WorldWideScience

Sample records for triggers rapid sporulation

  1. Dual Regulation of Bacillus subtilis kinB Gene Encoding a Sporulation Trigger by SinR through Transcription Repression and Positive Stringent Transcription Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaro Fujita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that transcription of kinB encoding a trigger for Bacillus subtilis sporulation is under repression by SinR, a master repressor of biofilm formation, and under positive stringent transcription control depending on the adenine species at the transcription initiation nucleotide (nt. Deletion and base substitution analyses of the kinB promoter (PkinB region using lacZ fusions indicated that either a 5-nt deletion (Δ5, nt -61/-57, +1 is the transcription initiation nt or the substitution of G at nt -45 with A (G-45A relieved kinB repression. Thus, we found a pair of SinR-binding consensus sequences (GTTCTYT; Y is T or C in an inverted orientation (SinR-1 between nt -57/-42, which is most likely a SinR-binding site for kinB repression. This relief from SinR repression likely requires SinI, an antagonist of SinR. Surprisingly, we found that SinR is essential for positive stringent transcription control of PkinB. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA analysis indicated that SinR bound not only to SinR-1 but also to SinR-2 (nt -29/-8 consisting of another pair of SinR consensus sequences in a tandem repeat arrangement; the two sequences partially overlap the ‘-35’ and ‘-10’ regions of PkinB. Introduction of base substitutions (T-27C C-26T in the upstream consensus sequence of SinR-2 affected positive stringent transcription control of PkinB, suggesting that SinR binding to SinR-2 likely causes this positive control. EMSA also implied that RNA polymerase and SinR are possibly bound together to SinR-2 to form a transcription initiation complex for kinB transcription. Thus, it was suggested in this work that derepression of kinB from SinR repression by SinI induced by Spo0A∼P and occurrence of SinR-dependent positive stringent transcription control of kinB might induce effective sporulation cooperatively, implying an intimate interplay by stringent response, sporulation, and biofilm formation.

  2. Triggered optical coherence tomography for capturing rapid periodic motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ernest W.; Kobler, James B.; Yun, Seok H.

    2011-07-01

    Quantitative cross-sectional imaging of vocal folds during phonation is potentially useful for diagnosis and treatments of laryngeal disorders. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful technique, but its relatively low frame rates makes it challenging to visualize rapidly vibrating tissues. Here, we demonstrate a novel method based on triggered laser scanning to capture 4-dimensional (4D) images of samples in motu at audio frequencies over 100 Hz. As proof-of-concept experiments, we applied this technique to imaging the oscillations of biopolymer gels on acoustic vibrators and aerodynamically driven vibrations of the vocal fold in an ex vivo calf larynx model. Our results suggest that triggered 4D OCT may be useful in understanding and assessing the function of vocal folds and developing novel treatments in research and clinical settings.

  3. Bioinvasion Triggers Rapid Evolution of Life Histories in Freshwater Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Elodie; Lamy, Thomas; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Juillet, Nicolas; Ségard, Adeline; Jarne, Philippe; David, Patrice

    2017-11-01

    Biological invasions offer interesting situations for observing how novel interactions between closely related, formerly allopatric species may trigger phenotypic evolution in situ. Assuming that successful invaders are usually filtered to be competitively dominant, invasive and native species may follow different trajectories. Natives may evolve traits that minimize the negative impact of competition, while trait shifts in invasives should mostly reflect expansion dynamics, through selection for colonization ability and transiently enhanced mutation load at the colonization front. These ideas were tested through a large-scale common-garden experiment measuring life-history traits in two closely related snail species, one invasive and one native, co-occurring in a network of freshwater ponds in Guadeloupe. We looked for evidence of recent evolution by comparing uninvaded or recently invaded sites with long-invaded ones. The native species adopted a life history favoring rapid population growth (i.e., increased fecundity, earlier reproduction, and increased juvenile survival) that may increase its prospects of coexistence with the more competitive invader. We discuss why these effects are more likely to result from genetic change than from maternal effects. The invader exhibited slightly decreased overall performances in recently colonized sites, consistent with a moderate expansion load resulting from local founder effects. Our study highlights a rare example of rapid life-history evolution following invasion.

  4. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software New Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) for rapidity gap measurements have been installed and integrated into the Trigger recently. For the Global Muon Trigger, tuning of quality criteria has led to improvements in muon trigger efficiencies. Several subsystems have started campaigns to increase spares by recovering boards or producing new ones. The barrel muon sector collector test system has been reactivated, new η track finder boards are in production, and φ track finder boards are under revision. In the CSC track finder, an η asymmetry problem has been corrected. New pT look-up tables have also improved efficiency. RPC patterns were changed from four out of six coincident layers to three out of six in the barrel, which led to a significant increase in efficiency. A new PAC firmware to trigger on heavy stable charged particles allows looking for chamber hit coincidences in two consecutive bunch-crossings. The redesign of the L1 Trigger Emulator...

  5. Sporulation of Cyclospora sp. oocysts.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, H V; Paton, C A; Mitambo, M M; Girdwood, R W

    1997-01-01

    Cyclospora sp. oocysts sporulated maximally at 22 and 30 degrees C for 14 days retarded sporulation. Up to 12% of human- and baboon-derived oocysts previously stored at 4 degrees C for 1 to 2 months sporulated when stored for 6 to 7 days at 30 degrees C.

  6. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The hardware of the trigger components has been mostly finished. The ECAL Endcap Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC) are in production while Barrel TCC firmware has been upgraded, and the Trigger Primitives can now be stored by the Data Concentrator Card for readout by the DAQ. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) system is complete, and the timing is being finalized. All 502 HCAL trigger links to RCT run without error. The HCAL muon trigger timing has been equalized with DT, RPC, CSC and ECAL. The hardware and firmware for the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) jet triggers are being commissioned and data from these triggers is available for readout. The GCT energy sums from rings of trigger towers around the beam pipe beam have been changed to include two rings from both sides. The firmware for Drift Tube Track Finder, Barrel Sorter and Wedge Sorter has been upgraded, and the synchronization of the DT trigger is satisfactory. The CSC local trigger has operated flawlessly u...

  7. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberta Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Studies Group (TSG) The Trigger Studies Group has just concluded its third 2013 workshop, where all POGs presented the improvements to the physics object reconstruction, and all PAGs have shown their plans for Trigger development aimed at the 2015 High Level Trigger (HLT) menu. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger menu development, path timing, Trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – this last task in collaboration with PdmV (Physics Data and Monte Carlo Validation group). In the last months the group has delivered several HLT rate estimates and comparisons, using the available data and Monte Carlo samples. The studies were presented at the Trigger workshops in September and December, and STEAM has contacted POGs and PAGs to understand the origin of the discrepancies observed between 8 TeV data and Monte Carlo simulations. The most recent results show what the...

  8. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger synchronization procedures for running with cosmic muons and operating with the LHC were reviewed during the May electronics week. Firmware maintenance issues were also reviewed. Link tests between the new ECAL endcap trigger concentrator cards (TCC48) and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger have been performed. Firmware for the energy sum triggers and an upgraded tau trigger of the Global Calorimeter Triggers has been developed and is under test. The optical fiber receiver boards for the Track-Finder trigger theta links of the DT chambers are now all installed. The RPC trigger is being made more robust by additional chamber and cable shielding and also by firmware upgrades. For the CSC’s the front-end and trigger motherboard firmware have been updated. New RPC patterns and DT/CSC lookup tables taking into account phi asymmetries in the magnetic field configuration are under study. The motherboard for the new pipeline synchronizer of the Global Trigg...

  9. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2012-01-01

      Level-1 Trigger The Level-1 Trigger group is ready to deploy improvements to the L1 Trigger algorithms for 2012. These include new high-PT patterns for the RPC endcap, an improved CSC PT assignment, a new PT-matching algorithm for the Global Muon Trigger, and new calibrations for ECAL, HCAL, and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger. These should improve the efficiency, rate, and stability of the L1 Trigger. The L1 Trigger group also is migrating the online systems to SLC5. To make the data transfer from the Global Calorimeter Trigger to the Global Trigger more reliable and also to allow checking the data integrity online, a new optical link system has been developed by the GCT and GT groups and successfully tested at the CMS electronics integration facility in building 904. This new system is now undergoing further tests at Point 5 before being deployed for data-taking this year. New L1 trigger menus have recently been studied and proposed by Emmanuelle Perez and the L1 Detector Performance Group...

  10. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the March meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, the program of trigger pattern tests and vertical slice tests and planning for the Global Runs starting this summer. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and integration testing is in full swing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. After full checkout, trigger subsystems will be then operated in the CMS Global Runs. Continuous...

  11. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The overall status of the L1 trigger has been excellent and the running efficiency has been high during physics fills. The timing is good to about 1%. The fine-tuning of the time synchronization of muon triggers is ongoing and will be completed after more than 10 nb-1 of data have been recorded. The CSC trigger primitive and RPC trigger timing have been refined. A new configuration for the CSC Track Finder featured modified beam halo cuts and improved ghost cancellation logic. More direct control was provided for the DT opto-receivers. New RPC Cosmic Trigger (RBC/TTU) trigger algorithms were enabled for collision runs. There is further work planned during the next technical stop to investigate a few of the links from the ECAL to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT). New firmware and a new configuration to handle trigger rate spikes in the ECAL barrel are also being tested. A board newly developed by the tracker group (ReTRI) has been installed and activated to block re...

  12. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The production of the trigger hardware is now basically finished, and in time for the turn-on of the LHC. The last boards produced are the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcaps (TCC-EE). After the recent installation of the four EE Dees, the TCC-EE prototypes were used for their commissioning. Production boards are arriving and are being tested continuously, with the last ones expected in November. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger hardware is fully integrated after installation of the last EE cables. Pattern tests from the HCAL up to the GCT have been performed successfully. The HCAL triggers are fully operational, including the connection of the HCAL-outer and forward-HCAL (HO/HF) technical triggers to the Global Trigger. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) board firmware has been updated to permit recording of the tower “feature bit” in the data. The Global Calorimeter Trigger hardware is installed, but some firmware developments are still n...

  13. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The Level-1 Trigger hardware has performed well during both the recent proton-proton and heavy ion running. Efforts were made to improve the visibility and handling of alarms and warnings. The tracker ReTRI boards that prevent fixed frequencies of Level-1 Triggers are now configured through the Trigger Supervisor. The Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) team has introduced a buffer cleanup procedure at stops and a reset of the QPLL during configuring to ensure recalibration in case of a switch from the LHC clock to the local clock. A device to test the cables between the Regional Calorimeter Trigger and the GCT has been manufactured. A wrong charge bit was fixed in the CSC Trigger. The ECAL group is improving crystal masking and spike suppression in the trigger primitives. New firmware for the Drift Tube Track Finder (DTTF) sorters was developed to improve fake track tagging and sorting. Zero suppression was implemented in the DT Sector Collector readout. The track finder b...

  14. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Trigger Hardware The status of the trigger components was presented during the September CMS Week and Annual Review and at the monthly trigger meetings in October and November. Procedures for cold and warm starts (e.g. refreshing of trigger parameters stored in registers) of the trigger subsystems have been studied. Reviews of parts of the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) and the Global Trigger (GT) have taken place in October and November. The CERN group summarized the status of the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) system. All TTC crates and boards are installed in the underground counting room, USC55. The central clock system will be upgraded in December (after the Global Run at the end of November GREN) to the new RF2TTC LHC machine interface timing module. Migration of subsystem's TTC PCs to SLC4/ XDAQ 3.12 is being prepared. Work is on going to unify the access to Local Timing Control (LTC) and TTC CMS interface module (TTCci) via SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol, a lightweight XML-based messaging ...

  15. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Since nearly all of the Level-1 (L1) Trigger hardware at Point 5 has been commissioned, activities during the past months focused on the fine-tuning of synchronization, particularly for the ECAL and the CSC systems, on firmware upgrades and on improving trigger operation and monitoring. Periodic resynchronizations or hard resets and a shortened luminosity section interval of 23 seconds were implemented. For the DT sector collectors, an automatic power-off was installed in case of high temperatures, and the monitoring capabilities of the opto-receivers and the mini-crates were enhanced. The DTTF and the CSCTF now have improved memory lookup tables. The HCAL trigger primitive logic implemented a new algorithm providing better stability of the energy measurement in the presence of any phase misalignment. For the Global Calorimeter Trigger, additional Source Cards have been manufactured and tested. Testing of the new tau, missing ET and missing HT algorithms is underw...

  16. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger system has been constantly in use in cosmic and commissioning data taking periods. During CRAFT running it delivered 300 million muon and calorimeter triggers to CMS. It has performed stably and reliably. During the abort gaps it has also provided laser and other calibration triggers. Timing issues, namely synchronization and latency issues, have been solved. About half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are installed, and the firmware is being worked on. The production of the other half has started. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) card firmware has been updated, and new features such as fast parallel zero-suppression have been included. Repairs of drift tube (DT) trigger mini-crates, optical links and receivers of sector collectors are under way and have been completed on YB0. New firmware for the optical receivers of the theta links to the drift tube track finder is being installed. In parallel, tests with new eta track finde...

  17. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Carlin with contributions from D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Data-taking continues at cruising speed, with high availability of all components of the Level-1 trigger. We have operated the trigger up to a luminosity of 7.6E33, where we approached 100 kHz using the 7E33 prescale column.  Recently, the pause without triggers in case of an automatic "RESYNC" signal (the "settle" and "recover" time) was reduced in order to minimise the overall dead-time. This may become very important when the LHC comes back with higher energy and luminosity after LS1. We are also preparing for data-taking in the proton-lead run in early 2013. The CASTOR detector will make its comeback into CMS and triggering capabilities are being prepared for this. Steps to be taken include improved cooperation with the TOTEM trigger system and using the LHC clock during the injection and ramp phases of LHC. Studies are being finalised that will have a bearing on the Trigger Technical Design Report (TDR), which is to be rea...

  18. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The final parts of the Level-1 trigger hardware are now being put in place. For the ECAL endcaps, more than half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are now available at CERN, such that one complete endcap can be covered. The Global Trigger now correctly handles ECAL calibration sequences, without being influenced by backpressure. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) hardware is complete and working in USC55. Intra-crate tests of all 18 RCT crates and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) are regularly taking place. Pattern tests have successfully captured data from HCAL through RCT to the GCT Source Cards. HB/HE trigger data are being compared with emulator results to track down the very few remaining hardware problems. The treatment of hot and dead cells, including their recording in the database, has been defined. For the GCT, excellent agreement between the emulator and data has been achieved for jets and HF ET sums. There is still som...

  19. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the December meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, and results from the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) phase II. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and moving towards integration testing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. This is combined with operations and testing without beam that will continue until startup. The plans for start-up, pilot and early running tri...

  20. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith, from contributions of D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

      The L1 Trigger group deployed several major improvements this year. Compared to 2011, the single-muon trigger rate has been reduced by a factor of 2 and the η coverage has been restored to 2.4, with high efficiency. During the current technical stop, a higher jet seed threshold will be applied in the Global Calorimeter Trigger in order to significantly reduce the strong pile-up dependence of the HT and multi-jet triggers. The currently deployed L1 menu, with the “6E33” prescales, has a total rate of less than 100 kHz and operates with detector readout dead time of less than 3% for luminosities up to 6.5 × 1033 cm–2s–1. Further prescale sets have been created for 7 and 8 × 1033 cm–2s–1 luminosities. The L1 DPG is evaluating the performance of the Trigger for upcoming conferences and publication. Progress on the Trigger upgrade was reviewed during the May Upgrade Week. We are investigating scenarios for stagin...

  1. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

      In 2013 the Trigger Studies Group (TSG) has been restructured in three sub-groups: STEAM, for the development of new HLT menus and monitoring their performance; STORM, for the development of HLT tools, code and actual configurations; and FOG, responsible for the online operations of the High Level Trigger. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger Menu development, path timing, trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Since the end of proton-proton data taking, the group has started preparing for 2015 data taking, with collisions at 13 TeV and 25 ns bunch spacing. The reliability of the extrapolation to higher energy is being evaluated comparing the trigger rates on 7 and 8 TeV Monte Carlo samples with the data taken in the past two years. The effect of 25 ns bunch spacing is being studied on the d...

  2. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos, I. Mikulec, J. Varela and C. Wulz.

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Over the past few months, the Level-1 trigger has successfully recorded data with cosmic rays over long continuous stretches as well as LHC splash events, beam halo, and collision events. The L1 trigger hardware, firmware, synchronization, performance and readiness for beam operation were reviewed in October. All L1 trigger hardware is now installed at Point 5, and most of it is completely commissioned. While the barrel ECAL Trigger Concentrator Cards are fully operational, the recently delivered endcap ECAL TCC system is still being commissioned. For most systems there is a sufficient number of spares available, but for a few systems additional reserve modules are needed. It was decided to increase the overall L1 latency by three bunch crossings to increase the safety margin for trigger timing adjustments. In order for CMS to continue data taking during LHC frequency ramps, the clock distribution tree needs to be reset. The procedures for this have been tested. A repl...

  3. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The road map for the final commissioning of the level-1 trigger system has been set. The software for the trigger subsystems is being upgraded to run under CERN Scientific Linux 4 (SLC4). There is also a new release for the Trigger Supervisor (TS 1.4), which implies upgrade work by the subsystems. As reported by the CERN group, a campaign to tidy the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) racks has begun. The machine interface was upgraded by installing the new RF2TTC module, which receives RF signals from LHC Point 4. Two Beam Synchronous Timing (BST) signals, one for each beam, can now be received in CMS. The machine group will define the exact format of the information content shortly. The margin on the locking range of the CMS QPLL is planned for study for different subsystems in the next Global Runs, using a function generator. The TTC software has been successfully tested on SLC4. Some TTC subsystems have already been upgraded to SLC4. The TTCci Trigger Supervisor ...

  4. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Overall the L1 trigger hardware has been running very smoothly during the last months of proton running. Modifications for the heavy-ion run have been made where necessary. The maximal design rate of 100 kHz can be sustained without problems. All L1 latencies have been rechecked. The recently installed Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) are being used in the heavy ion run. The ZDC scintillators have been dismantled, but the calorimeter itself remains. We now send the L1 accept signal and other control signals to TOTEM. Trigger cables from TOTEM to CMS will be installed during the Christmas shutdown, so that the TOTEM data can be fully integrated within the CMS readout. New beam gas triggers have been developed, since the BSC-based trigger is no longer usable at high luminosities. In particular, a special BPTX signal is used after a quiet period with no collisions. There is an ongoing campaign to provide enough spare modules for the different subsystems. For example...

  5. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Alimena

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Strategy Group The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for the development of future High-Level Trigger menus, as well as of its DQM and validation, in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Taking into account the beam energy and luminosity expected in 2015, a rough estimate of the trigger rates indicates a factor four increase with respect to 2012 conditions. Assuming that a factor two can be tolerated thanks to the increase in offline storage and processing capabilities, a toy menu has been developed using the new OpenHLT workflow to estimate the transverse energy/momentum thresholds that would halve the current trigger rates. The CPU time needed to run the HLT has been compared between data taken with 25 ns and 50 ns bunch spacing, for equivalent pile-up: no significant difference was observed on the global time per event distribution at the only available data point, corresponding to a pile-up of about 10 interactions. Using th...

  6. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software After the winter shutdown minor hardware problems in several subsystems appeared and were corrected. A reassessment of the overall latency has been made. In the TTC system shorter cables between TTCci and TTCex have been installed, which saved one bunch crossing, but which may have required an adjustment of the RPC timing. In order to tackle Pixel out-of-syncs without influencing other subsystems, a special hardware/firmware re-sync protocol has been introduced in the Global Trigger. The link between the Global Calorimeter Trigger and the Global Trigger with the new optical Global Trigger Interface and optical receiver daughterboards has been successfully tested in the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. New firmware in the GCT now allows a setting to remove the HF towers from energy sums. The HF sleeves have been replaced, which should lead to reduced rates of anomalous signals, which may allow their inclusion after this is validated. For ECAL, improvements i...

  7. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware The CERN group is working on the TTC system. Seven out of nine sub-detector TTC VME crates with all fibers cabled are installed in USC55. 17 Local Trigger Controller (LTC) boards have been received from production and are in the process of being tested. The RF2TTC module replacing the TTCmi machine interface has been delivered and will replace the TTCci module used to mimic the LHC clock. 11 out of 12 crates housing the barrel ECAL off-detector electronics have been installed in USC55 after commissioning at the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. The cabling to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) is terminated. The Lisbon group has completed the Synchronization and Link mezzanine board (SLB) production. The Palaiseau group has fully tested and installed 33 out of 40 Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC). The seven remaining boards are being remade. The barrel TCC boards have been tested at the H4 test beam, and good agreement with emulator predictions were found. The cons...

  8. Tracheostomy Complications as a Trigger for an Airway Rapid Response: Analysis and Quality Improvement Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassekh, Christopher H; Zhao, Jing; Martin, Niels D; Chalian, Ara A; Atkins, Joshua H

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the subset of airway rapid response (ARR) calls related to tracheostomy identified over a 46-month period from August 2011 to May 2015 to determine proximate cause, intervention, and outcome and to develop process improvement initiatives. Single-institution multidisciplinary retrospective cohort study. Tertiary care academic medical center in a large urban setting. Hospital inpatients with an in situ tracheostomy or laryngectomy who experienced an ARR. Detailed review of operator, hospital, and patient records related to ARR system activations over a 46-month period. ARR was activated for 28 patients with existing tracheostomy. The cohort included open tracheostomy (n = 14), percutaneous tracheostomy (n = 8), laryngectomy stoma (n = 3), and indeterminate technique (n = 3). The most frequent triggers for emergency airway intervention were decannulation (n = 16), followed by mucus plugging (n = 4). The mean body mass index of ARR patients was higher than that of a comparator tracheostomy cohort (32.9 vs 26.3, P 40 in 9 ARR patients. There was 1 mortality in the series. Tracheostomy is a major trigger for ARR with potential fatal outcome. Factors that may contribute to tracheostomy emergencies include high body mass index, surgical technique for open tracheostomy or percutaneous tracheostomy, tracheostomy tube size, and bedside tracheostomy management. Results have triggered a hospital-wide practice improvement plan focused on tracheostomy awareness and documentation, discrete process changes, and implementation of guidelines for emergency management. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  9. Frightening music triggers rapid changes in brain monoamine receptors: a pilot PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Qiaozhen; Du, Fenglei; Hu, Yanni; Chao, Fangfang; Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong

    2012-10-01

    Frightening music can rapidly arouse emotions in listeners that mimic those from actual life-threatening experiences. However, studies of the underlying mechanism for perceiving danger created by music are limited. We investigated monoamine receptor changes induced by frightening music using (11)C-N-methyl-spiperone ((11)C-NMSP) PET. Ten healthy male volunteers were included, and their psychophysiologic changes were evaluated. Compared with the baseline condition, listening to frightening music caused a significant decrease in (11)C-NMSP in the right and left caudate nuclei, right limbic region, and right paralimbic region; a particularly significant decrease in the right anterior cingulate cortex; but an increase in the right frontal occipital and left temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex. Transient fright triggers rapid changes in monoamine receptors, which decrease in the limbic and paralimbic regions but increase in the cerebral cortex.

  10. Protein patterns of yeast during sporulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litske Petersen, J.G.; Kielland-Brandt, M.C.; Nilsson-Tillgren, T.

    1979-01-01

    High resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to study protein synthesis during synchronous meiosis and ascospore formation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The stained protein patterns of samples harvested at any stage between meiotic prophase and the four-spore stage in two sporulating strains showed the same approximately 250 polypeptides. Of these only a few seemed to increase or decrease in concentration during sporulation. The characteristic pattern of sporulating yeast was identical to the pattern of glucose-grown staitonary yeast cells adapted to respiration. The latter type of cells readily initiates meiosis when transferred to sporulation medium. This pattern differed from the protein patterns of exponentially growing cells in glucose or acetate presporulation medium. Five major proteins in stationary and sporulating yeast cells were not detected in either type of exponential culture. Two-dimensional autoradiograms of [ 35 S]methionine-labelled yeast proteins revealed that some proteins were preferentially labelled during sporulation, while other proteins were labelled at later stages. These patterns differed from the auroradiograms of exponentially growing yeast cells in glucose presporulation medium in a number of spots. No differences were observed when stained gels or autoradiograms of sporulating cultures and non-sporulating strains in sporulation medium were compared. (author)

  11. Eruption of a deep-sea mud volcano triggers rapid sediment movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feseker, Tomas; Boetius, Antje; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Blandin, Jerome; Olu, Karine; Yoerger, Dana R; Camilli, Richard; German, Christopher R; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-11-11

    Submarine mud volcanoes are important sources of methane to the water column. However, the temporal variability of their mud and methane emissions is unknown. Methane emissions were previously proposed to result from a dynamic equilibrium between upward migration and consumption at the seabed by methane-consuming microbes. Here we show non-steady-state situations of vigorous mud movement that are revealed through variations in fluid flow, seabed temperature and seafloor bathymetry. Time series data for pressure, temperature, pH and seafloor photography were collected over 431 days using a benthic observatory at the active Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano. We documented 25 pulses of hot subsurface fluids, accompanied by eruptions that changed the landscape of the mud volcano. Four major events triggered rapid sediment uplift of more than a metre in height, substantial lateral flow of muds at average velocities of 0.4 m per day, and significant emissions of methane and CO₂ from the seafloor.

  12. What are the implications of rapid global warming for landslide-triggered turbidity current activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Michael; Peter, Talling; James, Hunt

    2014-05-01

    arithmetic mean recurrence, λ, for the full records (λ=0.007 and 0.0125 Myr). This period of inactivity is coincident with a dramatic carbon isotopic excursion (i.e. warmest part of the IETM) and heavily skews statistical analyses for both records. Dramatic global warming appears to exert a strong control on inhibiting turbidity current activity; whereas the effects of sea level change are not shown to be statistically significant. Rapid global warming is often implicated as a potential landslide trigger, due to dissociation of gas hydrates in response to elevated ocean temperatures. Other studies have suggested that intense global warming may actually be attributed to the atmospheric release of gas hydrates following catastrophic failure of large parts of a continental slope. Either way, a greater intensity of landslide and resultant turbidity current activity would be expected during the IETM; however, our findings are to the contrary. We offer some explanations in relation to potential triggers. Our work suggests that previous rapid global warming at the IETM did not trigger more frequent turbidity currents. This has direct relevance to future assessments relating to landslide-triggered tsunami hazard, and breakage of subsea cables by turbidity currents.

  13. Rapid 3D Track Reconstruction with the BaBar Trigger Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, S

    2004-05-24

    As the PEP-II luminosity increases the BaBar trigger and dataflow systems must accommodate the increasing data rate. A significant source of background events at the first trigger level comes from beam particle interactions with the beampipe and synchrotron masks, which are separated from the interaction region by more than 20 cm. The BaBar trigger upgrade will provide 3D tracking capabilities at the first trigger level in order to remove background events by distinguishing the origin of particle tracks. Each new z{sub 0} p{sub T} Discriminator (ZPD) board processes over 1 gigabyte of data per second in order to reconstruct the tracks and make trigger decisions based upon the 3D track parameters.

  14. Pirated Siderophores Promote Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandchamp, Gabrielle M; Caro, Lews; Shank, Elizabeth A

    2017-05-15

    In microbial communities, bacteria chemically and physically interact with one another. Some of these interactions are mediated by secreted specialized metabolites that act as either intraspecies or interspecies signals to alter gene expression and to change cell physiology. Bacillus subtilis is a well-characterized soil microbe that can differentiate into multiple cell types, including metabolically dormant endospores. We were interested in identifying microbial interactions that affected sporulation in B. subtilis Using a fluorescent transcriptional reporter, we observed that coculturing B. subtilis with Escherichia coli promoted sporulation gene expression via a secreted metabolite. To identify the active compound, we screened the E. coli Keio Collection and identified the sporulation-accelerating cue as the siderophore enterobactin. B. subtilis has multiple iron acquisition systems that are used to take up the B. subtilis- produced siderophore bacillibactin, as well as to pirate exogenous siderophores such as enterobactin. While B. subtilis uses a single substrate binding protein (FeuA) to take up both bacillibactin and enterobactin, we discovered that it requires two distinct genes to sporulate in response to these siderophores (the esterase gene besA for bacillibactin and a putative esterase gene, ybbA , for enterobactin). In addition, we found that siderophores from a variety of other microbial species also promote sporulation in B. subtilis Our results thus demonstrate that siderophores can act not only as bacterial iron acquisition systems but also as interspecies cues that alter cellular development and accelerate sporulation in B. subtilis IMPORTANCE While much is known about the genetic regulation of Bacillus subtilis sporulation, little is understood about how other bacteria influence this process. This work describes an interaction between Escherichia coli and B. subtilis that accelerates sporulation in B. subtilis The interaction is mediated by the E

  15. Linking rapid magma reservoir assembly and eruption trigger mechanisms at evolved Yellowstone-type supervolcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzlaw, J.F.; Bindeman, I.N.; Watts, Kathryn E.; Schmitt, A.K.; Caricchi, L.; Schaltegger, U.

    2014-01-01

    The geological record contains evidence of volcanic eruptions that were as much as two orders of magnitude larger than the most voluminous eruption experienced by modern civilizations, the A.D. 1815 Tambora (Indonesia) eruption. Perhaps nowhere on Earth are deposits of such supereruptions more prominent than in the Snake River Plain–Yellowstone Plateau (SRP-YP) volcanic province (northwest United States). While magmatic activity at Yellowstone is still ongoing, the Heise volcanic field in eastern Idaho represents the youngest complete caldera cycle in the SRP-YP, and thus is particularly instructive for current and future volcanic activity at Yellowstone. The Heise caldera cycle culminated 4.5 Ma ago in the eruption of the ∼1800 km3 Kilgore Tuff. Accessory zircons in the Kilgore Tuff display significant intercrystalline and intracrystalline oxygen isotopic heterogeneity, and the vast majority are 18O depleted. This suggests that zircons crystallized from isotopically distinct magma batches that were generated by remelting of subcaldera silicic rocks previously altered by low-δ18O meteoric-hydrothermal fluids. Prior to eruption these magma batches were assembled and homogenized into a single voluminous reservoir. U-Pb geochronology of isotopically diverse zircons using chemical abrasion–isotope dilution–thermal ionization mass spectrometry yielded indistinguishable crystallization ages with a weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 4.4876 ± 0.0023 Ma (MSWD = 1.5; n = 24). These zircon crystallization ages are also indistinguishable from the sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dates, and thus zircons crystallized close to eruption. This requires that shallow crustal melting, assembly of isolated batches into a supervolcanic magma reservoir, homogenization, and eruption occurred extremely rapidly, within the resolution of our geochronology (103–104 yr). The crystal-scale image of the reservoir configuration, with several isolated magma batches, is very similar to the

  16. High-Throughput Genetic Screens Identify a Large and Diverse Collection of New Sporulation Genes in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Jacqueline; Lim, Hoong Chuin; Bernhardt, Thomas G.; Rudner, David Z.

    2016-01-01

    The differentiation of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis into a dormant spore is among the most well-characterized developmental pathways in biology. Classical genetic screens performed over the past half century identified scores of factors involved in every step of this morphological process. More recently, transcriptional profiling uncovered additional sporulation-induced genes required for successful spore development. Here, we used transposon-sequencing (Tn-seq) to assess whether there were any sporulation genes left to be discovered. Our screen identified 133 out of the 148 genes with known sporulation defects. Surprisingly, we discovered 24 additional genes that had not been previously implicated in spore formation. To investigate their functions, we used fluorescence microscopy to survey early, middle, and late stages of differentiation of null mutants from the B. subtilis ordered knockout collection. This analysis identified mutants that are delayed in the initiation of sporulation, defective in membrane remodeling, and impaired in spore maturation. Several mutants had novel sporulation phenotypes. We performed in-depth characterization of two new factors that participate in cell–cell signaling pathways during sporulation. One (SpoIIT) functions in the activation of σE in the mother cell; the other (SpoIIIL) is required for σG activity in the forespore. Our analysis also revealed that as many as 36 sporulation-induced genes with no previously reported mutant phenotypes are required for timely spore maturation. Finally, we discovered a large set of transposon insertions that trigger premature initiation of sporulation. Our results highlight the power of Tn-seq for the discovery of new genes and novel pathways in sporulation and, combined with the recently completed null mutant collection, open the door for similar screens in other, less well-characterized processes. PMID:26735940

  17. Upward Lightning in Rapid City, SD and the First Season of the Upward Lightning Triggering Study (UPLIGHTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, C. A.; Warner, T. A.; Helsdon, J. H.; Schumann, C.; Alves, J.; Saba, M. M.; Cummins, K. L.; Orville, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    For the past three years, upward lightning from ten towers located along the front range of the Black Hills have been observed using both standard- and high-speed cameras and electric field measurements. Multiple towers arranged in close proximity to each other combined with high cloud bases common during the warm season allow Rapid City, South Dakota to be an ideal location to observe upward lightning. The UPward LIGHtning Triggering Study (UPLIGHTS) was developed at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in cooperation with the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil, to expand the instrumentation available for observation and analysis of the triggering flash type, component, and mechanism along with weather conditions that are favorable for upward lightning development. This project combines local weather observations, multiple electric field meters and field change sensors, and two interferometers with the previously used cameras. UPLIGHTS main goal is to use these resources to better understand the triggering/initiation of upward lightning from tall objects. Based on the analysis of previous years' observations, we proposed that the primary triggering flash type is a positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) in the vicinity of the towers. UPLIGHTS will attempt to determine if upward positive leaders are triggered from these towers by either 1) the approach of horizontally propagating negative stepped leaders associated with either intracloud development or following a +CG return stroke and/or 2) a +CG return stroke as it propagates through a previously formed leader network that is near the towers. The study will also examine the mechanism behind the initiation of upward leaders from multiple tall objects during same flash. This talk will touch on some concepts of previous work along with a summary of summer 2012, the first of three UPLIGHTS seasons.

  18. Temporal Feasibility of Rapid Joint Inversions in Response to Tsunamis Triggered by Megathrust Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, A.; Newman, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    Joint inversions of sub-areal surface deformation and tsunami waves generated by seafloor ground motions, while still in their infancy, have the opportunity for realistic representations of megathrust earthquake slip responsible, which occurs primarily offshore. Such joint inversions, including Gusman, et al. [JGR, 2010] and Wei et al. [PAGEOPH, 2014], highlight fault slip unobservable with on land measurements alone. Careful detection of possible slip patterns can affect how nearby communities prepare for future events, therefore their discovery is important for hazard mitigation. Joint inversions could also prove invaluable during a large even through a rapid inversion of real time data. This study looks at the availability and accessibility of land-based GPS and deep-ocean pressure sensor data for rapid join inversions, and the latency between such solutions and both local and global tsunami wave arrivals. We consider GPS rather than other ground-based deformation techniques because of its ability to provide rapid and continuous translations of the ground surface. For tsunami observations, we focus on deep-ocean pressure sensors such as those used in DART systems, because of similarly rapid and continues data availability. Similarly tsunami waves traveling through the deep-ocean have negligible non-linear components, making them ideal for inversion methods. We create a source event in a zone with an elevated seismic risk and then track tsunami travel times to the coast and the nearest deep-ocean pressure sensors to determine a temporal limit to warnings that can be issued to nearby regions. By assessing this latency, focus can be given to areas where an inversion of this type has the potential to improve warning information. This study also identifies regions that lack necessary on and offshore instrumentation to warn coastal communities at risk for tsunamigenic earthquakes. By assessing the feasibility of joint inversions, it becomes easier to move forward with

  19. Sex reversal triggers the rapid transition from genetic to temperature-dependent sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleley, Clare E; O'Meally, Denis; Sarre, Stephen D; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Ezaz, Tariq; Matsubara, Kazumi; Azad, Bhumika; Zhang, Xiuwen; Georges, Arthur

    2015-07-02

    Sex determination in animals is amazingly plastic. Vertebrates display contrasting strategies ranging from complete genetic control of sex (genotypic sex determination) to environmentally determined sex (for example, temperature-dependent sex determination). Phylogenetic analyses suggest frequent evolutionary transitions between genotypic and temperature-dependent sex determination in environmentally sensitive lineages, including reptiles. These transitions are thought to involve a genotypic system becoming sensitive to temperature, with sex determined by gene-environment interactions. Most mechanistic models of transitions invoke a role for sex reversal. Sex reversal has not yet been demonstrated in nature for any amniote, although it occurs in fish and rarely in amphibians. Here we make the first report of reptile sex reversal in the wild, in the Australian bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), and use sex-reversed animals to experimentally induce a rapid transition from genotypic to temperature-dependent sex determination. Controlled mating of normal males to sex-reversed females produces viable and fertile offspring whose phenotypic sex is determined solely by temperature (temperature-dependent sex determination). The W sex chromosome is eliminated from this lineage in the first generation. The instantaneous creation of a lineage of ZZ temperature-sensitive animals reveals a novel, climate-induced pathway for the rapid transition between genetic and temperature-dependent sex determination, and adds to concern about adaptation to rapid global climate change.

  20. Study of Rapid Self-triggering Extinguishing Bomb Fuze Based on the Forest Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongyang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustained and stable development of forest resources has been focused on world attention, prevention and control of forest fires have also been widespread attention around the world. To extinguish the fire in the forest-fire spot quickly and effectively, a self-triggering fire-extinguishing bomb fuze sensor is designed, and which properties are simulation and analysis. Simulation results show that fire-extinguishing bomb is being placed in the fire, fusible link burn out quickly in high temperature conditions, compressed spring is released, the firing pin was ejected to impact percussion cap so as to detonate explosives, powder extinguishing agent is uniformly blasted, powder is coated on the combustion source to make it extinguished so that the quick and reliable long-range extinguishment is achieved. The abilities of extinguishing fire bombs are significantly improved, it is not only energy- efficient and environmental but also solving problems about the long-range out fire effectively. Therefore, it has good application value to protect the safety of life and property indeed.

  1. Some rapid and long traveled landslides triggered by the May 12, 2008 Sichuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.; Kamai, T.; Chigira, M.; Wu, X. Y.; Zhang, D. X.

    2009-04-01

    On May 12, 2008, a 7.9M earthquake struck Sichuan province of China, causing a huge number of death and injuries, and great loss of properties, becoming the most damaging earthquake since the 1976 Tangshan earthquake, in China. The collapse of buildings during the earthquake is the main reason for the casualties. There are a huge number of landslides that had been triggered by this earthquake. Almost all the roads to the mountainous areas had been blocked and many dams were formed by the displaced landslide materials, resulting in great difficulties for the aftershock rescue activities. Also a big portion of the casualties was directly caused by the landslides. The authors had reconnaissance field trips of the landslides, and performed preliminary investigation on some of the catastrophic ones. In this report, four landslides, i.e., Xiejiadian landslide in Pengzhou city, Donghekou landslide and Magongxiang landslide in Qingchuan County, and Niujuangou landslide on the epicenter area of Yingxiu Town, are introduced. The characteristics of deposited landslide masses in Donghekou landslide were investigated by means of a multichannel surface wave technique. Two earthquake recorders were installed at the upper part and deposit area of Donghekou landslide. The seismic responses of different parts of the landslides were monitored, and recorded successfully during the aftershocks that occurred in Qingchuan County on July 24, 2008. Also the drained and undrained dynamic shear behaviors of samples from the landslide areas were examined. Some preliminary analyzing results will be presented in this report.

  2. Rapid, Reversible Release from Thermosensitive Liposomes Triggered by Near-Infra-Red Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Natalie; Pallaoro, Alessia; Reich, Norbert O.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel drug carrier consisting of plasmonic hollow gold nanoshells (HGN) chemically tethered to liposomes made temperature sensitive with lysolipids (LTSL). Continuous-wave irradiation by physiologically friendly near infra-red light at 800 nm for 2.5 minutes at laser intensities an order of magnitude below that known to damage skin generates heating localized to the liposome membrane. The heating increases the liposome permeability in an irradiation dose-dependent, but reversible manner, resulting in rapid release of small molecules such as the self-quenching dye carboxyfluorescein or the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin, without raising the bulk temperature. The local rise in nanoshell temperature under laser irradiation was inferred by comparing dye release rates from the LTSL via bulk heating to that induced by irradiation. Laser-irradiation of LTSL enables precise control of contents release with low temperature gradients confined to areas irradiated by the laser focus. The combined effects of rapid local release and localized hyperthermia provide a synergistic effect as shown by a near doubling of androgen resistant PPC-1 prostate cancer cell toxicity compared to the same concentration of free doxorubicin. PMID:29167602

  3. Rapid Cooling of the Neutron Star in Cassiopeia A Triggered by Neutron Superfluidity in Dense Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, Dany; Prakash, Madappa; Lattimer, James M.; Steiner, Andrew W.

    2011-01-01

    We propose that the observed cooling of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A is due to enhanced neutrino emission from the recent onset of the breaking and formation of neutron Cooper pairs in the 3 P 2 channel. We find that the critical temperature for this superfluid transition is ≅0.5x10 9 K. The observed rapidity of the cooling implies that protons were already in a superconducting state with a larger critical temperature. This is the first direct evidence that superfluidity and superconductivity occur at supranuclear densities within neutron stars. Our prediction that this cooling will continue for several decades at the present rate can be tested by continuous monitoring of this neutron star.

  4. Effects of minerals on sporulation and heat resistance of Clostridium sporogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Jae-Hyung; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Tang, Juming

    2008-12-10

    In this study, various mineral supplements, such as chloride salts (CaCl2, MgCl2, MnCl2, FeCl2 and KCl) supplying cations and calcium salts (CaCl2, CaCO3, CaSO4, Ca(OH)2 and CaHPO4) supplying anions, were tested if they could stimulate the sporulation of Clostridium sporogenes, a surrogate microorganism for C. botulinum. Of the cations tested, the addition of CaCl2 showed a slightly, but not significantly, greater increase in spore levels within 3 weeks of incubation, compared to that of the other cations. The optimum concentration of CaCl2 was 0.5%, which yielded nearly 10(4) CFU/ml of spores. Of the anions tested, CaCO3 promoted sporulation within one week, which was the most effective compound for promoting rapid sporulation among the minerals tested. CaSO4 produced a pattern of sporulation similar to that of CaCl2. While CaHPO4 resulted in the maximum production of spores after 4 weeks, Ca(OH)2 failed to induce sporulation. With an optimized concentration of 0.5% CaCO3, the spore yield was approximately 10(5) CFU/ml. The spores prepared in sporulation medium with CaCO3 (pH 5.0) had slightly, but not significantly, higher D values than those produced with CaCl2 (pH 5.0) at temperatures ranging from 113 to 121 degrees C. However, no significant differences were observed in Z values (both 10.76 degrees C). In a large scale spore production, D(121 degrees C) values of the spore crops prepared with CaCl2 and CaCO3 and resuspended in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) were found to be both 0.92 min. In conclusion, our data suggest that CaCO3 is highly effective in reducing sporulation time as well as enhancing heat resistance.

  5. Exposure to external environment of low ion concentrations is the trigger for rapid wound closure in Xenopus laevis embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchigami, Taro; Matsuzaki, Takashi; Ihara, Setsunosuke

    2011-09-01

    Wounds in Xenopus laevis embryos close rapidly, as previously described. In this study, we examined the dependence on extracellular Na(+) and/or Cl(-) ion concentrations of the closure of wounds in Xenopus embryos inflicted by thermal injury. Wound closure did not occur in normal amphibian medium (100% NAM), while wound areas remarkably decreased either in 10-50% NAM or in 100% NAM lacking Na(+) or Cl(-). Similarly, wound areas did not change in a set of Na(+) and Cl(-) ion concentrations equivalent to those of the humoral fluids of intact Xenopus embryos, but rapid wound closure was induced by decreasing the concentration of either of the two ions. A tangential accumulation of actin cytoskeleton along the wound edge was associated with wound closure. However, a similar actin alignment formed even under the 100% NAM condition, in which wounds did not close, as stated above. The epidermis around the wound edge exhibited ellipse-shaped hypertrophy, and the marginal cells centripetally elongated during wound closure. On the other hand, no distinct morphological changes occurred in 100% NAM, although the epidermis was somewhat thickened. Thus, the morphological changes in the epidermis specific to the low ionic environment most likely play active roles in the wound closure of Xenopus laevis embryos, whereas the tangential actin alignment alone may be insufficient. Taken together, we propose that the wound closure in Xenopus embryos is triggered by a decline in either the extracellular Na(+) or Cl(-) ion concentration, and that this process is required for the abovementioned changes in the shape of the marginal cells.

  6. Event Boundaries Trigger Rapid Memory Reinstatement of the Prior Events to Promote Their Representation in Long-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sols, Ignasi; DuBrow, Sarah; Davachi, Lila; Fuentemilla, Lluís

    2017-11-20

    Although everyday experiences unfold continuously over time, shifts in context, or event boundaries, can influence how those events come to be represented in memory [1-4]. Specifically, mnemonic binding across sequential representations is more challenging at context shifts, such that successful temporal associations are more likely to be formed within than across contexts [1, 2, 5-9]. However, in order to preserve a subjective sense of continuity, it is important that the memory system bridge temporally adjacent events, even if they occur in seemingly distinct contexts. Here, we used pattern similarity analysis to scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings during a sequential learning task [2, 3] in humans and showed that the detection of event boundaries triggered a rapid memory reinstatement of the just-encoded sequence episode. Memory reactivation was detected rapidly (∼200-800 ms from the onset of the event boundary) and was specific to context shifts that were preceded by an event sequence with episodic content. Memory reinstatement was not observed during the sequential encoding of events within an episode, indicating that memory reactivation was induced specifically upon context shifts. Finally, the degree of neural similarity between neural responses elicited during sequence encoding and at event boundaries correlated positively with participants' ability to later link across sequences of events, suggesting a critical role in binding temporally adjacent events in long-term memory. Current results shed light onto the neural mechanisms that promote episodic encoding not only for information within the event, but also, importantly, in the ability to link across events to create a memory representation of continuous experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Galaxy interactions trigger rapid black hole growth: An unprecedented view from the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Andy D.; Greene, Jenny E.; Bezanson, Rachel; Greco, Johnny; Johnson, Sean; Leauthaud, Alexie; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Medezinski, Elinor; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.

    2018-01-01

    Collisions and interactions between gas-rich galaxies are thought to be pivotal stages in their formation and evolution, causing the rapid production of new stars, and possibly serving as a mechanism for fueling supermassive black holes (BHs). Harnessing the exquisite spatial resolution (˜0{^''.}5) afforded by the first ˜170 deg2 of the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey, we present our new constraints on the importance of galaxy-galaxy major mergers (1 : 4) in growing BHs throughout the last ˜8 Gyr. Utilizing mid-infrared observations in the WISE all-sky survey, we robustly select active galactic nuclei (AGN) and mass-matched control galaxy samples, totaling ˜140000 spectroscopically confirmed systems at i population (LAGN ≳ 1045 erg s-1) systematically reside in merging systems over non-interacting galaxies. Our findings show that galaxy-galaxy interactions do, on average, trigger luminous AGN activity substantially more often than in secularly evolving non-interacting galaxies, and we further suggest that the BH growth rate may be closely tied to the dynamical time of the merger system.

  8. Effects of sporulation pH on the heat resistance and the sporulation of Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazas, M; López, M; González, I; Bernardo, A; Martín, R

    1997-11-01

    Spores of Bacillus cereus ATCC 7004, 4342 and 9818 were obtained in nutrient agar at several pH from 5.9 to 8.3. The optimum pH for sporulation was around 7, but good production of spores was obtained in the range 6.5-8.3. With all three strains, D-values clearly dropped with sporulation pH, decreasing by about 65% per pH unit. z-Values were not significantly modified (P > 0.05) by this factor. Mean z-values of 7.13 degrees C +/- 0.16 for strain 7004, 7.67 degrees C +/- 0.04 for 4342 and 8.80 degrees C +/- 0.64 for 9818 were obtained.

  9. Sporulation and Germination of Paenibacillus larvae Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Osama S; Fisher, Nathan A

    2018-02-22

    Endospores are metabolically dormant cells formed by a variety of Gram-positive bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes in response to nutrient limiting or otherwise unfavorable growth conditions. American foulbrood disease (AFB) is a serious disease of honeybees that is caused by the introduction of Paenibacillus larvae endospores into a honeybee colony. Progression to fulminant disease and eventual collapse of the colony requires multiple rounds of endospore germination, vegetative replication, endospore formation, and subsequent spread within the colony. This unit includes protocols for the in vitro sporulation and germination of P. larvae to assist investigators in the study of these processes. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Loss of the Wnt receptor frizzled 7 in the mouse gastric epithelium is deleterious and triggers rapid repopulation in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin J. Flanagan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The gastric epithelium consists of tubular glandular units, each containing several differentiated cell types, and populations of stem cells, which enable the stomach to secrete the acid, mucus and various digestive enzymes required for its function. Very little is known about which cell signalling pathways are required for homeostasis of the gastric epithelium. Many diseases, such as cancer, arise as a result of deregulation of signalling pathways that regulate homeostasis of the diseased organ. Therefore, it is important to understand the biology of how normal conditions are maintained in a tissue to help inform the mechanisms driving disease in that same tissue, and to identify potential points of therapeutic intervention. Wnt signalling regulates several cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation and migration, and plays a crucial role during homeostasis of several tissues, including the intestinal epithelium. Wnt3a is required in the culture medium of gastric organoids, suggesting it is also important for the homeostasis of the gastric epithelium, but this has not been investigated in vivo. Here, we show that the Wnt receptor frizzled 7 (Fzd7, which is required for the homeostasis of the intestine, is expressed in the gastric epithelium and is required for gastric organoid growth. Gastric-specific loss of Fzd7 in the adult gastric epithelium of mice is deleterious and triggers rapid epithelial repopulation, which we believe is the first observation of this novel function for this tissue. Taken together, these data provide functional evidence of a crucial role for Wnt signalling, via the Fzd7 receptor, during homeostasis of the gastric epithelium.

  11. Maintenance and assessment of cell viability in formulation of non-sporulating bacterial inoculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Teresa; González López, Óscar; Bejarano, Ana; Preininger, Claudia; Sessitsch, Angela

    2018-03-01

    The application of beneficial, plant-associated microorganisms is a sustainable approach to improving crop performance in agriculture. However, microbial inoculants are often susceptible to prolonged periods of storage and deleterious environmental factors, which negatively impact their viability and ultimately limit efficacy in the field. This particularly concerns non-sporulating bacteria. To overcome this challenge, the availability of protective formulations is crucial. Numerous parameters influence the viability of microbial cells, with drying procedures generally being among the most critical ones. Thus, technological advances to attenuate the desiccation stress imposed on living cells are key to successful formulation development. In this review, we discuss the core aspects important to consider when aiming at high cell viability of non-sporulating bacteria to be applied as microbial inoculants in agriculture. We elaborate the suitability of commonly applied drying methods (freeze-drying, vacuum-drying, spray-drying, fluidized bed-drying, air-drying) and potential measures to prevent cell damage from desiccation (externally applied protectants, stress pre-conditioning, triggering of exopolysaccharide secretion, 'helper' strains). Furthermore, we point out methods for assessing bacterial viability, such as colony counting, spectrophotometry, microcalorimetry, flow cytometry and viability qPCR. Choosing appropriate technologies for maintenance of cell viability and evaluation thereof will render formulation development more efficient. This in turn will aid in utilizing the vast potential of promising, plant beneficial bacteria as sustainable alternatives to standard agrochemicals. © 2018 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. How Quorum Sensing Connects Sporulation to Necrotrophism in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Perchat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria use quorum sensing to coordinate adaptation properties, cell fate or commitment to sporulation. The infectious cycle of Bacillus thuringiensis in the insect host is a powerful model to investigate the role of quorum sensing in natural conditions. It is tuned by communication systems regulators belonging to the RNPP family and directly regulated by re-internalized signaling peptides. One such RNPP regulator, NprR, acts in the presence of its cognate signaling peptide NprX as a transcription factor, regulating a set of genes involved in the survival of these bacteria in the insect cadaver. Here, we demonstrate that, in the absence of NprX and independently of its transcriptional activator function, NprR negatively controls sporulation. NprR inhibits expression of Spo0A-regulated genes by preventing the KinA-dependent phosphorylation of the phosphotransferase Spo0F, thus delaying initiation of the sporulation process. This NprR function displays striking similarities with the Rap proteins, which also belong to the RNPP family, but are devoid of DNA-binding domain and indirectly control gene expression via protein-protein interactions in Bacilli. Conservation of the Rap residues directly interacting with Spo0F further suggests a common inhibition of the sporulation phosphorelay. The crystal structure of apo NprR confirms that NprR displays a highly flexible Rap-like structure. We propose a molecular regulatory mechanism in which key residues of the bifunctional regulator NprR are directly and alternatively involved in its two functions. NprX binding switches NprR from a dimeric inhibitor of sporulation to a tetrameric transcriptional activator involved in the necrotrophic lifestyle of B. thuringiensis. NprR thus tightly coordinates sporulation and necrotrophism, ensuring survival and dissemination of the bacteria during host infection.

  13. Effect of saccharides on growth, sporulation rate and δ-endotoxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sucrose, lactose and maltose) as carbon sources on growth and sporulation rate of Bacillus thuringiensis MPK13 as well as δ-endotoxin production was investigated using 400 ml shake flasks culture. Substantially high growth and sporulation ...

  14. Pharmacological activation of rapid delayed rectifier potassium current suppresses bradycardia-induced triggered activity in the isolated guinea pig heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rie Schultz; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Grunnet, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Recently, attention has been drawn to compounds that activate the human ether-a-go-go channel potassium channel (hERG), which is responsible for the repolarizing rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (I(Kr)) in the mammalian myocardium. The compound NS3623 [N-(4-bromo-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl...

  15. Effects of whey on the colonization and sporulation of arbuscular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... and positive in some applications (G.i + W50, G.i + W100), but the effects of soil pH, saltiness and CaCO3 content on both the colonization and sporulation are statistically insignificant. Key words: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), whey, colonization, spore density. INTRODUCTION. The building and ...

  16. Effects of temperature on the germination, sporulation, and in - vivo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of temperature and on the germination, sporulation and in vivo infection of Sphaerotheca fuliginea on healthy water melon. The experiment was laid out in completely Randomized Design (CRD) in the laboratory with 5 replications in each case. Mycelium growth was ...

  17. Multivalent cations-triggered rapid shape memory sodium carboxymethyl cellulose/polyacrylamide hydrogels with tunable mechanical strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Chen, Guangxue; Chen, Wei; Huang, Jiahe; Tian, Junfei; Wan, Xiaofang; He, Minghui; Zhang, Hongfang

    2017-12-15

    A novel multivalent cations-triggered shape memory hydrogels were synthesized in a one-pot method, and interpenetrating double network was formed by chemically cross-linked polyacrylamide (PAM) network and physically cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose network. The temporary shape was fixed by complexation between a native biopolymer, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and transition metal ions, specifically Fe 3+ , Ag + , Al 3+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ , and Mg 2+ . In particular, CMC-Fe 3+ hydrogel exhibits excellent shape fixity ratio (95%). Therefore, we chose PAM/CMC 1.0 -Fe 3+ hydrogel as the model material and further investigated its shape recovery process. It was found that a wide range of molecules and anions could be applied to break off the temporary cross-links between CMC and Fe 3+ . The PAM/CMC composite hydrogels also exhibited excellent tunable mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of the composite hydrogel can be adjusted by changing the cross-linking densities. The presented strategy could enrich the construction as well as application of biopolymers based shape memory hydrogels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Model-based definition of population heterogeneity and its effects on metabolism in sporulating Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morohashi, Mineo; Ohashi, Yoshiaki; Tani, Saeka; Ishii, Kotaro; Itaya, Mitsuhiro; Nanamiya, Hideaki; Kawamura, Fujio; Tomita, Masaru; Soga, Tomoyoshi

    2007-08-01

    The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis forms dormant, robust spores as a tactic to ensure survival under conditions of starvation. However, the sporulating culture includes sporulating and non-sporulating cells, because a portion of the cell population initiates sporulation in wild-type strain. We anticipated that the population effect must be considered carefully to analyse samples yielding population heterogeneity. We first built a mathematical model and simulated for signal transduction of the sporulation cue to see what mechanisms are responsible for generating the heterogeneity. The simulated results were confirmed experimentally, where heterogeneity is primarily modulated by negative feedback circuits, resulting in generation of a bistable response within the sporulating culture. We also confirmed that mutants relevant to negative feedback yield either sporulating or non-sporulating subpopulations. To see the effect of molecular mechanism between sporulating and non-sporulating cells in distinct manner, metabolome analysis was conducted using the above mutants. The metabolic profiles exhibited distinct characteristics with time regardless of whether sporulation was initiated or not. In addition, several distinct characteristics of metabolites were observed between strains, which was inconsistent with previously reported data. The results imply that careful consideration must be made in the interpretation of data obtained from cells yielding population heterogeneity.

  19. Novel photosensitizers trigger rapid death of malignant human cells and rodent tumor transplants via lipid photodamage and membrane permeabilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail M Moisenovich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apoptotic cascades may frequently be impaired in tumor cells; therefore, the approaches to circumvent these obstacles emerge as important therapeutic modalities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our novel derivatives of chlorin e(6, that is, its amide (compound 2 and boronated amide (compound 5 evoked no dark toxicity and demonstrated a significantly higher photosensitizing efficacy than chlorin e(6 against transplanted aggressive tumors such as B16 melanoma and M-1 sarcoma. Compound 5 showed superior therapeutic potency. Illumination with red light of mammalian tumor cells loaded with 0.1 µM of 5 caused rapid (within the initial minutes necrosis as determined by propidium iodide staining. The laser confocal microscopy-assisted analysis of cell death revealed the following order of events: prior to illumination, 5 accumulated in Golgi cysternae, endoplasmic reticulum and in some (but not all lysosomes. In response to light, the reactive oxygen species burst was concomitant with the drop of mitochondrial transmembrane electric potential, the dramatic changes of mitochondrial shape and the loss of integrity of mitochondria and lysosomes. Within 3-4 min post illumination, the plasma membrane became permeable for propidium iodide. Compounds 2 and 5 were one order of magnitude more potent than chlorin e(6 in photodamage of artificial liposomes monitored in a dye release assay. The latter effect depended on the content of non-saturated lipids; in liposomes consisting of saturated lipids no photodamage was detectable. The increased therapeutic efficacy of 5 compared with 2 was attributed to a striking difference in the ability of these photosensitizers to permeate through hydrophobic membrane interior as evidenced by measurements of voltage jump-induced relaxation of transmembrane current on planar lipid bilayers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The multimembrane photodestruction and cell necrosis induced by photoactivation of 2 and 5 are

  20. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Sporulation in the Filamentous Fungus Ashbya gossypii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasserstrom, Lisa

    , which is regulated by the pheromone response pathway. Most ascomycetes have been reported to produce meiotic spores, however, a sexual cycle has not yet been identified in the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii. The main focus of my doctoral thesis has therefore been to understand the mechanisms behind...... sporulation in this fungus.  The lifecycle of A. gossypii starting with a haploid spore that matures into spore-containing mycelia can be completed without the need for a mating partner. Spores in A. gossypii are thought to be derived sexually like all other Saccharomycetaceae species, but the sexual cycle...... suggesting that other proteins generate DSBs in this fungus. In summary, this work has led to better understanding of the components regulating sporulation in A. gossypii and their hierarchical organization....

  1. Effects of whey on the colonization and sporulation of arbuscular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to research the effect of 2 different doses of whey [50 ml kg-1(W50) and 100 ml kg-1(W100)], an important organic waste, on colonization and sporulation of arbuscular mycorhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices'(G.i.) inoculated to lentil plant and the effects of changing P ratio in the soil and plant as ...

  2. Light suppresses sporulation and epidemics of Peronospora belbahrii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigal Cohen

    Full Text Available Peronospora belbahrii is a biotrophic oomycete attacking sweet basil. It propagates asexually by producing spores on dichotomously branched sporophores emerging from leaf stomata. Sporulation occurs when infected plants are incubated for at least 7.5h in the dark in moisture-saturated atmosphere at 10-27°C. Exposure to light suppresses spore formation but allows sporophores to emerge from stomata. Incandescent or CW fluorescent light of 3.5 or 6 µmoles.m(2.s(-1 respectively, caused 100% inhibition of spore formation on lower leaf surface even when only the upper leaf surface was exposed to light. The inhibitory effect of light failed to translocate from an illuminated part of a leaf to a shaded part of the same leaf. Inhibition of sporulation by light was temperature-dependent. Light was fully inhibitory at 15-27°C but not at 10°C, suggesting that enzyme(s activity and/or photoreceptor protein re-arrangement induced by light occur at ≥15°C. DCMU or paraquat could not abolish light inhibition, indicating that photosystem I and photosystem II are not involved. Narrow band led illumination showed that red light (λmax 625 nm was most inhibitory and blue light (λmax 440 nm was least inhibitory, suggesting that inhibition in P. belbahrii, unlike other oomycetes, operates via a red light photoreceptor. Nocturnal illumination of basil in the field (4-10 µmoles.m(2.s(-1 from 7pm to 7am suppressed sporulation of P. belbahrii and reduced epidemics of downy mildew, thus reducing the need for fungicide applications. This is the first report on red light inhibition of sporulation in oomycetes and on the practical application of light for disease control in the field.

  3. SU-F-P-30: Clinical Assessment of Auto Beam-Hold Triggered by Fiducial Localization During Prostate RapidArc Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, P; Chen, Q [Flower Hospital, Sylvania, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the clinical efficacy of auto beam hold during prostate RapidArc delivery, triggered by fiducial localization on kV imaging with a Varian True Beam. Methods: Prostate patients with four gold fiducials were candidates in this study. Daily setup was accomplished by aligning to fiducials using orthogonal kV imaging. During RapidArc delivery, a kV image was automatically acquired with a momentary beam hold every 60 degrees of gantry rotation. The position of each fiducial was identified by a search algorithm and compared to a predetermined 1.4 cm diameter target area. Treatment continued if all the fiducials were within the target area. If any fiducial was outside the target area the beam hold was not released, and the operators determined if the patient needed re-alignment using the daily setup method. Results: Four patients were initially selected. For three patients, the auto beam hold performed seamlessly. In one instance, the system correctly identified misaligned fiducials, stopped treatment, and the patient was re-positioned. The fourth patient had a prosthetic hip which sometimes blocked the fiducials and caused the fiducial search algorithm to fail. The auto beam hold was disabled for this patient and the therapists manually monitored the fiducial positions during treatment. Average delivery time for a 2-arc fraction was increased by 59 seconds. Phantom studies indicated the dose discrepancy related to multiple beam holds is <0.1%. For a plan with 43 fractions, the additional imaging increased dose by an estimated 68 cGy. Conclusion: Automated intrafraction kV imaging can effectively perform auto beam holds due to patient movement, with the exception of prosthetic hip patients. The additional imaging dose and delivery time are clinically acceptable. It may be a cost-effective alternative to Calypso in RapidArc prostate patient delivery. Further study is warranted to explore its feasibility under various clinical conditions.

  4. A Lys49-PLA2 myotoxin of Bothrops asper triggers a rapid death of macrophages that involves autocrine purinergic receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonello, F; Simonato, M; Aita, A; Pizzo, P; Fernández, J; Lomonte, B; Gutiérrez, J M; Montecucco, C

    2012-07-05

    Lys49-PLA(2) myotoxins, an important component of various viperid snake venoms, are a class of PLA(2)-homolog proteins deprived of catalytic activity. Similar to enzymatically active PLA(2) (Asp49) and to other classes of myotoxins, they cause severe myonecrosis. Moreover, these toxins are used as tools to study skeletal muscle repair and regeneration, a process that can be very limited after snakebites. In this work, the cytotoxic effect of different myotoxins, Bothrops asper Lys49 and Asp49-PLA(2), Notechis scutatus notexin and Naja mossambica cardiotoxin, was evaluated on macrophages, cells that have a key role in muscle regeneration. Only the Lys49-myotoxin was found to trigger a rapid asynchronous death of mouse peritoneal macrophages and macrophagic cell lines through a process that involves ATP release, ATP-induced ATP release and that is inhibited by various purinergic receptor antagonists. ATP leakage is induced also at sublytical doses of the Lys49-myotoxin, it involves Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores, and is reduced by inhibitors of VSOR and the maxi-anion channel. The toxin-induced cell death is different from that caused by high concentration of ATP and appears to be linked to localized purinergic signaling. Based on present findings, a mechanism of cell death is proposed that can be extended to other cytolytic proteins and peptides.

  5. Object-Place Recognition Learning Triggers Rapid Induction of Plasticity-Related Immediate Early Genes and Synaptic Proteins in the Rat Dentate Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Soulé

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term recognition memory requires protein synthesis, but little is known about the coordinate regulation of specific genes. Here, we examined expression of the plasticity-associated immediate early genes (Arc, Zif268, and Narp in the dentate gyrus following long-term object-place recognition learning in rats. RT-PCR analysis from dentate gyrus tissue collected shortly after training did not reveal learning-specific changes in Arc mRNA expression. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were therefore used to assess possible sparse effects on gene expression. Learning about objects increased the density of granule cells expressing Arc, and to a lesser extent Narp, specifically in the dorsal blade of the dentate gyrus, while Zif268 expression was elevated across both blades. Thus, object-place recognition triggers rapid, blade-specific upregulation of plasticity-associated immediate early genes. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of dentate gyrus homogenates demonstrated concomitant upregulation of three postsynaptic density proteins (Arc, PSD-95, and α-CaMKII with key roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and long-term memory.

  6. Apoptosis Triggers Specific, Rapid, and Global mRNA Decay with 3′ Uridylated Intermediates Degraded by DIS3L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall P. Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a tightly coordinated cell death program that damages mitochondria, DNA, proteins, and membrane lipids. Little is known about the fate of RNA as cells die. Here, we show that mRNAs, but not noncoding RNAs, are rapidly and globally degraded during apoptosis. mRNA decay is triggered early in apoptosis, preceding membrane lipid scrambling, genomic DNA fragmentation, and apoptotic changes to translation initiation factors. mRNA decay depends on mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and is amplified by caspase activation. 3′ truncated mRNA decay intermediates with nontemplated uridylate-rich tails are generated during apoptosis. These tails are added by the terminal uridylyl transferases (TUTases ZCCHC6 and ZCCHC11, and the uridylated transcript intermediates are degraded by the 3′ to 5′ exonuclease DIS3L2. Knockdown of DIS3L2 or the TUTases inhibits apoptotic mRNA decay, translation arrest, and cell death, whereas DIS3L2 overexpression enhances cell death. Our results suggest that global mRNA decay is an overlooked hallmark of apoptosis.

  7. Temporal Expression of a Master Regulator Drives Synchronous Sporulation in Budding Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghao Chia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Yeast cells enter and undergo gametogenesis relatively asynchronously, making it technically challenging to perform stage-specific genomic and biochemical analyses. Cell-to-cell variation in the expression of the master regulator of entry into sporulation, IME1, has been implicated to be the underlying cause of asynchronous sporulation. Here, we find that timing of IME1 expression is of critical importance for inducing cells to undergo sporulation synchronously. When we force expression of IME1 from an inducible promoter in cells incubated in sporulation medium for 2 hr, the vast majority of cells exhibit synchrony during premeiotic DNA replication and meiotic divisions. Inducing IME1 expression too early or too late affects the synchrony of sporulation. Surprisingly, our approach for synchronous sporulation does not require growth in acetate-containing medium, but can be achieved in cells grown in rich medium until saturation. Our system requires solely IME1, because the expression of the N6-methyladenosine methyltransferase IME4, another key regulator of early sporulation, is controlled by IME1 itself. The approach described here can be combined easily with other stage-specific synchronization methods, and thereby applied to study specific stages of sporulation, or the complete sporulation program.

  8. Sporulation: how to survive on planet Earth (and beyond).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingwei; Hull, Christina M

    2017-10-01

    Sporulation is a strategy widely utilized by a wide variety of organisms to adapt to changes in their individual environmental niches and survive in time and/or space until they encounter conditions acceptable for vegetative growth. The spores produced by bacteria have been the subjects of extensive studies, and several systems such as Bacillus subtilis have provided ample opportunities to understand the molecular basis of spore biogenesis and germination. In contrast, the spores of other microbes, such as fungi, are relatively poorly understood. Studies of sporulation in model systems such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus nidulans have established a basis for investigating eukaryotic spores, but very little is known at the molecular level about how spores function. This is especially true among the spores of human fungal pathogens such as the most common cause of fatal fungal disease, Cryptococcus neoformans. Recent proteomic studies are helping to determine the molecular mechanisms by which pathogenic fungal spores are formed, persist and germinate into actively growing agents of human disease.

  9. TNF-α triggers rapid membrane insertion of Ca(2+) permeable AMPA receptors into adult motor neurons and enhances their susceptibility to slow excitotoxic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hong Z; Hsu, Cheng-I; Yu, Stephen; Rao, Shyam D; Sorkin, Linda S; Weiss, John H

    2012-12-01

    Excitotoxicity (caused by over-activation of glutamate receptors) and inflammation both contribute to motor neuron (MN) damage in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other diseases of the spinal cord. Microglial and astrocytic activation in these conditions results in release of inflammatory mediators, including the cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). TNF-α has complex effects on neurons, one of which is to trigger rapid membrane insertion of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) type glutamate receptors, and in some cases, specific insertion of GluA2 lacking, Ca(2+) permeable AMPA receptors (Ca-perm AMPAr). In the present study, we use a histochemical stain based upon kainate stimulated uptake of cobalt ions ("Co(2+) labeling") to provide the first direct demonstration of the presence of substantial numbers of Ca-perm AMPAr in ventral horn MNs of adult rats under basal conditions. We further find that TNF-α exposure causes a rapid increase in the numbers of these receptors, via a phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase A (PKA) dependent mechanism. Finally, to assess the relevance of TNF-α to slow excitotoxic MN injury, we made use of organotypic spinal cord slice cultures. Co(2+) labeling revealed that MNs in these cultures possess Ca-perm AMPAr. Addition of either a low level of TNF-α, or of the glutamate uptake blocker, trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (PDC) to the cultures for 48 h resulted in little MN injury. However, when combined, TNF-α+PDC caused considerable MN degeneration, which was blocked by the AMPA/kainate receptor blocker, 2,3-Dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo (F) quinoxaline (NBQX), or the Ca-perm AMPAr selective blocker, 1-naphthyl acetylspermine (NASPM). Thus, these data support the idea that prolonged TNF-α elevation, as may be induced by glial activation, acts in part by increasing the numbers of Ca-perm AMPAr on MNs to enhance injurious excitotoxic effects of deficient

  10. TNF-α triggers rapid membrane insertion of Ca2+ permeable AMPA receptors into adult motor neurons and enhances their susceptibility to slow excitotoxic injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hong Z.; Hsu, Cheng-I; Yu, Stephen; Rao, Shyam D.; Sorkin, Linda S.; Weiss, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Excitotoxicity (caused by over-activation of glutamate receptors) and inflammation both contribute to motor neuron (MN) damage in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other diseases of the spinal cord. Microglial and astrocytic activation in these conditions results in release of inflammatory mediators, including the cytokine, tumor necrosis factor–alpha (TNF-α). TNF-α has complex effects on neurons, one of which is to trigger rapid membrane insertion of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) type glutamate receptors, and in some cases, specific insertion of GluA2 lacking, Ca2+ permeable AMPA receptors (Ca-perm AMPAr). In the present study, we use a histochemical stain based upon kainate stimulated uptake of cobalt ions (“Co2+ labeling”) to provide the first direct demonstration of the presence of substantial numbers of Ca-perm AMPAr in ventral horn MNs of adult rats under basal conditions. We further find that TNF-α exposure causes a rapid increase in the numbers of these receptors, via a phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase A (PKA) dependent mechanism. Finally, to assess the relevance of TNF-α to slow excitotoxic MN injury, we made use of organotypic spinal cord slice cultures. Co2+ labeling revealed that MNs in these cultures possess Ca-perm AMPAr. Addition of either a low level of TNF-α, or of the glutamate uptake blocker, trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (PDC) to the cultures for 48 h resulted in little MN injury. However, when combined, TNF-α+PDC caused considerable MN degeneration, which was blocked by the AMPA/kainate receptor blocker, 2,3-Dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo (F) quinoxaline (NBQX), or the Ca-perm AMPAr selective blocker, 1-naphthyl acetylspermine (NASPM). Thus, these data support the idea that prolonged TNF-α elevation, as may be induced by glial activation, acts in part by increasing the numbers of Ca-perm AMPAr on MNs to enhance injurious excitotoxic effects of deficient

  11. A new chemically defined medium for the growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus strains in anaerobiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Amina Aicha; Planchon, Stella; Jobin, Michel; Schmitt, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    A new chemically defined liquid medium, MODS, was developed for the aerobic growth and anaerobic growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus strains. The comparison of sporulation capacity of 18 strains of B. cereus has shown effective growth and spore production in anaerobiosis.. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Phosphatases modulate the bistable sporulation gene expression pattern in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, JW; Hamoen, LW; Kuipers, OP

    Spore formation in the Gram- positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a last resort adaptive response to starvation. To initiate sporulation, the key regulator in this process, Spo0A, needs to be activated by the so-called phosphorelay. Within a sporulating culture of B. subtilis, some cells initiate

  13. Sporulation dynamics and spore heat resistance in wet and dry biofilms of Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayrapetyan, Hasmik; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja

    2016-01-01

    Environmental conditions and growth history can affect the sporulation process as well as subsequent properties of formed spores. The sporulation dynamics was studied in wet and air-dried biofilms formed on stainless steel (SS) and polystyrene (PS) for Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 and the

  14. Trigger finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digit; Trigger finger release; Locked finger; Digital flexor tenosynovitis ... cut or hand Yellow or green drainage from the cut Hand pain or discomfort Fever If your trigger finger returns, call your surgeon. You may need another surgery.

  15. MrSkn7 controls sporulation, cell wall integrity, autolysis, and virulence in Metarhizium robertsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yanfang; Chen, Peilin; Chen, Yixiong; Lu, Yuzhen; Wang, Chengshu

    2015-04-01

    Two-component signaling pathways generally include sensor histidine kinases and response regulators. We identified an ortholog of the response regulator protein Skn7 in the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii, which we named MrSkn7. Gene deletion assays and functional characterizations indicated that MrSkn7 functions as a transcription factor. The MrSkn7 null mutant of M. robertsii lost the ability to sporulate and had defects in cell wall biosynthesis but was not sensitive to oxidative and osmotic stresses compared to the wild type. However, the mutant was able to produce spores under salt stress. Insect bioassays using these spores showed that the virulence of the mutant was significantly impaired compared to that of the wild type due to the failures to form the infection structure appressorium and evade host immunity. In particular, deletion of MrSkn7 triggered cell autolysis with typical features such as cell vacuolization, downregulation of repressor genes, and upregulation of autolysis-related genes such as extracellular chitinases and proteases. Promoter binding assays confirmed that MrSkn7 could directly or indirectly control different putative target genes. Taken together, the results of this study help us understand the functional divergence of Skn7 orthologs as well as the mechanisms underlying the development and control of virulence in insect-pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Radiation damage and its repair in non-sporulating bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moseley, B.E.B.

    1984-01-01

    A review is given of radiation damage and its repair in non-sporulating bacteria. The identification and measurement of radiation damage in the DNA of the bacteria after exposure to ultraviolet radiation and ionizing radiation is described. Measuring the extent of DNA repair and ways of isolating repair mutants are also described. The DNA repair mechanisms for UV-induced damage are discussed including photoreactivation repair, excision repair, post-replication recombination repair and induced error-prone repair. The DNA repair mechanisms for ionizing radiation damage are also discussed including the repair of both single and double-strand breaks. Other aspects discussed include the effects of growth, irradiation medium and recovery medium on survival, DNA repair in humans, the commercial use of UV and ionizing radiations and the future of ionizing irradiation as a food treatment process. (U.K.)

  17. Differential effects of sporulation temperature on the high pressure resistance of Clostridium botulinum type E spores and the interconnection with sporulation medium cation contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Christian A; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-04-01

    High pressure thermal (HPT) processing can be used to improve traditional preservation methods and increase food safety and durability, whereas quality related characteristics can be largely maintained. Clostridium (C.) botulinum type E is a non-proteolytic, psychrotrophic, toxin-producing spore former, commonly associated with aquatic environments in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. Sporulation in nature is likely to occur under varying conditions including temperature and nutrient availability, which might affect resistance properties of resulting spores. In our study, we determined the effect of sporulation temperature (13-38 °C) on the resistance of three Clostridium botulinum type E strains to differently intense HPT treatments (200 MPa at 40 and 80 °C, and 800 MPa at 40 and 80 °C). Furthermore, the effect of cations on sporulation temperature-mediated alterations in HHP resistance was investigated. Results indicate that low and high sporulation temperatures can increase and decrease sporal HPT resistance, respectively, in a treatment-dependent (pressure level, treatment temperature) manner, whereas the trends observed are largely unaffected by pressure dwells (1 s-10 min). Furthermore, results show that the cation content of the sporulation medium (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+)) marginally influences and partially counteracts effects on the HPT resistance of spores grown at low and elevated temperatures, respectively. This suggests that sporulation temperature and medium cations provoke changes in some common spore resistance structures. Sporulation conditions can markedly affect spore resistance properties and, thus, should be considered for the experimental setup of worst case studies aiming to evaluate the effectiveness of food processes in terms of the inactivation of C. botulinum type E spores. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lysogeny and Sporulation in Bacillus Isolates from the Gulf of Mexico▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobberley, Jennifer; Authement, R. Nathan; Segall, Anca M.; Edwards, Robert A.; Slepecky, R. A.; Paul, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Eleven Bacillus isolates from the surface and subsurface waters of the Gulf of Mexico were examined for their capacity to sporulate and harbor prophages. Occurrence of sporulation in each isolate was assessed through decoyinine induction, and putative lysogens were identified by prophage induction by mitomycin C treatment. No obvious correlation between ability to sporulate and prophage induction was found. Four strains that contained inducible virus-like particles (VLPs) were shown to sporulate. Four strains did not produce spores upon induction by decoyinine but contained inducible VLPs. Two of the strains did not produce virus-like particles or sporulate significantly upon induction. Isolate B14905 had a high level of virus-like particle production and a high occurrence of sporulation and was further examined by genomic sequencing in an attempt to shed light on the relationship between sporulation and lysogeny. In silico analysis of the B14905 genome revealed four prophage-like regions, one of which was independently sequenced from a mitomycin C-induced lysate. Based on PCR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of an induced phage lysate, one is a noninducible phage remnant, one may be a defective phage-like bacteriocin, and two were inducible prophages. One of the inducible phages contained four putative transcriptional regulators, one of which was a SinR-like regulator that may be involved in the regulation of host sporulation. Isolates that both possess the capacity to sporulate and contain temperate phage may be well adapted for survival in the oligotrophic ocean. PMID:20008174

  19. Reconsidering the sporulation characteristics of hypervirulent Clostridium difficile BI/NAP1/027.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Burns

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and a major burden to healthcare services worldwide. In recent years, C. difficile strains belonging to the BI/NAP1/027 type have become highly represented among clinical isolates. These so-called 'hypervirulent' strains are associated with outbreaks of increased disease severity, higher relapse rates and an expanded repertoire of antibiotic resistance. Spores, formed during sporulation, play a pivotal role in disease transmission and it has been suggested that BI/NAP1/027 strains are more prolific in terms of sporulation in vitro than 'non-epidemic' C. difficile types. Work in our laboratory has since provided credible evidence to the contrary suggesting that the strain-to-strain variation in C. difficile sporulation characteristics is not type-associated. However, the BI/NAP1/027 type is still widely stated to have an increased rate of sporulation. In this study, we analysed the sporulation rates of 53 C. difficile strains, the largest sample size used to-date in such a study, including 28 BI/NAP1/027 isolates. Our data confirm that significant variation exists in the rate at which different C. difficile strains form spores. However, we clearly show that the sporulation rate of the BI/NAP1/027 type was no higher than that of non-BI/NAP1/027 strains. In addition, we observed substantial variation in sporulation characteristics within the BI/NAP1/027 type. This work highlights the danger of assuming that all strains of one type behave similarly without studying adequate sample sizes. Furthermore, we stress the need for more rigorous experimental procedures in order to quantify C. difficile sporulation more accurately in the future.

  20. Identification of diacetonamine from soybean curd residue as a sporulation-inducing factor toward Bacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Aki; Kim, Dongyeop; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki

    2017-12-01

    Under bioassay-guided investigation, a sporulation-inducing factor (SIF) toward Bacillus spp. was searched for in methanol (MeOH) extracts of soybean curd residues, and diacetonamine (1) was identified as the active compound. SIF was first isolated as a monoacetylated derivative (2, 4.1 mg from 655 g soybean curd residues), and its chemical structure was elucidated by field desorption mass spectrometry, electron ionization mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. After 48-h incubation, 40 µM diacetonamine hydrochloride (1b) exhibited sporulation-inducing activity with 35% sporulation frequency toward a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens wild-type strain (AHU 2170), whereas 40 µM diacetone acrylamide (3) showed 99% sporulation induction, which was much higher than that of 1b. Although Bacillus megaterium NBRC 15308 was sporulated by the treatment with 400 µM 1b with 36 and 70% sporulation frequency after 72- and 96-h incubation respectively, 3 at the same concentration showed only 2% sporulation after 72-h incubation. Hence, diacetonamine (1) was characterized as a genuine SIF from soybean curd residues, but it was uncertain whether 1 is a natural product or an artifact. Spores of B. amyloliquefaciens induced by 1b survived after treatment with heating at 95 °C for 10 min, also suggesting that 1 is genuine SIF in soybean curd residue. As sporulation induction is likely linked to activation of antibiotic production in some spore-forming Firmicutes bacteria, compound 1 would be a possible chemical tool to develop an effective fermentation technology in Bacillus species.

  1. Temperature and light intensity interaction on Cercospora coffeicola sporulation and conidia germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Goulart da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Difficulty in obtaining abundant sporulation in culture of many species of Cercospora may be the limiting factor for studies of biology, systematics, and inoculation of the genus. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the nutritional and environmental requirements that influence mycelial growth, sporulation and germination. As it is difficult to obtain conidia of Cercospora coffeicola in vitro, different temperatures (17, 22, 27, and 32 °C and light intensities (80, 160, 240, and 320 μmol m-2 s-1 were evaluated to optimize pathogen sporulation and assess favorable conditions for spore germination, aiming for a strategy of disease control. The dark treatment (0 μmol m-2 s-1 was added for sporulation. A significant interaction was found between temperature and light intensity for both variables. The highest sporulation rate of C. coffeicola occurred at a light intensity of 240 μmol m-2 s-1 and air temperature of 22 °C, reaching 5.9x106 con mL-1. Germination was higher at temperature 17 °C and light intensity of 320 μmol m-2 s-1, reaching 52%. Interaction between light intensity and temperature proved to influence the processes of sporulation and germination of C. coffeicola.

  2. Myb transcription factors and light regulate sporulation in the oomycete Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Qijun; Judelson, Howard S

    2014-01-01

    Life cycle progression in eukaryotic microbes is often influenced by environment. In the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, which causes late blight on potato and tomato, sporangia have been reported to form mostly at night. By growing P. infestans under different light regimes at constant temperature and humidity, we show that light contributes to the natural pattern of sporulation by delaying sporulation until the following dark period. However, illumination does not permanently block sporulation or strongly affect the total number of sporangia that ultimately form. Based on measurements of sporulation-induced genes such as those encoding protein kinase Pks1 and Myb transcription factors Myb2R1 and Myb2R3, it appears that most spore-associated transcripts start to rise four to eight hours before sporangia appear. Their mRNA levels oscillate with the light/dark cycle and increase with the amount of sporangia. An exception to this pattern of expression is Myb2R4, which is induced several hours before the other genes and declines after cultures start to sporulate. Transformants over-expressing Myb2R4 produce twice the number of sporangia and ten-fold higher levels of Myb2R1 mRNA than wild-type, and chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Myb2R4 binds the Myb2R1 promoter in vivo. Myb2R4 thus appears to be an early regulator of sporulation. We attempted to silence eight Myb genes by DNA-directed RNAi, but succeeded only with Myb2R3, which resulted in suppressed sporulation. Ectopic expression studies of seven Myb genes revealed that over-expression frequently impaired vegetative growth, and in the case of Myb3R6 interfered with sporangia dormancy. We observed that the degree of silencing induced by a hairpin construct was correlated with its copy number, and ectopic expression was often unstable due to epigenetic silencing and transgene excision.

  3. Myb transcription factors and light regulate sporulation in the oomycete Phytophthora infestans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Xiang

    Full Text Available Life cycle progression in eukaryotic microbes is often influenced by environment. In the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, which causes late blight on potato and tomato, sporangia have been reported to form mostly at night. By growing P. infestans under different light regimes at constant temperature and humidity, we show that light contributes to the natural pattern of sporulation by delaying sporulation until the following dark period. However, illumination does not permanently block sporulation or strongly affect the total number of sporangia that ultimately form. Based on measurements of sporulation-induced genes such as those encoding protein kinase Pks1 and Myb transcription factors Myb2R1 and Myb2R3, it appears that most spore-associated transcripts start to rise four to eight hours before sporangia appear. Their mRNA levels oscillate with the light/dark cycle and increase with the amount of sporangia. An exception to this pattern of expression is Myb2R4, which is induced several hours before the other genes and declines after cultures start to sporulate. Transformants over-expressing Myb2R4 produce twice the number of sporangia and ten-fold higher levels of Myb2R1 mRNA than wild-type, and chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Myb2R4 binds the Myb2R1 promoter in vivo. Myb2R4 thus appears to be an early regulator of sporulation. We attempted to silence eight Myb genes by DNA-directed RNAi, but succeeded only with Myb2R3, which resulted in suppressed sporulation. Ectopic expression studies of seven Myb genes revealed that over-expression frequently impaired vegetative growth, and in the case of Myb3R6 interfered with sporangia dormancy. We observed that the degree of silencing induced by a hairpin construct was correlated with its copy number, and ectopic expression was often unstable due to epigenetic silencing and transgene excision.

  4. Sporulation Temperature Reveals a Requirement for CotE in the Assembly of both the Coat and Exosporium Layers of Bacillus cereus Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressuire-Isoard, Christelle; Bornard, Isabelle; Henriques, Adriano O; Carlin, Frédéric; Broussolle, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus spore surface layers consist of a coat surrounded by an exosporium. We investigated the interplay between the sporulation temperature and the CotE morphogenetic protein in the assembly of the surface layers of B. cereus ATCC 14579 spores and on the resulting spore properties. The cotE deletion affects the coat and exosporium composition of the spores formed both at the suboptimal temperature of 20°C and at the optimal growth temperature of 37°C. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that ΔcotE spores had a fragmented and detached exosporium when formed at 37°C. However, when produced at 20°C, ΔcotE spores showed defects in both coat and exosporium attachment and were susceptible to lysozyme and mutanolysin. Thus, CotE has a role in the assembly of both the coat and exosporium, which is more important during sporulation at 20°C. CotE was more represented in extracts from spores formed at 20°C than at 37°C, suggesting that increased synthesis of the protein is required to maintain proper assembly of spore surface layers at the former temperature. ΔcotE spores formed at either sporulation temperature were impaired in inosine-triggered germination and resistance to UV-C and H2O2 and were less hydrophobic than wild-type (WT) spores but had a higher resistance to wet heat. While underscoring the role of CotE in the assembly of B. cereus spore surface layers, our study also suggests a contribution of the protein to functional properties of additional spore structures. Moreover, it also suggests a complex relationship between the function of a spore morphogenetic protein and environmental factors such as the temperature during spore formation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Sporulation in the Filamentous Fungus Ashbya gossypii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasserstrom, Lisa

    , which is regulated by the pheromone response pathway. Most ascomycetes have been reported to produce meiotic spores, however, a sexual cycle has not yet been identified in the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii. The main focus of my doctoral thesis has therefore been to understand the mechanisms behind...... remains unidentified. In this thesis I provide a comprehensive functional analysis of genes important for sporulation in A. gossypii. Previous results, together with findings presented in this work show that the role of the pheromone response pathway in A. gossypii has been rewired to regulate sporulation...... recombination that allows cross-over between homologous chromosomes. In S. cerevisiae, this requires double strand break (DSB) formation and subsequent repair via the components Spo11 and Dmc1. The work in this thesis show that the A. gossypii Spo11 and Dmc1 homologs are not required for sporulation, thus...

  6. Altered composition of bone as triggered by irradiation facilitates the rapid erosion of the matrix by both cellular and physicochemical processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E Green

    Full Text Available Radiation rapidly undermines trabecular architecture, a destructive process which proceeds despite a devastated cell population. In addition to the 'biologically orchestrated' resorption of the matrix by osteoclasts, physicochemical processes enabled by a damaged matrix may contribute to the rapid erosion of bone quality. 8w male C57BL/6 mice exposed to 5 Gy of Cs(137 γ-irradiation were compared to age-matched control at 2d, 10d, or 8w following exposure. By 10d, irradiation had led to significant loss of trabecular bone volume fraction. Assessed by reflection-based Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI, chemical composition of the irradiated matrix indicated that mineralization had diminished at 2d by -4.3±4.8%, and at 10d by -5.8±3.2%. These data suggest that irradiation facilitates the dissolution of the matrix through a change in the material itself, a conclusion supported by a 13.7±4.5% increase in the elastic modulus as measured by nanoindentation. The decline in viable cells within the marrow of irradiated mice at 2d implies that the immediate collapse of bone quality and inherent increased risk of fracture is not solely a result of an overly-active biologic process, but one fostered by alterations in the material matrix that predisposes the material to erosion.

  7. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) fuels the tricarboxylic acid cycle and de novo lipid biosynthesis during Bacillus anthracis sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykov, Marat R; Ahn, Jong-Sam; Widhelm, Todd J; Eckrich, Valerie M; Endres, Jennifer L; Driks, Adam; Rutkowski, Gregory E; Wingerd, Kevin L; Bayles, Kenneth W

    2017-06-01

    Numerous bacteria accumulate poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) as an intracellular reservoir of carbon and energy in response to imbalanced nutritional conditions. In Bacillus spp., where PHB biosynthesis precedes the formation of the dormant cell type called the spore (sporulation), the direct link between PHB accumulation and efficiency of sporulation was observed in multiple studies. Although the idea of PHB as an intracellular carbon and energy source fueling sporulation was proposed several decades ago, the mechanisms underlying PHB contribution to sporulation have not been defined. Here, we demonstrate that PHB deficiency impairs Bacillus anthracis sporulation through diminishing the energy status of the cells and by reducing carbon flux into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and de novo lipid biosynthesis. Consequently, this metabolic imbalance decreased biosynthesis of the critical components required for spore integrity and resistance, such as dipicolinic acid (DPA) and the spore's inner membrane. Supplementation of the PHB deficient mutant with exogenous fatty acids overcame these sporulation defects, highlighting the importance of the TCA cycle and lipid biosynthesis during sporulation. Combined, the results of this work reveal the molecular mechanisms of PHB contribution to B. anthracis sporulation and provide valuable insight into the metabolic requirements for this developmental process in Bacillus species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 under defined conditions: temporal expression of genes for key sigma factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Y.P.; Hornstra, L.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2004-01-01

    An airlift fermentor system allowing precise regulation of pH and aeration combined with a chemically defined medium was used to study growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. Sporulation was complete and synchronous. Expression of sigA, sigB, sigF, and sigG was monitored with real-time

  9. Triggering Artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben Holst; Robinson, Mike

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a general critique of the use of conceptual frameworks in design, illustrated by the well known synchronous/asynchronous, co-located/non-co-located framework. It argues that while frameworks are a necessary and inevitable starting point for design, the business of tailoring...... and adapting them to specific situations need not be ad hoc.Triggering artefacts are a way of systematically challenging both designers' preunderstandings and the conservatism of work practice. Experiences from the Great Belt tunnel and bridge project are used to illustrate howtriggering artefacts change...

  10. Assessment of pheromone production and response in fission yeast by a halo test of induced sporulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egel, R; Willer, M; Kjaerulff, S

    1994-01-01

    is assessed as an iodine-positive halo of sporulation surrounding the pheromone source, and the width of the halo is related to the amount of pheromone being produced. The assay is sufficiently sensitive to monitor the low amount of M-factor produced by an M mam1 strain, and its sensitivity towards P...

  11. Influence of substrates, light, filter paper and pH on the sporulation of Cercospora sojina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Erica Gómez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungi require special substrates for their isolation, vegetative growth and sporulation. In experiments conducted in the laboratory, the influence of substrates, light, filter paper and pH on the sporulation of Cercospora sojina conidia, the causal agent of soybean frogeye leaf spot, was assessed. The media potato sucrose agar, V-8 agar, tomato extract agar, soybean leaf extract agar, soybean seed extract agar, soybean meal agar, soybean flour agar and wheat flour agar were tested, added on the surface, with and without filter paper and under two light regimes, with 12 h light at 25°± 2°C and in the dark. A triple factorial 8x2x2 (substrates x light/dark x with/without filter paper design with four replicates was used. V-8 agar medium was employed and the pH was adjusted with HCl 0.1N or NaOH 0.1N before autoclaving to the values: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, and the pH of V-8 agar medium is 6.7. The evaluation was done on the seventh day of incubation. Data underwent regression analysis. Sporulation was maximized on the agar media V-8, seed extract, oat flour, tomato extract, and potato sucrose in the presence of filter paper and 12h light. On V-8 medium, maximal sporulation was obtained with pH 6.7.

  12. Effect of plant sterols and tannins on Phytophthora ramorum growth and sporulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel A. Stong; Eli Kolodny; Rick G. Kelsey; M.P. Gonzalez-Hernandez; Jorge M. Vivanco; Daniel K. Manter

    2013-01-01

    Elicitin-mediated acquisition of plant sterols is required for growth and sporulation of Phytophthora spp. This study examined the interactions between elicitins, sterols, and tannins. Ground leaf tissue, sterols, and tannin-enriched extracts were obtained from three different plant species (California bay laurel, California black oak, and Oregon...

  13. SporeWeb : an interactive journey through the complete sporulation cycle of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijlander, Robyn T.; Jong, Anne de; Krawczyk, Antonina O.; Holsappel, Siger; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial spores are a continuous problem for both food-based and health-related industries. Decades of scientific research dedicated towards understanding molecular and gene regulatory aspects of sporulation, spore germination and spore properties have resulted in a wealth of data and information.

  14. Rapid eye movement sleep loss induces neuronal apoptosis in the rat brain by noradrenaline acting on alpha 1-adrenoceptor and by triggering mitochondrial intrinsic pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu I Somarajan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative disorders are associated with rapid eye movement sleep (REMS-loss, however the mechanism was unknown. As REMS-loss elevates noradrenaline (NA level in the brain as well as induces neuronal apoptosis and degeneration, in this study we have delineated the intracellular molecular pathway involved in REMS deprivation (REMSD associated NA-induced neuronal apoptosis. Rats were REMS deprived for 6 days by the classical flower-pot method, suitable controls were conducted and the effects on apoptosis markers evaluated. Further, the role of NA was studied by one, intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of NA-ergic alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (PRZ and two, by down-regulation of NA synthesis in locus coeruleus (LC neurons by local microinjection of tyrosine hydroxylase siRNA (TH-siRNA. Immunoblot estimates showed that the expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins viz. Bcl2-associated death promoter (BAD protein, apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1, cytochrome c, caspase9, caspase3 were elevated in the REMS-deprived rat brains, while caspase8 level remained unaffected; PRZ treatment did not allow elevation of these pro-apoptotic factors. Further, REMSD increased cytochrome c expression, which was prevented if the NA synthesis from the LC neurons was blocked by microinjection of TH-siRNA in vivo into the LC during REMSD in freely moving normal rats. Mitochondrial damage was re-confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, which showed distinctly swollen mitochondria with disintegrated cristae, chromosomal condensation and clumping along the nuclear membrane and all these changes were prevented in PRZ treated rats. Combining findings of this study along with earlier reports we propose that upon REMSD NA level increases in the brain as the LC NA-ergic REM-OFF neurons do not cease firing and TH is up-regulated in those neurons. This elevated NA acting on alpha1-adrenoceptors damages mitochondria causing release of

  15. Modeling sporulation of Fusicladium carpophilum on nectarine twig lesions: relative humidity and temperature effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, N; McFarland, K A; Burnett, A L

    2012-04-01

    The production of conidia by Fusicladium carpophilum on twig lesions was quantitatively modeled as a function of temperature and duration of high relative humidity. During peak sporulation periods in 2007, 2008, and 2009, 1-year-old twigs bearing abundant overwintering lesions were removed from a heavily infected 'Redgold' nectarine orchard, placed in trays at high relative humidity (>95%), and incubated at eight constant temperatures for seven durations, resulting in a factorial design of 56 treatment combinations. Conidia numbers were estimated with a hemacytometer. Results from a six-stage modeling process indicated that, at any given temperature, spore production during high relative humidity periods increased in a monomolecular- to Gompertz-like pattern. The Richards model, with shape parameters of 0.79 to 0.90, was found to provide the best overall fit. When the asymptote and rate parameters were derived as functions of temperature using Gaussian and quadratic models, respectively, the duration of high relative humidity and temperature described 90 to 94% of the variation in conidia production. Predictions of the final models were highly correlated with observed levels of sporulation (r > 0.94; P < 0.0001), indicating an excellent fit to the data. The optimum temperature for sporulation, based on fitting a Gaussian model to the maximum sporulation levels at each temperature, was 17.9 to 20.2°C, with an overall average of 18.8°C. The derived models give a quantitative description of sporulation by F. carpophilum and may have potential use in simulators and forecasting systems.

  16. A Mutation in the Bacillus subtilis rsbU Gene That Limits RNA Synthesis during Sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, David M; Lazinski, David; Osburne, Marcia S; Sonenshein, Abraham L

    2017-07-15

    Mutants of Bacillis subtilis that are temperature sensitive for RNA synthesis during sporulation were isolated after selection with a 32 P suicide agent. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that two of the mutants carried an identical lesion in the rsbU gene, which encodes a phosphatase that indirectly activates SigB, the stress-responsive RNA polymerase sigma factor. The mutation appeared to cause RsbU to be hyperactive, because the mutants were more resistant than the parent strain to ethanol stress. In support of this hypothesis, pseudorevertants that regained wild-type levels of sporulation at high temperature had secondary mutations that prevented expression of the mutant rsbU gene. The properties of these RsbU mutants support the idea that activation of SigB diminishes the bacterium's ability to sporulate. IMPORTANCE Most bacterial species encode multiple RNA polymerase promoter recognition subunits (sigma factors). Each sigma factor directs RNA polymerase to different sets of genes; each gene set typically encodes proteins important for responses to specific environmental conditions, such as changes in temperature, salt concentration, and nutrient availability. A selection for mutants of Bacillus subtilis that are temperature sensitive for RNA synthesis during sporulation unexpectedly yielded strains with a point mutation in rsbU , a gene that encodes a protein that normally activates sigma factor B (SigB) under conditions of salt stress. The mutation appears to cause RsbU, and therefore SigB, to be active inappropriately, thereby inhibiting, directly or indirectly, the ability of the cells to transcribe sporulation genes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. The dev Operon Regulates the Timing of Sporulation during Myxococcus xanthus Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Ramya; Kroos, Lee

    2017-05-15

    Myxococcus xanthus undergoes multicellular development when starved. Thousands of rod-shaped cells coordinate their movements and aggregate into mounds in which cells differentiate into spores. Mutations in the dev operon impair development. The dev operon encompasses a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-associated (CRISPR-Cas) system. Null mutations in devI , a small gene at the beginning of the dev operon, suppress the developmental defects caused by null mutations in the downstream devR and devS genes but failed to suppress defects caused by a small in-frame deletion in devT We provide evidence that the original mutant has a second-site mutation. We show that devT null mutants exhibit developmental defects indistinguishable from devR and devS null mutants, and a null mutation in devI suppresses the defects of a devT null mutation. The similarity of DevTRS proteins to components of the CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense (Cascade), together with our molecular characterization of dev mutants, support a model in which DevTRS form a Cascade-like subcomplex that negatively autoregulates dev transcript accumulation and prevents DevI overproduction that would strongly inhibit sporulation. Our results also suggest that DevI transiently inhibits sporulation when regulated normally. The mechanism of transient inhibition may involve MrpC, a key transcription factor, whose translation appears to be weakly inhibited by DevI. Finally, our characterization of a devI devS mutant indicates that very little exo transcript is required for sporulation, which is surprising since Exo proteins help form the polysaccharide spore coat. IMPORTANCE CRISPR-Cas systems typically function as adaptive immune systems in bacteria. The dev CRISPR-Cas system of M. xanthus has been proposed to prevent bacteriophage infection during development, but how dev controls sporulation has been elusive. Recent evidence supported a model in which DevR and DevS prevent

  18. Time Series Analysis of theBacillus subtilisSporulation Network Reveals Low Dimensional Chaotic Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecca, Paola; Mura, Ivan; Re, Angela; Barker, Gary C; Ihekwaba, Adaoha E C

    2016-01-01

    Chaotic behavior refers to a behavior which, albeit irregular, is generated by an underlying deterministic process. Therefore, a chaotic behavior is potentially controllable. This possibility becomes practically amenable especially when chaos is shown to be low-dimensional, i.e., to be attributable to a small fraction of the total systems components. In this case, indeed, including the major drivers of chaos in a system into the modeling approach allows us to improve predictability of the systems dynamics. Here, we analyzed the numerical simulations of an accurate ordinary differential equation model of the gene network regulating sporulation initiation in Bacillus subtilis to explore whether the non-linearity underlying time series data is due to low-dimensional chaos. Low-dimensional chaos is expectedly common in systems with few degrees of freedom, but rare in systems with many degrees of freedom such as the B. subtilis sporulation network. The estimation of a number of indices, which reflect the chaotic nature of a system, indicates that the dynamics of this network is affected by deterministic chaos. The neat separation between the indices obtained from the time series simulated from the model and those obtained from time series generated by Gaussian white and colored noise confirmed that the B. subtilis sporulation network dynamics is affected by low dimensional chaos rather than by noise. Furthermore, our analysis identifies the principal driver of the networks chaotic dynamics to be sporulation initiation phosphotransferase B (Spo0B). We then analyzed the parameters and the phase space of the system to characterize the instability points of the network dynamics, and, in turn, to identify the ranges of values of Spo0B and of the other drivers of the chaotic dynamics, for which the whole system is highly sensitive to minimal perturbation. In summary, we described an unappreciated source of complexity in the B. subtilis sporulation network by gathering

  19. Environmental factors affecting sporulation of Fuligo septica (Myxomycetes on sugar cane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiappeta Alda de Andrade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environmental factors on sporulation of Fuligo septica (L. Wigg. and the abundance of this species on sugar cane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum L., stored outdoors was studied.In Northeastern Brazil, between January/1997 and January/1998, a total of 29 specimens were collected through monthly collections of aethalia. The relationships between the abundance of aethalia and rainfall, temperature, relative humidity of the air and insolation were studied. Results indicated that on the substrate analyzed, F. septica was an abundant species. Sporulation occurred in all seasons of the year, with a well-defined peak at the end of winter and beginning of spring (August/September,which was strongly influenced by rainfall.

  20. Growth and sporulation of Metarhizium flavoviride var. Flavoviride on culture media and lighting regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onofre Sideney Becker

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungi from the genus Metarhizium are largely used for the biological control of agricultural pests by conidia spreading on the field. Although conidia production is well studied in M. anisopliae, only few research studies were done in M. flavoviride. The present work was carried out alming to evaluate the Mycelial growth and sporulation of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium flavoviride var. flavoviride growing at 27 ± 2°C on Potato-dextrose-agar (PDA, Czapek-agar (CZP and a complete agar medium (CM under three lighting regimes, (continuous illumination, light/dark cycle and an black light/dark cycle were investigated. A completely randomized 3 × 3 (culture media × lighting regime factorial design with four replicates was used. The best mycelial growth and sporulation occurred on the PDA and CM media under continuous illumination (P <= 0,05.

  1. Sporulation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. Acridum and Beauveria bassiana on Rhammatocerus schistocercoides under humid and dry conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Bonifácio Peixoto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The sporulation of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and Beauveria bassiana in cadavers of the grasshopper Rhammatocerus schistocercoides was studied in dry and humid environments. Both fungi were equally virulent against R. schistocercoides. However, internally, M. anisopliae produced more conidia than B. bassiana at 53% and 75% relative humidity. Externally, there was no sporulation at 53% and 75% RH, and M. anisopliae produced more conidia than B. bassiana at 100% RH.

  2. Les bactéries sporulées dans les conserves de légumes (petits pois ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unicornis

    sporulées pouvant gêner l'innovation des procédés de fabrication industrielle [2]. La présence de B. ... cours des traitements technologiques de conservation. Ces bactéries sporulées ont probablement été sélectionnées par les process technologiques ou pourraient s'être adaptées à ces derniers; trouvant ainsi un terrain ...

  3. The RecA-Dependent SOS Response Is Active and Required for Processing of DNA Damage during Bacillus subtilis Sporulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando H Ramírez-Guadiana

    Full Text Available The expression of and role played by RecA in protecting sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis from DNA damage has been determined. Results showed that the DNA-alkylating agent Mitomycin-C (M-C activated expression of a PrecA-gfpmut3a fusion in both sporulating cells' mother cell and forespore compartments. The expression levels of a recA-lacZ fusion were significantly lower in sporulating than in growing cells. However, M-C induced levels of ß-galactosidase from a recA-lacZ fusion ~6- and 3-fold in the mother cell and forespore compartments of B. subtilis sporangia, respectively. Disruption of recA slowed sporulation and sensitized sporulating cells to M-C and UV-C radiation, and the M-C and UV-C sensitivity of sporangia lacking the transcriptional repair-coupling factor Mfd was significantly increased by loss of RecA. We postulate that when DNA damage is encountered during sporulation, RecA activates the SOS response thus providing sporangia with the repair machinery to process DNA lesions that may compromise the spatio-temporal expression of genes that are essential for efficient spore formation.

  4. Sporulation in soil as an overwinter survival strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Sarah J; Goddard, Matthew R

    2016-02-01

    Due to its commercial value and status as a research model there is an extensive body of knowledge concerning Saccharomyces cerevisiae's cell biology and genetics. Investigations into S. cerevisiae's ecology are comparatively lacking, and are mostly focused on the behaviour of this species in high sugar, fruit-based environments; however, fruit is ephemeral, and presumably, S. cerevisiae has evolved a strategy to survive when this niche is not available. Among other places, S. cerevisiae has been isolated from soil which, in contrast to fruit, is a permanent habitat. We hypothesize that S. cerevisiae employs a life history strategy targeted at self-preservation rather than growth outside of the fruit niche, and resides in forest niches, such as soil, in a dormant and resistant sporulated state, returning to fruit via vectors such as insects. One crucial aspect of this hypothesis is that S. cerevisiae must be able to sporulate in the 'forest' environment. Here, we provide the first evidence for a natural environment (soil) where S. cerevisiae sporulates. While there are further aspects of this hypothesis that require experimental verification, this is the first step towards an inclusive understanding of the more cryptic aspects of S. cerevisiae's ecology. © FEMS 2015.

  5. In-planta Sporulation Capacity Enhances Infectivity and Rhizospheric Competitiveness of Frankia Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotin-Galvan, Laetitia; Pozzi, Adrien C; Schwob, Guillaume; Fournier, Pascale; Fernandez, Maria P; Herrera-Belaroussi, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Frankia Sp+ strains maintain their ability to sporulate in symbiosis with actinorhizal plants, producing abundant sporangia inside host plant cells, in contrast to Sp- strains, which are unable to perform in-planta sporulation. We herein examined the role of in-planta sporulation in Frankia infectivity and competitiveness for root infection. Fifteen strains belonging to different Sp+ and Sp- phylogenetic lineages were inoculated on seedlings of Alnus glutinosa (Ag) and A. incana (Ai). Strain competitiveness was investigated by performing Sp-/Sp+ co-inoculations. Plant inoculations were standardized using crushed nodules obtained under laboratory-controlled conditions (same plant species, age, and environmental factors). Specific oligonucleotide primers were developed to identify Frankia Sp+ and/or Sp- strains in the resulting nodules. Single inoculation experiments showed that (i) infectivity by Sp+ strains was significantly greater than that by Sp- strains, (ii) genetically divergent Sp+ strains exhibited different infective abilities, and (iii) Sp+ and Sp- strains showed different host preferences according to the origin (host species) of the inocula. Co-inoculations of Sp+ and Sp- strains revealed the greater competitiveness of Sp+ strains (98.3 to 100% of Sp+ nodules, with up to 15.6% nodules containing both Sp+ and Sp- strains). The results of the present study highlight differences in Sp+/Sp- strain ecological behaviors and provide new insights to strengthen the obligate symbiont hypothesis for Sp+ strains.

  6. Two distinct pathways lead Bacillus thuringiensis to commit to sporulation in biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplaetse, Emilie; Slamti, Leyla; Gohar, Michel; Lereclus, Didier

    2017-05-01

    The spore-forming bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis is an efficient biofilm producer, responsible for persistent contamination of industrial food processing systems. B. thuringiensis biofilms are highly heterogeneous bacterial structures in which three distinct cell types controlled by quorum sensing regulators were identified: PlcR-controlled virulent cells, NprR-dependent necrotrophic cells and cells committed to sporulation, a differentiation process controlled by Rap phosphatases and Spo0A-P. Interestingly, a cell lineage study revealed that, in LB medium or in insect larvae, only necrotrophic cells became spores. Here we analyzed cellular differentiation undertaken by cells growing in biofilm in a medium optimized for sporulation. No virulent cells were identified; surprisingly, two distinct routes could lead to differentiation as a spore in this growth condition: the NprR-dependent route, followed by the majority of cells, and the newly identified NprR-independent route, which is followed by 20% of sporulating cells. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Osmolarity is an independent trigger of Acanthamoeba castellanii differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordingley, J S; Wills, R A; Villemez, C L

    1996-05-01

    Like many yeasts, bacteria, and other sporulating microorganisms, Acanthamoeba castellanii (Neff), a free-living amoeba with pathogenic relatives, differentiates into a dormant form when deprived of nutrients. Acanthamoeba cysts redifferentiate into trophozoites when food is resupplied. We report here that Acanthamoeba encystment is also triggered by elevated osmolarity, and that osmolarity and cell surface receptor binding are synergistic in triggering differentiation. Additions of sodium chloride or glucose to rich growth media were used to produce specific osmolarity increases and similar encystment results were obtained with either additive. Although many organisms, including Acanthamoeba and mammalian cells, have been shown to adapt to hyperosmolar conditions, this is the first demonstration that hyperosmolarity can be a primary differentiation signal.

  8. The LHCb trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolko, I.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes progress in the development of the LHCb trigger system since the letter of intent. The trigger philosophy has significantly changed, resulting in an increase of trigger efficiency for signal B events. It is proposed to implement a level-1 vertex topology trigger in specialised hardware. (orig.)

  9. Neurotoxin synthesis is positively regulated by the sporulation transcription factor Spo0A in Clostridium botulinum type E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascher, Gerald; Mertaoja, Anna; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

    2017-10-01

    Clostridium botulinum produces the most potent natural toxin, the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), probably to create anaerobiosis and nutrients by killing the host, and forms endospores that facilitate survival in harsh conditions and transmission. Peak BoNT production coincides with initiation of sporulation in C. botulinum cultures, which suggests common regulation. Here, we show that Spo0A, the master regulator of sporulation, positively regulates BoNT production. Insertional inactivation of spo0A in C. botulinum type E strain Beluga resulted in significantly reduced BoNT production and in abolished or highly reduced sporulation in relation to wild-type controls. Complementation with spo0A restored BoNT production and sporulation. Recombinant DNA-binding domain of Spo0A directly bound to a putative Spo0A-binding box (CTTCGAA) within the BoNT/E operon promoter, demonstrating direct regulation. Spo0A is the first neurotoxin regulator reported in C. botulinum type E. Unlike other C. botulinum strains that are terrestrial and employ the alternative sigma factor BotR in directing BoNT expression, C. botulinum type E strains are adapted to aquatic ecosystems, possess distinct epidemiology and lack BotR. Our results provide fundamental new knowledge on the genetic control of BoNT production and demonstrate common regulation of BoNT production and sporulation, providing a key intervention point for control. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Δ(1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate/glutamate biogenesis is required for fungal virulence and sporulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziting Yao

    Full Text Available Proline dehydrogenase (Prodh and Δ(1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5Cdh are two key enzymes in the cellular biogenesis of glutamate. Recombinant Prodh and P5Cdh proteins of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica were investigated and showed activity in in vitro assays. Additionally, the C. parasitica Prodh and P5Cdh genes were able to complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae put1 and put2 null mutants, respectively, to allow these proline auxotrophic yeast mutants to grow on media with proline as the sole source of nitrogen. Deletion of the Prodh gene in C. parasitica resulted in hypovirulence and a lower level of sporulation, whereas deletion of P5Cdh resulted in hypovirulence though no effect on sporulation; both Δprodh and Δp5cdh mutants were unable to grow on minimal medium with proline as the sole nitrogen source. In a wild-type strain, the intracellular level of proline and the activity of Prodh and P5Cdh increased after supplementation of exogenous proline, though the intracellular Δ(1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C content remained unchanged. Prodh and P5Cdh were both transcriptionally down-regulated in cells infected with hypovirus. The disruption of other genes with products involved in the conversion of arginine to ornithine, ornithine and glutamate to P5C, and P5C to proline in the cytosol did not appear to affect virulence; however, asexual sporulation was reduced in the Δpro1 and Δpro2 mutants. Taken together, our results showed that Prodh, P5Cdh and related mitochondrial functions are essential for virulence and that proline/glutamate pathway components may represent down-stream targets of hypovirus regulation in C. parasitica.

  11. Metabolic alterations in broiler chickens experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas,Fagner Luiz da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic and morphometric alterations of the duodenal villi caused by parasitism of chickens by Eimeria maxima were evaluated, using 100 male Cobb birds, randomly distributed into two groups (control and infected). The infected group was inoculated with 0.5 ml of a solution containing 5×103 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. Ten birds per sample were sacrificed on the 6th, 11th, 22nd and 41st days post-infection (dpi). In order to evaluate the alterations, samples of duodenum, jejunum and...

  12. Comparison of the pathogenicity, growth, sporulation and morphology of Pezicula alba Guthrie (Gloeosporium album Osterw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen isolates of Pezicula alba Guthr. were examined. The intensity of growth on various media, pathogenicity to apple fruits and twigs, colour of cultures and size of conidia were measured. Some isolates are pathogenic to fruits, some others to twigs; one isolate (only no. 19 is pathogenic to both twigs and fruits; many isolates are not - pathogenic at all. Culture growth, sporulation and size of conidia are not correlated with the pathogenicity of the isolate. The mean size of conidia is 21.29µm x 3.48µm.

  13. Post-mortem sporulation of Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) after death in adult Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael L.; Soderlund, K.; Thomann, E.; Schreck, Carl B.; Sharpton, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) is a common gastrointestinal pathogen of salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. We have been investigating this parasite in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Willamette River, Oregon. In prior work, we observed differences in the pattern of development of C. shasta in adult salmon compared to juvenile salmon. Adult salmon consistently had large numbers of prespore stages in many of the fish that survived to spawn in the fall. However, myxospores were rarely observed, even though they were exposed and presumably infected for months before spawning. We evaluated the ability of C. shasta to sporulate following fish death because it is reported that myxosores are common in carcasses of Chinook salmon. We collected the intestine from 30 adult salmon immediately after artificial spawning and death (T0). A total of 23 fish were infected with C. shasta based on histology, but only a few myxospores were observed in 1 fish by histology. Intestines of these fish were examined at T0 and T7 (latter held at 17 C for 7 days) using quantified wet mount preparations. An increase in myxospore concentrations was seen in 39% of these fish, ranging between a 1.5- to a 14.5-fold increase. The most heavily infected fish exhibited a 4.6-fold increase from 27,841 to 129,352 myxospores/cm. This indicates, supported by various statistical analyses, that under certain conditions presporogonic forms are viable and continue to sporulate after death in adult salmon. Considering the life cycle of C. shasta and anadromous salmon, the parasite may have evolved 2, non-mutually exclusive developmental strategies. In young fish (parr and smolts), the parasite sporulates shortly after infection and is released into freshwater from either live or dead fish before their migration to seawater, where the alternate host is absent. The second strategy occurs in adult salmon, particularly spring Chinook salmon, which become infected upon

  14. Myofascial trigger point pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Myofascial trigger point pain is an extremely prevalent cause of persistent pain disorders in all parts of the body, not just the head, neck, and face. Features include deep aching pain in any structure, referred from focally tender points in taut bands of skeletal muscle (the trigger points). Diagnosis depends on accurate palpation with 2-4 kg/cm2 of pressure for 10 to 20 seconds over the suspected trigger point to allow the referred pain pattern to develop. In the head and neck region, cervical muscle trigger points (key trigger points) often incite and perpetuate trigger points (satellite trigger points) and referred pain from masticatory muscles. Management requires identification and control of as many perpetuating factors as possible (posture, body mechanics, psychological stress or depression, poor sleep or nutrition). Trigger point therapies such as spray and stretch or trigger point injections are best used as adjunctive therapy.

  15. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  16. EVALUATION OF SUBSTRATES AND AMF SPORULATION IN THE PRODUCTION OF SEEDLINGS OF NATIVE FOREST SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Moura Gonzaga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate organic substrates in the production of canafistula (Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub, cutieira (Joannesiaprinceps Vell., jatoba (Hymenaea courbaril L. and rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis M. Arg. seedlings, native trees with potential use in forest restoration programs. The design was completely randomized with 10 substrate formulations with 4 repetitions of 3 plants for the four species. The evaluated substrates consisted of soil, bovine manure (BM, poultry manure (PM, chemical fertilizer (CF and sand, in different proportions. The experiment was concluded at the end of 180 days for canafistula, cutieira and rubber and 210 days for jatoba. At the end of these periods, the root (RDM, shoot (SDM and total (TDM the dry matters of the seedlings were determined. Quantification of AMF spores and normalization between samples through SPORES/RDM correction were also performed. The Scott-Knott test at 5% probability was applied. Regarding biomass production, only canafistula had significant difference among the tested substrates. In relation to sporulation, the highest values were observed in cutieira and rubber tree in substrate containing PM. The substrates composed of 40 or 50% soil + 20% sand + 30% or 40 PM for canafistula; 50% soil + 20% sand + 30% PM for cutieira; and for jatoba and rubber tree 60% soil + 20% sand + 20% PM, enabled the best results in terms of biomass production in seedlings and AMF sporulation.

  17. Functional analysis of the sporulation-specific diadenylate cyclase CdaS in Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cao; Ma, Yang; Wang, Xun; Xie, Yuqun; Ali, Maria K.; He, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a recently discovered bacterial secondary messenger molecule, which is associated with various physiological functions. In the genus Bacillus, the intracellular level and turnover of c-di-AMP are mainly regulated by three diadenylate cyclases (DACs), including DisA, CdaA and CdaS, and two c-di-AMP-specific phosphodiesterases (GdpP and PgpH). In this study, we demonstrated that CdaS protein from B. thuringiensis is a hexameric DAC protein that can convert ATP or ADP to c-di-AMP in vitro and the N-terminal YojJ domain is essential for the DAC activity. Based on the markerless gene knock-out method, we demonstrated that the transcription of cdaS was initiated by the sporulation-specific sigma factor σH and the deletion of cdaS significantly delayed sporulation and parasporal crystal formation. These findings contrast with similar experiments conducted using B. subtilis, wherein transcription of its cdaS was initiated by the sigma factor σG. Deletion of all the three DAC genes from a single strain was unsuccessful, suggesting that c-di-AMP is an indispensable molecule in B. thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis indicated increased diversity of CdaS in the B. cereus and B. subtilis Bacillus subgroups. In summary, this study identifies important aspects in the regulation of c-di-AMP in the genus Bacillus. PMID:26441857

  18. clpC operon regulates cell architecture and sporulation in Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lalit K; Dhasmana, Neha; Sajid, Andaleeb; Kumar, Prasun; Bhaduri, Asani; Bharadwaj, Mitasha; Gandotra, Sheetal; Kalia, Vipin C; Das, Taposh K; Goel, Ajay K; Pomerantsev, Andrei P; Misra, Richa; Gerth, Ulf; Leppla, Stephen H; Singh, Yogendra

    2015-03-01

    The clpC operon is known to regulate several processes such as genetic competence, protein degradation and stress survival in bacteria. Here, we describe the role of clpC operon in Bacillus anthracis. We generated knockout strains of the clpC operon genes to investigate the impact of CtsR, McsA, McsB and ClpC deletion on essential processes of B. anthracis. We observed that growth, cell division, sporulation and germination were severely affected in mcsB and clpC deleted strains, while none of deletions affected toxin secretion. Growth defect in these strains was pronounced at elevated temperature. The growth pattern gets restored on complementation of mcsB and clpC in respective mutants. Electron microscopic examination revealed that mcsB and clpC deletion also causes defect in septum formation leading to cell elongation. These vegetative cell deformities were accompanied by inability of mutant strains to generate morphologically intact spores. Higher levels of polyhydroxybutyrate granules accumulation were also observed in these deletion strains, indicating a defect in sporulation process. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, the vital role played by McsB and ClpC in physiology of B. anthracis and open up further interest on this operon, which might be of importance to success of B. anthracis as pathogen. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Asexual sporulation signalling regulates autolysis of Aspergillus nidulans via modulating the chitinase ChiB production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pócsi, I; Leiter, E; Kwon, N-J; Shin, K-S; Kwon, G-S; Pusztahelyi, T; Emri, T; Abuknesha, R A; Price, R G; Yu, J-H

    2009-08-01

    Elucidation of the regulation of ChiB production in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutational inactivation of the A. nidulans chiB gene resulted in a nonautolytic phenotype. To better understand the mechanisms controlling both developmental progression and fungal autolysis, we examined a range of autolysis-associated parameters in A. nidulans developmental and/or autolytic mutants. Investigation of disorganization of mycelial pellets, loss of biomass, extra-/intracellular chitinase activities, ChiB production and chiB mRNA levels in various cultures revealed that, in submerged cultures, initialization of autolysis and stationary phase-induced ChiB production are intimately coupled, and that both processes are controlled by the FluG-BrlA asexual sporulation regulatory pathway. ChiB production does not affect the progression of apoptotic cell death in the aging A. nidulans cultures. The endochitinase ChiB plays an important role in autolysis of A. nidulans, and its production is initiated by FluG-BrlA signalling. Despite the fact that apoptosis is an inseparable part of fungal autolysis, its regulation is independent to FluG-initiated sporulation signalling. Deletion of chiB and fluG homologues in industrial filamentous fungal strains may stabilize the hyphal structures in the autolytic phase of growth and limit the release of autolytic hydrolases into the culture medium.

  20. Growth and Sporulation of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 under Defined Conditions: Temporal Expression of Genes for Key Sigma Factors

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, Ynte P.; Hornstra, Luc M.; de Vos, Willem M.; Abee, Tjakko

    2004-01-01

    An airlift fermentor system allowing precise regulation of pH and aeration combined with a chemically defined medium was used to study growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. Sporulation was complete and synchronous. Expression of sigA, sigB, sigF, and sigG was monitored with real-time reverse transcription-PCR, and the pattern qualitatively resembled that of Bacillus subtilis. This method allows reproducible production of stable spores, while the synchronous growth and defined ...

  1. Growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 under defined conditions: temporal expression of genes for key sigma factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Ynte P; Hornstra, Luc M; de Vos, Willem M; Abee, Tjakko

    2004-04-01

    An airlift fermentor system allowing precise regulation of pH and aeration combined with a chemically defined medium was used to study growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. Sporulation was complete and synchronous. Expression of sigA, sigB, sigF, and sigG was monitored with real-time reverse transcription-PCR, and the pattern qualitatively resembled that of Bacillus subtilis. This method allows reproducible production of stable spores, while the synchronous growth and defined conditions are excellently suitable for further gene expression studies of cellular differentiation of B. cereus.

  2. Common Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grass Other Triggers If you have asthma, an asthma attack can happen when you are exposed to “asthma ... a second person. Secondhand smoke can trigger an asthma attack. If you have asthma, people should never smoke ...

  3. The KLOE trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, M.; Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Andryakov, A.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Bacci, C.; Bankamp, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Bellini, F.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Cabibbo, G.; Calcaterra, A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Carboni, G.; Cardini, A.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; Conticelli, S.; De Lucia, E.; De Robertis, G.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Denig, E.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Doria, A.; Drago, E.; Elia, V.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Golovatyuk, V.; Gorini, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grandegger, W.; Graziani, E.; Guarnaccia, P.; Hagel, U. von; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Jang, Y.Y.; Kim, W.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, F.; Luisi, C.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moalem, A.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nedosekin, A.; Panareo, M.; Pacciani, L.; Pages, P.; Palutan, M.; Paoluzi, L.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passaseo, M.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, G.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pistillo, C.; Pollack, M.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Ruggieri, F.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schwick, C.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Shan, J.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spagnolo, S.; Spiriti, E.; Stanescu, C.; Tong, G.L.; Tortora, L.; Valente, E.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zhao, P.P.; Zhou, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A double-level trigger system has been developed for the KLOE experiment. Custom electronics asserts a trigger in a 2 μs decision time. The decision is based on the combined information of the electromagnetic calorimeter and the drift chamber. The entire trigger system is continuously monitored, and data flowing from the trigger system have allowed both an efficient online monitoring of the detector and an online luminosity measurement

  4. Influence of glutamate on growth, sporulation, and spore properties of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 in defined medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Y.P.; Atmadja, R.D.; Hornstra, L.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2005-01-01

    A chemically defined medium in combination with an airlift fermentor system was used to study the growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. The medium contained six amino acids and lactate as the main carbon sources. The amino acids were depleted during exponential growth, while lactate

  5. Sporulation environment of emetic toxin-producing Bacillus cereus strains determines spore size, heat resistance and germination capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, van der M.; Abee, T.

    2013-01-01

    Aim Heat resistance, germination and outgrowth capacity of Bacillus cereus spores in processed foods are major factors in causing the emetic type of gastrointestinal disease. In this study, we aim to identify the impact of different sporulation conditions on spore properties of emetic

  6. Effect of environmental conditions and lesion age on sporulation of Phytophthora ramorum on California bay laurel, rhododendron, and camellia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Tjosvold; David Chambers; Sylvia Mori

    2013-01-01

    The objective of our research was to determine the environmental conditions and lesion age favorable for Phytophthora ramorum sporulation under field conditions. For 2 years, new camellia, rhododendron, and California bay laurel (Umbellaria californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt.) nursery stock were seasonally inoculated (every 3 months) on foliage....

  7. Assessment of pheromone production and response in fission yeast by a halo test of induced sporulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egel, R; Willer, M; Kjaerulff, S

    1994-01-01

    of exogenous pheromone. The tester strains are heterozygous for mating type, are non-switching, and are mutated in one of the early subfunctions (either mat1-Mc or mat1-Pc), so that meiosis is only induced after exposure to exogenous pheromone (M-factor or P-factor, respectively). Pheromone activity...... is assessed as an iodine-positive halo of sporulation surrounding the pheromone source, and the width of the halo is related to the amount of pheromone being produced. The assay is sufficiently sensitive to monitor the low amount of M-factor produced by an M mam1 strain, and its sensitivity towards P......-factor is greatly increased by using a hyper-sensitive tester strain lacking the Sxa2 protease that is believed to degrade this pheromone. We also demonstrate that the production of P-factor is very much stimulated by exposure of P cells to M-factor....

  8. A model of cell-wall dynamics during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Li-Wei; Endres, Robert G.

    To survive starvation, Bacillus subtilis forms durable spores. After asymmetric cell division, the septum grows around the forespore in a process called engulfment, but the mechanism of force generation is unknown. Here, we derived a novel biophysical model for the dynamics of cell-wall remodeling during engulfment based on a balancing of dissipative, active, and mechanical forces. By plotting phase diagrams, we predict that sporulation is promoted by a line tension from the attachment of the septum to the outer cell wall, as well as by an imbalance in turgor pressures in the mother-cell and forespore compartments. We also predict that significant mother-cell growth hinders engulfment. Hence, relatively simple physical principles may guide this complex biological process.

  9. Effects of selected herbicides and fungicides on growth, sporulation and conidial germination of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celar, Franci A; Kos, Katarina

    2016-11-01

    The in vitro fungicidal effects of six commonly used fungicides, namely fluazinam, propineb, copper(II) hydroxide, metiram, chlorothalonil and mancozeb, and herbicides, namely isoxaflutole, fluazifop-P-butyl, flurochloridone, foramsulfuron, pendimethalin and prosulfocarb, on mycelial growth, sporulation and conidial germination of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (ATCC 74040) were investigated. Mycelial growth rates and sporulation at 15 and 25 °C were evaluated on PDA plates containing 100, 75, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 0% of the recommended application rate of each pesticide. The tested pesticides were classified in four scoring categories based on reduction in mycelial growth and sporulation. All pesticides, herbicides and fungicides tested had fungistatic effects of varying intensity, depending on their rate in the medium, on B. bassiana. The most inhibitory herbicides were flurochloridone and prosulfocarb, and fluazinam and copper(II) hydroxide were most inhibitory among the fungicides, while the least inhibitory were isoxaflutole and chlorothalonil. Sporulation and conidial germination of B. bassiana were significantly inhibited by all tested pesticides compared with the control treatment. Flurochloridone, foramsulfuron, prosulfocarb and copper(II) hydroxide inhibited sporulation entirely at 100% rate (99-100% inhibition), and the lowest inhibition was shown by fluazifop-P-butyl (22%) and metiram (33%). At 100% dosage, all herbicides in the test showed a high inhibitory effect on conidial germination. Conidial germination inhibition ranged from 82% with isoxaflutole to 100% with fluorochloridone, pendimethalin and prosulfocarb. At 200% dosage, inhibition rates even increased (96-100%). All 12 pesticides tested had a fungistatic effect on B. bassiana of varying intensity, depending on the pesticide and its concentration. B. bassiana is highly affected by some herbicides and fungicides even at very low rates. Flurochloridone, foramsulfuron

  10. Trigger Finger (Stenosing Tenosynovitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a friend * required fields From * To * DESCRIPTION Stenosing tenosynovitis is a condition commonly known as “trigger finger.” It is sometimes also called “trigger thumb.” The tendons that bend the fingers glide easily with ...

  11. Causality and headache triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  12. Triggering the GRANDE array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, J.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the Gamma Ray And Neutrino Detector Experiment (GRANDE) is presented. The detector elements and electronics are described. The trigger logic for the array is then examined. The triggers for the Gamma Ray and the Neutrino portions of the array are treated separately. (orig.)

  13. Triggering trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Stefano, Giulia; Maarbjerg, Stine; Nurmikko, Turo

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Although it is widely accepted that facial pain paroxysms triggered by innocuous stimuli constitute a hallmark sign of trigeminal neuralgia, very few studies to date have systematically investigated the role of the triggers involved. In the recently published diagnostic classification...

  14. Application of Two-Stage Cultivation for Exploring the Nutritional Requirements for Sporulation of Three Biocontrol Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungicide was an important part in mycopesticides, which play an important role in pest management, while their mass production and commercialization faced problem. We found that the nutrition for mycelia growth and sporulation differences a lot. So, we developed “two-step method” to define the nutrition for sporulation in this paper. The results indicated that the novel method led to a great increase of spore yields for Beauveria bassiana (IBC1201, Lecanicillium lecanii (CA-1-G, and Pochonia chlamydosporia (HSY-12-14, respectively, of about 100, 2, and 16 times and, also reduced the cycle of mass production to 1/3 compared with common time for culturing.

  15. [Role of the ribosomes in controlling cellular differentiation and secondary metabolism in sporulating bacteria. I. Sporogenesis, antibiotic formation and the proteolytic activity of streptomycin-resistant mutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, A A; Korolev, V I

    1981-01-01

    A ribosomal mutant Bacillus subtilis IG1 resistant to 100 mkg/ml of streptomycin was isolated. The strA mutation is cotransduced with the cysA gene and, consequently, maps in the ribosomal cluster. The mutation does not influence cell division but does reduce a level of sporulation as well as its antibiotic and proteolytic activity. Involvement of ribosomes in the control of sporulation and secondary metabolism of spore forming bacteria is discussed.

  16. Use of green fluorescent protein for visualization of cell-specific gene expression and subcellular protein localization during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, C D; Decatur, A; Teleman, A; Losick, R

    1995-01-01

    We report the use of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) of Aequorea victoria to visualize cell-specific gene expression and protein subcellular localization during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Sporangia bearing the gene (gfp) for the green fluorescent protein fused to genes under the control of the sporulation transcription factor sigma F exhibited a forespore-specific pattern of fluorescence. Forespore-specific fluorescence could be detected with fusions to promoters that are utilized ...

  17. Irrelevant Words Trigger an Attentional Blink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, T.; Zwickel, J.; Kitzmantel, M.; Ritter, J.; Schneider, W.X.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that salient distractor items displayed during rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) trigger an attentional blink (AB) when they share features with the target item. Here we demonstrate that salient distractor words induce an AB independently of feature overlap with the target.

  18. Les bactéries sporulées dans les conserves de légumes (petits pois ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots clés : Conserves végétales - Petits pois- Bactéries sporulées - Identification biochimique. For a consumer more and more aware about the risks for his health, regarding the food he buys, the aim of this study is to verify the hygienic quality of ten batches, each one contains five green peas cans, normal and identical.

  19. Dynamic sporulation gene co-expression networks for Bacillus subtilis 168 and the food-borne isolate Bacillus amyloliquefaciens: a transcriptomic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omony, Jimmy; de Jong, Anne; Krawczyk, Antonina O; Eijlander, Robyn T; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2018-02-09

    Sporulation is a survival strategy, adapted by bacterial cells in response to harsh environmental adversities. The adaptation potential differs between strains and the variations may arise from differences in gene regulation. Gene networks are a valuable way of studying such regulation processes and establishing associations between genes. We reconstructed and compared sporulation gene co-expression networks (GCNs) of the model laboratory strain Bacillus subtilis 168 and the food-borne industrial isolate Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Transcriptome data obtained from samples of six stages during the sporulation process were used for network inference. Subsequently, a gene set enrichment analysis was performed to compare the reconstructed GCNs of B. subtilis 168 and B. amyloliquefaciens with respect to biological functions, which showed the enriched modules with coherent functional groups associated with sporulation. On basis of the GCNs and time-evolution of differentially expressed genes, we could identify novel candidate genes strongly associated with sporulation in B. subtilis 168 and B. amyloliquefaciens. The GCNs offer a framework for exploring transcription factors, their targets, and co-expressed genes during sporulation. Furthermore, the methodology described here can conveniently be applied to other species or biological processes.

  20. Salt-sensitivity of σH and Spo0A prevents sporulation of Bacillus subtilis at high osmolarity avoiding death during cellular differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widderich, Nils; Rodrigues, Christopher D.A.; Commichau, Fabian M.; Fischer, Kathleen E.; Ramirez-Guadiana, Fernando H.; Rudner, David Z.; Bremer, Erhard

    2016-01-01

    Summary The spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis frequently experiences high osmolarity as a result of desiccation in the soil. The formation of a highly desiccation-resistant endospore might serve as a logical osmostress escape route when vegetative growth is no longer possible. However, sporulation efficiency drastically decreases concomitant with an increase in the external salinity. Fluorescence microscopy of sporulation-specific promoter fusions to gfp revealed that high salinity blocks entry into the sporulation pathway at a very early stage. Specifically, we show that both Spo0A- and SigH-dependent transcription are impaired. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the association of SigH with core RNA polymerase is reduced under these conditions. Suppressors that modestly increase sporulation efficiency at high salinity map to the coding region of sigH and in the regulatory region of kinA, encoding one the sensor kinases that activates Spo0A. These findings led us to discover that B. subtilis cells that overproduce KinA can bypass the salt-imposed block in sporulation. Importantly, these cells are impaired in the morphological process of engulfment and late forespore gene expression and frequently undergo lysis. Altogether our data indicate that B. subtilis blocks entry into sporulation in high-salinity environments preventing commitment to a developmental program that it cannot complete. PMID:26712348

  1. Impacts of sporulation temperature, exposure to compost matrix and temperature on survival of Bacillus cereus spores during livestock mortality composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, K; Reuter, T; Gilroyed, B H; McAllister, T A

    2015-04-01

    To investigate impact of sporulation and compost temperatures on feasibility of composting for disposal of carcasses contaminated with Bacillus anthracis. Two strains of B. cereus, 805 and 1391, were sporulated at either 20 or 37°C (Sporulation temperature, ST) and 7 Log10 CFU g(-1) spores added to autoclaved manure in nylon bags (pore size 50 μm) or in sealed vials. Vials and nylon bags were embedded into compost in either a sawdust or manure matrix each containing 16 bovine mortalities (average weight 617 ± 33 kg), retrieved from compost at intervals over 217 days and survival of B. cereus spores assessed. A ST of 20°C decreased spore survival by 1·4 log10 CFU g(-1) (P Compost temperatures >55°C reduced spore survival (P compost temperatures were key factors influencing survival of B. cereus spores in mortality compost. Composting may be most appropriate for the disposal of carcasses infected with B. anthracis at ambient temperatures ≤20°C under thermophillic composting conditions (>55°C). © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Metabolic alterations in broiler chickens experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagner Luiz da Costa Freitas

    Full Text Available Metabolic and morphometric alterations of the duodenal villi caused by parasitism of chickens by Eimeria maxima were evaluated, using 100 male Cobb birds, randomly distributed into two groups (control and infected. The infected group was inoculated with 0.5 ml of a solution containing 5×103 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. Ten birds per sample were sacrificed on the 6th, 11th, 22nd and 41st days post-infection (dpi. In order to evaluate the alterations, samples of duodenum, jejunum and ileum fragments were collected after necropsy for histological analysis. Villus biometry was determined by means of a slide graduated in microns that was attached to a binocular microscope. To evaluate the biochemical data, 5 ml of blood were sampled from the birds before sacrifice. The statistical analyses were performed using the GraphPad 5 statistical software for Windows. Tukey's multiple comparison test (p <0.05 was performed for the different dpi's and the unpaired t test for the difference between the groups. Infection by E. maxima causes both qualitative and quantitative alterations to the structure of the intestinal villi, thereby interfering with the absorption of nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, protein and lipids, with consequent reductions in the birds' weights.

  3. Metabolic alterations in broiler chickens experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Fagner Luiz da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic and morphometric alterations of the duodenal villi caused by parasitism of chickens by Eimeria maxima were evaluated, using 100 male Cobb birds, randomly distributed into two groups (control and infected). The infected group was inoculated with 0.5 ml of a solution containing 5 × 10³ sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. Ten birds per sample were sacrificed on the 6th, 11th, 22nd and 41st days post-infection (dpi). In order to evaluate the alterations, samples of duodenum, jejunum and ileum fragments were collected after necropsy for histological analysis. Villus biometry was determined by means of a slide graduated in microns that was attached to a binocular microscope. To evaluate the biochemical data, 5 ml of blood were sampled from the birds before sacrifice. The statistical analyses were performed using the GraphPad 5 statistical software for Windows. Tukey's multiple comparison test (p <0.05) was performed for the different dpi's and the unpaired t test for the difference between the groups. Infection by E. maxima causes both qualitative and quantitative alterations to the structure of the intestinal villi, thereby interfering with the absorption of nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, protein and lipids, with consequent reductions in the birds' weights.

  4. Cgl-SLT2 is required for appressorium formation, sporulation and pathogenicity in Colletotrichum gloeosporioide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Y. Yong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase pathways has been implicated in the pathogenicity of various pathogenic fungi and plays important roles in regulating pathogenicity-related morphogenesis. This work describes the isolation and characterization of MAP kinase gene, Cgl-SLT2, from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. A DNA sequence, including 1,633 bp of Cgl-SLT2 open-reading frame and its promoter and terminator regions, was isolated via DNA walking and cloned. To analyze gene function, a gene disruption cassette containing hygromycin-resistant gene was constructed, and Cgl-SLT2 was inactivated via gene deletion. Analysis on Cgl-slt2 mutant revealed a defect in vegetative growth and sporulation as compared to the wild-type strain. When grown under nutrient-limiting conditions, hyperbranched hyphal morphology was observed in the mutant. Conidia induction for germination on rubber wax-coated hard surfaces revealed no differences in the percentage of conidial germination between the wild-type and Cgl-slt2 mutant. However, the percentage of appressorium formation in the mutant was greatly reduced. Bipolar germination in the mutant was higher than in the wild-type at 8-h post-induction. A pathogenicity assay revealed that the mutant was unable to infect either wounded or unwounded mangoes. These results suggest that the Cgl-SLT2 MAP kinase is required for C. gloeosporioides conidiation, polarized growth, appressorium formation and pathogenicity.

  5. Roles of the DYRK kinase Pom2 in cytokinesis, mitochondrial morphology, and sporulation in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Wu

    Full Text Available Pom2 is predicted to be a dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase (DYRK related to Pom1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. DYRKs share a kinase domain capable of catalyzing autophosphorylation on tyrosine and exogenous phosphorylation on serine/threonine residues. Here we show that Pom2 is functionally different from the well-characterized Pom1, although they share 55% identity in the kinase domain and the Pom2 kinase domain functionally complements that of Pom1. Pom2 localizes to mitochondria throughout the cell cycle and to the contractile ring during late stages of cytokinesis. Overexpression but not deletion of pom2 results in severe defects in cytokinesis, indicating that Pom2 might share an overlapping function with other proteins in regulating cytokinesis. Gain and loss of function analyses reveal that Pom2 is required for maintaining mitochondrial morphology independently of microtubules. Intriguingly, most meiotic pom2Δ cells form aberrant asci with meiotic and/or forespore membrane formation defects. Taken together, Pom2 is a novel DYRK kinase involved in regulating cytokinesis, mitochondrial morphology, meiosis, and sporulation in fission yeast.

  6. Assessing the Impact of Germination and Sporulation Conditions on the Adhesion of Bacillus Spores to Glass and Stainless Steel by Fluid Dynamic Gauging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu Zhou, Ke; Li, Nan; Christie, Graham; Wilson, D Ian

    2017-11-01

    The adhesion of spores of 3 Bacillus species with distinctive morphologies to stainless steel and borosilicate glass was studied using the fluid dynamic gauging technique. Marked differences were observed between different species of spores, and also between spores of the same species prepared under different sporulation conditions. Spores of the food-borne pathogen B. cereus were demonstrated to be capable of withstanding shear stresses greater than 1500 Pa when adhered to stainless steel, in contrast to spores of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium, which detached in response to lower shear stress. An extended DLVO model was shown to be capable of predicting the relative differences in spore adhesion between spores of different species and different culture conditions, but did not predict absolute values of force of adhesion well. Applying the model to germinating spores showed a significant reduction in adhesion force shortly after triggering germination, indicating a potential strategy to achieve enhanced removal of spores from surfaces in response to shear stress, such as during cleaning-in-place procedures. Spore-forming bacteria are a concern to the food industry because they have the potential to cause food-borne illness and product spoilage, while being strongly adhesive to processing surfaces and resistant to cleaning-in-place procedures. This work is of significance to the food processors and manufacturers because it offers insight to the properties of spore adhesion and identifies a potential strategy to facilitate the removal of spores during cleaning procedures. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists.

  7. The ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Hauser, R

    2004-01-01

    ATLAS is one of two general-purpose detectors at the next generation proton-proton collider, the LHC. The high rate of interactions and the large number of read-out channels make the trigger system for ATLAS a challenging task. The initial bunch crossing rate of 40~MHz has to be reduced to about 200 Hz while preserving the physics signals against a large background. ATLAS uses a three-level trigger system, with the first level implemented in custom hardware, while the high level trigger systems are implemented in software on commodity hardware. This note describes the physics motivation, the various selection strategies for different channels as well as the physical implementation of the trigger system.

  8. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  9. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your house and may trigger asthma. Your asthma or your child's asthma may be worse around products such as ... You Can Take If you find that your asthma or your child's asthma gets worse when you use a certain ...

  10. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Igonkina, O; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Alexandre, G; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Backlund, S; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Bee, C; Behera, P; Bell, P; Bendel, M; Benslama, K; Berry, T; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Bold, T; Booth, J R A; Bosman, M; Boyd, J; Bracinik, J; Brawn, I, P; Brelier, B; Brooks, W; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Casadei, D; Casado, P; Cerri, A; Charlton, D G; Childers, J T; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Davis, A O; De Santo, A; Degenhardt, J; Delsart, P A; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Mattia, A; Diaz, M; Djilkibaev, R; Dobson, E; Dova, M, T; Dufour, M A; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Faulkner, P J W; Ferland, J; Flacher, H; Fleckner, J E; Flowerdew, M; Fonseca-Martin, T; Fratina, S; Fhlisch, F; Gadomski, S; Gallacher, M P; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gee, C N P; George, S; Gillman, A R; Goncalo, R; Grabowska-Bold, I; Groll, M; Gringer, C; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hauser, R; Hellman, S; Hidvgi, A; Hillier, S J; Hryn'ova, T; Idarraga, J; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Kalinowski, A; Khoriauli, G; Kirk, J; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Koeneke, K; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Kwee, R; Landon, M; LeCompte, T; Ledroit, F; Lei, X; Lendermann, V; Lilley, J N; Losada, M; Maettig, S; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Maltrana, D; Marino, C; Masik, J; Meier, K; Middleton, R P; Mincer, A; Moa, T; Monticelli, F; Moreno, D; Morris, J D; Mller, F; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nemethy, P; Neusiedl, A; Oltmann, B; Olvito, D; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Parodi, F; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Perez Reale, V; Petersen, B; Pinzon, G; Potter, C; Prieur, D P F; Prokishin, F; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Reinsch, A; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S; Rodriguez, D; Rogriquez, Y; Rhr, F; Saavedra, A; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santamarina Rios, C; Scannicchio, D; Schiavi, C; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schfer, U; Segura, E; Silverstein, D; Silverstein, S; Sivoklokov, S; Sjlin, J; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strom, D; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Torrence, E; Tripiana, M; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Vachon, B; Vercesi, V; Vorwerk, V; Wang, M; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Weidberg, T; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Whiteson, D; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wildt, M; Winklmeier, F; Wu, X; Xella, S; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; de Seixas, J M; dos Anjos, A; Asman, B; Özcan, E

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 105 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  11. The ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Rhys Edward; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment employs a complex trigger system to enable the collaborations physics program. The LHC is now well in to its second running period delivering proton proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with high instantaneous luminosity. This talk will describe the two level hardware and software trigger used to select events in this environment including recent improvements and the latest performance results.

  12. 2017 Tau Trigger Efficiencies

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Triggers selecting events with hadronically decaying $\\tau$ leptons ($\\tau_h$) are used in a wide variety of CMS analyses, in particular those targeting processes with a $H \\rightarrow \\tau\\tau$ decay. The performance of the $\\tau_h$ triggers is presented for data collected in 2017, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 41.5\\,fb$^{-1}$ at 13 TeV, and compared with simulation.

  13. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00400931; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-23

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. ...

  14. Topological Trigger Developments

    CERN Multimedia

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected an almost 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%, and its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and uBoost. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. These inclu...

  15. Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger starts firing

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Hillier

    2007-01-01

    L1Calo is one of the major components of ATLAS First Level trigger, along with the Muon Trigger and Central Trigger Processor. It forms all of the first-level calorimeter-based triggers, including electron, jet, tau and missing ET. The final system consists of over 250 custom designed 9U VME boards, most containing a dense array of FPGAs or ASICs. It is subdivided into a PreProcessor, which digitises the incoming trigger signals from the Liquid Argon and Tile calorimeters, and two separate processor systems, which perform the physics algorithms. All of these are highly flexible, allowing the possibility to adapt to beam conditions and luminosity. All parts of the system are read out through Read-Out Drivers, which provide monitoring data and Region of Interest (RoI) information for the Level-2 trigger. Production of the modules is now essentially complete, and enough modules exist to populate the full scale system in USA15. Installation is proceeding rapidly - approximately 90% of the final modules are insta...

  16. CMS Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Donato, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    During its second run of operation (Run 2) which started in 2015, the LHC will deliver a peak instantaneous luminosity that may reach $2 \\cdot 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ with an average pile-up of about 55, far larger than the design value. Under these conditions, the online event selection is a very challenging task. In CMS, it is realized by a two-level trigger system the Level-1 (L1) Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. In order to face this challenge, the L1 trigger has been through a major upgrade compared to Run 1, whereby all electronic boards of the system have been replaced, allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be run online. Its last stage, the global trigger, is now able to perform complex selections and to compute high-level quantities, like invariant masses. Likewise, the algorithms that run in the HLT go through big improvements; in particular, new appr...

  17. The CMS trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; El Sawy, Mai; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kothekar, Kunal; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; 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Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-01-24

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, $\\tau$ lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  18. Determining the Pathogenic Potential of Non-sporulating Molds Isolated from Cutaneous Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaprakasam, Nantha Kumar; Razak, Mohd Fuat Abdul; Ahmad, Noor Azimah Binti; Santhanam, Jacinta

    2016-06-01

    Although non-sporulating molds (NSM) are frequently isolated from patients and have been recognized as agents of pulmonary disease, their clinical significance in cutaneous specimens is relatively unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to identify NSM and to determine the keratinolytic activity of isolates from cutaneous sites. NSM isolates from clinical specimens such as skin, nail, and body fluids were identified based on their ribosomal DNA sequences. Of 17 NSM isolates (7 Ascomycota, 10 Basidiomycota), eleven were identified to species level while five were identified to the genus level. These include Schizophyllum commune, a known human pathogen, Phoma multirostrata, a plant pathogen, and Perenniporia tephropora, a saprophyte. To determine fungal pathogenicity, keratinolytic activity, a major virulence factor, was evaluated ex vivo using human nail samples by measuring dye release from keratin azure, for NSM along with pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Fusarium spp.) and nonpathogenic (endophyte) fungi for comparison. This study showed that pathogenic fungi had the highest keratinolytic activity (7.13 ± 0.552 keratinase units) while the nonpathogenic endophytes had the lowest activity (2.37 ± 0.262 keratinase units). Keratinolytic activity of two Ascomycota NSM (Guignardia mangiferae and Hypoxylon sp.) and one Basidiomycota NSM (Fomitopsis cf. meliae) was equivalent to that of pathogenic fungi, while Xylaria feejeensis showed significantly higher activity (p < 0.05) than nonpathogenic endophytes. These results indicate that the pathogenic ability of NSM is species dependent; clinical isolates, especially more frequently isolated species, may be involved in disease etiology.

  19. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rados, PK; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Physics processes involving tau leptons play a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the high energy frontier. The ability to efficiently trigger on events containing hadronic tau decays is therefore of particular importance to the ATLAS experiment. During the 2012 run, the Large Hadronic Collder (LHC) reached instantaneous luminosities of nearly $10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ with bunch crossings occurring every $50 ns$. This resulted in a huge event rate and a high probability of overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up). With this in mind it was necessary to design an ATLAS tau trigger system that could reduce the event rate to a manageable level, while efficiently extracting the most interesting physics events in a pile-up robust manner. In this poster the ATLAS tau trigger is described, its performance during 2012 is presented, and the outlook for the LHC Run II is briefly summarized.

  20. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM; Schare, Joshua M [Albuquerque, NM; Bunch, Kyle [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  1. Trigger and decision processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, G.

    1980-11-01

    In recent years there have been many attempts in high energy physics to make trigger and decision processes faster and more sophisticated. This became necessary due to a permanent increase of the number of sensitive detector elements in wire chambers and calorimeters, and in fact it was possible because of the fast developments in integrated circuits technique. In this paper the present situation will be reviewed. The discussion will be mainly focussed upon event filtering by pure software methods and - rather hardware related - microprogrammable processors as well as random access memory triggers. (orig.)

  2. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  3. Increase of the Bacillus thuringiensis secreted toxicity against lepidopteron larvae by homologous expression of the vip3LB gene during sporulation stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Sameh; Jamoussi, Kaïs; Dabbeche, Emna; Jaoua, Samir

    2011-09-01

    The Vegetative insecticidal Vip3A proteins display a wide range of insecticidal spectrum against several agricultural insect pests. The fact that the expression of vip3 genes occurs only during the vegetative growth phase of Bacillus thuringiensis is a limiting factor in term of production level. Therefore, extending the synthesis of the Vip proteins to the sporulation phase is a good alternative to reach high levels of toxin synthesis. In this study, we have demonstrated that the maximal production of the secreted Vip3LB (also called Vip3Aa16) during the growth of the wild-type strain B. thuringiensis BUPM 95 is reached at the end of the vegetative growth phase, and that the protein remains relatively stable in the culture supernatant during the late sporulation stages. The vip3LB gene was cloned and expressed under the control of the sporulation dependant promoters BtI and BtII in B. thuringiensis BUPM 106 (Vip3(-)) and BUPM 95 (Vip3(+)) strains. The examination of the culture supernatants during the sporulation phase evidenced the synthesis of Vip3LB and its toxicity against the second-instars larvae of the Lepidopteron insect Spodoptera littoralis for the recombinant BUPM 106. Moreover, there was an increase of the Vip3LB synthesis level and an enhancement of the oral toxicity for the recombinant BUPM 95 resulting from the expression of the vip3LB gene during both the vegetative and sporulation phases and the relative stability of the Vip3LB protein.

  4. The comER Gene Plays an Important Role in Biofilm Formation and Sporulation in both Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Yu, Yiyang; Wang, Luyao; Luo, Yuming; Guo, Jian-Hua; Chai, Yunrong

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria adopt alternative cell fates during development. In Bacillus subtilis, the transition from planktonic growth to biofilm formation and sporulation is controlled by a complex regulatory circuit, in which the most important event is activation of Spo0A, a transcription factor and a master regulator for genes involved in both biofilm formation and sporulation. In B. cereus, the regulatory pathway controlling biofilm formation and cell differentiation is much less clear. In this study, we show that a novel gene, comER, plays a significant role in biofilm formation as well as sporulation in both B. subtilis and B. cereus. Mutations in the comER gene result in defects in biofilm formation and a delay in spore formation in the two Bacillus species. Our evidence supports the idea that comER may be part of the regulatory circuit that controls Spo0A activation. comER likely acts upstream of sda, a gene encoding a small checkpoint protein for both sporulation and biofilm formation, by blocking the phosphor-relay and thereby Spo0A activation. In summary, our studies outlined a conserved, positive role for comER, a gene whose function was previously uncharacterized, in the regulation of biofilm formation and sporulation in the two Bacillus species.

  5. The comER Gene Plays an Important Role in Biofilm Formation and Sporulation in both Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Yu, Yiyang; Wang, Luyao; Luo, Yuming; Guo, Jian-hua; Chai, Yunrong

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria adopt alternative cell fates during development. In Bacillus subtilis, the transition from planktonic growth to biofilm formation and sporulation is controlled by a complex regulatory circuit, in which the most important event is activation of Spo0A, a transcription factor and a master regulator for genes involved in both biofilm formation and sporulation. In B. cereus, the regulatory pathway controlling biofilm formation and cell differentiation is much less clear. In this study, we show that a novel gene, comER, plays a significant role in biofilm formation as well as sporulation in both B. subtilis and B. cereus. Mutations in the comER gene result in defects in biofilm formation and a delay in spore formation in the two Bacillus species. Our evidence supports the idea that comER may be part of the regulatory circuit that controls Spo0A activation. comER likely acts upstream of sda, a gene encoding a small checkpoint protein for both sporulation and biofilm formation, by blocking the phosphor-relay and thereby Spo0A activation. In summary, our studies outlined a conserved, positive role for comER, a gene whose function was previously uncharacterized, in the regulation of biofilm formation and sporulation in the two Bacillus species. PMID:27446060

  6. Triggering in Thermoacoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Juniper

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Under certain conditions, the flow in a combustion chamber can sustain large amplitude oscillations even when its steady state is linearly stable. Experimental studies show that these large oscillations can sometimes be triggered by very low levels of background noise. This theoretical paper sets out the conditions that are necessary for triggering to occur. It uses a weakly nonlinear analysis to show when these conditions will be satisfied for cases where the heat release rate is a function of the acoustic velocity. The role played by non-normality is investigated. It is shown that, when a state triggers to sustained oscillations from the lowest possible energy, it exploits transient energy growth around an unstable limit cycle. The positions of these limit cycles in state space is determined by nonlinearity, but the tangled-ness of trajectories in state space is determined by non-normality. When viewed in this dynamical systems framework, triggering in thermoacoustics is seen to be directly analogous to bypass transition to turbulence in pipe flow.

  7. Solated Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Albajar, Carmen

    2000-01-01

    An Isolated Muon L1 Trigger is proposed to reject muons from decays of b and c-quarks preserving high efficiency for muons from heavier objects. It is shown that the proposed algorithm is feasible and significant rejection factor ( 3-10) can be achieved. Similar algorithm can be applied at L2.

  8. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one trigger that you shouldn't avoid because exercise is important for your health. Your doctor will want you to be active, so talk with him or her about what to do before playing ... or 15 minutes before you exercise or play sports. And, of course, you'll ...

  9. Performance of the ATLAS Trigger System in 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Brubaker, Erik; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Byatt, Tom; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camard, Arnaud; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Cammin, Jochen; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Cazzato, Antonio; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Li; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cuneo, Stefano; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Rocha Gesualdi Mello, Aline; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dahlhoff, Andrea; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Dauvergne, Jean-Pierre; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; De Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Oliveira Branco, Miguel; De Pedis, Daniele; de Saintignon, Paul; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Deile, Mario; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dieli, Michele Vincenzo; Dietl, Hans; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djilkibaev, Rashid; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Dogan, Ozgen Berkol; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dubbs, Tim; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Dzahini, Daniel; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckert, Simon; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Ely, Robert; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falou, Alain; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Ivan; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Föhlisch, Florian; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouanère, Michel; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grabski, Varlen; Grafström, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griesmayer, Erich; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grognuz, Joel; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heine, Kristin; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heldmann, Michael; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmes, Alan; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Idzik, Marek; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imhaeuser, Martin; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ionescu, Gelu; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishii, Koji; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Itoh, Yuki; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Ju, Xiangyang; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Keung, Justin; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasel, Olaf; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuykendall, William; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvasnicka, Ondrej; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lapin, Vladimir; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Wing; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorato, Antonia; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Lazzaro, Alfio; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebedev, Alexander; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lu, Liang; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Maß, Martin; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meuser, Stefan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohn, Bjarte; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morais, Antonio; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morita, Youhei; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morone, Maria-Christina; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muijs, Sandra; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murakami, Koichi; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nožička, Miroslav; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohska, Tokio Kenneth; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Ortega, Eduardo; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Øye, Ola; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Peric, Ivan; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Onne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Plano, Will; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Porter, Robert; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rensch, Bertram; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieke, Stefan; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodier, Stephane; Rodriguez, Diego; Rodriguez Garcia, Yohany; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Maltrana, Diego; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rossi, Lucio; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rulikowska-Zarebska, Elzbieta; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Runolfsson, Ogmundur; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Savva, Panagiota; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmidt, Michael; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Christian; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siebel, Anca-Mirela; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloan, Terrence; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorbi, Massimo; Sosebee, Mark; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockmanns, Tobias; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taga, Adrian; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timmermans, Charles; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jürgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Treis, Johannes; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tyrvainen, Harri; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; Van Eijk, Bob; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Viret, Sébastien; Virzi, Joseph; Vitale, Antonio; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yamada, Miho; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Weiming; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zalite, Youris; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Anton; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-03

    Proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV and heavy ion collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=2.76 TeV were produced by the LHC and recorded using the ATLAS experiment's trigger system in 2010. The LHC is designed with a maximum bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz and the ATLAS trigger system is designed to record approximately 200 of these per second. The trigger system selects events by rapidly identifying signatures of muon, electron, photon, tau lepton, jet, and B meson candidates, as well as using global event signatures, such as missing transverse energy. An overview of the ATLAS trigger system, the evolution of the system during 2010 and the performance of the trigger system components and selections based on the 2010 collision data are shown. A brief outline of plans for the trigger system in 2011 is presented

  10. Quasi-Topotactic Transformation of FeOOH Nanorods to Robust Fe2O3 Porous Nanopillars Triggered with a Facile Rapid Dehydration Strategy for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Aizhen; He, Huichao; Tang, Lanqin; Li, Yichang; Zhang, Jiyuan; Chen, Jiani; Chen, Lan; Zhang, Chunfeng; Zhou, Yong; Zou, Zhigang

    2018-03-28

    A facile rapid dehydration (RD) strategy is explored for quasi-topotactic transformation of FeOOH nanorods to robust Fe 2 O 3 porous nanopillars, avoiding collapse, shrink, and coalescence, and compared with a conventional treatment route. Additionally, the so-called RD process is capable of generating a beneficial porous structure for photoelectrochemical water oxidation. The obtained RD-Fe 2 O 3 photoanode exhibits a photocurrent density as high as 2.0 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) and a saturated photocurrent density of 3.5 mA cm -2 at 1.71 V versus RHE without any cocatalysts, which is about 270% improved photocurrent density over Fe 2 O 3 with the conventional temperature-rising route (0.75 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V vs RHE and 1.48 mA cm -2 at 1.71 V vs RHE, respectively). The enhanced photocurrent on RD-Fe 2 O 3 is attributed to a synergistic effect of the following factors: (i) preservation of single crystalline nanopillars decreases the charge-carrier recombination; (ii) formation of long nanopillars enhances light harvesting; and (iii) the porous structure shortens the hole transport distance from the bulk material to the electrode-electrolyte interface.

  11. Kinetic modeling of sporulation and product formation in stationary phase by Bacillus coagulans RK-02 vis-à-vis other Bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhasish; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2011-10-01

    A logistic kinetic model was derived and validated to characterize the dynamics of a sporogenous bacterium in stationary phase with respect to sporulation and product formation. The kinetic constants as determined using this model are particularly important for describing intrinsic properties of a sporogenous bacterial culture in stationary phase. Non-linear curve fitting of the experimental data into the mathematical model showed very good correlation with the predicted values for sporulation and lipase production by Bacillus coagulans RK-02 culture in minimal media. Model fitting of literature data of sporulation and product (protease and amylase) formation in the stationary phase by some other Bacilli and comparison of the results of model fitting with those of Bacillus coagulans helped validate the significance and robustness of the developed kinetic model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Major drawbacks and additional benefits of agonist trigger--not ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome related

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Bruce S; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2015-01-01

    The GnRH agonist trigger alters traditional IVF paradigms when compared with hCG-only triggers. The agonist trigger induces rapid luteolysis and therefore separates the oocyte maturation aspect of LH from the luteal support previously afforded by lingering hCG. This might allow customized and mor...

  13. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rados, Petar Kevin

    2013-06-01

    The tau lepton plays a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the Tera scale. One of the most promising probes of the Higgs boson coupling to fermions is with detector signatures involving taus. In addition, many theories beyond the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles (W' and Z'), predict new physics with large couplings to taus. The ability to trigger on hadronic tau decays is therefore critical to achieving the physics goals of the ATLAS experiment. The higher instantaneous luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2012 resulted in a larger probability of overlap (pile-up) between bunch crossings, and so it was critical for ATLAS to have an effective tau trigger strategy. The details of this strategy are summarized in this paper, and the results of the latest performance measurements are presented. (authors)

  14. Minimum risk trigger indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, F.H.

    1979-01-01

    A viable safeguards system includes among other things the development and use of indices which trigger various courses of action. The usual limit of error calculation provides such an index. The classical approach is one of constructing tests which, under certain assumptions, make the likelihood of a false alarm small. Of concern also is the test's failure to indicate a loss (diversion) when in fact one has occurred. Since false alarms are usually costly and losses both costly and of extreme strategic sinificance, there remains the task of balancing the probability of false alarm and its consequences against the probability of undetected loss and its consequences. The application of other than classical hypothesis testing procedures are considered in this paper. Using various consequence models, trigger indices are derived which have certain optimum properties. Application of the techniques would enhance the material control function

  15. The LPS trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benotto, F.; Costa, M.; Staiano, A.; Zampieri, A.; Bollito, M.; Isoardi, P.; Pernigotti, E.; Sacchi, R.; Trapani, P.P.; Larsen, H.; Massam, T.; Nemoz, C.

    1996-03-01

    The Leading Proton Spectrometer (LPS) has been equipped with microstrip silicon detectors specially designed to trigger events with high values of x L vertical stroke anti p' p vertical stroke / vertical stroke anti p p vertical stroke ≥0.95 where vertical stroke anti p' p vertical stroke and vertical stroke anti p p vertical stroke are respectively the momenta of outgoing and incoming protons. The LPS First Level Trigger can provide a clear tag for very high momentum protons in a kinematical region never explored before. In the following we discuss the physics motivation in tagging very forward protons and present a detailed description of the detector design, the front end electronics, the readout electronics, the Monte Carlo simulation and some preliminary results from 1995 data taking. (orig.)

  16. THE EFFECT OF GROWTH PARAMETERS ON THE ANTIBIOTIC ACTIVITY AND SPORULATION IN BACILLUS SPP. ISOLATED FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev Usta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-two Bacillus strains, which were isolated from different soil samples, were screened for antibiotic properties. The Bacillus strains were checked for antibacterial properties by the cross-streak method against 5 test pathogens, and 25 Bacillus strains had an effect on the test microorganisms. One strain of Bacillus, which exhibited the largest inhibition zone (25 mm against Shigella sonnei, was named Bacillus sp. EA62. The antibacterial activity from Bacillus sp. EA62 was tested in six different culture media against Shigella sonnei using the agar well diffusion method. The best activity medium was selected and used for further studies. The influence of the incubation period, pH, and different glucose and nitrogen concentrations on the antibacterial activity was studied. The optimal conditions for the strongest antibiotic activity were found to be 72 hours (18 mm, pH 7.5 (23 mm, 3% glucose (25 mm, and 0.3% nitrogen concentration (23 mm. Additionally, the relationship between the antibiotic activity and sporulation was investigated. Accordingly, it was determined that the increase of the activity paralleled sporulation.

  17. Antimicrobial copper alloy surfaces are effective against vegetative but not sporulated cells of gram-positive Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Kaungmyat; Long, Janet; Michels, Corinne A; Gadura, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the role of membrane phospholipid peroxidation in the copper alloy mediated contact killing of Bacillus subtilis, a spore-forming gram-positive bacterial species. We found that B. subtilis endospores exhibited significant resistance to copper alloy surface killing but vegetative cells were highly sensitive to copper surface exposure. Cell death and lipid peroxidation occurred in B. subtilis upon copper alloy surface exposure. In a sporulation-defective strain carrying a deletion of almost the entire SpoIIA operon, lipid peroxidation directly correlated with cell death. Moreover, killing and lipid peroxidation initiated immediately and at a constant rate upon exposure to the copper surface without the delay observed previously in E. coli. These findings support the hypothesis that membrane lipid peroxidation is the initiating event causing copper surface induced cell death of B. subtilis vegetative cells. The findings suggest that the observed differences in the kinetics of copper-induced killing compared to E. coli result from differences in cell envelop structure. As demonstrated in E. coli, DNA degradation was shown to be a secondary effect of copper exposure in a B. subtilis sporulation-defective strain. PMID:26185055

  18. GLAST's GBM Burst Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, D.; Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V.; Kippen, M.; Preece, R.

    2003-01-01

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will detect and localize bursts for the GLAST mission, and provide the spectral and temporal context in the traditional 10 keV to 25 MeV band for the high energy observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT). The GBM will use traditional rate triggers in up to three energy bands, and on a variety of timescales between 16 ms and 16 s.

  19. The ARGUS vertex trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, N.; Kolander, M.; Kolanoski, H.; Siegmund, T.; Bergter, J.; Eckstein, P.; Schubert, K.R.; Waldi, R.; Imhof, M.; Ressing, D.; Weiss, U.; Weseler, S.

    1995-09-01

    A fast second level trigger has been developed for the ARGUS experiment which recognizes tracks originating from the interaction region. The processor compares the hits in the ARGUS Micro Vertex Drift Chamber to 245760 masks stored in random access memories. The masks which are fully defined in three dimensions are able to reject tracks originating in the wall of the narrow beampipe of 10.5 mm radius. (orig.)

  20. Neural networks for triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, B.; Campbell, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Chriss, N.; Bowers, C.; Nesti, F.

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  1. Physics issues on triggering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The detector at the international linear collider (ILC) should be able to run 'trig- gerless' which means that all events can be read out and then be analysed with the offline reconstruction program in a trigger farm. The event rates for 'high Q2' events like W-pairs or q¯q are low, about 0.1/train. However, there is a significant.

  2. Alternative Sigma Factors SigF, SigE, and SigG Are Essential for Sporulation in Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, David G.; Zhang, Zhen; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum produces heat-resistant endospores that may germinate and outgrow into neurotoxic cultures in foods. Sporulation is regulated by the transcription factor Spo0A and the alternative sigma factors SigF, SigE, SigG, and SigK in most spore formers studied to date. We constructed mutants of sigF, sigE, and sigG in C. botulinum ATCC 3502 and used quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and electron microscopy to assess their expression of the sporulation pathway on transcription...

  3. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow motion and slow, deep

  4. The effect of metal ions commonly present in food on gene expression of sporulating Bacillus subtilis cells in relation to spore wet heat resistance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomes, S.J.C.M.; Brul, S.

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a food spoilage spore-forming bacterium. The spores can be very heat-resistant and may cause problems in the production of foods. Varying the metal concentration in the sporulation media is known to influence the heat resistance of the spores. The effect of changing the metal

  5. Dynamic sporulation gene co-expression networks for Bacillus subtilis 168 and the food-borne isolate Bacillus amyloliquefaciens : a transcriptomic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omony, Jimmy; de Jong, Anne; Krawczyk, Antonina O; Eijlander, Robyn T; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2018-01-01

    Sporulation is a survival strategy, adapted by bacterial cells in response to harsh environmental adversities. The adaptation potential differs between strains and the variations may arise from differences in gene regulation. Gene networks are a valuable way of studying such regulation processes and

  6. A Gene Expressed during Sexual and Asexual Sporulation in Phytophthora infestans is a Member of the Puf Family of Translational Regulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvitanich, Cristina; Judelson, Howard S.

    2003-01-01

    A gene from Phytophthora infestans that was previously identified as being induced during the development of sexual spores was also found to be active during asexual sporulation. The gene, M90, was expressed as a 3.1-kb primary transcript containing two introns and was predicted to encode a member...

  7. ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Belanger-Champagne, C; Bosman, M; Brenner, R; Casado, MP; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Demers, S; Farrington, S; Igonkina, O; Kalinowski, A; Kanaya, N; Osuna, C; Pérez, E; Ptacek, E; Reinsch, A; Saavedra, A; Sopczak, A; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Tsuno, S; Vorwerk, V; Watson, A; Xella, S

    2008-01-01

    Moving to the high energy scale of the LHC, the identification of tau leptons will become a necessary and very powerful tool, allowing a discovery of physics beyond Standard Model. Many models, among them light SM Higgs and various SUSY models, predict an abundant production of taus with respect to other leptons. The reconstruction of hadronic tau decays, although a very challenging task in hadronic enviroments, allows to increase a signal efficiency by at least of factor 2, and provides an independent control sample to disantangle lepton tau decays from prompt electrons and muons. Thanks to the advanced calorimetry and tracking, the ATLAS experiment has developed tools to efficiently identify hadronic taus at the trigger level. In this presentation we will review the characteristics of taus and the methods to suppress low-multiplicity, low-energy jets contributions as well as we will address the tau trigger chain which provide a rejection rate of 10^5. We will further present plans for commissioning the ATLA...

  8. The D0 calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, J.

    1992-12-01

    The D0 calorimeter trigger system consists of many levels to make physics motivated trigger decisions. The Level-1 trigger uses hardware techniques to reduce the trigger rate from ∼ 100kHz to 200Hz. It forms sums of electromagnetic and hadronic energy, globally and in towers, along with finding the missing transverse energy. A minimum energy is set on these energy sums to pass the event. The Level-2 trigger is a set of software filters, operating in a parallel-processing microvax farm which further reduces the trigger rate to a few Hertz. These filters will reject events which lack electron candidates, jet candidates, or missing transverse energy in the event. The performance of these triggers during the early running of the D0 detector will also be discussed

  9. Minimum Bias Trigger in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kwee, R E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic pp-collisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.09 < |eta| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presen...

  10. Morphological and genetic characterization of group I Clostridium botulinum type B strain 111 and the transcriptional regulator spoIIID gene knockout mutant in sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, Koji; Kuwana, Ritsuko; Takamatsu, Hiromu; Kohda, Tomoko; Kozaki, Shunji; Mukamoto, Masafumi

    2015-06-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a heat-resistant spore-forming bacterium that causes the serious paralytic illness botulism. Heat-resistant spores may cause food sanitation hazards and sporulation plays a central role in the survival of C. botulinum. We observed morphological changes and investigated the role of the transcriptional regulator SpoIIID in the sporulation of C. botulinum type B strain 111 in order to elucidate the molecular mechanism in C. botulinum. C. botulinum type B formed heat-resistant spores through successive morphological changes corresponding to those of Bacillus subtilis, a spore-forming model organism. An analysis of the spoIIID gene knockout mutant revealed that the transcriptional regulator SpoIIID contributed to heat-resistant spore formation by C. botulinum type B and activated the transcription of the sigK gene later during sporulation. Transcription of the spoIIID gene, which differed from that in B. subtilis and Clostridium difficile, was observed in the sigE gene knockout mutant of C. botulinum type B. An analysis of the sigF gene knockout mutant showed that the sporulation-specific sigma factor SigF was essential for transcription of the spoIIID gene in C. botulinum type B. These results suggest that the regulation of sporulation in C. botulinum is not similar to that in B. subtilis and other clostridia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alternative sigma factors SigF, SigE, and SigG are essential for sporulation in Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, David G; Zhang, Zhen; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

    2014-08-01

    Clostridium botulinum produces heat-resistant endospores that may germinate and outgrow into neurotoxic cultures in foods. Sporulation is regulated by the transcription factor Spo0A and the alternative sigma factors SigF, SigE, SigG, and SigK in most spore formers studied to date. We constructed mutants of sigF, sigE, and sigG in C. botulinum ATCC 3502 and used quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and electron microscopy to assess their expression of the sporulation pathway on transcriptional and morphological levels. In all three mutants the expression of spo0A was disrupted. The sigF and sigE mutants failed to induce sigG and sigK beyond exponential-phase levels and halted sporulation during asymmetric cell division. In the sigG mutant, peak transcription of sigE was delayed and sigK levels remained lower than that in the parent strain. The sigG mutant forespore was engulfed by the mother cell and possessed a spore coat but no peptidoglycan cortex. The findings suggest that SigF and SigE of C. botulinum ATCC 3502 are essential for early sporulation and late-stage induction of sigK, whereas SigG is essential for spore cortex formation but not for coat formation, as opposed to previous observations in B. subtilis sigG mutants. Our findings add to a growing body of evidence that regulation of sporulation in C. botulinum ATCC 3502, and among the clostridia, differs from the B. subtilis model. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Regulation of neurotoxin production and sporulation by a Putative agrBD signaling system in proteolytic Clostridium botulinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksley, Clare M; Davis, Ian J; Winzer, Klaus; Chan, Weng C; Peck, Michael W; Minton, Nigel P

    2010-07-01

    A significant number of genome sequences of Clostridium botulinum and related species have now been determined. In silico analysis of these data revealed the presence of two distinct agr loci (agr-1 and agr-2) in all group I strains, each encoding putative proteins with similarity to AgrB and AgrD of the well-studied Staphylococcus aureus agr quorum sensing system. In S. aureus, a small diffusible autoinducing peptide is generated from AgrD in a membrane-located processing event that requires AgrB. Here the characterization of both agr loci in the group I strain C. botulinum ATCC 3502 and of their homologues in a close relative, Clostridium sporogenes NCIMB 10696, is reported. In C. sporogenes NCIMB 10696, agr-1 and agr-2 appear to form transcriptional units that consist of agrB, agrD, and flanking genes of unknown function. Several of these flanking genes are conserved in Clostridium perfringens. In agreement with their proposed role in quorum sensing, both loci were maximally expressed during late-exponential-phase growth. Modulation of agrB expression in C. sporogenes was achieved using antisense RNA, whereas in C. botulinum, insertional agrD mutants were generated using ClosTron technology. In comparison to the wild-type strains, these strains exhibited drastically reduced sporulation and, for C. botulinum, also reduced production of neurotoxin, suggesting that both phenotypes are controlled by quorum sensing. Interestingly, while agr-1 appeared to control sporulation, agr-2 appeared to regulate neurotoxin formation.

  13. Triggering at high luminosity: fake triggers from pile-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.

    1983-01-01

    Triggers based on a cut in transverse momentum (p/sub t/) have proved to be useful in high energy physics both because they indicte that a hard constituent scattering has occurred and because they can be made quickly enough to gate electronics. These triggers will continue to be useful at high luminosities if overlapping events do not cause an excessive number of fake triggers. In this paper, I determine if this is indeed a problem at high luminosity machines

  14. Nostalgia: content, triggers, functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Arndt, Jamie; Routledge, Clay

    2006-11-01

    Seven methodologically diverse studies addressed 3 fundamental questions about nostalgia. Studies 1 and 2 examined the content of nostalgic experiences. Descriptions of nostalgic experiences typically featured the self as a protagonist in interactions with close others (e.g., friends) or in momentous events (e.g., weddings). Also, the descriptions contained more expressions of positive than negative affect and often depicted the redemption of negative life scenes by subsequent triumphs. Studies 3 and 4 examined triggers of nostalgia and revealed that nostalgia occurs in response to negative mood and the discrete affective state of loneliness. Studies 5, 6, and 7 investigated the functional utility of nostalgia and established that nostalgia bolsters social bonds, increases positive self-regard, and generates positive affect. These findings demarcate key landmarks in the hitherto uncharted research domain of nostalgia.

  15. Latent myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2011-10-01

    A latent myofascial trigger point (MTP) is defined as a focus of hyperirritability in a muscle taut band that is clinically associated with local twitch response and tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. Current evidence suggests that the temporal profile of the spontaneous electrical activity at an MTP is similar to focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials, which contribute significantly to the induction of local tenderness and pain and motor dysfunctions. This review highlights the potential mechanisms underlying the sensory-motor dysfunctions associated with latent MTPs and discusses the contribution of central sensitization associated with latent MTPs and the MTP network to the spatial propagation of pain and motor dysfunctions. Treating latent MTPs in patients with musculoskeletal pain may not only decrease pain sensitivity and improve motor functions, but also prevent latent MTPs from transforming into active MTPs, and hence, prevent the development of myofascial pain syndrome.

  16. ATLAS trigger: Design and commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, F.; Atlas Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be exposed to proton-proton collisions from beams crossing at 40 MHz. A three-level trigger system was designed to select potentially interesting events and reduce the incoming rate to 100-200 Hz. The first trigger level (LVL1) is implemented in custom-built electronics, the second and third trigger levels are realised in software. The trigger system and its design parameters will be described with focus on computing and data aquision challenges. The results from both commissioning cosmic runs and first experiences from the LHC beam in 2008 will be overviewed. These running periods allowed us to exercise the trigger system online, including its configuration and monitoring infrastructure, as well as reconstruction and selection algorithms. The details on the plans for commissioning the ATLAS trigger when the LHC starts operations will be presented.

  17. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow

  18. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUSHITA, Takashi; CMS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41 fb‑1 with a peak luminosity of 1.5 × 1034 cm‑2s‑1 and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implementation of more algorithms at a time than previously possible, allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the available trigger bandwidth. Algorithms for a trigger menu, including topological requirements on multi-objects, can be realised in the Global Trigger using the newly developed trigger menu specification grammar. Analysis-like trigger algorithms can be represented in an intuitive manner and the algorithms are translated to corresponding VHDL code blocks to build a firmware. The grammar can be extended in future as the needs arise. The experience of implementing trigger menus on the upgraded Global Trigger system will be presented.

  19. Myofascial Trigger Point Pain Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwin, Robert D

    2016-10-01

    Myofascial pain syndromes caused by trigger points (TrPs) in muscle are a common cause of local and generalized pain. Trigger points are hyperirritable zones in contracted bands of muscle, thought to be caused by muscle overload or stress. Stress TrPs have characteristic electromyographic features, and can be visualized with ultrasound and magnetic resonance elastography. Trigger point needling or injection can be effective in inactivating TrP, but correcting triggers is also critical. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Thermally activated trigger device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.; Camaret, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear space reactor, a thermally activated trigger device for rendering the reactor subcritical upon reentry to the earth's atmosphere, the device comprising: a closed vessel, a piston slideably mounted in the vessel to divide it into first and second compartments, an inert gas contained within each of the compartments at substantially the same pressure, a connecting rod operatively connected to the piston and to actuator means, the actuator means providing for moving means for rendering the reactor subcritical upon movement of the connecting rod; a bellows having opposite ends, one of the ends being affixed to and in sealing engagement with the connecting rod and the other of the ends being affixed to and in sealing engagement with the vessel for permitting linear movement of the connecting rod and preventing any escape of the inert gas from the closed vessel; and normally closed pipes communicating with one of the compartments for venting the inert gas therefrom when any of the pipes is open, the pipes being located at different parts of the nuclear space reactor so that the closed ends thereof are exposed to the atmosphere upon reentry of the reactor to the atmosphere. The pipes are designed to open at a selected temperature resulting from the reentry so that the gas leaves the communicating compartment via an open pipe to cause a difference in pressure between the compartments sufficient for the higher pressure in the other compartment to move the piston and thereby activate the actuator means

  1. Trigger and data acquisition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Gaspar, C

    2001-01-01

    Past LEP experiments generate data at 0.5 MByte/s from particle detectors with over a quarter of a million readout channels. The process of reading out the electronic channels, treating them, and storing the date produced by each collision for further analysis by the physicists is called "Data Acquisition". Not all beam crossings produce interesting physics "events", picking the interesting ones is the task of the "Trigger" system. In order to make sure that the data is collected in good conditions the experiment's operation has to be constantly verified. In all, at LEP experiments over 100 000 parameters were monitored, controlled, and synchronized by the "Monotoring and control" system. In the future, LHC experiments will produce as much data in a single day as a LEP detector did in a full year's running with a raw data rate of 10 - 100 MBytes/s and will have to cope with some 800 million proton-proton collisions a second of these collisions only one in 100 million million is interesting for new particle se...

  2. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagliesi, M.G., E-mail: mg.bagliesi@pi.infn.i [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy); Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N. [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5{mu}s. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  3. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagliesi, M.G.; Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N.

    2010-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5μs. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  4. Upgrade trigger: Biannual performance update

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Couturier, Ben; Esen, Sevda; De Cian, Michel; De Vries, Jacco Andreas; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Jones, Christopher Rob; Le Gac, Renaud; Matev, Rosen; Neufeld, Niko; Nikodem, Thomas; Polci, Francesco; Del Buono, Luigi; Quagliani, Renato; Schwemmer, Rainer; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha; Szumlak, Tomasz; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Wanczyk, Joanna; Williams, Mark Richard James; Yin, Hang; Zacharjasz, Emilia Anna

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the performance of the LHCb Upgrade trigger reconstruction sequence, incorporating changes to the underlying reconstruction algorithms and detector description since the Trigger and Online Upgrade TDR. An updated extrapolation is presented using the most recent example of an Event Filter Farm node.

  5. Impact parameter trigger and vertex detector for forward collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selove, W.

    1993-01-01

    In a forward collider design, Coulomb scattering produces an unavoidable smearing of the vertex region by low-p t tracks. A detector and triggering design is described which aims at differentiating B events from minimum bias events with high efficiency, in spite of this smearing, by measuring momentum and p t of all tracks in real time, and triggering only when an event shows a number of high-p t tracks with substantial impact parameters. Triggering efficiency an order of magnitude larger than for a lepton trigger can be anticipated. Detector planes are located within 4 millimeters of the beam line; a replaceable-vertex-region design provides for rapid replacement of radiation damaged closest elements at time intervals of a few months

  6. Sporulation and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Brazil Pine in the field and in the greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Milene; Nogueira, Marco A; Tsai, Siu M; Gomes-da-Costa, Sandra M; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the sporulation and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) at different forest sites with Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze. (Brazil Pine). In addition, a greenhouse experiment was carried out to test the use of traditional trap plants (maize + peanut) or A. angustifolia to estimate the diversity of AMF at each site. Soil samples were taken in two State Parks at southwestern Brazil: Campos do Jordão (Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão [PECJ]) and Apiaí (Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira [PETAR]), São Paulo State, in sites of either native or replanted forest. In PECJ, an extra site of replanted forest that was impacted by accidental fire and is now in a state of recuperation was also sampled. The spore densities and their morphological identification were compiled at each site. In the greenhouse, soil samples from each site were used as inoculum to promote spore multiplication on maize + peanut or A. angustifolia grown on a sandy, low-fertility substrate. Plants were harvested, respectively, after 4 months or 1 year of growth and assessed for mycorrhizal root colonization. Spore counts and identification were also performed in the substrate, after the harvest of plants. Twenty-five taxa were identified considering all sites. Species richness and diversity were greater in native forest areas, being Acaulospora, the genus with the most species. Differences in number of spores, diversity, and richness were found at the different sites of each State Park. Differences were also found when maize + peanut or A. angustifolia were used as trap plants. The traditional methodology using trap plants seems to underestimate the diversity of the AMF. The use of A. angustifolia as trap plant showed similar species richness to the field in PECJ, but the identified species were not necessarily the same. Nevertheless, for PETAR, both A. angustifolia and maize + peanut underestimated the species richness. Because the AMF

  7. Repeat Rapid Response Events in Children: Characteristics and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulmester, Kristen M; Jaimon, Nancy; Bavare, Aarti C

    2018-04-01

    We describe the characteristics and outcomes of pediatric repeat rapid response events within a single hospitalization. We hypothesized that triggers for repeat rapid response and initial rapid response events are similar, and repeat rapid response events are associated with high prevalence of medical complexity and worse outcomes. A 3-year retrospective study. High-volume tertiary academic pediatric hospital. All rapid response events were reviewed to identify repeat rapid response events. None. Patient demographics, rapid response triggers, primary clinical diagnoses, illness acuity scores, medical interventions, transfers to ICU, occurrence of critical deterioration, and mortality were reviewed. We reviewed 146 patients with 309 rapid response events (146 initial rapid response and 163 repeat rapid response: 36% 7 d after initial rapid response). Median age was 3 years, and 60% were males. Eighty-five percentage of repeat rapid response occurred in medical complexity patients. The triggers for 71% of all repeat rapid response matched with those of initial rapid response. Transfer to ICU occurred in 69 (47%) of initial rapid response and 124 (76%) of repeat rapid response (p events correlated. Transfer to ICU was more likely after repeat rapid response and among repeat rapid response, events with ICU readmissions had a longer length of ICU and hospital stay. Mortality for the repeat rapid response cohort was higher than that for overall rapid responses in our center and per published reports from other centers.

  8. Increase of the Bacillus thuringiensis secreted toxicity against lepidopteron larvae by homologous expression of the vip3LB gene during sporulation stage

    OpenAIRE

    Sellami, Sameh; Jamoussi, Kais; Dabbeche, Emna; Jaoua, Samir

    2011-01-01

    The Vegetative insecticidal Vip3A proteins display a wide range of insecticidal spectrum against several agricultural insect pests. The fact that the expression of vip3 genes occurs only during the vegetative growth phase of Bacillus thuringiensis is a limiting factor in term of production level. Therefore, extending the synthesis of the Vip proteins to the sporulation phase is a good alternative to reach high levels of toxin synthesis. In this study, we have demonstrated that the maximal pro...

  9. Quantitative proteome analysis of Streptomyces coelicolor Nonsporulating liquid cultures demonstrates a complex differentiation process comparable to that occurring in sporulating solid cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manteca, Angel; Jung, Hye R; Schwämmle, Veit

    2010-01-01

    involved in primary metabolism (ribosome, Krebs cycle, and energy production) were detected in greater abundance in MI. The most remarkable protein abundance differences between MII from solid and liquid cultures were associated with the final stages of hyphae compartmentalization and spore formation.......Streptomyces species produce many clinically important secondary metabolites and present a complex developmental cycle that includes programmed cell death (PCD) phenomena and sporulation. Industrial fermentations are usually performed in liquid cultures, conditions in which Streptomyces strains...

  10. Interfacing Detectors to Triggers And DAQ Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosetto, Dario B.

    1999-05-03

    The complete design of the front-end electronics interfacing LHCb detectors, Level-0 trigger and higher levels of trigger with flexible configuration parameters has been made for (a) ASIC implementation, and (b) FPGA implementation. The importance of approaching designs in technology-independent form becomes essential with the actual rapid electronics evolution. Being able to constrain the entire design to a few types of replicated components: (a) the fully programmable 3D-Flow system, and (b) the configurable front-end circuit described in this article, provides even further advantages because only one or two types of components will need to migrate to the newer technologies. To base on today's technology the design of a system such as the LHCb project that is to begin working in 2006 is not cost-effective. The effort required to migrate to a higher-performance will, in that case, be almost equivalent to completely redesigning the architecture from scratch. The proposed technology independent design with the current configurable front-end module described in this article and the scalable 3D-Flow fully programmable system described elsewhere, based on the study of the evolution of electronics during the past few years and the forecasted advances in the years to come, aims to provide a technology-independent design which lends itself to any technology at any time. In this case, technology independence is based mainly on generic-HDL reusable code which allows a very rapid realization of the state-of-the-art circuits in terms of gate density, power dissipation, and clock frequency. The design of four trigger towers presently fits into an OR3T30 FPGA. Preliminary test results (provided in this paper) meet the functional requirements of LHCb and provide sufficient flexibility to introduce future changes. The complete system design is also provided along with the integration of the front-end design in the entire system and the cost and dimension of the electronics.

  11. DUMAND data acquisition with triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, A.E.; Theriot, D.; March, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    A data acquisition scheme for the standard DUMAND array that includes a simple triggering scheme as a fundamental part of the system is presented. Although there are a number of not yet fully understood parameters, it is assumed that thresholds can be set in such a manner as to give rise to a triggered signal that is not so dominated by randoms that it gives a substantial decrease in the data acquisition rate over that which would be required by a nontriggered system. It is also assumed that the triggering logic is relatively simple and does not need major computational capabilities for a trigger logic decision. With these assumptions, it is possible to generate the trigger at the array and restrict the data transfer to shore. However, with a not unreasonable delay of 200 microseconds, it is even possible to transmit the information for the trigger to shore and perform all that logic on the shore. The critical point is to send the minimum amount of information necessary to construct the trigger such that one need not send all the possible information in all detectors of the array continuously to shore. 1 figure

  12. ATLAS Trigger: design and commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Pastore, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be exposed to proton-proton collisions from beams crossing at 40 MHz. A three-level trigger system was designed to select potentially interesting events and reduce the incoming rate to 100-200 Hz. The first trigger level (LVL1) is implemented in custom-built electronics, the second and third trigger levels are realised in software. Based on calorimeter information and hits in dedicated muon-trigger detectors, the LVL1 decision is made by the central-trigger processor yielding an output rate of less than 100 kHz. The allowed latency for the trigger decision at this stage is less than 2.5 micro seconds. The two subsequent levels, called, High-Level Trigger (HLT) further reduce the rate to the offline storage rate while retaining the most interesting physics. The HLT is implemented in software running in commercially available computer farms and consists of Level 2 and Event Filter. To reduce the network data traffic and the processing time to managea...

  13. The ATLAS Missing ET trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Beauchemin, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few months, the ATLAS detector collected 900 GeV LHC collision events which allowed for the study the performance of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition system (TDAQ). With the 7 TeV collision data collected recently, the performance studies of the trigger system are critical for a successful physics program. In particular a large spectrum of physics results will rely on the capacity of the ATLAS TDAQ system to collect events based on the estimate of the missing transverse energy (MET) contained in each event. The MET trigger would be, for example, the primary trigger to be used in new physics searches for processes involving new weakly interacting particles, which could account for the astronomically observed dark matter. In addition to discovery perspectives, the MET trigger can also be used in combination with other triggers to control the rate of signatures involving low energy objects. For example, the MET trigger is necessary in order to measure non-boosted W in the tau channel. Finally...

  14. Growth and sporulation defects in Bacillus subtilis mutants with a single rrn operon can be suppressed by amplification of the rrn operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Koichi; Masuda, Kenta; Akanuma, Genki; Wada, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Takashi; Shiwa, Yuh; Ishige, Taichiro; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Niki, Hironori; Inaoka, Takashi; Kawamura, Fujio

    2016-01-01

    The genome of Bacillus subtilis strain 168 encodes ten rRNA (rrn) operons. We previously reported that strains with only a single rrn operon had a decreased growth and sporulation frequency. We report here the isolation and characterization of suppressor mutants from seven strains that each have a single rrn operon (rrnO, A, J, I, E, D or B). The suppressor mutants for strain RIK656 with a single rrnO operon had a higher frequency of larger colonies. These suppressor mutants had not only increased growth rates, but also increased sporulation frequencies and ribosome levels compared to the parental mutant strain RIK656. Quantitative PCR analyses showed that all these suppressor mutants had an increased number of copies of the rrnO operon. Suppressor mutants were also isolated from the six other strains with single rrn operons (rrnA, J, I, E, D or B). Next generation and capillary sequencing showed that all of the suppressor mutants had tandem repeats of the chromosomal locus containing the remaining rrn operon (amplicon). These amplicons varied in size from approximately 9 to 179 kb. The amplifications were likely to be initiated by illegitimate recombination between non- or micro-homologous sequences, followed by unequal crossing-over during DNA replication. These results are consistent with our previous report that rrn operon copy number has a major role in cellular processes such as cell growth and sporulation.

  15. The cisA cistron of Bacillus subtilis sporulation gene spoIVC encodes a protein homologous to a site-specific recombinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Samori, Y; Kobayashi, Y

    1990-02-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the sporulation gene spoIVC cisA in Bacillus subtilis was determined and found to encode a protein of 500 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 57,481, which is in good agreement with the size of the gene product estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The amino acid sequence of the N-terminal region of this protein is homologous to the site-specific DNA recombinases. Hybridization of a 3.6-kilobase EcoRI fragment carrying the spoIVC cisA gene with the EcoRI-restricted chromosomal DNA prepared from cells of various stages showed that DNA rearrangement occurs only in the mother cell in the region adjacent to spoIVC cisA 3 h after the initiation of sporulation. This result coincides with that of Stragier et al. (P. Stragier, B. Kunkel, L. Kroos, and R. Losick, Science 243:507-512, 1989). The timing of the DNA rearrangement coincides very well with the timing of spoIVC cisA gene expression. The DNA rearrangement was not observed in spoIVC cisA mutants. These results strongly suggest that the spoIVC cisA gene encodes a site-specific DNA recombinase having a very important role in sporulation.

  16. In vitro cytotoxicity induced by Clostridium perfringens isolate carrying a chromosomal cpe gene is exclusively dependent on sporulation and enterotoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasugi, Mayo; Sugahara, Yuki; Hoshi, Hidenobu; Kondo, Kaori; Talukdar, Prabhat K; Sarker, Mahfuzur R; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Kamata, Yoichi; Miyake, Masami

    2015-08-01

    Clostridium perfringens type A is a common source of food poisoning (FP) and non-food-borne (NFB) gastrointestinal diseases in humans. In the intestinal tract, the vegetative cells sporulate and produce a major pathogenic factor, C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE). Most type A FP isolates carry a chromosomal cpe gene, whereas NFB type A isolates typically carry a plasmid-encoded cpe. In vitro, the purified CPE protein binds to a receptor and forms pores, exerting a cytotoxic activity in epithelial cells. However, it remains unclear if CPE is indispensable for C. perfringens cytotoxicity. In this study, we examined the cytotoxicity of cpe-harboring C. perfringens isolates co-cultured with human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The FP strains showed severe cytotoxicity during sporulation and CPE production, but not during vegetative cell growth. While Caco-2 cells were intact during co-culturing with cpe-null mutant derivative of strain SM101 (a FP strain carrying a chromosomal cpe gene), the wild-type level cytotoxicity was observed with cpe-complemented strain. In contrast, both wild-type and cpe-null mutant derivative of the NFB strain F4969 induced Caco-2 cell death during both vegetative and sporulation growth. Collectively, the Caco-2 cell cytotoxicity caused by C. perfringens strain SM101 is considered to be exclusively dependent on CPE production, whereas some additional toxins should be involved in F4969-mediated in vitro cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  18. Seismology: dynamic triggering of earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Johnson, Paul

    2005-10-06

    After an earthquake, numerous smaller shocks are triggered over distances comparable to the dimensions of the mainshock fault rupture, although they are rare at larger distances. Here we analyse the scaling of dynamic deformations (the stresses and strains associated with seismic waves) with distance from, and magnitude of, their triggering earthquake, and show that they can cause further earthquakes at any distance if their amplitude exceeds several microstrain, regardless of their frequency content. These triggering requirements are remarkably similar to those measured in the laboratory for inducing dynamic elastic nonlinear behaviour, which suggests that the underlying physics is similar.

  19. ATLAS FTK: Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Amerio, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Andreazza, A; Annovi, A; Beretta, M; Bevacqua, V; Bogdan, M; Bossini, E; Boveia, A; Cavaliere, V; Canelli, F; Blazey, G; Cervigni, F; Cheng, Y; Citterio, M; Crescioli, F; Dell’Orso, M; Drake, G; Dunford, M; Giannetti, P; Giorgi, F; Hoff, J; Kapliy, A; Kasten, M; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Lanza, A; Liberali, V; Liu, T; Magalotti, D; McCarn, A; Melachrinos, C; Meroni, C; Negri, A; Neubauer, M; Penning, B; Piendibene, M; Proudfoot, J; Riva, M; Roda, C; Sabatini, F; Sacco, I; Shochet, M; Stabile, A; Tang, F; Tang, J; Tripiccione, R; Tuggle, J; Vercesi, V; Verzocchi, M; Villa, M; Vitillo, R A; Volpi, G; Webster, J; Wu, J; Yorita, K; Zhang, J

    2011-01-01

    A track reconstruction system for the trigger of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider is described. The Fast Tracker is a highly parallel hardware system designed to operate at the Level-1 trigger output rate. It will provide high-quality tracks reconstructed over the entire inner detector by the start of processing in the Level-2 trigger. The system is based on associative memories for pattern recognition and fast FPGA’s for track reconstruction. Its design and expected performance under instantaneous luminosities up to 3 × 10^34/cm^2/s are discussed.

  20. Switch-like reprogramming of gene expression after fusion of multinucleate plasmodial cells of two Physarum polycephalum sporulation mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Pauline; Hoffmann, Xenia-Katharina; Ebeling, Britta; Haas, Markus; Marwan, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.marwan@ovgu.de

    2013-05-24

    Highlights: •We investigate reprogramming of gene expression in multinucleate single cells. •Cells of two differentiation control mutants are fused. •Fused cells proceed to alternative gene expression patterns. •The population of nuclei damps stochastic fluctuations in gene expression. •Dynamic processes of cellular reprogramming can be observed by repeated sampling of a cell. -- Abstract: Nonlinear dynamic processes involving the differential regulation of transcription factors are considered to impact the reprogramming of stem cells, germ cells, and somatic cells. Here, we fused two multinucleate plasmodial cells of Physarum polycephalum mutants defective in different sporulation control genes while being in different physiological states. The resulting heterokaryons established one of two significantly different expression patterns of marker genes while the plasmodial halves that were fused to each other synchronized spontaneously. Spontaneous synchronization suggests that switch-like control mechanisms spread over and finally control the entire plasmodium as a result of cytoplasmic mixing. Regulatory molecules due to the large volume of the vigorously streaming cytoplasm will define concentrations in acting on the population of nuclei and in the global setting of switches. Mixing of a large cytoplasmic volume is expected to damp stochasticity when individual nuclei deliver certain RNAs at low copy number into the cytoplasm. We conclude that spontaneous synchronization, the damping of molecular noise in gene expression by the large cytoplasmic volume, and the option to take multiple macroscopic samples from the same plasmodium provide unique options for studying the dynamics of cellular reprogramming at the single cell level.

  1. Hexameric assembly of membrane fusion protein YknX of the sporulation delaying efflux pump from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongbin; Jo, Inseong; Wang, Lulu; Chen, Jinli; Fan, Shengdi; Dong, Yuesheng; Quan, Chunshan; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2017-11-04

    Membrane fusion proteins (MFPs) play an essential role in the action of the drug efflux pumps and protein secretion systems in bacteria. The sporulation delaying protein (SDP) efflux pump YknWXYZ has been identified in diverse Bacillus species. The MFP YknX requires the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter YknYZ and the Yip1 family protein YknW to form a functional complex. To date, the crystal structure, molecular function and mechanism of action of YknX remain unknown. In this study, to characterize the structural and biochemical roles of YknX in the functional assembly of YknWXYZ from B. amyloliquefaciens, we successfully obtained crystals of the YknX protein that diffracted X-rays to a resolution of 4.4 Å. We calculated an experimentally phased map using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD), revealing that YknX forms a hexameric assembly similar to that of MacA from Gram-negative bacteria. The hexameric assembly of YknX exhibited a funnel-like structure with a central channel and a conical mouth. Functional studies in vitro suggest that YknX can bind directly to peptidoglycan. Our study provides an improved understanding of the assembly of the YknWXYZ efflux pump and the role of YknX in the complex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A versatile class of cell surface directional motors gives rise to gliding motility and sporulation in Myxococcus xanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Wartel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells utilize an arsenal of processive transport systems to deliver macromolecules to specific subcellular sites. In prokaryotes, such transport mechanisms have only been shown to mediate gliding motility, a form of microbial surface translocation. Here, we show that the motility function of the Myxococcus xanthus Agl-Glt machinery results from the recent specialization of a versatile class of bacterial transporters. Specifically, we demonstrate that the Agl motility motor is modular and dissociates from the rest of the gliding machinery (the Glt complex to bind the newly expressed Nfs complex, a close Glt paralogue, during sporulation. Following this association, the Agl system transports Nfs proteins directionally around the spore surface. Since the main spore coat polymer is secreted at discrete sites around the spore surface, its transport by Agl-Nfs ensures its distribution around the spore. Thus, the Agl-Glt/Nfs machineries may constitute a novel class of directional bacterial surface transporters that can be diversified to specific tasks depending on the cognate cargo and machinery-specific accessories.

  3. Sporulation capability and amylosome conservation among diverse human colonic and rumen isolates of the keystone starch‐degrader Ruminococcus bromii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Moraïs, Sarah; Laverde‐Gomez, Jenny; Sheridan, Paul O.; Walker, Alan W.; Kelly, William; Klieve, Athol V.; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Louis, Petra; Koropatkin, Nicole; Cockburn, Darrell; Kibler, Ryan; Cooper, Philip J.; Sandoval, Carlos; Crost, Emmanuelle; Juge, Nathalie; Bayer, Edward A.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Ruminococcus bromii is a dominant member of the human colonic microbiota that plays a ‘keystone’ role in degrading dietary resistant starch. Recent evidence from one strain has uncovered a unique cell surface ‘amylosome’ complex that organizes starch‐degrading enzymes. New genome analysis presented here reveals further features of this complex and shows remarkable conservation of amylosome components between human colonic strains from three different continents and a R. bromii strain from the rumen of Australian cattle. These R. bromii strains encode a narrow spectrum of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) that reflect extreme specialization in starch utilization. Starch hydrolysis products are taken up mainly as oligosaccharides, with only one strain able to grow on glucose. The human strains, but not the rumen strain, also possess transporters that allow growth on galactose and fructose. R. bromii strains possess a full complement of sporulation and spore germination genes and we demonstrate the ability to form spores that survive exposure to air. Spore formation is likely to be a critical factor in the ecology of this nutritionally highly specialized bacterium, which was previously regarded as ‘non‐sporing’, helping to explain its widespread occurrence in the gut microbiota through the ability to transmit between hosts. PMID:29159997

  4. The HLT inclusive B triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Gligorov, Vladimir V; Williams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The inclusive HLT strategy relies on triggering any B decay based on two signatures: a single significantly displaced, high transverse momentum track, and a significantly displaced vertex containing this track and 1-3 other tracks, with high total transverse momentum. In order to provide optimal signal efficiency and background rejection the displaced vertex selection is implemented in a novel boosted decision tree algorithm incorporating information about the experimental resolution in the boosting procedure to protect against overtraining. The performance of these triggers has been commissioned using data taken during 2011 LHCb running and is evaluated here in a data-driven manner. The HLT inclusive triggers are found to have a rejection factor of around 1000 with respect to events selected by the L0 hardware trigger and a bbar purity close to 100%.

  5. GnRH agonist triggering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Shahar; Humaidan, Peter; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2013-01-01

    The concept that a bolus of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) can replace human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) as a trigger of final oocyte maturation was introduced several years ago. Recent developments in the area strengthen this premise. GnRHa trigger offers important advantages......, including virtually complete prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), the introduction of a surge of FSH in addition to the LH surge and finally the possibility to individualize luteal-phase supplementation based on ovarian response to stimulation. We maintain that the automatic HCG...... triggering concept should be challenged and that the GnRHa trigger is the way to move forward with thoughtful consideration of the needs, safety and comfort of our patients. Routinely, human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) is used to induce ovulation in fertility treatments. This approach deviates...

  6. FERMIGTRIG - Fermi GBM Trigger Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This table lists all of the triggers observed by one or more of the 14 GBM detectors (12 NaI and 2 BGO). Note that there are two Browse catalogs resulting from GBM...

  7. The CDF level-3 trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) has been operating at the Tevatron and collecting data on proton-antiproton interactions with collision rates above 250,000 Hz. Three levels of filtering select events for data logging at a rate of about 4 Hz. The Level 3 trigger provides most of the capabilities of the offline production programs for event reconstruction and physics analysis. The type of physics triggers, application of cuts, and combinations of logical requirements for event selection are controlled at run time by a trigger table using a syntax fully integrated with the Level 1 and Level 2 hardware triggers. The level 3 software operates in 48 RISC/UNIX processors (over 1000 mips) served by four 20-MByte/sec data buses for input, output and control. The system architecture, debugging, code validation, error reporting, analysis capabilities and performance will be described

  8. B physics triggers at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Starodumov, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    The CMS detector is mainly designed to investigate hard events. Only few Level-1 Trigger conditions are suitable to select soft B-meson decays. The B-physics potential of CMS depends strongly on a selection strategy at High-Level Trigger. The selection algorithms for some benchmark B-decay channels that allow CMS to perform competitive B-physics program are presented.

  9. A Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Upward Triggered Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballweber, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Alana Ballweber, John H. Helsdon Jr., and Tom A. Warner South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Ten tall communication towers lining the ridge in Rapid City, South Dakota provide a unique opportunity to study the phenomenon of lightning-triggered upward lightning. The Upward Lightning Triggering Study (UPLIGHTS), seeks to determine if upward positive leaders are triggered from these towers by: (1) the approach of horizontally propagating negative stepped leaders associated with either intracloud development or following a positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) return stroke, and/or (2) a +CG return stroke as it propagates through a previously formed leader network near the towers. As part of the UPLIGHTS research, two separate lightning mapping devices were used to aid in a 3D re-creation of the triggering flash, a 3D digital interferometer and a Lightning Mapping Array. Through the use of these two devices, we present findings founded on the analysis of data collected from these assets during the 2013 storm season. Specifically, we quantify the spatial and temporal relationship of the triggering flash leader activity relative to the tall objects when upward leaders develop and when upward leaders fail to develop. Furthermore, the lightning mapping devices were correlated with high-speed optical and electrical field observations to provide a further insight as to why certain flashes trigger upward lightning from tall structures and others do not.

  10. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41~fb$^{-1}$ with a peak luminosity of 1.5 $\\times$ 10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS \\mbox{Level-1} trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implemen...

  11. External triggering and triggered targeting strategies for drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfei; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2017-06-01

    Drug delivery systems that are externally triggered to release drugs and/or target tissues hold considerable promise for improving the treatment of many diseases by minimizing nonspecific toxicity and enhancing the efficacy of therapy. These drug delivery systems are constructed from materials that are sensitive to a wide range of external stimuli, including light, ultrasound, electrical and magnetic fields, and specific molecules. The responsiveness conferred by these materials allows the release of therapeutics to be triggered on demand and remotely by a physician or patient. In this Review, we describe the rationales for such systems and the types of stimuli that can be deployed, and provide an outlook for the field.

  12. Trigger processing using reconfigurable logic in the CMS calorimeter trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Brooke, J J; Heath, G P; Maddox, A J; Newbold, D; Rabbetts, P D

    2001-01-01

    We present the design of the Global Calorimeter Trigger processor for the CMS detector at LHC. This is a fully pipelined processor system which collects data from all the CMS calorimeters and produces summary information used in forming the Level-1 trigger decision for each event. The design in based on the use of state-of-the-art reconfigurable logic devices (FPGAs) and fast data links. We present the results of device testing using a low-latency pipelined sort algorithm, which demonstrate that an FPGA can be used to perform processing previously foreseen to require custom ASICs. Our design approach results in a powerful, flexible and compact processor system. (0 refs).

  13. The Goodwin model: simulating the effect of light pulses on the circadian sporulation rhythm of Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, P; Vinsjevik, M; Monnerjahn, C; Rensing, L

    2001-03-07

    The Goodwin oscillator is a minimal model that describes the oscillatory negative feedback regulation of a translated protein which inhibits its own transcription. Now, over 30 years later this scheme provides a basic description of the central components in the circadian oscillators of Neurospora, Drosophila, and mammals. We showed previously that Neurospora's resetting behavior by pulses of temperature, cycloheximide or heat shock can be simulated by this model, in which degradation processes play an important role for determining the clock's period and its temperature-compensation. Another important environmental factor for the synchronization is light. In this work, we show that on the basis of a light-induced transcription of the frequency (frq) gene phase response curves of light pulses as well as the influence of the light pulse length on phase shifts can be described by the Goodwin oscillator. A relaxation variant of the model predicts that directly after a light pulse inhibition in frq -transcription occurs, even when the inhibiting factor Z (FRQ) has not reached inhibitory concentrations. This has so far not been experimentally investigated for frq transcription, but it complies with a current model of light-induced transcription of other genes by a phosphorylated white-collar complex. During long light pulses, the relaxational model predicts that the sporulation rhythm is arrested in a steady state of high frq -mRNA levels. However, experimental results indicate the possibility of oscillations around this steady state and more in favor of the results by the original Goodwin model. In order to explain the resetting behavior by two light pulses, a biphasic first-order kinetics recovery period of the blue light receptor or of the light signal transduction pathway has to be assumed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  14. Heat shock and prolonged heat stress attenuate neurotoxin and sporulation gene expression in group I Clostridium botulinum strain ATCC 3502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Katja; Mascher, Gerald; Somervuo, Panu; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2017-01-01

    Foodborne pathogenic bacteria are exposed to a number of environmental stresses during food processing, storage, and preparation, and in the human body. In order to improve the safety of food, the understanding of molecular stress response mechanisms foodborne pathogens employ is essential. Many response mechanisms that are activated during heat shock may cross-protect bacteria against other environmental stresses. To better understand the molecular mechanisms Clostridium botulinum, the causative agent of botulism, utilizes during acute heat stress and during adaptation to stressfully high temperature, the C. botulinum Group I strain ATCC 3502 was grown in continuous culture at 39°C and exposed to heat shock at 45°C, followed by prolonged heat stress at 45°C to allow adaptation of the culture to the high temperature. Growth in continuous culture was performed to exclude secondary growth phase effects or other environmental impacts on bacterial gene transcription. Changes in global gene expression profiles were studied using DNA microarray hybridization. During acute heat stress, Class I and III heat shock genes as well as members of the SOS regulon were activated. The neurotoxin gene botA and genes encoding the neurotoxin-associated proteins were suppressed throughout the study. Prolonged heat stress led to suppression of the sporulation machinery whereas genes related to chemotaxis and motility were activated. Induced expression of a large proportion of prophage genes was detected, suggesting an important role of acquired genes in the stress resistance of C. botulinum. Finally, changes in the expression of a large number of genes related to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism indicated remodeling of the cellular metabolism.

  15. Compost Addition Enhanced Hyphal Growth and Sporulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi without Affecting Their Community Composition in the Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Gu, Siyu; Xin, Ying; Bello, Ayodeji; Sun, Wenpeng; Xu, Xiuhong

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form symbiotic associations with most crop plant species in agricultural ecosystems, and are conspicuously influenced by various agricultural practices. To understand the impact of compost addition on AM fungi, we examined effect of four compost rates (0, 11.25, 22.5, and 45 Mg/ha) on the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in seedling, flowering, and mature stage of soybean in a 1-year compost addition experiment system in Northeast China. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] was used as test plant. Moderate (22.5 Mg/ha) and high (45 Mg/ha) levels of compost addition significantly increased AM root colonization and extraradical hyphal (ERH) density compared with control, whereas low (11.5 Mg/ha) level of compost addition did not cause significant increase in AM root colonization and ERH density. AM fungal spore density was significantly enhanced by all the compost rates compared with control. The temporal variations analysis revealed that, AM root colonization in seedling stage was significantly lower than in flowering and mature stage. Although AM fungal operational taxonomic unit richness and community composition was unaffected by compost addition, some abundant AM fungal species showed significantly different response to compost addition. In mature stage, Rhizophagus fasciculatum showed increasing trend along with compost addition gradient, whereas the opposite was observed with Paraglomus sp. In addition, AM fungal community composition exhibited significant temporal variation during growing season. Further analysis indicated that the temporal variation in AM fungal community only occurred in control treatment, but not in low, moderate, and high level of compost addition treatments. Our findings highlighted the significant effects of compost addition on AM growth and sporulation, and emphasized that growth stage is a stronger determinant than 1-year compost addition in shaping AM fungal community in black soil of

  16. Compost Addition Enhanced Hyphal Growth and Sporulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi without Affecting Their Community Composition in the Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi form symbiotic associations with most crop plant species in agricultural ecosystems, and are conspicuously influenced by various agricultural practices. To understand the impact of compost addition on AM fungi, we examined effect of four compost rates (0, 11.25, 22.5, and 45 Mg/ha on the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in seedling, flowering, and mature stage of soybean in a 1-year compost addition experiment system in Northeast China. Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] was used as test plant. Moderate (22.5 Mg/ha and high (45 Mg/ha levels of compost addition significantly increased AM root colonization and extraradical hyphal (ERH density compared with control, whereas low (11.5 Mg/ha level of compost addition did not cause significant increase in AM root colonization and ERH density. AM fungal spore density was significantly enhanced by all the compost rates compared with control. The temporal variations analysis revealed that, AM root colonization in seedling stage was significantly lower than in flowering and mature stage. Although AM fungal operational taxonomic unit richness and community composition was unaffected by compost addition, some abundant AM fungal species showed significantly different response to compost addition. In mature stage, Rhizophagus fasciculatum showed increasing trend along with compost addition gradient, whereas the opposite was observed with Paraglomus sp. In addition, AM fungal community composition exhibited significant temporal variation during growing season. Further analysis indicated that the temporal variation in AM fungal community only occurred in control treatment, but not in low, moderate, and high level of compost addition treatments. Our findings highlighted the significant effects of compost addition on AM growth and sporulation, and emphasized that growth stage is a stronger determinant than 1-year compost addition in shaping AM fungal community in

  17. Review Document: Full Software Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Raven, G

    2014-01-01

    This document presents a trigger system for the upgraded LHCb detector, scheduled to begin operation in 2020. This document serves as input for the internal review towards the "DAQ, online and trigger TDR". The proposed trigger system is implemented entirely in software. In this document we show that track reconstruction of a similar quality to that available in the offline algorithms can be performed on the full inelastic $pp$-collision rate, without prior event selections implemented in custom hardware and without relying upon a partial event reconstruction. A track nding eciency of 98.8 % relative to oine can be achieved for tracks with $p_T >$ 500 MeV/$c$. The CPU time required for this reconstruction is about 40 % of the available budget. Proof-of-principle selections are presented which demonstrate that excellent performance is achievable using an inclusive beauty trigger, in addition to exclusive beauty and charm triggers. Finally, it is shown that exclusive beauty and charm selections that do not intr...

  18. Fast processor for dilepton triggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsanevas, S.; Kostarakis, P.; Baltrusaitis, R.

    1983-01-01

    We describe a fast trigger processor, developed for and used in Fermilab experiment E-537, for selecting high-mass dimuon events produced by negative pions and anti-protons. The processor finds candidate tracks by matching hit information received from drift chambers and scintillation counters, and determines their momenta. Invariant masses are calculated for all possible pairs of tracks and an event is accepted if any invariant mass is greater than some preselectable minimum mass. The whole process, accomplished within 5 to 10 microseconds, achieves up to a ten-fold reduction in trigger rate

  19. Upgrade trigger: Bandwidth strategy proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Conor; Meloni, Simone; Boettcher, Thomas Julian; Whitehead, Mark Peter; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Vesterinen, Mika Anton

    2017-01-01

    This document describes a selection strategy for the upgrade trigger using charm signals as a benchmark. The Upgrade trigger uses a 'Run 2-like' sequence consisting of a first and second stage, in between which the calibration and alignment is performed. The first stage, HLT1, uses an inclusive strategy to select beauty and charm decays, while the second stage uses offline-quality exclusive selections. A novel genetic algorithm-based bandwidth division is performed at the second stage to distribute the output bandwidth among different physics channels, maximising the efficiency for useful physics events. The performance is then studied as a function of the available output bandwidth.

  20. Rosacea Triggers: Alcohol and Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinia, Hossein; Tuchayi, Sara Moradi; Patel, Nupur U; Patel, Nishit; Awosika, Olabola; Bahrami, Naeim; Cardwell, Leah A; Richardson, Irma; Huang, Karen E; Feldman, Steven R

    2018-04-01

    A variety of triggers are thought to exacerbate rosacea. A validated self-assessment tool and survey was used to study the relationship between rosacea severity and triggers. Subjects were adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of rosacea. Increased severity of disease was significantly associated with consumption of many alcoholic beverages in 1 day and employment at a job requiring extensive sun exposure. The authors' findings may inform physician counseling practices; patients may be provided with practical measures for managing their rosacea, such as limiting alcohol consumption over short periods of time and increasing sun protection, especially in the summer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Conserved Actinobacterial Two-Component System MtrAB Coordinates Chloramphenicol Production with Sporulation in Streptomyces venezuelae NRRL B-65442

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle F. Som

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces bacteria make numerous secondary metabolites, including half of all known antibiotics. Production of antibiotics is usually coordinated with the onset of sporulation but the cross regulation of these processes is not fully understood. This is important because most Streptomyces antibiotics are produced at low levels or not at all under laboratory conditions and this makes large scale production of these compounds very challenging. Here, we characterize the highly conserved actinobacterial two-component system MtrAB in the model organism Streptomyces venezuelae and provide evidence that it coordinates production of the antibiotic chloramphenicol with sporulation. MtrAB are known to coordinate DNA replication and cell division in Mycobacterium tuberculosis where TB-MtrA is essential for viability but MtrB is dispensable. We deleted mtrB in S. venezuelae and this resulted in a global shift in the metabolome, including constitutive, higher-level production of chloramphenicol. We found that chloramphenicol is detectable in the wild-type strain, but only at very low levels and only after it has sporulated. ChIP-seq showed that MtrA binds upstream of DNA replication and cell division genes and genes required for chloramphenicol production. dnaA, dnaN, oriC, and wblE (whiB1 are DNA binding targets for MtrA in both M. tuberculosis and S. venezuelae. Intriguingly, over-expression of TB-MtrA and gain of function TB- and Sv-MtrA proteins in S. venezuelae also switched on higher-level production of chloramphenicol. Given the conservation of MtrAB, these constructs might be useful tools for manipulating antibiotic production in other filamentous actinomycetes.

  2. A New Look at Trigger Point Injections

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Clara S. M.; Wong, Steven H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and ...

  3. A new look at trigger point injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Clara S M; Wong, Steven H S

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection.

  4. Etiology of myofascial trigger points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, C.; Dommerholt, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is described as the sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms caused by myofascial trigger points (TrPs). Knowing the potential causes of TrPs is important to prevent their development and recurrence, but also to inactivate and eliminate existing TrPs. There is general

  5. Esporulação de Pyricularia grisea em diferentes meios de cultura e regimes de luz Sporulation of Pyricularia grisea on different culture media and light regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Antunes da Cruz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes fatores influenciam o crescimento e a esporulação dos fungos, tais como: composição do meio de cultivo, temperatura e luz. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o melhor meio de cultivo e regime de luz para a esporulação de Pyricularia grisea. Um isolado deste, obtido da cultivar de trigo 'BRS 194', foi repicado por disco micelial em oito meios de cultivo (farinha integral de arroz, aveia, centeio, cevada, trigo, triticale; BSA e extrato de tomate e submetido a três regimes de luz (escuro, fotoperíodo de 12h e luz contínua. As placas permaneceram por 10 dias, em câmara de crescimento sob temperatura de 23-25°C. Em seguida, o número de conídios foi determinado em câmara de Neubauer. O meio de cultivo à base de farinha integral de trigo propiciou a maior esporulação do fungo em todos os regimes de luz, e a maior esporulação ocorreu em regime de luz contínua para todos os meios de cultivos testados. Os meios de arroz e BSA propiciaram uma menor produção de conídios pelo fungo.A set of conditions is necessary for the growth and sporulation of fungi, particularly the composition of culture media, temperature and light. The objective of this research was to determine the ideal culture medium and light regime for the sporulation of P. grisea. Micelial discs of an isolate, obtained from cultivar 'BRS 194' of wheat, were transferred to eight culture media (rice wholemeal, oat, rye, barley, wheat, triticale, PSA and tomato sauce and kept in the dark, under continuous light and 12h of light. In a growing chamber, for 10 days at 23-25°C. Then, the number of conidia was determined in a Neubauer chamber. The higher sporulation, regardless of light regime, was observed on wheat wholemeal culture medium. The continuous light provided higher sporulation this fungus in all culture medium. The lowest production of conidia was observed on rice wholemeal and PSA culture media.

  6. Trigger electronics for the ALICE PHOS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, H; Musa, L; Yin, Z; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Sibiryak, Yu; Budnikov, D L

    2004-01-01

    The Photon Spectrometer of ALICE consists of 5 identical modules of 56 multiplied by 64 PWO crystals with a total of 100 degree azimuthal coverage of the barrel. The electronics required for implementing both the L0 trigger for high luminosity p-p physics and the L1 trigger for high p//T Pb+Pb physics has been studied. A full integration of the trigger logic into the detector's enclosure is based on analog transmission of fast trigger sums between stacks of front-end boards and trigger-router units. The latter contain 112 digitizer channels of 10bit, which are mapped into a single FPGA per trigger unit, covering areas of 24 multiplied by 16 crystals. The running modes allow for Level-0 trigger at 800ns and Level-1 at 6200ns trigger latencies. The design and status of the PHOS trigger electronics are outlined.

  7. Influence of the Oil Pequi in the Growth Mycelial and Sporulation of Colletotrichum Musae and Growth Micelial Of Rhizopus sp. in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Mendes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum musae and soft rot caused by Rhizopus sp are post-harvest diseases that influenced quality of exported fruits. To control these diseases fungicides are used, but in light of these waste products in the fruit and the environment, alternative control methods such as using biofungicides have been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pequi oil on mycelia growth and sporulation of Colletotrichum musae and mycelia growth of Rhizopus sp. in vitro. The oil was added in aliquots of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 50L in the center of Petri dishes containing approximately 15mL of Potato-Dextrose-ar (PDA and distributed over the surface of the medium with Drigalskys handle. After 24 hours, a disc of 8mm diameter from mycelium of fungi was peaked to the center of the plates. As a control, were used Petri dishes containing only PDA. Five replicates were used for each aliquot. After analysis, it was concluded that the pequi oil is ineffective for controlling these pathogens because induced mycelium growth and sporulation.Key Words: Phytopathogens, alternative control, anthracnose, soft rot

  8. Use of green fluorescent protein for visualization of cell-specific gene expression and subcellular protein localization during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, C D; Decatur, A; Teleman, A; Losick, R

    1995-10-01

    We report the use of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) of Aequorea victoria to visualize cell-specific gene expression and protein subcellular localization during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Sporangia bearing the gene (gfp) for the green fluorescent protein fused to genes under the control of the sporulation transcription factor sigma F exhibited a forespore-specific pattern of fluorescence. Forespore-specific fluorescence could be detected with fusions to promoters that are utilized with low (csfB) and high (sspE-2G) efficiency by sigma F-containing RNA polymerase. Conversely, a mother cell-specific pattern of fluorescence was observed in sporangia bearing a transcriptional fusion of gfp to a spore coat protein gene (cotE) under the control of sigma E and an in-frame fusion to a regulatory gene (gerE) under the control of sigma K. An in-frame fusion of gfp to cotE demonstrated that GFP can also be used to visualize protein subcellular localization. In sporangia producing the CotE-GFP fusion protein, fluorescence was found to localize around the developing spore, and this localization was dependent upon SpoIVA, a morphogenetic protein known to determine proper localization of CotE.

  9. Genome-wide expression profiling, in vivo DNA binding analysis, and probabilistic motif prediction reveal novel Abf1 target genes during fermentation, respiration, and sporulation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlecht, Ulrich; Erb, Ionas; Demougin, Philippe; Robine, Nicolas; Borde, Valérie; van Nimwegen, Erik; Nicolas, Alain; Primig, Michael

    2008-05-01

    The autonomously replicating sequence binding factor 1 (Abf1) was initially identified as an essential DNA replication factor and later shown to be a component of the regulatory network controlling mitotic and meiotic cell cycle progression in budding yeast. The protein is thought to exert its functions via specific interaction with its target site as part of distinct protein complexes, but its roles during mitotic growth and meiotic development are only partially understood. Here, we report a comprehensive approach aiming at the identification of direct Abf1-target genes expressed during fermentation, respiration, and sporulation. Computational prediction of the protein's target sites was integrated with a genome-wide DNA binding assay in growing and sporulating cells. The resulting data were combined with the output of expression profiling studies using wild-type versus temperature-sensitive alleles. This work identified 434 protein-coding loci as being transcriptionally dependent on Abf1. More than 60% of their putative promoter regions contained a computationally predicted Abf1 binding site and/or were bound by Abf1 in vivo, identifying them as direct targets. The present study revealed numerous loci previously unknown to be under Abf1 control, and it yielded evidence for the protein's variable DNA binding pattern during mitotic growth and meiotic development.

  10. Triggers and Their Influence on Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Christine S

    2017-05-01

    This article provides a conceptual definition of the concept trigger within the context of health behaviors and applies it to the highly significant health issue of obesity. Healthy behaviors are essential to life and happiness, but they do not just happen. They are triggered, and an inner drive keeps them alive. To help patients gain and retain optimal health, nurses must understand the triggers of healthy behaviors. Walker and Avant's (2011) method of concept analysis is used as the basis for defining the concept of trigger. The antecedents, defining attributes, and consequences of trigger are identified. Findings suggest that nurses can play a role in triggering health behavior change through simple motivational efforts.

  11. Muon Trigger for Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyak, M.; Usvyatsov, M.; Mulhearn, M.; Shimmin, C.; Ustyuzhanin, A.

    2017-10-01

    The CRAYFIS experiment proposes to use privately owned mobile phones as a ground detector array for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays. Upon interacting with Earth’s atmosphere, these events produce extensive particle showers which can be detected by cameras on mobile phones. A typical shower contains minimally-ionizing particles such as muons. As these particles interact with CMOS image sensors, they may leave tracks of faintly-activated pixels that are sometimes hard to distinguish from random detector noise. Triggers that rely on the presence of very bright pixels within an image frame are not efficient in this case. We present a trigger algorithm based on Convolutional Neural Networks which selects images containing such tracks and are evaluated in a lazy manner: the response of each successive layer is computed only if activation of the current layer satisfies a continuation criterion. Usage of neural networks increases the sensitivity considerably comparable with image thresholding, while the lazy evaluation allows for execution of the trigger under the limited computational power of mobile phones.

  12. ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has introduced and recently commissioned a completely new hardware sub-system of its first-level trigger: the topological processor (L1Topo). L1Topo consist of two AdvancedTCA blades mounting state-of-the-art FPGA processors, providing high input bandwidth (up to 4 Gb/s) and low latency data processing (200 ns). L1Topo is able to select collision events by applying kinematic and topological requirements on candidate objects (energy clusters, jets, and muons) measured by calorimeters and muon sub-detectors. Results from data recorded using the L1Topo trigger will be presented. These results demonstrate a significantly improved background event rejection, thus allowing for a rate reduction without efficiency loss. This improvement has been shown for several physics processes leading to low-pT leptons, including H->tau tau and J/Psi->mu mu. In addition to describing the L1Topo trigger system, we will discuss the use of an accurate L1Topo simulation as a powerful tool to validate and optimize...

  13. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  15. ATLAS FTK: Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    An overview of the ATLAS Fast Tracker processor is presented, reporting the design of the system, its expected performance, and the integration status. The next LHC runs, with a significant increase in instantaneous luminosity, will provide a big challenge to the trigger and data acquisition systems of all the experiments. An intensive use of the tracking information at the trigger level will be important to keep high efficiency in interesting events, despite the increase in multiple p-p collisions per bunch crossing (pile-up). In order to increase the use of tracks within the High Level Trigger (HLT), the ATLAS experiment planned the installation of an hardware processor dedicated to tracking: the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor. The FTK is designed to perform full scan track reconstruction at every Level-1 accept. To achieve this goal, the FTK uses a fully parallel architecture, with algorithms designed to exploit the computing power of custom VLSI chips, the Associative Memory, as well as modern FPGAs. The FT...

  16. Ischemic Compression After Trigger Point Injection Affect the Treatment of Myofascial Trigger Points

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Soo A; Oh, Ki Young; Choi, Won Hyuck; Kim, In Kyum

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of trigger point injection with or without ischemic compression in treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. Methods Sixty patients with active myofascial trigger points in upper trapezius muscle were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (n=20) received only trigger point injections, group 2 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 30 seconds of ischemic compression, and group 3 (n=20) received trigger point injectio...

  17. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  18. Performance of the CMS Regional Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Klabbers, P; Dasu, S; Efron, J; Fobes, R; Gorski, T; Grogg, K; Grothe, M; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Weinberg, M

    2009-01-01

    The CMS Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) receives eight-bit energies and a data quality bit from the HCAL and ECAL Trigger Primitive Generators (TPGs). The RCT uses these trigger primitives to find e/γ candidates and calculate regional calorimeter sums that are sent to the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) for sorting and further processing. The RCT hardware consists of one clock distribution crate and 18 double-sided crates containing custom boards, ASICs, and backplanes. The RCT electronics have been completely installed since 2007. The RCT has been integrated into the CMS Level-1 Trigger chain. Regular runs, triggering on cosmic rays, prepare the CMS detector for the restart of the LHC. During this running, the RCT control is handled centrally by CMS Run Control and Monitor System communicating with the Trigger Supervisor. Online Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) evaluates the performance of the RCT during these runs. Offline DQM allows more detailed studies, including trigger efficiencies. These and other r...

  19. A Hardware Track Trigger (FTK) for the ATLAS Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The design and studies of the performance for the ATLAS hardware Fast TracKer (FTK) are presented. The existing trigger system of the ATLAS experiment is deployed to reduce the event rate from the bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz to < 1 KHz for permanent storage at the LHC design luminosity of 10^34 cm^-2 s^-1. The LHC has performed exceptionally well and routinely exceeds the design luminosity and from 2015 is due to operate with higher still luminosities. This will place a significant load on the High Level trigger (HLT) system, both due to the need for more sophisticated algorithms to reject background, and from the larger data volumes that will need to be processed. The Fast TracKer is a custom electronics system that will operate at the full Level-1 accepted rate of 100 KHz and provide high quality tracks at the beginning of processing in the HLT. This will be performing by track reconstruction using hardware with massive parallelism using associative memories (AM) and FPGAs. The availability of the full...

  20. A More Rapid, Rapid Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Justin; Slamon, Nicholas B

    2016-09-01

    Critical care physicians' standard for arrival to a rapid response team activation is 10 minutes or less at this institution. This study proposes that a FaceTime (Apple, Cupertino, CA) video call between the staff at the bedside and the critical care physician will allow the implementation of potentially life-saving therapies earlier than the current average response (4.5 min). Prospective cohort study. Freestanding, tertiary-care children's hospital. Pediatric patients ages 0-17. Six units were chosen as matched pairs. In the telemedicine units, after notification of an rapid response team, the critical care intensivist established a FaceTime video call with the nurse at the bedside and gathered history, visually assessed the patient, and suggested interventions. Simultaneously, the rapid response nurse, respiratory therapist, and fellow were dispatched to respond to the bedside. After the video call, the intensivist also reported to the bedside. The control units followed the standard rapid response team protocol: the intensivist physically responded to the bedside. Differences in response time, number of interventions, Pediatric Early Warning System scores, and disposition were measured, and the PICU course of those transferred was evaluated. The telemedicine group's average time to establish FaceTime interface was 2.6 minutes and arrival at bedside was 3.7 minutes. The control group average arrival time was 3.6 minutes. The difference between FaceTime interface and physical arrival in the control group was statistically significant (p = 0.012). Physical arrival times between the telemedicine and control groups remained consistent. Fifty-eight percent of the telemedicine patients and 73% of the control patients were admitted to the PICU (p = 0.13). Of patients transferred to the PICU, there was no difference in rate of intubation, initiation of bilevel positive airway pressure, central line placement, or vasopressors. The study group averaged 1.4 interventions

  1. Development of a Marx-coupled trigger generator with high voltages and low time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yixiang; Zeng, Jiangtao; Sun, Fengju; Cong, Peitian; Su, Zhaofeng; Yang, Shi; Zhang, Xinjun; Qiu, Ai'ci

    2016-10-01

    Coupled by the Marx of the "JianGuang-I" facility, a high voltage, low time-delay trigger generator was developed. Working principles of this trigger generator and its key issues were described in detail. Structures of this generator were also carefully designed and optimized. Based on the "JianGuang-I" Marx generator, a test stand was established. And a series of experiment tests were carried out to the study performance of this trigger generator. Experiment results show that the output voltage of this trigger generator can be continuously adjusted from 58 kV to 384 kV. The time delay (from the beginning of the Marx-discharging pulse to the time that the output pulse of the trigger generator arises) of this trigger pulse is about 200 ns and its peak time (0%˜100%) is less than 50 ns. Experiment results also indicate that the time-delay jitter of trigger voltages decreases rapidly with the increase in the peak voltage of trigger pulses. When the trigger voltage is higher than 250 kV, the time-delay jitters (the standard deviation) are less than 7.7 ns.

  2. The D OE software trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, J.T.; Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI

    1992-10-01

    In the D OE experiment, the software filter operates in a processor farm with each node processing a single event. Processing is data-driven: the filter does local processing to verify the candidates from the hardware trigger. The filter code consists of independent pieces called ''tools''; processing for a given hardware bit is a ''script'' invoking one or more ''tools'' sequentially. An offline simulator drives the same code with the same configuration files, running on real or simulated data. Online tests use farm nodes parasiting on the data stream. We discuss the performance of the system and how we attempt to verify its correctness

  3. Laser-triggered vacuum switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Paul J.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable.

  4. The ALICE high level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, T [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Grastveit, G [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Helstrup, H [Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College (Norway); Lindenstruth, V [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Loizides, C [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Roehrich, D [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Skaali, B [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Steinbeck, T [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Stock, R [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Tilsner, H [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Ullaland, K [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Vestboe, A [Faculty of Engineering, Bergen University College (Norway); Vik, T [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Wiebalck, A [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s{sup -1}. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  5. Triggering for charm, beauty, and truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    As the search for more and more rare processes accelerates, the need for more and more effective event triggers also accelerates. In the earliest experiments, a simple coincidence often sufficed not only as the event trigger, but as the complete record of an event of interest. In today's experiments, not only has the fast trigger become more sophisticated, but one or more additional level of trigger processing precedes writing event data to magnetic tape for later analysis. Further search experiments will certainly require further expansion in the number of trigger levels required to filter those rare events of particular interest

  6. Configuration of the ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Elsing, M; Armstrong, S; Baines, J T M; Bee, C P; Biglietti, M; Bogaerts, A; Boisvert, V; Bosman, M; Brandt, S; Caron, B; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cavalli, D; Cervetto, M; Comune, G; Corso-Radu, A; Di Mattia, A; Díaz-Gómez, M; Dos Anjos, A; Drohan, J; Ellis, Nick; Epp, B; Etienne, F; Falciano, S; Farilla, A; George, S; Ghete, V M; González, S; Grothe, M; Kaczmarska, A; Karr, K M; Khomich, A; Konstantinidis, N P; Krasny, W; Li, W; Lowe, A; Luminari, L; Ma, H; Meessen, C; Mello, A G; Merino, G; Morettini, P; Moyse, E; Nairz, A; Negri, A; Nikitin, N V; Nisati, A; Padilla, C; Parodi, F; Pérez-Réale, V; Pinfold, J L; Pinto, P; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Rajagopalan, S; Resconi, S; Rosati, S; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Segura, E; De Seixas, J M; Shears, T G; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Smizanska, M; Soluk, R A; Stanescu, C; Tapprogge, Stefan; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V; Watson, A; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Zobernig, G; CHEP 2003 Computing in High Energy Physics

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a conceptual overview is given of the software foreseen to configure the ATLAS trigger system. Two functional software prototypes have been developed to configure the ATLAS Level-1 emulation and the High-Level Trigger software. Emphasis has been put so far on following a consistent approach between the two trigger systems and on addressing their requirements, taking into account the specific use-case of the `Region-of-Interest' mechanism for the ATLAS Level-2 trigger. In the future the configuration of the two systems will be combined to ensure a consistent selection configuration for the entire ATLAS trigger system.

  7. Performance of the ATLAS Level-1 muon barrel trigger during the Run 2 data taking

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00404546; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger is one of the main elements of the event selection of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. It exploits the Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) detectors to generate the trigger signal. The RPCs are placed in the barrel region of the ATLAS experiment: they are arranged in three concentric double layers and operate in a strong magnetic toroidal field. RPC detectors cover the pseudo-rapidity range |η| < 1.05 for a total surface of more than 4000 m 2 and about 3600 gas volumes. The Level-1 Muon Trigger in the barrel region allows to select muon candidates according to their transverse momentum and associates them with the correct bunch-crossing. The trigger system is able to take a decision within a latency of about 2 μs. The measurement of the RPC detector efficiencies and the trigger performance during the ATLAS Run-II data taking are here presented.

  8. The Database Driven ATLAS Trigger Configuration System

    CERN Document Server

    Martyniuk, Alex; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This contribution describes the trigger selection configuration system of the ATLAS low- and high-level trigger (HLT) and the upgrades it received in preparation for LHC Run 2. The ATLAS trigger configuration system is responsible for applying the physics selection parameters for the online data taking at both trigger levels and the proper connection of the trigger lines across those levels. Here the low-level trigger consists of the already existing central trigger (CT) and the new Level-1 Topological trigger (L1Topo), which has been added for Run 2. In detail the tasks of the configuration system during the online data taking are Application of the selection criteria, e.g. energy cuts, minimum multiplicities, trigger object correlation, at the three trigger components L1Topo, CT, and HLT On-the-fly, e.g. rate-dependent, generation and application of prescale factors to the CT and HLT to adjust the trigger rates to the data taking conditions, such as falling luminosity or rate spikes in the detector readout ...

  9. Minimum Bias Interaction Triggers in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kwee, R E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic ppcollisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.2 < |eta| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presente...

  10. Hadronic triggers and trigger object-level analysis at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Zaripovas, Donatas Ramilas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic signatures are critical to the high energy physics analysis program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and are broadly used for both Standard Model measurements and searches for new physics. These signatures include generic quark and gluon jets, as well as jets originating from b-quarks or the decay of massive particles (such as electroweak bosons or top quarks). Additionally missing transverse momentum from non-interacting particles provides an interesting probe in the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Developing trigger selections that target these events is a huge challenge at the LHC due to the enormous event rates associated with these signatures. This challenge is exacerbated by the amount of pile-up activity, which continues to grow. In order to address these challenges, several new techniques have been developed during the past year in order to significantly improve the potential of the 2017 dataset and overcome the limiting factors, such as storage and computing requirements...

  11. Hadronic Triggers and trigger-object level analysis at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Zaripovas, Donatas Ramilas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic signatures are critical to the high energy physics analysis program, and are broadly used for both Standard Model measurements and searches for new physics. These signatures include generic quark and gluon jets, as well as jets originating from b-quarks or the decay of massive particles (such as electroweak bosons or top quarks). Additionally missing transverse momentum from non-interacting particles provides an interesting probe in the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Developing trigger selections that target these events is a huge challenge at the LHC due to the enormous rates associated with these signatures. This challenge is exacerbated by the amount of pile-up activity, which continues to grow. In order to address these challenges, several new techniques have been developed during the past year in order to significantly improve the potential of the 2017 dataset and overcome the limiting factors to more deeply probing for new physics, such as storage and computing requirements f...

  12. Antifungal effect of gaseous nitric oxide on mycelium growth, sporulation and spore germination of the postharvest horticulture pathogens, Aspergillus niger, Monilinia fructicola and Penicillium italicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, E E; Wills, R B H; Ho, B T; Harris, A M; Spohr, L J

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the antifungal activity of nitric oxide (NO) against the growth of the postharvest horticulture pathogens Aspergillus niger, Monilinia fructicola and Penicillium italicum under in vitro conditions. Different volumes of NO gas were injected into the Petri dish headspace to obtain the desired concentrations of 50-500 microl l(-1). The growth of the fungi was measured for 8 days of incubation in air at 25 degrees C. All concentrations of NO were found to produce an antifungal effect on spore germination, sporulation and mycelial growth of the three fungi, with the most effective concentration for A. niger and P. italicum being 100 and 500 microl l(-1) for M. fructicola. Short-term exposure to a low concentration of NO gas was able to inhibit the subsequent growth of A. niger, M. fructicola and P. italicum. NO gas has potential use as a natural fungicide to inhibit microbial growth on postharvest fruit and vegetables.

  13. Effect of sporulation medium and its divalent cation content on the heat and high pressure resistance of Clostridium botulinum type E spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Christian A; Vogel, Rudi F

    2014-12-01

    Clostridium (C.) botulinum type E belongs to the non-proteolytic physiological C. botulinum group II and produces the highly potent Botulinum neurotoxin E (BoNT/E) even at refrigerated temperatures. As C. botulinum type E spores are highly prevalent in aquatic environments, seafood and fishery products are commonly associated with this organism. Hydrostatic high pressure (HHP) treatments, or treatments combining HHP with elevated temperatures (HHPT), can be used to improve traditional preservation methods and increase food safety, quality and durability. In this study, we assessed the effect of different sporulation media and cation concentration on the heat resistance, HHP resistance, and HHPT resistance of spores from three C. botulinum type E strains. SFE (sediment fish extract) sporulation media yielded the most resistant spores, whereas, in M140 media, the least resistant spores were produced. Furthermore our results indicate that the divalent cation content (Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+)) plays a role in the differential development of C. botulinum type E spore resistance to heat, HHP and HHPT in different media. Calcium cations confer heat and HPPT resistance to spores, while high amounts of magnesium cations appear to have a negative effect. Manganese cations in low concentrations are important for the development resistance to HPP and HPPT treatments, but not heat alone. This study provides valuable information on the nature of non-proteolytic C. botulinum type E spores grown in different media. The data provided here can be useful to the food industry and to researchers when considering spore properties in food safety risk assessment and the experimental design of future inactivation studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Repression of Middle Sporulation Genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the Sum1-Rfm1-Hst1 Complex Is Maintained by Set1 and H3K4 Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Deepika; Jezek, Meagan; Quijote, Jeremiah; Lum, Joanna; Choi, Grace; Kulkarni, Rushmie; Park, DoHwan; Green, Erin M

    2017-12-04

    The conserved yeast histone methyltransferase Set1 targets H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) for mono, di, and trimethylation and is linked to active transcription due to the euchromatic distribution of these methyl marks and the recruitment of Set1 during transcription. However, loss of Set1 results in increased expression of multiple classes of genes, including genes adjacent to telomeres and middle sporulation genes, which are repressed under normal growth conditions because they function in meiotic progression and spore formation. The mechanisms underlying Set1-mediated gene repression are varied, and still unclear in some cases, although repression has been linked to both direct and indirect action of Set1, associated with noncoding transcription, and is often dependent on the H3K4me2 mark. We show that Set1, and particularly the H3K4me2 mark, are implicated in repression of a subset of middle sporulation genes during vegetative growth. In the absence of Set1, there is loss of the DNA-binding transcriptional regulator Sum1 and the associated histone deacetylase Hst1 from chromatin in a locus-specific manner. This is linked to increased H4K5ac at these loci and aberrant middle gene expression. These data indicate that, in addition to DNA sequence, histone modification status also contributes to proper localization of Sum1 Our results also show that the role for Set1 in middle gene expression control diverges as cells receive signals to undergo meiosis. Overall, this work dissects an unexplored role for Set1 in gene-specific repression, and provides important insights into a new mechanism associated with the control of gene expression linked to meiotic differentiation. Copyright © 2017 Jaiswal et al.

  15. Wired and Wireless Camera Triggering with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhanen, H.; Rönnholm, P.

    2017-10-01

    Synchronous triggering is an important task that allows simultaneous data capture from multiple cameras. Accurate synchronization enables 3D measurements of moving objects or from a moving platform. In this paper, we describe one wired and four wireless variations of Arduino-based low-cost remote trigger systems designed to provide a synchronous trigger signal for industrial cameras. Our wireless systems utilize 315 MHz or 434 MHz frequencies with noise filtering capacitors. In order to validate the synchronization accuracy, we developed a prototype of a rotating trigger detection system (named RoTriDeS). This system is suitable to detect the triggering accuracy of global shutter cameras. As a result, the wired system indicated an 8.91 μs mean triggering time difference between two cameras. Corresponding mean values for the four wireless triggering systems varied between 7.92 and 9.42 μs. Presented values include both camera-based and trigger-based desynchronization. Arduino-based triggering systems appeared to be feasible, and they have the potential to be extended to more complicated triggering systems.

  16. Acoustic localization of triggered lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechiga, Rene O.; Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Edens, Harald E.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Rison, William

    2011-05-01

    We use acoustic (3.3-500 Hz) arrays to locate local (thunder produced by triggered lightning in the Magdalena Mountains of central New Mexico. The locations of the thunder sources are determined by the array back azimuth and the elapsed time since discharge of the lightning flash. We compare the acoustic source locations with those obtained by the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) from Langmuir Laboratory, which is capable of accurately locating the lightning channels. To estimate the location accuracy of the acoustic array we performed Monte Carlo simulations and measured the distance (nearest neighbors) between acoustic and LMA sources. For close sources (6 km) the error increases to 800 m for the nearest neighbors and 650 m for the Monte Carlo analysis. This work shows that thunder sources can be accurately located using acoustic signals.

  17. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jennrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includes various well-documented pathomechanisms. In the sense of primary and secondary prevention, the cancer-triggering potential of aluminium and its use in anti-perspirant deodorants must be re-evaluated. For the same reason the access to a targeted diagnosis and treatment of aluminium loading must be facilitated.

  18. Triggers of oral lichen planus flares and the potential role of trigger avoidance in disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hannah X; Blasiak, Rachel; Kim, Edwin; Padilla, Ricardo; Culton, Donna A

    2017-09-01

    Many patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) report triggers of flares, some of which overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, including oral allergy syndrome and oral contact dermatitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of commonly reported triggers of OLP flares, their overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, and the potential role of trigger avoidance as a management strategy. Questionnaire-based survey of 51 patients with biopsy-proven lichen planus with oral involvement seen in an academic dermatology specialty clinic and/or oral pathology clinic between June 2014 and June 2015. Of the participants, 94% identified at least one trigger of their OLP flares. Approximately half of the participants (51%) reported at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral allergy syndrome, and 63% identified at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral contact dermatitis. Emotional stress was the most commonly reported trigger (77%). Regarding avoidance, 79% of the study participants reported avoiding their known triggers in daily life. Of those who actively avoided triggers, 89% reported an improvement in symptoms and 70% reported a decrease in the frequency of flares. Trigger identification and avoidance can play a potentially effective role in the management of OLP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ELM mitigation with pellet ELM triggering and implications for PFCs and plasma performance in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylor, L.R.; Lang, P.T.; Allen, S.L.; Combs, S.K.; Commaux, N.; Evans, T.E.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Huijsmans, G.; Jernigan, T.C.; Lasnier, C.J.; Leonard, A.W.; Loarte, A.; Maingi, R.; Maruyama, S.; Meitner, S.J.; Moyer, R.A.; Osborne, T.H.

    2015-01-01

    The triggering of rapid small edge localized modes (ELMs) by high frequency pellet injection has been proposed as a method to prevent large naturally occurring ELMs that can erode the ITER plasma facing components (PFCs). Deuterium pellet injection has been used to successfully demonstrate the on-demand triggering of edge localized modes (ELMs) at much higher rates and with much smaller intensity than natural ELMs. The proposed hypothesis for the triggering mechanism of ELMs by pellets is the local pressure perturbation resulting from reheating of the pellet cloud that can exceed the local high-n ballooning mode threshold where the pellet is injected. Nonlinear MHD simulations of the pellet ELM triggering show destabilization of high-n ballooning modes by such a local pressure perturbation. A review of the recent pellet ELM triggering results from ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), DIII-D, and JET reveals that a number of uncertainties about this ELM mitigation technique still remain. These include the heat flux impact pattern on the divertor and wall from pellet triggered and natural ELMs, the necessary pellet size and injection location to reliably trigger ELMs, and the level of fueling to be expected from ELM triggering pellets and synergy with larger fueling pellets. The implications of these issues for pellet ELM mitigation in ITER and its impact on the PFCs are presented along with the design features of the pellet injection system for ITER

  20. ELM mitigation with pellet ELM triggering and implications for PFCs and plasma performance in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylor, L. R.; Lang, P. T.; Allen, S. L.; Combs, S. K.; Commaux, N.; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Huijsmans, G.; Jernigan, T. C.; Lasnier, C. J.; Leonard, A. W.; Loarte, A.; Maingi, R.; Maruyama, S.; Meitner, S. J.; Moyer, R. A.; Osborne, T. H.

    2015-08-01

    The triggering of rapid small edge localized modes (ELMs) by high frequency pellet injection has been proposed as a method to prevent large naturally occurring ELMs that can erode the ITER plasma facing components (PFCs). Deuterium pellet injection has been used to successfully demonstrate the on-demand triggering of edge localized modes (ELMs) at much higher rates and with much smaller intensity than natural ELMs. The proposed hypothesis for the triggering mechanism of ELMs by pellets is the local pressure perturbation resulting from reheating of the pellet cloud that can exceed the local high-n ballooning mode threshold where the pellet is injected. Nonlinear MHD simulations of the pellet ELM triggering show destabilization of high-n ballooning modes by such a local pressure perturbation. A review of the recent pellet ELM triggering results from ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), DIII-D, and JET reveals that a number of uncertainties about this ELM mitigation technique still remain. These include the heat flux impact pattern on the divertor and wall from pellet triggered and natural ELMs, the necessary pellet size and injection location to reliably trigger ELMs, and the level of fueling to be expected from ELM triggering pellets and synergy with larger fueling pellets. The implications of these issues for pellet ELM mitigation in ITER and its impact on the PFCs are presented along with the design features of the pellet injection system for ITER.

  1. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  2. The ATLAS b-jet Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira de Lima, D E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS b-jet Trigger The online event selection is crucial to reject most of the events containing uninteresting background collisions while preserving as much as possible the interesting physical signals. The b-jet selection is part of the trigger strategy of the ATLAS experiment and a set of dedicated triggers is presently contributing to the event selection for the 2011 running. The b-jets acceptance is increased and the background reduced by lowering jet transverse energy thresholds at the first trigger level and applying b-tagging techniques at the subsequent levels. Different physics channels, especially topologies containing more than one b-jet where higher rejection factors are achieved, benefit from requesting this trigger to be fired. An overview of the status-of-art of the b-jet trigger menu and performance on real data is presented in this poster.

  3. Upgrade trigger & reconstruction strategy: 2017 milestone

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, Johannes; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Cattaneo, Marco; Marco, Clemencic; Couturier, Ben; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Jones, Christopher Rob; Lemaitre, Florian; Lupton, Olli; Matev, Rosen; Pearce, Alex; Promberger, Laura; Ponce, Sebastien; Quagliani, Renato; Raven, Gerhard; Schiller, Manuel Tobias; Sciascia, Barbara; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Stahl, Sascha

    2018-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration is currently preparing an update of the experiment to take data in Run 3 of the LHC. The dominant feature of this upgrade is a trigger-less readout of the full detector followed by a full software trigger. To make optimal use of the collected data, the events are reconstructed at the inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz. This document presents the baseline trigger and reconstruction strategy as of the end of 2017.

  4. Estudos sobre a esporulação de uma amostra de bacillus: IV - Outras evidências sobre a atividade do íon Mn[2+] na esporulação endotrófica Studies on the sporulation of a Bacillus strain: IV - Further evidences of the Mn[2+] ion activity in the endotrophic sporulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Rabinovitch

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas experimentações om o intuito de se buscar mais evidências sobre a participação do íon Mn[2+] no mecanismo esporogenético de uma amostra de Bacillus licheniformis. Quando as formas vegetativas desta bactéria eram depositadas em um meio mineral, carente de fonte de carbono utilizável, em conjunto com um agente seqüestrante de metais como EDTA, a esporulação endotrófica deixava de ocorrer. Entretanto, a esporulação pôde ser protegida quando as células eram previamente saturadas com um excesso de Mn[2+] exógeno. As formas esporuladas obtidas nas condições estudadas mostraram termorresistência a 85ºC durante 20 minutos.In the present paper the authors bring out more evidences concerning the influence of Mn[2+] ion on the endotrophic sporulation of Bacillus licheniformis-2390. Vegetative cells of this bacteria could not sporulate if they were submited to a sufficient concentration of EDTA. Otherwise, this sporulatio ocurred when the vegetative forms were first protected by an excess of exogenous Mn[2+] of Zn[2+], Fe[2+] and Mg[2+]. Those spores obtained shown thermoresistence to 85ºC during 20 minutes.

  5. Configuration of the ATLAS Trigger System

    OpenAIRE

    Elsing, M; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Armstrong, S; Baines, J T M; Bee, C P; Biglietti, M; Bogaerts, A; Boisvert, V; Bosman, M; Brandt, S; Caron, B; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cavalli, D; Cervetto, M

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a conceptual overview is given of the software foreseen to configure the ATLAS trigger system. Two functional software prototypes have been developed to configure the ATLAS Level-1 emulation and the High-Level Trigger software. Emphasis has been put so far on following a consistent approach between the two trigger systems and on addressing their requirements, taking into account the specific use-case of the `Region-of-Interest' mechanism for the ATLAS Level-2 trigger. In the fut...

  6. The ATLAS Muon and Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Asta, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    [Muon] The ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) deploys a three-levels processing scheme for the trigger system. The level-1 muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a level-2 (L2) trigger followed by an event filter (EF) for a staged trigger approach. It has access to the data of the precision muon detectors and other detector elements to refine the muon hypothesis. Trigger-specific algorithms were developed and are used for the L2 to increase processing speed for instance by making use of look-up tables and simpler algorithms, while the EF muon triggers mostly benefit from offline reconstruction software to obtain most precise determination of the track parameters. There are two algorithms with different approaches, namely inside-out and outside-in...

  7. A Novel in situ Trigger Combination Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzatu, Adrian; Warburton, Andreas; Krumnack, Nils; Yao, Wei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Searches for rare physics processes using particle detectors in high-luminosity colliding hadronic beam environments require the use of multi-level trigger systems to reject colossal background rates in real time. In analyses like the search for the Higgs boson, there is a need to maximize the signal acceptance by combining multiple different trigger chains when forming the offline data sample. In such statistically limited searches, datasets are often amassed over periods of several years, during which the trigger characteristics evolve and their performance can vary significantly. Reliable production cross-section measurements and upper limits must take into account a detailed understanding of the effective trigger inefficiency for every selected candidate event. We present as an example the complex situation of three trigger chains, based on missing energy and jet energy, to be combined in the context of the search for the Higgs (H) boson produced in association with a W boson at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We briefly review the existing techniques for combining triggers, namely the inclusion, division, and exclusion methods. We introduce and describe a novel fourth in situ method whereby, for each candidate event, only the trigger chain with the highest a priori probability of selecting the event is considered. The in situ combination method has advantages of scalability to large numbers of differing trigger chains and of insensitivity to correlations between triggers. We compare the inclusion and in situ methods for signal event yields in the CDF WH search.

  8. Data analysis at Level-1 Trigger level

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, Johannes; Aradi, Gregor; Bergauer, Herbert; Jeitler, Manfred; Wulz, Claudia; Apanasevich, Leonard; Winer, Brian; Puigh, Darren Michael

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing luminosity at the LHC, optimum online data selection is getting more and more important. While in the case of some experiments (LHCb and ALICE) this task is being completely transferred to computer farms, the others - ATLAS and CMS - will not be able to do this in the medium-term future for technological, detector-related reasons. Therefore, these experiments pursue the complementary approach of migrating more and more of the offline and High-Level Trigger intelligence into the trigger electronics. This paper illustrates how the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment and in particular its concluding stage, the Global Trigger, take up this challenge.

  9. ATLAS Trigger/DAQ RobIn Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Green, B; Kugel, A; Müller, M; Yu, M; RT 2003 13th IEEE-NPSS Real Time Conference

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger/DAQ (TDAQ) system connects via 1600 Read-Out-Links (ROL) to the ATLAS sub-detectors. Each Read-Out-Buffer (RobIn) prototype attaches to 2 ROLs, buffers the incoming event data stream of 160MB/s each and provides samples upon request to the TDAQ system. We present the design of the PCI-based RobIn module, which is built around a XILINX XV2V1500 Field-Programmable-Gate-Array (FPGA), together with initial results from rapid prototyping studies.

  10. Viral triggers of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakalacheva, Kristina; Münz, Christian; Lünemann, Jan D

    2011-02-01

    Genetic and environmental factors jointly determine the susceptibility to develop Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Collaborative efforts during the past years achieved substantial progress in defining the genetic architecture, underlying susceptibility to MS. Similar to other autoimmune diseases, HLA-DR and HLA-DQ alleles within the HLA class II region on chromosome 6p21 are the highest-risk-conferring genes. Less-robust susceptibility effects have been identified for MHC class I alleles and for non-MHC regions. The role of environmental risk factors and their interaction with genetic susceptibility alleles are much less well defined, despite the fact that infections have long been associated with MS development. Current data suggest that infectious triggers are most likely ubiquitous, i.e., highly prevalent in the general population, and that they require a permissive genetic trait which predisposes for MS development. In this review article, we illustrate mechanisms of infection-induced immunopathologies in experimental animal models of autoimmune CNS inflammation, discuss challenges for the translation of these experimental data into human immunology research, and provide future perspectives on how novel model systems could be utilized to better define the role of viral pathogens in MS. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The trigger supervisor: Managing triggering conditions in a high energy physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadsworth, B.; Lanza, R.; LeVine, M.J.; Scheetz, R.A.; Videbaek, F.

    1987-01-01

    A trigger supervisor, implemented in VME-bus hardware, is described, which enables the host computer to dynamically control and monitor the trigger configuration for acquiring data from multiple detector partitions in a complex experiment

  12. Tools for Trigger Aware Analyses in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Krasznahorkay, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Stelzer, J

    2010-01-01

    In order to search for rare processes, all four LHC experiments have to use advanced triggering methods for selecting and recording the events of interest. At the expected nominal LHC operating conditions only about 0.0005% of the collision events can be kept for physics analysis in ATLAS. Therefore the understanding and evaluation of the trigger performance is one of the most crucial parts of any physics analysis. ATLAS’s first level trigger is composed of custom-built hardware, while the second and third levels are implemented using regular PCs running reconstruction and selection algorithms. Because of this split, accessing the results of the trigger execution for the two stages is different. The complexity of the software trigger presents further difficulties in accessing the trigger data. To make the job of the physicists easier when evaluating the trigger performance, multiple general-use tools are provided by the ATLAS Trigger Analysis Tools group. The TrigDecisionTool, a general tool, is provided to...

  13. Trigger factors for familial hemiplegic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Hauge, Anne Werner; Ashina, Messoud

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample.......The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample....

  14. Supine Breast MRI Using Respiratory Triggering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Natasja N. Y.; ter Beek, Leon C.; Loo, Claudette E.; Winter-Warnars, Gonneke; Lange, Charlotte A. H.; van Loveren, Marjolein; Alderliesten, Tanja; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Nijkamp, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate if navigator-echo respiratory-triggered magnetic resonance acquisition can acquire supine high-quality breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Supine respiratory-triggered magnetic resonance imaging (Trig-MRI) was compared to supine non-Trig-MRI to evaluate

  15. Report of the trigger processor subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.

    1993-01-01

    This is a summary report of a small group of people who met one afternoon to discuss trigger processors. The trigger processor group spent much of its time discussing new architecture's for high rate experiments. There was an attempt to differentiate between data driven architectures and the more conventional systems where triggers are divided into a series of levels. This was not too successful because most people felt that there were elements of the data driven architecture in almost all trigger systems -- particularly at the front end. There are, however, broad divisions that are present in almost every trigger system. The typical trigger levels are defined as: level 1 - This is the section of the trigger that is truly dead timeless. The data is pipelined with enough buffers so that no crossing (event in fixed target) is lost. A trigger decision is generated at every crossing (but delayed by the length of the pipeline); level 3 - Processor farm with one complete event per processor; level 2 - Everything in between

  16. Do episodes of anger trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, J; Hallqvist, J; Diderichsen, Finn

    1999-01-01

    Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility.......Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility....

  17. The LVL2 trigger goes online

    CERN Document Server

    David Berge

    On Friday, the 9th of February, the ATLAS TDAQ community reached an important milestone. In a successful integration test, cosmic-ray muons were recorded with parts of the muon spectrometer, the central-trigger system and a second-level trigger algorithm. This was actually the first time that a full trigger slice all the way from the first-level trigger muon chambers up to event building after event selection by the second-level trigger ran online with cosmic rays. The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition system has a three-tier structure that is designed to cope with the enormous demands of proton-proton collisions at a bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz, with a typical event size of 1-2 MB. The online event selection has to reduce the incoming rate by a factor of roughly 200,000 to 200 Hz, a rate digestible by the archival-storage and offline-processing facilities. ATLAS has a mixed system: the first-level trigger (LVL1) is in hardware, while the other two consecutive levels, the second-level trigger (LVL2)...

  18. The ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00371751; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LHC will collide protons in the ATLAS detector with increasing luminosity through 2016, placing stringent operational and physical requirements to the ATLAS trigger system in order to reduce the 40 MHz collision rate to a manageable event storage rate of 1 kHz, while not rejecting interesting physics events. The Level-1 trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS trigger system with an output rate of 100 kHz and decision latency smaller than 2.5 μs. It consists of a calorimeter trigger, muon trigger and a central trigger processor. During the LHC shutdown after the Run 1 finished in 2013, the Level-1 trigger system was upgraded including hardware, firmware and software updates. In particular, new electronics modules were introduced in the real-time data processing path: the Topological Processor System (L1Topo). It consists of a single AdvancedCTA shelf equipped with two Level-1 topological processor blades. They receive real-time information from the Level-1 calorimeter and muon triggers, which...

  19. Intelligent trigger processor for the crystal box

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, G H; Cooper, M D; Hart, G W; Hoffman, C M; Hogan, G E; Hughes, E B; Matis, H S; Rolfe, J; Sandberg, V D; Williams, R A; Wilson, S; Zeman, H

    1981-01-01

    A large solid angle angular modular NaI(Tl) detector with 432 phototubes and 88 trigger scintillators is being used to search simultaneously for three lepton flavor-changing decays of the muon. A beam of up to 10/sup 6/ muons stopping per second with a 6% duty factor would yield up to 1000 triggers per second from random triple coincidences. A reduction of the trigger rate to 10 Hz is required from a hardwired primary trigger processor. Further reduction to <1 Hz is achieved by a microprocessor-based secondary trigger processor. The primary trigger hardware imposes voter coincidence logic, stringent timing requirements, and a non-adjacency requirement in the trigger scintillators defined by hardwired circuits. Sophisticated geometric requirements are imposed by a PROM-based matrix logic, and energy and vector-momentum cuts are imposed by a hardwired processor using LSI flash ADC's and digital arithmetic logic. The secondary trigger employs four satellite microprocessors to do a sparse data scan, multiplex ...

  20. A general-purpose trigger processor system and its application to fast vertex trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazumi, M.; Banas, E.; Natkaniec, Z.; Ostrowicz, W.

    1997-12-01

    A general-purpose hardware trigger system has been developed. The system comprises programmable trigger processors and pattern generator/samplers. The hardware design of the system is described. An application as a prototype of the very fast vertex trigger in an asymmetric B-factory at KEK is also explained. (author)

  1. Ischemic compression after trigger point injection affect the treatment of myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo A; Oh, Ki Young; Choi, Won Hyuck; Kim, In Kyum

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effects of trigger point injection with or without ischemic compression in treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. SIXTY PATIENTS WITH ACTIVE MYOFASCIAL TRIGGER POINTS IN UPPER TRAPEZIUS MUSCLE WERE RANDOMLY DIVIDED INTO THREE GROUPS: group 1 (n=20) received only trigger point injections, group 2 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 30 seconds of ischemic compression, and group 3 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 60 seconds of ischemic compression. The visual analogue scale, pressure pain threshold, and range of motion of the neck were assessed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 1 week after treatment. Korean Neck Disability Indexes were assessed before treatment and 1 week after treatment. We found a significant improvement in all assessment parameters (ptrigger point injections with ischemic compression group showed significant improvement as compared with the receiving only trigger point injections group. And no significant differences between receiving 30 seconds of ischemic compression group and 60 seconds of ischemic compression group. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of ischemic compression for myofascial trigger point. Trigger point injections combined with ischemic compression shows better effects on treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle than the only trigger point injections therapy. But the duration of ischemic compression did not affect treatment of myofascial trigger point.

  2. Reliability model analysis and primary experimental evaluation of laser triggered pulse trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Debiao; Yang Xinglin; Li Yuan; Li Jin

    2012-01-01

    High performance pulse trigger can enhance performance and stability of the PPS. It is necessary to evaluate the reliability of the LTGS pulse trigger, so we establish the reliability analysis model of this pulse trigger based on CARMES software, the reliability evaluation is accord with the statistical results. (authors)

  3. Neurosteroids, trigger of the LH surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, John; Micevych, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Recent experiments from our laboratory are consistent with the idea that hypothalamic astrocytes are critical components of the central nervous system (CNS) mediated estrogen positive feedback mechanism. The “astrocrine hypothesis” maintains that ovarian estradiol rapidly increases free cytoplasmic calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) that facilitate progesterone synthesis in astrocytes. This hypothalamic neuroprogesterone along with the elevated estrogen from the ovaries allows for the surge release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) that triggers the pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. A narrow range of estradiol stimulated progesterone production supports an “off-on-off” mechanism regulating the transition from estrogen negative feedback to estrogen positive feedback, and back again. The rapidity of the [Ca2+]i response and progesterone synthesis support a non-genomic, membrane-initiated signaling mechanism. In hypothalamic astrocytes, membrane-associated estrogen receptors (mERs) signal through transactivation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1a (mGluR1a), implying that astrocytic function is influenced by surrounding glutamatergic nerve terminals. Although other putative mERs, such as mERβ, STX-activated mER-Gαq, and G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), are present and participate in membrane-mediated signaling, their influence in reproduction is still obscure since female reproduction be it estrogen positive feedback or lordosis behavior requires mERα. The astrocrine hypothesis is also consistent with the well-known sexual dimorphism of estrogen positive feedback. In rodents, only post-pubertal females exhibit this positive feedback. Hypothalamic astrocytes cultured from females, but not males, responded to estradiol by increasing progesterone synthesis. Estrogen autoregulates its own signaling by regulating levels of mERα in the plasma membrane of female astrocytes. In male astrocytes, the estradiol-induced increase in m

  4. MR imaging findings of trigger thumb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chen, Karen C.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, Radiology Service, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Trigger finger (or trigger thumb), also known as sclerosing tenosynovitis, is a common clinical diagnosis that rarely presents for imaging. Because of this selection bias, many radiologists may not be familiar with the process. Furthermore, patients who do present for imaging frequently have misleading examination indications. To our knowledge, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of trigger thumb have not been previously reported in the literature. In this article, we review the entity of trigger thumb, the anatomy involved, and associated imaging findings, which include flexor pollicis longus tendinosis with a distinct nodule, A1 pulley thickening, and tenosynovitis. In addition, in some cases, an abnormal Av pulley is apparent. In the rare cases of trigger finger that present for MR imaging, accurate diagnosis by the radiologist can allow initiation of treatment and avoid further unnecessary workup. (orig.)

  5. MR imaging findings of trigger thumb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chen, Karen C.; Chung, Christine B.

    2015-01-01

    Trigger finger (or trigger thumb), also known as sclerosing tenosynovitis, is a common clinical diagnosis that rarely presents for imaging. Because of this selection bias, many radiologists may not be familiar with the process. Furthermore, patients who do present for imaging frequently have misleading examination indications. To our knowledge, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of trigger thumb have not been previously reported in the literature. In this article, we review the entity of trigger thumb, the anatomy involved, and associated imaging findings, which include flexor pollicis longus tendinosis with a distinct nodule, A1 pulley thickening, and tenosynovitis. In addition, in some cases, an abnormal Av pulley is apparent. In the rare cases of trigger finger that present for MR imaging, accurate diagnosis by the radiologist can allow initiation of treatment and avoid further unnecessary workup. (orig.)

  6. The LHCb Trigger System: Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Johannes; LHCb Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    The current LHCb trigger system consists of a hardware level, which reduces the LHC inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz to 1MHz, at which the entire detector is read out. In a second level, implemented in a CPU farm, the event rate is reduced to about 5 kHz. The major bottleneck in LHCb's trigger efficiencies for hadronic heavy flavour decays is the hardware trigger. The LHCb experiment plans a major upgrade of the detector and DAQ system in the LHC shutdown of 2018. In this upgrade, a purely software based trigger system is being developed, which will have to process the full 30 MHz of inelastic collisions delivered by the LHC. Both the current trigger system and its planned upgrade are discussed in these proceedings.

  7. Concept of the CMS Trigger Supervisor

    CERN Document Server

    Magrans de Abril, Ildefons; Varela, Joao

    2006-01-01

    The Trigger Supervisor is an online software system designed for the CMS experiment at CERN. Its purpose is to provide a framework to set up, test, operate and monitor the trigger components on one hand and to manage their interplay and the information exchange with the run control part of the data acquisition system on the other. The Trigger Supervisor is conceived to provide a simple and homogeneous client interface to the online software infrastructure of the trigger subsystems. This document specifies the functional and non-functional requirements, design and operational details, and the components that will be delivered in order to facilitate a smooth integration of the trigger software in the context of CMS.

  8. Pulse triggering mechanism of air proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, T.; Mori, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the pulse triggering mechanism of a cylindrical proportional counter filled with air at atmospheric pressure for the incidence of β-rays. Experimental results indicate that primary electrons created distantly from the anode wire by a β-ray are transformed into negative ions, which then detach electrons close to the anode wire and generate electron avalanches thus triggering pulses, while electrons created near the anode wire by a β-ray directly trigger a pulse. Since a negative ion pulse is triggered by a single electron detached from a negative ion, multiple pulses are generated by a large number of ions produced by the incidence of a single β-ray. It is therefore necessary not to count pulses triggered by negative ions but to count those by primary electrons alone when use is made of air proportional counters for the detection of β-rays. (orig.)

  9. ATLAS jet trigger performance in 2016 data

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00535667; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC uses a two-level trigger system to preferentially select events with a predefined topology of interest for future analysis. The hadronic jet trigger is used to select several different topologies containing different types and multiplicities of hadronic jets, thus supporting many different physics searches and measurements. The hadronic jet trigger efficiency for proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV is presented. The efficient selection of events containing hadronic jets requires the characteristics of trigger-level jets and offline jets to be very similar. A comparison of relevant characteristics demonstrates that trigger-level jets and offline jets are in excellent agreement.

  10. ATLAS jet trigger performance in 2015 data

    CERN Document Server

    Herwig, Theodor Christian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC uses a two-level trigger system to preferentially select events with a predefined topology of interest for future analysis. The hadronic jet trigger is used to select several different topologies containing different types and multiplicities of hadronic jets, thus supporting many different physics searches and measurements. The hadronic jet trigger efficiency for proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV is presented. The efficient selection of events containing hadronic jets requires the characteristics of trigger-level jets and offline jets to be very similar. A comparison of relevant characteristics demonstrates that trigger-level jets and offline jets are in excellent agreement.

  11. The Soft X-ray real time fast trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackler, K.; Edwards, A.; Holm, J.

    1992-05-01

    Most current diagnostics are limited to recording data either at fixed times and data rates, or in response to certain predefined events - such as the injection of a pellet. The previous Soft X-Ray trigger system at Joint European Torus Joint Undertaking (JET)(A.W. Edwards et al., Rev Sci Instrum. 57(8), p2142, 1986) improved upon this by using Analogue Signal Processors to monitor the analogue data in real time and to provide 'triggers' to the data acquisition system in response to an event such as a sawtooth collapse. This system was however limited in the type of events that could be detected. It was also incapable of being rapidly re-configured. Advances in digital electronics caused a study to be undertaken to see if this situation could be improved. The system described below is the result of this study and has successfully run at JET since the summer of 1990, providing a greatly increased quality of data as well as recording some new phenomena such as the spontaneous snake. This note has been produced to describe the function and operation of the trigger system. (author)

  12. Dark matter triggers of supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Peter W.; Rajendran, Surjeet; Varela, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    The transit of primordial black holes through a white dwarf causes localized heating around the trajectory of the black hole through dynamical friction. For sufficiently massive black holes, this heat can initiate runaway thermonuclear fusion causing the white dwarf to explode as a supernova. The shape of the observed distribution of white dwarfs with masses up to 1.25 M⊙ rules out primordial black holes with masses ˜1019- 1020 gm as a dominant constituent of the local dark matter density. Black holes with masses as large as 1024 gm will be excluded if recent observations by the NuStar Collaboration of a population of white dwarfs near the galactic center are confirmed. Black holes in the mass range 1020- 1022 gm are also constrained by the observed supernova rate, though these bounds are subject to astrophysical uncertainties. These bounds can be further strengthened through measurements of white dwarf binaries in gravitational wave observatories. The mechanism proposed in this paper can constrain a variety of other dark matter scenarios such as Q balls, annihilation/collision of large composite states of dark matter and models of dark matter where the accretion of dark matter leads to the formation of compact cores within the star. White dwarfs, with their astronomical lifetimes and sizes, can thus act as large spacetime volume detectors enabling a unique probe of the properties of dark matter, especially of dark matter candidates that have low number density. This mechanism also raises the intriguing possibility that a class of supernova may be triggered through rare events induced by dark matter rather than the conventional mechanism of accreting white dwarfs that explode upon reaching the Chandrasekhar mass.

  13. GnRHa trigger for final oocyte maturation: is HCG trigger history?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, Peter; Alsbjerg, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    gonadotrophin (HCG) trigger. Early trials showed a severe luteal phase insufficiency after GnRHa trigger despite the application of standard luteal phase support protocols. Subsequent research has led to modifications of the luteal phase support, resulting in reproductive outcome comparable to that seen after...... HCG trigger in normal- and high-responders. GnRHa trigger facilitates a tailored approach to subsequent luteal phase support, taking into account the ovarian response to stimulation. In the future, GnRHa is likely to be used for trigger in all women co-treated with GnRH antagonists....

  14. Aag Hypoxanthine-DNA Glycosylase Is Synthesized in the Forespore Compartment and Involved in Counteracting the Genotoxic and Mutagenic Effects of Hypoxanthine and Alkylated Bases in DNA during Bacillus subtilis Sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-García, Víctor M; Valenzuela-García, Luz I; Setlow, Peter; Pedraza-Reyes, Mario

    2016-12-15

    Aag from Bacillus subtilis has been implicated in in vitro removal of hypoxanthine and alkylated bases from DNA. The regulation of expression of aag in B. subtilis and the resistance to genotoxic agents and mutagenic properties of an Aag-deficient strain were studied here. A strain with a transcriptional aag-lacZ fusion expressed low levels of β-galactosidase during growth and early sporulation but exhibited increased transcription during late stages of this developmental process. Notably, aag-lacZ expression was higher inside the forespore than in the mother cell compartment, and this expression was abolished in a sigG-deficient background, suggesting a forespore-specific mechanism of aag transcription. Two additional findings supported this suggestion: (i) expression of an aag-yfp fusion was observed in the forespore, and (ii) in vivo mapping of the aag transcription start site revealed the existence of upstream regulatory sequences possessing homology to σ G -dependent promoters. In comparison with the wild-type strain, disruption of aag significantly reduced survival of sporulating B. subtilis cells following nitrous acid or methyl methanesulfonate treatments, and the Rif r mutation frequency was significantly increased in an aag strain. These results suggest that Aag protects the genome of developing B. subtilis sporangia from the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of base deamination and alkylation. In this study, evidence is presented revealing that aag, encoding a DNA glycosylase implicated in processing of hypoxanthine and alkylated DNA bases, exhibits a forespore-specific pattern of gene expression during B. subtilis sporulation. Consistent with this spatiotemporal mode of expression, Aag was found to protect the sporulating cells of this microorganism from the noxious and mutagenic effects of base deamination and alkylation. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Climatic triggers for peatland initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul J.; Swindles, Graeme T.; Valdes, Paul J.; Ivanovic, Ruza F.; Gregoire, Lauren J.; Smith, Mark W.; Tarasov, Lev; Haywood, Alan M.; Bacon, Karen L.

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands are carbon-dense wetlands characterised by waterlogged, organic-rich soils. Modern-day peatlands have formed mainly since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and despite covering only 3 % of the Earth's land surface are thought to store more than a third of all global soil carbon in the form of poorly decomposed plant detritus. Concern exists that this globally important carbon store may be vulnerable to near-future warming and changes in precipitation patterns, although the links between peatland development and climate are contested. The climatic and other environmental conditions that facilitate the initiation of peat are particularly poorly understood. We present the results of a novel, global study into the climate space of peat initiation since the LGM. We compiled a catalogue of radiocarbon dates of peat initiation from 942 sites that span a range of latitudes and biomes. We used the locations and ages of these peatlands to interrogate downscaled climate hindcasts at 500-yr intervals from a coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation general circulation model, HadCM3. This powerful combination of modelling and observational data provides a globally-consistent, temporally-extensive estimate of the climate spaces of peat initiation. In particular, it allows us to identify local and regional climatic changes that may have acted as triggers for peat formation. Peatlands in mid- and high-latitudes of both hemispheres, particularly in maritime locations, developed shortly after local increases in the time integral of growing season temperatures, and were seemingly not influenced by rainfall regime. Peat initiation at such sites appears to have been stimulated by temperature-driven increases in plant productivity in cold, postglacial landscapes, and was not water limited. The exception is the large peatland complex of the Western Siberian Lowlands, which was not glaciated during the last glacial period, and which appears to have been prompted instead by a strong

  16. Upgrade of the CMS Global Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jeitler, Manfred; Rabady, Dinyar; Sakulin, Hannes; Stahl, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The increase in center-of-mass energy and luminosity for Run-II of the Large Hadron Collider poses new challenges for the trigger systems of the experiments. To keep triggering with a similar performance as in Run-I, the CMS muon trigger is currently being upgraded. The new algorithms will provide higher resolution, especially for the muon transverse momentum and will make use of isolation criteria that combine calorimeter with muon information already in the level-1 trigger. The demands of the new algorithms can only be met by upgrading the level-1 trigger system to new powerful FPGAs with high bandwidth I/O. The processing boards will be based on the new μTCA standard. We report on the planned algorithms for the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (μGMT) which sorts and removes duplicates from boundaries of the muon trigger sub-systems. Furthermore, it determines how isolated the muon candidates are based on calorimetric energy deposits. The μGMT will be implemented using a processing board that features a larg...

  17. The ATLAS Electron and Photon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Samuel David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Electron and photon triggers covering transverse energies from 5 GeV to several TeV are essential for signal selection in a wide variety of ATLAS physics analyses to study Standard Model processes and to search for new phenomena. Final states including leptons and photons had, for example, an important role in the discovery and measurement of the Higgs boson. Dedicated triggers are also used to collect data for calibration, efficiency and fake rate measurements. The ATLAS trigger system is divided in a hardware-based Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger, both of which were upgraded during the LHC shutdown in preparation for Run-2 operation. To cope with the increasing luminosity and more challenging pile-up conditions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, the trigger selections at each level are optimized to control the rates and keep efficiencies high. To achieve this goal multivariate analysis techniques are used. The ATLAS electron and photon triggers and their performance with Run 2 dat...

  18. The ATLAS Electron and Photon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Samuel David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Electron and photon triggers covering transverse energies from 5 GeV to several TeV are essential for signal selection in a wide variety of ATLAS physics analyses to study Standard Model processes and to search for new phenomena. Final states including leptons and photons had, for example, an important role in the discovery and measurement of the Higgs boson. Dedicated triggers are also used to collect data for calibration, efficiency and fake rate measurements. The ATLAS trigger system is divided in a hardware-based Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger, both of which were upgraded during the LHC shutdown in preparation for Run-2 operation. To cope with the increasing luminosity and more challenging pile-up conditions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, the trigger selections at each level are optimized to control the rates and keep efficiencies high. To achieve this goal multivariate analysis techniques are used. The ATLAS electron and photon triggers and their performance with Run 2 dat...

  19. The ATLAS level 2 trigger supervisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolins, M.; Blair, R. E.; Dawson, J. W.; Owen, D.; Pope, B. G.; Schlereth, J. L.; Weber dos Santos, R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the hardware and software proposed for the ATLAS level 2 Trigger ROI Builder/Supervisor. The essential requirements of this system are that it operate at the design Level 1 Trigger rate of 100kHz and that it support the technical requirements of the architectures suggested for the ATLAS Level 2 Trigger. Commercial equipment and software support are used to the maximum extent possible, with support from dedicated hardware. Timing requirements and latencies are discussed and simulation results are presented

  20. The LHCb trigger in Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Michielin, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb trigger system has been upgraded to allow alignment, calibration and physics analysis to be performed in real time. An increased CPU capacity and improvements in the software have allowed lifetime unbiased selections of beauty and charm decays in the high level trigger. Thanks to offline quality event reconstruction already available online, physics analyses can be performed directly on this information and for the majority of charm physics selections a reduced event format can be written out. Beauty hadron decays are more efficiently triggered by re-optimised inclusive selections, and the HLT2 output event rate is increased by a factor of three.

  1. Electronic trigger for the ASP experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.J.

    1985-11-01

    The Anomalous Single Photon (ASP) electronic trigger is described. The experiments is based on an electromagnetic calorimeter composed of arrays of lead glass blocks, read out with photo-multiplier tubes, surrounding the interaction point at the PEP storage ring. The primary requirement of the trigger system is to be sensitive to low energy (approx. =0.5 GeV and above) photons whilst discriminating against high backgrounds at PEP. Analogue summing of the PMT signals and a sequence of programmable digital look-up tables produces a ''dead-timeless'' trigger for the beam collision rate of 408 kHz. 6 refs., 6 figs

  2. Trigger tracking for the LHCb upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Dungs, K

    2014-01-01

    This poster presents a trigger system for the upgraded LHCb detector, scheduled to begin operation in 2020. The proposed trigger system is implemented entirely in software. We show that track reconstruction of a similar quality to that available in the offline algorithms can be performed on the full inelastic pp-collision rate. A track finding efficiency of 98.8% relative to offline can be achieved for good trigger tracks. The CPU time required for this reconstruction is less than 60% of the available budget.

  3. The CMS Barrel Muon trigger upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triossi, A.; Sphicas, P.; Bellato, M.; Montecassiano, F.; Ventura, S.; Ruiz, J.M. Cela; Bedoya, C. Fernandez; Tobar, A. Navarro; Fernandez, I. Redondo; Ferrero, D. Redondo; Sastre, J.; Ero, J.; Wulz, C.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Loukas, N.; Mallios, S.; Paradas, E.; Guiducci, L.; Masetti, G.

    2017-01-01

    The increase of luminosity expected by LHC during Phase1 will impose tighter constraints for rate reduction in order to maintain high efficiency in the CMS Level1 trigger system. The TwinMux system is the early layer of the muon barrel region that concentrates the information from different subdetectors: Drift Tubes, Resistive Plate Chambers and Outer Hadron Calorimeter. It arranges the slow optical trigger links from the detector chambers into faster links (10 Gbps) that are sent in multiple copies to the track finders. Results from collision runs, that confirm the satisfactory operation of the trigger system up to the output of the barrel track finder, will be shown.

  4. Electronic trigger for the ASP experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The ASP electronic trigger is described. The experiment is based on an electromagnetic calorimeter composed of arrays of lead glass blocks, read out with photo-multiplier tubes, surrounding the interaction point at the PEP storage ring. The primary requirement of the trigger system is to be sensitive to low energy (≅ 0.5 GeV and above) photons whilst discriminating against high rate backgrounds at PEP. Analogue summing of the PMT signals and a sequence of programmable digital look-up tables produces a ''dead-timeless'' trigger for the beam collision rate of 408 kHz

  5. Effects of Two Salts Compounds on Mycelial Growth, Sporulation, and Spore Germination of Six Isolates of Botrytis cinerea in the Western North of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boualem Boumaaza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Six isolates of Botrytis cinerea were isolated from leaves and stems of different tomato varieties taken from four areas in the northwest of Algeria where tomato is mostly grown in greenhouses and high tunnels. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of two salts, NaCl and CaCl2, on three stages of Botrytis cinerea’s life cycle. All isolates tested were stimulated in 50 to 150 ppm; NaCl was the most effective treatment to increase mycelial growth at two tested concentrations. However, at 300 ppm concentration, CaCl2 completely inhibited the growth of mycelium; they reach 34.78% for the isolate TR46 and 26.72% for isolate F27. The sodium and calcium salts stimulated conidia production in liquid culture. We noticed that the effect of calcium chloride on sporulation was average while sodium chloride. In the medium containing 50 ppm, calcium chloride and sodium chloride increased the germination capacity of most isolates compared with the control. Other calcium salts, at 100 or 300 ppm, decreased the germination percentage of the conidia. With the exception of sodium salts, the inhibitions of germination reduce at 150 or 300 compared with the control. Conidial germination was slightly inhibited by sodium chloride only when the concentration was over 300 ppm.

  6. Effects of Two Salts Compounds on Mycelial Growth, Sporulation, and Spore Germination of Six Isolates of Botrytis cinerea in the Western North of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumaaza, Boualem; Benkhelifa, Mohamed; Belkhoudja, Moulay

    2015-01-01

    Six isolates of Botrytis cinerea were isolated from leaves and stems of different tomato varieties taken from four areas in the northwest of Algeria where tomato is mostly grown in greenhouses and high tunnels. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of two salts, NaCl and CaCl2, on three stages of Botrytis cinerea's life cycle. All isolates tested were stimulated in 50 to 150 ppm; NaCl was the most effective treatment to increase mycelial growth at two tested concentrations. However, at 300 ppm concentration, CaCl2 completely inhibited the growth of mycelium; they reach 34.78% for the isolate TR46 and 26.72% for isolate F27. The sodium and calcium salts stimulated conidia production in liquid culture. We noticed that the effect of calcium chloride on sporulation was average while sodium chloride. In the medium containing 50 ppm, calcium chloride and sodium chloride increased the germination capacity of most isolates compared with the control. Other calcium salts, at 100 or 300 ppm, decreased the germination percentage of the conidia. With the exception of sodium salts, the inhibitions of germination reduce at 150 or 300 compared with the control. Conidial germination was slightly inhibited by sodium chloride only when the concentration was over 300 ppm. PMID:25883657

  7. Inferring Biological Mechanisms by Data-Based Mathematical Modelling: Compartment-Specific Gene Activation during Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis as a Test Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iber, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    Biological functionality arises from the complex interactions of simple components. Emerging behaviour is difficult to recognize with verbal models alone, and mathematical approaches are important. Even few interacting components can give rise to a wide range of different responses, that is, sustained, transient, oscillatory, switch-like responses, depending on the values of the model parameters. A quantitative comparison of model predictions and experiments is therefore important to distinguish between competing hypotheses and to judge whether a certain regulatory behaviour is at all possible and plausible given the observed type and strengths of interactions and the speed of reactions. Here I will review a detailed model for the transcription factor σ(F), a regulator of cell differentiation during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. I will focus in particular on the type of conclusions that can be drawn from detailed, carefully validated models of biological signaling networks. For most systems, such detailed experimental information is currently not available, but accumulating biochemical data through technical advances are likely to enable the detailed modelling of an increasing number of pathways. A major challenge will be the linking of such detailed models and their integration into a multiscale framework to enable their analysis in a larger biological context.

  8. Inferring Biological Mechanisms by Data-Based Mathematical Modelling: Compartment-Specific Gene Activation during Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis as a Test Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Iber

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological functionality arises from the complex interactions of simple components. Emerging behaviour is difficult to recognize with verbal models alone, and mathematical approaches are important. Even few interacting components can give rise to a wide range of different responses, that is, sustained, transient, oscillatory, switch-like responses, depending on the values of the model parameters. A quantitative comparison of model predictions and experiments is therefore important to distinguish between competing hypotheses and to judge whether a certain regulatory behaviour is at all possible and plausible given the observed type and strengths of interactions and the speed of reactions. Here I will review a detailed model for the transcription factor , a regulator of cell differentiation during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. I will focus in particular on the type of conclusions that can be drawn from detailed, carefully validated models of biological signaling networks. For most systems, such detailed experimental information is currently not available, but accumulating biochemical data through technical advances are likely to enable the detailed modelling of an increasing number of pathways. A major challenge will be the linking of such detailed models and their integration into a multiscale framework to enable their analysis in a larger biological context.

  9. Triggered creep as a possible mechanism for delayed dynamic triggering of tremor and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, David R.; Peng, Zhigang; Hill, David P.; Aiken, Chastity

    2011-01-01

    The passage of radiating seismic waves generates transient stresses in the Earth's crust that can trigger slip on faults far away from the original earthquake source. The triggered fault slip is detectable in the form of earthquakes and seismic tremor. However, the significance of these triggered events remains controversial, in part because they often occur with some delay, long after the triggering stress has passed. Here we scrutinize the location and timing of tremor on the San Andreas fault between 2001 and 2010 in relation to distant earthquakes. We observe tremor on the San Andreas fault that is initiated by passing seismic waves, yet migrates along the fault at a much slower velocity than the radiating seismic waves. We suggest that the migrating tremor records triggered slow slip of the San Andreas fault as a propagating creep event. We find that the triggered tremor and fault creep can be initiated by distant earthquakes as small as magnitude 5.4 and can persist for several days after the seismic waves have passed. Our observations of prolonged tremor activity provide a clear example of the delayed dynamic triggering of seismic events. Fault creep has been shown to trigger earthquakes, and we therefore suggest that the dynamic triggering of prolonged fault creep could provide a mechanism for the delayed triggering of earthquakes. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  10. The Trigger Processor and Trigger Processor Algorithms for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lazovich, Tomo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS New Small Wheel (NSW) is an upgrade to the ATLAS muon endcap detectors that will be installed during the next long shutdown of the LHC. Comprising both MicroMegas (MMs) and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGCs), this system will drastically improve the performance of the muon system in a high cavern background environment. The NSW trigger, in particular, will significantly reduce the rate of fake triggers coming from track segments in the endcap not originating from the interaction point. We will present an overview of the trigger, the proposed sTGC and MM trigger algorithms, and the hardware implementation of the trigger. In particular, we will discuss both the heart of the trigger, an ATCA system with FPGA-based trigger processors (using the same hardware platform for both MM and sTGC triggers), as well as the full trigger electronics chain, including dedicated cards for transmission of data via GBT optical links. Finally, we will detail the challenges of ensuring that the trigger electronics can ...

  11. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  12. Trigger factors in migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, A W; Kirchmann, M; Olesen, J

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify trigger factors in migraine with aura (MA). A total of 629 MA patients representative of the Danish population were sent a questionnaire listing 16 trigger factors thought to be relevant as well as space for free text. Distinction was made between...... attacks with or without aura within each patient. The questionnaire was returned by 522 patients of whom 347 had current MA attacks. In total 80% with current attacks (278/347) indicated that at least one factor triggered their migraine, and 67% (187/278) in this group indicated that they were aware...... of at least one factor often or always giving rise to an attack of MA. Forty-one per cent (113/278) had co-occurring attacks of migraine without aura (MO). Stress (following stress), bright light, intense emotional influences, stress (during stress) and sleeping too much or too little were the trigger factors...

  13. Session summary: Electronics, triggering and data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rescia, S.

    1991-12-01

    The session focused on the requirements for calorimetry at the SSC/LHC. Results on new readout techniques, calibration, radiation hard electronics and semiconductor devices, analog and digital front and electronics, and trigger strategies are presented

  14. Performance of the CMS Level-1 Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Brooke, James John

    2012-01-01

    The first level trigger of the CMS experiment is comprised of custom electronics that process data from the electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters and three technologies of muon detectors in order to select the most interesting events from LHC collisions, such as those consistent with the production and decay of the Higgs boson. The rate of events selected by this Level-1 trigger must be reduced from the beam crossing frequency to no more than 100 kHz further processing can occur, a major challenge since the LHC instantaneous luminosity has increased by six orders of magnitude since the start of operations to more than 6E33 cm-2s-1 today. The performance of the Level-1 trigger, in terms of rates and efficiencies of the main objects and trigger algorithms, as measured from LHC proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV center-of-mass energies is presented here.

  15. SSC physics signatures and trigger requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Strategies are considered for triggering on new physics processes on the environment of the SSC, where interaction rates will be very high and most new physics processes quite rare. The quantities available for use in the trigger at various levels are related to the signatures of possible new physics. Two examples were investigated in some detail using the ISAJET Monte Carlo program: Higgs decays to W pairs and a missing energy trigger applied to gluino pair production. In both of the examples studied in detail, it was found that workable strategies for reducing the trigger rate were obtainable which also produced acceptable efficiency for the processes of interest. In future work, it will be necessary to carry out such a program for the full spectrum of suggested new physics

  16. Developments of the ATLAS Jet Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    There have been a lot of recent changes in the ATLAS jet trigger. The standard strategy, based on Regions Of Interest, is not well-suited for multi-jet events since it leads to pathologies and efficiency losses. This philosophy has been changed for the jet trigger, and we now have the possibility of unpacking the full calorimeter at Event Filter and (even for a small subset of the events) at an intermediate level between Level-1 and Level-2. We also moved to the use of calibrated scale at trigger level, and to the application of noise cuts to reduce rate spikes. We will present the performance of the jet trigger in 2011, when most of these changes were operational

  17. High-Power Triggered Gas Switches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giri, David

    1999-01-01

    .... There are several reasons to build triggered versions of the basic high-voltage spark gap. They include synchronization with an external event, timed-array antenna for steering directed energy systems etc...

  18. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2014-01-01

    A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and lepton iso...

  19. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammendola, R. [INFN Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Bauce, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Biagioni, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Fantechi, R. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); Fiorini, M. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Giagu, S. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Gianoli, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Lamanna, G., E-mail: gianluca.lamanna@cern.ch [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Lonardo, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Messina, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); and others

    2016-07-11

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  20. Triggering and data acquisition general considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Joel N.

    2003-01-01

    We provide a general introduction to trigger and data acquisition systems in High Energy Physics. We emphasize the new possibilities and new approaches that have been made possible by developments in computer technology and networking

  1. Compiler Strategies for Transport Triggered Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Compiler technology plays an important role to enhance the performance of modern microprocessors. In this thesis, compiler techniques and strategies are described to enhance the performance of microprocessors based on the Transport Triggered Architecture. The interaction between two important phases

  2. CMS Developments for Track-Triggers

    CERN Document Server

    De Mattia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is expected to deliver luminosities of 5$\\times10^{34}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$, with an average of about 140 overlapping proton-proton collisions per bunch crossing. These extreme pileup conditions place stringent requirements on the trigger system to be able to cope with the resulting event rates. A key component of the CMS upgrade for HL-LHC is a track trigger system which would identify tracks with transverse momentum above 2~\\,GeV already at the first-level trigger (L1). We present the status of proposals for implementing the L1 tracking in conjunction with the planned upgrade for the silicon tracker of the CMS experiment. The expected performance and the use of L1 tracks for triggering is discussed.

  3. Trigger circuits for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Winterberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1997-11-01

    Monolithic and discrete circuits have been developed to provide trigger signals for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter detector. These trigger circuits are deadtimeless and create overlapping 4 by 4 energy sums, a cosmic muon trigger, and a 144 channel energy sum. The front end electronics of the PHENIX system sample the energy and timing channels at each bunch crossing (BC) but it is not known immediately if this data is of interest. The information from the trigger circuits is used to determine if the data collected is of interest and should be digitized and stored or discarded. This paper presents details of the design, issues affecting circuit performance, characterization of prototypes fabricated in 1.2 microm Orbit CMOS, and integration of the circuits into the EMCal electronics system

  4. D0 triggering and data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbard, B.

    1992-10-01

    The trigger for D0 is a multi-tier system. Within the 3.5 [mu]sec bunch crossing interval, custom electronics select interesting event candidates based on electromagnetic and hadronic energy deposits in the calorimeter and on indications of tracks in the muon system. Subsequent hardware decisions use refined calculations of electron and muon characteristics. The highest level trigger occurs in one element of a farm of microprocessors, where fully developed algorithms for electrons, muons, jets, or missing E[sub t] are executed. This highest level trigger also provides the assembly of the event into its final data structure. Performance of this trigger and data acquisition system in collider operation is described.

  5. The new UA1 calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhandler, E.

    1988-01-01

    The new UA1 first-level calorimeter trigger processor is described, with emphasis on the fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding that is its most novel feature. This processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. (author)

  6. A Gamma-Ray Burst Trigger Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, David L.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The detection rate of a gamma-ray burst detector can be increased by using a count rate trigger with many accumulation times DELTAt and energy bands DELTAE Because a burst's peak flux varies when averaged over different DELTAt and DELTAE the nominal sensitivity (the numerical value of the peak flux) of a trigger system is less important than how much fainter a burst could be at the detection threshold as DELTAt and DELTAE are changed. The relative sensitivity of different triggers can be quantified by referencing the detection threshold back to the peak flux for a fiducial value of DELTAt and DELTA E. This mapping between peak flux values for different sets of DELTAt and DELTAE varies from burst to burst. Quantitative estimates of the burst detection rate for a given detector and trigger system can be based on the observed rate at a measured peak flux value in this fiducial trigger. Predictions of a proposed trigger's burst detection rate depend on the assumed burst population, and these predictions can be wildly in error for triggers that differ significantly from previous missions. I base the fiducial rate on the BATSE observations: 550 bursts per sky above a peak flux of 0.3 ph per square centimeter per second averaged over DELTAt=1.024 sec and DELTAE=50-300 keV. Using a sample of 100 burst lightcurves I find that triggering on any value of DELTAt that is a multiple of 0.064 sec decreases the average threshold peak flux on the 1.024 sec timescale by a factor of 0.6. Extending DELTAE to lower energies includes the large flux of the X-ray background, increasing the background count rate. Consequently a low energy DELTAE is advantageous only for very soft bursts. Whether a large fraction of the population of bright bursts is soft is disputed; the new population of X-ray Flashes is soft but relatively faint.

  7. The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) upgrade

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krivda, M.; Alexandre, D.; Barnby, L. S.; Evans, D.; Johnes, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Lietava, R.; Pospíšil, Jan; Baillie, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, MAR (2016), C03051 ISSN 1748-0221. [Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics (TWEPP). Lisbon, 28.09.2015-02.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Trigger concepts and systems * Trigger algorithms * digital electronics circuits Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  8. Average Characteristics of Triggered and Nontriggered Substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tung-Shin; McPherron, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic field data from ground stations, geosynchronous orbit, and magnetotail are examined to study the response to substorm activity with and without apparent interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) perturbations. Global substorms are identified using a sudden, persistent decrease in the AL index. The onset of this global expansion is taken to be the time of the Pi2 burst nearest to the beginning of the AL decrease. IMF triggers were identified subjectively through visual scanning of the data. Both northward turnings of the IMF B, and decreases in the amplitude of the By component were considered as possible triggers. Two different solar wind monitors were used in the investigation: IMP 8 in a circular orbit with a distance between approx.12 and approx.35 R(sub E) from the Earth-Sun line and ISEE 2 in an elliptical orbit with a distance of only approx.5- 10 R(sub E) from the Earth-Sun line. The results of superposed epoch analysis show that the temporal response from ground stations, geosynchronous orbit, and magnetotail are nearly identical for triggered (with apparent IMF perturbation) and nontriggered (without apparent IMF perturbation) substorms. It is therefore concluded that the nontriggered substorms are not a different form of activity than triggered substorms. However, we demonstrate that the magnitude of the response is different for the two types of substo&. By every measure considered, triggered substorm are systematically larger than nontriggered substorms. We interpret the fact that nearly 40% of all substorms cannot be associated with an IMF trigger as evidence that substorms are caused by an internal instability. However, the fact that so many appear to be triggered suggests that this internal instability is susceptible to external perturbations by the IMF. The fact that triggered substorms are larger than nontriggered substorms is counterintuitive, and we have no explanation for the observation.

  9. LHCb Calorimeter from Trigger to Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Deschamps, O

    2004-01-01

    LHCb is a second generation experiment for CP violation study in B decays. It consists in a 20 meters long single-arm spectrometer to be installed on the future Large Hadron Collider at CERN. For its precision measurement purpose, it combines precise vertex location and particle identification, in addition with a per- formant trigger system able to cope with high flux. This document addresses the use of the calorimeter data for the LHCb trigger and the physics analyses.

  10. Elementary Steps in T Cell Receptor Triggering

    OpenAIRE

    Dushek, Omer

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism by which antigen binding to the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) generates intracellular signaling, a process termed TCR triggering, is incompletely understood. A large body of experimental evidence has implicated multiple biophysical/biochemical effects and multiple molecules in the process of TCR triggering, which likely reflect the uniquely demanding role of the TCR in recognizing diverse antigenic ligands. In this perspective, I propose that breaking down the process of TCR tri...

  11. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  12. Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented in this pa......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...... result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition....... The advantage of this new approach should be a reduction in estimation time without a significant loss of accuracy, since the vector triggering conditions ensure cross information between the measurements in the Random Decrement functions. The different problems with this technique is highlighted in two...

  13. Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented in this pa......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...... result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition....... The advantage of this new approach should be a reduction in estimation time without a significant loss of accuracy, since the vector triggering conditions ensure cross information between the measurements in the Random Decrement functions. The different problems with this technique is highlighted in two...

  14. Upgrade of the trigger system of CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeitler, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Various parts of the CMS trigger and in particular the Level-1 hardware trigger will be upgraded to cope with increasing luminosity, using more selective trigger conditions at Level 1 and improving the reliability of the system. Many trigger subsystems use FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) in the electronics and will benefit from developments in this technology, allowing us to place much more logic into a single FPGA chip, thus reducing the number of chips, electronic boards and interconnections and in this way improving reliability. A number of subsystems plan to switch from the old VME bus to the new microTCA crate standard. Using similar approaches, identical modules and common software wherever possible will reduce costs and manpower requirements and improve the serviceability of the whole trigger system. The computer-farm based High-Level Trigger will not only be extended by using increasing numbers of more powerful PCs but there are also concepts for making it more robust and the software easier to maintain, which will result in better efficiency of the whole system

  15. Progress on the Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Eric Eisenhandler

    The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo) has recently passed a number of major hurdles. The various electronic modules that make up the trigger are either in full production or are about to be, and preparations in the ATLAS pit are well advanced. L1Calo has three main subsystems. The PreProcessor converts analogue calorimeter signals to digital, associates the rather broad trigger pulses with the correct proton-proton bunch crossing, and does a final calibration in transverse energy before sending digital data streams to the two algorithmic trigger processors. The Cluster Processor identifies and counts electrons, photons and taus, and the Jet/Energy-sum Processor looks for jets and also sums missing and total transverse energy. Readout drivers allow the performance of the trigger to be monitored online and offline, and also send region-of-interest information to the Level-2 Trigger. The PreProcessor (Heidelberg) is the L1Calo subsystem with the largest number of electronic modules (124), and most of its fu...

  16. The ATLAS trigger performance and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Bartsch, V; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    During the data taking period from 2009 until 2012, the ATLAS trigger has been very successfully used to collect proton-proton data at LHC centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8 TeV at record breaking luminosities. The three level trigger system reduces the event rate from the design bunch crossing rate of up to 40 MHz to an average recording rate of about 300 Hz. Using custom electronics with input from the calorimeter and muon detectors, the first level rejects most background collisions in less than 2.5,$mu$s. Then follow two levels of software based triggers. The trigger system is designed to select events by identifying muons, electrons, photons, taus, jets, and B hadron candidates, as well as using global event signatures, such as missing transverse energy. The high trigger efficiencies illustrate that we have achieved a very good level of understanding of both the detector and trigger performance and successfully selected suitable streamed data samples for analysis.

  17. The ATLAS Trigger Performance and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Bartsch, V; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    During the data taking period from 2009 until 2012, the ATLAS trigger has been very successfully used to collect proton-proton data at LHC centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8 TeV at record breaking luminosities. The three‐level trigger system reduces the event rate from the design bunch‐crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of about 300 Hz. Using custom electronics with input from the calorimeter and muon detectors, the first level rejects most background collisions in less than 2.5 μs. Then follow two levels of software‐based triggers. The trigger system is designed to select events by identifying muons, electrons, photons, taus, jets, and B hadron candidates, as well as using global event signatures, such as missing transverse energy. We give an overview of the strategy and performance of the different trigger selections during the 2011-2012 run. We also discuss the trigger evolution and redesign put in place to cope with the continuously rising luminosity and in particular t...

  18. Design studies for the Double Chooz trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The main characteristic of the neutrino mixing effect is assumed to be the coupling between the flavor and the mass eigenstates. Three mixing angles (θ 12 , θ 23 , θ 13 ) are describing the magnitude of this effect. Still unknown, θ 13 is considered very small, based on the measurement done by the CHOOZ experiment. A leading experiment will be Double Chooz, placed in the Ardennes region, on the same site as used by CHOOZ. The Double Chooz goal is the exploration of ∝80% from the currently allowed θ 13 region, by searching the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Double Chooz will use two similar detectors, located at different distances from the reactor cores: a near one at ∝150 m where no oscillations are expected and a far one at 1.05 km distance, close to the first minimum of the survival probability function. The measurement foresees a precise comparison of neutrino rates and spectra between both detectors. The detection mechanism is based on the inverse β-decay. The Double Chooz detectors have been designed to minimize the rate of random background. In a simplified view, two optically separated regions are considered. The target, filled with Gd-doped liquid scintillator, is the main antineutrino interaction volume. Surrounding the target, the inner veto region aims to tag the cosmogenic muon background which hits the detector. Both regions are viewed by photomultipliers. The Double Chooz trigger system has to be highly efficient for antineutrino events as well as for several types of background. The trigger analyzes discriminated signals from the central region and the inner veto photomultipliers. The trigger logic is fully programmable and can combine the input signals. The trigger conditions are based on the total energy released in event and on the PMT groups multiplicity. For redundancy, two independent trigger boards will be used for the central region, each of them receiving signals from half of the photomultipliers. A third trigger board

  19. Design studies for the Double Chooz trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian

    2009-07-24

    The main characteristic of the neutrino mixing effect is assumed to be the coupling between the flavor and the mass eigenstates. Three mixing angles ({theta}{sub 12}, {theta}{sub 23}, {theta}{sub 13}) are describing the magnitude of this effect. Still unknown, {theta}{sub 13} is considered very small, based on the measurement done by the CHOOZ experiment. A leading experiment will be Double Chooz, placed in the Ardennes region, on the same site as used by CHOOZ. The Double Chooz goal is the exploration of {proportional_to}80% from the currently allowed {theta}{sub 13} region, by searching the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Double Chooz will use two similar detectors, located at different distances from the reactor cores: a near one at {proportional_to}150 m where no oscillations are expected and a far one at 1.05 km distance, close to the first minimum of the survival probability function. The measurement foresees a precise comparison of neutrino rates and spectra between both detectors. The detection mechanism is based on the inverse {beta}-decay. The Double Chooz detectors have been designed to minimize the rate of random background. In a simplified view, two optically separated regions are considered. The target, filled with Gd-doped liquid scintillator, is the main antineutrino interaction volume. Surrounding the target, the inner veto region aims to tag the cosmogenic muon background which hits the detector. Both regions are viewed by photomultipliers. The Double Chooz trigger system has to be highly efficient for antineutrino events as well as for several types of background. The trigger analyzes discriminated signals from the central region and the inner veto photomultipliers. The trigger logic is fully programmable and can combine the input signals. The trigger conditions are based on the total energy released in event and on the PMT groups multiplicity. For redundancy, two independent trigger boards will be used for the central region, each of

  20. Aftershocks and triggering processes in rock fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, J.; Kwiatek, G.; Goebel, T.; Stanchits, S. A.; Dresen, G.

    2017-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of our understanding of seismicity in nature is the importance of triggering processes, which makes the forecasting of seismic activity feasible. These triggering processes by which one earthquake induces (dynamic or static) stress changes leading to potentially multiple other earthquakes are at the core relaxation processes. A specic example of triggering are aftershocks following a large earthquake, which have been observed to follow certain empirical relationships such as the Omori-Utsu relation. Such an empirical relation should arise from the underlying microscopic dynamics of the involved physical processes but the exact connection remains to be established. Simple explanations have been proposed but their general applicability is unclear. Many explanations involve the picture of an earthquake as a purely frictional sliding event. Here, we present experimental evidence that these empirical relationships are not limited to frictional processes but also arise in fracture zone formation and are mostly related to compaction-type events. Our analysis is based on tri-axial compression experiments under constant displacement rate on sandstone and granite samples using spatially located acoustic emission events and their focal mechanisms. More importantly, we show that event-event triggering plays an important role in the presence of large-scale or macrocopic imperfections while such triggering is basically absent if no signicant imperfections are present. We also show that spatial localization and an increase in activity rates close to failure do not necessarily imply triggering behavior associated with aftershocks. Only if a macroscopic crack is formed and its propagation remains subcritical do we observe significant triggering.

  1. Triggered degradation of 250 μm-thick Mg targets using acetic acid for transient electronic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Zhu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Transient electronics are becoming a hot topic due to the rapid development of bioelectronics, self-destructive devices and environmental sensors. This letter reports a novel scheme for triggering degradation of 250 μm-thick Mg target using acetic acid regarding transient electronics applications. The triggered transience has also been demonstrated using commercial vinegar. To achieve programmable transience as well as device protection, polypropylene carbonate (PPC was investigated as passivation layer. The proposed method has demonstrated simplicity, high safety, low cost and low trigger temperature.

  2. ATLAS Trigger and DAQ Upgrades for High-Luminosity LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishino, M.

    2017-12-01

    The ATLAS Trigger-DAQ system will be significantly upgraded to explore new physics beyond the standard model in the High-Luminosity LHC environment with instantaneous luminosity of up to 7.5⨯1034cm-2 s-1. Two general trigger schemes are under study and their prospects and concerns are discussed. The muon trigger and readout electronics will be totally replaced to cope with a longer latency and a higher trigger rate. At the same time, new trigger algorithms using the precision tracker will be introduced to sharpen efficiency turn-ons and suppress fake triggers. The algorithm and the expected performance of the muon trigger are described. The hardware based track trigger is one of the major items introduced in the upgrade program. It will improve the trigger performance of various trigger items with a combination of the calorimeter or muon signature. The procedure for processing track information and an expected performance on the electron trigger are presented.

  3. Rate Predictions and Trigger/DAQ Resource Monitoring in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, D M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Since starting in 2010, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has pro- duced collisions at an ever increasing rate. The ATLAS experiment successfully records the collision data with high eciency and excel- lent data quality. Events are selected using a three-level trigger system, where each level makes a more re ned selection. The level-1 trigger (L1) consists of a custom-designed hardware trigger which seeds two higher software based trigger levels. Over 300 triggers compose a trig- ger menu which selects physics signatures such as electrons, muons, particle jets, etc. Each trigger consumes computing resources of the ATLAS trigger system and oine storage. The LHC instantaneous luminosity conditions, desired physics goals of the collaboration, and the limits of the trigger infrastructure determine the composition of the ATLAS trigger menu. We describe a trigger monitoring frame- work for computing the costs of individual trigger algorithms such as data request rates and CPU consumption. This framework has been used...

  4. CMS Triggers for the LHC Startup

    CERN Document Server

    Nhan Nguyen, Chi

    2009-01-01

    The LHC will collide proton beams at a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. At the design luminosity of $10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ each crossing results in an average of about 20 inelastic pp events. The CMS trigger system is designed to reduce the input rate to about 100 Hz. This task is carried out in two steps, namely the Level-1 (L1) and the High-Level trigger (HLT). The L1 trigger is built of customized fast electronics and is designed to reduce the rate to 100 kHz. The HLT is implemented in a filter farm running on hundreds of CPUs and is designed to reduce the rate by another factor of ~1000. It combines the traditional L2 and L3 trigger components in a novel way and allows the coherent tuning of the HLT algorithms to accommodate multiple physics channels. We will discuss the strategies for optimizing triggers covering the experiment`s early physics program.

  5. DZERO Level 3 DAQ/Trigger Closeout

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The Tevatron Collider, located at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, delivered its last 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions on September 30th, 2011. The DZERO experiment continues to take cosmic data for final alignment for several more months . Since Run 2 started, in March 2001, all DZERO data has been collected by the DZERO Level 3 Trigger/DAQ System. The system is a modern, networked, commodity hardware trigger and data acquisition system based around a large central switch with about 60 front ends and 200 trigger computers. DZERO front end crates are VME based. Single Board Computer interfaces between detector data on VME and the network transport for the DAQ system. Event flow is controlled by the Routing Master which can steer events to clusters of farm nodes based on the low level trigger bits that fired. The farm nodes are multi-core commodity computer boxes, without special hardware, that run isolated software to make the final Level 3 trigger decision. Passed events are transferred to th...

  6. Software Validation Infrastructure for the ATLAS Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Adorisio, C; Beauchemin, P; Bell, P; Biglietti, M; Coccaro, A; Damazio, D; Ehrenfeld, W; Faulkner, P; George, S; Giagu, S; Goncalo, R; Hamilton, A; Jones, G; Kirk, J; Kwee, R; Lane, J; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Masik, J; Mincer, A; Monticelli, F; Omachi, C; Oyarzun, A; Panikashvili, N; Potter, C; Quinonez, F; Reinsch, A; Robinson, M; Rodríguez, D; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sidoti, A; Sinev, N; Strom, D; Sutton, M; Ventura, A; Winklmeier, F; Zhao, L

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger system is responsible for selecting the interesting collision events delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The ATLAS trigger will need to achieve a ~10^-7 rejection factor against random proton-proton collisions, and still be able to efficiently select interesting events. After a first processing level based on hardware, the final event selection is based on custom software running on two CPU farms, containing around two thousand multi-core machines. This is known as the high-level trigger. Running the trigger online during long periods demands very high quality software. It must be fast, performant, and essentially bug-free. With more than 100 contributors and around 250 different packages, a thorough validation of the HLT software is essential. This relies on a variety of unit and integration tests as well as on software metrics, and uses both in-house and open source software. This presentation presents the existing infrastructure used for validating the high-level trigger softwar...

  7. The CMS trigger in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2018-01-01

    During its second period of operation (Run 2) which started in 2015, the LHC will reach a peak instantaneous luminosity of approximately 2$\\times 10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}s^{-1}$ with an average pile-up of about 55, far larger than the design value. Under these conditions, the online event selection is a very challenging task. In CMS, it is realised by a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 (L1) Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm.\\\\ In order to face this challenge, the L1 trigger has undergone a major upgrade compared to Run 1, whereby all electronic boards of the system have been replaced, allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be run online. Its last stage, the global trigger, is now able to perform complex selections and to compute high-level quantities, like invariant masses. Likewise, the algorithms that run in the HLT went through big improvements; in particular, new ap...

  8. Validation of ATLAS L1 Topological Triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Praderio, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The Topological trigger (L1Topo) is a new component of the ATLAS L1 (Level-1) trigger. Its purpose is that of reducing the otherwise too high rate of data collection from the LHC by rejecting those events considered “uninteresting” (meaning that they have already been studied). This event rate reduction is achieved by applying topological requirements to the physical objects present in each event. It is very important to make sure that this trigger does not reject any “interesting” event. Therefore we need to verify its correct functioning. The goal of this summer student project is to study the response of two L1Topo algorithms (concerning ∆R and invariant mass). To do so I will compare the trigger decisions produced by the L1Topo hardware with the ones produced by the “official” L1Topo simulation. This way I will be able to identify events that could be incorrectly rejected. Simultaneously I will produce an emulation of these triggers that will help me understand the cause of disagreements bet...

  9. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2016-01-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabili- ties of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a stream- lined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable out- put rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and ...

  10. The Fast Interaction Trigger Upgrade for ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Solis, Edmundo

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major detector upgrade for the second LHC long shutdown (2019–20). The LHC heavy-ion luminosity and collision rate from 2021 onwards will considerably exceed the design parameters of the present ALICE forward trigger detectors. Furthermore, the introduction of a new Muon Forward Tracker (MFT) will significantly reduce the space available for the upgraded trigger detectors. To comply with these conditions a Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT) has been designed. FIT will be the primary forward trigger, luminosity, and collision time measurement detector. The FIT will be capable of triggering at an interaction rate of 50 kHz, with a time resolution better than 30 ps, with 99% efficiency. It will also determine multiplicity, centrality, and reaction plane. FIT will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov radiators with MCP-PMT sensors and of a single, large-size scintillator ring. The arrays will be placed on both sides of the interaction point (IP). Because of the presence of the h...

  11. Upgrades of the ATLAS trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00221618; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In coming years the LHC is expected to undergo upgrades to increase both the energy of proton-proton collisions and the instantaneous luminosity. In order to cope with these more challenging LHC conditions, upgrades of the ATLAS trigger system will be required. This talk will focus on some of the key aspects of these upgrades. Firstly, the upgrade period between 2019-2021 will see an increase in instantaneous luminosity to $3\\times10^{34} \\rm{cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$. Upgrades to the Level 1 trigger system during this time will include improvements for both the muon and calorimeter triggers. These include the upgrade of the first-level Endcap Muon trigger, the calorimeter trigger electronics and the addition of new calorimeter feature extractor hardware, such as the Global Feature Extractor (gFEX). An overview will be given on the design and development status the aforementioned systems, along with the latest testing and validation results. \\\\ By 2026, the High Luminosity LHC will be able to deliver 14 TeV collisions ...

  12. The ZEUS calorimeter first level trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, S.; Ali, I.; Behrens, B.; Foudas, C.; Fordham, C.; Goussiou, A.; Jaworski, M.; Lackey, J.; Reeder, D.; Robl, P.; Smith, W. H.; Vaiciulis, A.; Wodarczyk, M.; Dawson, J.; Krakauer, D.; Talaga, R.; Schlereth, J.; Zhang, H.

    1995-02-01

    An overview of the ZEUS calorimeter first level trigger is presented. The CFLT uses a pipelined architecture to accept and analyze calorimeter data for every 96 ns beam crossing interval. PMT signals are combined by analog electronics into electromagnetic and hadronic sums for 896 trigger towers. The analog sums are then digitized and analyzed. The CFLT determines the total, transverse, and missing transverse energy, identifies isolated electrons and muons, and sums energies in programmable subregions. Calculations are performed in 96 ns steps, and new data are accepted for every beam crossing. Trigger data are forwarded to the global first level trigger (GFLT) after 2 μs, allowing a GFLT accept to be issued 5 μs after the beam crossing which produced the event. Important features of the CFLT include a 12-bit effective dynamic range, extensive use of memory lookup tables for trigger calculations, fast pattern searches for isolated leptons, and low electronics noise. During the 1993 HERA run, the CFLT reduced a 50 kHz background rate to around 100 Hz.

  13. Graphical processors for HEP trigger systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammendola, R. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Biagioni, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat, 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Di Lorenzo, S. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, L. Bruno Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Università di Pisa, Lungarno Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Fantechi, R. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, L. Bruno Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Fiorini, M. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat, 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Università di Ferrara, Via Ludovico Ariosto 35, 44121 Ferrara (Italy); Frezza, O. [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Lamanna, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P.S.; Pastorelli, E. [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Piandani, R. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, L. Bruno Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Pontisso, L., E-mail: luca.pontisso@cern.ch [INFN Sezione di Pisa, L. Bruno Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Rossetti, D. [NVIDIA Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Simula, F. [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Sozzi, M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, L. Bruno Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Università di Pisa, Lungarno Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy); and others

    2017-02-11

    General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to employ GPUs as accelerators in offline computations. With the steady decrease of GPU latencies and the increase in link and memory throughputs, time is ripe for real-time applications using GPUs in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low level trigger systems, focusing on tests performed on the trigger of the CERN NA62 experiment. Latencies of all components need analysing, networking being the most critical. To keep it under control, we envisioned NaNet, an FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) enabling GPUDirect connection. Moreover, we discuss how specific trigger algorithms can be parallelised and thus benefit from a GPU implementation, in terms of increased execution speed. Such improvements are particularly relevant for the foreseen LHC luminosity upgrade where highly selective algorithms will be crucial to maintain sustainable trigger rates with very high pileup.

  14. Tools for Trigger Rate Monitoring at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Geoffrey; Wightman, Andrew Steven

    2017-01-01

    In 2017, we expect the LHC to deliver an instantaneous luminosity of roughly $2.0 \\times 10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ to the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, with about 60 simultaneous proton-proton collisions (pileup) per event. In these challenging conditions, it is important to be able to intelligently monitor the rate at which data are being collected (the trigger rate). It is not enough to simply look at the trigger rate; it is equally important to compare the trigger rate with expectations. We present a set of software tools that have been developed to accomplish this. The tools include a real-time component - a script that monitors the rates of individual triggers during data-taking, and activates an alarm if rates deviate significantly from expectation. Fits are made to previously collected data and extrapolated to higher pileup. The behavior of triggers as a function of pileup is then monitored as data are collected - plots are automatically produced on an hourly basis and uploaded to a web area...

  15. Software for implementing trigger algorithms on the upgraded CMS Global Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger andimplements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied tothe final list of trigger objects. The conditions for trigger objectselection, with possible topological requirements on multi-object triggers,are combined by simple combinatorial logic to form the algorithms.The LHC has resumed its operation in 2015, the collision-energy will beincreased to 13~TeV with the luminosity expected to go upto~2$\\times$10$^{34}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. The CMS Level-1 trigger systemwill be upgraded to improve its performance for selecting interestingphysics events and to operate within the predefined data-acquisition ratein the challenging environment expected at LHC Run~2.The Global Trigger will be re-implemented on modern FPGAs on an AdvancedMezzanine Card in MicroTCA crate. The upgraded system will benefit fromthe ability to process complex algorithms with DSP slices and increasedprocessing resources with optical links running at~10 Gbit/s, enablingm...

  16. Performance of the ATLAS Muon Trigger and Phase-1 Upgrade of Level-1 Endcap Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Mizukami, Atsushi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment utilises a trigger system to efficiently record interesting events. It consists of first-level and high-level triggers. The first-level trigger is implemented with custom-built hardware to reduce the event rate from 40 MHz to100 kHz. Then the software-based high-level triggers refine the trigger decisions reducing the output rate down to 1 kHz. Events with muons in the final state are an important signature for many physics topics at the LHC. An efficient trigger on muons and a detailed understanding of its performance are required. Trigger efficiencies are, for example, obtained from the muon decay of Z boson, with a Tag&Probe method, using proton-proton collision data collected in 2016 at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The LHC is expected to increase its instantaneous luminosity to $3\\times10^{34} \\rm{cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$ after the phase-1 upgrade between 2018-2020. The upgrade of the ATLAS trigger system is mandatory to cope with this high-luminosity. In the phase-1 upgrade, new det...

  17. A new fast and programmable trigger logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fucci, A.; Amendolia, S.R.; Bertolucci, E.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Foa, L.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M.; Givoletti, M.; Lucardesi, P.; Menzione, A.; Passuello, D.; Quaglia, M.; Ristori, L.; Rolandi, L.; Salvadori, P.; Scribano, A.; Stanga, R.; Stefanini, A.; Vincelli, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    The NA1 (FRAMM) experiment, under construction for the CERN-SPS North Area, deals with more than 1000 counter signals which have to be combined together in order to build sophisticated and highly selective triggers. These requirements have led to the development of a low cost, combinatorial, fast electronics which can replace, in an advantageous way the standard NIM electronics at the trigger level. The essential performances of the basic circuit are: 1) programmability of any desired logical expression; 2) trigger time independent of the chosen expression; 3) reduced cost and compactness due to the use of commercial RAMs, PROMs, and PLAs; 4) short delay, less than 20 ns, between input and output pulses. (Auth.)

  18. A self triggered intensified Ccd (Stic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charon, Y.; Laniece, P.; Bendali, M.

    1990-01-01

    We are developing a new device based on the results reported previously of the successfull coincidence detection of β- particles with a high spatial resolution [1]. The novelty of the device consists in triggering an intensified CCD, i.e. a CCD coupled to an image intensifier (II), by an electrical signal collected from the II itself. This is a suitable procedure for detecting with high efficiency and high resolution low light rare events. The trigger pulse is obtained from the secondary electrons produced by multiplication in a double microchannel plate (MCP) and collected on the aluminized layer protecting the phosphor screen in the II. Triggering efficiencies up to 80% has been already achieved

  19. The UA1 upgrade calorimeter trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, M.; Charleton, D.; Ellis, N.; Garvey, J.; Gregory, J.; Jimack, M.P.; Jovanovic, P.; Kenyon, I.R.; Baird, S.A.; Campbell, D.; Cawthraw, M.; Coughlan, J.; Flynn, P.; Galagedera, S.; Grayer, G.; Halsall, R.; Shah, T.P.; Stephens, R.; Biddulph, P.; Eisenhandler, E.; Fensome, I.F.; Landon, M.; Robinson, D.; Oliver, J.; Sumorok, K.

    1990-01-01

    The increased luminosity of the improved CERN Collider and the more subtle signals of second-generation collider physics demand increasingly sophisticated triggering. We have built a new first-level trigger processor designed to use the excellent granularity of the UA1 upgrade calorimeter. This device is entirely digital and handles events in 1.5 μs, thus introducing no dead time. Its most novel feature is fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding with the possibility of demanding an isolated shower of limited penetration. The processor allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. This hard-wired processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It was used extensively in the 1988 and 1989 runs of the CERN Collider. (orig.)

  20. BTeV trigger/DAQ innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votava, Margaret; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    BTeV was a proposed high-energy physics (HEP) collider experiment designed for the study of B-physics and CP Violation at the Tevatron at Fermilab. BTeV included a large-scale, high-speed trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) system, reading data from the detector at 500 Gbytes/sec and writing data to mass storage at a rate of 200 Mbytes/sec. The design of the trigger/DAQ system was innovative while remaining realistic in terms of technical feasibility, schedule and cost. This paper will give an overview of the BTeV trigger/DAQ architecture, highlight some of the technical challenges, and describe the approach that was used to solve these challenges.

  1. Trigger segments: towards improving listening skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menahem, S

    1988-05-01

    Written 'trigger' segments depicting emotionally charged clinical situations arising from real patient encounters, and ending with a pertinent statement by the parent, were prepared and presented to senior medical students, postgraduate medical and allied professionals. They were asked to record their immediate reactions, how they would have responded and on reflection, how they ought to have responded. General discussion followed, highlighting various issues dealing with patient management. Trigger segments, a relatively simple teaching approach, allow students to experience difficult clinical situations and learn, in a relatively supportive environment of their peers, their own responses. Such triggers as part of a wider programme, may provide a further method to improve listening skills and increase personal understanding of the professional's own responses.

  2. The double Chooz hardware trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucoanes, Andi; Beissel, Franz; Reinhold, Bernd; Roth, Stefan; Stahl, Achim; Wiebusch, Christopher [RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The double Chooz neutrino experiment aims to improve the present knowledge on {theta}{sub 13} mixing angle using two similar detectors placed at {proportional_to}280 m and respectively 1 km from the Chooz power plant reactor cores. The detectors measure the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. The hardware trigger has to be very efficient for antineutrinos as well as for various types of background events. The triggering condition is based on discriminated PMT sum signals and the multiplicity of groups of PMTs. The talk gives an outlook to the double Chooz experiment and explains the requirements of the trigger system. The resulting concept and its performance is shown as well as first results from a prototype system.

  3. Dendrite Injury Triggers DLK-Independent Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Stone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Axon injury triggers regeneration through activation of a conserved kinase cascade, which includes the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK. Although dendrites are damaged during stroke, traumatic brain injury, and seizure, it is not known whether mature neurons monitor dendrite injury and initiate regeneration. We probed the response to dendrite damage using model Drosophila neurons. Two larval neuron types regrew dendrites in distinct ways after all dendrites were removed. Dendrite regeneration was also triggered by injury in adults. Next, we tested whether dendrite injury was initiated with the same machinery as axon injury. Surprisingly, DLK, JNK, and fos were dispensable for dendrite regeneration. Moreover, this MAP kinase pathway was not activated by injury to dendrites. Thus, neurons respond to dendrite damage and initiate regeneration without using the conserved DLK cascade that triggers axon regeneration.

  4. Combining triggers in HEP data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendermann, Victor; Herbst, Michael; Krueger, Katja; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Stamen, Rainer; Haller, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Modern high-energy physics experiments collect data using dedicated complex multi-level trigger systems which perform an online selection of potentially interesting events. In general, this selection suffers from inefficiencies. A further loss of statistics occurs when the rate of accepted events is artificially scaled down in order to meet bandwidth constraints. An offline analysis of the recorded data must correct for the resulting losses in order to determine the original statistics of the analysed data sample. This is particularly challenging when data samples recorded by several triggers are combined. In this paper we present methods for the calculation of the offline corrections and study their statistical performance. Implications on building and operating trigger systems are discussed. (orig.)

  5. A self triggered intensified CCD (STIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon, Y.; Laniece, P.; Bendali, M.; Gaillard, J. M.; Leblanc, M.; Mastrippolito, R.; Tricoire, H.; Valentin, L.

    1991-12-01

    We are developing a new device based on the results reported previously of the successful coincidence detection of β - particles with a high spatial resolution. The novelty of the device consists in triggering and intensified CCD, i.e. a CCD coupled to an image intensifier (II), by an electrical signal collected from the II itself. This is a suitable procedure for detecting low light and rare events with high efficiency and high resolution. The trigger pulse is obtained from the secondary electrons produced by multiplication in a double microchannel plate (MCP) and collected on the aluminized layer protecting the phosphor screen in the II. Triggering efficiencies up to 80% have already been achieved.

  6. Self-triggering superconducting fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xing [Albany, NY; Tekletsadik, Kasegn [Rexford, NY

    2008-10-21

    A modular and scaleable Matrix Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. The matrix fault current limiter comprises a fault current limiter module that includes a superconductor which is electrically coupled in parallel with a trigger coil, wherein the trigger coil is magnetically coupled to the superconductor. The current surge doing a fault within the electrical power network will cause the superconductor to transition to its resistive state and also generate a uniform magnetic field in the trigger coil and simultaneously limit the voltage developed across the superconductor. This results in fast and uniform quenching of the superconductors, significantly reduces the burnout risk associated with non-uniformity often existing within the volume of superconductor materials. The fault current limiter modules may be electrically coupled together to form various "n" (rows).times."m" (columns) matrix configurations.

  7. Harnessing effector-triggered immunity for durable disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meixiang; Coaker, Gitta

    2018-01-01

    Genetic control of plant diseases has traditionally included the deployment of single immune receptors with nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) domain architecture. These NLRs recognize corresponding pathogen effector proteins inside plant cells, resulting in effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Although ETI triggers robust resistance, deployment of single NLRs can be rapidly overcome by pathogen populations within a single or a few growing seasons. In order to generate more durable disease resistance against devastating plant pathogens, a multi-tiered strategy that incorporates stacked NLRs combined with other sources of disease resistance is necessary. New genetic and genomic technologies have enabled advancements in identifying conserved pathogen effectors, isolating NLR repertoires from diverse plants, and editing plant genomes to enhance resistance. Significant advancements have also been made in understanding plant immune perception at the receptor level, which has promise for engineering new sources of resistance. Here, we discuss how to utilize recent scientific advancements in a multilayered strategy for developing more durable disease resistance. PMID:28430023

  8. Alcoholic drinks as triggers in primary headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panconesi, Alessandro; Franchini, Michela; Bartolozzi, Maria Letizia; Mugnai, Stefania; Guidi, Leonello

    2013-08-01

    This project aims to investigate the role of alcoholic drinks (ADs) as triggers for primary headaches. Patients followed in the Headache Centre and presenting with migraine without aura, migraine with aura (MA), chronic migraine (CM), and tension-type headache (TH) were asked if their headache was precipitated by AD and also about their alcohol habits. Individual characteristics and drink habits were evaluated within two binary logistic models. About one half (49.7%) of patients were abstainers, 17.6% were habitual consumers, and 32.5% were occasional consumers. Out of 448 patients, only 22 (4.9%), all with migraine, reported AD as a trigger factor. None of 44 patients with MA and none of 47 patients with TH reported AD as a trigger factor. Among those patients with migraine who consume AD, only 8% reported that AD can precipitate their headache. Multivariate analyses showed that AD use, both occasional and habitual, is unrelated to TH. Moreover, analysis performed among migraine patients, points out that occasional and habitual drinkers have a lower risk of presenting with CM than abstainers, although statistical significance occurred only among occasional drinkers. Only 3% of migraine patients who abstain from AD reported that they do not consume alcohol because it triggers their headache. Our study shows that AD acts as headache triggers in a small percentage of migraine patients. Differing from some prior studies, our data suggest that AD do not trigger MA and TH attacks. Moreover, the percentage of abstainers in our sample is higher compared with that reported in general population surveys. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The ZEUS second level calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, S.J. de.

    1990-01-01

    ZEUS is a detector for the HERA ep collider, consisting of several large components. The most important being the inner tracking detectors, which are positioned nearest to the interaction point, the calorimeter surrounding the inner tracking detectors and the muon detectors on the outside of the experimental setup. Each component will deliver a vast amount of information. In order to keep this information manageable, data is preprocessed and condensed per component and then combined to obtain the final global trigger result. The main subject of this thesis is the second level calorimeter trigger processor of the ZEUS detector. In order to be able to reject the unwanted events passing the first level, the topological event signature will have to be used at the second level. The most demanding task of the second level is the recognition of local energy depositions corresponding to isolated electrons and hadron jets. Also part of the work performed by the first level will be repeated with a higher level of accuracy. Additional information not available to the first level trigger will be processed and will be made available to the global second level trigger decision module. For the second level calorimeter trigger processor a special VME module, containing two transputers, has been developed. The second level calorimeter trigger algorithm described in this thesis was tested with simulated events, that were tracked through a computer simulation of the ZEUS detector. A part of this thesis is therefore devoted to the description of the various Monte Carlo models and the justification of the way in which they were used. (author). 132 refs.; 76 figs.; 18 tabs

  10. The ATLAS trigger: high-level trigger commissioning and operation during early data taking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalo, R

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the two general-purpose experiments due to start operation soon at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC will collide protons at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV, with a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. The ATLAS three-level trigger will reduce this input rate to match the foreseen offline storage capability of 100-200 Hz. This paper gives an overview of the ATLAS High Level Trigger focusing on the system design and its innovative features. We then present the ATLAS trigger strategy for the initial phase of LHC exploitation. Finally, we report on the valuable experience acquired through in-situ commissioning of the system where simulated events were used to exercise the trigger chain. In particular we show critical quantities such as event processing times, measured in a large-scale HLT farm using a complex trigger menu

  11. Nanoparticle-triggered release from lipid membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimhult, Erik

    2015-12-25

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are used in a rapidly expanding number of research and practical applications in biotechnology and biomedicine. We highlight how recent developments in iron oxide nanoparticle design and understanding of nanoparticle membrane interactions have led to applications in magnetically triggered, liposome delivery vehicles with controlled structure. Nanoscale vesicles actuated by incorporated nanoparticles allow for controlling location and timing of compound release, which enables e.g. use of more potent drugs in drug delivery as the interaction with the right target is ensured. This review emphasizes recent results on the connection between nanoparticle design, vesicle assembly and the stability and release properties of the vesicles. While focused on lipid vesicles magnetically actuated through iron oxide nanoparticles, these insights are of general interest for the design of capsule and cell delivery systems for biotechnology controlled by nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Triggered recruitment of ESCRT machinery promotes endolysosomal repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowyra, Michael L; Schlesinger, Paul H; Naismith, Teresa V; Hanson, Phyllis I

    2018-04-06

    Endolysosomes can be damaged by diverse materials. Terminally damaged compartments are degraded by lysophagy, but pathways that repair salvageable organelles are poorly understood. Here we found that the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, known to mediate budding and fission on endolysosomes, also plays an essential role in their repair. ESCRTs were rapidly recruited to acutely injured endolysosomes through a pathway requiring calcium and ESCRT-activating factors that was independent of lysophagy. We used live-cell imaging to demonstrate that ESCRTs responded to small perforations in endolysosomal membranes and enabled compartments to recover from limited damage. Silica crystals that disrupted endolysosomes also triggered ESCRT recruitment. ESCRTs thus provide a defense against endolysosomal damage likely to be relevant in physiological and pathological contexts. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  13. Does heavy physical exertion trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Möller, J; Ahlbom, A

    2000-01-01

    To study possible triggering of first events of acute myocardial infarction by heavy physical exertion, the authors conducted a case-crossover analysis (1993-1994) within a population-based case-referent study in Stockholm County, Sweden (the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program). Interviews were...... million person-hours, and the attributable proportion was 5.7 percent. The risk was modified by physical fitness, with an increased risk being seen among sedentary subjects as in earlier studies, but the data also suggested a U-shaped association. In addition, the trigger effect was modified...

  14. Event reconstruction algorithms for the ATLAS trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Fonseca-Martin, T; Adragna, P; Aleksandrov, E; Aleksandrov, I; Amorim, A; Anderson, K; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Asquith, L; Avolio, G; Backlund, S; Badescu, E; Baines, J; Barria, P; Bartoldus, R; Batreanu, S; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Bell, P; Bell, W H; Bellomo, M; Benslama, K; Berge, D; Berger, N; Berry, T; Biglietti, M; Blair, R R; Bogaerts, A; Bold, T; Bosman, M; Boyd, J; Brelier, B; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Buttar, C; Campanelli, M; Caprini, M; Carlino, G; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cimino, D; Ciobotaru, M; Clements, D; Coccaro, A; Conde-Muíño, P; Conventi, F; Corso-Radu, A; Costa, M J; Coura Torres, R; Cranfeld, R; Cranmer, K; Crone, G; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Dawson, I; Dawson, J; De Almeida Simoes, J; De Cecco, S; De Santo, A; DellaPietra, M; Delsart, P A; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Mattia, A; Dionisi, C; Djilkibaev, R; Dobinson, R; Dobson, M; Dotti, A; Dova, M; Drake, G; Dufour, M A; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Ellis, Nick; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Ermoline, Y; Eschrich, I; Facius, K; Falciano, S; Farthouat, P; Feng, E; Ferland, J; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Fischer, G; Francis, D; Gadomski, S; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gaudio, G; Gaumer, O; George, S; Giagu, S; Goncalo, R; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Gowdy, S; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grancagnolo, S; Green, B; Haas, S; Haberichter, W; Hadavand, H; Haeberli, C; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hansen, J R; Hauschild, M; Hauser, R; Head, S; Hillier, S J; Höcker, A; Hrynóva, T; Hughes-Jones, R; Huston, J; Idarraga, J; Igonkina, O; Inada, M; Jain, V; Johns, K; Joos, M; Kama, S; Kanaya, N; Kazarov, A; Kehoe, R; Khoriauli, G; Kieft, G; Kilvington, G; Kirk, J; Kiyamura, H; Kolos, S; Kono, T; Konstantinidis, N; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Krasznahorkay, A; Kubota, T; Kugel, A; Kuhn, D; Kurasige, H; Kuwabara, T; Kwee, R; Lankford, A; LeCompte, T; Leahu, L; Leahu, M; Ledroit, F; Lehmann-Miotto, G; Lei, X; Lellouch, D; Leyton, M; Li, S; Lim, H; Lohse, T; Losada, M; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Mapelli, L; Martin, B; Martin, B T; Marzano, F; Masik, J; McMahon, T; McPherson, R; Medinnis, M; Meessen, C; Meirosu, C; Messina, A; Mincer, A; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Mönig, K; Monticelli, F; Moraes, A; Moreno, D; Morettini, P; Murillo Garcia, R; Nagano, K; Nagasaka, Y; Negri, A; Némethy, P; Neusiedl, A; Nisati, A; Nozicka, M; Omachi, C; Osculati, B; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panikashvili, N; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pauly, T; Perera, V; Pérez, E; Pérez-Réale, V; Petersen, J; Piegaia, R; Pilcher, J E; Pinzon, G; Pope, B; Potter, C; Primavera, M; Radescu, V; Rajagopalan, S; Renkel, P; Rescigno, M; Rieke, S; Risler, C; Riu, I; Robertson, S; Roda, C; Rodríguez, D; Rogriquez, Y; Ryabov, Yu; Ryan, P; Salvatore, D; Santamarina, C; Santamarina-Rios, C; Scannicchio, D; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J L; Scholtes, I; Schooltz, D; Scott, W; Segura, E; Shimbo, N; Sidoti, A; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S; Sloper, J E; Smizanska, M; Soloviev, I; Soluk, R; Spagnolo, S; Spiwoks, R; Stancu, S; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, J; Stradling, A; Strom, David M; Strong, J; Su, D; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Szymocha, T; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Teixeira-Dias, P; Tokoshuku, K; Torrence, E; Touchard, F; Tremblet, L; Tripiana, M; Usai, G; Vachon, B; Vandelli, W; Ventura, A; Vercesi, V; Vermeulen, J; Von Der Schmitt, J; Wang, M; Watson, A; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Wickens, F; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wilkens, H; Winklmeier, F; Woerling, E E; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Xella, S; Yamazaki, Y; Yu, M; Zema, F; Zhang, J; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; Dos Anjos, A; Zur Nedden, M; Ozcan, E; Ünel, G

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 109 interactions per second at the nominal luminosity).

  15. Run 2 ATLAS Trigger and Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The 2nd LHC run has started in June 2015 with a proton-proton centre-of-mass collision energy of 13 TeV. During the years 2016 and 2017, LHC delivered an unprecedented amount of luminosity under the ever-increasing challenging conditions in terms of peak luminosity, pile-up and trigger rates. In this talk, the LHC running conditions and the improvements made to the ATLAS experiment in the course of Run 2 will be discussed, and the latest ATLAS detector and ATLAS trigger performance results from the Run 2 will be presented.

  16. Hardware trigger processor for the MDT system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)757787; The ATLAS collaboration; Hazen, Eric; Butler, John; Black, Kevin; Gastler, Daniel Edward; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Taffard, Anyes; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Ishino, Masaya; Okumura, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    We are developing a low-latency hardware trigger processor for the Monitored Drift Tube system in the Muon spectrometer. The processor will fit candidate Muon tracks in the drift tubes in real time, improving significantly the momentum resolution provided by the dedicated trigger chambers. We present a novel pure-FPGA implementation of a Legendre transform segment finder, an associative-memory alternative implementation, an ARM (Zynq) processor-based track fitter, and compact ATCA carrier board architecture. The ATCA architecture is designed to allow a modular, staged approach to deployment of the system and exploration of alternative technologies.

  17. The vertex detector trigger data model

    CERN Document Server

    Koratzinos, M

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this note is to discuss the various issues arising from Different choices in the design of the Vertex Trigger Data Model and define a Baseline model. The pros and cons of the different choices will be presented with A recommendation of which choice constitutes the baseline solution and with a suggestion of the work plan to arrive to the final solution. This note does not try and define the definite version of the data model. However it is important to have a first version at this stage of the Vertex Trigger project.

  18. Iatrogenic urological triggers of autonomic dysreflexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, N; Zhou, M; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2015-01-01

    dyssynergia. Without anesthesia, the majority of individuals develop AD during cystoscopy, transurethral litholapaxy and ESWL. The effectiveness of different anesthesia methods relies on blocking the nociceptive signals from the lower urinary tract (LUT) below the level of the neurological lesion. Other...... iatrogenic urological triggers were commonly associated with bladder filling. CONCLUSION: The LUT triggers of episodes of AD are often associated with iatrogenic urological procedures. AD was more prevalent in cervical SCI than in thoracic SCI. To detect this potential life-threatening complication following...

  19. Popular sweetner sucralose as a migraine trigger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajendrakumar M; Sarma, Rakesh; Grimsley, Edwin

    2006-09-01

    Sucralose (trichlorogalactosucrose, or better known as Splenda) is an artificial sweetener from native sucrose that was approved by the FDA on April 1, 1998 (April Fool's Day). This observation of a potential causal relationship between sucralose and migraines may be important for physicians to remember this can be a possible trigger during dietary history taking. Identifying further triggers for migraine headaches, in this case sucralose, may help alleviate some of the cost burden (through expensive medical therapy or missed work opportunity) as well as provide relief to migraineurs.

  20. A New Implementation of the Region-of-Interest Strategy for the ATLAS Second Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Boisvert, V; Baines, J T M; Bee, C P; Biglietti, M; Bogaerts, A; Bosman, M; Brandt, S; Caron, B; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cavalli, D; Cervetto, M; Comune, G; Corso-Radu, A; Di Mattia, A; Díaz-Gómez, M; Dos Anjos, A; Drohan, J; Ellis, Nick; Elsing, M; Epp, B; Etienne, F; Falciano, S; Farilla, A; George, S; Ghete, V M; González, S; Grothe, M; Kaczmarska, A; Karr, K M; Khomich, A; Konstantinidis, N P; Krasny, W; Li, W; Lowe, A; Luminari, L; Ma, H; Meessen, C; Mello, A G; Merino, G; Morettini, P; Moyse, E; Nairz, A; Negri, A; Nikitin, N V; Nisati, A; Padilla, C; Parodi, F; Pérez-Réale, V; Pinfold, J L; Pinto, P; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Rajagopalan, S; Resconi, S; Rosati, S; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Segura, E; De Seixas, J M; Shears, T G; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Smizanska, M; Soluk, R A; Stanescu, C; Tapprogge, Stefan; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V; Watson, A; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Zobernig, G; CHEP 2003 Computing in High Energy Physics

    2003-01-01

    Among the many challenges presented by the future ATLAS detector at the LHC are the high data taking rate and volume and the derivation of a rapid trigger decis ion with limited resources. To address this challenge within the ATLAS second le vel trigger system, a Region-of-Interest mechanism has been adopted which dramat ically reduces the relevant fiducial volume necessary to be readout and processe d to small regions guided by the hardware-based first level trigger. Software ha s been developed to allow fast translation between arbitrary geometric regions a nd identifiers of small collections of the event data. This facilitates on-deman d data retrieval and collection building. The system is optimized to minimize th e amount of data transferred and unnecessary building of complex objects. Detail s of the design and implementation are presented along with preliminary performance results.

  1. The MarR-like protein PchR (YvmB) regulates expression of genes involved in pulcherriminic acid biosynthesis and in the initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Paola; Aubert-Frambourg, Anne; Guillot, Alain; Auger, Sandrine

    2016-08-20

    Cyclodipeptides and their derivatives constitute a large class of peptide natural products with noteworthy biological activities. In some yeasts and bacterial species, pulcherriminic acid derived from cyclo-L-leucyl-L-leucyl is excreted and chelates free ferric ions to form the pulcherrimin. In Bacillus subtilis, the enzymes YvmC and CypX are known to be involved in pulcherriminic acid biosynthesis. However, the mechanisms controlling the transcription of the yvmC-cypX operon are still unknown. In this work, we demonstrated that the B. subtilis YvmB MarR-like regulator is the major transcription factor controlling yvmC-cypX expression. A comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis revealed a wide and prominent effect of yvmB deletion on proteins involved in cellular processes depending on iron availability. In addition, expression of yvmB depends on iron availability. Further analysis with real-time in vivo transcriptional profiling allowed us to define the YvmB regulon. We identified yvmBA, yvmC-cypX and yvnB for negative regulation and yisI for positive regulation. In combination with genetic approaches, gel mobility shift assays indicated that a 14-bp palindromic motif constitutes the YvmB binding site. It was unexpected that YvmB controls expression of yisI, whose encoding protein plays a negative role in the regulation of the sporulation initiation pathway. YvmB appears as an additional regulatory element into the cell's decision to grow or sporulate. Our findings reveal a possible role of the B. subtilis YvmB regulator in the regulatory networks connected to iron metabolism and to the control of proper timing of sporulation. YvmB was renamed as PchR controlling the pulcherriminic acid biosynthetic pathway of B. subtilis.

  2. UA1 upgrade first-level calorimeter trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, N.; Charlton, D.; Ellis, N.; Garvey, J.; Gregory, J.; Jimack, M.P.; Jovanovic, P.; Kenyon, I.R.; Baird, S.A.; Campbell, D.; Cawthraw, M.; Coughlan, J.; Flynn, P.; Galagedera, S.; Grayer, G.; Halsall, R.; Shah, T.P.; Stephens, R.; Eisenhandler, E.; Fensome, I.; Landon, M.

    1989-01-01

    A new first-level trigger processor has been built for the UA1 experiment on the Cern SppS Collider. The processor exploits the fine granularity of the new UA1 uranium-TMP calorimeter to improve the selectivity of the trigger. The new electron trigger has improved hadron jet rejection, achieved by requiring low energy deposition around the electromagnetic cluster. A missing transverse energy trigger and a total energy trigger have also been implemented. (orig.)

  3. Entity models for trigger-reaction documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalid, M.A.; Marx, M.; Makkes, M.X.

    2008-01-01

    We define the notion of an entity model for a special kind of document popular on the web: an article followed by a list of reactions on that article, usually by many authors, usually inverse chronologically ordered. We call these documents trigger-reactions pairs. The entity model describes which

  4. Trigger factors and mechanisms in migraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, Geurt Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Migraine is a severe headache syndrome, affecting approximately 33% of females and 13% of males. Patients suffer from recurring headache episodes in combination with nausea, vomiting, phono and photophobia. It is a paroxysmal disorder for which several several trigger factors have been identified by

  5. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  6. Veto Studies for LIGO Inspiral Triggers

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Nelson

    2005-01-01

    LIGO recently conducted its third scientific data run, S3. Here we summarize the veto and data quality studies conducted by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration in connection with the search for binary inspiral signals in the S3 data. LIGO's interferometer channels and physical environmental monitors were monitored, and events in these channels coincident with inspiral triggers were examined.

  7. Method for breathing related ECG triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, W.; Neeb, W.; Wellner, U.

    1984-02-01

    A method for breathing related ECG triggering has been developed. It can be applied in radionuclid-angiocardioscintigraphy promising new insights into the physiology and pathophysiology of breathing related heart function without invasive manipulations. High resolution images of the heart can be obtained using this method by steering the NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) or the cine CT (ultrafast transmission computerized tomography) acquisition.

  8. The CMS Barrel Muon Trigger Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Triossi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The increase of luminosity expected by LHC during Phase 1 will impose several constrains for rate reduction while maintaining high efficiency in the CMS Level 1 trigger system. The TwinMux system is the early layer of the muon barrel region that concentrates the information from different subdetectors DT, RPC and HO. It arranges and fan-out the slow optical trigger links from the detector chambers into faster links (10 Gbps) that are sent to the track finders. Results, from collision runs, that confirm the satisfactory operation of the trigger system up to the output of the barrel track finder, will be shown. SUMMARY: In view of the increase of luminosity during phase 1 upgrade of LHC, the muon trigger chain of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment underwent considerable improvements. The muon detector was designed for preserving the complementarity and redundancy of three separate muon detection systems, Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC), Drift Tubes (DT) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), until ...

  9. BTeV trigger/DAQ innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Votava, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    The BTeV experiment was a collider based high energy physics (HEP) B-physics experiment proposed at Fermilab. It included a large-scale, high speed trigger/data acquisition (DAQ) system, reading data off the detector at 500 Gbytes/sec and writing to mass storage at 200 Mbytes/sec. The online design was considered to be highly credible in terms of technical feasibility, schedule and cost. This paper will give an overview of the overall trigger/DAQ architecture, highlight some of the challenges, and describe the BTeV approach to solving some of the technical challenges. At the time of termination in early 2005, the experiment had just passed its baseline review. Although not fully implemented, many of the architecture choices, design, and prototype work for the online system (both trigger and DAQ) were well on their way to completion. Other large, high-speed online systems may have interest in the some of the design choices and directions of BTeV, including (a) a commodity-based tracking trigger running asynchronously at full rate, (b) the hierarchical control and fault tolerance in a large real time environment, (c) a partitioning model that supports offline processing on the online farms during idle periods with plans for dynamic load balancing, and (d) an independent parallel highway architecture

  10. Mechanisms and environmental signals triggering frost hardening ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2004-10-28

    Oct 28, 2004 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 29; Issue 4. Plant resistance to cold stress: Mechanisms and environmental signals triggering frost hardening and dehardening ... Keywords. Cold acclimation of plants; environmental signals; frost hardening; photoperiod; phytochrome; Scots pine ...

  11. Triggering on electrons and photons with CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabi Alexandre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the year 2011, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC has operated with an instantaneous luminosity that has risen continually to around 4 × 1033cm−2s−1. With this prodigious high-energy proton collisions rate, efficient triggering on electrons and photons has become a major challenge for the LHC experiments. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS experiment implements a sophisticated two-level online selection system that achieves a rejection factor of nearly 106. The first level (L1 is based on coarse information coming from the calorimeters and the muon detectors while the High-Level Trigger (HLT combines fine-grain information from all sub-detectors. In this intense hadronic environment, the L1 electron/photon trigger provides a powerful tool to select interesting events. It is based upon information from the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL, a high-resolution detector comprising 75848 lead tungstate (PbWO4 crystals in a “barrel” and two “endcaps”. The performance as well as the optimization of the electron/photon trigger are presented.

  12. ALICE Trigger and Event Selection QA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    I will present the last nine weeks of work on building a class that efficiently produces trending physics selection of various trigger classes for the purposes of quality assurance. This class is easily generalizable and will be used for live monitoring via a webpage.

  13. What Triggers Supramolecular Isomerism in Nonmolecular Solids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 11. What Triggers ... interpret the phase diagram of a system. The structure-synthesis correlation discussed here provides chemical insight to evolve a synthetic protocol to interpret and predict the possibilityof supramolecular isomers in metal organic solids.

  14. Aircraft Detectors, Trap Triggers and Combination Locks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 2. Aircraft Detectors, Trap Triggers and Combination Locks - Functional Diversity of Insect Mechanosensory Hairs. Jürgen Tautz. General Article Volume 5 Issue 2 February 2000 pp 32-38 ...

  15. An overview of the ATLAS trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Le Dû, P

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. This paper gives an overview of the event selection for ATLAS, prior to event building, with the emphasis on the level-2 trigger. (A further stage of selection after event building is described in a separate presentation-ref Event Filter overview.) The level-1 trigger based on custom hardware processes coarse-grain data from the calorimeters and dedicated muon trigger chambers to give a selection of approximately one interaction in 10**5 (one bunch crossing in 10**3). The level-2 trigger processes selected fine-grain data from all detectors to give a further selection of one in 10**2. Studies of the estimated physics rates and detector data volumes have led to a sequential level-2 selection strategy guided by Region of Interest pointers from level-1. The influence of low luminosity (b physics) and high luminosity (high pT) running on the strategy and the architectural options is discussed. The models and testbeds used in developing and testing the strategy are described. Finally the t...

  16. ATLAS LEVEL-1 CALORIMETER AND TOPOLOGICAL TRIGGER

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Sebastian Mario; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In Run 2 at CERN's Large Hadron Collider, the ATLAS detector uses a two-level trigger system to reduce the event rate from the nominal collision rate of 40 MHz to the event storage rate of 1 kHz, while preserving interesting physics events. The first step of the trigger system, Level-1, reduces the event rate to 100 kHz with a latency of less than 2.5 μs. One component of this system is the Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo), which uses coarse-granularity information from the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters to identify regions of interest corresponding to electrons, photons, taus, jets, and large amounts of transverse energy and missing transverse energy. In this talk, we will discuss the improved performance of the L1Calo system in the challenging, high-luminosity conditions provided by the LHC in Run 2. As the LHC exceeds its design luminosity, it is becoming even more critical to reduce event rates while preserving physics. A new feature of the ATLAS Run 2 trigger system is the Level-1 Topolog...

  17. Self-triggered coordination with ternary controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    This paper regards coordination of networked systems with ternary controllers. We develop a hybrid coordination system which implements a self-triggered communication policy, based on polling the neighbors upon need. We prove that the proposed scheme ensures finite-time convergence to a neighborhood

  18. Reflex epilepsy: triggers and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okudan ZV

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeynep Vildan Okudan,1 Çiğdem Özkara2 1Department of Neurology, Bakirkoy Dr Sadi Konuk Education and Research Hospital, 2Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, University of Istanbul, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract: Reflex epilepsies (REs are identified as epileptic seizures that are consistently induced by identifiable and objective-specific triggers, which may be an afferent stimulus or by the patient’s own activity. RE may have different subtypes depending on the stimulus characteristic. There are significant clinical and electrophysiologic differences between different RE types. Visual stimuli-sensitive or photosensitive epilepsies constitute a large proportion of the RE and are mainly related to genetic causes. Reflex epilepsies may present with focal or generalized seizures due to specific triggers, and sometimes seizures may occur spontaneously. The stimuli can be external (light flashes, hot water, internal (emotion, thinking, or both and should be distinguished from triggering precipitants, which most epileptic patients could report such as emotional stress, sleep deprivation, alcohol, and menstrual cycle. Different genetic and acquired factors may play a role in etiology of RE. This review will provide a current overview of the triggering factors and management of reflex seizures. Keywords: seizure, reflex epilepsy, photosensitivity, hot water, reading, thinking

  19. Prostate cancer may trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Zakharia, Elias Raja; Boysen, Anders Kindberg

    2012-01-01

    -Hu antibody test the patient was diagnosed with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis related to prostate cancer. The patient died within 6 months. We review the literature on prostate cancer-related paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. High-risk prostate cancer can trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis...

  20. Event Reconstruction Algorithms for the ATLAS Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca-Martin, T.; /CERN; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Adragna, P.; /Queen Mary, U. of London; Aleksandrov, E.; /Dubna, JINR; Aleksandrov, I.; /Dubna, JINR; Amorim, A.; /Lisbon, LIFEP; Anderson, K.; /Chicago U., EFI; Anduaga, X.; /La Plata U.; Aracena, I.; /SLAC; Asquith, L.; /University Coll. London; Avolio, G.; /CERN; Backlund, S.; /CERN; Badescu, E.; /Bucharest, IFIN-HH; Baines, J.; /Rutherford; Barria, P.; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome; Bartoldus, R.; /SLAC; Batreanu, S.; /Bucharest, IFIN-HH /CERN; Beck, H.P.; /Bern U.; Bee, C.; /Marseille, CPPM; Bell, P.; /Manchester U.; Bell, W.H.; /Glasgow U. /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /Regina U. /CERN /Annecy, LAPP /Paris, IN2P3 /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Napoli Seconda U. /INFN, Naples /Argonne /CERN /UC, Irvine /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /CERN /Montreal U. /CERN /Glasgow U. /Michigan State U. /Bucharest, IFIN-HH /Napoli Seconda U. /INFN, Naples /New York U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Salento U. /INFN, Lecce /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Bucharest, IFIN-HH /UC, Irvine /CERN /Glasgow U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Lisbon, LIFEP /Napoli Seconda U. /INFN, Naples /UC, Irvine /Valencia U. /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /University Coll. London /New York U.; /more authors..

    2011-11-09

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 10{sup 9} interactions per second at the nominal luminosity). Algorithms used in the trigger system to identify different event features of interest will be described, as well as their expected performance in terms of selection efficiency, background rejection and computation time per event. The talk will concentrate on recent improvements and on performance studies, using a very detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector and electronics chain that emulates the raw data as it will appear at the input to the trigger system.

  1. Triggered star formation and its consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shule; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G.

    2014-11-01

    Star formation can be triggered by compression from wind or supernova-driven shock waves that sweep over molecular clouds. Because these shocks will likely contain processed elements, triggered star formation has been proposed as an explanation for short-lived radioactive isotopes (SLRIs) in the Solar system. Previous studies have tracked the triggering event to the earliest phases of collapse and have focused on the shock properties required for both successful star formation and mixing of SLRIs. In this paper, we use adaptive mesh refinement simulation methods, including sink particles, to simulate the full collapse and subsequent evolution of a stable Bonnor- Ebert sphere subjected to a shock and post-shock wind. We track the flow of the cloud material after a star (a sink particle) has formed. For non-rotating clouds, we find robust triggered collapse and little bound circumstellar material remaining around the post-shock collapsed core. When we add initial cloud rotation, we observe the formation of discs around the collapsed core which then interact with the post-shock flow. Our results indicate that these circumstellar discs are massive enough to form planets and are long lived, in spite of the ablation driven by post-shock-flow ram pressure. As a function of the initial conditions, we also track the time evolution of the accretion rates and particle mixing between the ambient wind and cloud material. The latter is maximized for cases of highest Mach number.

  2. Is stress a trigger factor for migraine?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, G.G.; Evers, D.J.; Ballieux, B.E.; de Geus, E.J.C.; de Kloet, E.R.; Terwindt, G.M.; van Dijk, J.G.; Ferrari, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although mental stress is commonly considered to be an important trigger factor for migraine, experimental evidence for this belief is yet lacking. Objective: To study the temporal relationship between changes in stress-related parameters (both subjective and objective) and the onset of

  3. Event reconstruction algorithms for the ATLAS trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F-Martin, T; Avolio, G; Backlund, S; Abolins, M; Adragna, P; Aleksandrov, E; Aleksandrov, I; Amorim, A; Anderson, K; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Bartoldus, R; Asquith, L; Badescu, E; Baines, J; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Bell, P; Barria, P; Batreanu, S

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 10 9 interactions per second at the nominal luminosity). Algorithms used in the trigger system to identify different event features of interest will be described, as well as their expected performance in terms of selection efficiency, background rejection and computation time per event. The talk will concentrate on recent improvements and on performance studies, using a very detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector and electronics chain that emulates the raw data as it will appear at the input to the trigger system

  4. Level 1 Tau trigger performance in 2016 data and VBF seeds at Level 1 trigger

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the first long shutdown, the LHC has restarted at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. In 2016, the LHC achieved an instantaneous luminosity larger than $10^{34}$ $\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\cdot \\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ and a peak average pile-up of more than 40. The CMS Level-1 trigger architecture has undergone a full upgrade in order to maintain and improve the trigger performance under these new conditions. It allows CMS to keep the trigger rate under control and to avoid a significant increase in trigger thresholds that would have a negative impact on the CMS physics program. Studies of the performance of the calorimeter trigger upgrade for tau leptons, using the full 2016 dataset (35.9 $\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$), are shown. Details of the Level-1 trigger algorithms and commissioning may be found in CMS-DP-2015-009, CMS-DP-2015-003, CMS-DP-2015-051 and the CMS Technical Design Report for the Level-1 Trigger upgrade: CERN-LHCC-2013-011, CMS-TDR-12 (2013). Previous performance results, based on the ICHEP 2016 dataset (12.9 ...

  5. Investigation of Polarimetric and Electrical Characteristics of Natural and Triggered Lightning Strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, P. T.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Hill, J. D.; Pilkey, J. T.; Ngin, T.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Winn, W. P.; Eack, K.; Trueblood, J.; Edens, H. E.

    2013-12-01

    For the past three summers, the University of Oklahoma has deployed three mobile, polarimetric radars to the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida and Langmuir Laboratory near Socorro, New Mexico for the purpose of investigating the relationship between cloud structure and the propagation of triggered and natural lightning channels. This presentation will highlight observations from select natural and triggered events at these two facilities. During the summer of 2012, University of Oklahoma radar operators made a launch recommendation to the ICLRT during the passage of Tropical Storm Debby over northeast Florida that resulted in a successful triggered flash with 11 return strokes. The trigger was attempted as precipitation streamers within the stratiform rainbands of Tropical Storm Debby approached the launch site. According to the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), there were no reported natural cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes within 60 km of the ICLRT 20 hours before and eight hours after the triggered flash. The recommendation was made based on previous analyses of the storm structure of trigger attempts from the ICLRT that indicated the coincidence of several successful triggers with descending regions of enhanced radar reflectivity, or descending precipitation packets (DePPs). Polarimetric data from the frequency-agile Rapid-scanning X-band Polarimetric (RaXPol) radar as well as data from the lightning mapping array (LMA) and electric field meter (EFM) networks from the ICLRT for this event will be presented. Past analyses also revealed ice alignment signatures in differential phase and specific differential phase as strong electric fields near the top of electrified clouds cause small ice particles to become vertically aligned. These signatures are especially noticeable for circularly polarized radars. Polarimetric data from the Shared Mobile Atmospheric Research & Teaching (SMART) radar and Ra

  6. Performances of the ATLAS Level-1 Muon barrel trigger during the Run-II data taking

    CERN Document Server

    Sessa, Marco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger is one of the main elements of the event selection of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. It exploits the Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) detectors to generate the trigger signal. The RPCs are placed in the barrel region of the ATLAS experiment: they are arranged in three concentric double layers and operate in a strong magnetic toroidal field. RPC detectors cover the pseudo-rapidity range $|\\eta|<1.05$ for a total surface of more than $4000\\ m^2$ and about 3600 gas volumes. The Level-1 Muon Trigger in the barrel region allows to select muon candidates with respect to their transverse momentum and associates them with the correct bunch-crossing number. The trigger system is able to take a decision within a latency of about 2 $\\mu s$. The detailed measurement of the RPC detector efficiencies and of the trigger performance during the ATLAS Run-II data taking is here presented.

  7. Experimental Study on Triggering Characteristics of a Surface Flashover Triggered Vacuum Switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Xueling; Chen Jingliang; Sun Wei

    2010-01-01

    Triggering characteristics of triggered vacuum switch (TVS), including the discharge delay time, delay jitter, range of operational voltage and peak of pulsed current, are investigated. Both structure and experimental circuit of TVS are presented. The results indicate that TVS, as a surface flashover triggering device with high dielectric permittivity material, is with excellent triggering characteristics. When the hold-off voltage reaches 120 kV, the minimum operational voltage is 1.3 kV, and the minimum discharge delay time and jitter are 100 ns and ±10 ns, respectively. The peak current is up to 240 kA when the operational voltage reaches 100 kV. TVS can well satisfy the main demands of high voltage and current applications, and can also be used under a multi-crowbar circuit.

  8. The ATLAS online High Level Trigger framework experience reusing offline software components in the ATLAS trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedenmann, W

    2009-01-01

    Event selection in the Atlas High Level Trigger is accomplished to a large extent by reusing software components and event selection algorithms developed and tested in an offline environment. Many of these offline software modules are not specifically designed to run in a heavily multi-threaded online data flow environment. The Atlas High Level Trigger (HLT) framework based on the Gaudi and Atlas Athena frameworks, forms the interface layer, which allows the execution of the HLT selection and monitoring code within the online run control and data flow software. While such an approach provides a unified environment for trigger event selection across all of Atlas, it also poses strict requirements on the reused software components in terms of performance, memory usage and stability. Experience of running the HLT selection software in the different environments and especially on large multi-node trigger farms has been gained in several commissioning periods using preloaded Monte Carlo events, in data taking peri...

  9. Pattern-triggered immunity suppresses programmed cell death triggered by fumonisin b1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Igarashi

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death (PCD is a crucial process for plant innate immunity and development. In plant innate immunity, PCD is believed to prevent the spread of pathogens from the infection site. Although proper control of PCD is important for plant fitness, we have limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating plant PCD. Plant innate immunity triggered by recognition of effectors (effector-triggered immunity, ETI is often associated with PCD. However pattern-triggered immunity (PTI, which is triggered by recognition of elicitors called microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs, is not. Therefore we hypothesized that PTI might suppress PCD. Here we report that PCD triggered by the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1 can be suppressed by PTI in Arabidopsis. FB1-triggered cell death was suppressed by treatment with the MAMPs flg22 (a part of bacterial flagellin or elf18 (a part of the bacterial elongation factor EF-Tu but not chitin (a component of fungal cell walls. Although plant hormone signaling is associated with PCD and PTI, both FB1-triggered cell death and suppression of cell death by flg22 treatment were still observed in mutants deficient in jasmonic acid (JA, ethylene (ET and salicylic acid (SA signaling. The MAP kinases MPK3 and MPK6 are transiently activated and inactivated within one hour during PTI. We found that FB1 activated MPK3 and MPK6 about 36-48 hours after treatment. Interestingly, this late activation was attenuated by flg22 treatment. These results suggest that PTI suppression of FB1-triggered cell death may involve suppression of MPK3/MPK6 signaling but does not require JA/ET/SA signaling.

  10. Triggering HIV polyprotein processing by light using rapid photodegradation of a tight-binding protease inhibitor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schimer, Jiří; Pávová, Marcela; Anders, M.; Pachl, Petr; Šácha, Pavel; Cígler, Petr; Weber, Jan; Majer, Pavel; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Kräusslich, H. G.; Müller, B.; Konvalinka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, Mar (2015), 6461/1-6461/8 ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016; GA MŠk LO1302 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : HIV maturation * HIV PR photodegradable inhibitor * HIV PR caging Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 11.329, year: 2015 http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/150309/ncomms7461/pdf/ncomms7461.pdf

  11. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering Framework and the Trigger 
Configuration System.

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez Cavalcanti, Tiago; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering Framework and the Trigger 
Configuration System.
 
The ATLAS detector system installed in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 
at CERN is designed to study proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus 
collisions with a maximum center of mass energy of 14 TeV at a bunch 
collision rate of 40MHz.  In March 2010 the four LHC experiments saw 
the first proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV. Still within the year a 
collision rate of nearly 10 MHz is expected. At ATLAS, events of 
potential interest for ATLAS physics are selected by a three-level 
trigger system, with a final recording rate of about 200 Hz. The first 
level (L1) is implemented in custom hardware; the two levels of 
the high level trigger (HLT) are software triggers, running on large 
farms of standard computers and network devices. 

Within the ATLAS physics program more than 500 trigger signatures are 
defined. The HLT tests each signature on each L1-accepted event; the 
test outcome is recor...

  12. Performance of muon-based triggers at the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Alimena, Juliette

    2014-01-01

    The trigger systems of the CERN LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabilities of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with the detector readout, offline storage and analysis capabilities. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS reconstruction and analysis software running on a computer farm. Here we will present the design and performance of the main muon triggers used during the Run I data taking. We will show how these triggers contributed to the 2012 physics results. We will then present the improvements foreseen to meet the challenges of the Run II data taking. We will discuss the improvements being made at L1, and at various stages in the HLT reconstruction, ranging from the local drift tube and cathode strip chamber reconstruction, to ...

  13. The CLEO-III Trigger: Decision and gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergfeld, T.J.; Gollin, G.D.; Haney, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The CLEO-III Trigger provides a trigger decision every 42ns, with a latency of approximately 2.5μs. This paper describes the free-running, pipelined trigger decision logic, the throttling mechanism whereby the data acquisition system can modulate the trigger rate to maximize throughput without buffer overrun, and the subsequent signal distribution mechanism for delivering the trigger decision to the front-end electronics. This paper also describes the multilevel simulation methods employed to allow detailed low-level models of trigger components to be co-simulated with more abstract system models, thus allowing full system modeling without incurring prohibitive computational overheads

  14. Particle combinations in the LHCb Upgrade trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Fanyi

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will be upgraded during long shutdown II (2018-2020) to process inelastic proton-proton collisions at 30MHz in a software application and run at a higher instantaneous luminosity of $2\\times 10^{33}cm^{−2}s^{−1}$. Each of these collisions will contain substantially more proton-proton interactions and charged particles. It is important to identify the decay vertices of heavy-flavour hadrons produced by the primary proton-proton interaction in an efficient, CPU-performant manner. In this project, I will learn about the LHCb trigger and experimental programme and investigate alternative models for reconstructing these vertices, which may scale more efficiently to the upgraded trigger conditions than the current model.

  15. Checkpoint triggering in a computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-09-06

    According to an aspect, a method for triggering creation of a checkpoint in a computer system includes executing a task in a processing node of the computer system and determining whether it is time to read a monitor associated with a metric of the task. The monitor is read to determine a value of the metric based on determining that it is time to read the monitor. A threshold for triggering creation of the checkpoint is determined based on the value of the metric. Based on determining that the value of the metric has crossed the threshold, the checkpoint including state data of the task is created to enable restarting execution of the task upon a restart operation.

  16. The ATLAS Trigger Simulation with Legacy Software

    CERN Document Server

    Bernius, Catrin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Physics analyses at the LHC which search for rare physics processes or measure Standard Model parameters with high precision require accurate simulations of the detector response and the event selection processes. The accurate simulation of the trigger response is crucial for determination of overall selection efficiencies and signal sensitivities. For the generation and the reconstruction of simulated event data, generally the most recent software releases are used to ensure the best agreement between simulated data and real data. For the simulation of the trigger selection process, however, the same software release with which real data were taken should be ideally used. This requires potentially running with software dating many years back, the so-called legacy software. Therefore having a strategy for running legacy software in a modern environment becomes essential when data simulated for past years start to present a sizeable fraction of the total. The requirements and possibilities for such a simulatio...

  17. Machine learning techniques for razor triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Kolosova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    My project was focused on the development of a neural network which can predict if an event passes or not a razor trigger. Using synthetic data containing jets and missing transverse energy we built and trained a razor network by supervised learning. We accomplished a ∼ 91% agreement between the output of the neural network and the target while the other 10% was due to the noise of the neural network. We could apply such networks during the L1 trigger using neuromorhic hardware. Neuromorphic chips are electronic systems that function in a way similar to an actual brain, they are faster than GPUs or CPUs, but they can only be used with spiking neural networks.

  18. Conservative treatment for trigger thumb in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, H; Hamada, Y; Toshima, T; Nagasawa, K

    2001-07-01

    Conservative treatment was performed for 60 trigger thumbs (19 right, 17 left, 12 bilateral) in 48 children (19 boys, 29 girls); the age at initial diagnosis ranged from 0 to 48 months old (mean 26 months). In this approach, only passive exercise of the affected thumb was performed by the mother. As a result, two patients (two thumbs) dropped out of treatment. Fifty-six thumbs out of 58 showed a satisfactory result (96%). Sixteen thumbs (in stage 2) and eight thumbs (in stage 3) showed completely recovery. Four thumbs (in stage 3) have not yet improved. In conclusion, we suggest that conservative treatment is effective for trigger thumbs in stage 2, while surgical therapy was thought to be indicated for stage 3 before the age of 3 years to avoid flexion deformity.

  19. RF gun using laser-triggered photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, H.; Otake, Y.; Naito, T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yoshioka, M.

    1992-01-01

    An RF gun using laser-triggered photocathode has many advantages as an injector of the linear colliders since it can generate a low emittance and high current pulsed beam. The experimental facility for the RF gun, such as an RF system, a laser system and a photocathode have been fabricated to study the fundamental characteristics. The dynamics of the RF gun has also studied by the 1D sheet beam model. (author)

  20. Triggering of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Gefitinib

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan; Teresa Wagner; Hang Cao; Florian Lang

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims: The epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib is effective against several malignancies and is mainly utilized in the treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor mutation positive non-small cell lung cancer. The anti-cancer effect of the drug involves stimulation of apoptosis. Side effects of gefitinib include anemia. At least in theory, the development of anemia during gefitinib treatment could result from triggering of eryptosis, the suicidal er...

  1. Acoustic Manifestations of Natural versus Triggered Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Eack, K.; Eastvedt, E. M.; Aulich, G. D.; Trueblood, J.

    2010-12-01

    Positive leaders are rarely detected by VHF lightning detection systems; positive leader channels are usually outlined only by recoil events. Positive cloud-to-ground (CG) channels are usually not mapped. The goal of this work is to study the types of thunder produced by natural versus triggered lightning and to assess which types of thunder signals have electromagnetic activity detected by the lightning mapping array (LMA). Towards this end we are investigating the lightning detection capabilities of acoustic techniques, and comparing them with the LMA. In a previous study we used array beam forming and time of flight information to locate acoustic sources associated with lightning. Even though there was some mismatch, generally LMA and acoustic techniques saw the same phenomena. To increase the database of acoustic data from lightning, we deployed a network of three infrasound arrays (30 m aperture) during the summer of 2010 (August 3 to present) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) and audio range sources due to natural and triggered lightning. The arrays were located at a range of distances (60 to 1400 m) surrounding the triggering site, called the Kiva, used by Langmuir Laboratory to launch rockets. We have continuous acoustic measurements of lightning data from July 20 to September 18 of 2009, and from August 3 to September 1 of 2010. So far, lightning activity around the Kiva was higher during the summer of 2009. We will present acoustic data from several interesting lightning flashes including a comparison between a natural and a triggered one.

  2. Boredom and Passion: Triggers of Habitual Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine; Neergaard, Helle

    To date, habitual entrepreneurship research has mainly focused on comparing novice with habitual business founders and creating typologies. The purpose of this paper is to examine and explain the underlying reasons why habitual entrepreneurs establish new businesses repeatedly and continually....... The case based, the study identifies eight factors, which contribute to consecutive venture creation. The findings suggest that boredom and passion are necessary conditions triggering habitual entrepreneurship. Other important mechanisms included the joy of discovering and exploiting an opportunity...

  3. Surgical Treatment of Trigger Finger: Open Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Ozan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, open A1 pulley release results were evaluated in patients with a trigger finger diagnosis. 45 patients (29 females, 16 males, mean age 50.7 ± 11.9; range (24-79, 45 trigger fingers were released via open surgical technique. On the 25 of 45 cases were involved in the right hand and 16 of them were at the thumb, 2 at index, 6 at the middle and 1 at ring finger. Similarly, at the left hand, 15 of 20 cases were at the thumb, 1 at the index finger, 2 at middle finger and 2 at ring finger. Average follow-up time was 10.2 ± 2.7 (range, 6-15 months. Comorbidities in patients were; diabetes mellitus at 6 cases (13.3%, hypertension at 11 cases (24.4%, hyperthyroidism at 2 cases (4.4%, dyslipidemia at 2 cases (4.4% and lastly 2 cases had carpal tunnel syndrome operation. The mean time between the onset of symptoms to surgery was 6.9 ± 4.8 (range, 2-24 months. Patient satisfaction was very good in 34 cases (75.4% and good in 11 (24.6% patients. The distance between the pulpa of the operated finger and the palm was normal in every case postoperatively. We have not encountered any postoperative complications. We can recommend that; A1 pulley release via open incision is an effective and reliable method in trigger finger surgery.

  4. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-01-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented. (paper)

  5. Initial experience with the CDF SVT trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Ashmanskas, B; Bardi, A; Bari, M; Baumgart, M; Belforte, S; Berryhill, J W; Bogdan, M; Carosi, R; Cerri, A; Chlachidze, G; Culberston, R; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Donati, S; Fiori, I; Frisch, H; Galeotti, S; Giannetti, P; Glagolev, V; Léger, A; Liu, Y; Meschi, E; Moneta, L; Morsani, F; Nakaya, T; Punzi, G; Rescigno, M; Ristori, L; Sanders, H; Sarkar, S; Semenov, A; Shochet, M; Speer, T; Spinella, F; Vataga, H; Wu, X; Yang, U; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A M

    2003-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) is a device that works inside the CDF Level 2 trigger to find and fit tracks in real time using the central silicon vertex detector information. SVT starts from tracks found by the Level 1 central chamber fast trigger and adds the silicon information to compute transverse track parameters with offline quality in about 15 mu s. The CDF SVT is fully installed and functional and has been exercised with real data during the spring and summer 2001. It is a complex digital device of more than 100 VME boards that performs a dramatic data reduction (only about one event in a thousand is accepted by the trigger). Diagnosing rare failures poses a special challenge and SVT internal data flow is monitored by dedicated hardware and software. This paper briefly covers the SVT architecture and design and reports on the SVT building/commissioning experience (hardware and software) and on the first results from the initial running.

  6. Initial experience with the CDF SVT trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmanskas, B.; Barchiesi, A.; Bardi, A.; Bari, M.; Baumgart, M.; Belforte, Stefano; Berryhill, J.; Bogdan, M.; Carosi, R.; Cerri, A.; Chlachidze, G.; Culberston, R.; Dell'Orso, M.; Donati, S.; Fiori, I.; Frisch, H.; Galeotti, S.; Giannetti, P.; Glagolev, V.; Leger, A.; Liu, Y.; Meschi, E.; Moneta, L.; Morsani, F.; Nakaya, T.; Punzi, G.; Rescigno, M.; Ristori, L.; Sanders, H.; Sarkar, S.; Semenov, A.; Shochet, M.; Speer, T.; Spinella, F.; Vataga, H.; Wu, X.; Yang, U.; Zanello, L.; Zanetti, A. M.

    2003-03-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) is a device that works inside the CDF Level 2 trigger to find and fit tracks in real time using the central silicon vertex detector information. SVT starts from tracks found by the Level 1 central chamber fast trigger and adds the silicon information to compute transverse track parameters with offline quality in about 15 μs. The CDF SVT is fully installed and functional and has been exercised with real data during the spring and summer 2001. It is a complex digital device of more than 100 VME boards that performs a dramatic data reduction (only about one event in a thousand is accepted by the trigger). Diagnosing rare failures poses a special challenge and SVT internal data flow is monitored by dedicated hardware and software. This paper briefly covers the SVT architecture and design and reports on the SVT building/commissioning experience (hardware and software) and on the first results from the initial running.

  7. Mobile-phone pulse triggers evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrubba, Simona; Frilot, Clifton; Chesson, Andrew L; Marino, Andrew A

    2010-01-18

    If mobile-phone electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are hazardous, as suggested in the literature, processes or mechanisms must exist that allow the body to detect the fields. We hypothesized that the low-frequency pulses produced by mobile phones (217 Hz) were detected by sensory transduction, as evidenced by the ability of the pulses to trigger evoked potentials (EPs). Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded from six standard locations in 20 volunteers and analyzed to detect brain potentials triggered by a pulse of the type produced by mobile phones. Evoked potentials having the expected latency were found in 90% of the volunteers, as assessed using a nonlinear method of EEG analysis. Evoked potentials were not detected when the EEG was analyzed using time averaging. The possibility of systematic error was excluded by sham-exposure analyses. The results implied that mobile-phones trigger EP at the rate of 217 Hz during ordinary phone use. Chronic production of the changes in brain activity might be pertinent to the reports of health hazards among mobile-phone users. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ciprofloxacin triggered glutamate production by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubitz, Dorit; Wendisch, Volker F

    2016-10-07

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a well-studied bacterium which naturally overproduces glutamate when induced by an elicitor. Glutamate production is accompanied by decreased 2-oxoglutatate dehydrogenase activity. Elicitors of glutamate production by C. glutamicum analyzed to molecular detail target the cell envelope. Ciprofloxacin, an inhibitor of bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, was shown to inhibit growth of C. glutamicum wild type with concomitant excretion of glutamate. Enzyme assays showed that 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity was decreased due to ciprofloxacin addition. Transcriptome analysis revealed that this inhibitor of DNA gyrase increased RNA levels of genes involved in DNA synthesis, repair and modification. Glutamate production triggered by ciprofloxacin led to glutamate titers of up to 37 ± 1 mM and a substrate specific glutamate yield of 0.13 g/g. Even in the absence of the putative glutamate exporter gene yggB, ciprofloxacin effectively triggered glutamate production. When C. glutamicum wild type was cultivated under nitrogen-limiting conditions, 2-oxoglutarate rather than glutamate was produced as consequence of exposure to ciprofloxacin. Recombinant C. glutamicum strains overproducing lysine, arginine, ornithine, and putrescine, respectively, secreted glutamate instead of the desired amino acid when exposed to ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin induced DNA synthesis and repair genes, reduced 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity and elicited glutamate production by C. glutamicum. Production of 2-oxoglutarate could be triggered by ciprofloxacin under nitrogen-limiting conditions.

  9. The ATLAS Level-2 Trigger Pilot Project

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, R; Haberichter, W N; Schlereth, J L; Bock, R; Bogaerts, A; Boosten, M; Dobinson, Robert W; Dobson, M; Ellis, Nick; Elsing, M; Giacomini, F; Knezo, E; Martin, B; Shears, T G; Tapprogge, Stefan; Werner, P; Hansen, J R; Wäänänen, A; Korcyl, K; Lokier, J; George, S; Green, B; Strong, J; Clarke, P; Cranfield, R; Crone, G J; Sherwood, P; Wheeler, S; Hughes-Jones, R E; Kolya, S; Mercer, D; Hinkelbein, C; Kornmesser, K; Kugel, A; Männer, R; Müller, M; Sessler, M; Simmler, H; Singpiel, H; Abolins, M; Ermoline, Y; González-Pineiro, B; Hauser, R; Pope, B; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Boterenbrood, H; Jansweijer, P; Kieft, G; Scholte, R; Slopsema, R; Vermeulen, J C; Baines, J T M; Belias, A; Botterill, David R; Middleton, R; Wickens, F J; Falciano, S; Bystrický, J; Calvet, D; Gachelin, O; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D; Levinson, L; González, S; Wiedenmann, W; Zobernig, H

    2002-01-01

    The Level-2 Trigger Pilot Project of ATLAS, one of the two general purpose LHC experiments, is part of the on-going program to develop the ATLAS high-level triggers (HLT). The Level-2 Trigger will receive events at up to 100 kHz, which has to be reduced to a rate suitable for full event-building of the order of 1 kHz. To reduce the data collection bandwidth and processing power required for the challenging Level-2 task it is planned to use Region of Interest guidance (from Level-1) and sequential processing. The Pilot Project included the construction and use of testbeds of up to 48 processing nodes, development of optimized components and computer simulations of a full system. It has shown how the required performance can be achieved, using largely commodity components and operating systems, and validated an architecture for the Level-2 system. This paper describes the principal achievements and conclusions of this project. (28 refs).

  10. The Sandia transportable triggered lightning instrumentation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnetzer, George H.; Fisher, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was motivated by a requirement for the in situ testing of a munitions storage bunker. Transfer functions relating the incident flash currents to voltages, currents, and electromagnetic field values throughout the structure will be obtained for use in refining and validating a lightning response computer model of this type of structure. A preliminary shakedown trial of the facility under actual operational conditions was performed during summer of 1990 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) rocket-triggered lightning test site. A description is given of the SATTLIF, which is readily transportable on a single flatbed truck of by aircraft, and its instrumentation for measuring incident lightning channel currents and the responses of the systems under test. Measurements of return-stroke current peaks obtained with the SATTLIF are presented. Agreement with data acquired on the same flashes with existing KSC instrumentation is, on average, to within approximately 7 percent. Continuing currents were measured with a resolution of approximately 2.5 A. This field trial demonstrated the practicality of using a transportable triggered lightning facility for specialized test applications.

  11. A Hardware Track Finder for ATLAS Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Andreazza, A; Citterio, M; Favareto, A; Liberali, V; Meroni, C; Riva, M; Sabatini, F; Stabile, A; Annovi, A; Beretta, M; Castegnaro, A; Bevacqua, V; Crescioli, F; Francesco, C; Dell'Orso, M; Giannetti, P; Magalotti, D; Piendibene, M; Roda, C; Sacco, I; Tripiccione, R; Fabbri, L; Franchini, M; Giorgi, F; Giannuzzi, F; Lasagni, F; Sbarra, C; Valentinetti, S; Villa, M; Zoccoli, A; Lanza, A; Negri, A; Vercesi, V; Bogdan, M; Boveia, A; Canelli, F; Cheng, Y; Dunford, M; Li, H L; Kapliy, A; Kim, Y K; Melachrinos, C; Shochet, M; Tang, F; Tang, J; Tuggle, J; Tompkins, L; Webster, J; Atkinson, M; Cavaliere, V; Chang, P; Kasten, M; McCarn, A; Neubauer, M; Hoff, J; Liu, T; Okumura, Y; Olsen, J; Penning, B; Todri, A; Wu, J; Drake, G; Proudfoot, J; Zhang, J; Blair, R; Anderson, J; Auerbach, B; Blazey, G; Kimura, N; Yorita, K; Sakurai, Y; Mitani, T; Iizawa, T

    2012-01-01

    The existing three level ATLAS trigger system is deployed to reduce the event rate from the bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz to ~400 Hz for permanent storage at the LHC design luminosity of 10^34 cm^-2 s^-1. When the LHC reaches beyond the design luminosity, the load on the Level-2 trigger system will significantly increase due to both the need for more sophisticated algorithms to suppress background and the larger event sizes. The Fast TracKer (FTK) is a custom electronics system that will operate at the full Level-1 accepted rate of 100 KHz and provide high quality tracks at the beginning of processing in the Level-2 trigger, by performing track reconstruction in hardware with massive parallelism of associative memories and FPGAs. The performance in important physics areas including b-tagging, tau-tagging and lepton isolation will be demonstrated with the ATLAS MC simulation at different LHC luminosities. The system design will be overviewed. The latest R&amp;amp;D progress of individual components...

  12. Triggering on electrons and photons with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Zabi, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the year 2011, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has operated with an instantaneous luminosity that has risen continually to around 4x10^{33} cm^{-2} s^{-1}. With this prodigious high-energy proton collisions rate, efficient triggering on electrons and photons has become a major challenge for the LHC experiments. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment implements a sophisticated two-level online selection system that achieves a rejection factor of nearly 10^6. The first level (L1) is based on coarse information coming from the calorimeters and the muon detectors while the High-Level Trigger (HLT) combines fine-grain information from all sub-detectors. In this intense hadronic environment, the L1 electron/photon trigger provides a powerful tool to select interesting events. It is based upon information from the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL), a high-resolution detector comprising 75848 lead tungstate PbWO4 crystals in a "barrel" and two "endcaps''. The performance as well as the optimization ...

  13. Triggering on electrons and photons with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Zabi, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the year 2011, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has operated with an instantaneous luminosity that has risen continually to around 4x10^33cm-2 s-1. With this prodigious high-energy proton collisions rate, efficient triggering on electrons and photons has become a major challenge for the LHC experiments. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment implements a sophisticated two-level online selection system that achieves a rejection factor of nearly 106. The first level (L1) is based on coarse information coming from the calorimeters and the muon detectors while the High-Level Trigger (HLT) combines fine-grain information from all sub-detectors. In this intense hadronic environment, the L1 electron/photon trigger provides a powerful tool to select interesting events. It is based upon information from the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL), a high-resolution detector comprising 75848 lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystals in a "barrel" and two "endcaps". The performance as well as the optimization of the elec...

  14. Tracking Triggers for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Palla, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The planned High Luminosity Phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) will increase the collision rate in the ATLAS and CMS detectors by nearly an order of magnitude beyond the maximum luminosity for which the detectors have been designed. In that scenario, the number of proton-proton interactions per bunch crossing is expected to be about 140, on average. This very high pileup environment represents a major challenge for the L1 trigger of the experiments. The inclusion of the high granularity information coming from the Silicon Tracking detectors increases the performance of traditional triggers, based on Muon and Calorimeter information only. This poses new challenges in the design and integration of the novel inner tracking detectors in both ATLAS and CMS. On one hand, this is accomplished by modules capable of transverse momentum (p T ) discrimination, to only readout hits from relatively high p T particles. A second stage performs pattern recognition and tracking at the first level trigger in a few m s, then combined wi...

  15. The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, B; Cicalo, Corrado; Das, Indranil; de Vaux, Gareth; Fearick, Roger; Lindenstruth, Volker; Marras, Davide; Sanyal, Abhijit; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Staley, Florent; Steinbeck, Timm; Szostak, Artur; Usai, Gianluca; Vilakazi, Zeblon

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger (dHLT) is an on-line processing stage whose primary function is to select interesting events that contain distinct physics signals from heavy resonance decays such as J/psi and Gamma particles, amidst unwanted background events. It forms part of the High Level Trigger of the ALICE experiment, whose goal is to reduce the large data rate of about 25 GB/s from the ALICE detectors by an order of magnitude, without loosing interesting physics events. The dHLT has been implemented as a software trigger within a high performance and fault tolerant data transportation framework, which is run on a large cluster of commodity compute nodes. To reach the required processing speeds, the system is built as a concurrent system with a hierarchy of processing steps. The main algorithms perform partial event reconstruction, starting with hit reconstruction on the level of the raw data received from the spectrometer. Then a tracking algorithm finds track candidates from the recon...

  16. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  17. Mercury release from deforested soils triggered by base cation enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farella, N.; Lucotte, M.; Davidson, R.; Daigle, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon has experienced considerable colonization in the last few decades. Family agriculture based on slash-and-burn enables millions of people to live in that region. However, the poor nutrient content of most Amazonian soils requires cation-rich ashes from the burning of the vegetation biomass for cultivation to be successful, which leads to forest ecosystem degradation, soil erosion and mercury contamination. While recent studies have suggested that mercury present in soils was transferred towards rivers upon deforestation, little is known about the dynamics between agricultural land-use and mercury leaching. In this context, the present study proposes an explanation that illustrates how agricultural land-use triggers mercury loss from soils. This explanation lies in the competition between base cations and mercury in soils which are characterized by a low adsorption capacity. Since these soils are naturally very poor in base cations, the burning of the forest biomass suddenly brings high quantities of base cations to soils, destabilizing the previous equilibrium amongst cations. Base cation enrichment triggers mobility in soil cations, rapidly dislocating mercury atoms. This conclusion comes from principal component analyses illustrating that agricultural land-use was associated with base cation enrichment and mercury depletion. The overall conclusions highlight a pernicious cycle: while soil nutrient enrichment actually occurs through biomass burning, although on a temporary basis, there is a loss in Hg content, which is leached to rivers, entering the aquatic chain, and posing a potential health threat to local populations. Data presented here reflects three decades of deforestation activities, but little is known about the long-term impact of such a disequilibrium. These findings may have repercussions on our understanding of the complex dynamics of deforestation and agriculture worldwide

  18. Characterization of consistent triggers of migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Anne Werner; Kirchmann, Malene; Olesen, Jes

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize perceived consistent triggers of migraine with aura (MA).......The aim of the present study was to characterize perceived consistent triggers of migraine with aura (MA)....

  19. Diverticulitis Diet: Can Certain Foods Trigger an Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... there trigger foods I should avoid to prevent diverticulitis attacks? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L. ... Actually, no specific foods are known to trigger diverticulitis attacks. And no special diet has been proved ...

  20. Trigger Algorithms and Electronics for the ATLAS Muon NSW Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Liang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS New Small Wheel (NSW), comprising MicroMegas (MMs) and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGCs), will upgrade the ATLAS muon system for a high background environment. Particularly, the NSW trigger will reduce the rate of fake triggers coming from background tracks in the endcap. We will present an overview of the FPGA-based trigger processor for NSW and trigger algorithms for sTGC and Micromegas detector sub systems. In additional, we will present development of NSW trigger electronics, in particular, the sTGC Trigger Data Serializer (TDS) ASIC, sTGC Pad Trigger board, the sTGC data packet router and L1 Data Driver Card. Finally, we will detail the challenges of meeting the low latency requirements of the trigger system and coping with the high background rates of the HL-LHC.

  1. Cross-Lingual Lexical Triggers in Statistical Language Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Woosung; Khudanpur, Sanjeev

    2003-01-01

    .... We achieve this through an extension of the method of lexical triggers to the cross-language problem, and by developing a likelihoodbased adaptation scheme for combining a trigger model with an N-gram model...

  2. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT FOR A FAST MUON TRIGGER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OBRIEN,E.; BASYE, A.; ISENHOWER, D.; JUMPER, D.; SPARKS, N.; TOWELL, R.; WATTS, C.; WOOD, J.; WRIGHT, R.; HAGGERTY, J.; LYNCH, D.; BARISH, K.; EYSER, K.O.; SETO, R.; HU, S.; LI, X.; ZHOU, S.; GLENN, A.; KINNEY, E.; KIRILUK, K.; NAGLE, J.; CHI, C.Y.; SIPPACH, W.; ZAJC. W.; BUTLER, C.; HE, X.; OAKLEY, C.; YING, J.; BLACKBURN, J.; CHIU, M.; PERDEKAMP, M.G.; KIM, Y.J.; KOSTER, J.; LAYTON, D.; MAKINS, N.; MEREDITH, B.; NORTHACKER, D.; PENG, J.-C.; SEIDL, R.; THORSLAND, E.; WADHAMS, S.; WILLIAMSON, S.; YANG, R.; HILL, J.; KEMPEL, T.; LAJOIE, J.; SLEEGE, G.; VALE, C.; WEI, F.; SAITO, N.; HONG, B.; KIM, B.; LEE, K.; LEE, K.S.; PARK, S.; SIM, K.-S.; AOKI, K.; DAIRAKU, S.; IMAI, K.; KARATSU, K.; MURAKAMI, T.; SATO, A.; SENZAKA, K.; SHOJI, K.; TANIDA, K.; BROOKS, M.; LEITCH, M.; ADAMS, J.; CARINGI, A.; FADEM, B.; IDE, J.; LICHTENWALNER, P.; FIELDS, D.; MAO, Y.; HAN, R.; BUNCE, G.; XIE, W.; FUKAO, Y.; TAKETANI, A.; KURITA, K.; MURATA, J.; (PHENIX COLLABORATION)

    2007-08-01

    This document is a Conceptual Design Report for a fast muon trigger for the PHENIX experiment that will enable the study of flavor separated quark and anti-quark spin polarizations in the proton. A powerful way of measuring these polarizations is via single spin asymmetries for W boson production in polarized proton-proton reactions. The measurement is done by tagging W{sup +} and W{sup -} via their decay into high transverse momentum leptons in the forward directions. The PHENIX experiment is capable of measuring high momentum muons at forward rapidity, but the current online trigger does not have sufficient rejection to sample the rare leptons fromW decay at the highest luminosities at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This Report details the goals, design, R&D, and schedule for building new detectors and trigger electronics to use the full RHIC luminosity to make this critical measurement. The idea for W boson measurements in polarized proton-proton collisions at RHIC was first suggested by Jacques Soffer and Claude Bourrely in 1995. This prompted the RIKEN institute in Japan to supply funds to build a second muon arm for PHENIX (south muon arm). The existence of both a north and south muon arm makes it possible to utilize a Z{sup 0} sample to study and control systematic uncertainties which arise in the reconstruction of high momentum muons. This document has its origins in recommendations made by a NSAC Subcommittee that reviewed the U.S. Heavy Ion Physics Program in June 2004. Part of their Recommendation 1 was to 'Invest in near-term detector upgrades of the two large experiments, PHENIX and STAR'. In Recommendation 2 the subcommittee stated '- detector improvements proceed at a rate that allows a timely determination of the flavor dependence of the quark-antiquark sea polarization through W-asymmetry measurements' as we are proposing here. On September 13, 2004 DOE requested from BNL a report articulating a research plan for

  3. BICAPA case study of natural hazards that trigger technological disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca, Gabriela; Ozunu, Alexandru; Nicolae Vlad, Serban

    2010-05-01

    Industrial facilities are vulnerable to natural disasters. Natural disasters and technological accidents are not always singular or isolated events. The example in this paper show that they can occur in complex combinations and/or in rapid succession, known as NaTech disasters, thereby triggering multiple impacts. This analysis indicates that NaTech disasters have the potential to trigger hazmat releases and other types of technological accidents. Climate changes play an important role in prevalence and NATECH triggering mechanisms. Projections under the IPCC IS92 a scenario (similar to SRES A1B; IPCC, 1992) and two GCMs indicate that the risk of floods increases in central and eastern Europe. Increase in intense short-duration precipitation is likely to lead to increased risk of flash floods. (Lehner et al., 2006). It is emergent to develop tools for the assessment of risks due to NATECH events in the industrial processes, in a framework starting with the characterization of frequency and severity of natural disasters and continuing with complex analysis of industrial processes, to risk assessment and residual functionality analysis. The Ponds with dangerous technological residues are the most vulnerable targets of natural hazards. Technological accidents such as those in Baia Mare, (from January to March 2000) had an important international echo. Extreme weather phenomena, like those in the winter of 2000 in Baia Mare, and other natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes, can cause a similar disaster at Târnăveni in Transylvania Depression. During 1972 - 1978 three decanting ponds were built on the Chemical Platform Târnăveni, now SC BICAPA SA, for disposal of the hazardous-wastes resulting from the manufacture of sodium dichromate, inorganic salts, sludge from waste water purification and filtration, wet gas production from carbide. The ponds are located on the right bank of the river Târnava at about 35-50m from the flooding defense dam. The total

  4. GnRH agonist for triggering of final oocyte maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær; Kol, S; Papanikolaou, E G

    2011-01-01

    GnRH agonist (GnRHa) triggering has been shown to significantly reduce the occurrence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) compared with hCG triggering; however, initially a poor reproductive outcome was reported after GnRHa triggering, due to an apparently uncorrectable luteal phase...... deficiency. Therefore, the challenge has been to rescue the luteal phase. Studies now report a luteal phase rescue, with a reproductive outcome comparable to that seen after hCG triggering....

  5. Discrete element modeling of triggered slip in faults with granular gouge: application to dynamic earthquake triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdowsi, B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent seismological observations based on new, more sensitive instrumentation show that seismic waves radiated from large earthquakes can trigger other earthquakes globally. This phenomenon is called dynamic earthquake triggering and is well-documented for over 30 of the largest earthquakes worldwide. Granular materials are at the core of mature earthquake faults and play a key role in fault triggering by exhibiting a rich nonlinear response to external perturbations. The stick-slip dynamics in sheared granular layers is analogous to the seismic cycle for earthquake fault systems. In this research effort, we characterize the macroscopic scale statistics and the grain-scale mechanisms of triggered slip in sheared granular layers. We model the granular fault gouge using three dimensional discrete element method simulations. The modeled granular system is put into stick-slip dynamics by applying a conning pressure and a shear load. The dynamic triggering is simulated by perturbing the spontaneous stick-slip dynamics using an external vibration applied to the boundary of the layer. The influences of the triggering consist in a frictional weakening during the vibration interval, a clock advance of the next expected large slip event and long term effects in the form of suppression and recovery of the energy released from the granular layer. Our study suggests that above a critical amplitude, vibration causes a significant clock advance of large slip events. We link this clock advance to a major decline in the slipping contact ratio as well as a decrease in shear modulus and weakening of the granular gouge layer. We also observe that shear vibration is less effective in perturbing the stick-slip dynamics of the granular layer. Our study suggests that in order to have an effective triggering, the input vibration must also explore the granular layer at length scales about or less than the average grain size. The energy suppression and the subsequent recovery and increased

  6. The ATLAS online High Level Trigger framework: Experience reusing offline software components in the ATLAS trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedenmann, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Event selection in the ATLAS High Level Trigger is accomplished to a large extent by reusing software components and event selection algorithms developed and tested in an offline environment. Many of these offline software modules are not specifically designed to run in a heavily multi-threaded online data flow environment. The ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) framework based on the GAUDI and ATLAS ATHENA frameworks, forms the interface layer, which allows the execution of the HLT selection and monitoring code within the online run control and data flow software. While such an approach provides a unified environment for trigger event selection across all of ATLAS, it also poses strict requirements on the reused software components in terms of performance, memory usage and stability. Experience of running the HLT selection software in the different environments and especially on large multi-node trigger farms has been gained in several commissioning periods using preloaded Monte Carlo events, in data taking periods with cosmic events and in a short period with proton beams from LHC. The contribution discusses the architectural aspects of the HLT framework, its performance and its software environment within the ATLAS computing, trigger and data flow projects. Emphasis is also put on the architectural implications for the software by the use of multi-core processors in the computing farms and the experiences gained with multi-threading and multi-process technologies.

  7. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  8. Data-driven performance evaluation method for CMS RPC trigger ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... A data-driven method for muon trigger performance evaluation. The task of the GMT algorithm is ... For example, to evaluate the RPC trigger system efficiency in the barrel, we select the events in .... to ∼5 GeV/c) in general hit a lower number of layers thus producing low-quality regional trigger candidates.

  9. Asthma Triggers and What to Do about Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asthma worse. These are called triggers. Some common asthma triggers are Things your child might be allergic to. These are called allergens. ( ... child indoors and be sure he takes his asthma control medications. Decreasing your child’s exposure to triggers will help decrease symptoms as ...

  10. Data-driven performance evaluation method for CMS RPC trigger ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... Abstract. The compact muon solenoid (CMS) is one of the four experiments which is getting and analysing the results of the collision of protons at LHC. The CMS trigger system is divided into two stages, the level-1 trigger and high-level triggers, to handle the large stream of data produced in collision.

  11. Performance of the ATLAS Tau Trigger in Run-II

    CERN Document Server

    Ikai, Takashi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    As proton-proton collisions at the LHC reach instantaneous luminosities of over 10^{34}cm^{-2}s{-1}, tau trigger operation is more challenging. Hadronic tau trigger plays a important role and is used to measure Yukawa coupling constant and to search physics of Beyond Standard Model. This presents tau trigger system, operation, performance in Run2 and strategy in the future.

  12. Triggering of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Regorafenib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Zierle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib is utilized for the treatment of malignancy. The substance is effective in part by triggering suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Side effects of regorafenib include anemia. At least in theory, regorafenib induced anemia could result from stimulated suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i, oxidative stress and ceramide. The present study explored, whether regorafenib induces eryptosis and, if so, whether it is effective up- and/or downstream of Ca2+. Methods: To this end, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ROS formation from DCFDA dependent fluorescence, and ceramide abundance utilizing specific antibodies. Results: A 48 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to regorafenib (≥ 0.5 µg/ml significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, significantly decreased forward scatter (≥ 1.25 µg/ml, but did not significantly increase Fluo3-fluorescence, DCFDA fluorescence or ceramide abundance. The effect of regorafenib on annexin-V-binding and forward scatter was not significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Regorafenib (5 µg/ml significantly augmented the increase of annexin-V-binding, but significantly blunted the decrease of forward scatter following treatment with the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin. Conclusions: Regorafenib triggers cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect at least in part downstream of Ca2+.

  13. Triggering of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Regorafenib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierle, Jens; Bissinger, Rosi; Bouguerra, Ghada; Abbès, Salem; Lang, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib is utilized for the treatment of malignancy. The substance is effective in part by triggering suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Side effects of regorafenib include anemia. At least in theory, regorafenib induced anemia could result from stimulated suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i), oxidative stress and ceramide. The present study explored, whether regorafenib induces eryptosis and, if so, whether it is effective up- and/or downstream of Ca2+. To this end, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ROS formation from DCFDA dependent fluorescence, and ceramide abundance utilizing specific antibodies. A 48 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to regorafenib (≥ 0.5 µg/ml) significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, significantly decreased forward scatter (≥ 1.25 µg/ml), but did not significantly increase Fluo3-fluorescence, DCFDA fluorescence or ceramide abundance. The effect of regorafenib on annexin-V-binding and forward scatter was not significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Regorafenib (5 µg/ml) significantly augmented the increase of annexin-V-binding, but significantly blunted the decrease of forward scatter following treatment with the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin. Regorafenib triggers cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect at least in part downstream of Ca2+. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Simple multifunction discriminator for multichannel triggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, M.R.

    1982-10-01

    A simple version of a multifunction timing discriminator using only two integrated circuits is presented. It can be configured as a leading edge, a constant fraction, a zero cross or a dual threshold timing discriminator. Since so few parts are used, it is well suited for building multichannel timing discriminators. Two versions of this circuit are described: a quadruple multifunction discriminator and an octal constant fraction trigger. The different compromises made in these units are discussed. Results for walk and jitter obtained with these are presented and possible improvements are disussed

  15. Inflammation: a trigger for acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAGER, Hendrik B.; NAHRENDORF, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall and a major cause of death worldwide. One of atherosclerosis’ most dreadful complications are acute coronary syndromes that comprise ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and unstable angina. We now understand that inflammation substantially contributes to the initiation, progression, and destabilization of atherosclerosis. In this review, we will focus on the role of inflammatory leukocytes, which are the cellular protagonists of vascular inflammation, in triggering disease progression and, ultimately, the destabilization that causes acute coronary syndromes.

  16. EMIC triggered chorus emissions in Cluster data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grison, Benjamin; Santolík, Ondřej; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Masson, A.; Engebretson, M. J.; Pickett, J. S.; Omura, Y.; Robert, P.; Nomura, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 3 (2013), s. 1159-1169 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12026; GA ČR(CZ) GPP209/11/P848; GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11122 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284520 - MAARBLE Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : EMIC wave * triggered emission * plasmapause Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgra.50178/abstract

  17. New methods for trigger electronics development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, W.E.; Stern, E.G. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The large and complex nature of RHIC experiments and the tight time schedule for their construction requires that new techniques for designing the electronics should be employed. This is particularly true of the trigger and data acquisition electronics which has to be ready for turn-on of the experiment. We describe the use of the Workview package from VIEWlogic Inc. for design, simulation, and verification of a flash ADC readout system. We also show how field-programmable gate arrays such as the Xilinx 4000 might be employed to construct or prototype circuits with a large number of gates while preserving flexibility.

  18. Fingerprint on trigger: A real case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amata, B; Aprea, G M; Chiuri, A; Zampa, F

    2015-08-01

    The results obtained by employing a usual technique for latent prints development on firearms are presented. A fingermark on a trigger was enhanced and this print was used to identify the person who handled the firearm. Indeed, it is not usual to find a useful fingermark in that position and, more in general, on firearms because of many different factors described in the following sections. The uniqueness of the results reported in this paper allow to consider the present casework as very interesting for the forensic community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Euro Membership as a Real Option Trigger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos

    2007-01-01

    -adopters (UK, Sweden, and Denmark) to exercise various forms of real options such as to establish alliances / partnerships, to enter new markets / market segments, to switch suppliers, and to generally expand in the Euro-area. The study furthermore shows that small, profitable and financially constrained firms...... are particularly likely to exercise such real options triggered by the introduction of the Euro. The results go beyond the immediate trade effects, which empirical studies have shown to be weak and without trade diversion as to the three non-adopters, and provide important insights about the potential long...

  20. Bacteria‐Triggered Release of Antimicrobial Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komnatnyy, Vitaly V.; Chiang, Wen‐Chi; Tolker‐Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Medical devices employed in healthcare practice are often susceptible to microbial contamination. Pathogenic bacteria may attach themselves to device surfaces of catheters or implants by formation of chemically complex biofilms, which may be the direct cause of device failure. Extracellular...... material is demonstrated by the bacteria‐triggered release of antibiotics to control bacterial populations and signaling molecules to modulate quorum sensing. The self‐regulating system provides the basis for the development of device‐relevant polymeric materials, which only release antibiotics...... in dependency of the titer of bacteria surrounding the medical device....

  1. Bacteria-Triggered Release of Antimicrobial Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komnatnyy, Vitaly V.; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Medical devices employed in healthcare practice are often susceptible to microbial contamination. Pathogenic bacteria may attach themselves to device surfaces of catheters or implants by formation of chemically complex biofilms, which may be the direct cause of device failure. Extracellular...... material is demonstrated by the bacteria‐triggered release of antibiotics to control bacterial populations and signaling molecules to modulate quorum sensing. The self‐regulating system provides the basis for the development of device‐relevant polymeric materials, which only release antibiotics...... in dependency of the titer of bacteria surrounding the medical device....

  2. Data analysis at the CMS level-1 trigger: migrating complex selection algorithms from offline analysis and high-level trigger to the trigger electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wulz, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing luminosity at the LHC, optimum online data selection is becoming more and more important. While in the case of some experiments (LHCb and ALICE) this task is being completely transferred to computer farms, the others -- ATLAS and CMS -- will not be able to do this in the medium-term future for technological, detector-related reasons. Therefore, these experiments pursue the complementary approach of migrating more and more of the offline and high-level trigger intelligence into the trigger electronics. The presentation illustrates how the level-1 trigger of the CMS experiment and in particular its concluding stage, the so-called ``Global Trigger", take up this challenge.

  3. Agonist trigger: what is the best approach? Agonist trigger and low dose hCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, Peter; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2012-01-01

    Low-dose hCG supplementation after GnRH agonist trigger may normalize reproductive outcome while minimizing the occurrence of OHSS in high risk IVF patients. (Fertil Steril (R) 2012;97:529-30. (C) 2012 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.)......Low-dose hCG supplementation after GnRH agonist trigger may normalize reproductive outcome while minimizing the occurrence of OHSS in high risk IVF patients. (Fertil Steril (R) 2012;97:529-30. (C) 2012 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.)...

  4. Empty follicle syndrome after GnRHa triggering versus hCG triggering in COS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Juan C; Garcia-Velasco, Juan; Humaidan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the incidence of empty follicle syndrome (EFS) in oocyte donors who had final oocyte maturation triggered with GnRHa and to compare the incidence of EFS in this group of patients with IVF patients who had final oocyte maturation with hCG.......This study aimed to explore the incidence of empty follicle syndrome (EFS) in oocyte donors who had final oocyte maturation triggered with GnRHa and to compare the incidence of EFS in this group of patients with IVF patients who had final oocyte maturation with hCG....

  5. Trigger Algorithm Design for a SUSY Lepton Trigger based on Forward Proton Tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronberg, J; Hollar, J

    2010-03-29

    At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) pair production of SUSY leptons in gamma-gamma interactions will often include intact off-energy protons. Including detectors in the beampipe to measure these protons can give additional information to separate these events from background. We report on expected event rates and background rejection for a slepton trigger design in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment incorporating forward proton information. We conclude that a trigger that can observe an interesting number of events is feasible with the appropriate detector hardware.

  6. Scintillation trigger system of the liquid argon neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, S.V.; Gurzhiev, S.N.; Gutnikov, Yu.E.; Denisov, A.G.; Kochetkov, V.I.; Matveev, M.Yu.; Mel'nikov, E.A.; Usachev, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the organization of the Scintillation Trigger System (STS) for the Liquid Argon Neutrino Detector of the Tagged Neutrino Facility. STS is aimed at the effective registration of the needed neutrino interaction type and production of a fast trigger signal with high time resolution. The fast analysis system of analog signal from the trigger scintillation planes for rejection of the trigger signals from background processes is described. Real scintillation trigger planes characteristics obtained on the basis of the presented data acquisition system are shown. 10 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Simulation of the ATLAS New Small Wheel Trigger Sysmtem

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Tomoyuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be increased up to a factor of five with respect to the original design value to explore higher energy scale. In order to benefit from the expected high luminosity performance, the first station of the ATLAS muon end-cap Small Wheel system will be replaced by a New Small Wheel (NSW) detector. The NSW provide precise track segment information to the muon Level-1 trigger to reduce fake triggers. This contribution will summarize a detail of the NSW trigger decision system, track reconstruction algorithm implemented into the trigger processor and results of performance studies on the trigger system.

  8. Feasibility studies of a Level-1 Tracking Trigger for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, M; Brenner, R; Konstantinidis, N; Sutton, M

    2009-01-01

    The existing ATLAS Level-1 trigger system is seriously challenged at the SLHC's higher luminosity. A hardware tracking trigger might be needed, but requires a detailed understanding of the detector. Simulation of high pile-up events, with various data-reduction techniques applied will be described. Two scenarios are envisaged: (a) regional readout - calorimeter and muon triggers are used to identify portions of the tracker; and (b) track-stub finding using special trigger layers. A proposed hardware system, including data reduction on the front-end ASICs, readout within a super-module and integrating regional triggering into all levels of the readout system, will be discussed.

  9. ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger Upgrade for Phase-I

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, W; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Trigger requires several upgrades to maintain physics sensitivity as the LHC luminosity is raised. One of the most challenging is the electron trigger, with a major development planned for installation in 2018. New on-detector electronics will be installed to digitize electromagnetic calorimetry signals, providing trigger access to shower profile information. The trigger processing will be ATCA-based, with each multi-FPGA module processing ~1 Tbit/s of calorimeter digits within the current 2.5 microseconds Level-1 Trigger latency limit. This paper will address the system architecture and design, and give the status of a current technology demonstrator.

  10. Soudan 2 data acquisition and trigger electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.; Laird, R.; May, E.; Mondal, N.; Schlereth, J.; Solomey, N.; Thron, J.; Heppelmann, S.

    1985-01-01

    The 1.1 kton Soudan 2 detector is read out by 16K anode wires and 3 2K cathode strips. Preamps from each wire or strip are bussed together in groups of 8 to reduce the number of ADC channels. The resulting 6144 channels of ionization signal are flash-digitized every 150 ns and stored in RAM. The raw data hit patterns are continually compared with programmable trigger multiplicity and adjacency conditions. The data acquisition process is managed in a system of 24 parallel crates each containing an Intel 8086 microprocessors, which supervises a pipe-lined data compactors, and allows transfer of the compacted data via CAMAC to the host computer. The 8086's also manage the local trigger conditions and can perform some parallel processing of the data. Due to the scale of the system and multiplicity of identical channels, semi-custom gate array chips are used for much of the logic, utilizing 2.5 micron CMOS technology

  11. Soudan 2 data acquisition and trigger electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.; Haberichter, W.; Laird, R.

    1985-01-01

    The 1.1 kton Soudan 2 calorimetric drift-chamber detector is read out by 16K anode wires and 32K cathode strips. Preamps from each wire or strip are bussed together in groups of 8 to reduce the number of ADC channels. The resulting 6144 channels of ionization signal are flash-digitized every 200 ns and stored in RAM. The raw data hit patterns are continually compared with programmable trigger multiplicity and adjacency conditions. The data acquisition process is managed in a system of 24 parallel crates each containing an Intel 80C86 microprocessor, which supervises a pipe-lined data compactor, and allows transfer of the compacted data via CAMAC to the host computer. The 80C86's also manage the local trigger conditions and can perform some parallel processing of the data. Due to the scale of the system and multiplicity of identical channels, semi-custom gate array chips are used for much of the logic, utilizing 2.5 micron CMOS technology

  12. Reducing Environmental Allergic Triggers: Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Stuart L

    The implementation of policies to reduce environmental allergic triggers can be an important adjunct to optimal patient care for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Policies at the local level in schools and other public as well as private buildings can make an impact on disease morbidity. Occupational exposures for allergens have not yet been met with the same rigorous policy standards applied for exposures to toxicants by Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Further benefit may be obtained through policies by local, county, state, and national governments, and possibly through international cooperative agreements. The reduction of allergenic exposures can and should be affected by policies with strong scientific, evidence-based derivation. However, a judicious application of the precautionary principle may be needed in circumstances where the health effect of inaction could lead to more serious threats to vulnerable populations with allergic disease. This commentary covers the scientific basis, current implementation, knowledge gaps, and pro/con views on policy issues in reducing environmental allergic triggers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nanocomposite thin films for triggerable drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannozzi, Lorenzo; Iacovacci, Veronica; Menciassi, Arianna; Ricotti, Leonardo

    2018-05-01

    Traditional drug release systems normally rely on a passive delivery of therapeutic compounds, which can be partially programmed, prior to injection or implantation, through variations in the material composition. With this strategy, the drug release kinetics cannot be remotely modified and thus adapted to changing therapeutic needs. To overcome this issue, drug delivery systems able to respond to external stimuli are highly desirable, as they allow a high level of temporal and spatial control over drug release kinetics, in an operator-dependent fashion. Areas covered: On-demand drug delivery systems actually represent a frontier in this field and are attracting an increasing interest at both research and industrial level. Stimuli-responsive thin films, enabled by nanofillers, hold a tremendous potential in the field of triggerable drug delivery systems. The inclusion of responsive elements in homogeneous or heterogeneous thin film-shaped polymeric matrices strengthens and/or adds intriguing properties to conventional (bare) materials in film shape. Expert opinion: This Expert Opinion review aims to discuss the approaches currently pursued to achieve an effective on-demand drug delivery, through nanocomposite thin films. Different triggering mechanisms allowing a fine control on drug delivery are described, together with current challenges and possible future applications in therapy and surgery.

  14. ATLAS calorimetry: Trigger, simulation and jet calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    The Pre-Processor system of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger performs complex processing of analog trigger tower signals from electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The main processing block of the Pre-Processor System is the Multi-Chip Module (MCM). The first part of this thesis describes MCM quality assurance tests that have been developed, their use in the MCM large scale production and the results that have been obtained. In the second part of the thesis a validation of a shower parametrisation model for the ATLAS fast simulation package ATLFAST based on QCD dijet events is performed. A detailed comparison of jet response and jet energy resolution between the fast and the full simulation is presented. The uniformity of the calorimeter response has a significant impact on the accuracy of the jet energy measurement. A study of the calorimeter intercalibration using QCD dijet events is presented in the last part of the thesis. The intercalibration study is performed in azimuth angle phi and in pseud...

  15. Progress in the High Level Trigger Integration

    CERN Multimedia

    Cristobal Padilla

    2007-01-01

    During the week from March 19th to March 23rd, the DAQ/HLT group performed another of its technical runs. On this occasion the focus was on integrating the Level 2 and Event Filter triggers, with a much fuller integration of HLT components than had been done previously. For the first time this included complete trigger slices, with a menu to run the selection algorithms for muons, electrons, jets and taus at the Level-2 and Event Filter levels. This Technical run again used the "Pre-Series" system (a vertical slice prototype of the DAQ/HLT system, see the ATLAS e-news January issue for details). Simulated events, provided by our colleagues working in the streaming tests, were pre-loaded into the ROS (Read Out System) nodes. These are the PC's where the data from the detector is stored after coming out of the front-end electronics, the "first part of the TDAQ system" and the interface to the detectors. These events used a realistic beam interaction mixture and had been subjected to a Level-1 selection. The...

  16. ATLAS calorimetry. Trigger, simulation and jet calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P.

    2007-02-06

    The Pre-Processor system of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger performs complex processing of analog trigger tower signals from electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The main processing block of the Pre-Processor System is the Multi-Chip Module (MCM). The first part of this thesis describes MCM quality assurance tests that have been developed, their use in the MCM large scale production and the results that have been obtained. In the second part of the thesis a validation of a shower parametrisation model for the ATLAS fast simulation package ATLFAST based on QCD dijet events is performed. A detailed comparison of jet response and jet energy resolution between the fast and the full simulation is presented. The uniformity of the calorimeter response has a significant impact on the accuracy of the jet energy measurement. A study of the calorimeter intercalibration using QCD dijet events is presented in the last part of the thesis. The intercalibration study is performed in azimuth angle {phi} and in pseudorapidity {eta}. The performance of the calibration methods including possible systematic and statistical effects is described. (orig.)

  17. Test of special resolution and trigger efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Benhammou, Y

    2015-01-01

    The forthcoming luminosity upgrade of LHC to super-LHC (sLHC) will increase the expected background rate in the forward region of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer by approximately the factor of five. Some of the present Muon Spectrometer components will fail to cope with these high rates and will have to be replaced. The results of a test of a device consisting of Thin Gap Chambers (TGC) and a fast small-diameter Muon Drift Tube Chamber (sMDT) using the 180 GeV/c muons at the SPS-H8 muon beam at CERN are presented. The goal of the test was to study the combined TGC-sMDT system as tracking and triggering device in the ATLAS muon spectrometer after high-luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The analysis of the recorded data shows a very good correlation between the TGC and sMDT track position and inclination. This technology offers the combination of trigger and tracking and has good angular and spatial resolutions. The angular resolution is 0.4 mrad for each system individually. For the spatial resolution, the width of t...

  18. Stress triggering and the Canterbury earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steacy, Sandy; Jiménez, Abigail; Holden, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    The Canterbury earthquake sequence, which includes the devastating Christchurch event of 2011 February, has to date led to losses of around 40 billion NZ dollars. The location and severity of the earthquakes was a surprise to most inhabitants as the seismic hazard model was dominated by an expected Mw > 8 earthquake on the Alpine fault and an Mw 7.5 earthquake on the Porters Pass fault, 150 and 80 km to the west of Christchurch. The sequence to date has included an Mw = 7.1 earthquake and 3 Mw ≥ 5.9 events which migrated from west to east. Here we investigate whether the later events are consistent with stress triggering and whether a simple stress map produced shortly after the first earthquake would have accurately indicated the regions where the subsequent activity occurred. We find that 100 per cent of M > 5.5 earthquakes occurred in positive stress areas computed using a slip model for the first event that was available within 10 d of its occurrence. We further find that the stress changes at the starting points of major slip patches of post-Darfield main events are consistent with triggering although this is not always true at the hypocentral locations. Our results suggest that Coulomb stress changes contributed to the evolution of the Canterbury sequence and we note additional areas of increased stress in the Christchurch region and on the Porters Pass fault.

  19. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Garvey, J; Mahout, G; Moye, T H; Staley, R J; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Achenbach, R; Hanke, P; Kluge, E E; Meier, K; Meshkov, P; Nix, O; Penno, K; Schmitt, K; Ay, Cc; Bauss, B; Dahlhoff, A; Jakobs, K; Mahboubi, K; Schäfer, U; Trefzger, T M; Eisenhandler, E F; Landon, M; Moyse, E; Thomas, J; Apostoglou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Perera, V J O; Qian, W; Bohm, C; Hellman, S; Hidvégi, A; Silverstein, S; RT 2003 13th IEEE-NPSS Real Time Conference

    2004-01-01

    The architecture of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger system (L1Calo) is presented. Common approaches have been adopted for data distribution, result merging, readout, and slow control across the three different subsystems. A significant amount of common hardware is utilized, yielding substantial savings in cost, spares, and development effort. A custom, high-density backplane has been developed with data paths suitable for both the em/tt cluster processor (CP) and jet/energy-summation processor (JEP) subsystems. Common modules also provide interfaces to VME, CANbus and the LHC Timing, Trigger and Control system (TTC). A common data merger module (CMM) uses FPGAs with multiple configurations for summing electron/photon and tau/hadron cluster multiplicities, jet multiplicities, or total and missing transverse energy. The CMM performs both crate- and system-level merging. A common, FPGA-based readout driver (ROD) is used by all of the subsystems to send input, intermediate and output data to the data acquis...

  20. [Diagnosis and therapy of myofascial trigger points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, D G; Mense, S

    2003-12-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are hyperirritable tender spots in palpable tense bands of skeletal muscle. Muscle is an orphan organ, no medical specialty claims muscle as its organ. The article aims at filling some of the gaps in the current knowledge of MTrPs. The presented findings were partly obtained in experiments on anesthetised rabbits, partly they are the result of ample experience with patients suffering from MTrPs. Each muscle has a characteristic elicited referred pain pattern that, for active MTrPs, is familiar to the patient. Without a laboratory test or imaging method, diagnosis of MTrPs depends entirely on history and physical examination. MTrP symptoms follow muscle overload, are activated acutely by sudden overload, or develop gradually with prolonged contractions or repetitive activity. The diagnostic skill required depends on considerable innate palpation ability, authoritative training, and extensive clinical experience. Effective treatment methods include manual stretching by trigger-point pressure release, contract-relax, vapo coolant spray-and-stretch, and dry needling or injection of MTrPs. The integrated hypothesis presents an explanation for the pathophysiology of MTrPs and begins with excessive release of acetylcholine from involved motor endplates. It depends on a new understanding of the abnormality of endplate noise. Biopsies demonstrate segmental shortening of groups of sarcomeres in individual muscle fibres and possibly waves of contracted sarcomeres to account for palpable taut bands.