexen-1-al within odor-active compounds (from 897 to 1645μg/kg oil), responsible for bitter sensory notes. This characterization allows to developing new antioxidant-rich and flavour-rich VOOs, when co-crushing with a higher proportion of Brava olives, satisfying the consumers' demand in having access to more healthy dishes and peculiar sensory attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Consumption of olive oil has opposite effects on plasma total cholesterol and sphingomyelin concentrations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, M J; Beynen, A C

    2000-05-01

    The hypothesis that olive-oil consumption alters plasma sphingomyelin concentrations and hepatic sphingomyelin metabolism was tested. Rats were fed on purified, high-cholesterol diets with either coconut fat or olive-oil (180 g/kg). In accordance with previous work, olive-oil v. coconut-fat consumption significantly elevated hepatic and total plasma cholesterol concentrations. During the course of the experiment, the concentration of plasma sphingomyelin rose in the coconut-fat group and remained constant in the olive-oil group. When compared with the coconut-fat-fed group, the plasma sphingomyelin levels were significantly lower in the olive-oil-fed group after 14 and 21 d of treatment. Dietary olive oil raised the amounts of cholesterol and sphingomyelin in the VLDL density region, and this change was associated with a reduction in the cholesterol and sphingomyelin contents of the LDL and HDL density ranges. Olive-oil consumption reduced the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase, while the activities of phosphatidylcholine:ceramide cholinephosphotransferase and phosphatidylethanolamine:ceramide ethanolaminephosphotransferase were left unchanged. Dietary olive oil also enhanced the activity of acidic sphingomyelinase, but not that of neutral sphingomyelinase. The present data indicate that dietary olive oil v. coconut fat has opposite effects on total plasma cholesterol and sphingomyelin concentrations. The lower plasma sphingomyelin levels observed in olive-oil-fed, as compared with coconut-fat-fed rats, may be explained by a simultaneous elevation and reduction in sphingomyelin catabolism and synthesis respectively, as based on the measured enzyme activities.

  19. Use of Olive Oil Industrial By-Product for Pasta Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Padalino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: During recent years food industries generally produce a large volume of wastes both solid and liquid, representing a disposal and potential environmental pollution problem. Objective: The goal of the study was to optimize, from both sensory and nutritional points of view, the formulation of durum wheat spaghetti enriched with an olive oil industrial by-product, indicated as olive paste. Methods: Three consecutive steps were carried out. In the first one, the olive paste was air-dried at low temperature, milled to record olive paste flour and properly analyzed for its biochemical composition. In the second step, the olive paste flour was added to the pasta dough at 10% and 15% (w/w. In the last step, different concentrations of transglutaminase were added to enriched pasta (10% olive paste to further improve the quality. Sensory properties and nutritional content of enriched and control pasta were properly measured. Results: Spaghetti with 10% olive paste flour and 0.6% transglutaminase were considered acceptable to the sensory panel test. Nutritional analyses showed that addition of 10% olive paste flour to pasta considerably increased content of flavonoids and total polyphenols. Conclusions: The proper addition of olive paste flour and transglutaminase for pasta enrichment could represent a starting point to valorize olive oil industrial by-products and produce new healthy food products.

  20. The genetic polymorphisms and colonization process of olive fly populations in Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Dogaç

    Full Text Available The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest of olives in olive growing regions worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean basin and North America. Despite the economic importance of the olive fly, the colonization route of this species is unclear. We used nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA to provide information about the population structure and invasion route of olive fly populations in Turkey, as representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Adult fly samples were collected from 38 sublocations covering all olive growing regions in Turkey. The simple sequence variability data revealed a significant genetic variability in olive fly populations and a certain degree of differentiation between Mediterranean and Aegean populations. Mediterranean populations harbor higher levels of microsatellite variation than Aegean populations, which points to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of invasion. mtDNA results suggest olive flies from the western part of Turkey are closely related to Italo-Aegean flies of the Mediterranean basin and the olive fly populations have invaded the northern part of the Mediterranean basin through western Turkey. In addition, finding specific American haplotypes in high frequencies might indicate that Turkey is the possible source of American olive fly populations. In order to more precisely characterize the population structure and invasion routes of this organism, more DNA-based sequence analysis should be carried out worldwide.

  1. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil (Olea europeae L.) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidi, Akram; Moghadam-kia, Sara; Moghadam, Jalal Zarringhalam; Eidi, Maryam; Rezazadeh, Shamsali

    2012-03-01

    Olive [Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae)] is a long-lived evergreen tree that is widespread in different parts of the world. Olive oil has been reported to relieve pain; however, there is still insufficient data in the literature on the subject. Thus, it is considered worthwhile investigating the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil in adult male Balb/C mice. The antinociceptive effects were studied using formalin, hot plate and writhing tests. The acute anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil in mice were studied using xylene ear edema test. Olive oil (1, 5 and 10 ml/kg body wt.) was injected intraperitoneally. Intact animals served as controls. Our results showed that the olive oil only decreased the second phase of formalin-induced pain. In the hot plate test, olive oil did not raise the pain threshold over the 60 min duration of the test. Olive oil exhibited antinociceptive activity against writhing-induced pain by acetic acid. In the xylene ear edema test, olive oil showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in the mice. The present data indicated that olive oil has antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in mice but further investigation of these effects is required to elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Olea europaea oil.

  2. Valuable nutrients and functional bioactives in different parts of olive (Olea europaea L.)-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Rahele; Anwar, Farooq; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1-3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO), extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed.

  3. Oliver Kruuda : Teenime liiga vähe / Oliver Kruuda ; interv. Silja Lättemäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruuda, Oliver, 1967-

    2003-01-01

    AS Tallinna Piimatööstuse suuromanik ja hiljuti Viljandi ning Paide piimatööstuse ostnud Oliver Kruuda avaldab arvamust Eesti piimatööstuse olukorra kohta ja leiab, et piimatootjad teenivad töötlejaist rohkem. Suuremate piimatootjate ja -töötlejate 2002. a. kasuminumbrid

  4. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stabilization of enzymes activities of lipoxygenase pathway by irradiation to improve the production of olive oil aroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musrati, Imen

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to improve the synthesis of volatile compounds leading to green note in olives and olive tree leaves by improving enzymes activities of lipoxygenase pathway. Lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxyde lyase (HPL) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities were tested in olives and olive tree leaves during maturation. The gamma irradiation effects on these samples were studied. LOX, HPL and ADH showed maximum activities at black stage for olives and in December for olive leaves. Those activities, from olives and Chemlali olive leaves, were improved after irradiation with 0,5KGy. For the case of Chetoui olive leaves, the irradiation treatment was unfavorable because it causes a loss in enzymes activities. (Author)

  6. Réglementations sur l’étiquetage et la présentation des huiles d’olive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouyet Brigitte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available L’huile d’olive est uniquement obtenue à partir du fruit de l’olivier (Olea europaea L.. Elle est mise sur le marché en respectant les dénominations et définitions suivantes : l’huile d’olive vierge est obtenue directement des olives, uniquement par des procédés mécaniques, éventuellement physiques et notamment thermiques, à condition qui n’altèrent pas l’huile. L’huile d’olive vierge ne doit subir d’autre traitement que le lavage, la décantation, la centrifugation et la filtration. Dans les huiles d’olives vierges on distingue deux catégories : l’huile d’olive vierge et l’huile d’olive vierge extra. L’huile d’olive lampante est impropre à la consommation. L’huile d’olive sans qualificatif est un mélange d’huile d’olive raffinée et d’huile d’olive vierge. L’huile de grignons d’olive est obtenue par extraction avec des solvants ou des traitements physiques, à partir du produit restant lorsque l’huile d’olive vierge ou vierge extra est extraite. Les méthodes d’analyses sont essentielles pour distinguer ces différentes catégories d’huiles d’olive.

  7. Identification of leaf volatiles from olive (Olea europaea) and their possible role in the ovipositional preferences of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a monophagous pest that displays an oviposition preference among cultivars of olive (Olea europaea L.). To clarify the oviposition preference, the olive leaf volatiles of three olive cultivars (Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana) were assessed by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) at six different periods of olive fruit maturation and degrees of infestation. A total of 39 volatiles were identified, mainly esters and alcohols, with a minor percentage of aldehydes, ketones and terpenic compounds, including sesquiterpenes. At sampling dates with higher degrees of infestation, cv. Cobrançosa had, simultaneously, significantly lower infestation degrees and higher volatile amounts than the other two cultivars, with a probable deterrent effect for oviposition. The green leaf volatiles (GLVs) (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate) were the main compounds identified in all cultivars, together with toluene. The abundance of GLVs decreased significantly throughout maturation, without significant differences among cultivars, while toluene showed a general increase and positive correlation with olive fly infestation levels. The results obtained could broaden our understanding of the roles of various types and amounts of olive volatiles in the environment, especially in olive fly host selection and cultivar preference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of olive ripening degree and crusher typology on chemical and sensory characteristics of Correggiolo virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, Lucia; Pupillo, Sabrina; Neri, Luisa; Bertazza, Giampaolo; Magli, Massimiliano; Rotondi, Annalisa

    2017-03-01

    In this study, two types of crusher, hammer and blade, were used to produce olive oils from cv. Correggiolo olives at four stages of ripeness, to analyse the effect of these two factors on oil quality indices (free acidity, peroxide value, UV absorption), on phenolic compounds content and sensory profiles. Differences in chemical and sensory data were analysed by two-way ANOVA. Ripeness exerted a stronger influence than the crushing equipment on quality indices, phenolic content and sensory evaluation; moreover the statistical significance of interaction between the factors considered suggests that they are intertwined. Differences in the texture of olive pastes obtained by squashing and crushing were clearly evident at the first stage of ripeness via observation with a scanning electron microscope. The stronger mechanical action of the hammer crusher also produced smaller pit fragments compared to the blade crusher, as shown by particle size analysis of the kernels fragments. Knowledge about the interaction between ripening and crushing will allow olive oil producers to pursue a product of the quality most suitable for a particular type of consumer. For example, bitterness and pungency, characters recently connected with health effects because sensory markers of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenols, do not have a great sensory appeal for most consumers; however, there is a niche of gourmet estimators interested in these peculiar flavours and ready to pay a premium price for them. The producer will be able to customise the EVOO by modulating its chemical and sensory characteristics, especially the phenolic fraction, thus addressing the needs of consumers with different tastes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Analytical characteristics of olive oils produced by two different extraction techniques, in Portuguese olive variety 'Galega Vulgar'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz-Freire, Luís

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A metal hammer-decanter (HD olive processing line was compared to a traditional metal hammer-press (HP line, a discontinuous method which, when properly used, yields high-quality virgin olive oils. Galega olives (traditional Portuguese variety were used. Olives were picked at a predetermined maturation stage and plagues and oil content were evaluated before processing. Years, extraction technology, data replicates, and years*extraction, were taken into account and compared using statistical treatment. In spite of significant differences among the results obtained, only acidity was statistically significant and sufficient for classifying the produced olive oil into a lampante category.Se han comparado dos líneas de procesamiento de aceite, utilizando un sistema de prensas (SP o un decantador centrífugo (DC. El procesamiento que recurre al sistema de prensas es un sistema discontinuo que, sin embargo permite obtener aceites vírgenes de gran calidad. Para este estudio se ha utilizado la variedad Portuguesa Galega común. Las aceitunas fueron tratadas contra el ataque de plagas, y recogidas en un punto de maduración predeterminado. Del mismo modo, se evaluó el porcentaje de aceite obtenido de la cosecha. Se han considerado los resultados analíticos teniendo en cuenta la determinación de la influencia de la extracción en el producto final. Este punto ha sido evaluado por medio de un tratamiento estadístico. Aunque se han observado diferencias significativas entre los resultados de algunos de los parámetros analizados, sólo las diferencias verificadas en el grado de acidez son susceptibles de modificar la clasificación final del aceite, situándolo en la categoría lampante.

  10. Mediterranean savanna system: understanding and modeling of olive orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, Lorenzo; Moriondo, Marco; Bindi, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays most of the studies on C and N exchange were focused on forest ecosystems and crop systems, while only few studies have been focused on so called "savanna systems". They are long-term agro-ecosystems (fruit trees, grapevines and olive trees, etc.) usually characterized by two different layers (ground vegetation and trees). Generally, there is a lack of knowledge about these systems due to their intrinsic structural complexity (different eco-physiological characteristics so as agricultural practices). However, given their long-term carbon storage capacity, these systems can play a fundamental role in terms of global C cycle. Among all of them, the role that olive trees can play in C sequestration should not be neglected, especially in Mediterranean areas where they typify the rural landscape and are widely cultivated (Loumou and Giourga, 2003). It is therefore fundamental modelling the C-fluxes exchanges coming from these systems through a tool able to well reproduce these dynamics in one of the most exposed areas to the risk of climate change (IPCC, 2007). In this work, 2 years of Net CO2 Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) measures from eddy covariance were used to test the biogeochemistry model DayCent. The study was conducted in a rain-fed olive orchard situated in Follonica, South Tuscany, Italy (42 ° 55'N, 10 ° 45'E), in an agricultural area near the coast. The instrumentation for flux measurement was placed 1.9 m above the canopy top (6.5 m from the ground) so that the footprint area, expressed as the area containing 90% of the observed flux, was almost entirely contained within the olive orchard limits (Brilli et al., in press). Ancillary slow sensors have included soil temperature profiles, global radiation, air temperature and humidity, rain gauge. Fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, momentum and CO2 as well as ancillary data were derived at half-hourly time resolution. Specific soil (texture, current and historical land use and vegetation cover) and

  11. Triinu rukkileib nimetati Baltimaade parimaks PR-projektiks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Leiburi leivatehase ja kommunikatsioonibüroo Hamburg ja Partnerid ühisprojekt "Leiburi Leivategu" nimetati üleeuroopalisel pr-spetsialistide konkursil 2013. a. parimaks kommunikatsiooniprojektiks Baltimaades

  12. Gabriel Osmonde'i mõistatus / Triinu Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Triinu

    2011-01-01

    Ühest müstifikatsioonist viimase aja prantsuse kirjanduses. Prantsuse kirjastuselt "Pygmalion" ilmus Gabriel Osmonde'i romaan "Alternatiivne sündimine" (Alternaissance). Tegu on nimelt Venemaalt emigreerunud Andrei Makine pseudonüümiga. Räägitakse ka teistest taolistest müstifikatsioonidest kirjanduses

  13. Michel Houellebecq uusi inimeksitetsi territooriume kaardistamas / Triinu Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Triinu

    2010-01-01

    Prantsuse kirjaniku Michel Houellebecq uuest romaanist "Kaart ja territoorium" ("La carte et le territoire", "Flammarion"), mille ilmumine on tekitanud palju poleemikat ja püsib mitme maineka kirjandusauhinna pretendentide seas, muuhulgas juba teist vooru Goncourt'i auhinda püüdvate romaanide nimekirjas

  14. Long-term field evaluation of the changes in fruit and olive oil chemical compositions after agronomic application of olive mill wastewater with rock phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekaya, Meriem; El-Gharbi, Sinda; Chehab, Hechmi; Attia, Faouzi; Hammami, Mohamed; Mechri, Beligh

    2018-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine the long-term effects of agronomic application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) with rock phosphate (RP) in a field of olive trees, on olive fruits and oil quality. The results revealed that olive fruits of OMW-RP amended plants had higher contents of polyphenols and mannitol indicating that agronomic application of OMW with RP generated an oxidative stress. Land spreading of OMW with RP altered the relative proportions of individual sugars in leaves and fruits. Consequently, the oil content decreased significantly, and a marked decrease in the contents of carotenoids and chlorophylls was also observed. Changes also took place in the composition of fatty acids, particularly by the increase of linoleic acid and the decrease of oleic acid. Our results suggested that the use of OMW in combination with RP is expected to have a major negative impact on olive fruit and oil quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Soil properties and olive cultivar determine the structure and diversity of plant-parasitic nematode communities infesting olive orchards soils in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Castillo, Pablo; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Landa, Blanca B

    2015-01-01

    This work has studied for the first time the structure and diversity of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) infesting olive orchard soils in a wide-region in Spain that included 92 locations. It aims at determining which agronomical or environmental factors associated to the olive orchards are the main drivers of the PPNs community structure and diversity. Classical morphological and morphometric identification methods were used to determine the frequency and densities of PPNs. Thirteen families, 34 genera and 77 species of PPNs were identified. The highest diversity was found in Helicotylenchus genus, with six species previously reported in Spain and with H. oleae being a first report. Neodolichorhynchus microphasmis and Diptenchus sp., Diphtherophora sp., and Discotylenchus sp., usually considered fungal feeders, were also reported for the first time associated to olive rhizosphere. PPNs abundance ranged from 66 to 16,288 individuals/500-cm3 of soil with Helicotylenchus digonicus being the most prevalent species, followed by Filenchus sp., Merlinius brevidens and Xiphinema pachtaicum. Nematode abundance and diversity indexes were influenced by olive cultivar, and orchard and soil management practices; while olive variety and soil texture were the main factors driving PPN community composition. Soil physicochemical properties and climatic characteristics most strongly associated to the PPN community composition included pH, sand content and exchangeable K, and maximum and minimum average temperature of the sampled locations. Our data suggests that there is a high diversity of PPNs associated to olive in Southern Spain that can exert different damage to olive roots depending on the olive variety and their abundance. Further analysis to determine the resistance levels of most common olive varieties to the prevalent PPNs in Spain will help to choose the most appropriate ones for the establishment of new plantations. This choice will take into consideration the specific

  16. Soil Properties and Olive Cultivar Determine the Structure and Diversity of Plant-Parasitic Nematode Communities Infesting Olive Orchards Soils in Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Rius, Juan E.; Castillo, Pablo; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.; Landa, Blanca B.

    2015-01-01

    This work has studied for the first time the structure and diversity of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) infesting olive orchard soils in a wide-region in Spain that included 92 locations. It aims at determining which agronomical or environmental factors associated to the olive orchards are the main drivers of the PPNs community structure and diversity. Classical morphological and morphometric identification methods were used to determine the frequency and densities of PPNs. Thirteen families, 34 genera and 77 species of PPNs were identified. The highest diversity was found in Helicotylenchus genus, with six species previously reported in Spain and with H. oleae being a first report. Neodolichorhynchus microphasmis and Diptenchus sp., Diphtherophora sp., and Discotylenchus sp., usually considered fungal feeders, were also reported for the first time associated to olive rhizosphere. PPNs abundance ranged from 66 to 16,288 individuals/500-cm3 of soil with Helicotylenchus digonicus being the most prevalent species, followed by Filenchus sp., Merlinius brevidens and Xiphinema pachtaicum. Nematode abundance and diversity indexes were influenced by olive cultivar, and orchard and soil management practices; while olive variety and soil texture were the main factors driving PPN community composition. Soil physicochemical properties and climatic characteristics most strongly associated to the PPN community composition included pH, sand content and exchangeable K, and maximum and minimum average temperature of the sampled locations. Our data suggests that there is a high diversity of PPNs associated to olive in Southern Spain that can exert different damage to olive roots depending on the olive variety and their abundance. Further analysis to determine the resistance levels of most common olive varieties to the prevalent PPNs in Spain will help to choose the most appropriate ones for the establishment of new plantations. This choice will take into consideration the specific

  17. Ultrasonic and thermal pretreatments to enhance the anaerobic bioconversion of olive husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianico, A; Braguglia, C M; Mescia, D; Mininni, G

    2013-11-01

    Olive husks, typical solid by-products from the olive oil industry, were selected to carry out anaerobic digestion tests. Before digestion, olive husks were subjected to ultrasonic or thermal pretreatments in order to release the organic matter into solution. Both sonication and thermal pretreatment allowed to solubilize the particulate matter with 22% and 72% increase in soluble organics of olive husks, respectively. Nevertheless, such pretreatments caused the release of unwanted molecules in solution, with the related risks of inhibition of the methanogenic process. Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests on olive husks mixed with olive-mill wastewater and dairy wastewater, either pretreated or not, showed that ultrasound pretreatment resulted in 15% increase in volatile solids reduction and a 13% increase in biogas production, while after thermal pretreatment no benefits were observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cogeneration of heat and power in Crete - Greece from olive tree byproducts and residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vourdoubas, J. (TEI of Crete, Chania (Greece), Dept. of Natural Resources and Environment), e-mail: gboyrd@tee.gr

    2010-07-01

    Olive tree byproducts and residues are used mainly in Crete for heat production, but not for power generation. The most of Olive Kernel wood is currently used for heat generation without any standardization, but the most of olive tree brushes are not used for energy production. Therefore, a lot of solid biomass in Crete, which is not used at the moment, can be exploited in the future for generation of heat and power or for cogeneration of them. Olive tree byproducts and residues can be used with burning, but, because of the mild climate of the island, the cogenerated heat can be efficiently used only during the winter. Also, the possibility of tri-generation exists since the produced heat can be used for cooling generation with absorption chillers. The availability of Olive Kernel wood in Crete is estimated at the moment at 110,000 tn / year and of Olive tree brushes at 380,000 tn / year. (orig.)

  19. Insects related to Olive culture in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Perrone Ricalde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased cultivation of olive trees in Rio Grande do Sul State and its potential production arouse the need to characterize the assemblage of insects in olive groves, especially those with potential as pests. Therefore, the insect fauna was sampled monthly for two years, in the canopy of olive trees, using beat cloth, and collection of buds in five municipalities in Southern Rio Grande do Sul State. The faunal indices analyzed were abundance, constancy, dominance and frequency. The olive caterpillar Palpita forficifera Munroe 1959 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and mealybugs Saissetia oleae (Olivier, 1791 and Saissetia coffeae (Walker, 1952 (Hemiptera: Coccidae are the main phytophagous insects in olive farms in the Rio Grande do Sul State, with potential to reach pest status. Eleven insect species were recorded for the first time in olive groves in Brazil. The occurrence of P. forficifera is a new record for the Rio Grande do Sul State.

  20. Extraction of interesting organic compounds from olive oil waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez, Ana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the olive fruits there is a large amount of bioactive compounds and substances of high interest. Many of them are known by owing health beneficial properties that contribute to protective effect of the virgin olive oil. During olive oil processing, most of them remain in the olive oil wastes. Although, olive-mill wastewater (OMWW or “alpechin”, olive oil cake (OOC, and the new by-product, known as “alperujo” in Spain and generated by the two-phase extraction process, represent a major disposal and potentially severe pollution problem for the industry, they are also promising source of substances of high value. This review summarises the last knowledge on the utilisation of residual products, with more than 90 references including articles and patents, which are promising with regard to future application. All these investigations have been classified into two options, the recovery of valuable natural constituents and the bioconversion into useful products.Existe una gran cantidad de compuestos bioactivos y de alto interés presentes en la aceituna. Muchos de ellos se conocen por las cualidades beneficiosas que aportan al aceite de oliva virgen. La mayoría permanecen en mayor cantidad en el subproducto de la extracción del aceite. Aunque, el alpechín, el orujo y el nuevo subproducto de extracción del aceite en dos fases, alperujo, representan un problema potencial de vertido y contaminación, también son una prometedora fuente de compuestos de alto valor. Esta revisión resume lo último que se conoce sobre la utilización de estos residuos en el campo anteriormente mencionado, con más de 90 referencias que incluyen artículos y patentes. Todas estas investigaciones han sido clasificadas en cuanto a la recuperación de constituyentes naturalmente presentes o en cuanto a la bioconversión de los residuos en sustancias de interés.

  1. Detection of viruses in olive trees in Croatian Istria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta LUIGI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Following identification of four viruses in a general survey of olive trees throughout Croatia, a detailed survey was conducted in 2009 in the field collection of the Institute of Agriculture and Tourism in Poreč (an important reservoir of Istrian native olive germplasm in order to evaluate the sanitary status of the most important Croatian Istria olive cultivars. Twenty five samples from symptomatic or symptomless trees were collected from five autochthonous and four exotic cultivars. All the samples were tested by RT-PCR for the presence of: Olive leaf yellowing associated virus (OLYaV, Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV, Strawberry latent ring spot virus (SLRSV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Olive latent virus-1 (OLV-1, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Olive latent virus-2 (OLV-2 and Tobacco necrosis virus D (TNV-D. Six of the 25 plants were found positive to CLRV; all infected plants showed leaf and fruit deformation and leaf yellowing. Four positive samples were from the native cv. Buža whereas the other two were from two exotic cultivars: Ascolana tenera and Frantoio. The presence of CLRV,  either in native or imported plants, highlights the importance of strict phytosanitary regulations to prevent incursion of key

  2. Ripening and storage conditions of Chétoui and Arbequina olives: Part II. Effect on olive endogenous enzymes and virgin olive oil secoiridoid profile determined by high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; Cortes-Francisco, Nuria; Caixach, Josep; Gargouri, Mohamed; Vichi, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Several factors affect virgin olive oil (VOO) phenolic profile. The aim of this study was to monitor olive hydrolytic (β-glucosidase) and oxidative (peroxydase, POX, and polyphenoloxydase, PPO) enzymes during olive ripening and storage and to determine their capacity to shape VOO phenolic profile. To this end, olives from the cultivars Chétoui and Arbequina were stored at 4°C or 25°C for 4weeks and their enzymatic activities and oil phenolic profiles were compared to those of ripening olives. We observed different trends in enzymes activities according to cultivar and storage temperature. Secoiridoid compounds, determined by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and their deacetoxylated, oxygenated, and deacetoxy-oxygenated derivatives were identified and their contents differed between the cultivars according to olive ripening degree and storage conditions. These differences could be due to β-glucosidase, POX and PPO activities changes during olive ripening and storage. Results also show that oxidised phenolic compounds could be a marker of VOO ''freshness". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lactones et resvératrol dans les olives noires de table | Collin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RÉSUMÉ. Le 2-méthyl-3-furanethiol et le 3-méthylbutanoate d'éthyle, absents dans les olives vertes, ressortent, avec le méthional et le guaiacol, parmi les composés les plus odorants de l'olive noire. Une autre particularité des olives noires est leur richesse exceptionnelle en gamma-lactones (dodécalactone, décalactone, ...

  4. Influence of pasteurization and lye treatment on the fermentation of spanish-style manzanilla olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Alcaĺa, J M; Ferńandez-Diez, M J; Gonźalez-Cancho, F

    1969-05-01

    The effect of lye concentration and pasteurization on the fermentation of Spanish-style Manzanilla green olives was investigated. Results showed that a rapid, normal fermentation always occurred when the proper lye was used, and only in the case of an inappropriate alkaline treatment could pasteurization help the growth of lactobacilli. Although pasteurization does not seem to affect color of processed olives, texture tests gave lower values for pasteurized samples than for those obtained from nonpasteurized olives.

  5. Consumer preferences for extra virgin olive oil with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO)

    OpenAIRE

    Ballco, Petjon; Gracia Royo, Azucena; Jurado, J.

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil is one of the main components of the Mediterranean diet1, considered worldwide as one of the healthiest food diets. The consumption of olive oil provides important health benefits because it has been clinically proven that decreases the risk of heart attack and stroke (Kolata, 2013), reduces cholesterol, and prevents cancer mortality (Lopez-Miranda et al., 2010). As result, the consumption of olive oil has increased not only in producing countries (Mediterranean) but ...

  6. Olive Oil and Health: Bioactive Constituents, Antioxidant Properties and Clinical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Armutcu F et al.

    2013-01-01

    Mediterranean countries have lower rates of mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancer than other European countries. Olive oil is the major source of dietary fat in the Mediterranean diet, and its regular consumption is thought to have various beneficial effects on human health. The biological features ascribed to olive oil consumption are associated in part to its phenolics constituents, and mainly linked to the direct or indirect antioxidant activity of olive oil phenolics and other ...

  7. Photo- and thermal degradation of olive oil measured using an optical fibre smartphone spectrofluorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Ast, Sandra; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2017-04-01

    Degradation of olive oil under light and heat are analysed using an optical fibre based low-cost portable smartphone spectrofluorimeter. Visible fluorescence bands associated with phenolic acids, vitamins and chlorophyll centred at λ 452, 525 and 670 nm respectively are generated using near-UV excitation (LED λex 370 nm), of extra virgin olive oil are degraded more likely than refined olive oil under light and heat exposure. Packaging is shown to be critical when assessing the origin of degradation.

  8. Effect of nutrient-based fertilisers of olive trees on olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekaya, Meriem; Mechri, Beligh; Bchir, Amani; Attia, Faouzi; Cheheb, Hechmi; Daassa, Mohamed; Hammami, Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    This work was conducted to determine the effects of two nutrient-based fertilisers on the general physicochemical characteristics (including free fatty acid content, peroxide value and UV spectrophotometric characteristics), fatty acid profile, total phenols, o-diphenols and phytosterol composition of olive oil. Foliar applications were carried out in two successive years and included four treatments: TC (control, without foliar nutrition), T1 (rich in nitrogen, applied at the start of vegetation, 10 days later and 20 days later), T2 (rich in boron, magnesium, sulfur and manganese, applied at the beginning of flowering and 10 days later) and T3 (T1+T2). At the end of the experiment (after 2 years), oils were extracted and analysed. No effect was found on either general physicochemical characteristics or fatty acid composition. Foliar fertilisation caused a significant decrease in both polyphenol and o-diphenol contents. Total sterol content was unaffected by foliar fertilisation. However, the phytosterol composition of the oil, particularly its β-sitosterol level, was markedly improved after foliar nutrient application. Principal component analysis of the phytosterol composition showed discrimination between the control oil and the oils from T1, T2 and T3 treatments. The results of this study extend the current knowledge of such cross-talk between plant nutrition and quality of oil. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Analysis of the scientific production of olive products. I – Table olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Viesca, Rosa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains an overview of the scientific production in the area of table olives during the period 2000- 2005. Author’s productivity, most relevant topics, sources of information and groups of authors are analysed using basic bibliometric indicators. Also, contributions and collaborations among groups of authors are studied. Finally, this work includes impact indicators from the most important journals on this topic.Este artículo presenta un panorama de la producción científica en el área de las aceitunas de mesa durante el periodo 2000-2005. Utilizando indicadores bibliométricos básicos, se ha estudiado la productividad de los autores, los temas más comúnmente tratados, las fuentes de información y los grupos de autores. Además, se analizan las colaboraciones realizadas entre diferentes grupos de investigación. Por último, se incluyen los indicadores de impacto de las revistas más prestigiosas en el sector.

  10. Alkyl esters of fatty acids a useful tool to detect soft deodorized olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Camino, María del Carmen; Cert, Arturo; Romero-Segura, Ana; Cert-Trujillo, Rosa; Moreda, Wenceslao

    2008-08-13

    Fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAEs) are a family of natural neutral lipids present in olive oils and formed by esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) with low molecular alcohols. Inappropriate practices during the olive oil extraction process and bad quality of the olive fruits promote their formation. Quantification can be done by isolation with a silica gel solid phase extraction cartridge followed by analysis on a gas chromatograph equipped with a programmed temperature vaporizer injector using a polar capillary column. The application of the method to more than 100 Spanish olive oils from different categories, varieties, and geographical origin allowed for establishing the average content of FAAEs and distinguishing the Spanish protected denomination of origin (PDO) and extra virgin olive oils from other categories of olive oils. Those other categories of oils can be subjected to a mild refining process, which leads to blending with extra virgin olive oils. Studies on low quality oils subjected to mild refining showed that FAAEs remain after that process. Thereby, blends of extra virgin olive and mildly refined low quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl ester concentrations.

  11. Effect of the technological and agronomical factors on pigment transfer during olive oil extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Maria N; Romero, Maria P; Motilva, Maria J

    2007-07-11

    The aim of this work was to determine the transfer of the chloroplast pigment fractions during the virgin olive oil extraction process, in relation to different factors: the ripening stage of the olive fruits, the irrigation water applied to the olive tree, and the addition of natural microtalc (NMT) during the oil extraction process. Results showed that the percentage of chloroplast pigments transferred from the olive paste to the oil increases with the ripening of the olive fruit (raw material). An excess of the water irrigation applied to the olive tree shows a reduction in the biosynthesis of chloroplast pigments in olive fruits, which is reflected in a low concentration in the virgin oils. Furthermore, the percentage of pigment transfer from the olive paste to the oil during the extraction process is reduced by irrigation, mainly of the chlorophyll fraction. The addition of NMT during the malaxation step produced an increase in the percentage of the total pigments transferred from the olive paste to the oil, in relation to nonaddition.

  12. Olive Farming and the Related Problems in Çanakkale Province

    OpenAIRE

    Ilgar, Rüştü

    2016-01-01

    There are two types of olives in the Çanakkale province: Olea europea oleaster (wild) and Olea europea sativa (reclaimed). The Çanakkale province is in the records as having first begun with ancient olive activities in Greece, in the Gargara, Küçükkuyu, and Assos in Ayvacık districts. It is important for Çanakkale’s olives in to have a place in agricultural activities consisting of 27.175 hectares. The share of agriculture in the areas of olives is 8,15 %. There are also 4,413,357 units consi...

  13. Multiplex RT-PCR for detection and identification of three necroviruses that infect olive trees

    OpenAIRE

    Varanda, Carla; Cardoso, Joana M.S.; Félix, M. Rosário; Oliveira, Solange; Clara, M.Ivone

    2010-01-01

    An optimized multiplex RT-PCR assay was developed to discriminate three necrovirus (Olive latent virus 1 (OLV-1), Tobacco necrosis virus D (TNV-D) and Olive mild mosaic virus (OMMV)) that infect olive trees. An olive orchard consisting of 54 trees of cv. "Galega vulgar" in the south of Portugal was surveyed. dsRNA fraction was used as template and revealed the 3 viruses, singly or in multiple infections, present in 17 out of 54 trees in the orchard. OMMV was the most frequent occurring in 15 ...

  14. EFFECT OF DIETARY OLIVE OIL/CHOLESTEROL ON SERUM LIPOPROTEINS, LIPID PEROXIDATION, AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MAHDAVI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High plasma cholesterol levels, mainly LDL are a widely recognized major risk factor for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. According to the epidemiologic studies findings, people from the Mediterranean countries, have lower CHD rats than other countries, in these countries usual diet is high in olive oil. The present study compares the effects of cholesterol enriched diet with or without adding olive oil on serum Lipoproteins, lipid per oxidation, and atherosclerosis development. Method: Twenty Dutch male rabbits were Categorized to four groups (one group as Control, and others as Experimental. They received one of standard, cholesterol - rich, olive oil rich and combined (cholesterol + olive oil diet for Twelve weeks. Fasting blood samples from heart were collected at the beginning, and the end of Experimental period. Means of total cholesterol, HDL-Ctriglycerides, MDA and antioxidant caperimental period, significant differences were showed in total cholesterol, HDL-C, triglyceride and MDA between groups. Results: The comparison of cholesterol rich diet with cholesterol + olive oil showed a higher mean of MDA in cholesterol rich group (P < 0.001. Biochemical factors and aortic lesion degree showed no significant difference between standard and olive oil group. Aortic lesions in cholesterol + olive oil showed nonsignificant lower degree than cholesterol group. Discussion: This findings showed preventive effect of olive oil against atherosclerosis which is independent of plasma lipoprotein effect, and suggested that probably olive oil acts on arteries directly.

  15. Effects of the Olive-Derived Polyphenol Oleuropein on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Barbara; Toietta, Gabriele; Maggio, Roberta; Arciello, Mario; Tarocchi, Mirko; Galli, Andrea; Balsano, Clara

    2014-01-01

    The use of the products derived from the olive tree on human health dates back centuries. In several civilizations, the olive tree had and still has a very strong cultural and religious symbolism. Notably, the official seal and emblem of the World Health Organization features the rod of Asclepius over a world map surrounded by olive tree branches, chosen as a symbol of peace and health. Recently, accumulating experimental, clinical and epidemiological data have provided support to the traditional beliefs of the beneficial effect provided by olive derivates. In particular, the polyphenols present in olive leaves, olives, virgin (unrefined) olive oil and olive mill waste are potent antioxidant and radical scavengers with anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we review the positive impact on human health of oleuropein, the most prevalent polyphenol present in olives. In addition, we provide data collected in our laboratory on the role of oleuropein in counteracting lipid accumulation in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:25318054

  16. Effects of the Olive-Derived Polyphenol Oleuropein on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Barbaro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of the products derived from the olive tree on human health dates back centuries. In several civilizations, the olive tree had and still has a very strong cultural and religious symbolism. Notably, the official seal and emblem of the World Health Organization features the rod of Asclepius over a world map surrounded by olive tree branches, chosen as a symbol of peace and health. Recently, accumulating experimental, clinical and epidemiological data have provided support to the traditional beliefs of the beneficial effect provided by olive derivates. In particular, the polyphenols present in olive leaves, olives, virgin (unrefined olive oil and olive mill waste are potent antioxidant and radical scavengers with anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we review the positive impact on human health of oleuropein, the most prevalent polyphenol present in olives. In addition, we provide data collected in our laboratory on the role of oleuropein in counteracting lipid accumulation in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  17. Stability of avocado oil during heating: comparative study to olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Berasategi, I. (Izaskun); Barriuso, B. (Blanca); Ansorena, D. (Diana); Astiasarán, I. (Iciar)

    2012-01-01

    The stability of the saponifiable and unsaponifiable fractions of avocado oil, under a drastic heating treatment, was studied and compared to that of olive oil. Avocado and olive oil were characterised and compared at time 0 h and after different times of heating process (180 °C). PUFA/SFA (0.61 at t = 0) and ω-6/ω-3 (14.05 at t = 0) were higher in avocado oil than in olive oil during the whole experiment. Avocado oil was richer than olive oil in total phytosterols at time 0 h (339.64; 228.27...

  18. Thermal, dielectric and mechanical study of poly(vinyl chloride/olive pomace composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Composites from PVC and chemically treated olive pomace have been prepared. The effect of the incorporation of virgin and benzylated olive pomace in the poly(vinyl chloride matrix on dielectric, mechanical and thermal stability properties, of /olive pomace composites was studied. The mechanical properties of the benzylated composites were improved. Furthermore, the thermal characterization of the different samples carried out by thermogravimetric analysis revealed an increase in the onset temperatures of decomposition for the treated composites. The dielectric investigation indicated that the samples containing olive pomace treated with the benzyl chloride can be used in electrical applications as insulators.

  19. A Case Report of Possible Health Benefits of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Shahtahmasebi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the chemical analysis of cooking oils suggests that the cholesterol-reducing effect may well be due to the antioxidant agents rather than unsaturated fats. Furthermore, antioxidant agents are present in extra virgin olive oil and not in olive oil. There is some evidence, based on studies using patients, to support such a supposition. In this paper, we present a case report on the possible health effects of changing from olive oil to extra virgin olive oil. The case report is intended to raise some relevant issues to stimulate a debate and more research in this area.

  20. A Case Report of Possible Health Benefits of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Said Shahtahmasebi; Shahnaz Shahtahmasebi

    2003-01-01

    The literature on the chemical analysis of cooking oils suggests that the cholesterol-reducing effect may well be due to the antioxidant agents rather than unsaturated fats. Furthermore, antioxidant agents are present in extra virgin olive oil and not in olive oil. There is some evidence, based on studies using patients, to support such a supposition. In this paper, we present a case report on the possible health effects of changing from olive oil to extra virgin olive oil. The case report is...

  1. Environmental impacts in the life cycle of olive oil: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banias, Georgios; Achillas, Charisios; Vlachokostas, Christos; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Stefanou, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The production of olive oil is considered to be one of the largest agricultural business sectors in the Mediterranean area. Apart from its significant impact on the economies of countries in Southern Europe, Northern Africa and Middle East, olive oil production also involves considerable social and environmental considerations. However, despite such importance, the environmental effects of olive oil production have not been studied as much other agricultural productions and farming systems, which are more characteristic of central and northern Europe. We present a thorough and systematic literature review of scientific publications with respect to the use of environmental tools in the life cycle of olive oil. The analysis takes into consideration the farming of olive trees, the manufacture of olive oil, packaging, transportation and reverse logistics. To that end, journal publications up to 2015 in this specific field are recorded and, at the same time, the most important environmental impacts are revealed and a gap analysis is carried out. The analysis conducted reveals that farming of olive trees (with pesticide use and waste/by-product production being the 'hottest' topics) and the manufacturing of olive oil (concentrating mostly on waste/by-product production and management) are the phases with the highest environmental focus from the scientific community. Moreover, gaps in the literature are detected mostly with respect to fuel consumption and the use and promotion of renewable energy sources in olive oil production. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. New by-products rich in bioactive substances from the olive oil mill processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Concepción; Medina, Eduardo; Mateo, Maria Antonia; Brenes, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Olive oil extraction generates a large amount of residue consisting mainly of the pomace and leaves when using a two-phase centrifugation system. The aim of this study was to assess the content of phenolic and triterpene compounds in the by-products produced in Spanish olive oil mills. Olive pomace had concentrations of phenolic and triterpene substances lower than 2 and 3 g kg -1 , respectively. The leaves contained a high concentration of these substances, although those collected from ground-picked olives had lost most of their phenolic compounds. Moreover, the sediment from the bottom of the olive oil storage tanks did not have a significant amount of these substances. By contrast, a new by-product called olive pomace skin has been revealed as a very rich source of triterpenic acids, the content of which can reach up to 120 g kg -1 in this waste product, maslinic acid comprising around 70% of total triterpenics. Among the by-products generated during extraction of olive oil, olive pomace skin has been discovered to be a very rich source of triterpenic acids, which can reach up to 120 g kg -1 of the waste. These results will contribute to the valorization of olive oil by-products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Comparison Between Different Flavored Olive Oil Production Techniques: Healthy Value and Process Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Dipalmo, Tiziana; Crupi, Pasquale; Durante, Viviana; Pesce, Vito; Maiellaro, Isabella; Lovece, Angelo; Mercurio, Annalisa; Laghezza, Antonio; Corbo, Filomena; Franchini, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    Three different flavoring methods of olive oil were tested employing two different herbs, thyme and oregano. The traditional method consist in the infusion of herbs into the oil. A second scarcely diffused method is based on the addition of herbs to the crushed olives before the malaxation step during the extraction process. The third innovative method is the implementation of the ultrasound before the olive paste malaxation. The objective of the study is to verify the effect of the treatments on the quality of the product, assessed by means of the chemical characteristics, the phenol composition and the radical scavenging activity of the resulting oils. The less favorable method was the addition of herbs directly to the oil. A positive effect was achieved by the addition of herbs to the olive paste and other advantages were attained by the employment of ultrasound. These last two methods allow to produce oils "ready to sell", instead the infused oils need to be filtered. Moreover, the flavoring methods applied during the extraction process determine a significant increment of phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of olive oils. The increments were higher when oregano is used instead of thyme. Ultrasound inhibited the olive polyphenoloxidase, the endogenous enzyme responsible for olive oil phenol oxidation. This treatment of olive paste mixed with herbs before malaxation was revealed as the most favorable method due to the best efficiency, reduced time consumption and minor labor, enhancing the product quality of flavored olive oil.

  4. Effect of gamma-ray on olive fruits quality, enzyme activities and issued oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejri, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    The results described in the present work concern the study of changes in gamma ray irradiated olive fruit (Tunisian variety: C hemlali ) quality along the storage time processing and the quality of olive oil issued. The study focused on the changes related to the microbiological, physico-chemical properties, as well as pectinase activities in olive after irradiation. We also have been interested in the final product quality after oil extraction. The results of non irradiated olives were presented for comparative purposes. Mature olive fruits were treated with 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kGy gamma ray radiation. Olive fruits were then stored for one month. Irradiation at 1.5 kGy allows the almost total destruction of the total aerobic germs, yeasts and moulds. Concerning physico-chemical parameters, the increase of the dose level generated an improvement in water retention capacity and decreased the rate of polysaccharides hydrolyzes olives. Moreover, the irradiation dose of 0.5 kGy induced the increase in pectinase activities thanks to the improvement of the protein extraction yield. The gamma ray irradiation of olive fruit seems to not decrease olive oil oxidative stability in the studied samples. Finally, gamma ray radiation was able to improve the yield of extraction of the oil and insaponifiable fraction as polyphenols and beta carotenes. (Author)

  5. Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Paraskeva, Christakis A; Papadakis, Vagelis G; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-01-01

    The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5% of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78% between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  6. Olive Volatiles from Portuguese Cultivars Cobrancosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana: Role in Oviposition Preference of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Malheiro

    Full Text Available The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi, a serious threat to the olive crop worldwide, displays ovipositon preference for some olive cultivars but the causes are still unclear. In the present work, three Portuguese olive cultivars with different susceptibilities to olive fly (Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana were studied, aiming to determine if the olive volatiles are implicated in this interaction. Olive volatiles were assessed by SPME-GC-MS in the three cultivars during maturation process to observe possible correlations with olive fly infestation levels. Overall, 34 volatiles were identified in the olives, from 7 chemical classes (alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, sesquiterpenes, and terpenes. Generally, total volatile amounts decrease during maturation but toluene, the main compound, increased in all cultivars, particularly in those with higher susceptibility to olive fly. Sesquiterpenes also raised, mainly α-copaene. Toluene and α-copaene, recognized oviposition promoters to olive fly, were correlated with the infestation level of cvs. Madural and Verdeal Trasnmontana (intermediate and highly susceptible cultivars respectively, while no correlations were established with cv. Cobrançosa (less susceptible. No volatiles with inverse correlation were observed. Volatile composition of olives may be a decisive factor in the olive fly choice to oviposit and this could be the basis for the development of new control strategies for this pest.

  7. Assessment of table olive fermentation by functional data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bellido, M A; Romero-Gil, V; García-García, P; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Arroyo-López, F N; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2016-12-05

    For the first time, functional data analysis (FDA) was used to assess the effects of different treatments on Protection Denomination of Origin Aloreña de Málaga table olive fermentations, focusing on the evolution of yeast population. The analysis of fermentation by a conventional approach led to scarce information. However, the transformation of microbial (and also physicochemical) data into smooth curves allowed the application of a new battery of statistical tools for the analysis of fermentations (functional pointwise estimation of the averages and standard deviations, maximum, minimum, first and second derivatives, functional regression, and functional F and t-tests). FDA showed that all the treatments assayed led to similar trends in yeast population while changes in pH and titratable acidity profiles led to several significant differences. Therefore, FDA represents a promising and valuable tool for studying table olive fermentations and for food microbiology in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. FMECA application to Rainfall Hazard prevention in olive trees growings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendia-Buendía, F. S.; Bermudez, R.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.

    2010-05-01

    The FMECA (Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis) is a broadly extended System Safety tool applied in industries as Aerospace in order to prevent hazards. This methodology studies the different failure modes of a system and try to mitigate them in a systematic procedure. In this paper this tool is applied in order to mitigate economical impact hazards derived from Rainfalls to olive trees growing in Granada (Spain), understanding hazard from the System Safety perspective (Any real or potential condition that can cause injury, illness, or death to personnel; damage to or loss of a system, equipment or property; or damage to the environment). The work includes a brief introduction to the System Safety and FMECA methodologies, applying then these concepts to analyze the Olive trees as a system and identify the hazards during the different stages of the whole life cycle plant production.

  9. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  10. Labelling of olive oil with radioactive iodine and radioactive technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dayel, O.A.F.

    1988-03-01

    Investigates labelling of olive oil with 125 iodine and with the radioactive 99mTC. A radio analytical study for 99Mo-99mTC generator is also presented. Iodine monochloride and chlormine-T methods are used for labelling olive oil and oleic acid with radioactive iodine. Diethyl ether, benzene and n-heptane have been used as solvents, with diethyl ether giving best results using iodine monochloride method. Infrared spectroscopic studies show that labelling took place at the double bond. Use of milked 99mTc gave very low yield only. A fairly higher labelling yield was achieved when 20 mg of tin chloride has been added in acetone medium than diethyl ether medium. Thin layer chromatography and paper chromatography technique were used as quality control systems. The labelled oil can be used for diagnostic and study purposes. 140 Ref

  11. Ultrasonically assisted antioxidant extraction from grape stalks and olive leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcel, Juan A.; García-Pérez, José V.; Mulet, Antonio; Rodríguez, Ligia; Riera, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Grape stalks and olive leaves present high amount of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. The extraction of these compounds may be considered a way to increase in value both agro-food by-products. Ultrasound is widely applied in extraction due to its effects (cavitation, microstirring or sponge effect) over the process. The goal of this work was to address the application of ultrasound on the antioxidant extraction of olive leaves and grape stalk. For that purpose, the extraction of antioxidant compounds from grape stalks and olive leaves, previously dried at 100 °C, were carried out using a ethanolic solution (80 % v/v) at 60 °C. Extractions were carried out with (US; 30 kHz; 600W)) and agitation (AG) without ultrasound application. In the AG experiments, the solution was agitated with a stirrer. Samples were obtained at different extraction time (10, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 360, 480 and 1440 min) and their antioxidant capacity was measured using FRAP method. The Naik model was used to model the extraction kinetics, being identified the antioxidant capacity of extracts at the equilibrium (Y eq) and the initial velocity of extraction (Y eq/B). For grape stalks, the antioxidant capacity of extracts at the equilibrium (Y eq) and the initial velocity of extraction (Y eq/B) were higher in AG experiments than in US experiments. In the olive leaves extractions, the Y eq/B was of the same order for both treatments but Y eq was significantly higher for US experiments. The different influence of ultrasound for both by-products can be explained from their different geometry and structure.

  12. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz,Maritza F.; Hernández,Rebeca; Martínez,Goitybell; Vidal,Genny; Gómez,Magali; Fernández,Harold; Garcés,Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observ...

  13. SIMULATION OF OLIVE PITS PYROLYSIS IN A ROTARY KILN PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Giacobbe Braccio; Vincenzo Lorefice; Cesare Freda; Enzo Benanti; Vinod Kumar Sharma

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the simulation of an olive pits fed rotary kiln pyrolysis plant installed in Southern Italy. The pyrolysis process was simulated by commercial software CHEMCAD. The main component of the plant, the pyrolyzer, was modelled by a Plug Flow Reactor in accordance to the kinetic laws. Products distribution and the temperature profile was calculated along reactor's axis. Simulation results have been found to fit well the experimental data of pyrolysis. Moreover, sensitivity anal...

  14. Future Climate Forcings and Olive Yield in a Mediterranean Orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Viola, Francesco; Caracciolo, Domenico; Pumo, Dario; Noto, Leonardo; Loggia, Goffredo

    2014-01-01

    The olive tree is one of the most characteristic rainfed trees in the Mediterranean region. Observed and forecasted climate modifications in this region, such as the CO2 concentration and temperature increase and the net radiation, rainfall and wind speed decrease, will likely alter vegetation water stress and modify productivity. In order to simulate how climatic change could alter soil moisture dynamic, biomass growth and fruit productivity, a water-driven crop model has been used in this s...

  15. The Olive Project: An Oral History Project in Multiple Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Erin R.

    2011-01-01

    This project is devoted to the memory of my grandmother, Olive. It is at once her life story and not a story at all. In a sense it represents the product of an intimate family collaboration and of the close journey we shared in collecting and preserving her oral history. But this project is not a product, nor is it entirely about my grandma, about…

  16. USING A GRAPE HARVESTER IN SUPER-INTENSIVE OLIVE CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bellomo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first results of experimental mechanical harvesting tests in a super-intensive olive cultivation. In this type of olive cultivation, trees were grown with a central axis mode and a tree distance of 4,00x1,50 m. A “Braud” grape harvesting machine for espalier vineyards was used in an experimental olive grove in Cassano delle Murge. On the basis of harvesting tests it was possible to verify that the harvesting machine is able to detach the almost all the product with an operative work capacity of 0,5 ha/h. An evaluation of harvesting cost was carried out to determine the minimum convenience growing surface, and also to estimate the increase in income per hectare which could be achieved using mechanised harvesting as opposed to manual harvesting. Moreover, in order to determine the economic limits of using the grape harvester, its performance was compared with that of other harvesting machines used in both super-intensive and traditional plantations.

  17. Photosynthetic characteristics of olive tree (Olea europaea) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippou, Manolis; Fasseas, Costas; Karabourniotis, George

    2007-07-01

    Functional and structural characteristics of corticular photosynthesis of sun-exposed bark of olive tree (Olea europaea L.) were examined. Stomata are only sporadically present during stem primary growth. Light transmission through the phellem was age dependent, decreasing rapidly in stems older than five years of age. Light transmission was also low in pubescent 1-year-old stems. Light transmission was about 50% higher in wet phellem than in dry phellem. Photosynthetic capacity on a unit area basis (measured with an oxygen disc electrode at 27 degrees C and about 5% CO(2) on chlorophyllous tissue discs isolated from the stem) was higher in 1-, 20- and 30-year-old stems compared with 2-10-year-old stems. Low chlorophyll a/b ratio and light compensation points were recorded in olive stems with low phellem light transmission, in accordance with the shade acclimation hypothesis. The intrinsic photochemical efficiency of photosystem II of all stems, especially young stems, was less than that of the leaves. Our results show that olive tree bark possesses an efficient photosynthetic mechanism that may significantly contribute not only to the reduction in concentrations of CO(2) in the inner bark, but also to whole-tree carbon balance.

  18. Study on Olive Oil Wastewater Treatment: Nanotechnology Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nika Gholamzadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The olive mill wastewater (OMW is generated from olive oil extraction in olive mills. It contains a very high organic load and considerable quantities of phytotoxicity compounds. Comprehensive articles with different methods have been published about the treatment of OMW. This paper reviews the recent reports on the variety methods of OMW treatment. Biological process, containing aerobic pre-treatment by using different cultures and anaerobic co-digestion with other sewage and also added external nutrient with optimum ratio attracted much attention in the treatment of OMW. However, advanced oxidation process (AOP due to the high oxidation potential which causes destruction of organic pollutants, toxic and chlorinated compounds have been considered. Furthermore, membrane technologies consist of microfiltration, ultrafiltration and especially nanofiltrationin wastewater treatment are growing in recent years. They offer high efficiency and mediocre investments owing to novel membrane materials, membrane design technics, module figures and improvement of the skills. In addition, fouling reduces the membrane performances in time, which is a main problem of cost efficiency.

  19. Geographical Basis for Development of Organic Olive Grow in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Čuka

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional agriculture is among the biggest polluters of the environment. Overuse of synthetic pesticides, herbicides and mineral fertilisers have caused soil exhaustion, erosion, unbalance in the ecosystem, and their harmful effect on human health has been proven. This is why the author tried to point to the importance of development of organic agriculture, and olive growing as a traditional agricultural sector in coastal Croatia.The main intention is to show the basic geographical aspects of coastal Croatia and to explain the ways it can influence the development of organic olive farming. It is specially emphasized that organically produced food must be incorporated in Croatian tourist offer. It will stimulate a bigger interest for Croatia as an attractive tourist destination in the world tourist market and will simplify the sale of organically produced food. Development of organic olive farming will also contribute to the revitalisation of small villages where a strong presence of negative processes, such as deagrarisation, deruralisation and demographic regression is evident.

  20. Intraspecific larval competition in the olive fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrack, Hannah Joy; Fornell, Angela M; Connell, Joseph H; O'Connell, Neil V; Phillips, Phil A; Vossen, Paul M; Zalom, Frank G

    2009-10-01

    Olive fruit flies [Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)] occur at densities in California that can result in intraspecific larval competition within infested fruit. Larval B. oleae densities tracked in the field at six location were found to be highly variable and related to the proportion of fruit infested and adult densities. Egg and larval distribution within the field was generally aggregated early in the season and trended toward random and uniform as the season progressed. To determine whether B. oleae experienced fitness consequences at a range of larval densities observed in the field, olive fruits were infested with one, two, four, and six eggs, and larval and pupal developmental time, pupal weight, and pupal yield were compared. At the highest egg density, all measures of performance were negatively impacted, resulting in fewer and lighter pupae that took longer to pupate and emerge as adults, and even when only two larvae was present per olive, resulting pupae were significantly smaller. Density did not impact the sex ratio of the resulting flies or survive to adults. As field surveys showed, larval densities ranged from 1 to 11 B. oleae per fruit at some sites, and our results suggest that, at high densities, B. oleae do experience competition for larval resources. The impact of intraspecific larval competition North American in field populations of B. oleae is unknown, but the potential for competition is present.

  1. Organosolv pretreatment of olive tree biomass for fermentable sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, M.J.; Cara, C.; Castro, E. [Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering, Campus Las Lagunillas, University of Jaen, Jaen (Spain); Huijgen, W.J.J.; Van der Laan, R.R.; Reith, J.H. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    Olive tree pruning biomass is one of the main agricultural residues available in Mediterranean countries and is currently lacking commercial applications. To take advantage of its sugar content, a pretreatment is necessary to enhance enzyme accessibility of the cellulose fraction of the residue. This paper describes for the first time the use of organosolv pretreatment in this regard. The main process variables such as pretreatment temperature, residence time, and solvent composition (aqueous ethanol) are studied. Results show that organosolv pretreatment causes delignification and hydrolysis of hemicelluloses and improves the enzymatic digestibility of olive tree pruning biomass. A higher pretreatment severity and ethanol content of the solvent were found to increase delignification (up to 64% at 66% w/w aqueous ethanol, 210C, 60 min). By contrast, xylan hydrolysis was promoted by a lower ethanol content (maximum 92%). The highest enzymatic hydrolysis yield (90% of the structural glucan present in the raw material) has been obtained after pretreatment with 43% w/w aqueous ethanol at 210C for 15 min. Organosolv pretreatment was found to be the most effective pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of olive tree pruning biomass.

  2. Stomatal oscillations in olive trees: analysis and methodological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernal, Alvaro; García-Tejera, Omar; Testi, Luca; Orgaz, Francisco; Villalobos, Francisco J

    2017-10-13

    Stomatal oscillations have long been disregarded in the literature despite the fact that the phenomenon has been described for a variety of plant species. This study aims to characterize the occurrence of oscillations in olive trees (Olea europaea L.) under different growing conditions and its methodological implications. Three experiments with young potted olives and one with large field-grown trees were performed. Sap flow measurements were always used to monitor the occurrence of oscillations, with additional determinations of trunk diameter variations and leaf-level stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and water potential also conducted in some cases. Strong oscillations with periods of 30-60 min were generally observed for young trees, while large field trees rarely showed significant oscillations. Severe water stress led to the disappearance of oscillations, but moderate water deficits occasionally promoted them. Simultaneous oscillations were also found for leaf stomatal conductance, leaf photosynthesis and trunk diameter, with the former presenting the highest amplitudes. The strong oscillations found in young potted olive trees preclude the use of infrequent measurements of stomatal conductance and related variables to characterize differences between trees of different cultivars or subjected to different experimental treatments. Under these circumstances, our results suggest that reliable estimates could be obtained using measurement intervals below 15 min. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification.

  4. Future Climate Forcings and Olive Yield in a Mediterranean Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Viola

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree is one of the most characteristic rainfed trees in the Mediterranean region. Observed and forecasted climate modifications in this region, such as the CO2 concentration and temperature increase and the net radiation, rainfall and wind speed decrease, will likely alter vegetation water stress and modify productivity. In order to simulate how climatic change could alter soil moisture dynamic, biomass growth and fruit productivity, a water-driven crop model has been used in this study. The numerical model, previously calibrated on an olive orchard located in Sicily (Italy with a satisfactory reproduction of historical olive yield data, has been forced with future climate scenarios generated using a stochastic weather generator and a downscaling procedure of an ensemble of climate model outputs. The stochastic downscaling is carried out using simulations of some General Circulation Models adopted in the fourth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC assessment report (4AR for future scenarios. The outcomes state that climatic forcings driving potential evapotranspiration compensate for each other, resulting in a slight increase of this water demand flux; moreover, the increase of CO2 concentration leads to a potential assimilation increase and, consequently, to an overall productivity increase in spite of the growth of water stress due to the rainfall reduction.

  5. Recruitment of two Opuntia species invading abandoned olive groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Isabel; Vilà, Montserrat

    2002-08-01

    In Europe, many agricultural areas are now abandoned and hence can be invaded by exotic species. The abundance and spatial distribution patterns of two Opuntia species were studied in old olive groves in the Parc Natural del Cap de Creus, Catalonia (Spain). Seedling recruitment (97.3% and 51.5% of juveniles for O. maxima and O. stricta, respectively) was higher than recruitment by cladodes. O. maxima had more seedlings recruited beneath olive trees and beneath Opuntia adults than expected. Most O. stricta seedlings were also located beneath Opuntia adult plants. However, although most seedlings were recruited beneath Opuntia, some (10-30%) were found away from putative parental plants. This may be due to seed dispersal by birds and wild boars. Seeds dispersed by wild boars were not significantly more viable than seeds from intact fruits. Seedlings grow very slowly but have a high survival rate. In conclusion, Opuntia seedling recruitment is very successful and ensures the persistence of these species within old olive groves. Consequently, it prevents restoration from an agricultural land-use back to the native community.

  6. Some nutritional benefits of extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Testolin, G.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of olive oil could be related to its antioxidant potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the "in vivo" antioxidant activity of different extra virgin olive oils (EVOO produced in the Mediterranean area. One hundred and twenty rats were fed diets containing oxidised and refined olive oil (400 mEq O2 kg for 11 weeks, a period of time sufficient to induce globular fragility and marginal plasma tocopherols deficiency.
    The animals were then fed 5 diets containing EVOO with content of tocopherols and phenols ranging from 165 to 335 and from 62 to 389 ppm respectively, in different tocopherols/phenols ratios, for 4 weeks. Results show that plasma tocopherols concentration after EVOO feeding was directly related to dietary intake.
    Moreover, globular resistance improved to a different extent with EVOO diets compared to the oxidised oil diet. The most favourable antioxidant response was obtained by feeding the oil high in both tocopherols and phenols; the action of phenols was considered synergetic to that of tocopherols in restoring normal conditions, impaired by the oxidised oil diet.

  7. Heterogeneity of a major allergen from olive (Olea europea) pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, A W; Hickman, B E; Fox, B

    1990-07-01

    Studies were carried out in order to confirm and extend knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of an allergenic material found in the pollen of the olive tree (Olea europea). The sera from 88% of patients who were sensitive to olive pollen contained IgE that reacted with a 19,000 Mr component and many also reacted to a 17,000 Mr band as shown by SDS-PAGE immunoblotting. A monoclonal antibody (OL-1) produced to the 19,000 Mr component also reacted with the 17,000 Mr band, and with bands at 21,000 and 41,000 under non-reduced conditions. HPLC separation followed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting of the fractions indicated that the allergen fraction from which the 19,000 and 17,000 components were derived had a mol. wt between 50 and 60 kD. Isoelectricfocusing followed by immunoblotting and development with (OL-1) indicated heterogeneity of the allergen with respect to pI values. Two of the strongest components of the six identified which reacted with (OL-1) had pIs of about 5.0 and 6.0 confirming the published data. The study therefore showed that olive pollen contains a number of allergenic components, with various mol. wts and pI values, with some epitopes in common, which may in the native state be bound together or aggregated.

  8. Olive Oil Based Emulsions in Frozen Puff Pastry Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Lupi, F. R.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Puff pastry is an interesting food product having different industrial applications. It is obtained by laminating layers of dough and fats, mainly shortenings or margarine, having specific properties which provides required spreading characteristic and able to retain moisture into dough. To obtain these characteristics, pastry shortenings are usually saturated fats, however the current trend in food industry is mainly oriented towards unsatured fats such as olive oil, which are thought to be safer for human health. In the present work, a new product, based on olive oil, was studied as shortening replacer in puff pastry production. To ensure the desired consistency, for the rheological matching between fat and dough, a water-in-oil emulsion was produced based on olive oil, emulsifier and a hydrophilic thickener agent able to increase material structure. Obtained materials were characterized by rheological dynamic tests in linear viscoelastic conditions, aiming to setup process and material consistency, and rheological data were analyzed by using the weak gel model. Results obtained for tested emulsions were compared to theological properties of a commercial margarine, adopted as reference value for texture and stability. Obtained emulsions are characterized by interesting rheological properties strongly dependent on emulsifier characteristics and water phase composition. However a change in process temperature during fat extrusion and dough lamination seems to be necessary to match properly typical dough rheological properties.

  9. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Elkacmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country’s climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification.

  10. Polarized absorption in determination of impurities in olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, A. N.; Zabidi, Z. M.; Yaacob, Y.; Amir, I. S.; Alshurdin, S. H. N.; Aini, N. A.

    2017-08-01

    The effect of impurities in olive oil blending with palm oil was characterized using polarized absorption method. Polarized absorption was based on the absorption of light which vibrating in a particular plane to pass through the sample. This polarized light allowed the molecule to absorb at the specific orientation. There were four samples have been prepared that were 100:0, 70:30, 50:50 and 0:100 with volume ratio of the olives to palm oil. Two linear polarizers were mounting between the samples in order to get linearly polarized. This specific orientation was affected the absorption spectra of the sample. The results have shown that the analyzing polarizer with angle 00 has bell shape spectra. All the orientation of analyzing polarizer had shown the maximum current output at 100% olive oil. Whereas 100% palm oil has shown the minimum current output. The changing in absorption spectra indicates that the anisotropic properties of each sample were different due to the present of impurities.

  11. Fish burger enriched by olive oil industrial by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedola, Annamaria; Cardinali, Angela; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Conte, Amalia

    2017-07-01

    Oil industry produces large volume of waste, which represents a disposal and a potential environmental pollution problem. Nevertheless, they are also promising sources of compounds that can be recovered and used as valuable substances. The aim of this work is to exploit solid olive by-products, in particular dry olive paste flour (DOPF) coming from Coratina cultivar, to enrich fish burger and enhance the quality characteristics. In particular, the addition of olive by-products leads to an increase of the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity; however, it also provokes a deterioration of sensory quality. Therefore, to balance quality and sensory characteristics of fish burgers, three subsequent phases have been carried out: first, the quality of DOPF in terms of phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity has been assessed; afterward, DOPF has been properly added to fish burgers and, finally, the formulation of the enriched fish burgers has been optimized in order to improve the sensory quality. Results suggested that the enriched burgers with 10% DOPF showed considerable amounts of polyphenols and antioxidant activity, even though they are not very acceptable from the sensory point of view. Pre-treating DOPF by hydration/extraction with milk, significantly improved the burger sensory quality by reducing the concentration of bitter components.

  12. The Effects of Different Irrigation Treatments on Olive Oil Quality and Composition: A Comparative Study between Treated and Olive Mill Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Brahim, Samia; Gargouri, Boutheina; Marrakchi, Fatma; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2016-02-17

    In the present paper, two irrigation treatments were applied to olive trees cv. Chemlali: irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW) and with olive mill wastewater (OMW), which was spread at three levels (50, 100, and 200 m(3)/ha). This work is interested in two topics: (1) the influence of different irrigation treatments on olive oil composition and quality and (2) the comparison between OMW and TWW application using different statistical analyses. The obtained variance analysis (ANOVA) has confirmed that there are no significant differences in oil quality indices and flavonoids between the control and treatments amended by OMW or TWW (p > 0.05). However, the irrigation affected some aspects of olive oil composition such as the reduction in palmitic acid (16.32%) and increase in linoleic acid (19.55%). Furthermore, the total phenols and α-tocopherol contents increased significantly following OMW and TWW treatments. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) defined three irrigation groups: OMW 50 and 100 m(3)/ha, OMW 200 m(3)/ha and control, and TWW treatment. The full factorial design revealed that OMW amendment by 100 m(3)/ha is the best irrigation treatment. Thus, the optimal performances in terms of olive oil quality and composition were shown by olive oil extracted from olives grown under irrigation with 100 m(3)/ha of OMW.

  13. Olive paste oil content on a dry weight basis (OPDW): an indicator for optimal harvesting time in modern olive orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Zipori, I.; Bustan, A.; Kerem, Z.; Dag, A.

    2016-01-01

    In modern oil olive orchards, mechanical harvesting technologies have significantly accelerated harvesting outputs, thereby allowing for careful planning of harvest timing. While optimizing harvest time may have profound effects on oil yield and quality, the necessary tools to precisely determine the best date are rather scarce. For instance, the commonly used indicator, the fruit ripening index, does not necessarily correlate with oil accumulation. Oil content per fruit fresh weight is stron...

  14. Distribution of olive oil phenolic compounds in rat tissues after administration of a phenolic extract from olive cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Aida; Rubió, Laura; Borràs, Xenia; Macià, Alba; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2012-03-01

    The distribution and accumulation of olive oil phenolic compounds in the body are topics lacked of information. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability, metabolism and distribution of phenolic compounds from olive cake. The metabolism and distribution of phenolic compounds were examined by UPLC-MS/MS after an acute intake of a phenolic extract from olive cake, analyzing plasma and tissues (heart, brain, liver, kidney, spleen, testicle and thymus) 1, 2 and 4 h after ingestion using Wistar rats as the in vivo model. The results showed a wide distribution of phenolic compounds and their metabolites in the tissues, with a main detoxification route through the kidneys. Highlighting the quantification of the free forms of some phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein derivative in plasma (Cmax 4 h: 24 nmol/L) and brain (Cmax 2 h: 2.8 nmol/g), luteolin in kidney (Cmax 1 h: 0.04 nmol/g), testicle (Cmax 2 h: 0.07 nmol/g) and heart (Cmax 1 h: 0.47 nmol/g); and hydroxytyrosol in plasma (Cmax 2 h: 5.2 nmol/L), kidney (Cmax 4 h: 3.8 nmol/g) and testicle (Cmax 2 h: 2.7 nmol/g). After a single ingestion of olive oil phenolic compounds, these were absorbed, metabolized and distributed through the blood stream to practically all parts of the body, even across the blood-brain barrier. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Olive paste oil content on a dry weight basis (OPDW): an indicator for optimal harvesting time in modern olive orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipori, I.; Bustan, A.; Kerem, Z.; Dag, A.

    2016-07-01

    In modern oil olive orchards, mechanical harvesting technologies have significantly accelerated harvesting outputs, thereby allowing for careful planning of harvest timing. While optimizing harvest time may have profound effects on oil yield and quality, the necessary tools to precisely determine the best date are rather scarce. For instance, the commonly used indicator, the fruit ripening index, does not necessarily correlate with oil accumulation. Oil content per fruit fresh weight is strongly affected by fruit water content, making the ripening index an unreliable indicator. However, oil in the paste, calculated on a dry weight basis (OPDW), provides a reliable indication of oil accumulation in the fruit. In most cultivars tested here, OPDW never exceeded ca. 0.5 g·g–1 dry weight, making this threshold the best indicator for the completion of oil accumulation and its consequent reduction in quality thereafter. The rates of OPDW and changes in quality parameters strongly depend on local conditions, such as climate, tree water status and fruit load. We therefore propose a fast and easy method to determine and monitor the OPDW in a given orchard. The proposed method is a useful tool for the determination of optimal harvest timing, particularly in large plots under intensive cultivation practices, with the aim of increasing orchard revenues. The results of this research can be directly applied in olive orchards, especially in large-scale operations. By following the proposed method, individual plots can be harvested according to sharp thresholds of oil accumulation status and pre-determined oil quality parameters, thus effectively exploiting the potentials of oil yield and quality. The method can become a powerful tool for scheduling the harvest throughout the season, and at the same time forecasting the flow of olives to the olive mill. (Author)

  16. Exploitation of Bioactive Constituents of Olive Leaves, Grape Pomace, Olive Mills Waste Water and their Application in Phytoprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Mavrakis, Titos Nikolaou

    2009-01-01

    Pure plants extracts or/and essential oils show antifungal and antibacterial activity against a wide range of fungi and bacteria. Recently there has been increasing interest in the effects of natural compounds against important plant pathogens (fungi and bacteria). Although the antimicrobial activity of oleuropein, grape pomace (GPE) and olive mills waste water (OMWW) extracts have been studied widely, little research has been done on the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of thes...

  17. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Boss

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols.

  18. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Anna; Bishop, Karen S; Marlow, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew P G; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2016-08-19

    The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols.

  19. Effect of lime treatment of olive meal on in vitro utilization of total mixed ration containing olive meal as partial maize replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal Ashraf

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study pertains to lime treatment of olive meal to improve its digestibility. The objective of the present study was to assess the in vitro dry matter degradability of total mixed ration containing lime treated olive meal at varied levels of maize replacement to know the optimum level of lime and treated olive meal as maize replacement in small ruminant diets. Materials and methods: Study was carried out in two phases. In phase I, A complete diet was formulated and treated with lime at variable concentrations (0-8% at 25% of maize replacement and subjected to in vitro studies as per Tilley and Terry. On the basis of the results of this phase, a concentration of lime for olive treatment was selected and tested at variable levels of maize replacement (0-50% by treated olive cake in phase II. Data was analyzed as per the procedures suggested by Snedecor and Cochran. Results: The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of composite diet increased from 43.95% at 0% lime treatment to 48.68% on treating with 8% lime with significant (P<0.05 increase at 6% treatment level. Lime treatment beyond 6% had no further significant effect on improving the digestibility. Graded levels of maize replacement by olive meal treated with 6% lime (lime percentage selected from phase I showed that the in vitro digestibility of mixed ration was not compromised up to 40% replacement level of maize by treated olive meal. Improved digestibility with lime treatment may be due to weakening of internal Hydrogen bonding, thereby disrupting the fiber structure in olive meal. Further lime may be saponifying the high level of fat present in olive meal, which may otherwise negatively impact the digestibility values. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the treatment with up to 6% of lime can effectively increase the digestibility of olive meal. Treated olive meal can replace up to 40% of maize from daily ration without affecting the digestibility of composite ration

  20. Colonization of Greek olive cultivars' root system by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus: root morphology, growth, and mineral nutrition of olive plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theocharis Chatzistathis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rooted leafy cuttings of three Greek olive (Olea europaea L. cultivars (Koroneiki, Kothreiki and Chondrolia Chalkidikis were grown for six months in three soil types, in an experimental greenhouse, in order to investigate: i if their root system was colonized by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF genus and, ii if genotypic differences concerning growth and mineral nutrition of olive plants existed. Gigaspora sp. colonized the root system of the three cultivars studied, while Glomus sp. colonized only the root system of 'Koroneiki'. Furthermore, in most cases root colonization by AMF differed among cultivars and soil types. The maximum root colonization, in all soils, was found in 'Chondrolia Chalkidikis'. In the three soils studied, the ratio shoot dry weight (SDW/ root dry weight (RDW was higher in 'Chondrolia Chalkidikis' than in the other two cultivars. Furthermore, root system morphology of the three olive cultivars was completely different, irrespectively of soil type. Leaf Mn, Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg, K and P concentrations, as well as total per plant nutrient content and nutrient use efficiency, differed among cultivars under the same soil conditions. These differences concerning root morphology, SDW/RDW, as well as nutrient uptake and use efficiency, could be possibly ascribed to the differential AMF colonization by Glomus sp. and Gigaspora sp.

  1. Insecticides authorized for use on olive trees and the relationship between their registration and residues in olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lentza-Rizos, Ch.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to eliminate losses due to insect attack, several insecticides are used on olive trees. Their residues in olive oil constitute an important parameter of its quality and must be monitored regularly and kept as low possible in order to ensure consumer protection. In this paper the insecticides authorized for use on olive trees are listed and their ADIs and Codex Alimentarius MRLs reported. The existing registrations are discussed from the point of view of their residues in oil.

    Diversos insecticidas son usados para eliminar las pérdidas debidas al ataque de insectos en olivos. Sus residuos en el aceite de oliva constituyen un parámetro importante de su calidad y deben ser controlados con regularidad y mantenidos tan bajos como sea posible en orden a asegurar la protección del consumidor. En este artículo se incluyen los distintos insecticidas autorizados para su uso en olivos así como los valores de ingesta diaria aceptable para el hombre y los límites máximos autorizados de los mismos. Los registros existentes se discuten desde el punto de vista de sus residuos en el aceite.

  2. Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers

    OpenAIRE

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Dell’Aquila, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Inability to determine reliably the direction and magnitude of change in natural and agro-ecosystems due to climate change poses considerable challenge to their management. Olive is an ancient ubiquitous crop having considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance in the Mediterranean Basin. We assess the ecological and economic impact of projected 1.8 °C climate warming on olive and its obligate pest, the olive fly. This level of climate warming will have varying impact on olive yield an...

  3. Trends in olive fruit handling previous to its industrial transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson, Louise

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Until the 1940s, when production economics and labor shortages became pressing, olives around the world were hand harvested. Despite 60 years of research, mechanical. There are two major reasons for this. First, trees over 20 years old are too tall and poorly structured for mechanical harvesting. Second, mechanical harvesting research for table olive production has not been sufficiently focused on the final goal, processed fruit quality. For oil olives, which are physiologically mature at harvest and require less removal force, advances in both trunk shaking and picker head technology are advancing rapidly. Also, as olive oil is enjoying a renaissance around the world new orchards are being planted in the hedgerows that facilitate mechanical harvesting. For table olives however, mechanical harvesting is still in the developmental stage. The research being done now, unlike earlier work, focuses on the parallel goals of efficient fruit removal and final processed product quality. Within 10 years most olive oil orchards of suitable tree size and shape will be mechanically harvested. When table olives will be routinely harvested mechanically cannot be predicted.Las aceitunas se recogieron a mano hasta los años cuarenta, cuando la necesidad de reducir costes de producción y la escasez de mano de obra comenzaron ya a hacer inviable tal sistema. A pesar de la investigación realizada durante los últimos 60 años, la recolección mecánica no es todavía una práctica común. Hay dos razones principales para ello. La primera es que los árboles de más de 20 años de antigüedad son demasiado altos y no están adecuadamente estructurados para aplicar dichas técnicas. La segunda es que la investigación sobre la recolección mecánica para las aceitunas de mesa no se ha enfocado adecuadamente dándole el peso suficiente al objetivo final de obtener frutos elaborados de calidad. Para el caso de las aceitunas destinadas a la obtención de aceite, cuyos

  4. Analysis of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae transcriptome and phylogenetic classification of the major detoxification gene families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlidi, N.; Dermauw, W.; Rombauts, S.; Chrisargiris, A.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Vontas, J.

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved.

  5. 78 FR 65963 - Foreign-Trade Zone 44-Mt. Olive, New Jersey; Authorization of Production Activity; Givaudan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-67-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 44--Mt. Olive, New... Products); Mt. Olive, New Jersey On June 11, 2013, Givaudan Fragrances Corporation submitted a notification... of FTZ 44 in Mt. Olive, New Jersey. The notification was processed in accordance with the regulations...

  6. Influence of the nocturnal harvesting of olives from Salento (Italy on the quality of the extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Serio, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In southern Italy, some olive cultivars such as ‘Ogliarola Salentina’ ripen when the day temperature is still high, at up to 28 to 30 °C. This can affect both the oil quality and the expression of its valuable characteristics. In addition, it increases the risk of undesirable fermentation that can generate off-flavors. In the present study, nocturnal olive harvesting was carried out to determine the influence that temperature can have on the characteristics of the extra virgin olive oil, and particularly on the volatile and oxidative compounds. The data obtained are encouraging: the lower temperatures that occur during the night appear to have a particular and positive impact on the organoleptic characteristics of the extra virgin olive oil produced, with enhanced formation of the volatile compounds that contribute to the ‘green’ notes of the flavor. In areas where daytime temperatures are very high, the nocturnal harvesting of olives at the correct stage of maturity therefore represents a good agronomic practice for the production of oils with high organoleptic and nutritional merit.En el sur de Italia, algunas variedades de olivo maduran cuando la temperatura del día sigue siendo alta, hasta 28 °C a 30 °C. Esto puede perjudicar la calidad del aceite y a la expresión de sus valiosas características, y aumenta el riesgo de fermentación indeseable que puede generar malos sabores. En el presente estudio, la cosecha nocturna de aceitunas se llevó a cabo para determinar la influencia que la temperatura puede tener sobre las características del aceite de oliva virgen extra, y en particular sobre los compuestos volátiles y los compuestos relacionados con la oxidación. Los datos obtenidos son alentadores: las temperaturas más bajas que se producen durante la noche parecen tener un impacto positivo en las características organolépticas del aceite de oliva virgen extra producido, con una mejora de la formación de los compuestos vol

  7. Fatty acids evolution and composition of olive oils extracted from different olive cultivars grown in Calabrian area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mincione, Antonio

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This work showed some peculiarities of fatty acids profile of nine olive cultivars cultivated in a typical olive growing Calabrian area. The cultivars studied were: Cassanese, Coratina, Itrana, Leccino, Nociara, Ottobratica, Pendolino, Picholine and Sinopolese. Oils were extracted by pressure from olives collected for a period of time comprised from October to January. The samplings were repeated for three years. The evolution of the oleic acid content showed an increasing trend in Cassanese, Itrana, Coratina, Sinopolese, Pendolino, and Leccino. Palmitic and linolenic acid showed a decrease in all the observed cultivar. Some cultivars in early ripe stage showed a higher linolenic acid content than the limit established legally. From a hierarchical cluster analyses two main groups were distinguished based on all fatty acid. The same statistical results were obtained considering the oleic/linoleic ratio only, that is a constant parameter throughout the olive ripening.Este trabajo muestra algunas peculiaridades de las composiciones en ácidos grasos de aceites extraídos de nueve plantaciones de olivo cultivados en Calabria. La zona de cultivo es típicamente olivícola. Las plantaciones estudiadas fueron: Cassanese, Coratina, Itrana, Leccino, Nociara, Ottobratica, Pendolino, Picholine y Sinopolese. Los aceites fueron extraídos por presión a partir de aceitunas recogidas en un período comprendido entre Octubre y Enero. Las observaciones fueron repetidas durante tres años consecutivos. La evolución del contenido en ácido oleico mostró una tendencia creciente en aceites de Cassanese, Itrana, Coratina, Sinopolese, Pendolino y Leccino. Los ácidos palmítico y linoleico mostraron una tendencia a disminuir durante la maduración en todos los aceites. En los muestreos de inicio de estación algunos aceites superaron los límites establecidos por la ley para el ácido linolénico. Mediante un análisis jerárquico de "cluster" se pueden localizar

  8. Effect of dietary olive leaves and rosemary on microbial growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary olive leaves and rosemary on microbial growth and lipid oxidation of turkey breast during refrigerated storage. ... During this period olive leaves were more effective in inhibiting bacterial growth than rosemary. Keywords: Antioxidant additives, α-tocopherol, turkey meat, herbs, spices, meat quality ...

  9. Quantification of bioactive compounds in Picual and Arbequina olive leaves and fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Concepción; Medina, Eduardo; Mateo, Mª Antonia; Brenes, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Olive leaves and fruit possess bioactive substances such as phenolic compounds and triterpenic acids that can be obtained from olive by-products generated during olive oil extraction. The aim of the present study was the characterization and quantification of these compounds in Picual and Arbequina cultivars from different locations and throughout two seasons in both olive leaves and fruit. The major phenolic compound identified in the leaves was oleuropein, and the total content of phenolic compounds in this material reached 70 g kg -1 fresh weight. The leaves were also rich in triterpenic acids (20 g kg -1 fresh weight), with oleanolic acid being the most concentrated among them. With regard to olives, oleuropein and demethyloleuropein were the main phenolic compounds in the pulp of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, and the total concentration of these phenolic compounds reached 3.5% fresh weight. Olives can also be an important source of triterpenic acids, although this is mainly the skin part, where the maslinic and oleanolic acids are concentrated. Olive leaves can contain up to 70 g kg -1 phenolic compounds and 20 g kg -1 triterpenic acids, and olive fruit can contain up to 35 g kg -1 of the former and 3 g kg -1 of the latter. It must also be noted that this level was constant both between seasons and orchard locations. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Near-infrared spectroscopy for detection of hailstorm damage on olive fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid, robust, unbiased and inexpensive discriminant method capable of classifying olive fruit (Olea europaea L.) on the basis of the presence of hailstorm damage is economically important to the olive oil milling industry. Thus, in the present study, the feasibility of Near-Infrared (NIR) spectro...

  11. organic fertilization of olive tree based on soil analysis and foliar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 sept. 2015 ... ABSTRACT. The present study aims at developing an organic fertilization program of an olive orchard located in the North-west of Tunisia. Soil analyses showed an acceptable level of P2O5 and. K2O in the soil of the studied farm. Based on leaves and olive fruit analyses, the requirements in N, P and K ...

  12. Antihypertensive Effects of Roselle-Olive Combination in L-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Rehab F; Hessin, Alyaa F; Abdelbaset, Marwan; Ogaly, Hanan A; Abd-Elsalam, Reham M; Hassan, Salah M

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy of a new combination therapy of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Olea europaea extracts (2 : 1; Roselle-Olive), using N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester- (L-NAME-) induced hypertensive model. Rats received L-NAME (50 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 weeks. Concurrent treatment with Roselle-Olive (500, 250, and 125 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, reversed the L-NAME-induced suppression in serum nitric oxide (NO), and improved liver and kidney markers, lipid profile, and oxidative status. Furthermore, Roselle-Olive significantly lowered the elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (ACE) and showed a marked genoprotective effect against oxidative DNA damage in hypertensive rats. Roselle-Olive ameliorated kidney and heart lesions and reduced aortic media thickness. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry showed an enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene and protein expression in both heart and kidney of Roselle-Olive-treated rats. To conclude, our data revealed that Roselle-Olive is an effective combination in which H. sabdariffa and O. europaea synergistically act to control hypertension. These effects are likely to be mediated by antioxidant and genoprotective actions, ACE inhibition, and eNOS upregulation by Roselle-Olive constituents. These findings provide evidences that Roselle-Olive combination affords efficient antihypertensive effect with a broad end-organ protective influence.

  13. Bioavailability and antioxidant effects of olive oil phenols in humans: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Katan, M.B.; Zock, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: We reviewed the bioavailability and antioxidant effects of phenols from extra virgin olive oil. Search strategy: We searched the MEDLINE database for the years 1966 - 2002. To review the bioavailability of olive oil phenols, we selected animal and human studies that studied the

  14. State of the Art on Functional Virgin Olive Oils Enriched with Bioactive Compounds and Their Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Reboredo-Rodríguez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil, the main fat of the Mediterranean diet, is per se considered as a functional food—as stated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA—due to its content in healthy compounds. The daily intake of endogenous bioactive phenolics from virgin olive oil is variable due to the influence of multiple agronomic and technological factors. Thus, a good strategy to ensure an optimal intake of polyphenols through habitual diet would be to produce enriched virgin olive oil with well-known bioactive polyphenols. Different sources of natural biological active substances can be potentially used to enrich virgin olive oil (e.g., raw materials derived from the same olive tree, mainly olive leaves and pomaces, and/or other compounds from plants and vegetables, mainly herbs and spices. The development of these functional olive oils may help in prevention of chronic diseases (such as cardiovascular diseases, immune frailty, ageing disorders and degenerative diseases and improving the quality of life for many consumers reducing health care costs. In the present review, the most relevant scientific information related to the development of enriched virgin olive oil and their positive human health effects has been collected and discussed.

  15. Infrared machine vision system for the automatic detection of olive fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Elena; Baeten, Vincent; Pierna, Juan Antonio Fernández; García-Mesa, José A

    2013-11-15

    External quality is an important factor in the extraction of olive oil and the marketing of olive fruits. The appearance and presence of external damage are factors that influence the quality of the oil extracted and the perception of consumers, determining the level of acceptance prior to purchase in the case of table olives. The aim of this paper is to report on artificial vision techniques developed for the online estimation of olive quality and to assess the effectiveness of these techniques in evaluating quality based on detecting external defects. This method of classifying olives according to the presence of defects is based on an infrared (IR) vision system. Images of defects were acquired using a digital monochrome camera with band-pass filters on near-infrared (NIR). The original images were processed using segmentation algorithms, edge detection and pixel value intensity to classify the whole fruit. The detection of the defect involved a pixel classification procedure based on nonparametric models of the healthy and defective areas of olives. Classification tests were performed on olives to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method. This research showed that the IR vision system is a useful technology for the automatic assessment of olives that has the potential for use in offline inspection and for online sorting for defects and the presence of surface damage, easily distinguishing those that do not meet minimum quality requirements. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. State of the Art on Functional Virgin Olive Oils Enriched with Bioactive Compounds and Their Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; Figueiredo-González, María; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Salvador, María Desamparados; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2017-03-20

    Virgin olive oil, the main fat of the Mediterranean diet, is per se considered as a functional food-as stated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)-due to its content in healthy compounds. The daily intake of endogenous bioactive phenolics from virgin olive oil is variable due to the influence of multiple agronomic and technological factors. Thus, a good strategy to ensure an optimal intake of polyphenols through habitual diet would be to produce enriched virgin olive oil with well-known bioactive polyphenols. Different sources of natural biological active substances can be potentially used to enrich virgin olive oil (e.g., raw materials derived from the same olive tree, mainly olive leaves and pomaces, and/or other compounds from plants and vegetables, mainly herbs and spices). The development of these functional olive oils may help in prevention of chronic diseases (such as cardiovascular diseases, immune frailty, ageing disorders and degenerative diseases) and improving the quality of life for many consumers reducing health care costs. In the present review, the most relevant scientific information related to the development of enriched virgin olive oil and their positive human health effects has been collected and discussed.

  17. Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae in woody plants with emphasis on olive and shade trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keykha Saber, Mojtaba; Thomma, Bart P.H.J.; Hiemstra, Jelle A.

    2018-01-01

    Olive plantations and tree nurseries are economically and ecologically important agricultural sectors. However, Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb., is a serious problem in olive-growing regions and in tree nurseries worldwide. In this review we describe common and

  18. Introducing cultivated trees into the wild: Wood pigeons as dispersers of domestic olive seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Gutiérrez-Galán, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    Animals may disperse cultivated trees outside the agricultural land, favoring the naturalization or, even, the invasiveness of domestic plants. However, the ecological and conservation implications of new or unexplored mutualisms between cultivated trees and wild animals are still far from clear. Here, we examine the possible role of an expanding and, locally, overabundant pigeon species (Columba palumbus) as an effective disperser of domestic olive trees (Olea europaea), a widespread cultivated tree, considered a naturalized and invasive species in many areas of the world. By analyzing crop and gizzard content we found that olive fruits were an important food item for pigeons in late winter and spring. A proportion of 40.3% pigeons consumed olive seeds, with an average consumption of 7.8 seeds per pigeon and day. Additionally, most seed sizes (up to 0.7 g) passed undamaged through the gut and were dispersed from cultivated olive orchards to areas covered by protected Mediterranean vegetation, recording minimal dispersal distances of 1.8-7.4 km. Greenhouse experiments showed that seeds dispersed by pigeons significantly favored the germination and establishment in comparison to non-ingested seeds. The ability of pigeons to effectively disperse domestic olive seeds may facilitate the introduction of cultivated olive trees into natural systems, including highly-protected wild olive woodlands. We recommend harvesting ornamental olive trees to reduce both pigeon overpopulation and the spread of artificially selected trees into the natural environment.

  19. Reliable detection of unevenly distributed Verticillium dahliae in diseased olive trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keykha Saber, Mojtaba; Pham, K.T.K.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Hiemstra, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is one of the most threatening diseases of olive worldwide. For pre-planting and post-planting control of verticillium wilt in olive trees, availability of a rapid, reliable and non-destructive method for detection of V. dahliae is essential. For such

  20. Microbiological effects of olive mill waste addition to substrates for Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler-Rivas, C.; Garcia-Rosado, A.; Polonia, I.; Junca-Blanch, G.; Marin, F.R.; Wichers, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    When olive mill wastes (OMWs) and vegetation waters (VWs) obtained during the manufacture of olive oil were added as substrate supplements for the cultivation of Pleurotus pulmonarius the material modified growth of the mushroom and the endemic microbiota of the substrate, in particular the

  1. Identification and characterization of the iridoid synthase involved in oleuropein biosynthesis in olive (Olea europaea) fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Kries, Hajo

    2016-01-01

    these candidates, we have functionally characterized the olive homologue of iridoid synthase (OeISY), an unusual terpene cyclase that couples an NAD (P)H-dependent 1,4-reduction step with a subsequent cyclization, and we provide evidence that OeISY likely generates the monoterpene scaffold of oleuropein in olive...

  2. Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol are absorbed from moderate and sustained doses of virgin olive oil in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró-Casas, E; Covas, M-I; Fitó, M; Farré-Albadalejo, M; Marrugat, J; de la Torre, R

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the absorption of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol from moderate and sustained doses of virgin olive oil consumption. The study also aimed to investigate whether these phenolic compounds could be used as biomarkers of virgin olive oil intake. Ingestion of a single dose of virgin olive oil (50 ml). Thereafter, for a week, participants followed their usual diet which included 25 ml/day of the same virgin olive oil as the source of raw fat. Unitat de Recerca en Farmacologia. Institut Municipal d'Investigació Mèdica (IMIM). Seven healthy volunteers. An increase in 24 h urine of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, after both a single-dose ingestion (50 ml) and short-term consumption (one week, 25 ml/day) of virgin olive oil (P<0.05) was observed. Urinary recoveries for tyrosol were similar after a single dose and after sustained doses of virgin olive oil. Mean recovery values for hydroxytyrosol after sustained doses were 1.5-fold those obtained after a single 50 ml dose. Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol are absorbed from realistic doses of virgin olive oil. With regard to the dose-effect relationship, 24 h urinary tyrosol seems to be a better biomarker of sustained and moderate doses of virgin olive oil consumption than hydroxytyrosol.

  3. Pathogenicity comparison of high and low virulent strains of Vibrio scophthalmi in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibrio scophthalmi is a bacterial pathogen of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and virulence is different from various strains. There is not information available on pathogenicity to olive flounder caused by different strains of V. scophthalmi. In this study, the high and low virulent strains...

  4. Multi-trophic effects of Russian olive removal and restoration: getting information from weed eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russian olive trees (Elaeagnus angustifolium) have spread throughout North America in riparian woodlands threatening native species like cottonwood and willow trees. We have developed a multiagency partnership with the goal of determining the responses to Russian olive removal and deliberate reveget...

  5. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A preliminary survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive was performed in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia. Olive is a newly introduced crop in this region, and is cultivated in the agricultural enterprises of some of the biggest Saudi agricultural companies. Seedlings are mostly im...

  6. High genetic diversity detected in olives beyond the boundaries of the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Mazinani, Mehdi; Mariotti, Roberto; Torkzaban, Bahareh; Sheikh-Hassani, Massoma; Ataei, Saeedeh; Cultrera, Nicolò G M; Pandolfi, Saverio; Baldoni, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Olive trees (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea) naturally grow in areas spanning the Mediterranean basin and towards the East, including the Middle East. In the Iranian plateau, the presence of olives has been documented since very ancient times, though the early history of the crop in this area is shrouded in uncertainty. The varieties presently cultivated in Iran and trees of an unknown cultivation status, surviving under extreme climate and soil conditions, were sampled from different provinces and compared with a set of Mediterranean cultivars. All samples were analyzed using SSR and chloroplast markers to establish the relationships between Iranian olives and Mediterranean varieties, to shed light on the origins of Iranian olives and to verify their contribution to the development of the current global olive variation. Iranian cultivars and ecotypes, when analyzed using SSR markers, clustered separately from Mediterranean cultivars and showed a high number of private alleles, on the contrary, they shared the same single chlorotype with the most widespread varieties cultivated in the Mediterranean. We hypothesized that Iranian and Mediterranean olive trees may have had a common origin from a unique center in the Near East region, possibly including the western Iranian area. The present pattern of variation may have derived from different environmental conditions, distinct levels and selection criteria, and divergent breeding opportunities found by Mediterranean and Iranian olives.These unexpected findings emphasize the importance of studying the Iranian olive germplasm as a promising but endangered source of variation.

  7. Evaluation of pathogenicity and insect transmission of Xylella fastidiosa strains to olive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is a xylem-limited bacterium that causes disease in a number of economically important crops in California and worldwide. Newly observed scorching symptoms in olive trees may be due to Xf infection. If true, “olive leaf scorch disease” (OLSD) would represent a new threat to...

  8. High genetic diversity detected in olives beyond the boundaries of the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hosseini-Mazinani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Olive trees (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea naturally grow in areas spanning the Mediterranean basin and towards the East, including the Middle East. In the Iranian plateau, the presence of olives has been documented since very ancient times, though the early history of the crop in this area is shrouded in uncertainty. METHODS: The varieties presently cultivated in Iran and trees of an unknown cultivation status, surviving under extreme climate and soil conditions, were sampled from different provinces and compared with a set of Mediterranean cultivars. All samples were analyzed using SSR and chloroplast markers to establish the relationships between Iranian olives and Mediterranean varieties, to shed light on the origins of Iranian olives and to verify their contribution to the development of the current global olive variation. RESULTS: Iranian cultivars and ecotypes, when analyzed using SSR markers, clustered separately from Mediterranean cultivars and showed a high number of private alleles, on the contrary, they shared the same single chlorotype with the most widespread varieties cultivated in the Mediterranean. CONCLUSION: We hypothesized that Iranian and Mediterranean olive trees may have had a common origin from a unique center in the Near East region, possibly including the western Iranian area. The present pattern of variation may have derived from different environmental conditions, distinct levels and selection criteria, and divergent breeding opportunities found by Mediterranean and Iranian olives.These unexpected findings emphasize the importance of studying the Iranian olive germplasm as a promising but endangered source of variation.

  9. Environmental impact assessment of olive pomace oil biodiesel production and consumption: A comparative lifecycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaeifar, M.A.; Akram, A.; Ghobadian, B.; Rafiee, S.; Heijungs, R.; Tabatabaei, M.

    2016-01-01

    The well-to-wheel environmental impacts of olive pomace oil biodiesel (B20 and B100) and conventional petroleum diesel were compared using life cycle assessment. Moreover, energy and economic analyses of olive pomace oil biodiesel production was conducted throughout its life cycle. Human Health,

  10. Caractérisation physicochimique des huiles d'olive produites dans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olive issues des huileries traditionnelles de la région de la Chaouia (centre du Maroc) par une caractérisation physicochimique de leurs compositions. Méthodologie et résultats : Des échantillons d'huiles d'olive ont été collectés à partir des ...

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on olive leaves and application on meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhi, Hana

    2009-01-01

    The gamma irradiation is a high technology in the treatment of food product, for this reason we have been interested to study the effect of gamma irradiation on microbial charge (Bioburden), the phenolics compounds and their antioxidant activities on the olive leaves. The irradiated olive leaves are added as an antimicrobial and antioxidant compound on minced meat for preservation.

  12. Effect of olive storage period at two different temperatures on oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dgomi

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... This reduction was more severe in Chemlali olive oils than those of Chétoui cultivar. ... been beneficial to human health and content of other ... piled into large heaps and could be stored at ambient temperature for up to several days prior to processing for oil extraction. Pressure within the olive pile during ...

  13. Supplementation of plasma with olive oil phenols and extracts: Influence on LDL oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Vissers, M.N.; Schuurbiers, J.A.E.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Wiseman, S.A.; Put, van de F.H.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Phenols present in olive oil may contribute to the health effects of the Mediterranean lifestyle. Olive oil antioxidants increase the resistance of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) against oxidation in vitro, but human intervention studies have failed to demonstrate similar consistent effects. To

  14. Olive oil adulterated with hazelnut oils: simulation to identify possible risks to allergic consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arlorio, M.; Coisson, J. D.; Bordiga, M.; Travaglia, F.; Garino, C.; Zuidmeer, L.; van Ree, R.; Giuffrida, M. G.; Conti, A.; Martelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    According to European Union Regulation EC 1531/2001, olive oil labelled as oextra-virgino should be cold-pressed and contain no refined oil or oil from other oleaginous seeds or nuts. Adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with hazelnut oil (HAO) is a serious concern both for oil suppliers

  15. Soil amendement with olive mill wastewater: impact of storage before spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachouri, S.; Ayed, L.; Assas, N.; Marouani, L.; Macarie, H.; Hamdi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The olive oil production performed by the traditional three-phase process generates considerable amounts of olive mill wastewater (OMW) that is a liquid effluent, red to dark coloured depending on its level of oxidation. OMW is well known for the ecological problems it causes owing to the highly toxic polyphenolic compounds it contains. (Author)

  16. Antihypertensive Effects of Roselle-Olive Combination in L-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessin, Alyaa F.; Abdelbaset, Marwan; Ogaly, Hanan A.; Abd-Elsalam, Reham M.; Hassan, Salah M.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy of a new combination therapy of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Olea europaea extracts (2 : 1; Roselle-Olive), using N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester- (L-NAME-) induced hypertensive model. Rats received L-NAME (50 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 weeks. Concurrent treatment with Roselle-Olive (500, 250, and 125 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, reversed the L-NAME-induced suppression in serum nitric oxide (NO), and improved liver and kidney markers, lipid profile, and oxidative status. Furthermore, Roselle-Olive significantly lowered the elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (ACE) and showed a marked genoprotective effect against oxidative DNA damage in hypertensive rats. Roselle-Olive ameliorated kidney and heart lesions and reduced aortic media thickness. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry showed an enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene and protein expression in both heart and kidney of Roselle-Olive-treated rats. To conclude, our data revealed that Roselle-Olive is an effective combination in which H. sabdariffa and O. europaea synergistically act to control hypertension. These effects are likely to be mediated by antioxidant and genoprotective actions, ACE inhibition, and eNOS upregulation by Roselle-Olive constituents. These findings provide evidences that Roselle-Olive combination affords efficient antihypertensive effect with a broad end-organ protective influence. PMID:29201276

  17. Centrifugation as a pre-treatment in olive mill wastewater processing (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW), generated during production of olive oil, is an untapped source of nutritious compounds. Thus, processors want to separate OMWW into a high-value, concentrated product stream and near-pure water. However, the amount and characteristics of the produced OMWW depend on t...

  18. Impact of olive oil usage on physical properties of chocolate fillings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, J.M.; Almeida, M.; Adikevičius, D.; Andzevičius, P.; Alvarenga, N.B.

    2016-01-01

    The development of a new olive oil based chocolate filling was carried out. In this study three different types of virgin olive oil were tested, in three different concentrations in the production of chocolate fillings. An instrumental analysis was carried out for chemical analyses, such as moisture and pH. The color analysis included the CIE 1976 L*a*b* color space and RGB color space. The rheological analysis included the evaluation of flow curve, flow index (n), consistency (K) and dynamic moduli (G’ and G’’). No influence was detected on the moisture or pH of chocolate fillings, due to the concentration or type of olive oil. However, the use of olive oil decreased consistency from 1371 Pasn to 148 - 559 Pasn , even using olive oil concentrations of 20% w/w. Also, G’ registered a similar correlation, where a decrease was observed from 4.42 x 106 Pa to values around 1.70-2.51 x 106 Pa, for 20% w/w olive oil. The fillings presented a darker yellow-green color when using olive oil produced with Galega and Cordovil de Serpa varieties, but olive oil produced with the Arbequina variety did not affect color significantly, although further studies will be required to evaluate the impact of ripening stage. [es

  19. Virulence of selected entomopathogenic fungi against the olive fruit fly and their potential for biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most serious pest of cultivated olives worldwide. Its recent invasion into North America, specifically California, has initiated renewed interest in management strategies for this pest. Research into classical biological control ha...

  20. 78 FR 48412 - Approval of Subzone Status Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation Olive Branch, Greenwood and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [S-87-2013] Approval of Subzone Status Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation Olive Branch, Greenwood and Jackson, Mississippi On June 5, 2013, the Executive... activation limit of FTZ 262, on behalf of Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation at its facilities in Olive...

  1. Impact of packaging material and storage time on olive oil quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olive oil is very appreciated for its characteristic flavor and its biological and nutritional value which are strongly related to the quality. The effect of packaging materials (stainless, jar, clear polyethylenene terephthalate (PET), clear glass and dark glass bottles) on quality attributes of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) was studied ...

  2. Making Sense of Olive Oil: Simple Experiments to Connect Sensory Observations with the Underlying Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchly, Richard A.; Delen, Zeynep; O'Hara, Patricia B.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, our understanding of the chemistry of olive oil has dramatically improved. Here, the essential chemistry of olive oil and its important minor constituents is described and related to the typical sensory categories used to rate and experience oils: color, aroma, bitterness, and pungency. We also describe experiments to explore…

  3. Antimicrobial olive leaf gelatin films for enhancing the quality of cold smoked salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive leaf products were evaluated as antimicrobial/antioxidant ingredients in edible films for smoked fish preservation. Olive leaf powder (OLP) and its water/ethanol extract (OLE) were tested against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica using agar diffusion test...

  4. Secondary invasion and re-invasion after Russian-olive removal and revegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russian olive is a nitrogen-fixing tree invading riparian corridors in the Northern Great Plains. Native species establishment can be hampered by invasive plant soil legacies that may be particularly likely in the case of Russian olive, and understory species that survive the invasion may be only a ...

  5. Effect of Extraction Conditions on the Antioxidant Activity of Olive Wood Extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Bonilla, M.; Salido, S.; Sánchez, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Altarejos, J.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation to optimize the extraction yield and the radical scavenging activity from the agricultural by-product olive tree wood (Olea europaea L., cultivar Picual) using six different extraction protocols was carried out. Four olive wood samples from different geographical origin, and

  6. The effect of polyphenols in olive oil on heart disease risk factors: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covas, María-Isabel; Nyyssönen, Kristiina; Poulsen, Henrik E; Kaikkonen, Jari; Zunft, Hans-Joachim F; Kiesewetter, Holger; Gaddi, Antonio; de la Torre, Rafael; Mursu, Jaakko; Bäumler, Hans; Nascetti, Simona; Salonen, Jukka T; Fitó, Montserrat; Virtanen, Jyrki; Marrugat, Jaume

    2006-09-05

    Virgin olive oils are richer in phenolic content than refined olive oil. Small, randomized, crossover, controlled trials on the antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds from real-life daily doses of olive oil in humans have yielded conflicting results. Little information is available on the effect of the phenolic compounds of olive oil on plasma lipid levels. No international study with a large sample size has been done. To evaluate whether the phenolic content of olive oil further benefits plasma lipid levels and lipid oxidative damage compared with monounsaturated acid content. Randomized, crossover, controlled trial. 6 research centers from 5 European countries. 200 healthy male volunteers. Glucose levels, plasma lipid levels, oxidative damage to lipid levels, and endogenous and exogenous antioxidants at baseline and before and after each intervention. In a crossover study, participants were randomly assigned to 3 sequences of daily administration of 25 mL of 3 olive oils. Olive oils had low (2.7 mg/kg of olive oil), medium (164 mg/kg), or high (366 mg/kg) phenolic content but were otherwise similar. Intervention periods were 3 weeks preceded by 2-week washout periods. A linear increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels was observed for low-, medium-, and high-polyphenol olive oil: mean change, 0.025 mmol/L (95% CI, 0.003 to 0.05 mmol/L), 0.032 mmol/L (CI, 0.005 to 0.05 mmol/L), and 0.045 mmol/L (CI, 0.02 to 0.06 mmol/L), respectively. Total cholesterol-HDL cholesterol ratio decreased linearly with the phenolic content of the olive oil. Triglyceride levels decreased by an average of 0.05 mmol/L for all olive oils. Oxidative stress markers decreased linearly with increasing phenolic content. Mean changes for oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels were 1.21 U/L (CI, -0.8 to 3.6 U/L), -1.48 U/L (-3.6 to 0.6 U/L), and -3.21 U/L (-5.1 to -0.8 U/L) for the low-, medium-, and high-polyphenol olive oil, respectively. The olive oil may have interacted

  7. Effect of addition of olive leaves before fruits extraction process to some monovarietal Tunisian extra-virgin olive oils using chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonda, Ammar; Akram, Zribi; Boutheina, Gargouri; Guido, Flamini; Mohamed, Bouaziz

    2014-01-08

    The analysis of the effect of cultivar and olive leaves addition before the extraction on the different analytical values revealed significant differences (p olive leaves. Twenty-three compounds were characterized, representing 86.1-99.2% of the total volatiles. Chétoui cultivar has the highest amount of (E)-2-hexenal, followed by Chemlali cultivar, whereas (E)-2-hexen-1-ol was the major constituent of Zalmati and crossbreeding Chemlali by Zalmati cultivars. Sensory analysis showed that Chemlali and Chétoui Zarzis possessed a high fruity, bitter, and pungent taste, whereas the Zalmati and crossbreeding Chemlali by Zalmati had a 'green' taste among its attributes. Indeed, the taste panel found an improvement of the oil quality when an amount of olive leaves (3%) added to the olives fruits.

  8. Effect of harvesting system and fruit cold storage on virgin olive oil chemical composition and quality of superintensive cultivated 'Arbequina' olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Khaled; Weiland, Carlos M; García, José M

    2012-05-09

    Storage at 3 and 18 °C of 'Arbequina' olives (Olea europaea L.) cultivated in hedgerows and harvested manually or mechanically (wine grape harvester) was tested. Fruit characteristics and oil quality were monitored. Mechanical harvesting caused internal fruit damage that induced its rapid softening and decay, but also facilitated obtaining higher amounts of oil, which suffered a rapid deterioration during fruit storage. This oil presented lower tocopherol and phenol contents and lower oxidative stability than the oil extracted from manually harvested olives, but showed similar fatty acid composition. Cold storage (3 °C) delayed all of these deterioration processes. It allowed maintaining the best commercial level of quality ("extra") in the oil from mechanically harvested olives for 10 days. This cold storage could be considered as an alternative to the increase in machinery for processing the growing olive production, due to both hedgerow cultivation and mechanized harvesting.

  9. Flash thermal conditioning of olive pastes during the olive oil mechanical extraction process: impact on the structural modifications of pastes and oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposto, Sonia; Veneziani, Gianluca; Taticchi, Agnese; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Di Maio, Ilona; Sordini, Beatrice; Minnocci, Antonio; Sebastiani, Luca; Servili, Maurizio

    2013-05-22

    The quality of virgin olive oil (VOO) is strictly related to the concentrations of phenolic and volatile compounds, which are strongly affected by the operative conditions of the VOO mechanical extraction process. The aim of this work is to study the impact of a new technology such as flash thermal conditioning (FTC) on olive paste structural modification and on VOO quality. The evaluation of olive paste structure modification by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) showed that the application of FTC after crushing produces significant differences in terms of the breaking of the parenchyma cells and aggregation of oil droplets in comparison to the crushed pastes. The virgin olive oil flash thermal conditioning (VOO-FTC) featured a higher concentration of volatile compounds compared to that in the control, particularly of all saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and esters, whereas the phenolic concentration was higher in VOO obtained from the traditional process (VOO-C).

  10. Flash Thermal Conditioning of Olive Pastes during the Oil Mechanical Extraction Process: Cultivar Impact on the Phenolic and Volatile Composition of Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, Gianluca; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Di Maio, Ilona; Sordini, Beatrice; Servili, Maurizio

    2015-07-08

    The concentration of phenolic and volatile compounds in virgin olive oil (VOO) is closely related to the different operative conditions applied to the mechanical extraction process of the olive oil. However, the great qualitative and quantitative variability of these compounds indicates an important role played by genetic and agronomic aspects. A heat exchanger was placed in front of a traditional, covered malaxer to study the impact of flash thermal conditioning (FTC) of olive paste on the quality of VOO, which is highly influenced by phenolic release and aroma generation. The VOO flash thermal conditioning of five major Italian cultivars showed a higher concentration of phenols (range of increase percentage, 9.9-37.3%) compared to the control trials, whereas the FTC treatment featured a differentiated impact on the volatile fractions, associated with the genetic origins of the olives.

  11. Effect of Olive Leaf ( Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05 while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p0.05. To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets.

  12. Effect of crossbreeding on the chemical composition and biological characteristics of tunisian new olive progenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rjiba, Imed; Dabbou, Samia; Gazzah, Nouredine; Hammami, Mohamed

    2010-03-01

    Olive fruit characteristics (weight, pulp/stone ratio, and oil and moisture content) and the iodine value (IV) of 31 new olive progenies (Olea europaea L.) were determined. To evaluate the effect of the genetic variability on these parameters, the new olive progenies, obtained through cross-pollination between Tunisian and Mediterranean olive cultivars, were planted in a selected grove guaranteeing the homogeneity of the pedologic and climatic conditions. A strong genetic effect and significant differences between genotypes were obtained for the IV and the fruit characteristics evaluated. Discriminant analysis was used to classify the new progenies as distinct from each other, based on their IV, and their pulp and stone weight. An almost full discrimination of the olives from different genotypes was only achieved when the fruit characteristics (pulp and stone weight) and the IV data were analyzed together.

  13. Intergraded Applied Methodology for the Treatment of Heavy Polluted Waste Waters from Olive Oil Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis A. Zorpas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual olive oil production in Cyprus is in the range of 2700–3100 t y−1, resulting in the generation of significant amount of waste. The cocomposting of the olive oil solid residue (OOSR and the treated wastewaters (with Fenton from the olive oil production process with the application of reed beds has been studied as an integrated method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants under warm climate conditions. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW is detoxified at the end of the Fenton process. Specifically, COD is reduced up to 65% (minimum 54.32% by the application of Fenton and another 10–28% by the application of red beds as a third stage. The final cocomposted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW presents optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose.

  14. Neural networks applied to characterize blends containing refined and extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca-Santos, Regina; Cancilla, John C; Pariente, Enrique S; Torrecilla, José S

    2016-12-01

    The identification and quantification of binary blends of refined olive oil with four different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varietals (Picual, Cornicabra, Hojiblanca and Arbequina) was carried out with a simple method based on combining visible spectroscopy and non-linear artificial neural networks (ANNs). The data obtained from the spectroscopic analysis was treated and prepared to be used as independent variables for a multilayer perceptron (MLP) model. The model was able to perfectly classify the EVOO varietal (100% identification rate), whereas the error for the quantification of EVOO in the mixtures containing between 0% and 20% of refined olive oil, in terms of the mean prediction error (MPE), was 2.14%. These results turn visible spectroscopy and MLP models into a trustworthy, user-friendly, low-cost technique which can be implemented on-line to characterize olive oil mixtures containing refined olive oil and EVOOs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Olive Fruit Lipoxygenase Extraction Protocols on 9- and 13-Z,E-HPODE Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Soldo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In plant tissues, enzymes implicated in the lipoxygenase (LOX pathway are responsible for the hydroperoxydation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, ultimately leading to the production of small chemical species involved in several physiological processes. During industrial olive oil production, these enzymes are activated upon crushing and grinding of olive fruit tissue, subsequently leading to the synthesis of volatile compounds responsible for the positive aroma and flavor of the oil. An investigation of LOX activity during olive fruit ripening and malaxation could assist in the production of oils with favorable aroma and taste. Therefore, a reliable method for olive LOX purification is crucial. Here we report a critical review of six LOX extraction protocols, two of which have shown minimum enzyme activity, possibly leading to misconceptions in the interpretation of experimental data. Future research concerning olive LOX should employ extraction methods that preserve enzyme activity.

  16. Pathogenicity of four species of meloidogyne on three varieties of olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, F; Baines, R C

    1969-04-01

    'Ascolano' and 'Sevillano' olive trees, Olea europaea L., were highly susceptible to Meloidogyne javanica (Trueb) Chitwood, and growth of their tops was decreased greatly in tests in a glasshouse. Roots of 'Manzanillo' olive trees were galled moderately by M. javanica, and their tops weighed 6% less than those of noninoculated trees. 'Manzanillo' olive is considered highly tolerant to M. javanica. 'Ascolano' and 'Manzanillo' olive trees were highly susceptible to M. incognita (Kofoid &White) Chitwood. Their roots were galled moderately to severely, and growth of their tops were decreased between 13% and 44%. 'Ascolano' and 'Manzanillo' olive trees were considered to be highly resistant to M. arenaria (Neal) Chitwood and M. hapla Chitwood since no galls or mature females were found on their roots three and one-half months after inoculation.

  17. Determination of mineral elements in fresh olive fruits by flame atomic spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Hernandez, A; Mateos, R.; Garcia-Mesa, J.A.; Beltran, G.; Fernandez-Escobar, R.

    2010-07-01

    The mineral element characterisation of olive fruits is acquiring interest to evaluate the link between their nutritional status and the olive oil quality. A method for the analysis of mineral elements in fresh olive fruits is proposed. The presence of mineral elements such as potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron, and manganese in olive fruits was quantified by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The limits of quantification were (expressed in mg kg.1 of dry weight) 1.266, 1.569, 0.272, 0.172, 0.268, 0.316, 1.017 and 0.513 for K, Na, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn, respectively. The results showed the method is a robust, reliable, and simple analytical procedure for the mineral element characterisation of olive fruit. (Author).

  18. Cardiovascular Effects of Olive, a Qur’anic Fruit: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Heidari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Today, much attention is being paid to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In some parts of the world, the rate of cardiovascular disease is low due to a Mediterranean diet containing olive oil. This systematic review examined the verses and traditions in order to express opinions on olive and compare it with the findings of modern medicine. Methods: This is a qualitative systematic review of studies  in which data  were collected from Qur'an, traditions, and related articles on the internet, limited to English and Persian and without time limitation by using the keywords olive, heart disease and Mediterranean diet. Results: This systematic review demonstrated that olive in the Quran is a clear sign to scientists. Moreover, its use is recommended in the authentic traditions. Conclusion: Based on the results, olive has been found to be effective in reducing mortality and preventing cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Olive oil and health effects: from epidemiological studies to the molecular mechanisms of phenolic fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Marie Josèphe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the Mediterranean diet which is recognized to contribute to its health benefits. Recent prospective studies point towards a protective effect from an olive oil-rich diet in relation to the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and an improvement of cardiometabolic markers such as blood pressure, glycaemia and dyslipidemia, notably by reducing LDL cholesterol and LDL oxidation. The role of minor phenolic fraction was evidenced in intervention trials where lipid profiles showed greater improvement in participants receiving olive oil with higher phenolic content. The phenolic fraction of olive oil is composed of simple phenols (hydroxytyrosol, phenolic secoiridoids (oleuropein aglycone, lignans (pinoresinol, flavonoids and hydroxyisochromans. All these compounds have diverse biological activities that are described in the present review, supporting the protective effects of olive oil against degenerative diseases found in large cohorts monitored in Southern European countries.

  20. Design and evaluation of novel topical formulation with olive oil as natural functional active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Ana Henriques; Silva, Catarina Oliveira; Nicolai, Marisa; Baby, André; Palma, Lídia; Rijo, Patrícia; Ascensão, Lia; Reis, Catarina Pinto

    2017-07-03

    Currently, the innovative skin research is focused on the development of novel topical formulations loaded with natural functional actives. The health benefits of olive oil are unsurpassed and many others are revealed as research studies allow the understanding of its unlimited properties. Olive oil has a protective toning effect on skin, but it is not transported effectively into its layers. Aiming the development of a cosmetic formulation for skin photoprotection and hydration, we have prepared and characterized macro-sized particles, made of a hydrogel polymer, loaded with olive oil. Alginate beads were uniform in shape, with minimal oil leakage, offering interesting prospects for encapsulation of lipophilic and poorly stable molecules, like olive oil. In vitro photoprotection and in vivo tolerance tests were in favor of this application. Thus, this study suggests that the incorporation of the olive oil-loaded particles into a cream formulation provides strong moisturizing properties and a photoprotective potential, when applied to healthy subjects.

  1. Analysis of factors affecting the mechanical olive harvesting in Guilan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Abedi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Olive is one of the most valuable worldwide trees that produces useful products having high nutritional values. It is widely grown in many parts of world. The cost of olives hand picking is estimated to be about two-thirds of the total gross return of olive production. Therefore, various types of olive harvesting machineries were developed in the world. Guilan Province of Iran is one of the leading regions for olives production in Iran. At the present time, almost all olives produced in Guilan province of Iran are manually harvested. Review of the reports showed that no research was performed to study the factors affecting the development of mechanized olive picking in Guilan Province, Iran. Due to the complexity of using the olive harvest machineries, identifying the factors affecting of their application is essential. Therefore, a Delphi study were conducted to identify and analysis the drivers and barriers for mechanized olive harvest in Guilan province, Iran. Materials and Methods This research was conducted using the Delphi technique in Guilan Province, Northern Iran. Delphi technique is a structured process to gather and classify the knowledge of a group of experts. Through consultation with professors and researchers in related institutions, 22 experts from the subsidiary offices of agricultural organization of Guilan Province were selected for the study. In the first round of the study, the participants were asked to answer to two open questions about the driving factors and barriers of mechanical olive harvest in Guilan Province. Nineteen items were found as driving factors and seventeen as barriers for developing the mechanical olive harvesting in Guilan Province. In the second phase of the study, the respondents were asked to answer to the all items written in the form of a five-level Likert scale, and finally, experts of panel were asked to answer to the top 10 items of driving factors and barriers in percent form. The

  2. SNP Discovery by Illumina-Based Transcriptome Sequencing of the Olive and the Genetic Characterization of Turkish Olive Genotypes Revealed by AFLP, SSR and SNP Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Hilal Betul; Cetin, Oznur; Kaya, Hulya; Sahin, Mustafa; Sefer, Filiz; Kahraman, Abdullah; Tanyolac, Bahattin

    2013-01-01

    Background The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a diploid (2n = 2x = 46) outcrossing species mainly grown in the Mediterranean area, where it is the most important oil-producing crop. Because of its economic, cultural and ecological importance, various DNA markers have been used in the olive to characterize and elucidate homonyms, synonyms and unknown accessions. However, a comprehensive characterization and a full sequence of its transcriptome are unavailable, leading to the importance of an efficient large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery in olive. The objectives of this study were (1) to discover olive SNPs using next-generation sequencing and to identify SNP primers for cultivar identification and (2) to characterize 96 olive genotypes originating from different regions of Turkey. Methodology/Principal Findings Next-generation sequencing technology was used with five distinct olive genotypes and generated cDNA, producing 126,542,413 reads using an Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx. Following quality and size trimming, the high-quality reads were assembled into 22,052 contigs with an average length of 1,321 bases and 45 singletons. The SNPs were filtered and 2,987 high-quality putative SNP primers were identified. The assembled sequences and singletons were subjected to BLAST similarity searches and annotated with a Gene Ontology identifier. To identify the 96 olive genotypes, these SNP primers were applied to the genotypes in combination with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. Conclusions/Significance This study marks the highest number of SNP markers discovered to date from olive genotypes using transcriptome sequencing. The developed SNP markers will provide a useful source for molecular genetic studies, such as genetic diversity and characterization, high density quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, association mapping and map-based gene cloning in the olive. High levels of

  3. Composition, quality and oxidative stability of virgin olive oils from some selected wild olives (Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster)

    OpenAIRE

    Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Daoud, Douja; Krichene, Douha; Nouairi, Issam; Guerfel, Mokhtar; Baccouri, Olfa; Zarrouk, Wissem; Baccouri, Bechir

    2008-01-01

    A study on the characterization of virgin olive oils from wild olives (Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster) was conducted in order to define new cultivars which are welladapted to the Tunisian environment and yield high quality oils. The study was done during the crop years 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06. The main analytical parameters of the oils were evaluated: fatty acid compositions, chlorophylls, carotenoids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds as well as their relationship with oxidative stab...

  4. Farmers’ Technical Knowledge about Integrated Pest Management (IPM in Olive Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Allahyari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While Integrated Pest Management (IPM is a sustainable approach of pest control, contributing to reduced use of pesticides and risks on human health and the environment, farmers have shown limited interest in practicing this method. The present study explored the levels of technical knowledge about integrated management of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae among olive growers in Roudbar County of Iran and factors underpinning olive farmers’ technical knowledge of integrated management. Data were collected in a survey of olive farmers, on the basis of a structured questionnaire. Almost half of the farmers (48.4% had good to excellent levels of technical knowledge of integrated management, while almost a third of the farmers (35.4% had a moderate knowledge level. However, a noticeable portion of the farmers (15.9% had poor knowledge of integrated management. Moreover, most farmers showed average knowledge of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health. While most farmers showed good levels of social participation, cooperation with institutes, and participation in extension activities, they showed low levels of community involvement (involvement in a group of people that have and share common interests with each other. Olive imports and the lack of a common action for olive fly control were perceived as the main barriers of IPM adoption among most farmers. Regression analysis revealed that increased community involvement, large area under olive farming, participation in education activities, and high farming experience promoted farmers’ technical knowledge of integrated olive fly control. Strengthening growers’ technical knowledge of IPM through community involvement and extension services among inexperienced small-scale olive farmers is recommended for reducing possible unnecessary insecticide sprays in olive production.

  5. Taggiasca extra virgin olive oil colonization by yeasts during the extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Cioccia, G; Zullo, B A

    2017-04-01

    The opalescent appearance of the newly produced olive oil is due to the presence of solid particles and microdrops of vegetation water in which the microorganisms from the olives' carposphere are trapped. Present research has demonstrated that the microbiota of the fresh extracted olive oil, produced in the mills, is mainly composed of yeasts and to a lesser extent of molds. The close link between the composition of the microbiota of the olives' carposphere undergoing to processing, and that of the microbiota of the newly produced olive oil, concerns only the yeasts and molds, given that the bacterial component is by and large destroyed mainly in the kneaded paste during the malaxation process. Six physiologically homogenous yeast groups were highlighted in the wash water, kneaded paste and newly produced olive oil from the Taggiasca variety which had been collected in mills located in the Liguria region. The more predominant yeasts of each group belonged to a single species called respectively: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Candida oleophila, Candida diddensiae, Candida norvegica, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Debaryomyces hansenii. Apart from K. marxianus, which was found only in the wash water, all the other species were found in the wash water and in the kneaded paste as well as in the newly produced olive oil, while in the six-month stored olive oil, was found only one physiologically homogeneous group of yeast represented by the W. anomalus specie. These findings in according to our previous studies carried out on other types of mono varietal olive oils, confirms that the habitat of the Taggiascas' extra virgin olive oil, had a strong selective pressure on the yeast biota, allowing only to a few member of yeast species, contaminating the fresh product, to survive and reproduce in it during storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Arbuscular mycorhizal fungi associated with the olive crop across the Andalusian landscape: factors driving community differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Montes-Borrego

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the last years, many olive plantations in southern Spain have been mediated by the use of self-rooted planting stocks, which have incorporated commercial AMF during the nursery period to facilitate their establishment. However, this was practised without enough knowledge on the effect of cropping practices and environment on the biodiversity of AMF in olive orchards in Spain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two culture-independent molecular methods were used to study the AMF communities associated with olive in a wide-region analysis in southern Spain including 96 olive locations. The use of T-RFLP and pyrosequencing analysis of rDNA sequences provided the first evidence of an effect of agronomic and climatic characteristics, and soil physicochemical properties on AMF community composition associated with olive. Thus, the factors most strongly associated to AMF distribution varied according to the technique but included among the studied agronomic characteristics the cultivar genotype and age of plantation and the irrigation regimen but not the orchard management system or presence of a cover crop to prevent soil erosion. Soil physicochemical properties and climatic characteristics most strongly associated to the AMF community composition included pH, textural components and nutrient contents of soil, and average evapotranspiration, rainfall and minimum temperature of the sampled locations. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed 33 AMF OTUs belonging to five families, with Archaeospora spp., Diversispora spp. and Paraglomus spp., being first records in olive. Interestingly, two of the most frequent OTUs included a diverse group of Claroideoglomeraceae and Glomeraceae sequences, not assigned to any known AMF species commonly used as inoculants in olive during nursery propagation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggests that AMF can exert higher host specificity in olive than previously thought, which may have important implications

  7. Local environmental context conditions the impact of Russian olive in a heterogeneous riparian ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Graham M.; Katz, Gabrielle L.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Norton, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Local abiotic and biotic conditions can alter the strength of exotic species impacts. To better understand the effects of exotic species on invaded ecosystems and to prioritize management efforts, it is important that exotic species impacts are put in local environmental context. We studied how differences in plant community composition, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and available soil N associated with Russian olive presence are conditioned by local environmental variation within a western U.S. riparian ecosystem. In four sites along the South Fork of the Republican River in Colorado, we established 200 pairs of plots (underneath and apart from Russian olive) to measure the effects of invasion across the ecosystem. We used a series of a priori mixed models to identify environmental variables that altered the effects of Russian olive. For all response variables, models that included the interaction of environmental characteristics, such as presence/absence of an existing cottonwood canopy, with the presence/absence of Russian olive canopy were stronger candidate models than those that just included Russian olive canopy presence as a factor. Compared with reference plots outside of Russian olive canopy, plots underneath Russian olive had higher relative exotic cover (exotic/total cover), lower perennial C4 grass cover, and higher perennial forb cover. These effects were reduced, however, in the presence of a cottonwood canopy. As expected, Russian olive was associated with reduced PAR and increased N, but these effects were reduced under cottonwood canopy. Our results demonstrate that local abiotic and biotic environmental factors condition the effects of Russian olive within a heterogeneous riparian ecosystem and suggest that management efforts should be focused in open areas where Russian olive impacts are strongest.

  8. LC-DAD/ESI-MS/MS characterization of phenolic constituents in Tunisian extra-virgin olive oils: Effect of olive leaves addition on chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Sonda; Kelebek, Hasim; Zribi, Akram; Abichou, Mounir; Selli, Serkan; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present research is to evaluate the chemical characterization of main compounds from Tunisian monocultivar extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) ('Chemlali', 'Chétoui', 'Zalmati' and 'crossbreeding Chemlali by Zalmati') extracted after the addition of different amounts (0% and 3%) of olive leaves. As expected for extra virgin olive oil, the main sterols found in all analyzed samples were β-sitosterol, ∆-5-avenasterol, campesterol and clerosterol. Stigmasterol, 24-methylene-cholesterol, cholesterol, campestanol, sitostanol, ∆-7-stigmastenol, ∆-5,24-stigmastadienol, and ∆-7-avenasterol were also found in all samples, but in lower amounts. Most of these compounds were significantly affected by the cultivars but not to be affected by added leaves at 3% to olives prior to the extraction process. The obtained results revealed that 14 phenolic compounds belonging to different phenolic types were characterized and quantified by an effective HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method. In all the studied olive oil samples, dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA), and ligstroside aglycon (p-HPEA-EA) were the most abundant compounds. In addition, EVOO from 'Chétoui' cultivar extracted with 3% of olive leaves presented the highest amount of individual phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production: modelling of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2006-01-01

    the olive pulp; c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane; and d) development of a mathematical model able to describe the anaerobic digestion of the olive pulp and the effluent of hydrogen producing process. Both continuous and batch experiments......The present study investigates the thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid. residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp; b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from...

  10. Influence of the fruit's ripeness on virgin olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Martínez, Manuel; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) is a product much demanded by consumers looking for the highest quality and certain traits considered to be typical of the Mediterranean area. The olive fruit's properties and the industry-regulated physicochemical and sensory parameters of seven cultivars were evaluated during the ripening process. In general, the oil percentage in both the wet and dry material increased for all the cultivars from the green to the spotted stages of maturation, and they stayed constant statistically until the ripe stage with just a few exceptions. The lowest oil content was observed in the Manzanilla Cacereña cultivar in all stages of maturation. The cultivars that presented the lowest oil yields in the Abencor system were Manzanilla Cacereña and Carrasqueña, and the highest Corniche. In general, all the cultivars except one presented good behaviour during the mixing process, the exception being Manzanilla Cacereña which presented the lowest values of the extractability percentage. The moisture content of the olives presented a common pattern, increasing from the green to the spotted stage, with the differences being significant in the Corniche, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz cultivars. All the oils analysed were classified into the "extra virgin" category according to the results for the regulated parameters. The fruity, bitter, and pungent attributes decreased during ripening in all the cultivars studied. In the green stage of maturation, Arbequina had the least intensity of bitterness and pungency, but there were no significant differences among cultivars in the fruity attribute.

  11. Olival superintensivo: realidade ou utopia? Hedgerow olive orchards: reality or utopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. De la Rosa

    2007-01-01

    xito de las mismas.Nowadays, olive orchards have a densities not higher than 330 trees/ha. The major cost correspond to harvest operations, which is very labour demanding. Recently, a new type of olive plantations with densities around 2.000 tress/ha has appeared. The major advantage of this type of plantations is their totally mechanised harvest, by vineyards straddle-harvesting machines. These plantations have a very early bearing and very productive, at least in the first years. The most common cultivar used is ‘Arbequina’. In the present work, data of the first four harvest of a variety comparative trial are reported. This trial include ‘Arbequina’, ‘Arbequina i-18’, ‘Arbosana’, ‘Koroneiki’, ‘Fs17’ y ‘UC 2-35’ cultivars. From the ‘Arbequina’ and ‘Arbosana’ had been the most productive and ‘UC 2-35’ the less vigorous. Results of a trial testing densities between 780 and 2580 trees/ha is also described. Up to now, the higher densities have been the most productive ones. However, more definitive results can be obtained in the coming years, when problems of competence among trees started to appear. In summary, as in the near future is expected that the subsides from the EU are going to be greatly reduced and the labour for harvesting is difficult to find, the ability to this type of plantations to be profitable at long term will determine their success.

  12. SIMULATION OF OLIVE PITS PYROLYSIS IN A ROTARY KILN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacobbe Braccio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the simulation of an olive pits fed rotary kiln pyrolysis plant installed in Southern Italy. The pyrolysis process was simulated by commercial software CHEMCAD. The main component of the plant, the pyrolyzer, was modelled by a Plug Flow Reactor in accordance to the kinetic laws. Products distribution and the temperature profile was calculated along reactor's axis. Simulation results have been found to fit well the experimental data of pyrolysis. Moreover, sensitivity analyses were executed to investigate the effect of biomass moisture on the pyrolysis process.

  13. Saltcedar and Russian olive interactions with wildlife: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Heather L.; Paxton, Eben H.

    2010-01-01

    Riparian areas of flood plains typically provide a mosaic of productive habitats (Stanford and others, 2005; Latterell and others, 2006) capable of supporting many wildlife species, particularly in the arid and semiarid Western United States. The establishment of nonnative invasive plants can alter riparian habitat by inhibiting native plant recruitment and by increasing the risk of wildfire (Howe and Knopf, 1991; Busch and Smith, 1995). However, the effects of nonnative plants are not necessarily always negative. Many wildlife species will use the exotic plants to some extent, especially when mixed with native vegetation (van Riper and others, 2008), but overall, species of wildlife exhibit a negative or neutral response to exotic habitat. In many areas of the Western United States where riparian systems have been degraded via anthropogenic activities (for example, flood control or groundwater pumping), native vegetation may have difficulty persisting and nonnative vegetation may provide the only available habitat for some species of wildlife (Katz and Shafroth, 2003; Stromberg and others, 2007). Therefore, where possible, the ultimate goal of ecological restoration activities should be the reestablishment of native riparian plant communities and a return to more natural hydrological regimes.Nonnative saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) are the second and fifth most abundant plants in riparian areas in the Western United States (see chap. 2, this volume; Friedman and others, 2005). Methods for controlling nonnative vegetation can alter riparian areas, often in unpredictable ways, and have the potential to impact a variety of habitat types used by wildlife (Bateman, Chung-MacCoubrey, Finch, and others, 2008). Therefore, understanding how wildlife utilize saltcedar and Russian olive and the effects of control activities on wildlife are important for resource managers who must balance management decisions such as nonnative plant

  14. Olive stones as a source of fermentable sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heredia-Moreno, A.; Guillen-Bejarano, R.; Fernandez-Bolanos, J.; Rivas-Moreno, M.

    1987-01-01

    The composition of the olive stone and its woody fraction has been investigated for the varieties Gordal, Manzanilla, Hojiblanca and Verdial. The neutral detergent fiber method (NDF) of Van Soest was used to estimate dietary fiber. Cellulose was the main component of the fiber, followed by hemicelluloses and lignin. The NDF was hydrolyzed enzymatically and the sugars identified by gas chromatography. Glucose was the main sugar (46-51% in the stone and 47-63% in the woody fraction), followed by galactose (25%) and xylose (14%). Arabinose and mannose were also detected.

  15. Net carbon flux in organic and conventional olive production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid Mohamad, Ramez; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Bitar, Lina Al; Roma, Rocco; Moretti, Michele; Chami, Ziad Al

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural systems are considered as one of the most relevant sources of atmospheric carbon. However, agriculture has the potentiality to mitigate carbon dioxide mainly through soil carbon sequestration. Some agricultural practices, particularly fertilization and soil management, can play a dual role in the agricultural systems regarding the carbon cycle contributing to the emissions and to the sequestration process in the soil. Good soil and input managements affect positively Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) changes and consequently the carbon cycle. The present study aimed at comparing the carbon footprint of organic and conventional olive systems and to link it to the efficiency of both systems on carbon sequestration by calculating the net carbon flux. Data were collected at farm level through a specific and detailed questionnaire based on one hectare as a functional unit and a system boundary limited to olive production. Using LCA databases particularly ecoinvent one, IPCC GWP 100a impact assessment method was used to calculate carbon emissions from agricultural practices of both systems. Soil organic carbon has been measured, at 0-30 cm depth, based on soil analyses done at the IAMB laboratory and based on reference value of SOC, the annual change of SOC has been calculated. Substracting sequestrated carbon in the soil from the emitted on resulted in net carbon flux calculation. Results showed higher environmental impact of the organic system on Global Warming Potential (1.07 t CO2 eq. yr-1) comparing to 0.76 t CO2 eq. yr-1 in the conventional system due to the higher GHG emissions caused by manure fertilizers compared to the use of synthetic foliar fertilizers in the conventional system. However, manure was the main reason behind the higher SOC content and sequestration in the organic system. As a resultant, the organic system showed higher net carbon flux (-1.7 t C ha-1 yr-1 than -0.52 t C ha-1 yr-1 in the conventional system reflecting higher efficiency as a

  16. Bio-sorption of Tl-201 radionuclide on olive pomace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yapici, Sinan; Eroglu, Hayrettin; Varoglu, Erhan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents an investigation on the bio-sorption of Tl-201 radionuclide used in nuclear medicine on olive pomace. The experimental parameters were chosen as temperature, the initial pH of the solution, stirring speed, bio-sorbent dose and nominal particle size of bio-sorbent. The initial pH of the solution was found to be the most effective parameter. Thermodynamic analysis gave negative values for ΔG and ΔH. The kinetics of the bio-sorption process fitted very well to the pseudo-second order rate model.

  17. Olive crop wastes; Los residuos de la poda del Olivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Cal Herrera, J. A.

    1999-11-01

    Nowadays, lots of tons of vegetables residues are incinerated every year since February to April, when olive crop campaign is finished, in the fields of provinces of Jaen, Cordoba and Granada. This process doesn`t provide any benefits to the farmers, but a high cost and risk for them. Finally, it causes a high environmental impact in those areas where it`s developed. Thermal and biochemical exploitation of these vegetables residues could contribute to increase social, economical and environmental benefits in province of Jaen. (Author) 8 refs.

  18. Kinetics of acid hydrolysis of olive felling residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, L.; Ferrer, J.L. (Universidad de Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica)

    1992-04-01

    The kinetics of hydrolysis of olive tree felling residues with 1-4% HCl at temperatures between 110 and 140{degree}C have been studied. The experimental results obtained were consistent with two successive first-order reactions by which cellulose residues are transformed into sugars, which in turn are converted into decomposition products. The kinetic constants of the process (per hour) were found to be related to the acid concentration used (C, in weight percent) and to the absolute temperature. According to the above-mentioned kinetic model, the experimental sugar concentrations obtained by hydrolysis were reproduced with errors less than 10-20%. 16 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Composition, quality and oxidative stability of virgin olive oils from some selected wild olives (Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster

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    Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on the characterization of virgin olive oils from wild olives (Olea europaea L. subsp. oleaster was conducted in order to define new cultivars which are welladapted to the Tunisian environment and yield high quality oils. The study was done during the crop years 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06. The main analytical parameters of the oils were evaluated: fatty acid compositions, chlorophylls, carotenoids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds as well as their relationship with oxidative stability. The fatty acid composition of all the wild olive trees tested produced virgin olive oil which complies with commercial standards, as well as for their appreciable amounts of tocopherols and phenolic compounds. Tocopherol analysis by HPLC revealed the presence of α, β, γ and δ tocopherols in all the studied olive oils. Total tocopherol content was significantly influenced by the varietal factor. It ranged from 310 (SB12 to 780 mg/kg (H3. As for total tocopherols, the amount of each tocopherol varied according to genotype. α tocopherol is the most prominent, whereas β, γ and δ tocopherols are less represented. Results showed a clear influence of total phenols and o-diphenols on virgin olive oil stability (R = 0.905, 0.963 P En este trabajo se han caracterizado los aceites obtenidos a partir de siete acebuches previamente seleccionados entre varias poblaciones de Olea europea L. Subsp. oleaster. El estudio se llevó a cabo durante las campañas de producción 2003/04, 2004/05 y 2005/06.Varios parámetros analíticos fueron evaluados: composiciones en ácidos grasos, pigmentos, tocoferoles, fenoles; así mismo, se investigó la relación de estos parámetros con la estabilidad de los aceites. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que todas las muestras de frutos de acebuche produjeron aceites cuya composición de ácidos grasos, tocoferoles y compuestos fenólicos cumplió las normas comerciales para aceite de oliva virgen del Comit

  20. Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil

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    Gamel, T. H.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil. Methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary leaves and olive vegetable water filtrate, in combination with BHA, were added to olive oil (blend of refined and virgin olive oil, 3 to 1 and to sunflower oil and their antioxidant effects under accelerated conditions were evaluated. Accelerated conditions included the oven test (at 63 °C and the conductivity method (Rancimat at 120 °C. Frying process at 180 °C was also applied. The methanol phenolic extracts and the BHA were added to each oil at the following concentrations: 200 ppm rosemary extract; 200 ppm olive vegetable water extract; 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA; 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA and 200 ppm BHA. In general, antioxidant effect of phenolic additives of rosemary and of BHA was in the following order: 200 ppm rosemary extract > 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA > and 200 ppm BHA. The addition of 200 ppm vegetable water extract and 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA exhibited similar antioxidant effect to that of 200 ppm BHA.

    Extractos metanólicos de fenoles de hojas secas de romero y filtrados de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, en combinación con BHA, se añadieron al aceite de oliva (mezcla de aceite de oliva refinado y virgen, 3 a 1 y al aceite de girasol, evaluándose sus efectos antioxidantes usando condiciones aceleradas. Estas condiciones incluyeron el test del horno de oxidación (a 63 °C y el método de conductividad (Rancimat a 120 °C. También se aplicó al proceso de fritura a 180 °C. Los extractos metanólicos de fenoles y el BHA se añadieron a cada aceite en las siguientes concentraciones: 200 ppm de extracto de romero, 200 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, 100 ppm de extracto de romero + 100 ppm de BHA, 100 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación + 100 ppm de BHA y 200 ppm de BHA

  1. Labeled extra virgin olive oil as food supplement; phenolic compounds in oils from some autochthonous Croatian olives

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    Jakobušić Brala, C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of an incentive to provide labeled extra virgin olive oils as a food supplement in pharmacies, the phenolic profile analysis of extra virgin olive oils obtained from Croatian olive cultivars has been reported. With the aim of increasing the consumption of EVOO-s in northern Croatia, the varieties Bjelica, Buža and Italian Leccino have been studied involving two different agroclimatic locations, over two harvest years differing significantly in the amount of rainfall. The Croatian cultivars Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica and Lastovka, were also examined. Correlation tests and the insight from PCA reveal that the cultivars are highly individualized in character with regard to relationships among phenolic compounds. Some elements of an innovative labeling aimed to better present the authenticity, quality, excellence and uniqueness of the EVOO-s were suggested.En el marco de los incentivos que se han considerado para proporcionar el etiquetado de aceites de oliva virgen extra como suplemento alimenticio en farmacias, se reporta el análisis del perfil fenólico de aceites de oliva vírgenes extra obtenidos a partir de variedades croatas. Para ampliar el consumo de AOVE-s en el norte de Croacia, se han estudiado las variedades Bjelica, Buža y Leccino italiana procedentes de dos lugares agroclimáticos diferentes que difieren significativamente en la cantidad de lluvia y obtenidos en dos cosechas. Tambien fueron examinados los cultivares croatas Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica y Lastovka. Los test de correlación y los resultados de PCA revelan que las variedades están altamente individualizados en su carácter en lo que respecta a las relaciones entre los compuestos fenólicos. Se sugirieron algunos elementos innovadores para un etiquetado dirigido a presentar mejor la autenticidad, la calidad, la excelencia y la singularidad de los AOVE-s.

  2. Quality parameters of olive oil from stoned and nonstoned Koroneiki and Megaritiki Greek olive varieties at different maturity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsoyannos, E.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil is a natural functional food and its beneficial role in health as an integral ingredient of the Mediterranean diet is universally recognized. The effects of olive pitting, degree of ripeness and variety (Greek varieties Koroneiki and Megaritiki were investigated on the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant constituent contents and capacity and on the fatty acid profile of olive oil. Ripeness resulted in a decrease (P P El aceite de oliva virgen es un alimento funcional natural cuyo papel como ingrediente esencial de la dieta mediterránea, con propiedades beneficiosas para la salud, ha sido reconocido universalmente. Se ha estudiado el efecto del deshuesado de las aceitunas, grado de maduración y variedad (variedades griegas Koroneiki y Megaritiki sobre las características físico-químicas, perfil de ácidos grasos y capacidad de los componentes antioxidantes de los aceites de oliva. La maduración ocasionó una disminución (P < 0,05 del contenido de fenoles y tocoferoles y de la relación de ácidos insaturados/ saturados así como de la relación de los ácidos C18:1ω-9/C18:2ω6. El deshuesado incrementa significativamente el contenido fenólico y de tocoferoles, sin afectar significativamente, en la mayoría de los casos, al perfil y cantidad de ácidos grasos. Los aceites de oliva de la variedad Koroneiki mostraron relaciones de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados/poliinsaturados significativamente mayores (p < 0,05 que son particularmente importantes para la estabilidad del aceite frente a la oxidación. En conclusión, el aceite de oliva deshuesado mantiene un alto contenido de compuestos bioactivos y un alto nivel de actividad antioxidante.

  3. Volatile constituents and oxidative stability of virgin olive oils: influence of the kneading of olive-paste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lercker, G.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive crushing, olive-paste kneading and separation of the oil the most important technological steps in olive oil production since they directly influence the future quality of the product. The contact between the oil and the olive-paste increases lipolysis and lipid oxidation, which are mainly due to the highly-active lipases present in the paste and the lipoxygenase action, respectively. The choice of the technological parameters is directly related to the oil future stability and its organoleptic characteristics. This study confirms and emphasizes the fact that the oxidative degradation, simultaneously with the well-known formation of the flavor compounds, is related to the time required for the separation of the oil-water emulsion. Loss of the natural antioxidants (minor polar components by an oxidative effect was demonstrated to be also influenced by the time required for oil separation.

    La molienda de aceitunas, el batido de la pasta y la separación del aceite de oliva producen una serie de transformaciones en las características del aceite que posteriormente será extraído. Es sabido que la formación de distintos componentes del aroma del aceite derivan de reacciones oxidativas enzimáticas. El contacto entre el aceite y la pasta de aceitunas incrementa la lipolisis y la oxidación lipídica, debido a un incremento de la actividad de las lipasas presentes en la pasta y a una acción lipoxigenásica respectivamente. La elección de los parámetros tecnológicos está en relación directa con la futura estabilidad y las características organolépticas del aceite. En este trabajo se confirma la formación de tales compuestos evidenciándose la degradación oxidativa del aceite en relación al tiempo de batido empleado. Se demuestra también una pérdida de antioxidantes (componentes polares menores por efectos oxidativos en modo proporcional al tiempo de batido.

  4. LEAF MINERAL CONCENTRATION OF FIVE OLIVE CULTIVARS GROWN ON CALCAREOUS SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Pasković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are limited numbers of scientific publication regarding genotypic differences which exist among olive cultivars concerning nutrient uptake and translocation. For that purpose, the object of our study was to determine possible differences between leaf mineral content of five selected olive cultivars since leaf nutrient analysis is consider being the best method for diagnosing olive tree nutritional status. Plant material was obtained from an olive collection, grown on calcareous soil maintained at Institute of Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, Split, Croatia. The study was conducted with two Croatian autochthonous olive cultivars (“Istarska bjelica”, “Lastovka”, two Italian cultivars (“Pendolino”, “Leccino” and one Spanish cultivar (“Hojiblanca”. Completely randomized design was applied. This study has shown questionably low Mg concentration in all olive cultivars with exception for “Hojiblanca” cultivar. Also, only Croatian cultivars “Istarska bjelica” and “Lastovka” as well as Spanish cultivar “Hojiblanca” recorded sufficient levels of iron leaf mineral content. Regarding other elements studied (P, K, Ca, Zn, Mn, Cu all cultivars were above literature cited thresholds for possible deficiencies. Selected olive cultivars in our experiment demonstrated different nutrient leaf concentration, which is of particular importance for fertilization requirements and fertilization practice in Croatian orchards grown on calcareous soil.

  5. Effect of virgin olive oil versus piroxicam phonophoresis on exercise-induced anterior knee pain

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    Babak Nakhostin-Roohi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of virgin olive oil phonophoresis on female athletes' anterior knee pain (AKP. Materials and Methods: A double blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted. Ninety-three female athletes suffering from AKP voluntarily participated in this study. Patients were randomly assigned into olive oil (n=31, piroxicam (n=31 or base gel phonophoresis (n=31 groups. At the baseline visit, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC questionnaire was filled by subjects who were then treated with olive oil, piroxicam or pure phonophoresis for 12 sessions. After 6 and 12 sessions of physiotherapy, subjects filled the questionnaire again. Main outcomes were significant improvement in pain, stiffness, physical function, and total WOMAC scores. Results: Although, there was a significant reduction in symptoms of AKP at the end of the therapy in all groups (p< 0.05, but in olive oil group, this improvement was seen after 6 sessions of treatment (p< 0.001. A significant difference between olive oil group and piroxicam and/or phonophoresis group was observed after 6 sessions of therapy (p< 0.05. Conclusion: It could be proposed that phonophoresis with virgin olive oil is as effective as piroxicam gel on lowering WOMAC scores of AKP in female athletes and also has several beneficial properties including faster effect and shorter duration of therapy. The exact mechanism of beneficial action of virgin olive oil on AKP is not clear and requires further studies.

  6. An explanation for the natural de-bittering of Hurma olives during ripening on the tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susamci, E.; Romero, C.; Tuncay, O.; Brenes, M.

    2017-01-01

    Harvested olives require further processing to make them edible due to their content in the bitter substance oleuropein. However, some olives of the Erkence cultivar naturally de-bitter on the tree giving rise to the so-called Hurma olives. In this study, the evolution of the chemical characteristics of Erkence and Hurma olives harvested from the northeast and southwest area of trees located in the Karaburun Peninsula was assayed. It was confirmed that the oleuropein content in Hurma olives was much lower (< 2000 mg/kg fresh weight) than Erkence, which reached 35.000 mg/kg fresh weight at the beginning of the season. In addition, no free or polymerized anthocyanins were found in Hurma fruit in contrast to ripened Erkence fruit. The concentration of glucose was also lower in Hurma than Erkence olives. These results suggest that the enzymatic oxidation of oleuropein could be responsible for the natural de-bittering of Hurma olives during their ripening on the tree. [es

  7. Determination of the olive maturity index of intact fruits using image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Elena; Baeten, Vincent; Pierna, Juan Antonio Fernández; García-Mesa, José A

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the maturity index of different samples of olives was objectively assessed by image analysis obtained through machine vision, in which algorithms of color-based segmentation and operators to detect edges were used. This method allows a fast, automatic and objective prediction of olive maturity index. This prediction value was compared to maturity index (MI), generally used by olive oil industry, based on the subjective visual determination of color of fruit skin and flesh. Machine vision was also applied to the automatic estimation of size and weight of olive fruits. The proposed system was tested to obtain a good performance in the classification of the fruit in batches. When applied to several olive samples, the maturity index predicted by machine vision was in close agreement with the maturity index of fruits visually estimated, values that are currently used as standards. The evaluation of weight of fruit also provided good results (R(2) = 0.91). These results obtained by image analysis can be used as a useful method for the classification of olives at the reception in olive mill, allowing a better quality control of the production process.

  8. Stability of avocado oil during heating: comparative study to olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Barriuso, Blanca; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2012-05-01

    The stability of the saponifiable and unsaponifiable fractions of avocado oil, under a drastic heating treatment, was studied and compared to that of olive oil. Avocado and olive oil were characterised and compared at time 0h and after different times of heating process (180°C). PUFA/SFA (0.61 at t=0) and ω-6/ω-3 (14.05 at t=0) were higher in avocado oil than in olive oil during the whole experiment. Avocado oil was richer than olive oil in total phytosterols at time 0h (339.64; 228.27mg/100g) and at 9h (270.44; 210.30mg/100g) of heating. TBARs was higher in olive oil after 3h, reaching the maximum values in both oils at 6h of heating treatment. Vitamin E was higher in olive oil (35.52 vs. 24.5mg/100g) and it disappeared earlier in avocado oil (at 4 vs. 5h). The stability of avocado oil was similar to that of olive oil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Global volatile profile of virgin olive oils flavoured by aromatic/medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perestrelo, R; Silva, C; Silva, P; Câmara, J S

    2017-07-15

    The global volatile profile of commercial virgin olive oils and flavoured olive oils with aromatic/medicinal plants, was established using liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS). More than 60 volatile organic compounds (VOCs belonging to different groups were identified using both methods. Olive oils volatile profile was slightly influenced by maceration process, which occurred at room temperature (20±2°C) for 15days. The predominant differences were observed in terpenoids group, since some of them were only identified in the flavoured olive oils, while others showed an increase with the maceration process. VOCs mass transfer from plants to olive oils could explain the observed results. Principal components analysis (PCA) applied to LLME/GC-qMS data allowed to distinguish the olive oils. The flavoured oils would increase the use of olive oil among consumers as consequence of the improvement of its aromatic profile and healthy properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of growing location, malaxation duration and citric acid treatment on the quality of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih, HuiJun; James, Anthony P; Jayasena, Vijay; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S

    2013-04-01

    The total phenolic compounds of olive oil exert antiradical activity at cellular level and can prevent cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and cancer. Increased awareness of its health benefits has increased the consumption of olive oil around the world. An alternative processing technique effective in increasing the amount of oil extracted while maintaining the oil quality is needed to meet the rising global demand for olive oil. Addition of 0.3 g mL(-1) citric acid at 1:1000 (v/w) to olive paste followed by a 30 min malaxation period significantly increased the oil recovery, concentration of total phenolic compounds and antiradical activity by 46.23, 120.27 and 31.48% respectively. While there was no significant effect on the acidity, the peroxide value was significantly reduced by 63.85%. The organoleptic characteristics of the olive oil extracted with citric acid were also comparable to those of the control. Addition of 0.3 g mL(-1) citric acid (i.e. 30% w/v) at 1:1000 (v/w) to olive paste followed by a 30 min malaxation period in a Blixer(®) 4.0 blender is the most promising extraction technique to improve the oil recovery, concentration of total phenolic compounds and antiradical activity of the extracted olive oil without compromising other quality parameters. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Olive oil polyphenols decrease blood pressure and improve endothelial function in young women with mild hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Muñoz-Hernandez, Rocio; Miranda, Maria L; Costa, Alzenira F; Jimenez-Jimenez, Luis; Vallejo-Vaz, Antonio J; Muriana, Francisco J G; Villar, Jose; Stiefel, Pablo

    2012-12-01

    Olive oil polyphenols have been associated with several cardiovascular health benefits. This study aims to examine the influence of a polyphenol-rich olive oil on blood pressure (BP) and endothelial function in 24 young women with high-normal BP or stage 1 essential hypertension. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, crossover dietary-intervention study. After a run-in period of 4 months (baseline values), two diets were used, one with polyphenol-rich olive oil (∼30 mg/day), the other with polyphenol-free olive oil. Each dietary period lasted 2 months with a 4-week washout between diets. Systolic and diastolic BP, serum or plasma biomarkers of endothelial function, oxidative stress, and inflammation, and ischemia-induced hyperemia in the forearm were measured. When compared to baseline values, only the polyphenol-rich olive oil diet led to a significant (P olive oil diet also elicited an increase in plasma nitrites/nitrates (+4.7 ± 6.6 µmol/l, P olive oil can decrease BP and improve endothelial function in young women with high-normal BP or stage 1 essential hypertension.

  12. Evaluation of bioactive compounds in black table olives fermented with selected microbial starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Miriana; Tufariello, Maria; Tommasi, Luca; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore; Bleve, Gianluca; Mita, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Table olives have been a component of the Mediterranean diet for centuries, with the trend for their consumption currently increasing worldwide. They are rich in bioactive molecules with nutritional, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory or hormone-like properties. In the present study, the concentrations of phenolics, triterpenic acids, carotenoids and vitamins, as well as fatty acid profiles and antioxidant activity, were analyzed in the edible portion of black table olives (Olea europea L.) from Italian (Cellina di Nardò and Leccino) and Greek (Kalamàta and Conservolea) cultivars fermented with selected autochthonous starters and in the corresponding monovarietal olive oils. On a fresh weight basis, Cellina di Nardò and Leccino table olives showed the highest total phenolic content. No significant differences were found with respect to the levels of total triterpenic (maslinic and oleanolic) acids and vitamin E among cultivars. All table olives were characterized by high amounts of oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. Oils were richer in lipophilic antioxidants (carotenoids and tocochromanols) than table olives, which, instead, showed a higher content of polyphenols and triterpenic acids than oils. The present study demonstrates that fermented table olives are an excellent natural source of unsaturated fatty acids, as well as being nutritionally important health-promoting bioactive compounds. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Levels of bioactive lipids in cooking oils: olive oil is the richest source of oleoyl serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather B; Leishman, Emma

    2016-05-01

    Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil.

  14. Novel qPCR systems for olive (Olea europaea L.) authentication in oils and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gómez, Sonia; Busto, María D; Albillos, Silvia M; Ortega, Natividad

    2016-03-01

    The traceability of olive oil is an unresolved issue that remains a challenge. In this field, DNA-based techniques are very powerful tools for discrimination that are less negatively influenced by environmental conditions than other techniques. More specifically, quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) achieves a high degree of sensitivity, although the DNA that it can directly isolate from these oils presents drawbacks. Our study reports the analysis of eight systems, in order to determine their suitability for olive detection in oil and oil-derived foodstuffs. The eight systems were analyzed on the basis of their sensitivity and specificity in the qPCR assay, their relative sensitivity to olive DNA detection and DNA mixtures, their sensitivity and specificity to olive in vegetable oils and the detection of olive in commercial products. The results show that the PetN-PsbM system, designed in this study, is a suitable and reliable technique in relation to olive oil and olive ingredients in both food authentication and food safety processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Varietal Tracing of Virgin Olive Oils Based on Plastid DNA Variation Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Marga; Besnard, Guillaume; Dorado, Gabriel; Hernandez, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Olive oil traceability remains a challenge nowadays. DNA analysis is the preferred approach to an effective varietal identification, without any environmental influence. Specifically, olive organelle genomics is the most promising approach for setting up a suitable set of markers as they would not interfere with the pollinator variety DNA traces. Unfortunately, plastid DNA (cpDNA) variation of the cultivated olive has been reported to be low. This feature could be a limitation for the use of cpDNA polymorphisms in forensic analyses or oil traceability, but rare cpDNA haplotypes may be useful as they can help to efficiently discriminate some varieties. Recently, the sequencing of olive plastid genomes has allowed the generation of novel markers. In this study, the performance of cpDNA markers on olive oil matrices, and their applicability on commercial Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) oils were assessed. By using a combination of nine plastid loci (including multi-state microsatellites and short indels), it is possible to fingerprint six haplotypes (in 17 Spanish olive varieties), which can discriminate high-value commercialized cultivars with PDO. In particular, a rare haplotype was detected in genotypes used to produce a regional high-value commercial oil. We conclude that plastid haplotypes can help oil traceability in commercial PDO oils and set up an experimental methodology suitable for organelle polymorphism detection in the complex olive oil matrices. PMID:23950947

  16. In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Concepción; Medina, Eduardo; Vargas, Julio; Brenes, Manuel; De Castro, Antonio

    2007-02-07

    Helicobacter pylori is linked to a majority of peptic ulcers and to some types of gastric cancer, and resistance of the microorganism to antibiotic treatment is now found worldwide. Virgin olive oil is an unrefined vegetable oil that contains a significant amount of phenolic compounds. Under simulated conditions, we have demonstrated that these substances can diffuse from the oil into the gastric juice and be stable for hours in this acidic environment. In vitro, they exerted a strong bactericidal activity against eight strains of H. pylori, three of them resistant to some antibiotics. Among the phenolic compounds, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon showed the strongest bactericidal effect at a concentration as low as 1.3 microg/mL. Although the experimental conditions are different from other reported works, this bactericidal concentration is much lower than those found for phenolic compounds from tea, wine, and plant extracts. These results open the possibility of considering virgin olive oil a chemopreventive agent for peptic ulcer or gastric cancer, but this bioactivity should be confirmed in vivo in the future.

  17. Bioavailability of phenols from a phenol-enriched olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Valls, Rosa M; Romero, Maria-Paz; Macià, Alba; Fernández, Sara; Giralt, Montse; Solà, Rosa; Motilva, Maria-José

    2011-12-01

    Phenolic compounds are one of the main reasons behind the healthy properties of virgin olive oil (VOO). However, their daily intake from VOO is low compared with that obtained from other phenolic sources. Therefore, the intake of VOO enriched with its own phenolic compounds could be of interest to increase the daily dose of these beneficial compounds. To evaluate the effectiveness of enrichment on their bioavailability, the concentration of phenolic compounds and their metabolites in human plasma (0, 60, 120, 240 and 300 min) from thirteen healthy volunteers (seven men and six women, aged 25 and 69 years) was determined after the ingestion of a single dose (30 ml) of either enriched virgin olive oil (EVOO) (961·17 mg/kg oil) or control VOO (288·89 mg/kg oil) in a cross-over study. Compared with VOO, EVOO increased plasma concentration of the phenol metabolites, particularly hydroxytyrosol sulphate and vanillin sulphate (P oil phenols are highly dependent on the individual.

  18. Dickens's Dichotomous Formula for Social Reform In Oliver Twist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Badinjki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Oliver Twist was a direct appeal to society to take action against poverty, exploitation of children, oppression of women, and was meant to be a picture of the "dregs of life” in all their deformity and wretchedness. Among the most miserable inhabitants of the world of Oliver Twist, Nancy appears as a key figure.  Dickens was anxious to expose the truth about such a woman because he believed it would be a service to society. Dickens's portrayal of Nancy illustrates the power of the dual conception of womanhood  held at the time. On the one hand, a woman might be conceived as someone refined and somewhat remote from ordinary life like Rose Maylie. On the other hand, there was a certain fascination in a woman's degradation, even though that could be shown only indirectly.  Nancy is a demonstration of the two elements combined together. Dickens took the ideal nature of womanhood  and the depravity of the prostitute, and combined them in a remarkable dramatization which he had some right to claim was also true to life. The book is an astounding rebuttal of contemporary prejudice, and a call for more humane and liberal attitudes. These attitudes  are based on the concepts that there is now a radically different way of looking at human nature, that everything ought to depend on what one is in oneself, and that it is only in love that humans can live purposefully and happily with each other.

  19. Valorization of antioxidants extracted from olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissa, Imen; Kharrat, Nadia; Aloui, Fatma; Sellami, Mohamed; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Gargouri, Youssef

    2017-07-01

    Antioxidants are highly important gradients used to preserve cosmetic products and reduce the effect of oxidative stress on the skin. The present work explores the possibility of using phenolic compounds of olive mill wastewater (OMW) as effective alternatives to the commercial antioxidants used in cosmetic formulations deemed by their allergic and carcinogenic effects. Esterification of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol extracted from OMW with various fatty acids was conducted using Novozyme 435 lipase as a biocatalyst. Upon synthesis, butyrate, caprate, laurate, and palmitate tyrosyl and hydroxytyrosyl esters were isolated and evaluated for their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Results showed that laurate derivatives are the most efficient in preventing lipid oxidation and inhibiting growth of pathogenic strains. In the prospective of industrial use, laurate tyrosyl and hydroxytyrosyl derivatives were incorporated in a formulation of moisturizer to substitute the commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxyltoluene. Oleuropein, extracted from olive leaves powder, was also tested as an antiaging ingredient in cosmetic formulations. The evaluation of physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial properties of the new cosmetic products indicated that oleuropein and lipophilic derivatives do not affect the properties of the standard formulation. Oleuropein and lipophilic derivatives can be added as active ingredients to stabilize cosmetic preparations. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Oliver: The Rise and Decline of a Hero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alvar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential topic of this paper is the literary figure of Oliver, from his first appearances to his gradual disappearance from the texts. Thus, the starting point is the presence of the anthroponym and the discussions about its etymology, given that numerous problems (as well as some explanations affecting Western epic poetry and the relationships established between characters and texts can be related to that origin. It seems that he is a southern hero and as such, figured prominently in several lost chansons de geste, from which late or geographically distant versions survive (such as the Scandinavian versions. Since this hero belongs to the Occitan tradition, linked to the basin of the Rhone, and is alien to French epic tradition, the importance of his role in the Chanson de Roland is surprising, and from there, its preeminence in onomastics and in the lists of the Twelve Peers; however, the place he occupies is not always the same, and he is often set aside. In the Iberian Peninsula, it is not unusual to see how other heroes take the place of Oliver: Bernardo del Carpio and Reinaldos de Montalbán. Our paladin ends up being a mere shadow, a distant memory that is finally forgotten.