Sample records for triggers protein kinase

  1. Ligand-triggered de-repression of Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G proteins coupled to immune receptor kinases. (United States)

    Liang, Xiangxiu; Ma, Miaomiao; Zhou, Zhaoyang; Wang, Jinlong; Yang, Xinru; Rao, Shaofei; Bi, Guozhi; Li, Lin; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Chai, Jijie; Chen, She; Zhou, Jian-Min


    Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G proteins regulate diverse processes by coupling to single-transmembrane receptors. One such receptor is the FLS2 receptor kinase, which perceives bacterial flagellin epitope flg22 to activate immunity through a class of cytoplasmic kinases called BIK1/PBLs. Unlike animal and fungal heterotrimeric G proteins that are activated by a ligand-induced guanine nucleotide exchange activity of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), plant heterotrimeric G proteins are self-activating. How plant receptors regulate heterotrimeric G proteins in response to external ligands remains unknown. Here we show that RGS1, a GTPase accelerating protein, maintains Arabidopsis G proteins in an inactive state in complex with FLS2. Activation of FLS2 by flg22 induces a BIK1/PBL-mediated phosphorylation of RGS1 at Ser428 and Ser431 and that promotes RGS1 dissociation from the FLS2-G protein complex. This relieves G proteins from the RGS1-mediated repression and enables positive regulation of immune signaling. We additionally show that RGS1 is similarly regulated by multiple immune receptors. Our results uncover ligand-induced de-repression as a mechanism for G protein signaling in plants that is distinct from previously reported mechanism underlying the activation of heterotrimeric G proteins in other systems.

  2. Constitutively active Arabidopsis MAP Kinase 3 triggers defense responses involving salicylic acid and SUMM2 resistance protein

    KAUST Repository

    Genot, Baptiste


    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important regulators of plant immunity. Most of the knowledge about the function of these pathways is derived from loss-of-function approaches. Using a gain-of-function approach, we investigated the responses controlled by a constitutively active (CA) MPK3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. CA-MPK3 plants are dwarfed and display a massive de-repression of defense genes associated with spontaneous cell death as well as accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), phytoalexins and the stress-related hormones ethylene and salicylic acid (SA). Remarkably CA-MPK3/sid2 and CA-MPK3/ein2-50 lines which are impaired in SA synthesis and ethylene signaling, respectively, retain most of the CA-MPK3-associated phenotypes, indicating that constitutive activity of MPK3 can bypass SA and ethylene signaling to activate defense responses. A comparative analysis of the molecular phenotypes of CA-MPK3 and mpk4 autoimmunity suggested convergence between the MPK3 and MPK4-guarding modules. In support of this model, CA-MPK3 crosses with summ1 and summ2, two known suppressors of mpk4, resulted in a partial reversion of the CA-MPK3 phenotypes. Overall, our data unravel a novel mechanism by which the MAPK signaling network contributes to a robust defense response system.

  3. Glucose triggers protein kinase A-dependent insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic islets through activation of the K+ATP channel-dependent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thams, Peter; Anwar, Mohammad R; Capito, Kirsten


    OBJECTIVE: To assess the significance of protein kinase A (PKA) in glucose triggering of ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(+)(ATP)) channel-dependent insulin secretion and in glucose amplification of K(+)(ATP) channel-independent insulin secretion. METHODS: Insulin release from cultured perifused mouse...... pancreatic islets was determined by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: In islets cultured at 5.5 mmol/l glucose, and then perifused in physiological Krebs-Ringer medium, the PKA inhibitors, H89 (10 micromol/l) and PKI 6-22 amide (30 micromol/l) did not inhibit glucose (16.7 mmol/l)-induced insulin secretion...... glucose amplification of K(+)(ATP) channel-independent insulin secretion. In the presence of 1 mmol/l ouabain and 250 micromol/l diazoxide, which cause modest Ca(2+) influx, glucose amplification of K(+)(ATP) channel-independent insulin secretion was observed without concomitant Ca(2+) stimulation of PKA...

  4. Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara generating excess early double-stranded RNA transiently activates protein kinase R and triggers enhanced innate immune responses. (United States)

    Wolferstätter, Michael; Schweneker, Marc; Späth, Michaela; Lukassen, Susanne; Klingenberg, Marieken; Brinkmann, Kay; Wielert, Ursula; Lauterbach, Henning; Hochrein, Hubertus; Chaplin, Paul; Suter, Mark; Hausmann, Jürgen


    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is an important molecular pattern associated with viral infection and is detected by various extra- and intracellular recognition molecules. Poxviruses have evolved to avoid producing dsRNA early in infection but generate significant amounts of dsRNA late in infection due to convergent transcription of late genes. Protein kinase R (PKR) is activated by dsRNA and triggers major cellular defenses against viral infection, including protein synthesis shutdown, apoptosis, and type I interferon (IFN-I) production. The poxviral E3 protein binds and sequesters viral dsRNA and is a major antagonist of the PKR pathway. We found that the highly replication-restricted modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) engineered to produce excess amounts of dsRNA early in infection showed enhanced induction of IFN-β in murine and human cells in the presence of an intact E3L gene. IFN-β induction required a minimum overlap length of 300 bp between early complementary transcripts and was strongly PKR dependent. Excess early dsRNA produced by MVA activated PKR early but transiently in murine cells and induced enhanced systemic levels of IFN-α, IFN-γ, and other cytokines and chemokines in mice in a largely PKR-dependent manner. Replication-competent chorioallantois vaccinia virus Ankara (CVA) generating excess early dsRNA also enhanced IFN-I production and was apathogenic in mice even at very high doses but showed no in vitro host range defect. Thus, genetically adjuvanting MVA and CVA to generate excess early dsRNA is an effective method to enhance innate immune stimulation by orthopoxvirus vectors and to attenuate replicating vaccinia virus in vivo. Efficient cellular sensing of pathogen-specific components, including double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), is an important prerequisite of an effective antiviral immune response. The prototype poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) and its derivative modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) produce dsRNA as a by-product of viral

  5. Involvement of both protein kinase C and G proteins in superoxide production after IgE triggering in guinea pig eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Aizawa


    Full Text Available To study the function and mechanism of eosinophils via the low affinity IgE receptor (FceRII, we examined the production of 02 metabolites by measuring the luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (LDCL response and the generation of cysteinyl leukotrienes. Eosinophils obtained from guinea pig peritoneal fluid sensitized with horse serum were purified. Luminol-dependent chemiluminescence was induced by stimulation with monoclonal anti-CD23 antibody, but not by mouse serum (controls. The mean (±SEM value of LDCL was 20.6±1.3X103 c.p.m. This reaction consisted of an initial rapid phase and a propagation phase and ended within lOmin. Guinea pig eosinophils were histochemically stained with monoclonal anti-CD23 antibody. The major product generated in the LDCL response was superoxide, as determined by the measurement of superoxide by cytochrome c reduction and the complete inhibitory effect of superoxide dismutase on the LDCL response. Pretreatment with either pertussis toxin or cholera toxin inhibited the LDCL reaction. Depletion of bivalent ions by EDTA inhibited this response and the protein kinase C inhibitor D-sphingosin inhibited both 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol-induced and FcϵRII-mediated LDCL. These findings suggest that the NADPH-protein kinase C pathway may be involved in the FceRII-mediated LDCL response in guinea pig eosinophils.

  6. The C proteins of human parainfluenza virus type 1 limit double-stranded RNA accumulation that would otherwise trigger activation of MDA5 and protein kinase R. (United States)

    Boonyaratanakornkit, Jim; Bartlett, Emmalene; Schomacker, Henrick; Surman, Sonja; Akira, Shizuo; Bae, Yong-Soo; Collins, Peter; Murphy, Brian; Schmidt, Alexander


    Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) is an important respiratory pathogen in young children, the immunocompromised, and the elderly. We found that infection with wild-type (WT) HPIV1 suppressed the innate immune response in human airway epithelial cells by preventing not only phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) but also degradation of IκBβ, thereby inhibiting IRF3 and NF-κB activation, respectively. Both of these effects were ablated by a F170S substitution in the HPIV1 C proteins (F170S) or by silencing the C open reading frame [P(C-)], resulting in a potent beta interferon (IFN-β) response. Using murine knockout cells, we found that IFN-β induction following infection with either mutant relied mainly on melanoma-associated differentiation gene 5 (MDA5) rather than retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I). Infection with either mutant, but not WT HPIV1, induced a significant accumulation of intracellular double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). These mutant viruses directed a marked increase in the accumulation of viral genome, antigenome, and mRNA that was coincident with the accumulation of dsRNA. In addition, the amount of viral proteins was reduced compared to that of WT HPIV1. Thus, the accumulation of dsRNA might be a result of an imbalance in the N protein/genomic RNA ratio leading to incomplete encapsidation. Protein kinase R (PKR) activation and IFN-β induction followed the kinetics of dsRNA accumulation. Interestingly, the C proteins did not appear to directly inhibit intracellular signaling involved in IFN-β induction; instead, their role in preventing IFN-β induction appeared to be in suppressing the formation of dsRNA. PKR activation contributed to IFN-β induction and also was associated with the reduction in the amount of viral proteins. Thus, the HPIV1 C proteins normally limit the accumulation of dsRNA and thereby limit activation of IRF3, NF-κB, and PKR. If C protein function is compromised, as in the case of F170S HPIV1, the

  7. The p17 nonstructural protein of avian reovirus triggers autophagy enhancing virus replication via activation of phosphatase and tensin deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), as well as dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)/eIF2α signaling pathways. (United States)

    Chi, Pei I; Huang, Wei R; Lai, I H; Cheng, Ching Y; Liu, Hung J


    Autophagy has been shown to facilitate replication or production of avian reovirus (ARV); nevertheless, how ARV induces autophagy remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the nonstructural protein p17 of ARV functions as an activator of autophagy. ARV-infected or p17-transfected cells present a fast and strong induction of autophagy, resulting in an increased level of autophagic proteins Beclin 1 and LC3-II. Although autophagy was suppressed by 3-methyladenine or shRNAs targeting autophagic proteins (Beclin 1, ATG7, and LC3) as well as by overexpression of Bcl-2, viral transcription, σC protein synthesis, and virus yield were all significantly reduced, suggesting a key role of autophagosomes in supporting ARV replication. Furthermore, we revealed for the first time that p17 positively regulates phosphatase and tensin deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and dsRNA dependent protein kinase RNA (PKR)/eIF2α signaling pathways, accompanied by down-regulation of Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, thereby triggering autophagy. By using p53, PTEN, PKR, AMPK, and p17 short hairpin RNA (shRNA), activation of signaling pathways and LC3-II levels was significantly suppressed, suggesting that p17 triggers autophagy through activation of p53/PTEN, AMPK, and PKR signaling pathways. Furthermore, colocalization of LC3 with viral proteins (p17 and σC), p62 with LAMP2 and LC3 with Rab7 was observed under a fluorescence microscope. The expression level of p62 was increased at 18 h postinfection and then slightly decreased 24 h postinfection compared with mock infection and thapsigargin treatment. Furthermore, disruption of autophagosome-lysosome fusion by shRNAs targeting LAMP2 or Rab7a resulted in inhibition of viral protein synthesis and virus yield, suggesting that formation of autolysosome benefits virus replication. Taken together, our results suggest that ARV induces formation of autolysosome but does not induce

  8. Protein kinase CK2 in human diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Barbara; Issinger, Olaf-Georg


    . The catalytic alpha subunits are distantly related to the CMGC subfamily of kinases, such as the Cdk kinases. There are some peculiarities associated with protein kinase CK2, which are not found with most other protein kinases: (i) the enzyme is constitutively active, (ii) it can use ATP and GTP and (iii...

  9. Bacterial Protein-Tyrosine Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Lei; Kobir, Ahasanul; Jers, Carsten


    phosphorylation. Protein-tyrosine phosphorylation in bacteria is particular with respect to very low occupancy of phosphorylation sites in vivo; this has represented a major challenge for detection techniques. Only the recent breakthroughs in gel-free high resolution mass spectrometry allowed the systematic...... detection of phosphorylated tyrosines by phosphoprotomics studies in bacteria. Other pioneering studies conducted in recent years, such as the first structures of BY-kinases and biochemical and phyiological studies of new BY-kinase substrates significantly furthered our understanding of these enzymes...

  10. Chitin and stress induced protein kinase activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenchappa, Chandra Shekar; Azevedo da Silva, Raquel; Bressendorff, Simon


    The assays described here are pertinent to protein kinase studies in any plant. They include an immunoblot phosphorylation/activation assay and an in-gel activity assay for MAP kinases (MPKs) using the general protein kinase substrate myelin basic protein. They also include a novel in-gel peptide...... substrate assay for Snf1-related kinase family 2 members (SnRK2s). This kinase family-specific assay overcomes some limitations of in-gel assays and permits the identification of different types of kinase activities in total protein extracts....

  11. Autophagy Stimulus Promotes Early HuR Protein Activation and p62/SQSTM1 Protein Synthesis in ARPE-19 Cells by Triggering Erk1/2, p38MAPK, and JNK Kinase Pathways

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    Nicoletta Marchesi


    Full Text Available RNA-binding protein dysregulation and altered expression of proteins involved in the autophagy/proteasome pathway play a role in many neurodegenerative disease onset/progression, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD. HuR/ELAVL1 is a master regulator of gene expression in human physiopathology. In ARPE-19 cells exposed to the proteasomal inhibitor MG132, HuR positively affects at posttranscriptional level p62 expression, a stress response gene involved in protein aggregate clearance with a role in AMD. Here, we studied the early effects of the proautophagy AICAR + MG132 cotreatment on the HuR-p62 pathway. We treated ARPE-19 cells with Erk1/2, AMPK, p38MAPK, PKC, and JNK kinase inhibitors in the presence of AICAR + MG132 and evaluated HuR localization/phosphorylation and p62 expression. Two-hour AICAR + MG132 induces both HuR cytoplasmic translocation and threonine phosphorylation via the Erk1/2 pathway. In these conditions, p62 mRNA is loaded on polysomes and its translation in de novo protein is favored. Additionally, for the first time, we report that JNK can phosphorylate HuR, however, without modulating its localization. Our study supports HuR’s role as an upstream regulator of p62 expression in ARPE-19 cells, helps to understand better the early events in response to a proautophagy stimulus, and suggests that modulation of the autophagy-regulating kinases as potential therapeutic targets for AMD may be relevant.

  12. Protein Kinase A in Cancer

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    Antonio Caretta


    Full Text Available In the past, many chromosomal and genetic alterations have been examined as possible causes of cancer. However, some tumors do not display a clear molecular and/or genetic signature. Therefore, other cellular processes may be involved in carcinogenesis. Genetic alterations of proteins involved in signal transduction have been extensively studied, for example oncogenes, while modifications in intracellular compartmentalization of these molecules, or changes in the expression of unmodified genes have received less attention. Yet, epigenetic modulation of second messenger systems can deeply modify cellular functioning and in the end may cause instability of many processes, including cell mitosis. It is important to understand the functional meaning of modifications in second messenger intracellular pathways and unravel the role of downstream proteins in the initiation and growth of tumors. Within this framework, the cAMP system has been examined. cAMP is a second messenger involved in regulation of a variety of cellular functions. It acts mainly through its binding to cAMP-activated protein kinases (PKA, that were suggested to participate in the onset and progression of various tumors. PKA may represent a biomarker for tumor detection, identification and staging, and may be a potential target for pharmacological treatment of tumors.

  13. Protein Kinase A in Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caretta, Antonio; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla


    In the past, many chromosomal and genetic alterations have been examined as possible causes of cancer. However, some tumors do not display a clear molecular and/or genetic signature. Therefore, other cellular processes may be involved in carcinogenesis. Genetic alterations of proteins involved in signal transduction have been extensively studied, for example oncogenes, while modifications in intracellular compartmentalization of these molecules, or changes in the expression of unmodified genes have received less attention. Yet, epigenetic modulation of second messenger systems can deeply modify cellular functioning and in the end may cause instability of many processes, including cell mitosis. It is important to understand the functional meaning of modifications in second messenger intracellular pathways and unravel the role of downstream proteins in the initiation and growth of tumors. Within this framework, the cAMP system has been examined. cAMP is a second messenger involved in regulation of a variety of cellular functions. It acts mainly through its binding to cAMP-activated protein kinases (PKA), that were suggested to participate in the onset and progression of various tumors. PKA may represent a biomarker for tumor detection, identification and staging, and may be a potential target for pharmacological treatment of tumors

  14. Protein Kinase A in Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caretta, Antonio; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla, E-mail: [Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 3, 35131 Padova (Italy)


    In the past, many chromosomal and genetic alterations have been examined as possible causes of cancer. However, some tumors do not display a clear molecular and/or genetic signature. Therefore, other cellular processes may be involved in carcinogenesis. Genetic alterations of proteins involved in signal transduction have been extensively studied, for example oncogenes, while modifications in intracellular compartmentalization of these molecules, or changes in the expression of unmodified genes have received less attention. Yet, epigenetic modulation of second messenger systems can deeply modify cellular functioning and in the end may cause instability of many processes, including cell mitosis. It is important to understand the functional meaning of modifications in second messenger intracellular pathways and unravel the role of downstream proteins in the initiation and growth of tumors. Within this framework, the cAMP system has been examined. cAMP is a second messenger involved in regulation of a variety of cellular functions. It acts mainly through its binding to cAMP-activated protein kinases (PKA), that were suggested to participate in the onset and progression of various tumors. PKA may represent a biomarker for tumor detection, identification and staging, and may be a potential target for pharmacological treatment of tumors.

  15. Purine inhibitors of protein kinases, G proteins and polymerases (United States)

    Gray, Nathanael S.; Schultz, Peter; Kim, Sung-Hou; Meijer, Laurent


    The present invention relates to purine analogs that inhibit, inter alia, protein kinases, G-proteins and polymerases. In addition, the present invention relates to methods of using such purine analogs to inhibit protein kinases, G-proteins, polymerases and other cellular processes and to treat cellular proliferative diseases.

  16. Protein kinase substrate identification on functional protein arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Fang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade, kinases have emerged as attractive therapeutic targets for a number of different diseases, and numerous high throughput screening efforts in the pharmaceutical community are directed towards discovery of compounds that regulate kinase function. The emerging utility of systems biology approaches has necessitated the development of multiplex tools suitable for proteomic-scale experiments to replace lower throughput technologies such as mass spectroscopy for the study of protein phosphorylation. Recently, a new approach for identifying substrates of protein kinases has applied the miniaturized format of functional protein arrays to characterize phosphorylation for thousands of candidate protein substrates in a single experiment. This method involves the addition of protein kinases in solution to arrays of immobilized proteins to identify substrates using highly sensitive radioactive detection and hit identification algorithms. Results To date, the factors required for optimal performance of protein array-based kinase substrate identification have not been described. In the current study, we have carried out a detailed characterization of the protein array-based method for kinase substrate identification, including an examination of the effects of time, buffer compositions, and protein concentration on the results. The protein array approach was compared to standard solution-based assays for assessing substrate phosphorylation, and a correlation of greater than 80% was observed. The results presented here demonstrate how novel substrates for protein kinases can be quickly identified from arrays containing thousands of human proteins to provide new clues to protein kinase function. In addition, a pooling-deconvolution strategy was developed and applied that enhances characterization of specific kinase-substrate relationships and decreases reagent consumption. Conclusion Functional protein microarrays are an

  17. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 promotes cardiac hypertrophy (United States)

    Tscheschner, Henrike; Gao, Erhe; Schumacher, Sarah M.; Yuan, Ancai; Backs, Johannes; Most, Patrick; Wieland, Thomas; Koch, Walter J.; Katus, Hugo A.; Raake, Philip W.


    The increase in protein activity and upregulation of G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a hallmark of cardiac stress and heart failure. Inhibition of GRK2 improved cardiac function and survival and diminished cardiac remodeling in various animal heart failure models. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of GRK2 on cardiac hypertrophy and dissect potential molecular mechanisms. In mice we observed increased GRK2 mRNA and protein levels following transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Conditional GRK2 knockout mice showed attenuated hypertrophic response with preserved ventricular geometry 6 weeks after TAC operation compared to wild-type animals. In isolated neonatal rat ventricular cardiac myocytes stimulation with angiotensin II and phenylephrine enhanced GRK2 expression leading to enhanced signaling via protein kinase B (PKB or Akt), consecutively inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), such promoting nuclear accumulation and activation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT). Cardiac myocyte hypertrophy induced by in vitro GRK2 overexpression increased the cytosolic interaction of GRK2 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ). Moreover, inhibition of PI3Kγ as well as GRK2 knock down prevented Akt activation resulting in halted NFAT activity and reduced cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. Our data show that enhanced GRK2 expression triggers cardiac hypertrophy by GRK2-PI3Kγ mediated Akt phosphorylation and subsequent inactivation of GSK3β, resulting in enhanced NFAT activity. PMID:28759639

  18. A systematic evaluation of protein kinase a-a-kinase anchoring protein interaction motifs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, Pepijn P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341566551; van der Heyden, Marcel A G; Kok, Bart; Heck, Albert J R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105189332; Scholten, Arjen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313939780


    Protein kinase A (PKA) in vertebrates is localized to specific locations in the cell via A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). The regulatory subunits of the four PKA isoforms (RIα, RIβ, RIIα, and RIIβ) each form a homodimer, and their dimerization domain interacts with a small helical region present

  19. A systematic evaluation of protein kinase A-A-kinase anchoring protein interaction motifs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, Pepijn P; van der Heyden, MAG; Kok, Bart; Heck, Albert J R; Scholten, Arjen


    Protein kinase A (PKA) in vertebrates is localized to specific locations in the cell via A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). The regulatory subunits of the four PKA isoforms (RIα, RIβ, RIIα, and RIIβ) each form a homodimer, and their dimerization domain interacts with a small helical region present

  20. Non-degradative Ubiquitination of Protein Kinases.

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    K Aurelia Ball


    Full Text Available Growing evidence supports other regulatory roles for protein ubiquitination in addition to serving as a tag for proteasomal degradation. In contrast to other common post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, little is known about how non-degradative ubiquitination modulates protein structure, dynamics, and function. Due to the wealth of knowledge concerning protein kinase structure and regulation, we examined kinase ubiquitination using ubiquitin remnant immunoaffinity enrichment and quantitative mass spectrometry to identify ubiquitinated kinases and the sites of ubiquitination in Jurkat and HEK293 cells. We find that, unlike phosphorylation, ubiquitination most commonly occurs in structured domains, and on the kinase domain, ubiquitination is concentrated in regions known to be important for regulating activity. We hypothesized that ubiquitination, like other post-translational modifications, may alter the conformational equilibrium of the modified protein. We chose one human kinase, ZAP-70, to simulate using molecular dynamics with and without a monoubiquitin modification. In Jurkat cells, ZAP-70 is ubiquitinated at several sites that are not sensitive to proteasome inhibition and thus may have other regulatory roles. Our simulations show that ubiquitination influences the conformational ensemble of ZAP-70 in a site-dependent manner. When monoubiquitinated at K377, near the C-helix, the active conformation of the ZAP-70 C-helix is disrupted. In contrast, when monoubiquitinated at K476, near the kinase hinge region, an active-like ZAP-70 C-helix conformation is stabilized. These results lead to testable hypotheses that ubiquitination directly modulates kinase activity, and that ubiquitination is likely to alter structure, dynamics, and function in other protein classes as well.

  1. Protein Kinases in Shaping Plant Architecture. (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Wang, Bo; Xin, Xiaoyun; Ren, Dongtao


    Plant architecture, the three-dimensional organization of the plant body, includes the branching pattern and the size, shape, and position of organs. Plant architecture is genetically controlled and is influenced by environmental conditions. The regulations occur at most of the stages from the first division of the fertilized eggs to the final establishment of plant architecture. Among the various endogenous regulators, protein kinases and their associated signaling pathways have been shown to play important roles in regulating the process of plant architecture establishment. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the mechanisms by which plant architecture formation is regulated by protein kinases, especially mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  2. The alpha-kinase family: an exceptional branch on the protein kinase tree.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelbeek, J.A.J.; Clark, K.; Venselaar, H.; Huynen, M.A.; Leeuwen, F.N. van


    The alpha-kinase family represents a class of atypical protein kinases that display little sequence similarity to conventional protein kinases. Early studies on myosin heavy chain kinases in Dictyostelium discoideum revealed their unusual propensity to phosphorylate serine and threonine residues in

  3. Production of Protein Kinases in E. coli. (United States)

    Dodson, Charlotte A


    Recombinant protein expression is widely used to generate milligram quantities of protein kinases for crystallographic, enzymatic, or other biophysical assays in vitro. Expression in E. coli is fast, cheap, and reliable. Here I present a detailed protocol for the production of human Aurora-A kinase. I begin with transformation of a suitable plasmid into an expression strain of E. coli, followed by growth and harvesting of bacterial cell cultures. Finally, I describe the purification of Aurora-A to homogeneity using immobilized metal affinity and size exclusion chromatographies.

  4. Rational design of protein kinase inhibitors

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    Yarmoluk S. M.


    Full Text Available Modern methodological approaches to rational design of low molecular weight compounds with specific activity in relation to predetermined biomolecular targets are considered by example of development of high effective protein kinase inhibitors. The application of new computational methods that allow to significantly improve the quality of computational experiments (in, particular, accuracy of low molecular weight compounds activity prediction without increase of computational and time costs are highlighted. The effectiveness of strategy of rational design is demonstrated by examples of several own investigations devoted to development of new inhibitors that are high effective and selective towards protein kinases CK2, FGFR1 and ASK1.

  5. A proteomic approach for comprehensively screening substrates of protein kinases such as Rho-kinase.

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    Mutsuki Amano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein kinases are major components of signal transduction pathways in multiple cellular processes. Kinases directly interact with and phosphorylate downstream substrates, thus modulating their functions. Despite the importance of identifying substrates in order to more fully understand the signaling network of respective kinases, efficient methods to search for substrates remain poorly explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined mass spectrometry and affinity column chromatography of the catalytic domain of protein kinases to screen potential substrates. Using the active catalytic fragment of Rho-kinase/ROCK/ROK as the model bait, we obtained about 300 interacting proteins from the rat brain cytosol fraction, which included the proteins previously reported as Rho-kinase substrates. Several novel interacting proteins, including doublecortin, were phosphorylated by Rho-kinase both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This method would enable identification of novel specific substrates for kinases such as Rho-kinase with high sensitivity.

  6. Congo red, an amyloid-inhibiting compound, alleviates various types of cellular dysfunction triggered by mutant protein kinase cγ that causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) by inhibiting oligomerization and aggregation. (United States)

    Seki, Takahiro; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Kota; Onji, Tomoya; Adachi, Naoko; Tanaka, Shigeru; Hide, Izumi; Saito, Naoaki; Sakai, Norio


    Several missense mutations in the protein kinase Cγ (γPKC) gene have been found to cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease. We previously demonstrated that the mutant γPKC found in SCA14 is susceptible to aggregation that induces apoptotic cell death. Congo red is widely used as a histological dye for amyloid detection. Recent evidence has revealed that Congo red has the property to inhibit amyloid oligomers and fibril formation of misfolded proteins. In the present study, we examine whether Congo red inhibits aggregate formation and cytotoxicity of mutant γPKC. Congo red likely inhibits aggregate formation of mutant γPKC – green fluorescent protein (GFP) without affecting its expression level in SH-SY5Y cells. Congo red counteracts the insolubilization of recombinant mutant γPKC, suggesting that the dye inhibits aggregation of mutant γPKC by a direct mechanism. Congo red also inhibits aggregation and oligomerization of mutant γPKC-GFP in primary cultured cerebellar Purkinje cells. Moreover, the dye reverses the improper development of dendrites and inhibits apoptotic cell death in Purkinje cells that express mutant γPKC-GFP. These results indicate that amyloid-inhibiting compounds like Congo red may be novel therapeutics for SCA14.

  7. Protein Kinase C (PKC Isozymes and Cancer

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    Jeong-Hun Kang


    Full Text Available Protein kinase C (PKC is a family of phospholipid-dependent serine/threonine kinases, which can be further classified into three PKC isozymes subfamilies: conventional or classic, novel or nonclassic, and atypical. PKC isozymes are known to be involved in cell proliferation, survival, invasion, migration, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and drug resistance. Because of their key roles in cell signaling, PKC isozymes also have the potential to be promising therapeutic targets for several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, immune and inflammatory diseases, neurological diseases, metabolic disorders, and multiple types of cancer. This review primarily focuses on the activation, mechanism, and function of PKC isozymes during cancer development and progression.

  8. Protein kinase CK1 from Trypanosoma cruzi. (United States)

    Calabokis, Maritza; Kurz, Liliana; Gonzatti, Mary I; Bubis, José


    A protein kinase activity, which uses casein as a substrate, has been purified to homogeneity from the epimastigote stage of Trypanosoma cruzi, by sequential chromatography on Q sepharose, heparin sepharose, phenyl sepharose, and alpha-casein agarose. An apparent molecular weight of 36,000 was estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Gel filtration chromatography and sedimentation analyses demonstrated that the purified native enzyme is a monomer with a sedimentation coefficient of 2.9 S. The hydrodynamic parameters indicated that the shape of the protein is globular with a frictional ratio f/f(o) = 1.36 and a Stokes radius of 27.7 A. When two selective peptide substrates for protein kinases CK1 and CK2 were used (RRKDLHDDEEDEAM. SITA and RRRADDSDDDDD, respectively), the purified kinase was shown to predominantly phosphorylate the CK1-specific peptide. Additionally, the enzyme was inhibited by N-(2-amino-ethyl)-5-chloroisoquinoline-8-sulfonamide, a specific inactivator of CK1s from mammals. Based on these results, we concluded that the purified kinase corresponds to a parasite CK1.

  9. Mining protein kinases regulation using graphical models. (United States)

    Chen, Qingfeng; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe


    Abnormal kinase activity is a frequent cause of diseases, which makes kinases a promising pharmacological target. Thus, it is critical to identify the characteristics of protein kinases regulation by studying the activation and inhibition of kinase subunits in response to varied stimuli. Bayesian network (BN) is a formalism for probabilistic reasoning that has been widely used for learning dependency models. However, for high-dimensional discrete random vectors the set of plausible models becomes large and a full comparison of all the posterior probabilities related to the competing models becomes infeasible. A solution to this problem is based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. This paper proposes a BN-based framework to discover the dependency correlations of kinase regulation. Our approach is to apply the MCMC method to generate a sequence of samples from a probability distribution, by which to approximate the distribution. The frequent connections (edges) are identified from the obtained sampling graphical models. Our results point to a number of novel candidate regulation patterns that are interesting in biology and include inferred associations that were unknown.

  10. Overcoming Resistance to Inhibitors of the Akt Protein Kinase by Modulation of the Pim Kinase Pathway (United States)


    prostate cancer patients have abnormalities in the AKT signaling pathway. These abnormalities are driven by mutations in the PTEN and AKT proteins as...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0560 TITLE: Overcoming Resistance to Inhibitors of the Akt Protein Kinase by Modulation of the Pim Kinase Pathway...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Overcoming Resistance to Inhibitors of the Akt Protein Kinase by Modulation of the Pim Kinase

  11. Molecular Pathways : Targeting the Protein Kinase Wee1 in Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, Jill J.; Schellens, Jan H M


    Wee1 is a protein kinase that regulates the G2checkpoint and prevents entry into mitosis in response to DNA damage. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) are a family of 14 serine/threonine protein kinases that coordinate the progression through the cell cycle. The Cdc2/cyclin B complex controls the

  12. Side-effects of protein kinase inhibitors on ion channels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Protein kinases are one of the largest gene families and have regulatory roles in all aspects of eukaryotic cell function. Modulation of protein kinase activity is a desirable therapeutic approach for a number of human diseases associated with aberrant kinase activity, including cancers, arthritis and cardiovascular disorders.

  13. Modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3 by hepatitis C virus core protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, HT; Pham, Long; Kim, JW


    and protein levels of MAPKAPK3 were elevated in both HCV subgenomic replicon cells and cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. Silencing of MAPKAPK3 expression resulted in decreases in both protein and HCV infectivity levels but not in the intracellular HCV RNA level. We showed that MAPKAPK3......Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly dependent on cellular proteins for its own propagation. In order to identify the cellular factors involved in HCV propagation, we performed protein microarray assays using the HCV core protein as a probe. Of ~9,000 host proteins immobilized in a microarray......, approximately 100 cellular proteins were identified as HCV core-interacting partners. Of these candidates, mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPKAPK3) was selected for further characterization. MAPKAPK3 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is activated by stress and growth...

  14. Structures of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases reveal mechanism of activation by calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernimont, Amy K; Artz, Jennifer D.; Jr, Patrick Finerty; Lin, Yu-Hui; Amani, Mehrnaz; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Senisterra, Guillermo; Vedadi, Masoud; Tempel, Wolfram; Mackenzie, Farrell; Chau, Irene; Lourido, Sebastian; Sibley, L. David; Hui, Raymond (Toronto); (WU-MED)


    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have pivotal roles in the calcium-signaling pathway in plants, ciliates and apicomplexan parasites and comprise a calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK)-like kinase domain regulated by a calcium-binding domain in the C terminus. To understand this intramolecular mechanism of activation, we solved the structures of the autoinhibited (apo) and activated (calcium-bound) conformations of CDPKs from the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In the apo form, the C-terminal CDPK activation domain (CAD) resembles a calmodulin protein with an unexpected long helix in the N terminus that inhibits the kinase domain in the same manner as CaMKII. Calcium binding triggers the reorganization of the CAD into a highly intricate fold, leading to its relocation around the base of the kinase domain to a site remote from the substrate binding site. This large conformational change constitutes a distinct mechanism in calcium signal-transduction pathways.

  15. Calcium/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C) phosphorylates and activates tyrosine hydroxylase.


    Albert, K A; Helmer-Matyjek, E; Nairn, A C; Müller, T H; Haycock, J W; Greene, L A; Goldstein, M; Greengard, P


    Protein kinase C, purified to homogeneity, was found to phosphorylate and activate tyrosine hydroxylase that had been partially purified from pheochromocytoma PC 12 cells. These actions of protein kinase C required the presence of calcium and phospholipid. This phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase reduced the Km for the cofactor 6-methyltetrahydropterine from 0.45 mM to 0.11 mM, increased the Ki for dopamine from 4.2 microM to 47.5 microM, and produced no change in the Km for tyrosine. Lit...

  16. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 attenuates PDGF-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration via the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) pathway. (United States)

    Mottola, Giorgio; Chatterjee, Anuran; Wu, Bian; Chen, Mian; Conte, Michael S


    Resolvin D1 (RvD1) is a specialized pro-resolving lipid mediator that has been previously shown to attenuate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, a key process in the development of intimal hyperplasia. We sought to investigate the role of the cAMP/PKA pathway in mediating the effects of the aspirin-triggered epimer 17R-RvD1 (AT-RvD1) on VSMC migration. VSMCs were harvested from human saphenous veins. VSMCs were analyzed for intracellular cAMP levels and PKA activity after exposure to AT-RvD1. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced migration and cytoskeletal changes in VSMCs were observed through scratch, Transwell, and cell shape assays in the presence or absence of a PKA inhibitor (Rp-8-Br-cAMP). Further investigation of the pathways involved in AT-RvD1 signaling was performed by measuring Rac1 activity, vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation and paxillin translocation. Finally, we examined the role of RvD1 receptors (GPR32 and ALX/FPR2) in AT-RvD1 induced effects on VSMC migration and PKA activity. Treatment with AT-RvD1 induced a significant increase in cAMP levels and PKA activity in VSMCs at 5 minutes and 30 minutes, respectively. AT-RvD1 attenuated PDGF-induced VSMC migration and cytoskeletal rearrangements. These effects were attenuated by the PKA inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMP, suggesting cAMP/PKA involvement. Treatment of VSMC with AT-RvD1 inhibited PDGF-stimulated Rac1 activity, increased VASP phosphorylation, and attenuated paxillin localization to focal adhesions; these effects were negated by the addition of Rp-8-Br-cAMP. The effects of AT-RvD1 on VSMC migration and PKA activity were attenuated by blocking ALX/FPR2, suggesting an important role of this G-protein coupled receptor. Our results suggest that AT-RvD1 attenuates PDGF-induced VSMC migration via ALX/FPR2 and cAMP/PKA. Interference with Rac1, VASP and paxillin function appear to mediate the downstream effects of AT-RvD1 on VSMC migration.

  17. A framework for classification of prokaryotic protein kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Tyagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overwhelming majority of the Serine/Threonine protein kinases identified by gleaning archaeal and eubacterial genomes could not be classified into any of the well known Hanks and Hunter subfamilies of protein kinases. This is owing to the development of Hanks and Hunter classification scheme based on eukaryotic protein kinases which are highly divergent from their prokaryotic homologues. A large dataset of prokaryotic Serine/Threonine protein kinases recognized from genomes of prokaryotes have been used to develop a classification framework for prokaryotic Ser/Thr protein kinases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used traditional sequence alignment and phylogenetic approaches and clustered the prokaryotic kinases which represent 72 subfamilies with at least 4 members in each. Such a clustering enables classification of prokaryotic Ser/Thr kinases and it can be used as a framework to classify newly identified prokaryotic Ser/Thr kinases. After series of searches in a comprehensive sequence database we recognized that 38 subfamilies of prokaryotic protein kinases are associated to a specific taxonomic level. For example 4, 6 and 3 subfamilies have been identified that are currently specific to phylum proteobacteria, cyanobacteria and actinobacteria respectively. Similarly subfamilies which are specific to an order, sub-order, class, family and genus have also been identified. In addition to these, we also identify organism-diverse subfamilies. Members of these clusters are from organisms of different taxonomic levels, such as archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes and viruses. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Interestingly, occurrence of several taxonomic level specific subfamilies of prokaryotic kinases contrasts with classification of eukaryotic protein kinases in which most of the popular subfamilies of eukaryotic protein kinases occur diversely in several eukaryotes. Many prokaryotic Ser/Thr kinases exhibit a wide variety of modular

  18. Organizing signal transduction through A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). (United States)

    Logue, Jeremy S; Scott, John D


    A fundamental role for protein-protein interactions in the organization of signal transduction pathways is evident. Anchoring, scaffolding and adapter proteins function to enhance the precision and directionality of these signaling events by bringing enzymes together. The cAMP signaling pathway is organized by A-kinase anchoring proteins. This family of proteins assembles enzyme complexes containing the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, phosphoprotein phosphatases, phosphodiesterases and other signaling effectors to optimize cellular responses to cAMP and other second messengers. Selected A-kinase anchoring protein signaling complexes are highlighted in this minireview. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 FEBS.

  19. The Roles of Protein Kinases in Learning and Memory (United States)

    Giese, Karl Peter; Mizuno, Keiko


    In the adult mammalian brain, more than 250 protein kinases are expressed, but only a few of these kinases are currently known to enable learning and memory. Based on this information it appears that learning and memory-related kinases either impact on synaptic transmission by altering ion channel properties or ion channel density, or regulate…

  20. Auxin efflux by PIN-FORMED proteins is activated by two different protein kinases, D6 PROTEIN KINASE and PINOID

    KAUST Repository

    Zourelidou, Melina


    The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the-in many cells-asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant.

  1. The Xanthomonas euvesicatoria type III effector XopAU is an active protein kinase that manipulates plant MAP kinase signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doron Teper


    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xe is the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of pepper and tomato. Xe delivers effector proteins into host cells through the type III secretion system to promote disease. Here, we show that the Xe effector XopAU, which is conserved in numerous Xanthomonas species, is a catalytically active protein kinase and contributes to the development of disease symptoms in pepper plants. Agrobacterium-mediated expression of XopAU in host and non-host plants activated typical defense responses, including MAP kinase phosphorylation, accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR proteins and elicitation of cell death, that were dependent on the kinase activity of the effector. XopAU-mediated cell death was not dependent on early signaling components of effector-triggered immunity and was also observed when the effector was delivered into pepper leaves by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, but not by Xe. Protein-protein interaction studies in yeast and in planta revealed that XopAU physically interacts with components of plant immunity-associated MAP kinase cascades. Remarkably, XopAU directly phosphorylated MKK2 in vitro and enhanced its phosphorylation at multiple sites in planta. Consistent with the notion that MKK2 is a target of XopAU, silencing of the MKK2 homolog or overexpression of the catalytically inactive mutant MKK2K99R in N. benthamiana plants reduced XopAU-mediated cell death and MAPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, yeast co-expressing XopAU and MKK2 displayed reduced growth and this phenotype was dependent on the kinase activity of both proteins. Together, our results support the conclusion that XopAU contributes to Xe disease symptoms in pepper plants and manipulates host MAPK signaling through phosphorylation and activation of MKK2.

  2. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases (United States)

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A.; Baena-González, Elena


    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems. PMID:24904600

  3. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate triggers activation of focal adhesion kinase by inducing clustering and conformational changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goñi, Guillermina M; Epifano, Carolina; Boskovic, Jasminka


    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (NRTK) with key roles in integrating growth and cell matrix adhesion signals, and FAK is a major driver of invasion and metastasis in cancer. Cell adhesion via integrin receptors is well known to trigger FAK signaling, and many of the p...

  4. dependent/calmodulin- stimulated protein kinase from moss

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    lin-dependent protein kinase homolog; Planta 203 S91–. S97. Lu Y-T, Hidaka H and Feldman L J 1996 Characterization of a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase homolog from maize roots showing light-regulated gravitropism; Planta. 199 18–24. Mitra D and Johri M M 2000 Enhanced expression of a cal-.

  5. Oral protein kinase c β inhibition using ruboxistaurin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Vignati, Louis; Sheetz, Matthew J


    To evaluate efficacy, safety, and causes of vision loss among 813 patients (1,392 eyes) with moderately severe to very severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy from the Protein Kinase C β Inhibitor-Diabetic Retinopathy Study and Protein Kinase C β Inhibitor-Diabetic Retinopathy Study 2 ruboxi...

  6. Enhanced expression of a calcium-dependent protein kinase from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Calcium-dependent protein kinase; degenerate primer; Funaria hygrometrica; nutrient; polymerase chain reaction; starvation ... Among the downstream targets of calcium in plants, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) form an inter- esting class of ..... Saunders M J and Hepler P K 1983 Calcium antagonists and.

  7. Inhibitors caveolin-1 and protein kinase G show differential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein interactions with caveolin-1 before extracellular activating signals release it for nitric oxide (NO) production. Smooth muscle protein kinase G (PKG) is a down-stream effector of NO signaling for relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells ...

  8. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Maria Cristina Suarez; Petersen, Morten; Mundy, John


    Eukaryotic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have evolved to transduce environmental and developmental signals into adaptive and programmed responses. MAPK cascades relay and amplify signals via three types of reversibly phosphorylated kinases leading to the phosphorylation of subs...... the Arabidopsis thaliana MAPKs MPK3, 4, and 6 and MAP2Ks MKK1, 2, 4, and 5. Future work needs to focus on identifying substrates of MAPKs, and on understanding how specificity is achieved among MAPK signaling pathways.......Eukaryotic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have evolved to transduce environmental and developmental signals into adaptive and programmed responses. MAPK cascades relay and amplify signals via three types of reversibly phosphorylated kinases leading to the phosphorylation...... of substrate proteins, whose altered activities mediate a wide array of responses, including changes in gene expression. Cascades may share kinase components, but their signaling specificity is maintained by spaciotemporal constraints and dynamic protein-protein interactions and by mechanisms that include...

  9. The calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK28 buffers plant immunity and regulates BIK1 turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaghan, Jacqueline; Matschi, Susanne; Shorinola, Oluwaseyi


    Plant perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) triggers a phosphorylation relay leading to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Despite increasing knowledge of PTI signaling, how immune homeostasis is maintained remains largely unknown. Here we describe a forward-genetic screen...... to identify loci involved in PTI and characterize the Arabidopsis calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK28 as a negative regulator of immune signaling. Genetic analyses demonstrate that CPK28 attenuates PAMP-triggered immune responses and antibacterial immunity. CPK28 interacts with and phosphorylates...... the plasma-membrane-associated cytoplasmic kinase BIK1, an important convergent substrate of multiple pattern recognition receptor (PRR) complexes. We find that BIK1 is rate limiting in PTI signaling and that it is continuously turned over to maintain cellular homeostasis. We further show that CPK28...

  10. The role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A in bile canalicular plasma membrane biogenesis in hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojtal, Kacper Andrze


    cAMP-dependent protein kinase A is one of the most important enzymes in the eukaryotic cell. The function of this protein is strictly in a close relation to the signaling pathways, which trigger the production of intracellular secondary messenger –cAMP. As a consequence of PKA activation numerous

  11. Transphosphorylation of E. coli proteins during production of recombinant protein kinases provides a robust system to characterize kinase specificity (United States)

    Protein kinase specificity is of fundamental importance to pathway regulation and signal transduction. Here, we report a convenient system to monitor the activity and specificity of recombinant protein kinases expressed in E.coli. We apply this to the study of the cytoplasmic domain of the plant rec...

  12. Role of adiponectin/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adiponectin/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (ADP/PI3k/Akt) signal transduction pathway has an important role in promoting cell survival. This study was designed to determine if the ADP/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway has a role in the mechanism of ischemia–reperfusion injury in vivo. Sprague–Dawley rats ...

  13. Functions of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases in Plant Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiquan Gao


    Full Text Available An increase of cytosolic Ca2+ is generated by diverse physiological stimuli and stresses, including pathogen attack. Plants have evolved two branches of the immune system to defend against pathogen infections. The primary innate immune response is triggered by the detection of evolutionarily conserved pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP, which is called PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. The second branch of plant innate immunity is triggered by the recognition of specific pathogen effector proteins and known as effector-triggered immunity (ETI. Calcium (Ca2+ signaling is essential in both plant PTI and ETI responses. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs have emerged as important Ca2+ sensor proteins in transducing differential Ca2+ signatures, triggered by PAMPs or effectors and activating complex downstream responses. CDPKs directly transmit calcium signals by calcium binding to the elongation factor (EF-hand domain at the C-terminus and substrate phosphorylation by the catalytic kinase domain at the N-terminus. Emerging evidence suggests that specific and overlapping CDPKs phosphorylate distinct substrates in PTI and ETI to regulate diverse plant immune responses, including production of reactive oxygen species, transcriptional reprogramming of immune genes, and the hypersensitive response.

  14. Conserved salt-bridge competition triggered by phosphorylation regulates the protein interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Skinner, John J.


    Phosphorylation is a major regulator of protein interactions; however, the mechanisms by which regulation occurs are not well understood. Here we identify a salt-bridge competition or “theft” mechanism that enables a phospho-triggered swap of protein partners by Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP). RKIP transitions from inhibiting Raf-1 to inhibiting G-protein–coupled receptor kinase 2 upon phosphorylation, thereby bridging MAP kinase and G-Protein–Coupled Receptor signaling. NMR and crystallography indicate that a phosphoserine, but not a phosphomimetic, competes for a lysine from a preexisting salt bridge, initiating a partial unfolding event and promoting new protein interactions. Structural elements underlying the theft occurred early in evolution and are found in 10% of homo-oligomers and 30% of hetero-oligomers including Bax, Troponin C, and Early Endosome Antigen 1. In contrast to a direct recognition of phosphorylated residues by binding partners, the salt-bridge theft mechanism represents a facile strategy for promoting or disrupting protein interactions using solvent-accessible residues, and it can provide additional specificity at protein interfaces through local unfolding or conformational change.

  15. [The role of Gilgamesh protein kinase in Drosophila melanogaster spermatogenesis]. (United States)

    Nerusheva, O O; Dorogova, N V; Gubanova, N V; Omel'ianchuk, L V


    The cellular function of the gilgamesh mutation (89B9-12) of casein kinase gene in Drosophila spermatogenesis was studied. It was demonstrated that the sterility resulting from this mutation is connected with the abnormalities in spermatid individualization. A phylogenetic study of the protein sequences of casein kinases 1 from various organisms was conducted. The Gilgamesh protein was shown to be phylogenetically closer to the cytoplasmic casein kinase family, represented by the YCK3, YCK2, and YCK1 proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and animal gamma-casein kinases. It is known that these yeast casein kinases are involved in vesicular trafficking, which, in turn, is related in its genetic control to the cell membrane remodeling during spermatid individualization. Thus, the data of phylogenetic analysis fit well the results obtained by studying the mutation phenotype.

  16. Enhanced expression of a calcium-dependent protein kinase from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Among the downstream targets of calcium in plants, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) form an interesting class of kinases which are activated by calcium binding. They have been implicated in a diverse array of responses to hormonal and environmental stimuli. In order to dissect the role of CDPKs in the moss ...

  17. Enhanced expression of a calcium-dependent protein kinase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Among the downstream targets of calcium in plants, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) form an interesting class of kinases which are activated by calcium binding. They have been implicated in a diverse array of responses to hormonal and environmental stimuli. In order to dissect the role of CDPKs in the moss ...

  18. A-Raf kinase is a new interacting partner of protein kinase CK2 beta subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G


    In a search for protein kinase CK2 beta subunit binding proteins using the two-hybrid system, more than 1000 positive clones were isolated. Beside clones for the alpha' and beta subunit of CK2, there were clones coding for a so far unknown protein, whose partial cDNA sequence was already deposited...

  19. A-Raf kinase is a new interacting partner of protein kinase CK2 beta subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G


    In a search for protein kinase CK2 beta subunit binding proteins using the two-hybrid system, more than 1000 positive clones were isolated. Beside clones for the alpha' and beta subunit of CK2, there were clones coding for a so far unknown protein, whose partial cDNA sequence was already deposite...

  20. Purification and characterization of a casein kinase 2-type protein kinase from pea nuclei (United States)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.


    Almost all the polyamine-stimulated protein kinase activity associated with the chromatin fraction of nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.35 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified over 2000-fold by salt fractionation and anion-exchange and casein-agarose column chromatography, after which it is more than 90% pure. The purified kinase has a specific activity of about 650 nanomoles per minute per milligram protein in the absence of polyamines, with either ATP or GTP as phosphoryl donor. Spermidine can stimulate its activity fourfold, with half-maximal activation at about 2 millimolar. Spermine and putrescine also stimulate activity, although somewhat less effectively. This kinase has a tetrameric alpha 2 beta 2 structure with a native molecular weight of 130,000, and subunit molecular weights of 36,000 for the catalytic subunit (alpha) and 29,000 for the regulatory subunit (beta). In western blot analyses, only the alpha subunit reacts strongly with polyclonal antibodies to a Drosophila casein kinase II. The pea kinase can use casein and phosvitin as artificial substrates, phosphorylating both the serine and threonine residues of casein. It has a pH optimum near 8.0, a Vmax of 1.5 micromoles per minute per milligram protein, and a Km for ATP of approximately 75 micromolar. Its activity can be almost completely inhibited by heparin at 5 micrograms per milliliter, but is relatively insensitive to concentrations of staurosporine, K252a, and chlorpromazine that strongly antagonize Ca(2+) -regulated protein kinases. These results are discussed in relation to recent findings that casein kinase 2-type kinases may phosphorylate trans-acting factors that bind to light-regulated promoters in plants.

  1. How protein kinases co-ordinate mitosis in animal cells. (United States)

    Ma, Hoi Tang; Poon, Randy Y C


    Mitosis is associated with profound changes in cell physiology and a spectacular surge in protein phosphorylation. To accomplish these, a remarkably large portion of the kinome is involved in the process. In the present review, we will focus on classic mitotic kinases, such as cyclin-dependent kinases, Polo-like kinases and Aurora kinases, as well as more recently characterized players such as NIMA (never in mitosis in Aspergillus nidulans)-related kinases, Greatwall and Haspin. Together, these kinases co-ordinate the proper timing and fidelity of processes including centrosomal functions, spindle assembly and microtubule-kinetochore attachment, as well as sister chromatid separation and cytokinesis. A recurrent theme of the mitotic kinase network is the prevalence of elaborated feedback loops that ensure bistable conditions. Sequential phosphorylation and priming phosphorylation on substrates are also frequently employed. Another important concept is the role of scaffolds, such as centrosomes for protein kinases during mitosis. Elucidating the entire repertoire of mitotic kinases, their functions, regulation and interactions is critical for our understanding of normal cell growth and in diseases such as cancers.

  2. Emerging roles of protein kinases in microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Hwa; Suk, Kyoungho


    Neuroinflammation is mediated by resident central nervous system glia, neurons, peripherally derived immune cells, blood-brain barrier, and inflammatory mediators secreted from these cells. Neuroinflammation has been implicated in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Protein kinases have been one of the most exploited therapeutic targets in the current pharmacological research, especially in studies on cancer and inflammation. To date, 32 small-molecule protein kinase inhibitors have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of cancer and inflammation. However, there is no drug effectively targeting neuroinflammation and/or neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies have advanced several protein kinases as important drug targets in neuroinflammation and/or neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review emerging protein kinases potentially involved in neuroinflammation and subsequent neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase from the mud ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Hochachka and Somero 2002). Therefore, some animals have to initiate anaerobic metabolism to meet part of energy needs (Costanzo et al. 2004; Colson-Proch et al. 2009). Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase.

  4. Protein kinase A regulatory subunit distribution in medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Denaro, Luca; Redaelli, Marco; D'Avella, Domenico; Caretta, Antonio


    Previous studies showed a differential distribution of the four regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinases inside the brain, that changed in rodent gliomas: therefore, the distribution of these proteins inside the brain can give information on the functional state of the cells. Our goal was to examine human brain tumors to provide evidence for a differential distribution of protein kinase A in different tumors. The distribution of detergent insoluble regulatory (R1 and R2) and catalytic subunits of cAMP dependent kinases was examined in pediatric brain tumors by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent cAMP analogues binding. R2 is organized in large single dots in medulloblastomas, while it has a different appearance in other tumors. Fluorescent cAMP labelling was observed only in medulloblastoma. A different distribution of cAMP dependent protein kinases has been observed in medulloblastoma

  5. The Snf1 Protein Kinase in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usaite, Renata


    . Failure in the AMPK regulatory cascade leads to metabolic disorders, such as obesity or type 2 diabetes. The knowledge about the Snf1 protein kinase remains to be of much interest in studying yeast carbon metabolism and human biology. To investigate the effect of Snf1 kinase and its regulatory subunit Snf......In yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Snf1 protein kinase is primarily known as a key component of the glucose repression regulatory cascade. The Snf1 kinase is highly conserved among eukaryotes and its mammalian homolog AMPK is responsible for energy homeostasis in cells, organs and whole bodies...... proteome datasets (2388 proteins) to date was generated using Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology followed by quantitation using stable isotope labeling approach (chapter 3). The stable isotope labeling was compared to the spectral counting quantitative approach and the study showed...

  6. Protein tyrosine kinase but not protein kinase C inhibition blocks receptor induced alveolar macrophage activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pollock


    Full Text Available The selective enzyme inhibitors genistein and Ro 31-8220 were used to assess the importance of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK and protein kinase C (PKC, respectively, in N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP induced generation of superoxide anion and thromboxane B2 (TXB2 in guinea-pig alveolar macrophages (AM. Genistein (3–100 μM dose dependently inhibited FMLP (3 nM induced superoxide generation in non-primed AM and TXB2 release in non-primed or in lipopolysaccharide (LPS (10 ng/ml primed AM to a level > 80% but had litle effect up to 100 μM on phorbol myristate acetate (PMA (10 nM induced superoxide release. Ro 31-8220 inhibited PMA induced superoxide generation (IC50 0.21 ± 0.10 μM but had no effect on or potentiated (at 3 and 10 μM FMLP responses in non-primed AM. In contrast, when present during LPS priming as well as during FMLP challenge Ro 31-8220 (10 μM inhibited primed TXB2 release by > 80%. The results indicate that PTK activation is required for the generation of these inflammatory mediators by FMLP in AM. PKC activation appears to be required for LPS priming but not for transducing the FMLP signal; rather, PKC activation may modulate the signal by a negative feedback mechanism.

  7. Homing in: Mechanisms of Substrate Targeting by Protein Kinases. (United States)

    Miller, Chad J; Turk, Benjamin E


    Protein phosphorylation is the most common reversible post-translational modification in eukaryotes. Humans have over 500 protein kinases, of which more than a dozen are established targets for anticancer drugs. All kinases share a structurally similar catalytic domain, yet each one is uniquely positioned within signaling networks controlling essentially all aspects of cell behavior. Kinases are distinguished from one another based on their modes of regulation and their substrate repertoires. Coupling specific inputs to the proper signaling outputs requires that kinases phosphorylate a limited number of sites to the exclusion of hundreds of thousands of off-target phosphorylation sites. Here, we review recent progress in understanding mechanisms of kinase substrate specificity and how they function to shape cellular signaling networks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Substrate specificities of tyrosine-specific protein kinases toward cytoskeletal proteins in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, T.; Kadowaki, T.; Nishida, E.; Kadooka, T.; Ogawara, H.; Fukami, Y.; Sakai, H.; Takaku, F.; Kasuga, M.


    The authors have previously reported that fodrin (..beta.. subunit), tubulin (..cap alpha.. subunit) and microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs; MAP2 and tau) are good substrates for the purified insulin receptor kinase. In this study, to investigate the substrate specificities of tyrosine kinases, they have examined the actions of the purified epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor kinase and Rous sarcoma virus src kinase on purified microfilament- and microtubule-related proteins. Among microfilament-related proteins examined, the purified EGF receptor kinase phosphorylated the ..beta.. subunit, but not the ..cap alpha.. subunit, of fodrin on tyrosine residues with a K/sub m/ below the micromolar range. The fodrin phosphorylation by the EGF receptor kinase was markedly inhibited by F-actin. In contrast, the purified src kinase preferentially phosphorylated the ..cap alpha.. subunit of fodrin on tyrosine residues. Fodrin phosphorylation by the src kinase was not inhibited by F-actin. Among microtubule proteins examined, MAP-2 was the best substrate for the EGF receptor kinase. The peptide mapping of MAP2 phosphorylated by the EGF receptor kinase and by the insulin receptor kinase produced very similar patterns of phosphopeptides, while that of MAP2 phosphorylated by the src kinase gave a distinctly different pattern. When the phosphorylation of the tubulin subunits was examined, the EGF receptor kinase preferred ..beta.. subunit to ..cap alpha.. subunit, but the src kinase phosphorylated both ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits to a similar extent. These results, together with our previous results, indicate that the substrate specificities of the EGF receptor kinase and the insulin receptor kinase are very similar, but not identical, while that of the src kinase is distinctly different from that of these growth factor receptor kinases.

  9. Activation of a calcium-dependent protein kinase involved in the Azospirillum growth promotion in rice. (United States)

    Ribaudo, Claudia M; Curá, José A; Cantore, María L


    Rice seedlings (Oryza sativa) inoculated with the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria Azospirillum brasilense FT326 showed an enhanced development of the root system 3 days after inoculation. Later on, a remarkable enlargement of shoots was also evident. An increase in the Ca 2+ -dependent histone kinase activity was also detected as a result of inoculation. The biochemical characterization and Western-blot analysis of the kinase strongly supports the hypothesis that it belongs to a member of the rice CDPK family. The fact that the amount of the protein did not change upon inoculation seems to indicate that a posttranslational activation is responsible for the change in the enzymatic activity. An in-gel kinase experiment identified a 46 kDa CDPK like protein kinase as a putative component of the signal transduction pathway triggered by Azospirillum inoculation. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the possible involvement of a Ca 2+ -dependent protein kinase in promotion of rice plants growth by A. brasilense.

  10. CBL-interacting protein kinase 6 negatively regulates immune response to Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Sardar, Atish; Nandi, Ashis Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Debasis


    Cytosolic calcium ion (Ca2+) is an essential mediator of the plant innate immune response. Here, we report that a calcium-regulated protein kinase Calcineurin B-like protein (CBL)-interacting protein kinase 6 (CIPK6) functions as a negative regulator of immunity against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis lines with compromised expression of CIPK6 exhibited enhanced disease resistance to the bacterial pathogen and to P. syringae harboring certain but not all avirulent effectors, while restoration of CIPK6 expression resulted in abolition of resistance. Plants overexpressing CIPK6 were more susceptible to P. syringae. Enhanced resistance in the absence of CIPK6 was accompanied by increased accumulation of salicylic acid and elevated expression of defense marker genes. Salicylic acid accumulation was essential for improved immunity in the absence of CIPK6. CIPK6 negatively regulated the oxidative burst associated with perception of pathogen-associated microbial patterns (PAMPs) and bacterial effectors. Accelerated and enhanced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in response to bacterial and fungal elicitors was observed in the absence of CIPK6. The results of this study suggested that CIPK6 negatively regulates effector-triggered and PAMP-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. TPX2 Protein of Arabidopsis Activates Aurora Kinase 1, But Not Aurora Kinase 3 In Vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomaštíková, Eva; Demidov, D.; Jeřábková, Hana; Binarová, Pavla; Houben, A.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Petrovská, Beáta


    Roč. 33, č. 6 (2015), s. 1988-1995 ISSN 0735-9640 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-28443S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR GAP501/12/2333 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aurora kinase * Targeting protein for Xklp2 * In vitro kinase assay Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.304, year: 2015

  12. Enhanced Arabidopsis pattern-triggered immunity by overexpression of cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases. (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-Hung; Chang, Yu-Hsien; Huang, Pin-Yao; Huang, Jing-Bo; Zimmerli, Laurent


    Upon recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) such as the bacterial flagellin (or the derived peptide flg22) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2), plants activate the pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) response. The L-type lectin receptor kinase-VI.2 (LecRK-VI.2) is a positive regulator of Arabidopsis thaliana PTI. Cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases (CRKs) possess two copies of the C-X8-C-X2-C (DUF26) motif in their extracellular domains and are thought to be involved in plant stress resistance, but data about CRK functions are scarce. Here, we show that Arabidopsis overexpressing the LecRK-VI.2-responsive CRK4, CRK6, and CRK36 demonstrated an enhanced PTI response and were resistant to virulent bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Notably, the flg22-triggered oxidative burst was primed in CRK4, CRK6, and CRK36 transgenics and up-regulation of the PTI-responsive gene FLG22-INDUCED RECEPTOR-LIKE 1 (FRK1) was potentiated upon flg22 treatment in CRK4 and CRK6 overexpression lines or constitutively increased by CRK36 overexpression. PTI-mediated callose deposition was not affected by overexpression of CRK4 and CRK6, while CRK36 overexpression lines demonstrated constitutive accumulation of callose. In addition, Pst DC3000-mediated stomatal reopening was blocked in CRK4 and CRK36 overexpression lines, while overexpression of CRK6 induced constitutive stomatal closure suggesting a strengthening of stomatal immunity. Finally, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation analyses in Arabidopsis protoplasts suggested that the plasma membrane localized CRK4, CRK6, and CRK36 associate with the PRR FLS2. Association with FLS2 and the observation that overexpression of CRK4, CRK6, and CRK36 boosts specific PTI outputs and resistance to bacteria suggest a role for these CRKs in Arabidopsis innate immunity.

  13. The tumor suppressor PTEN positively regulates macroautophagy by inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arico, S.; Petiot, A.; Bauvy, C.; Dubbelhuis, P. F.; Meijer, A. J.; Codogno, P.; Ogier-Denis, E.


    The tumor suppressor PTEN is a dual protein and phosphoinositide phosphatase that negatively controls the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) signaling pathway. Interleukin-13 via the activation of the class I PI 3-kinase has been shown to inhibit the macroautophagic

  14. MEK-1 phosphorylation by MEK kinase, Raf, and mitogen-activated protein kinase: analysis of phosphopeptides and regulation of activity.


    Gardner, A M; Vaillancourt, R R; Lange-Carter, C A; Johnson, G L


    MEK-1 is a dual threonine and tyrosine recognition kinase that phosphorylates and activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). MEK-1 is in turn activated by phosphorylation. Raf and MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEKK) independently phosphorylate and activate MEK-1. Recombinant MEK-1 is also capable of autoactivation. Purified recombinant wild type MEK-1 and a mutant kinase inactive MEK-1 were used as substrates for MEKK, Raf, and autophosphorylation. MEK-1 phosphory...

  15. Distribution of protein kinase Mzeta and the complete protein kinase C isoform family in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naik, M U; Benedikz, Eirikur; Hernandez, I


    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a multigene family of at least ten isoforms, nine of which are expressed in brain (alpha, betaI, betaII, gamma, delta, straightepsilon, eta, zeta, iota/lambda). Our previous studies have shown that many of these PKCs participate in synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region...... Mzeta (PKMzeta). In this study, we used immunoblot and immunocytochemical techniques with isoform-specific antisera to examine the distribution of the complete family of PKC isozymes and PKMzeta in rat brain. Each form of PKC showed a widespread distribution in the brain with a distinct regional pattern...... of high and low levels of expression. PKMzeta, the predominant form of PKM in brain, had high levels in hippocampus, frontal and occipital cortex, striatum, and hypothalamus. In the hippocampus, each isoform was expressed in a characteristic pattern, with zeta prominent in the CA1 stratum radiatum...


    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The hardware of the trigger components has been mostly finished. The ECAL Endcap Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC) are in production while Barrel TCC firmware has been upgraded, and the Trigger Primitives can now be stored by the Data Concentrator Card for readout by the DAQ. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) system is complete, and the timing is being finalized. All 502 HCAL trigger links to RCT run without error. The HCAL muon trigger timing has been equalized with DT, RPC, CSC and ECAL. The hardware and firmware for the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) jet triggers are being commissioned and data from these triggers is available for readout. The GCT energy sums from rings of trigger towers around the beam pipe beam have been changed to include two rings from both sides. The firmware for Drift Tube Track Finder, Barrel Sorter and Wedge Sorter has been upgraded, and the synchronization of the DT trigger is satisfactory. The CSC local trigger has operated flawlessly u...


    CERN Multimedia

    Roberta Arcidiacono


    Trigger Studies Group (TSG) The Trigger Studies Group has just concluded its third 2013 workshop, where all POGs presented the improvements to the physics object reconstruction, and all PAGs have shown their plans for Trigger development aimed at the 2015 High Level Trigger (HLT) menu. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger menu development, path timing, Trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – this last task in collaboration with PdmV (Physics Data and Monte Carlo Validation group). In the last months the group has delivered several HLT rate estimates and comparisons, using the available data and Monte Carlo samples. The studies were presented at the Trigger workshops in September and December, and STEAM has contacted POGs and PAGs to understand the origin of the discrepancies observed between 8 TeV data and Monte Carlo simulations. The most recent results show what the...

  18. Side-effects of protein kinase inhibitors on ion channels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 6, 2013 ... In fact, the side-effects have precluded these inhibitors from being both useful experimental tools and therapeutically viable. ... protein kinases both for experimental tools and for therapeutic approaches. [Son YK, Park H, Firth AL ...... of MAPK-activated proteins by MAPK controls the expression of various ...

  19. Protein kinase C signaling and cell cycle regulation


    Black, Adrian R.; Black, Jennifer D.


    A link between T cell proliferation and the protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine/threonine kinases has been recognized for about thirty years. However, despite the wealth of information on PKC-mediated control of T cell activation, understanding of the effects of PKCs on the cell cycle machinery in this cell type remains limited. Studies in other systems have revealed important cell cycle-specific effects of PKC signaling that can either positively or negatively impact proliferation. Th...

  20. Polo-like kinase 2-dependent phosphorylation of NPM/B23 on serine 4 triggers centriole duplication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekatrin Krause

    Full Text Available Duplication of the centrosome is well controlled during faithful cell division while deregulation of this process leads to supernumary centrosomes, chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy, a hallmark of many cancer cells. We previously reported that Polo-like kinase 2 (Plk2 is activated near the G1/S phase transition, and regulates the reproduction of centrosomes. In search for Plk2 interacting proteins we have identified NPM/B23 (Nucleophosmin as a novel Plk2 binding partner. We find that Plk2 and NPM/B23 interact in vitro in a Polo-box dependent manner. An association between both proteins was also observed in vivo. Moreover, we show that Plk2 phosphorylates NPM/B23 on serine 4 in vivo in S-phase. Notably, expression of a non-phosphorylatable NPM/B23 S4A mutant interferes with centriole reduplication in S-phase arrested cells and leads to a dilution of centriole numbers in unperturbed U2OS cells. The corresponding phospho-mimicking mutants have the opposite effect and their expression leads to the accumulation of centrioles. These findings suggest that NPM/B23 is a direct target of Plk2 in the regulation of centriole duplication and that phosphorylation on serine 4 can trigger this process.

  1. Characterization of pathogenic germline mutations in human Protein Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orengo Christine A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein Kinases are a superfamily of proteins involved in crucial cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation and signal transduction. Accordingly, they play an important role in cancer biology. To contribute to the study of the relation between kinases and disease we compared pathogenic mutations to neutral mutations as an extension to our previous analysis of cancer somatic mutations. First, we analyzed native and mutant proteins in terms of amino acid composition. Secondly, mutations were characterized according to their potential structural effects and finally, we assessed the location of the different classes of polymorphisms with respect to kinase-relevant positions in terms of subfamily specificity, conservation, accessibility and functional sites. Results Pathogenic Protein Kinase mutations perturb essential aspects of protein function, including disruption of substrate binding and/or effector recognition at family-specific positions. Interestingly these mutations in Protein Kinases display a tendency to avoid structurally relevant positions, what represents a significant difference with respect to the average distribution of pathogenic mutations in other protein families. Conclusions Disease-associated mutations display sound differences with respect to neutral mutations: several amino acids are specific of each mutation type, different structural properties characterize each class and the distribution of pathogenic mutations within the consensus structure of the Protein Kinase domain is substantially different to that for non-pathogenic mutations. This preferential distribution confirms previous observations about the functional and structural distribution of the controversial cancer driver and passenger somatic mutations and their use as a proxy for the study of the involvement of somatic mutations in cancer development.

  2. Heart 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activation by insulin requires PKB (protein kinase B), but not SGK3 (serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 3).


    Mouton, Veronique; Toussaint, Louise; Vertommen, Didier; Gueuning, Marie-Agnes; Maisin, Liliane; Havaux, Xavier; Sanchez-Canedo, Cossette; Bertrand, Luc; Dequiedt, Franck; Hemmings, Brian A; Hue, Louis; Rider, Mark H


    On the basis of transfection experiments using a dominant-negative approach, our previous studies suggested that PKB (protein kinase B) was not involved in heart PFK-2 (6-phosphofructo2-kinase) activation by insulin. Therefore we first tested whether SGK3 (serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 3) might be involved in this effect. Treatment of recombinant heart PFK-2 with [gamma-32P]ATP and SGK3 in vitro led to PFK-2 activation and phosphorylation at Ser466 and Ser483. However, in H...

  3. Stress-induced activation of protein kinase CK2 by direct interaction with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sayed, M; Kim, S O; Salh, B S


    Protein kinase CK2 has been implicated in the regulation of a wide range of proteins that are important in cell proliferation and differentiation. Here we demonstrate that the stress signaling agents anisomycin, arsenite, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulate the specific enzyme activity of CK2...... to be an allosteric mechanism. Furthermore, we demonstrate that anisomycin- and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced phosphorylation of p53 at Ser-392, which is important for the transcriptional activity of this growth suppressor protein, requires p38 MAP kinase and CK2 activities....


    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger synchronization procedures for running with cosmic muons and operating with the LHC were reviewed during the May electronics week. Firmware maintenance issues were also reviewed. Link tests between the new ECAL endcap trigger concentrator cards (TCC48) and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger have been performed. Firmware for the energy sum triggers and an upgraded tau trigger of the Global Calorimeter Triggers has been developed and is under test. The optical fiber receiver boards for the Track-Finder trigger theta links of the DT chambers are now all installed. The RPC trigger is being made more robust by additional chamber and cable shielding and also by firmware upgrades. For the CSC’s the front-end and trigger motherboard firmware have been updated. New RPC patterns and DT/CSC lookup tables taking into account phi asymmetries in the magnetic field configuration are under study. The motherboard for the new pipeline synchronizer of the Global Trigg...


    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith


      Level-1 Trigger The Level-1 Trigger group is ready to deploy improvements to the L1 Trigger algorithms for 2012. These include new high-PT patterns for the RPC endcap, an improved CSC PT assignment, a new PT-matching algorithm for the Global Muon Trigger, and new calibrations for ECAL, HCAL, and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger. These should improve the efficiency, rate, and stability of the L1 Trigger. The L1 Trigger group also is migrating the online systems to SLC5. To make the data transfer from the Global Calorimeter Trigger to the Global Trigger more reliable and also to allow checking the data integrity online, a new optical link system has been developed by the GCT and GT groups and successfully tested at the CMS electronics integration facility in building 904. This new system is now undergoing further tests at Point 5 before being deployed for data-taking this year. New L1 trigger menus have recently been studied and proposed by Emmanuelle Perez and the L1 Detector Performance Group...

  6. Intramolecular Conformational Changes Optimize Protein Kinase C Signaling# (United States)

    Antal, Corina E.; Violin, Jonathan D.; Kunkel, Maya T.; Skovsø, Søs


    Summary Optimal tuning of enzyme signaling is critical for cellular homeostasis. We use fluorescence resonance energy transfer reporters in live cells to follow conformational transitions that tune the affinity of a multi-domain signal transducer, protein kinase C, for optimal response to second messengers. This enzyme comprises two diacylglycerol sensors, the C1A and C1B domains, whose intrinsic affinity for ligand is sufficiently high that the enzyme would be in a ligand-engaged, active state if not for mechanisms that mask its domains. We show that both diacylglycerol sensors are exposed in newly-synthesized protein kinase C and that conformational transitions following priming phosphorylations mask the domains such that the lower affinity sensor, the C1B domain, is the primary diacylglycerol binder. Protein kinase C's conformational rearrangements serve as a paradigm for how multi-module transducers optimize their dynamic range of signaling. PMID:24631122

  7. Purification and characterization of a thylakoid protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughlan, S.J.; Hind, G.


    Control of state transitions in the thylakoid by reversible phosphorylation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) is modulated by a kinase. The kinase catalyzing this phosphorylation is associated with the thylakoid membrane, and is regulated by the redox state of the plastoquinone pool. The isolation and partial purification from spinach thylakoids of two protein kinases (CPK1, CPK2) of apparent molecular masses 25 kDa and 38 kDa has been reported. Neither enzyme utilizes isolated LHC-II as a substrate. The partial purification of a third protein kinase (LHCK) which can utilize both lysine-rich histones (IIIs and Vs) and isolated LHC-II as substrate has now been purified to homogeneity and characterized by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a 64 kDa peptide. From a comparison of the two isolation procedures we have concluded that CPK1 is indeed a protein kinase, but has a lower specific activity than that of LHCK. 8 refs., 4 figs

  8. Enhanced Arabidopsis pattern-triggered immunity by overexpression of cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hung eYeh


    Full Text Available Upon recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs such as the bacterial flagellin (or the derived peptide flg22 by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs such as the FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2, plants activate the pattern-triggered immunity (PTI response. The L-type lectin receptor kinase-VI.2 (LecRK-VI.2 is a positive regulator of Arabidopsis thaliana PTI. Cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases (CRKs possess two copies of the C-X8-C-X2-C (DUF26 motif in their extracellular domains and are thought to be involved in plant stress resistance, but data about CRK functions are scarce. Here we show that Arabidopsis overexpressing the LecRK-VI.2-responsive CRK4, CRK6 and CRK36 demonstrated an enhanced PTI response and were resistant to virulent bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Notably, the flg22-triggered oxidative burst was primed in CRK4, CRK6, and CRK36 transgenics and up-regulation of the PTI-responsive gene FLG22-INDUCED RECEPTOR-LIKE 1 (FRK1 was potentiated upon flg22 treatment in CRK4 and CRK6 overexpression lines or constitutively increased by CRK36 overexpression. PTI-mediated callose deposition was not affected by overexpression of CRK4 and CRK6, while CRK36 overexpression lines demonstrated constitutive accumulation of callose. In addition, Pst DC3000-mediated stomatal reopening was blocked in CRK4 and CRK36 overexpression lines, while overexpression of CRK6 induced constitutive stomatal closure suggesting a strengthening of stomatal immunity. Finally, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation analyses in Arabidopsis protoplasts suggested that the plasma membrane localized CRK4, CRK6 and CRK36 associate with the PRR FLS2. Association with FLS2 and the observation that overexpression of CRK4, CRK6, and CRK36 boosts specific PTI outputs and resistance to bacteria suggest a role for these CRKs in Arabidopsis innate immunity.


    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the March meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, the program of trigger pattern tests and vertical slice tests and planning for the Global Runs starting this summer. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and integration testing is in full swing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. After full checkout, trigger subsystems will be then operated in the CMS Global Runs. Continuous...


    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith


    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The overall status of the L1 trigger has been excellent and the running efficiency has been high during physics fills. The timing is good to about 1%. The fine-tuning of the time synchronization of muon triggers is ongoing and will be completed after more than 10 nb-1 of data have been recorded. The CSC trigger primitive and RPC trigger timing have been refined. A new configuration for the CSC Track Finder featured modified beam halo cuts and improved ghost cancellation logic. More direct control was provided for the DT opto-receivers. New RPC Cosmic Trigger (RBC/TTU) trigger algorithms were enabled for collision runs. There is further work planned during the next technical stop to investigate a few of the links from the ECAL to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT). New firmware and a new configuration to handle trigger rate spikes in the ECAL barrel are also being tested. A board newly developed by the tracker group (ReTRI) has been installed and activated to block re...


    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The production of the trigger hardware is now basically finished, and in time for the turn-on of the LHC. The last boards produced are the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcaps (TCC-EE). After the recent installation of the four EE Dees, the TCC-EE prototypes were used for their commissioning. Production boards are arriving and are being tested continuously, with the last ones expected in November. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger hardware is fully integrated after installation of the last EE cables. Pattern tests from the HCAL up to the GCT have been performed successfully. The HCAL triggers are fully operational, including the connection of the HCAL-outer and forward-HCAL (HO/HF) technical triggers to the Global Trigger. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) board firmware has been updated to permit recording of the tower “feature bit” in the data. The Global Calorimeter Trigger hardware is installed, but some firmware developments are still n...

  12. A casein-kinase-2-related protein kinase is tightly associated with the large T antigen of simian virus 40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götz, C; Koenig, M G; Issinger, O G


    The simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen is a multifunctional protein involved in SV40 cell transformation and lytic virus infection. Some of its activities are regulated by interaction with cellular proteins and/or by phosphorylation of T antigen by various protein kinases. In this study, we...... of T antigen by the associated kinase is reduced whereas a p34cdc2-kinase-specific peptide has no influence. In addition, the T-antigen-associated protein kinase can use GTP and ATP as phosphate donors. These properties together with the observation that immunopurified T antigen can be phosphorylated...


    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith


    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The Level-1 Trigger hardware has performed well during both the recent proton-proton and heavy ion running. Efforts were made to improve the visibility and handling of alarms and warnings. The tracker ReTRI boards that prevent fixed frequencies of Level-1 Triggers are now configured through the Trigger Supervisor. The Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) team has introduced a buffer cleanup procedure at stops and a reset of the QPLL during configuring to ensure recalibration in case of a switch from the LHC clock to the local clock. A device to test the cables between the Regional Calorimeter Trigger and the GCT has been manufactured. A wrong charge bit was fixed in the CSC Trigger. The ECAL group is improving crystal masking and spike suppression in the trigger primitives. New firmware for the Drift Tube Track Finder (DTTF) sorters was developed to improve fake track tagging and sorting. Zero suppression was implemented in the DT Sector Collector readout. The track finder b...


    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Trigger Hardware The status of the trigger components was presented during the September CMS Week and Annual Review and at the monthly trigger meetings in October and November. Procedures for cold and warm starts (e.g. refreshing of trigger parameters stored in registers) of the trigger subsystems have been studied. Reviews of parts of the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) and the Global Trigger (GT) have taken place in October and November. The CERN group summarized the status of the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) system. All TTC crates and boards are installed in the underground counting room, USC55. The central clock system will be upgraded in December (after the Global Run at the end of November GREN) to the new RF2TTC LHC machine interface timing module. Migration of subsystem's TTC PCs to SLC4/ XDAQ 3.12 is being prepared. Work is on going to unify the access to Local Timing Control (LTC) and TTC CMS interface module (TTCci) via SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol, a lightweight XML-based messaging ...


    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos


    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Since nearly all of the Level-1 (L1) Trigger hardware at Point 5 has been commissioned, activities during the past months focused on the fine-tuning of synchronization, particularly for the ECAL and the CSC systems, on firmware upgrades and on improving trigger operation and monitoring. Periodic resynchronizations or hard resets and a shortened luminosity section interval of 23 seconds were implemented. For the DT sector collectors, an automatic power-off was installed in case of high temperatures, and the monitoring capabilities of the opto-receivers and the mini-crates were enhanced. The DTTF and the CSCTF now have improved memory lookup tables. The HCAL trigger primitive logic implemented a new algorithm providing better stability of the energy measurement in the presence of any phase misalignment. For the Global Calorimeter Trigger, additional Source Cards have been manufactured and tested. Testing of the new tau, missing ET and missing HT algorithms is underw...

  16. Rapamycin Induces Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) Expression through Activation of Protein Kinase B and Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Pathways* (United States)

    Rastogi, Ruchi; Jiang, Zhongliang; Ahmad, Nisar; Rosati, Rita; Liu, Yusen; Beuret, Laurent; Monks, Robert; Charron, Jean; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Samavati, Lobelia


    Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), also known as dual specificity phosphatase-1 (DUSP-1), plays a crucial role in the deactivation of MAPKs. Several drugs with immune-suppressive properties modulate MKP-1 expression as part of their mechanism of action. We investigated the effect of mTOR inhibition through rapamycin and a dual mTOR inhibitor (AZD2014) on MKP-1 expression. Low dose rapamycin led to a rapid activation of both AKT and ERK pathways with a subsequent increase in MKP-1 expression. Rapamycin treatment led to phosphorylation of CREB, transcription factor 1 (ATF1), and ATF2, three transcription factors that bind to the cyclic AMP-responsive elements on the Mkp-1 promoter. Inhibition of either the MEK/ERK or the AKT pathway attenuated rapamycin-mediated MKP-1 induction. AZD2014 did not activate AKT but activated the ERK pathway, leading to a moderate MKP-1 induction. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) derived from wild-type (WT) mice or mice deficient in AKT1 and AKT2 isoforms or BMDM from targeted deficiency in MEK1 and MEK2, we show that rapamycin treatment led to an increased MKP1 expression in BMDM from WT but failed to do so in BMDMs lacking the AKT1 isoform or MEK1 and MEK2. Importantly, rapamycin pretreatment inhibited LPS-mediated p38 activation and decreased nitric oxide and IL-6 production. Our work provides a conceptual framework for the observed immune modulatory effect of mTOR inhibition. PMID:24126911

  17. The DNA-dependent protein kinase: a multifunctional protein kinase with roles in DNA double strand break repair and mitosis


    Jette, Nicholas; Lees-Miller, Susan P.


    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase composed of a large catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and the Ku70/80 heterodimer. Over the past two decades, significant progress has been made in elucidating the role of DNA-PK in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks in human cells and recently, additional roles for DNA-PK have been reported. In this review, we will describe the biochemi...

  18. Kinase activity ranking using phosphoproteomics data (KARP) quantifies the contribution of protein kinases to the regulation of cell viability. (United States)

    Wilkes, Edmund H; Casado, Pedro; Rajeeve, Vinothini; Cutillas, Pedro R


    Cell survival is regulated by a signaling network driven by the activity of protein kinases; however, determining the contribution that each kinase in the network makes to such regulation remains challenging. Here, we report a computational approach that uses mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics data to rank protein kinases based on their contribution to cell regulation. We found that the scores returned by this algorithm, which we have termed kinase activity ranking using phosphoproteomics data (KARP), were a quantitative measure of the contribution that individual kinases make to the signaling output. Application of KARP to the analysis of eight hematological cell lines revealed that cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 1/2, casein kinase (CK) 2, extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), and p21-activated kinase (PAK) were the most frequently highly ranked kinases in these cell models. The patterns of kinase activation were cell-line specific yet showed a significant association with cell viability as a function of kinase inhibitor treatment. Thus, our study exemplifies KARP as an untargeted approach to empirically and systematically identify regulatory kinases within signaling networks. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Regulation of activity and localization of the WNK1 protein kinase by hyperosmotic stress (United States)

    Zagórska, Anna; Pozo-Guisado, Eulalia; Boudeau, Jérôme; Vitari, Alberto C.; Rafiqi, Fatema H.; Thastrup, Jacob; Deak, Maria; Campbell, David G.; Morrice, Nick A.; Prescott, Alan R.; Alessi, Dario R.


    Mutations within the WNK1 (with-no-K[Lys] kinase-1) gene cause Gordon's hypertension syndrome. Little is known about how WNK1 is regulated. We demonstrate that WNK1 is rapidly activated and phosphorylated at multiple residues after exposure of cells to hyperosmotic conditions and that activation is mediated by the phosphorylation of its T-loop Ser382 residue, possibly triggered by a transautophosphorylation reaction. Activation of WNK1 coincides with the phosphorylation and activation of two WNK1 substrates, namely, the protein kinases STE20/SPS1-related proline alanine–rich kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress response kinase-1 (OSR1). Small interfering RNA depletion of WNK1 impairs SPAK/OSR1 activity and phosphorylation of residues targeted by WNK1. Hyperosmotic stress induces rapid redistribution of WNK1 from the cytosol to vesicular structures that may comprise trans-Golgi network (TGN)/recycling endosomes, as they display rapid movement, colocalize with clathrin, adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1), and TGN46, but not the AP-2 plasma membrane–coated pit marker nor the endosomal markers EEA1, Hrs, and LAMP1. Mutational analysis suggests that the WNK1 C-terminal noncatalytic domain mediates vesicle localization. Our observations shed light on the mechanism by which WNK1 is regulated by hyperosmotic stress. PMID:17190791

  20. Identification of a fungi-specific lineage of protein kinases closely related to tyrosine kinases. (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongtao; Jin, Qiaojun; Xu, Jin-Rong; Liu, Huiquan


    Tyrosine kinases (TKs) specifically catalyze the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in proteins and play essential roles in many cellular processes. Although TKs mainly exist in animals, recent studies revealed that some organisms outside the Opisthokont clade also contain TKs. The fungi, as the sister group to animals, are thought to lack TKs. To better understand the origin and evolution of TKs, it is important to investigate if fungi have TK or TK-related genes. We therefore systematically identified possible TKs across the fungal kingdom by using the profile hidden Markov Models searches and phylogenetic analyses. Our results confirmed that fungi lack the orthologs of animal TKs. We identified a fungi-specific lineage of protein kinases (FslK) that appears to be a sister group closely related to TKs. Sequence analysis revealed that members of the FslK clade contain all the conserved protein kinase sub-domains and thus are likely enzymatically active. However, they lack key amino acid residues that determine TK-specific activities, indicating that they are not true TKs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the last common ancestor of fungi may have possessed numerous members of FslK. The ancestral FslK genes were lost in Ascomycota and Ustilaginomycotina and Pucciniomycotina of Basidiomycota during evolution. Most of these ancestral genes, however, were retained and expanded in Agaricomycetes. The discovery of the fungi-specific lineage of protein kinases closely related to TKs helps shed light on the origin and evolution of TKs and also has potential implications for the importance of these kinases in mushroom fungi.


    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger system has been constantly in use in cosmic and commissioning data taking periods. During CRAFT running it delivered 300 million muon and calorimeter triggers to CMS. It has performed stably and reliably. During the abort gaps it has also provided laser and other calibration triggers. Timing issues, namely synchronization and latency issues, have been solved. About half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are installed, and the firmware is being worked on. The production of the other half has started. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) card firmware has been updated, and new features such as fast parallel zero-suppression have been included. Repairs of drift tube (DT) trigger mini-crates, optical links and receivers of sector collectors are under way and have been completed on YB0. New firmware for the optical receivers of the theta links to the drift tube track finder is being installed. In parallel, tests with new eta track finde...


    CERN Multimedia

    R. Carlin with contributions from D. Acosta


    Level-1 Trigger Data-taking continues at cruising speed, with high availability of all components of the Level-1 trigger. We have operated the trigger up to a luminosity of 7.6E33, where we approached 100 kHz using the 7E33 prescale column.  Recently, the pause without triggers in case of an automatic "RESYNC" signal (the "settle" and "recover" time) was reduced in order to minimise the overall dead-time. This may become very important when the LHC comes back with higher energy and luminosity after LS1. We are also preparing for data-taking in the proton-lead run in early 2013. The CASTOR detector will make its comeback into CMS and triggering capabilities are being prepared for this. Steps to be taken include improved cooperation with the TOTEM trigger system and using the LHC clock during the injection and ramp phases of LHC. Studies are being finalised that will have a bearing on the Trigger Technical Design Report (TDR), which is to be rea...


    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The final parts of the Level-1 trigger hardware are now being put in place. For the ECAL endcaps, more than half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are now available at CERN, such that one complete endcap can be covered. The Global Trigger now correctly handles ECAL calibration sequences, without being influenced by backpressure. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) hardware is complete and working in USC55. Intra-crate tests of all 18 RCT crates and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) are regularly taking place. Pattern tests have successfully captured data from HCAL through RCT to the GCT Source Cards. HB/HE trigger data are being compared with emulator results to track down the very few remaining hardware problems. The treatment of hot and dead cells, including their recording in the database, has been defined. For the GCT, excellent agreement between the emulator and data has been achieved for jets and HF ET sums. There is still som...

  4. VHH Activators and Inhibitors for Protein Kinase C Epsilon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Summanen, M.M.I.


    Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε), which is one of the novel PKC isozymes, is widely expressed throughout the body and has important roles in the function of the nervous, cardiovascular and immune systems. In order to better understand PKCε regulated pathways, isozyme specific activity modulators are

  5. Targeting protein kinases to reverse multidrug resistance in sarcoma. (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Shen, Jacson; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng


    Sarcomas are a group of cancers that arise from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin. They can be classified into over 50 subtypes, accounting for approximately 1% of adult and 15% of pediatric cancers. Wide surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the most common treatments for the majority of sarcomas. Among these therapies, chemotherapy can palliate symptoms and prolong life for some sarcoma patients. However, sarcoma cells can have intrinsic or acquired resistance after treatment with chemotherapeutics drugs, leading to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). MDR attenuates the efficacy of anticancer drugs and results in treatment failure for sarcomas. Therefore, overcoming MDR is an unmet need for sarcoma therapy. Certain protein kinases demonstrate aberrant expression and/or activity in sarcoma cells, which have been found to be involved in the regulation of sarcoma cell progression, such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and survival. Inhibiting these protein kinases may not only decrease the proliferation and growth of sarcoma cells, but also reverse their resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs to subsequently reduce the doses of anticancer drugs and decrease drug side-effects. The discovery of novel strategies targeting protein kinases opens a door to a new area of sarcoma research and provides insight into the mechanisms of MDR in chemotherapy. This review will focus on the recent studies in targeting protein kinase to reverse chemotherapeutic drug resistance in sarcoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase from the mud ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Dec 1, 2016 ... ... Journal of Genetics; Volume 95; Issue 4. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase from the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain: cDNA cloning and profiles under cold stress. CHENCUI HUANG KUN YU HUIYANG HUANG HAIHUI YE. RESEARCH ARTICLE Volume 95 Issue 4 December 2016 pp ...

  7. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase from the mud ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase from the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain: cDNA cloning and profiles under cold stress. CHENCUI HUANG1, KUN YU1, HUIYANG HUANG1,2 and HAIHUI YE1,2∗. 1College of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, People's Republic of China.

  8. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase from the mud ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Dec 1, 2016 ... to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of acclimation to cold hardiness in S. paramamosain. [Huang C., Yu K., Huang H. and Ye H. 2016 Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase from the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain: cDNA cloning and profiles under cold stress. J. Genet.

  9. Isoform Specificity of Protein Kinase Cs in Synaptic Plasticity (United States)

    Sossin, Wayne S.


    Protein kinase Cs (PKCs) are implicated in many forms of synaptic plasticity. However, the specific isoform(s) of PKC that underlie(s) these events are often not known. We have used "Aplysia" as a model system in order to investigate the isoform specificity of PKC actions due to the presence of fewer isoforms and a large number of documented…

  10. Transduction proteins of olfactory receptor cells: identification of guanine nucleotide binding proteins and protein kinase C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anholt, R.R.H.; Mumby, S.M.; Stoffers, D.A.; Girard, P.R.; Kuo, J.F.; Snyder, S.H.


    The authors have analyzed guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) in the olfactory epithelium of Rana catesbeiana using subunit-specific antisera. The olfactory epithelium contained the α subunits of three G-proteins, migrating on polyacrylamide gels in SDS with apparent molecular weights of 45,000, 42,000, and 40,000, corresponding to G/sub s/, G/sub i/, and G/sub o/, respectively. A single β subunit with an apparent molecular weight of 36,000 was detected. An antiserum against the α subunit of retinal transducin failed to detect immunoreactive proteins in olfactory cilia detached from the epithelium. The olfactory cilia appeared to be enriched in immunoreactive G/sub sα/ relative to G/sub ichemical bond/ and G/sub ochemical bond/ when compared to membranes prepared from the olfactory epithelium after detachment of the cilia. Bound antibody was detected by autoradiography after incubation with [ 125 I]protein. Immunohistochemical studies using an antiserum against the β subunit of G-proteins revealed intense staining of the ciliary surface of the olfactory epithelium and of the axon bundles in the lamina propria. In contrast, an antiserum against a common sequence of the α subunits preferentially stained the cell membranes of the olfactory receptor cells and the acinar cells of Bowman's glands and the deep submucosal glands. In addition to G-proteins, they have identified protein kinase C in olfactory cilia via a protein kinase C specific antiserum and via phorbol ester binding. However, in contrast to the G-proteins, protein kinase C occurred also in cilia isolated from respiratory epithelium

  11. Responsive block copolymer photonics triggered by protein-polyelectrolyte coacervation. (United States)

    Fan, Yin; Tang, Shengchang; Thomas, Edwin L; Olsen, Bradley D


    Ionic interactions between proteins and polyelectrolytes are demonstrated as a method to trigger responsive transitions in block copolymer (BCP) photonic gels containing one neutral hydrophobic block and one cationic hydrophilic block. Poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) blocks in lamellar poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) block copolymer thin films are quaternized with primary bromides to yield swollen gels that show strong reflectivity peaks in the visible range; exposure to aqueous solutions of various proteins alters the swelling ratios of the quaternized P2VP (QP2VP) gel layers in the PS-QP2VP materials due to the ionic interactions between proteins and the polyelectrolyte. Parameters such as charge density, hydrophobicity, and cross-link density of the QP2VP gel layers as well as the charge and size of the proteins play significant roles on the photonic responses of the BCP gels. Differences in the size and pH-dependent charge of proteins provide a basis for fingerprinting proteins based on their temporal and equilibrium photonic response. The results demonstrate that the BCP gels and their photonic effect provide a robust and visually interpretable method to differentiate different proteins.

  12. A plant homologue to mammalian brain 14-3-3 protein and protein kinase C inhibitor. (United States)

    Hirsch, S; Aitken, A; Bertsch, U; Soll, J


    We have isolated cDNA clones of Spinacea oleracea L. and Oenothera hookeri of 930 and 1017 base pairs, respectively. The open reading frame deduced from the Oenothera sequence codes for a protein of a calculated molecular mass of 29,200. The primary amino acid sequence exhibits a very high degree (88%) of homology to the 14-3-3 protein from bovine brain, and protein kinase C inhibitor from sheep brain. Subsequently the plant protein was partially purified from leaf extract. The partially purified plant protein inhibited protein kinase C from sheep brain in a heterologous assay system. The active fraction consisted of 5-6 different polypeptides of similar molecular size. One of these proteins crossreacted with a peptide-specific antibody against protein kinase C inhibitor protein from sheep brain.


    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the December meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, and results from the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) phase II. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and moving towards integration testing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. This is combined with operations and testing without beam that will continue until startup. The plans for start-up, pilot and early running tri...


    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith, from contributions of D. Acosta


      The L1 Trigger group deployed several major improvements this year. Compared to 2011, the single-muon trigger rate has been reduced by a factor of 2 and the η coverage has been restored to 2.4, with high efficiency. During the current technical stop, a higher jet seed threshold will be applied in the Global Calorimeter Trigger in order to significantly reduce the strong pile-up dependence of the HT and multi-jet triggers. The currently deployed L1 menu, with the “6E33” prescales, has a total rate of less than 100 kHz and operates with detector readout dead time of less than 3% for luminosities up to 6.5 × 1033 cm–2s–1. Further prescale sets have been created for 7 and 8 × 1033 cm–2s–1 luminosities. The L1 DPG is evaluating the performance of the Trigger for upcoming conferences and publication. Progress on the Trigger upgrade was reviewed during the May Upgrade Week. We are investigating scenarios for stagin...


    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith


    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software New Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) for rapidity gap measurements have been installed and integrated into the Trigger recently. For the Global Muon Trigger, tuning of quality criteria has led to improvements in muon trigger efficiencies. Several subsystems have started campaigns to increase spares by recovering boards or producing new ones. The barrel muon sector collector test system has been reactivated, new η track finder boards are in production, and φ track finder boards are under revision. In the CSC track finder, an η asymmetry problem has been corrected. New pT look-up tables have also improved efficiency. RPC patterns were changed from four out of six coincident layers to three out of six in the barrel, which led to a significant increase in efficiency. A new PAC firmware to trigger on heavy stable charged particles allows looking for chamber hit coincidences in two consecutive bunch-crossings. The redesign of the L1 Trigger Emulator...


    CERN Multimedia

    R. Arcidiacono


      In 2013 the Trigger Studies Group (TSG) has been restructured in three sub-groups: STEAM, for the development of new HLT menus and monitoring their performance; STORM, for the development of HLT tools, code and actual configurations; and FOG, responsible for the online operations of the High Level Trigger. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger Menu development, path timing, trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Since the end of proton-proton data taking, the group has started preparing for 2015 data taking, with collisions at 13 TeV and 25 ns bunch spacing. The reliability of the extrapolation to higher energy is being evaluated comparing the trigger rates on 7 and 8 TeV Monte Carlo samples with the data taken in the past two years. The effect of 25 ns bunch spacing is being studied on the d...


    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos, I. Mikulec, J. Varela and C. Wulz.

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Over the past few months, the Level-1 trigger has successfully recorded data with cosmic rays over long continuous stretches as well as LHC splash events, beam halo, and collision events. The L1 trigger hardware, firmware, synchronization, performance and readiness for beam operation were reviewed in October. All L1 trigger hardware is now installed at Point 5, and most of it is completely commissioned. While the barrel ECAL Trigger Concentrator Cards are fully operational, the recently delivered endcap ECAL TCC system is still being commissioned. For most systems there is a sufficient number of spares available, but for a few systems additional reserve modules are needed. It was decided to increase the overall L1 latency by three bunch crossings to increase the safety margin for trigger timing adjustments. In order for CMS to continue data taking during LHC frequency ramps, the clock distribution tree needs to be reset. The procedures for this have been tested. A repl...


    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The road map for the final commissioning of the level-1 trigger system has been set. The software for the trigger subsystems is being upgraded to run under CERN Scientific Linux 4 (SLC4). There is also a new release for the Trigger Supervisor (TS 1.4), which implies upgrade work by the subsystems. As reported by the CERN group, a campaign to tidy the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) racks has begun. The machine interface was upgraded by installing the new RF2TTC module, which receives RF signals from LHC Point 4. Two Beam Synchronous Timing (BST) signals, one for each beam, can now be received in CMS. The machine group will define the exact format of the information content shortly. The margin on the locking range of the CMS QPLL is planned for study for different subsystems in the next Global Runs, using a function generator. The TTC software has been successfully tested on SLC4. Some TTC subsystems have already been upgraded to SLC4. The TTCci Trigger Supervisor ...

  19. Semiconductor technology in protein kinase research and drug discovery: sensing a revolution. (United States)

    Bhalla, Nikhil; Di Lorenzo, Mirella; Estrela, Pedro; Pula, Giordano


    Since the discovery of protein kinase activity in 1954, close to 600 kinases have been discovered that have crucial roles in cell physiology. In several pathological conditions, aberrant protein kinase activity leads to abnormal cell and tissue physiology. Therefore, protein kinase inhibitors are investigated as potential treatments for several diseases, including dementia, diabetes, cancer and autoimmune and cardiovascular disease. Modern semiconductor technology has recently been applied to accelerate the discovery of novel protein kinase inhibitors that could become the standard-of-care drugs of tomorrow. Here, we describe current techniques and novel applications of semiconductor technologies in protein kinase inhibitor drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Polo-like kinase 1 regulates Nlp, a centrosome protein involved in microtubule nucleation. (United States)

    Casenghi, Martina; Meraldi, Patrick; Weinhart, Ulrike; Duncan, Peter I; Körner, Roman; Nigg, Erich A


    In animal cells, most microtubules are nucleated at centrosomes. At the onset of mitosis, centrosomes undergo a structural reorganization, termed maturation, which leads to increased microtubule nucleation activity. Centrosome maturation is regulated by several kinases, including Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1). Here, we identify a centrosomal Plk1 substrate, termed Nlp (ninein-like protein), whose properties suggest an important role in microtubule organization. Nlp interacts with two components of the gamma-tubulin ring complex and stimulates microtubule nucleation. Plk1 phosphorylates Nlp and disrupts both its centrosome association and its gamma-tubulin interaction. Overexpression of an Nlp mutant lacking Plk1 phosphorylation sites severely disturbs mitotic spindle formation. We propose that Nlp plays an important role in microtubule organization during interphase, and that the activation of Plk1 at the onset of mitosis triggers the displacement of Nlp from the centrosome, allowing the establishment of a mitotic scaffold with enhanced microtubule nucleation activity.

  1. Crystal structure of human protein kinase CK2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niefind, K; Guerra, B; Ermakowa, I


    The crystal structure of a fully active form of human protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase 2) consisting of two C-terminally truncated catalytic and two regulatory subunits has been determined at 3.1 A resolution. In the CK2 complex the regulatory subunits form a stable dimer linking the two catalytic...... subunits, which make no direct contact with one another. Each catalytic subunit interacts with both regulatory chains, predominantly via an extended C-terminal tail of the regulatory subunit. The CK2 structure is consistent with its constitutive activity and with a flexible role of the regulatory subunit...

  2. Huntingtin-Associated Protein 1 (HAP1) is a cGMP-dependent Kinase Anchoring Protein (GKAP) specific for the cGMP-dependent protein kinase Iβ isoform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corradini, Eleonora; Burgers, Pepijn P.; Plank, Michael; Heck, Albert J R; Scholten, Arjen


    Protein-protein interactions are important in providing compartmentalization and specificity in cellular signal transduction. Many studies have hallmarked the well designed compartmentalization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) through its anchoring proteins. Much less data are available on

  3. Guanylate kinase domains of the MAGUK family scaffold proteins as specific phospho-protein-binding modules


    Zhu, Jinwei; Shang, Yuan; Xia, Caihao; Wang, Wenning; Wen, Wenyu; Zhang, Mingjie


    Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUK) family proteins contain an inactive guanylate kinase (GK) domain, whose function has been elusive. Here, this domain is revealed as a new type of phospho-peptide-binding module, in which the GMP-binding site has evolved to accommodate phospho-serines or -threonines.

  4. Protein Kinase C δ: a Gatekeeper of Immune Homeostasis. (United States)

    Salzer, Elisabeth; Santos-Valente, Elisangela; Keller, Bärbel; Warnatz, Klaus; Boztug, Kaan


    Human autoimmune disorders present in various forms and are associated with a life-long burden of high morbidity and mortality. Many different circumstances lead to the loss of immune tolerance and often the origin is suspected to be multifactorial. Recently, patients with autosomal recessive mutations in PRKCD encoding protein kinase c delta (PKCδ) have been identified, representing a monogenic prototype for one of the most prominent forms of humoral systemic autoimmune diseases, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). PKCδ is a signaling kinase with multiple downstream target proteins and with functions in various signaling pathways. Interestingly, mouse models have indicated a special role of the ubiquitously expressed protein in the control of B-cell tolerance revealed by the severe autoimmunity in Prkcd (-/-) knockout mice as the major phenotype. As such, the study of PKCδ deficiency in humans has tremendous potential in enhancing our knowledge on the mechanisms of B-cell tolerance.

  5. Emerging Roles of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel

    The cellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated, when the energy balance of the cell decreases. AMPK has been proposed to regulate multiple metabolic processes. However, much of the evidence for these general effects of AMPK relies on investigations in cell systems...... exercise appears to inhibit pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity by an immediate up-regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) protein content. Consequently, this may inhibit glucose oxidation and thereby generate conditions for increased FA oxidation and glycogen resynthesis in skeletal muscle...... be of importance for prioritising energy dissipation, inhibition of lipid storage pathways and regulation of mitochondrial and metabolic proteins, but this needs further investigations. In addition, we provide evidence that AMPK is regulating autophagic signalling in skeletal muscle. Thus, in skeletal muscle AMPK...

  6. Septin-associated protein kinases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy THORNER


    Full Text Available Septins are a family of eukaryotic GTP-binding proteins that associate into linear rods, which, in turn, polymerize end-on-end into filaments and further assemble into other, more elaborate super-structures at discrete subcellular locations. Hence, septin-based ensembles are considered elements of the cytoskeleton. One function of these structures that has been well-documented in studies conducted in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is to serve as a scaffold that recruits regulatory proteins, which dictate the spatial and temporal control of certain aspects of the cell division cycle. In particular, septin-associated protein kinases couple cell cycle progression with cellular morphogenesis. Thus, septin-containing structures serve as signaling platforms that integrate a multitude of signals and coordinate key downstream networks required for cell cycle passage. This review summarizes what we currently understand about how the action of septin-associated protein kinases and their substrates control information flow to drive the cell cycle into and out of mitosis, to regulate bud growth, and especially to direct timely and efficient execution of cytokinesis and cell abscission. Thus, septin structures represent a regulatory node at the intersection of many signaling pathways. In addition, and importantly, the activities of certain septin-associated protein kinases also regulate the state of organization of the septins themselves, creating a complex feedback loop.


    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith


    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Overall the L1 trigger hardware has been running very smoothly during the last months of proton running. Modifications for the heavy-ion run have been made where necessary. The maximal design rate of 100 kHz can be sustained without problems. All L1 latencies have been rechecked. The recently installed Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) are being used in the heavy ion run. The ZDC scintillators have been dismantled, but the calorimeter itself remains. We now send the L1 accept signal and other control signals to TOTEM. Trigger cables from TOTEM to CMS will be installed during the Christmas shutdown, so that the TOTEM data can be fully integrated within the CMS readout. New beam gas triggers have been developed, since the BSC-based trigger is no longer usable at high luminosities. In particular, a special BPTX signal is used after a quiet period with no collisions. There is an ongoing campaign to provide enough spare modules for the different subsystems. For example...


    CERN Multimedia

    J. Alimena


    Trigger Strategy Group The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for the development of future High-Level Trigger menus, as well as of its DQM and validation, in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Taking into account the beam energy and luminosity expected in 2015, a rough estimate of the trigger rates indicates a factor four increase with respect to 2012 conditions. Assuming that a factor two can be tolerated thanks to the increase in offline storage and processing capabilities, a toy menu has been developed using the new OpenHLT workflow to estimate the transverse energy/momentum thresholds that would halve the current trigger rates. The CPU time needed to run the HLT has been compared between data taken with 25 ns and 50 ns bunch spacing, for equivalent pile-up: no significant difference was observed on the global time per event distribution at the only available data point, corresponding to a pile-up of about 10 interactions. Using th...


    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith


    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software After the winter shutdown minor hardware problems in several subsystems appeared and were corrected. A reassessment of the overall latency has been made. In the TTC system shorter cables between TTCci and TTCex have been installed, which saved one bunch crossing, but which may have required an adjustment of the RPC timing. In order to tackle Pixel out-of-syncs without influencing other subsystems, a special hardware/firmware re-sync protocol has been introduced in the Global Trigger. The link between the Global Calorimeter Trigger and the Global Trigger with the new optical Global Trigger Interface and optical receiver daughterboards has been successfully tested in the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. New firmware in the GCT now allows a setting to remove the HF towers from energy sums. The HF sleeves have been replaced, which should lead to reduced rates of anomalous signals, which may allow their inclusion after this is validated. For ECAL, improvements i...

  10. STATE TRANSITION7-Dependent Phosphorylation Is Modulated by Changing Environmental Conditions, and Its Absence Triggers Remodeling of Photosynthetic Protein Complexes. (United States)

    Bergner, Sonja Verena; Scholz, Martin; Trompelt, Kerstin; Barth, Johannes; Gäbelein, Philipp; Steinbeck, Janina; Xue, Huidan; Clowez, Sophie; Fucile, Geoffrey; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Michel; Fufezan, Christian; Hippler, Michael


    In plants and algae, the serine/threonine kinase STN7/STT7, orthologous protein kinases in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), respectively, is an important regulator in acclimation to changing light environments. In this work, we assessed STT7-dependent protein phosphorylation under high light in C. reinhardtii, known to fully induce the expression of light-harvesting complex stress-related protein3 (LHCSR3) and a nonphotochemical quenching mechanism, in relationship to anoxia where the activity of cyclic electron flow is stimulated. Our quantitative proteomics data revealed numerous unique STT7 protein substrates and STT7-dependent protein phosphorylation variations that were reliant on the environmental condition. These results indicate that STT7-dependent phosphorylation is modulated by the environment and point to an intricate chloroplast phosphorylation network responding in a highly sensitive and dynamic manner to environmental cues and alterations in kinase function. Functionally, the absence of the STT7 kinase triggered changes in protein expression and photoinhibition of photosystem I (PSI) and resulted in the remodeling of photosynthetic complexes. This remodeling initiated a pronounced association of LHCSR3 with PSI-light harvesting complex I (LHCI)-ferredoxin-NADPH oxidoreductase supercomplexes. Lack of STT7 kinase strongly diminished PSII-LHCII supercomplexes, while PSII core complex phosphorylation and accumulation were significantly enhanced. In conclusion, our study provides strong evidence that the regulation of protein phosphorylation is critical for driving successful acclimation to high light and anoxic growth environments and gives new insights into acclimation strategies to these environmental conditions. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Modulation of neutrophil superoxide generation by inhibitors of protein kinase C, calmodulin, diacylglycerol and myosin light chain kinases, and peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase. (United States)

    Bergstrand, H; Eriksson, T; Hallberg, A; Johansson, B; Karabelas, K; Michelsen, P; Nybom, A


    To assess the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the respiratory burst of adherent human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL), reduction of ferricytochrome C by cells triggered with a phorbol ester (PMA), ionophore A23187, serum-treated zymosan (STZ) or three lipid derivatives, 3-decanoyl-sn-glycerol (G-3-OCOC9), (R,R)-1,4-diethyl-2-O-decyl-L-tartrate (Tt-2-OC10) and 3-decyloxy-5-hydroxymethylphenol (DHP) was examined in a microtiter plate procedure in the presence of inhibitors of PKC and, for comparison, inhibitors of calmodulin, diacylglycerol and myosin light chain kinases and the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity of fujiphilin. 1) Of the protein kinase inhibitors examined, Ro 31-7549 and staurosporine reduced responses to all stimuli except possibly STZ; in contrast, K252a and the myosin light chain kinase inhibitors ML-7 and ML-9 blocked responses to A23187 and STZ better than those triggered by PMA. H-7 reduced responses to A23187, DHP and G-3-OCOC9, and calphostin, palmitoyl carnitine, sphingosine and the multifunctional drugs TMB-8 and W-7 reduced A23187; they also, when examined, reduced decane derivative-induced O2- production more effectively than PMA- and STZ-triggered responses. Polymyxin B, 4 alpha-PMA and retinal displayed no inhibitory capacity. 2) Of the selective calmodulin antagonists, CGS 9343B, Ro 22-4839 and calmidazolium did not inhibit the oxidative response irrespective of the stimulus used, whereas metofenazate reduced those evoked by A23187, DHP, G-3-OCOC9 and STZ.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Asymmetric expression of protein kinase CK2 subunits in human kidney tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stalter, G; Siemer, S; Becht, E


    of protein kinase CK2 alpha in tumors/normal tissue (T/N) was 1.58 and that of the protein kinase CK2 beta (T/N) was 2.65. The data suggest that the generally described increase in protein kinase CK2 activity in tumor cells may to some extent result from a deregulation in subunit biosynthesis or degradation...


    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware The CERN group is working on the TTC system. Seven out of nine sub-detector TTC VME crates with all fibers cabled are installed in USC55. 17 Local Trigger Controller (LTC) boards have been received from production and are in the process of being tested. The RF2TTC module replacing the TTCmi machine interface has been delivered and will replace the TTCci module used to mimic the LHC clock. 11 out of 12 crates housing the barrel ECAL off-detector electronics have been installed in USC55 after commissioning at the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. The cabling to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) is terminated. The Lisbon group has completed the Synchronization and Link mezzanine board (SLB) production. The Palaiseau group has fully tested and installed 33 out of 40 Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC). The seven remaining boards are being remade. The barrel TCC boards have been tested at the H4 test beam, and good agreement with emulator predictions were found. The cons...

  14. Inhibition of protein kinase C by alcohols and anaesthetics. (United States)

    Slater, S J; Cox, K J; Lombardi, J V; Ho, C; Kelly, M B; Rubin, E; Stubbs, C D


    Despite almost a century of research, the mechanism of anaesthesia remains obscure and there is still no agreement on the location of the site(s) of action. Because the potencies of general anaesthetics increase in proportion to their solubility in olive oil, this led to a consensus that the site is within the cell membrane. This led to theories that lipid bilayer perturbation was the primary event, which was then transmitted to a membrane protein. But at the concentrations used clinically, such perturbations are small. A plausible site would be in or on ion channels at the synapse, where a number of modulatory effects have been described. A possible location for such a site would be at the protein-lipid interface. We report here that anaesthetics inhibit protein kinase C, a key component in signal transduction. The potency is a linear function of the octanol-water partition coefficient (the Meyer-Overton rule of anaesthesia). The effect was obtained in a lipid-free assay, implicating a hydrophobic site in the protein, supporting the contention that a (membrane) protein may be a target for anaesthetic interactions. In a lipid-dependent assay, a potential role of lipids in the protein-site model was demonstrated. The inhibition was absent in the isolated catalytic domain, suggesting that the site of inhibition is on the regulatory subunit, which is unique to protein kinase C.

  15. Structural Bioinformatics and Protein Docking Analysis of the Molecular Chaperone-Kinase Interactions: Towards Allosteric Inhibition of Protein Kinases by Targeting the Hsp90-Cdc37 Chaperone Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Verkhivker


    Full Text Available A fundamental role of the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone system in mediating maturation of protein kinase clients and supporting kinase functional activity is essential for the integrity and viability of signaling pathways involved in cell cycle control and organism development. Despite significant advances in understanding structure and function of molecular chaperones, the molecular mechanisms and guiding principles of kinase recruitment to the chaperone system are lacking quantitative characterization. Structural and thermodynamic characterization of Hsp90-Cdc37 binding with protein kinase clients by modern experimental techniques is highly challenging, owing to a transient nature of chaperone-mediated interactions. In this work, we used experimentally-guided protein docking to probe the allosteric nature of the Hsp90-Cdc37 binding with the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4 kinase clients. The results of docking simulations suggest that the kinase recognition and recruitment to the chaperone system may be primarily determined by Cdc37 targeting of the N-terminal kinase lobe. The interactions of Hsp90 with the C-terminal kinase lobe may provide additional “molecular brakes” that can lock (or unlock kinase from the system during client loading (release stages. The results of this study support a central role of the Cdc37 chaperone in recognition and recruitment of the kinase clients. Structural analysis may have useful implications in developing strategies for allosteric inhibition of protein kinases by targeting the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone machinery.

  16. Mitogen Activated Protein kinase signal transduction pathways in the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koul Sweaty


    Full Text Available Abstract The biochemistry of the mitogen activated protein kinases ERK, JNK, and p38 have been studied in prostate physiology in an attempt to elucidate novel mechanisms and pathways for the treatment of prostatic disease. We reviewed articles examining mitogen-activated protein kinases using prostate tissue or cell lines. As with other tissue types, these signaling modules are links/transmitters for important pathways in prostate cells that can result in cellular survival or apoptosis. While the activation of the ERK pathway appears to primarily result in survival, the roles of JNK and p38 are less clear. Manipulation of these pathways could have important implications for the treatment of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy.

  17. Mitogen-activated protein kinases interacting kinases are autoinhibited by a reprogrammed activation segment. (United States)

    Jauch, Ralf; Cho, Min-Kyu; Jäkel, Stefan; Netter, Catharina; Schreiter, Kay; Aicher, Babette; Zweckstetter, Markus; Jäckle, Herbert; Wahl, Markus C


    Autoinhibition is a recurring mode of protein kinase regulation and can be based on diverse molecular mechanisms. Here, we show by crystal structure analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based nucleotide affinity studies and rational mutagenesis that nonphosphorylated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases interacting kinase (Mnk) 1 is autoinhibited by conversion of the activation segment into an autoinhibitory module. In a Mnk1 crystal structure, the activation segment is repositioned via a Mnk-specific sequence insertion at the N-terminal lobe with the following consequences: (i) the peptide substrate binding site is deconstructed, (ii) the interlobal cleft is narrowed, (iii) an essential Lys-Glu pair is disrupted and (iv) the magnesium-binding loop is locked into an ATP-competitive conformation. Consistently, deletion of the Mnk-specific insertion or removal of a conserved phenylalanine side chain, which induces a blockade of the ATP pocket, increase the ATP affinity of Mnk1. Structural rearrangements required for the activation of Mnks are apparent from the cocrystal structure of a Mnk2 D228G -staurosporine complex and can be modeled on the basis of crystal packing interactions. Our data suggest a novel regulatory mechanism specific for the Mnk subfamily.

  18. Mitogen-activated protein kinases in the acute diabetic myocardium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnisková, M.; Barančík, M.; Neckář, Jan; Ravingerová, T.


    Roč. 249, 1-2 (2003), s. 59-65 ISSN 0300-8177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A069 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/2063/22 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : experimental diabetes * ischemia * mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.763, year: 2003

  19. Structural aspects of protein kinase ASK1 regulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Obšil, Tomáš; Obšilová, Veronika


    Roč. 66, 1 Dec (2017), s. 31-36 ISSN 2212-4926 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02739S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ASK1 kinase * apoptosis * thioredoxin * 14-3-3 protein Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology

  20. Lithium blocks ethanol-induced modulation of protein kinases in the developing brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Goutam; Saito, Mitsuo; Mao, Rui-Fen; Wang, Ray; Vadasz, Csaba; Saito, Mariko


    Lithium has been shown to be neuroprotective against various insults including ethanol exposure. We previously reported that ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the postnatal day 7 (P7) mice is associated with decreases in phosphorylation levels of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and alteration in lipid profiles in the brain. Here, P7 mice were injected with ethanol and lithium, and the effects of lithium on ethanol-induced alterations in phosphorylation levels of protein kinases and lipid profiles in the brain were examined. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses showed that lithium significantly blocked ethanol-induced caspase-3 activation and reduction in phosphorylation levels of Akt, GSK-3β, and AMPK. Further, lithium inhibited accumulation of cholesterol ester (ChE) and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) triggered by ethanol in the brain. These results suggest that Akt, GSK-3β, and AMPK are involved in ethanol-induced neurodegeneration and the neuroprotective effects of lithium by modulating both apoptotic and survival pathways

  1. Presenilin dependence of phospholipase C and protein kinase C signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehvari, Nodi; Cedazo-Minguez, Angel; Isacsson, Ola


    -stimulated phospholipase C (PLC) activity which was gamma-secretase dependent. To further evaluate the dependence of PLC on PSs we measured PLC activity and the activation of variant protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking either PS1, PS2, or both. PLC activity and PKCalpha...... and PKCgamma activations were significantly lower in PS1 and PS2 double knockout MEFs after PLC stimulation. Protein levels of PKCalpha and PKCgamma were lower in PS1 and PS2 double knockout MEFs. In contrast, PKCdelta levels were significantly elevated in PS1 and PS2 double knockout as well as in PS1 knockout...

  2. The DNA-dependent protein kinase: a multifunctional protein kinase with roles in DNA double strand break repair and mitosis (United States)

    Jette, Nicholas; Lees-Miller, Susan P.


    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase composed of a large catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and the Ku70/80 heterodimer. Over the past two decades, significant progress has been made in elucidating the role of DNA-PK in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks in human cells and recently, additional roles for DNA-PK have been reported. In this review, we will describe the biochemistry, structure and function of DNA-PK, its roles in DNA double strand break repair and its newly described roles in mitosis and other cellular processes. PMID:25550082

  3. Phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit RIα by protein kinase G (PKG) primes PKA for catalytic activity in cells. (United States)

    Haushalter, Kristofer J; Casteel, Darren E; Raffeiner, Andrea; Stefan, Eduard; Patel, Hemal H; Taylor, Susan S


    cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKAc) is a pivotal signaling protein in eukaryotic cells. PKAc has two well-characterized regulatory subunit proteins, RI and RII (each having α and β isoforms), which keep the PKAc catalytic subunit in a catalytically inactive state until activation by cAMP. Previous reports showed that the RIα regulatory subunit is phosphorylated by cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) in vitro , whereupon phosphorylated RIα no longer inhibits PKAc at normal (1:1) stoichiometric ratios. However, the significance of this phosphorylation as a mechanism for activating type I PKA holoenzymes has not been fully explored, especially in cellular systems. In this study, we further examined the potential of RIα phosphorylation to regulate physiologically relevant "desensitization" of PKAc activity. First, the serine 101 site of RIα was validated as a target of PKGIα phosphorylation both in vitro and in cells. Analysis of a phosphomimetic substitution in RIα (S101E) showed that modification of this site increases PKAc activity in vitro and in cells, even without cAMP stimulation. Numerous techniques were used to show that although Ser 101 variants of RIα can bind PKAc, the modified linker region of the S101E mutant has a significantly reduced affinity for the PKAc active site. These findings suggest that RIα phosphorylation may be a novel mechanism to circumvent the requirement of cAMP stimulus to activate type I PKA in cells. We have thus proposed a model to explain how PKG phosphorylation of RIα creates a "sensitized intermediate" state that is in effect primed to trigger PKAc activity.

  4. Benzoselendiazole-based responsive long-lifetime photoluminiscent probes for protein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekambaram, R; Enkvist, E; Manoharan, GB


    Benzoselenadiazole-containing inhibitors of protein kinases were constructed and their capability to emit phosphorescence in the kinase-bound state was established. Labelling of the inhibitors with a red fluorescent dye led to sensitive responsive photoluminescent probes for protein kinase CK2...

  5. The New Role for an Old Kinase: Protein Kinase CK2 Regulates Metal Ion Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Johnson


    Full Text Available The pleiotropic serine/threonine protein kinase CK2 was the first kinase discovered. It is renowned for its role in cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis. The complexity of this kinase is well reflected by the findings of past decades in terms of its heterotetrameric structure, subcellular location, constitutive activity and the extensive catalogue of substrates. With the advent of non-biased high-throughput functional genomics such as genome-wide deletion mutant screening, novel aspects of CK2 functionality have been revealed. Our recent discoveries using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian cells demonstrate that CK2 regulates metal toxicity. Extensive literature search reveals that there are few but elegant works on the role of CK2 in regulating the sodium and zinc channels. As both CK2 and metal ions are key players in cell biology and oncogenesis, understanding the details of CK2’s regulation of metal ion homeostasis has a direct bearing on cancer research. In this review, we aim to garner the recent data and gain insights into the role of CK2 in metal ion transport.

  6. Fbxl12 triggers G1 arrest by mediating degradation of calmodulin kinase I. (United States)

    Mallampalli, Rama K; Kaercher, Leah; Snavely, Courtney; Pulijala, Roopa; Chen, Bill B; Coon, Tiffany; Zhao, Jing; Agassandian, Marianna


    Cell cycle progression through its regulatory control by changes in intracellular Ca(2+) levels at the G1/S transition mediates cellular proliferation and viability. Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent kinase 1 (CaMKI) appears critical in regulating the assembly of the cyclin D1/cdk4 complex essential for G1 progression, but how this occurs is unknown. Cyclin D1/cdk4 assembly in the early G1 phase is also regulated via binding to p27. Here, we show that a ubiquitin E3 ligase component, F-box protein Fbxl12, mediates CaMKI degradation via a proteasome-directed pathway leading to disruption of cyclin D1/cdk4 complex assembly and resultant G1 arrest in lung epithelia. We also demonstrate that i) CaMKI phosphorylates p27 at Thr(157) and Thr(198) in human cells and at Thr(170) and Thr(197) in mouse cells to modulate its subcellular localization; ii) Fbxl12-induced CaMKI degradation attenuates p27 phosphorylation at these sites in early G1 and iii) activation of CaMKI during G1 transition followed by p27 phosphorylation appears to be upstream to other p27 phosphorylation events, an effect abrogated by Fbxl12 overexpression. Lastly, known inducers of G1 arrest significantly increase Fbxl12 levels in cells. Thus, Fbxl12 may be a previously uncharacterized, functional growth inhibitor regulating cell cycle progression that might be used for mechanism-based therapy. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensitization of TRPA1 by Protein Kinase A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannis E Meents

    Full Text Available The TRPA1 ion channel is expressed in nociceptive (pain-sensitive somatosensory neurons and is activated by a wide variety of chemical irritants, such as acrolein in smoke or isothiocyanates in mustard. Here, we investigate the enhancement of TRPA1 function caused by inflammatory mediators, which is thought to be important in lung conditions such as asthma and COPD. Protein kinase A is an important kinase acting downstream of inflammatory mediators to cause sensitization of TRPA1. By using site-directed mutagenesis, patch-clamp electrophysiology and calcium imaging we identify four amino acid residues, S86, S317, S428, and S972, as the principal targets of PKA-mediated phosphorylation and sensitization of TRPA1.

  8. Protein kinase C involvement in focal adhesion formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R


    Matrix molecules such as fibronectin can promote cell attachment, spreading and focal adhesion formation. Although some interactions of fibronectin with cell surface receptors have now been identified, the consequent activation of intracellular messenger systems by cell/matrix interactions have...... still to be elucidated. We show here that the kinase inhibitors H7 and HA1004 reduce focal adhesion and stress fiber formation in response to fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner, and that activators of protein kinase C can promote their formation under conditions where they do not normally form....... Fibroblasts spread within 1h on substrata composed of fibronectin and formed focal adhesions by 3h, as monitored by interference reflection microscopy (IRM) and by labeling for talin, vinculin and integrin beta 1 subunits. In addition, stress fibers were visible. When cells were allowed to spread for 1h...

  9. Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase and Kinase Specificity in Regulation of SRC and Breast Tumor Kinase* ♦ (United States)

    Fan, Gaofeng; Aleem, Saadat; Yang, Ming; Miller, W. Todd; Tonks, Nicholas K.


    Despite significant evidence to the contrary, the view that phosphatases are “nonspecific” still pervades the field. Systems biology approaches to defining how signal transduction pathways are integrated at the level of whole organisms also often downplay the contribution of phosphatases, defining them as “erasers” that serve merely to restore the system to its basal state. Here, we present a study that counteracts the idea of “nonspecific phosphatases.” We have characterized two structurally similar and functionally related kinases, BRK and SRC, which are regulated by combinations of activating autophosphorylation and inhibitory C-terminal sites of tyrosine phosphorylation. We demonstrated specificity at the level of the kinases in that SRMS phosphorylated the C terminus of BRK, but not SRC; in contrast, CSK is the kinase responsible for C-terminal phosphorylation of SRC, but not BRK. For the phosphatases, we observed that RNAi-mediated suppression of PTP1B resulted in opposing effects on the activity of BRK and SRC and have defined the mechanisms underlying this specificity. PTP1B inhibited BRK by directly dephosphorylating the Tyr-342 autophosphorylation site. In contrast, PTP1B potentiated SRC activity, but not by dephosphorylating SRC itself directly; instead, PTP1B regulated the interaction between CBP/PAG and CSK. SRC associated with, and phosphorylated, the transmembrane protein CBP/PAG at Tyr-317, resulting in CSK recruitment. We identified PAG as a substrate of PTP1B, and dephosphorylation abolished recruitment of the inhibitory kinase CSK. Overall, these findings illustrate how the combinatorial effects of PTKs and PTPs may be integrated to regulate signaling, with both classes of enzymes displaying exquisite specificity. PMID:25897081

  10. Interleukin-1 activates a novel protein kinase cascade that results in the phosphorylation of Hsp27. (United States)

    Freshney, N W; Rawlinson, L; Guesdon, F; Jones, E; Cowley, S; Hsuan, J; Saklatvala, J


    An IL-1-stimulated protein kinase cascade resulting in phosphorylation of the small heat shock protein hsp27 has been identified in KB cells. It is distinct from the p42 MAP kinase cascade. An upstream activator kinase phosphorylated a 40 kDa kinase (p40) upon threonine and tyrosine residues, which in turn phosphorylated a 50 kDa kinase (p50) upon threonine (and some serine) residues. p50 phosphorylated hsp27 upon serine. p40 and p50 were purified to near homogeneity. All three components were inactivated by protein phosphatase 2A, and p40 was inactivated by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B. The substrate specificity of p40 differed from that of p42 and p54 MAP kinases. The upstream activator was not a MAP kinase kinase. p50 resembled MAPKAPK-2 and may be identical.

  11. Synthetic peptides and ribosomal proteins as substrate for 60S ribosomal protein kinase from yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grankowski, N; Gasior, E; Issinger, O G


    Kinetic studies on the 60S protein kinase were conducted with synthetic peptides and ribosomal proteins as substrate. Peptide RRREEESDDD proved to be the best synthetic substrate for this enzyme. The peptide has a sequence of amino acids which most closely resembles the structure of potential...

  12. Specificity of ATP-dependent and GTP-dependent protein kinases with respect to ribosomal proteins of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Kiefer, M C; Traut, R R


    Two protein kinases differing in substrate specificity were used to phosphorylate the 30-S and the 50-S ribosomal subunits of Escherichia coli. The catalytic subunit from the rabbit skeletal muscle protein kinase phosphorylates proteins S1, S4, S9, S13 and S18 of the 30-S subunit and proteins L2,...

  13. Protein Kinase C Inhibitors as Modulators of Vascular Function and Their Application in Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf A. Khalil


    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP is regulated by multiple neuronal, hormonal, renal and vascular control mechanisms. Changes in signaling mechanisms in the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM and extracellular matrix cause alterations in vascular tone and blood vessel remodeling and may lead to persistent increases in vascular resistance and hypertension (HTN. In VSM, activation of surface receptors by vasoconstrictor stimuli causes an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i, which forms a complex with calmodulin, activates myosin light chain (MLC kinase and leads to MLC phosphorylation, actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. Vasoconstrictor agonists could also increase the production of diacylglycerol which activates protein kinase C (PKC. PKC is a family of Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent isozymes that have different distributions in various blood vessels, and undergo translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, cytoskeleton or the nucleus during cell activation. In VSM, PKC translocation to the cell surface may trigger a cascade of biochemical events leading to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and MAPK kinase (MEK, a pathway that ultimately increases the myofilament force sensitivity to [Ca2+]i, and enhances actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. PKC translocation to the nucleus may induce transactivation of various genes and promote VSM growth and proliferation. PKC could also affect endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in the extracellular matrix further affecting vascular reactivity and remodeling. In addition to vasoactive factors, reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines and other metabolic factors could affect PKC activity. Increased PKC expression and activity have been observed in vascular disease and in certain forms of experimental and human HTN. Targeting of vascular PKC using PKC inhibitors may function in

  14. Gold nanoparticles-based electrochemical method for the detection of protein kinase with a peptide-like inhibitor as the bioreceptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun K


    Full Text Available Kai Sun, Yong Chang, Binbin Zhou, Xiaojin Wang, Lin Liu Henan Province of Key Laboratory of New Optoelectronic Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: This article presents a general method for the detection of protein kinase with a peptide-like kinase inhibitor as the bioreceptor, and it was done by converting gold nanoparticles (AuNPs-based colorimetric assay into sensitive electrochemical analysis. In the colorimetric assay, the kinase-specific aptameric peptide triggered the aggregation of AuNPs in solution. However, the specific binding of peptide to the target protein (kinase inhibited its ability to trigger the assembly of AuNPs. In the electrochemical analysis, peptides immobilized on a gold electrode and presented as solution triggered together the in situ formation of AuNPs-based network architecture on the electrode surface. Nevertheless, the formation of peptide–kinase complex on the electrode surface made the peptide-triggered AuNPs assembly difficult. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to measure the change in surface property in the binding events. When a ferrocene-labeled peptide (Fc-peptide was used in this design, the network of AuNPs/Fc-peptide produced a good voltammetric signal. The competitive assay allowed for the detection of protein kinase A with a detection limit of 20 mU/mL. This work should be valuable for designing novel optical or electronic biosensors and likely lead to many detection applications. Keywords: electrochemical biosensor, colorimetric assay, gold nanoparticle, aptameric peptide, protein kinase A, signal amplification 

  15. Functional diversity of human protein kinase splice variants marks significant expansion of human kinome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamika Krishanpal


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinases are involved in diverse spectrum of cellular processes. Availability of draft version of the human genomic data in the year 2001 enabled recognition of repertoire of protein kinases. However, over the years the human genomic data is being refined and the current release of human genomic data has helped us to recognize a larger repertoire of over 900 human protein kinases represented mainly by splice variants. Results Many of these identified protein kinases are alternatively spliced products. Interestingly, some of the human kinase splice variants appear to be significantly diverged in terms of their functional properties as represented by incorporation or absence of one or more domains. Many sets of protein kinase splice variants have substantially different domain organization and in a few sets of splice variants kinase domains belong to different subfamilies of kinases suggesting potential participation in different signal transduction pathways. Conclusions Addition or deletion of a domain between splice variants of multi-domain kinases appears to be a means of generating differences in the functional features of otherwise similar kinases. It is intriguing that marked sequence diversity within the catalytic regions of some of the splice variant kinases result in kinases belonging to different subfamilies. These human kinase splice variants with different functions might contribute to diversity of eukaryotic cellular signaling.

  16. Analysis of protein kinase C requirement for exocytosis in permeabilized rat basophilic leukaemia RBL-2H3 cells: a GTP-binding protein(s) as a potential target for protein kinase C. (United States)

    Buccione, R; Di Tullio, G; Caretta, M; Marinetti, M R; Bizzarri, C; Francavilla, S; Luini, A; De Matteis, M A


    The role of protein kinase C in calcium-dependent exocytosis was investigated in permeabilized rat basophilic leukaemia cells. When protein kinase C was down-regulated by phorbol myristate acetate (1 microM for 3-6 h) or inhibited by pharmacological agents such as calphostin C (1 microM) or a protein kinase C-specific pseudo-substrate peptide inhibitor (100-200 microM), cells lost the ability to secrete in response to 10 microM free Ca2+. In contrast, a short treatment (15 min) with phorbol myristate acetate, which maximally activates protein kinase C, potentiated the effects of calcium. Biochemical analysis of protein kinase C-deprived cells indicated that loss of the Ca(2+)-induced secretory response correlated with disappearance of protein kinase C-alpha. In addition, at the concentrations effective for exocytosis, calcium caused translocation of protein kinase C-alpha to the membrane fraction and stimulated phospholipase C, suggesting that, in permeabilized cells, protein kinase C can be activated by calcium through generation of the phospholipase C metabolite diacylglycerol. The delta, epsilon and zeta Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase C isoenzymes were insensitive to phorbol myristate acetate-induced down-regulation and did not, as expected, translocate to the particulate fraction in response to calcium. Interestingly, secretory competence was restored in cells depleted of protein kinase C or in which protein kinase C itself was inhibited by non-hydrolysable GTP analogues, but not by GTP, suggesting that protein kinase C might regulate the ability of a G protein(s) directly controlling the exocytotic machinery to be activated by endogenous GTP. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8129713

  17. Protein kinase A regulates AKAP250 (gravin) scaffold binding to the β2-adrenergic receptor


    Tao, Jiangchuan; Wang, Hsien-yu; Malbon, Craig C.


    A-kinase-anchoring protein 250 (AKAP250; gravin) acts as a scaffold that binds protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C and protein phosphatases, associating reversibly with the β2-adrenergic receptor. The receptor-binding domain of the scaffold and the regulation of the receptor–scaffold association was revealed through mutagenesis and biochemical analyses. The AKAP domain found in other members of this superfamily is essential for the scaffold–receptor interactions. Gravin constructs lackin...

  18. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases control expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Juliane; Lerche Hansen, Jakob; Haunsø, Stig


    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) phosphorylates G protein-coupled receptors resulting in uncoupling from G proteins. Receptors modulate GRK2 expression, however the mechanistic basis for this effect is largely unknown. Here we report a novel mechanism by which receptors use...

  19. The protein kinase SIK downregulates the polarity protein Par3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanlandewijck, Michael; Dadras, Mahsa Shahidi; Lomnytska, Marta


    that SIK can potentially phosphorylate the polarity complex protein Par3, an established regulator of tight junction assembly. SIK associates with Par3, and induces degradation of Par3 that can be prevented by proteasomal and lysosomal inhibition or by mutation of Ser885, a putative phosphorylation site...... protein. HighSIKmRNA expression also correlates with lower chance for survival in various carcinomas. In specific human breast cancer samples, aneuploidy of tumor cells best correlated with cytoplasmic SIK distribution, and SIK expression correlated with TGFβ/Smad signaling activity and low...... or undetectable expression of Par3. Our model suggests that SIK can act directly on the polarity protein Par3 to regulate tight junction assembly....

  20. Protein kinase CK2 structure-function relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Meggio, F; Pinna, L A


    Protein kinase CK2 subunits alpha and beta were expressed either separately or together in a bacterial expression system (pT7-7/BL21(DE3)) and purified to homogeneity. After mixing the subunits, a CK2 holoenzyme (alpha 2 beta 2) was spontaneously reconstituted, which displays identical features...... inactivated through urea, protease, and heat treatment. In contrast, the holoenzyme, either reconstituted or native, is much more stable when similar negative insults prevail. The beta subunit has at least three functions: (a) it is necessary for maximum activity of the enzyme under physiological salt...

  1. Targeting AMP-activated protein kinase as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of metabolic disorders. (United States)

    Viollet, B; Mounier, R; Leclerc, J; Yazigi, A; Foretz, M; Andreelli, F


    In the light of recent studies in humans and rodents, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a phylogenetically conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, has been described as an integrator of regulatory signals monitoring systemic and cellular energy status. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been proposed to function as a 'fuel gauge' to monitor cellular energy status in response to nutritional environmental variations. Recently, it has been proposed that AMPK could provide a link in metabolic defects underlying progression to the metabolic syndrome. AMPK is a heterotrimeric enzyme complex consisting of a catalytic subunit alpha and two regulatory subunits beta and gamma. AMPK is activated by rising AMP and falling ATP. AMP activates the system by binding to the gamma subunit that triggers phosphorylation of the catalytic alpha subunit by the upstream kinases LKB1 and CaMKKbeta (calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase). AMPK system is a regulator of energy balance that, once activated by low energy status, switches on ATP-producing catabolic pathways (such as fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis), and switches off ATP-consuming anabolic pathways (such as lipogenesis), both by short-term effect on phosphorylation of regulatory proteins and by long-term effect on gene expression. As well as acting at the level of the individual cell, the system also regulates food intake and energy expenditure at the whole body level, in particular by mediating the effects of insulin sensitizing adipokines leptin and adiponectin. AMPK is robustly activated during skeletal muscle contraction and myocardial ischaemia playing a role in glucose transport and fatty acid oxidation. In liver, activation of AMPK results in enhanced fatty acid oxidation as well as decreased glucose production. Moreover, the AMPK system is one of the probable targets for the anti-diabetic drugs biguanides and thiazolidinediones. Thus, the relationship between AMPK activation and beneficial metabolic

  2. Arabidopsis Yak1 protein (AtYak1) is a dual specificity protein kinase

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dongjin


    Yak1 is a member of dual-specificity Tyr phosphorylation-regulated kinases (DYRKs) that are evolutionarily conserved. The downstream targets of Yak1 and their functions are largely unknown. Here, a homologous protein AtYAK1 was identified in Arabidopsis thaliana and the phosphoprotein profiles of the wild type and an atyak1 mutant were compared on two-dimensional gel following Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein gel staining. Annexin1, Annexin2 and RBD were phosphorylated at serine/ threonine residues by the AtYak1 kinase. Annexin1, Annexin2 and Annexin4 were also phosphorylated at tyrosine residues. Our study demonstrated that AtYak1 is a dual specificity protein kinase in Arabidopsis that may regulate the phosphorylation status of the annexin family proteins.

  3. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases control expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Juliane; Lerche Hansen, Jakob; Haunsø, Stig


    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) phosphorylates G protein-coupled receptors resulting in uncoupling from G proteins. Receptors modulate GRK2 expression, however the mechanistic basis for this effect is largely unknown. Here we report a novel mechanism by which receptors use...... the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade to regulate GRK2 cellular levels. ERK activation by receptor stimulation elevated endogenous GRK2 while antagonist treatment decreased cellular GRK2. Activating ERK by overexpressing constitutive active MEK-1 or Ras elevated GRK2 protein levels while blocking...

  4. Pyruvate Kinase Triggers a Metabolic Feedback Loop that Controls Redox Metabolism in Respiring Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grüning, N.M.; Rinnerthaler, M.; Bluemlein, K.; Mulleder, M.; Wamelink, M.M.C.; Lehrach, H.; Jakobs, C.A.J.M.; Breitenbach, M.; Ralser, M.


    In proliferating cells, a transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is known as the Warburg effect, whose reversal inhibits cancer cell proliferation. Studying its regulator pyruvate kinase (PYK) in yeast, we discovered that central metabolism is self-adapting to synchronize redox metabolism

  5. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Regulates Seed Dormancy in Barley. (United States)

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Kubo, Yuta; Nakamura, Masako; Ichimura, Kazuya; Seo, Shigemi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ando, Tsuyu; Hensel, Goetz; Sameri, Mohammad; Stein, Nils; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro; Komatsuda, Takao


    Seed dormancy has fundamental importance in plant survival and crop production; however, the mechanisms regulating dormancy remain unclear [1-3]. Seed dormancy levels generally decrease during domestication to ensure that crops successfully germinate in the field. However, reduction of seed dormancy can cause devastating losses in cereals like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seed (grain) on the mother plant when rain occurs before harvest. Understanding the mechanisms of dormancy can facilitate breeding of crop varieties with the appropriate levels of seed dormancy [4-8]. Barley is a model crop [9, 10] and has two major seed dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTLs), SD1 and SD2, on chromosome 5H [11-19]. We detected a QTL designated Qsd2-AK at SD2 as the single major determinant explaining the difference in seed dormancy between the dormant cultivar "Azumamugi" (Az) and the non-dormant cultivar "Kanto Nakate Gold" (KNG). Using map-based cloning, we identified the causal gene for Qsd2-AK as Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 (MKK3). The dormant Az allele of MKK3 is recessive; the N260T substitution in this allele decreases MKK3 kinase activity and appears to be causal for Qsd2-AK. The N260T substitution occurred in the immediate ancestor allele of the dormant allele, and the established dormant allele became prevalent in barley cultivars grown in East Asia, where the rainy season and harvest season often overlap. Our findings show fine-tuning of seed dormancy during domestication and provide key information for improving pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in barley and wheat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nuclear translocation of doublecortin-like protein kinase and phosphorylation of a transcription factor JDP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamine, Tadashi; Nomada, Shohgo; Onouchi, Takashi; Kameshita, Isamu; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Doublecortin-like protein kinase (DCLK) is a microtubule-associated protein kinase. • In living cells, DCLK was cleaved into two functional fragments. • zDCLK(kinase) was translocated into the nucleus by osmotic stresses. • Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) was identified as zDCLK(kinase)-binding protein. • JDP2 was efficiently phosphorylated by zDCLK(kinase) only when histone was present. - Abstract: Doublecortin-like protein kinase (DCLK) is a microtubule-associated protein kinase predominantly expressed in brain. In a previous paper, we reported that zebrafish DCLK2 (zDCLK) was cleaved into two functional fragments; the N-terminal zDCLK(DC + SP) with microtubule-binding activity and the C-terminal zDCLK(kinase) with a Ser/Thr protein kinase activity. In this study, we demonstrated that zDCLK(kinase) was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and translocated into the nucleus when the cells were treated under hyperosmotic conditions with NaCl or mannitol. By two-hybrid screening using the C-terminal domain of DCLK, Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2), a nuclear transcription factor, was identified as zDCLK(kinase)-binding protein. Furthermore, JDP2 served as an efficient substrate for zDCLK(kinase) only when histone was present. These results suggest that the kinase fragment of DCLK is translocated into the nucleus upon hyperosmotic stresses and that the kinase efficiently phosphorylates JDP2, a possible target in the nucleus, with the aid of histones.

  7. 5-ALA mediated photodynamic therapy induces autophagic cell death via AMP-activated protein kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu-Hsin


    Full Text Available Abstract Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been developed as an anticancer treatment, which is based on the tumor-specific accumulation of a photosensitizer that induces cell death after irradiation of light with a specific wavelength. Depending on the subcellular localization of the photosensitizer, PDT could trigger various signal transduction cascades and induce cell death such as apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis. In this study, we report that both AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling cascades are activated following 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-mediated PDT in both PC12 and CL1-0 cells. Although the activities of caspase-9 and -3 are elevated, the caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk did not protect cells against ALA-PDT-induced cell death. Instead, autophagic cell death was found in PC12 and CL1-0 cells treated with ALA-PDT. Most importantly, we report here for the first time that it is the activation of AMPK, but not MAPKs that plays a crucial role in mediating autophagic cell death induced by ALA-PDT. This novel observation indicates that the AMPK pathway play an important role in ALA-PDT-induced autophagy.

  8. GRK mythology: G-protein receptor kinases in cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Dorn, Gerald W


    G-protein receptor kinases (GRKs) are indispensable for terminating signaling of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) through receptor desensitization and downregulation. Increased neurohormone levels in heart failure and the adverse consequences of constant neurohormonal stimulation suggest an important protective role for mechanisms that desensitize neurohormone receptor responses. For that reason, GRK2, the first GRK identified in the heart, has been extensively studied in heart failure, cardiac hypertrophy, and myocardial infarction. However, our understanding of the roles of GRKs in general, and the differential effects of cardiac receptor phosphorylation by individual cardiac-expressed GRKs, have evolved considerably in the last few years. Here, recent developments are reviewed, with an emphasis on novel GRK functions and signaling pathways.

  9. Insulin deficiency results in reversible protein kinase A activation and tau phosphorylation. (United States)

    van der Harg, Judith M; Eggels, Leslie; Bangel, Fabian N; Ruigrok, Silvie R; Zwart, Rob; Hoozemans, Jeroen J M; la Fleur, Susanne E; Scheper, Wiep


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a highly prevalent multifactorial disease for which Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a risk factor. Abnormal phosphorylation and aggregation of tau is a key hallmark of AD. In animal models, DM induces or exacerbates the phosphorylation of tau, suggesting that DM may influence the risk at AD by directly facilitating tau pathology. Previously we reported that tau phosphorylation induced in response to metabolic stress is reversible. Since identification and understanding of early players in tau pathology is pivotal for therapeutic intervention, we here investigated the mechanism underlying tau phosphorylation in the diabetic brain and its potential for reversibility. To model DM we used streptozotocin-treatment to induce insulin deficiency in rats. Insulin depletion leads to increased tau phosphorylation in the brain and we investigated the activation status of known tau kinases and phosphatases in this model. We identified protein kinase A (PKA) as a tau kinase activated by DM in the brain. The potential relevance of this signaling pathway to AD pathogenesis is indicated by the increased level of active PKA in temporal cortex of early stage AD patients. Our data indicate that activation of PKA and tau phosphorylation are associated with insulin deficiency per se, rather than the downstream energy deprivation. In vitro studies confirm that insulin deficiency results in PKA activation and tau phosphorylation. Strikingly, both active PKA and induced tau phosphorylation are reversed upon insulin treatment in the steptozotocin animal model. Our data identify insulin deficiency as a direct trigger that induces the activity of the tau kinase PKA and results in tau phosphorylation. The reversibility upon insulin treatment underscores the potential of insulin as an early disease-modifying intervention in AD and other tauopathies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification and functional analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) genes in canola (Brassica napus L.). (United States)

    Sun, Yun; Wang, Chen; Yang, Bo; Wu, Feifei; Hao, Xueyu; Liang, Wanwan; Niu, Fangfang; Yan, Jingli; Zhang, Hanfeng; Wang, Boya; Deyholos, Michael K; Jiang, Yuan-Qing


    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling cascades, consisting of three types of reversibly phosphorylated kinases (MAPKKK, MAPKK, and MAPK), are involved in important processes including plant immunity and hormone responses. The MAPKKKs comprise the largest family in the MAPK cascades, yet only a few of these genes have been associated with physiological functions, even in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops in China and worldwide. To explore MAPKKK functions in biotic and abiotic stress responses in canola, 66 MAPKKK genes were identified and 28 of them were cloned. Phylogenetic analysis of these canola MAPKKKs with homologous genes from representative species classified them into three groups (A-C), comprising four MAPKKKs, seven ZIKs, and 17 Raf genes. A further 15 interaction pairs between these MAPKKKs and the downstream BnaMKKs were identified through a yeast two-hybrid assay. The interactions were further validated through bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis. In addition, by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR, it was further observed that some of these BnaMAPKKK genes were regulated by different hormone stimuli, abiotic stresses, or fungal pathogen treatments. Interestingly, two novel BnaMAPKKK genes, BnaMAPKKK18 and BnaMAPKKK19, which could elicit hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, were successfully identified. Moreover, it was found that BnaMAPKKK19 probably mediated cell death through BnaMKK9. Overall, the present work has laid the foundation for further characterization of this important MAPKKK gene family in canola.

  11. Side-effects of protein kinase inhibitors on ion channels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 6, 2013 ... including PKA, PKG, ribosomal S6 kinase, and epidermal growth factor receptor kinase (EGFRK) in an ATP- competitive manner, while having no effect on other kinases such as CK1, CK2, MAP kinase, and CSK (Meggio et al. 1995). The necessity for more specific inhibitors of PKC led to the discovery of ...

  12. p21WAF1/CIP1 interacts with protein kinase CK2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götz, C; Wagner, P; Issinger, O G


    p21WAF1/CIP1 which belongs to a class of regulatory proteins that interact with cyclin dependent kinases is a potent inhibitor of these kinases. The inhibition of the cyclin dependent kinases induces an arrest of cells in the G phase of the cell cycle. In addition p21WAF1/CIP1 associates with PCNA...

  13. Effects of obesity on protein kinase C, brain creatine kinase, transcription, and autophagy in cochlea. (United States)

    Hwang, Juen-Haur


    Diet-induced obesity (DIO) has been shown to exacerbate hearing degeneration via increased hypoxia, inflammatory responses, and cell loss via both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis signaling pathways. This study aimed to investigate the effects of DIO on the mRNA expressions of protein kinase c-β (PKC-β), brain creatine kinase (CKB), transcription modification genes, and autophagy-related genes in the cochlea of CD/1 mice. Sixteen 4-week-old male CD/1 mice were randomly divided into 2 groups. For 16 weeks, the DIO group was fed a high fat diet (60% kcal fat) and the controls were fed a standard diet. Morphometry, biochemistry, auditory brainstem response thresholds, omental fat, and histopathology of the cochlea were compared. Results showed that body weight, body length, body-mass index, omental fat, plasma triglyceride, and auditory brainstem response thresholds were significantly elevated in the DIO group compared with those of the control group. The ratio of vessel wall thickness to radius in the stria vascularis was significantly higher in the DIO group. The cell densities in the spiral ganglion, but not in the spiral prominence, of the cochlea were significantly lower in the DIO group. The expression of histone deacetylation gene 1 (HDAC1) was significantly higher in the DIO group than the control group. However, the expressions of PKC-β, CKB, HDAC3, histone acetyltransferase gene (P300), lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (Lamp2), and light chain 3 (Lc3) genes were not significantly different between two groups. These results suggest that DIO might exacerbate hearing degeneration possibly via increased HDAC1 gene expression in the cochlea of CD/1 mice.

  14. Effect of cyclic hydrodynamic pressure-induced proliferation of human bladder smooth muscle through Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 and extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2. (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Chen, Lin; Wei, Tangqiang; Wang, Yan; Xu, Feng; Wang, Kunjie


    To examine the role of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 and extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 in the cyclic hydrodynamic pressure-induced proliferation of human bladder smooth muscle cells. Human bladder smooth muscle cells were exposed to cyclic hydrodynamic pressures in vitro with defined parameters (static, 100 cmH(2) O, 200 cmH(2) O and 300 cmH(2) O pressure) for 24 h. The proliferation of cells was assessed by flow cytometry. Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 and extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 messenger ribonucleic acid, and protein expression was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Specificity of the Rac1 was determined with real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot technique with small interfering ribonucleic acid transfection and Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766). The proliferation of human bladder smooth muscle cells was increased. Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 and extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 were activated by 200 and 300 cmH(2) O cyclic hydrodynamic pressure compared with static and 100 cmH(2) O pressure. The "knockdown" of activation of Rac1 using target small interfering ribonucleic acid transfection and Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766) decreased proliferation of human bladder smooth muscle cells, and downregulated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2, extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2. The Rac1 pathway is activated in mechanotransduction and regulation of human bladder smooth muscle cell proliferation in response to cyclic hydrodynamic pressure. © 2012 The Japanese Urological Association.

  15. Overexpression of Populus trichocarpa Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase4 Enhances Salt Tolerance in Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjun Yang


    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK is one of the factors of cascade reactions affecting responses to signal pathway of environmental stimuli. Throughout the life of plants, MAPK family members participate in signal transduction pathways and regulate various intracellular physiological and metabolic reactions. To gain insights into regulatory function of MAPK kinase (MAPKK in Populus trichocarpa under salt stress, we obtained full-length cDNA of PtMAPKK4 and analyzed different expression levels of PtMAPKK4 gene in leaves, stems, and root organs. The relationship between PtMAPKK4 and salt stress was studied by detecting expression characteristics of mRNA under 150 mM NaCl stress using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that expression of PtMAPKK4 increased under salt (NaCl stress in leaves but initially reduced and then increased in roots. Thus, salt stress failed to induce PtMAPKK4 expression in stems. PtMAPKK4 possibly participates in regulation of plant growth and metabolism, thereby improving its salt tolerance. We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVScI to verify subcellular localization of PtMAPKK4 kinase. The yeast strains containing pYES2-PtMAPKK4-GFP plasmid expressed GFP fusion proteins under the induction of d-galactose, and the products were located in nucleus. These results were consistent with network prediction and confirmed location of PtMAPKK4 enzyme in the nucleus. We tested NaCl tolerance in transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing PtMAPKK4 under the control of 35S promoter at germination stage to detect salt tolerance function of PtMAPKK4. Compared withK326 (a wild-type tobacco, lines overexpressing PtMAPKK4 showed a certain degree of improvement in tolerance, germination, and growth. NaCl inhibited growth of overexpressed line and K326 at the seedling stage. However, statistical analysis showed longer root length, higher fresh weight, and lower MDA content in transgenic lines in

  16. Extracellular Signal-Regulated Protein Kinase, c-Jun N-Terminal Protein Kinase, and Calcineurin Regulate Transient Receptor Potential M3 (TRPM3) Induced Activation of AP-1. (United States)

    Lesch, Andrea; Rössler, Oliver G; Thiel, Gerald


    Stimulation of transient receptor potential M3 (TRPM3) cation channels with pregnenolone sulfate induces an influx of Ca 2+ ions into the cells and a rise in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, leading to the activation of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor. Here, we show that expression of a constitutively active mutant of the Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin attenuated pregnenolone sulfate-induced AP-1 activation in TRPM3-expressing cells. Likewise, expression of the regulatory B subunit of calcineurin reduced AP-1 activity in the cells following stimulation of TRPM3 channels. MAP kinase phosphatase-1 has been shown to attenuate TRPM3-mediated AP-1 activation. Here, we show that pregnenolone sulfate-induced stimulation of TRPM3 triggers the phosphorylation and activation of the MAP kinase extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2). Pharmacological and genetic experiments revealed that stimulation of ERK1/2 is essential for the activation of AP-1 in cells expressing stimulated TRPM3 channels. ERK1/2 is required for the activation of the transcription factor c-Jun, a key component of the AP-1 transcription factor, and regulates c-Fos promoter activity. In addition, we identified c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK1/2) as a second signal transducer of activated TRPM3 channels. Together, the data show that calcineurin and the protein kinases ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 are important regulators within the signaling cascade connecting TRPM3 channel stimulation with increased AP-1-regulated transcription. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2409-2419, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Coiled-coil interactions modulate multimerization, mitochondrial binding and kinase activity of myotonic dystrophy protein kinase splice isoforms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, R.E.M.A. van; Tjeertes, J.V.; Mulders, S.A.M.; Oude Ophuis, R.J.A.; Wieringa, B.; Wansink, D.G.


    The myotonic dystrophy protein kinase polypeptide repertoire in mice and humans consists of six different splice isoforms that vary in the nature of their C-terminal tails and in the presence or absence of an internal Val-Ser-Gly-Gly-Gly motif. Here, we demonstrate that myotonic dystrophy protein

  18. Structure of Human G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 in Complex with the Kinase Inhibitor Balanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesmer, John J.G.; Tesmer, Valerie M.; Lodowski, David T.; Steinhagen, Henning; Huber, Jochen (Sanofi); (Michigan); (Texas)


    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a pharmaceutical target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, and hypertension. To better understand how nanomolar inhibition and selectivity for GRK2 might be achieved, we have determined crystal structures of human GRK2 in complex with G{beta}{gamma} in the presence and absence of the AGC kinase inhibitor balanol. The selectivity of balanol among human GRKs is assessed.

  19. Depletion of WRN protein causes RACK1 to activate several protein kinase C isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massip, L; Garand, C; Labbé, A


    Werner's syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal disease characterized by the premature onset of several age-associated pathologies. The protein defective in patients with WS (WRN) is a helicase/exonuclease involved in DNA repair, replication, transcription and telomere maintenance. In this study, we...... show that a knock down of the WRN protein in normal human fibroblasts induces phosphorylation and activation of several protein kinase C (PKC) enzymes. Using a tandem affinity purification strategy, we found that WRN physically and functionally interacts with receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1......), a highly conserved anchoring protein involved in various biological processes, such as cell growth and proliferation. RACK1 binds strongly to the RQC domain of WRN and weakly to its acidic repeat region. Purified RACK1 has no impact on the helicase activity of WRN, but selectively inhibits WRN exonuclease...

  20. Protein kinase and phosphatase activities of thylakoid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, H.; Shaw, E.K.; Bennett, J.


    Dephosphorylation of the 25 and 27 kDa light-harvesting Chl a/b proteins (LHCII) of the thylakoid membranes is catalyzed by a phosphatase which differs from previously reported thylakoid-bound phosphatases in having an alkaline pH optimum (9.0) and a requirement for Mg 2+ ions. Dephosphorylation of the 8.3 kDa psb H gene product requires a Mg 2+ ion concentration more than 200 fold higher than that for dephosphorylation of LHC II. The 8.3 kDa and 27 kDa proteins appear to be phosphorylated by two distinct kinases, which differ in substrate specificity and sensitivity to inhibitors. The plastoquinone antagonist 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-benzoquinone (DBMIB) inhibits phosphorylation of the 27 kDa LHC II much more readily than phosphorylation of the 8.3 kDa protein. A similar pattern of inhibition is seen for two synthetic oligopeptides (MRKSATTKKAVC and ATQTLESSSRC) which are analogs of the phosphorylation sites of the two proteins. Possible modes of action of DBMIB are discussed. 45 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Arctigenin protects against steatosis in WRL68 hepatocytes through activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B and AMP-activated protein kinase pathways. (United States)

    Chen, Kung-Yen; Lin, Jui-An; Yao, Han-Yun; Hsu, An-Chih; Tai, Yu-Ting; Chen, Jui-Tai; Hsieh, Mao-Chih; Shen, Tang-Long; Hsu, Ren-Yi; Wu, Hong-Tan; Wang, Guey Horng; Ho, Bing-Ying; Chen, Yu-Pei


    Arctigenin (ATG), a lignin extracted from Arctium lappa (L.), exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We hypothesized that ATG exerts a protective effect on hepatocytes by preventing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression associated with lipid oxidation-associated lipotoxicity and inflammation. We established an in vitro NAFLD cell model by using normal WRL68 hepatocytes to investigate oleic acid (OA) accumulation and the potential bioactive role of ATG. The results revealed that ATG inhibited OA-induced lipid accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation in WRL68 hepatocytes, as determined using Oil Red O staining, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay, and inflammation antibody array assays. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that ATG significantly mitigated the expression of acetylcoenzyme A carboxylase 1 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 and significantly increased the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. The 40 targets of the Human Inflammation Antibody Array indicated that ATG significantly inhibited the elevation of the U937 lymphocyte chemoattractant, ICAM-1, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-6sR, IL-7, and IL-8. ATG could activate the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways and could increase the phosphorylation levels of Akt and AMPK to mediate cell survival, lipid metabolism, oxidation stress, and inflammation. Thus, we demonstrated that ATG could inhibit NAFLD progression associated with lipid oxidation-associated lipotoxicity and inflammation, and we provided insights into the underlying mechanisms and revealed potential targets to enable a thorough understanding of NAFLD progression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Protein Kinase C-ε Promotes EMT in Breast Cancer (United States)

    Jain, Kirti; Basu, Alakananda


    Protein kinase C (PKC), a family of serine/threonine kinases, plays critical roles in signal transduction and cell regulation. PKCε, a member of the novel PKC family, is known to be a transforming oncogene and a tumor biomarker for aggressive breast cancers. In this study, we examined the involvement of PKCε in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), the process that leads the way to metastasis. Overexpression of PKCε was sufficient to induce a mesenchymal phenotype in non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial MCF-10 A cells. This was accompanied by a decrease in the epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, and claudin-1, and an increase in mesenchymal marker vimentin. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) induced Snail expression and mesenchymal morphology in MCF-10 A cells, and these effects were partially reversed by the PKCε knockdown. PKCε also mediated cell migration and anoikis resistance, which are hallmarks of EMT. Thus, our study demonstrates that PKCε is an important mediator of EMT in breast cancer. PMID:24701121

  3. Analysis of the complexity of protein kinases within the phloem sieve tube system. Characterization of Cucurbita maxima calmodulin-like domain protein kinase 1. (United States)

    Yoo, Byung-Chun; Lee, Jung-Youn; Lucas, William J


    In angiosperms, functional, mature sieve elements lack nuclei, vacuoles, ribosomes, and most of the endomembrane network. In this study, the complexity, number, and nature of protein kinases within the phloem sap of Cucurbita maxima were investigated to test the hypothesis that the enucleate sieve tube system utilizes a simplified signal transduction network. Supporting evidence was obtained in that only five putative protein kinases (three calcium-independent and two calcium-dependent protein kinases) were detected within the phloem sap extracted from stem tissues. Biochemical methods were used to purify one such calcium-dependent protein kinase. The gene for this C. maxima calmodulin-like domain protein kinase 1 (CmCPK1), was cloned using peptide microsequences. A combination of mass spectrometry, peptide fingerprinting, and amino-terminal sequencing established that, in the phloem sap, CmCPK1 exists as an amino-terminally cleaved protein. A second highly homologous isoform, CmCPK2, was identified, but although transcripts could be detected in the companion cells, peptide fingerprint analysis suggested that CmCPK2 does not enter the phloem sap. Potential substrates for CmCPK1, within the phloem sap, were also detected using an on-membrane phosphorylation assay. Entry of CmCPK1 into sieve elements via plasmodesmata and the potential roles played by these phloem protein kinases are discussed.

  4. Cross-phosphorylation of bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases on key regulatory residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eShi


    Full Text Available Bacteria possess protein serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases which resemble eukaryal kinases in their capacity to phosphorylate multiple substrates. We hypothesized that the analogy might extend further, and bacterial kinases may also undergo mutual phosphorylation and activation, which is currently considered as a hallmark of eukaryal kinase networks. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the capacity of all members of four different classes of serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases present in the firmicute model organism Bacillus subtilis to phosphorylate each other in vitro and interact with each other in vivo. The interactomics data suggested a high degree of connectivity among all types of kinases, while phosphorylation assays revealed equally wide-spread cross-phosphorylation events. Our findings suggest that the Hanks-type kinases PrkC, PrkD and YabT exhibit the highest capacity to phosphorylate other B. subtilis kinases, while the BY-kinase PtkA and the two-component-like kinases RsbW and SpoIIAB show the highest propensity to be phosphorylated by other kinases. Analysis of phosphorylated residues on several selected recipient kinases suggests that most cross-phosphorylation events concern key regulatory residues. Therefore, cross-phosphorylation events are very likely to influence the capacity of recipient kinases to phosphorylate substrates downstream in the signal transduction cascade. We therefore conclude that bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases probably engage in a network-type behavior previously described only in eukaryal cells.

  5. The Fanconi anemia proteins functionally interact with the protein kinase regulated by RNA (PKR). (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Li, June; Sejas, Daniel P; Rathbun, Keaney R; Bagby, Grover C; Pang, Qishen


    Protein kinase regulated by RNA (PKR) plays critical roles in cell growth and apoptosis and is implicated as a potential pathogenic factor of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Here we report that this proapoptotic kinase is also involved in Fanconi anemia (FA), a disease characterized by bone marrow (BM) failure and leukemia. We have used a BM extract to show that three FA proteins, FANCA, FANCC, and FANCG, functionally interact with the PKR kinase, which in turn regulates translational control. By using a combined immunoprecipitation and reconstituted kinase assay, in which an active PKR kinase complex was captured from a normal cell extract, we demonstrated functional interactions between the FA proteins and the PKR kinase. In primary human BM cells, mutations in the FANCA, FANCC, and FANCG genes markedly increase the amount of PKR bound to FANCC, and this PKR accumulation is correlated with elevated PKR activation and hypersensitivity of BM progenitor cells to growth repression mediated by the inhibitory cytokines interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Specific inhibition of PKR by 2-aminopurine in these FA BM cells attenuates PKR activation and apoptosis induction. In lymphoblasts derived from an FA-C patient, overexpression of a dominant negative mutant PKR (PKRK296R) suppressed PKR activation and apoptosis induced by interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Furthermore, by using genetically matched wild-type and PKR-null cells, we demonstrated that forced expression of a patient-derived FA-C mutant (FANCCL554P) augmented double-stranded RNA-induced PKR activation and cell death. Thus, inappropriate activation of PKR as a consequence of certain FA mutations might play a role in bone marrow failure that frequently occurred in FA.

  6. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Mediate Upregulation of Hypothalamic AT1 Receptors in Heart Failure Rats (United States)

    Wei, Shun-Guang; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Weiss, Robert M.; Felder, Robert B.


    In heart failure (HF), angiotensin type-1 receptor (AT1-R) expression is upregulated in brain regions regulating sympathetic drive, blood pressure and body fluid homeostasis. However, the mechanism by which brain AT1-R are upregulated in HF remains unknown. The present study examined the hypothesis that the angiotensin II (ANG II)-triggered mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) p44/42, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) contribute to upregulation of the AT1-R in the hypothalamus of rats with HF. AT1-R protein, AT1-R mRNA and AT1-R immunoreactivity increased in the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) and the subfornical organ (SFO) of rats with ischemia-induced HF, compared with sham-operated controls. Phosphorylated p44/42 MAPK, JNK, and p38 MAPK also increased in PVN and SFO. A 4-week intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of the AT1-R antagonist losartan decreased AT1-R protein and phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK, JNK and p38 MAPK in the HF rats. A 4-week ICV infusion of the p44/42 MAPK inhibitor PD98059 or the JNK inhibitor SP600125 significantly decreased AT1-R protein and AT1-R immunoreactivity in the PVN and SFO, but the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 did not. Treatment with ICV losartan, PD98059 and SP600125 had no effect on AT1-R expression by Western blot in sham-operated rats. In untreated HF rats 4 weeks after coronary ligation, a 3-hour ICV infusion of PD98059, SP600125 or losartan reduced AT1-R mRNA in PVN and SFO. These data indicate that MAPK plays an important role in the upregulation of AT1-R in the rat forebrain in heart failure, and suggest that ANG II upregulates its own receptor by this mechanism. PMID:18768402

  7. OncoPPi-informed discovery of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 as a novel binding partner of c-Myc | Office of Cancer Genomics (United States)

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3) is a dual threonine/tyrosine protein kinase that regulates inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis through specific phosphorylation and activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. However, the role of MKK3 beyond p38-signaling remains elusive. Recently, we reported a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of cancer-associated genes, termed OncoPPi, as a resource for the scientific community to generate new biological models. Analysis of the OncoPPi connectivity identified MKK3 as one of the major hub proteins in the network.

  8. Kinases and Cancer. (United States)

    Cicenas, Jonas; Zalyte, Egle; Bairoch, Amos; Gaudet, Pascale


    Protein kinases are a large family of enzymes catalyzing protein phosphorylation. The human genome contains 518 protein kinase genes, 478 of which belong to the classical protein kinase family and 40 are atypical protein kinases [...].

  9. Kinases and Cancer


    Jonas Cicenas; Egle Zalyte; Amos Bairoch; Pascale Gaudet


    Protein kinases are a large family of enzymes catalyzing protein phosphorylation. The human genome contains 518 protein kinase genes, 478 of which belong to the classical protein kinase family and 40 are atypical protein kinases [...

  10. Probes of the Mitochondrial cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase (United States)

    Shell, Jennifer R.; Lawrence, David S.


    The development of a fluorescent assay to detect activity of the mitochondrial cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is described. A peptide-based sensor was utilized to quantify the relative amount of PKA activity present in each compartment of the mitochondria (the outer membrane, the intermembrane space, and the matrix). In the process of validating this assay, we discovered that PKA activity is regulated by the protease calpain. Upon exposure of bovine heart mitochondria to digitonin, Ca2+, and a variety of electron transport chain inhibitors, the regulatory subunits of the PKA holoenzyme (R2C2) are digested, releasing active catalytic subunits. This proteolysis is attenuated by calpain inhibitor I (ALLN). PMID:23410952

  11. Protein kinase C, focal adhesions and the regulation of cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, Betina S; Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John Robert


    in their intracellular compartment. Among these are tyrosine kinases, which have received a great deal of attention, whereas the serine/threonine kinase protein kinase C has received much less. Here the status of protein kinase C in focal adhesions and cell migration is reviewed, together with discussion of its roles...... and adhesion turnover. Focal adhesions, or focal contacts, are widespread organelles at the cell-matrix interface. They arise as a result of receptor interactions with matrix ligands, together with clustering. Recent analysis shows that focal adhesions contain a very large number of protein components...

  12. Protein kinase C signaling and cell cycle regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian R Black


    Full Text Available A link between T cell proliferation and the protein kinase C (PKC family of serine/threonine kinases has been recognized for about thirty years. However, despite the wealth of information on PKC-mediated control of T cell activation, understanding of the effects of PKCs on the cell cycle machinery in this cell type remains limited. Studies in other systems have revealed important cell cycle-specific effects of PKC signaling that can either positively or negatively impact proliferation. The outcome of PKC activation is highly context-dependent, with the precise cell cycle target(s and overall effects determined by the specific isozyme involved, the timing of PKC activation, the cell type, and the signaling environment. Although PKCs can regulate all stages of the cell cycle, they appear to predominantly affect G0/G1 and G2. PKCs can modulate multiple cell cycle regulatory molecules, including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks, cdk inhibitors and cdc25 phosphatases; however, evidence points to Cip/Kip cdk inhibitors and D-type cyclins as key mediators of PKC-regulated cell cycle-specific effects. Several PKC isozymes can target Cip/Kip proteins to control G0/G1→S and/or G2→M transit, while effects on D-type cyclins regulate entry into and progression through G1. Analysis of PKC signaling in T cells has largely focused on its roles in T cell activation; thus, observed cell cycle effects are mainly positive. A prominent role is emerging for PKCθ, with non-redundant functions of other isozymes also described. Additional evidence points to PKCδ as a negative regulator of the cell cycle in these cells. As in other cell types, context-dependent effects of individual isozymes have been noted in T cells, and Cip/Kip cdk inhibitors and D-type cyclins appear to be major PKC targets. Future studies are anticipated to take advantage of the similarities between these various systems to enhance understanding of PKC-mediated cell cycle regulation in

  13. Structures of Rhodopsin Kinase in Different Ligand States Reveal Key Elements Involved in G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Puja; Wang, Benlian; Maeda, Tadao; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Tesmer, John J.G. (Case Western); (Michigan)


    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) phosphorylate activated heptahelical receptors, leading to their uncoupling from G proteins. Here we report six crystal structures of rhodopsin kinase (GRK1), revealing not only three distinct nucleotide-binding states of a GRK but also two key structural elements believed to be involved in the recognition of activated GPCRs. The first is the C-terminal extension of the kinase domain, which was observed in all nucleotide-bound GRK1 structures. The second is residues 5-30 of the N terminus, observed in one of the GRK1{center_dot}(Mg{sup 2+}){sub 2} {center_dot}ATP structures. The N terminus was also clearly phosphorylated, leading to the identification of two novel phosphorylation sites by mass spectral analysis. Co-localization of the N terminus and the C-terminal extension near the hinge of the kinase domain suggests that activated GPCRs stimulate kinase activity by binding to this region to facilitate full closure of the kinase domain.

  14. Dataset of integrin-linked kinase protein: Protein interactions in cardiomyocytes identified by mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Traister


    Full Text Available Using hearts from mice overexpressing integrin linked kinase (ILK behind the cardiac specific promoter αMHC, we have performed immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to identify novel ILK protein:protein interactions that regulate cardiomyocyte activity and calcium flux. Integrin linked kinase complexes were captured from mouse heart lysates using a commercial antibody, with subsequent liquid chromatography tandem mass spectral analysis. Interacting partners were identified using the MASCOT server, and important interactions verified using reverse immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. All ILK interacting proteins were identified in a non-biased manner, and are stored in the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository (reference ID PRIDE: The functional role of identified ILK interactions in cardiomyocyte function and arrhythmia were subsequently confirmed in human iPSC-cardiomyocytes.

  15. Dataset of integrin-linked kinase protein: Protein interactions in cardiomyocytes identified by mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Traister, Alexandra; Lu, Mingliang; Coles, John G; Maynes, Jason T


    Using hearts from mice overexpressing integrin linked kinase (ILK) behind the cardiac specific promoter αMHC, we have performed immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to identify novel ILK protein:protein interactions that regulate cardiomyocyte activity and calcium flux. Integrin linked kinase complexes were captured from mouse heart lysates using a commercial antibody, with subsequent liquid chromatography tandem mass spectral analysis. Interacting partners were identified using the MASCOT server, and important interactions verified using reverse immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. All ILK interacting proteins were identified in a non-biased manner, and are stored in the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository (reference ID PRIDE: PXD001053). The functional role of identified ILK interactions in cardiomyocyte function and arrhythmia were subsequently confirmed in human iPSC-cardiomyocytes.

  16. Regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by LKB1 and CaMKK in adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gormand, Amélie; Henriksson, Emma; Ström, Kristoffer


    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates cellular and whole body energy homeostasis. In adipose tissue, activation of AMPK has been demonstrated in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli. However, the upstream kinase that activates AMPK in adipocytes...... remains elusive. Previous studies have identified LKB1 as a major AMPK kinase in muscle, liver, and other tissues. In certain cell types, Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) has been shown to activate AMPK in response to increases of intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Our aim...... was to investigate if LKB1 and/or CaMKK function as AMPK kinases in adipocytes. We used adipose tissue and isolated adipocytes from mice in which the expression of LKB1 was reduced to 10-20% of that of wild-type (LKB1 hypomorphic mice). We show that adipocytes from LKB1 hypomorphic mice display a 40% decrease...

  17. The role of DNA dependent protein kinase in synapsis of DNA ends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.P.W.C. Weterings (Eric); N.S. Verkaik (Nicole); H.T. Brüggenwirth (Hennie); D.C. van Gent (Dik); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)


    textabstractDNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) plays a central role in the non-homologous end-joining pathway of DNA double strand break repair. Its catalytic subunit (DNA-PK(CS)) functions as a serine/threonine protein kinase. We show that DNA-PK forms a stable complex at DNA termini that blocks

  18. The role of the Drosophila LAMMER protein kinase DOA in somatic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DOA kinase, the Drosophila member of the LAMMER/Clk protein kinase family, phosphorylates SR and SR-like proteins, including TRA, TRA2 and RBP1, which are responsible for the alternative splicing of transcripts encoding the key regulator of sex-specific expression in somatic cells of the fly, DOUBLESEX. Specific Doa ...

  19. Effect of Glucuronidation on the Potential of Kaempferol to Inhibit Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekmann, Karsten; Haan, De Laura H.J.; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Bladeren, Van Peter J.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.


    To study the effect of metabolic conjugation of flavonoids on the potential to inhibit protein kinase activity, the inhibitory effects of the dietary flavonol kaempferol and its major plasma conjugate kaempferol-3-O-glucuronide on protein kinases were studied. To this end, the inhibition of the

  20. Protein kinase A-dependent step(s) in hepatitis C virus entry and infectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farquhar, Michelle J.; Harris, Helen J.; Diskar, Mandy; Jones, Sarah; Mee, Christopher J.; Nielsen, Soren U.; Brimacombe, Claire L.; Molina, Sonia; Toms, Geoffrey L.; Maurel, Patrick; Howl, John; Herberg, Friedrich W.; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C. D.; Balfe, Peter; McKeating, Jane A.

    Viruses exploit signaling pathways to their advantage during multiple stages of their life cycle. We demonstrate a role for protein kinase A (PKA) in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle. The inhibition of PKA with H89, cyclic AMP (cAMP) antagonists, or the protein kinase inhibitor peptide reduced

  1. Contractions activate hormone-sensitive lipase in rat muscle by protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donsmark, Morten; Langfort, Jozef; Holm, Cecilia


    Intramuscular triacylglycerol is an important energy store and is also related to insulin resistance. The mobilization of fatty acids from this pool is probably regulated by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which has recently been shown to exist in muscle and to be activated by both adrenaline...... and contractions. Adrenaline acts via cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The signalling mediating the effect of contractions is unknown and was explored in this study. Incubated soleus muscles from 70 g male rats were electrically stimulated to perform repeated tetanic contractions for 5 min. The contraction...... of the inhibitors reduced adrenaline-induced HSL activation in soleus muscle. Both phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), which activates PKC and, in turn, ERK, and caffeine, which increases intracellular Ca2+ without eliciting contraction, increased HSL activity. Activated ERK increased HSL activity in supernatant...

  2. New pyrazolopyrimidine inhibitors of protein kinase d as potent anticancer agents for prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuj Tandon

    Full Text Available The emergence of protein kinase D (PKD as a potential therapeutic target for several diseases including cancer has triggered the search for potent, selective, and cell-permeable small molecule inhibitors. In this study, we describe the identification, in vitro characterization, structure-activity analysis, and biological evaluation of a novel PKD inhibitory scaffold exemplified by 1-naphthyl PP1 (1-NA-PP1. 1-NA-PP1 and IKK-16 were identified as pan-PKD inhibitors in a small-scale targeted kinase inhibitor library assay. Both screening hits inhibited PKD isoforms at about 100 nM and were ATP-competitive inhibitors. Analysis of several related kinases indicated that 1-NA-PP1 was highly selective for PKD as compared to IKK-16. SAR analysis showed that 1-NA-PP1 was considerably more potent and showed distinct substituent effects at the pyrazolopyrimidine core. 1-NA-PP1 was cell-active, and potently blocked prostate cancer cell proliferation by inducing G2/M arrest. It also potently blocked the migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells, demonstrating promising anticancer activities on multiple fronts. Overexpression of PKD1 or PKD3 almost completely reversed the growth arrest and the inhibition of tumor cell invasion caused by 1-NA-PP1, indicating that its anti-proliferative and anti-invasive activities were mediated through the inhibition of PKD. Interestingly, a 12-fold increase in sensitivity to 1-NA-PP1 could be achieved by engineering a gatekeeper mutation in the active site of PKD1, suggesting that 1-NA-PP1 could be paired with the analog-sensitive PKD1(M659G for dissecting PKD-specific functions and signaling pathways in various biological systems.

  3. Systems biology analysis of mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. (United States)

    Zecena, Helma; Tveit, Daniel; Wang, Zi; Farhat, Ahmed; Panchal, Parvita; Liu, Jing; Singh, Simar J; Sanghera, Amandeep; Bainiwal, Ajay; Teo, Shuan Y; Meyskens, Frank L; Liu-Smith, Feng; Filipp, Fabian V


    Kinase inhibition in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a standard therapy for cancer patients with activating BRAF mutations. However, the anti-tumorigenic effect and clinical benefit are only transient, and tumors are prone to treatment resistance and relapse. To elucidate mechanistic insights into drug resistance, we have established an in vitro cellular model of MAPK inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. The cellular model evolved in response to clinical dosage of the BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, PLX4032. We conducted transcriptomic expression profiling using RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR arrays. Pathways of melanogenesis, MAPK signaling, cell cycle, and metabolism were significantly enriched among the set of differentially expressed genes of vemurafenib-resistant cells vs control. The underlying mechanism of treatment resistance and pathway rewiring was uncovered to be based on non-genomic adaptation and validated in two distinct melanoma models, SK-MEL-28 and A375. Both cell lines have activating BRAF mutations and display metastatic potential. Downregulation of dual specific phosphatases, tumor suppressors, and negative MAPK regulators reengages mitogenic signaling. Upregulation of growth factors, cytokines, and cognate receptors triggers signaling pathways circumventing BRAF blockage. Further, changes in amino acid and one-carbon metabolism support cellular proliferation despite MAPK inhibitor treatment. In addition, treatment-resistant cells upregulate pigmentation and melanogenesis, pathways which partially overlap with MAPK signaling. Upstream regulator analysis discovered significant perturbation in oncogenic forkhead box and hypoxia inducible factor family transcription factors. The established cellular models offer mechanistic insight into cellular changes and therapeutic targets under inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. At a systems biology level, the MAPK pathway undergoes major rewiring while acquiring inhibitor resistance

  4. Transcriptional regulation by protein kinase A in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanggan Hu


    Full Text Available A defect in the PKA1 gene encoding the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA is known to reduce capsule size and attenuate virulence in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Conversely, loss of the PKA regulatory subunit encoded by pkr1 results in overproduction of capsule and hypervirulence. We compared the transcriptomes between the pka1 and pkr1 mutants and a wild-type strain, and found that PKA influences transcript levels for genes involved in cell wall synthesis, transport functions such as iron uptake, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and glycolysis. Among the myriad of transcriptional changes in the mutants, we also identified differential expression of ribosomal protein genes, genes encoding stress and chaperone functions, and genes for secretory pathway components and phospholipid synthesis. The transcriptional influence of PKA on these functions was reminiscent of the linkage between transcription, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and the unfolded protein response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Functional analyses confirmed that the PKA mutants have a differential response to temperature stress, caffeine, and lithium, and that secretion inhibitors block capsule production. Importantly, we also found that lithium treatment limits capsule size, thus reinforcing potential connections between this virulence trait and inositol and phospholipid metabolism. In addition, deletion of a PKA-regulated gene, OVA1, revealed an epistatic relationship with pka1 in the control of capsule size and melanin formation. OVA1 encodes a putative phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein that appears to negatively influence capsule production and melanin accumulation. Overall, these findings support a role for PKA in regulating the delivery of virulence factors such as the capsular polysaccharide to the cell surface and serve to highlight the importance of secretion and phospholipid metabolism as potential

  5. Interaction between Salt-inducible Kinase 2 and Protein Phosphatase 2A Regulates the Activity of Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase I and Protein Phosphatase Methylesterase-1* (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Wei; Yang, Fu-Chia; Chang, Hsin-Yun; Chou, Hanyi; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming; Lee, Sheng-Chung


    Salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) is the only AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) family member known to interact with protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A). However, the functional aspects of this complex are largely unknown. Here we report that the SIK2·PP2A complex preserves both kinase and phosphatase activities. In this capacity, SIK2 attenuates the association of the PP2A repressor, the protein phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1), thus preserving the methylation status of the PP2A catalytic subunit. Furthermore, the SIK2·PP2A holoenzyme complex dephosphorylates and inactivates Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI), an upstream kinase for phosphorylating PME-1/Ser15. The functionally antagonistic SIK2·PP2A and CaMKI and PME-1 networks thus constitute a negative feedback loop that modulates the phosphatase activity of PP2A. Depletion of SIK2 led to disruption of the SIK2·PP2A complex, activation of CaMKI, and downstream effects, including phosphorylation of HDAC5/Ser259, sequestration of HDAC5 in the cytoplasm, and activation of myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C)-mediated gene expression. These results suggest that the SIK2·PP2A complex functions in the regulation of MEF2C-dependent transcription. Furthermore, this study suggests that the tightly linked regulatory loop comprised of the SIK2·PP2A and CaMKI and PME-1 networks may function in fine-tuning cell proliferation and stress response. PMID:24841198

  6. Stromal serine protein kinase activity in spinach chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, N.; Lucero, H.A.; Vallejos, R.H.


    At least twelve 32 P-labeled stromal proteins were detected by electrophoresis under denaturing conditions when intact chloroplasts were incubated with 32 Pi, in the light but only three were detected in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) or in the dark. Incubation of isolated stroma with [gamma- 32 P]ATP resulted in the preferential phosphorylation of one of them, a 70-kDa polypeptide, in serine residues. Thylakoid membranes in the dark promoted the phosphorylation of two additional stromal polypeptides of 55 and 40 kDa. Illumination during the phosphorylation of stroma in the presence of thylakoids stimulated severalfold the labeling of the 40-kDa polypeptide but not when DCMU was added. The protein kinase activity present in isolated stroma phosphorylated exogenous substrates like histone III, phosvitin, histone II, and casein with specific activities of 3, 1.8, 0.7, and 0.2 pmol X mg-1 X min-1. Histone III polypeptides were phosphorylated differently by stroma and by thylakoids in the dark. Moreover, histone III phosphorylated by thylakoids in the dark yielded a pattern of phosphopeptides after V8 protease treatment that was different from the pattern obtained when histone III was phosphorylated by stroma

  7. SOcK, MiSTs, MASK and STicKs: the GCKIII (germinal centre kinase III) kinases and their heterologous protein-protein interactions. (United States)

    Sugden, Peter H; McGuffin, Liam J; Clerk, Angela


    The GCKIII (germinal centre kinase III) subfamily of the mammalian Ste20 (sterile 20)-like group of serine/threonine protein kinases comprises SOK1 (Ste20-like/oxidant-stress-response kinase 1), MST3 (mammalian Ste20-like kinase 3) and MST4. Initially, GCKIIIs were considered in the contexts of the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades and apoptosis. More recently, their participation in multiprotein heterocomplexes has become apparent. In the present review, we discuss the structure and phosphorylation of GCKIIIs and then focus on their interactions with other proteins. GCKIIIs possess a highly-conserved, structured catalytic domain at the N-terminus and a less-well conserved C-terminal regulatory domain. GCKIIIs are activated by tonic autophosphorylation of a T-loop threonine residue and their phosphorylation is regulated primarily through protein serine/threonine phosphatases [especially PP2A (protein phosphatase 2A)]. The GCKIII regulatory domains are highly disorganized, but can interact with more structured proteins, particularly the CCM3 (cerebral cavernous malformation 3)/PDCD10 (programmed cell death 10) protein. We explore the role(s) of GCKIIIs (and CCM3/PDCD10) in STRIPAK (striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase) complexes and their association with the cis-Golgi protein GOLGA2 (golgin A2; GM130). Recently, an interaction of GCKIIIs with MO25 has been identified. This exhibits similarities to the STRADα (STE20-related kinase adaptor α)-MO25 interaction (as in the LKB1-STRADα-MO25 heterotrimer) and, at least for MST3, the interaction may be enhanced by cis-autophosphorylation of its regulatory domain. In these various heterocomplexes, GCKIIIs associate with the Golgi apparatus, the centrosome and the nucleus, as well as with focal adhesions and cell junctions, and are probably involved in cell migration, polarity and proliferation. Finally, we consider the association of GCKIIIs with a number of human diseases, particularly

  8. Shrimp arginine kinase being a binding protein of WSSV envelope protein VP31 (United States)

    Ma, Cuiyan; Gao, Qiang; Liang, Yan; Li, Chen; Liu, Chao; Huang, Jie


    Viral entry into the host is the earliest stage of infection in the viral life cycle in which attachment proteins play a key role. VP31 (WSV340/WSSV396), an envelope protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide domain known as a cellular attachment site. At present, the process of VP31 interacting with shrimp host cells has not been explored. Therefore, the VP31 gene was cloned into pET30a (+), expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 and purified with immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Four gill cellular proteins of shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were pulled down by an affinity column coupled with recombinant VP31 (rVP31), and the amino acid sequences were identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Hemocyanin, beta-actin, arginine kinase (AK), and an unknown protein were suggested as the putative VP31 receptor proteins. SDS-PAGE showed that AK is the predominant binding protein of VP31. An i n vitro binding activity experiment indicated that recombinant AK's (rAK) binding activity with rVP31 is comparable to that with the same amount of WSSV. These results suggested that AK, as a member of the phosphagen kinase family, plays a role in WSSV infection. This is the first evidence showing that AK is a binding protein of VP31. Further studies on this topic will elucidate WSSV infection mechanism in the future.

  9. Ghrelin augments murine T-cell proliferation by activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase C signaling pathways (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Patel, Kalpesh; Tae, Hyun Jin; Lustig, Ana; Kim, Jie Wan; Mattson, Mark P.; Taub, Dennis D.


    Thymic atrophy occurs during normal aging, and is accelerated by exposure to chronic stressors that elevate glucocorticoid levelsand impair the naïve T cell output. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin was recently shown to attenuate age-associated thymic atrophy. Here, we report that ghrelin enhances the proliferation of murine CD4+ primary T cells and a CD4+ T-cell line. Ghrelin induced activation of the ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways, via upstream activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and protein kinase C, to enhance T-cell proliferation. Moreover, ghrelin induced expression of the cell cycle proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and retinoblastoma phosphorylation. Finally, ghrelin activated the above-mentioned signaling pathways and stimulated thymocyte proliferation in young and older mice in vivo. PMID:25447526

  10. Concurrent decrease of vasopressin and protein kinase C-alpha immunoreactivity during the light phase in the vole suprachiasmatic nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K; Van der Zee, EA; Gerkema, MP


    Vasopressin (AVP) is a major neuropeptide in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the mammalian hypothalamic circadian pacemaker. Protein kinase C alpha is a putatively coupled intracellular messenger. Mean numbers of AVP- and protein kinase C alpha- immunoreactive neurons were determined in the

  11. Measles virus C protein impairs production of defective copyback double-stranded viral RNA and activation of protein kinase R. (United States)

    Pfaller, Christian K; Radeke, Monte J; Cattaneo, Roberto; Samuel, Charles E


    Measles virus (MV) lacking expression of C protein (C(KO)) is a potent activator of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR), whereas the isogenic parental virus expressing C protein is not. Here, we demonstrate that significant amounts of dsRNA accumulate during C(KO) mutant infection but not following parental virus infection. dsRNA accumulated during late stages of infection and localized with virus replication sites containing N and P proteins. PKR autophosphorylation and stress granule formation correlated with the timing of dsRNA appearance. Phospho-PKR localized to dsRNA-containing structures as revealed by immunofluorescence. Production of dsRNA was sensitive to cycloheximide but resistant to actinomycin D, suggesting that dsRNA is a viral product. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses revealed reduced viral RNA synthesis and a steepened transcription gradient in C(KO) virus-infected cells compared to those in parental virus-infected cells. The observed alterations were further reflected in lower viral protein expression levels and reduced C(KO) virus infectious yield. RNA deep sequencing confirmed the viral RNA expression profile differences seen by qPCR between C(KO) mutant and parental viruses. After one subsequent passage of the C(KO) virus, defective interfering RNA (DI-RNA) with a duplex structure was obtained that was not seen with the parental virus. We conclude that in the absence of C protein, the amount of PKR activator RNA, including DI-RNA, is increased, thereby triggering innate immune responses leading to impaired MV growth.

  12. MAP kinase cascades in Arabidopsis innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Magnus Wohlfahrt; Roux, Milena Edna; Petersen, Morten


    Plant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades generally transduce extracellular stimuli into cellular responses. These stimuli include the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by host transmembrane pattern recognition receptors which trigger MAPK-dependent innate ...

  13. Inhibition of nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity by in vitro phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2. Differential phosphorylation of NDP kinases in HeLa cells in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, R M; Engel, M; Sauane, M


    that in vitro protein kinase CK2 catalyzed phosphorylation of human NDPK A inhibits its enzymatic activity by inhibiting the first step of its ping-pong mechanism of catalysis: its autophosphorylation. Upon in vivo 32P labeling of HeLa cells, we observed that both human NDPKs, A and B, were autophosphorylated...

  14. Inhibition of nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity by in vitro phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2. Differential phosphorylation of NDP kinases in HeLa cells in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, R M; Engel, M; Sauane, M


    Although a number of nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) have been reported to act as inhibitors of metastasis or as a transcription factor in mammals, it is not known whether these functions are linked to their enzymatic activity or how this protein is regulated. In this report, we show that ...

  15. Laminin α2-mediated focal adhesion kinase activation triggers Alport glomerular pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Delimont

    Full Text Available It has been known for some time that laminins containing α1 and α2 chains, which are normally restricted to the mesangial matrix, accumulate in the glomerular basement membranes (GBM of Alport mice, dogs, and humans. We show that laminins containing the α2 chain, but not those containing the α1 chain activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK on glomerular podocytes in vitro and in vivo. CD151-null mice, which have weakened podocyte adhesion to the GBM rendering these mice more susceptible to biomechanical strain in the glomerulus, also show progressive accumulation of α2 laminins in the GBM, and podocyte FAK activation. Analysis of glomerular mRNA from both models demonstrates significant induction of MMP-9, MMP-10, MMP-12, MMPs linked to GBM destruction in Alport disease models, as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. SiRNA knockdown of FAK in cultured podocytes significantly reduced expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and IL-6, but not MMP-12. Treatment of Alport mice with TAE226, a small molecule inhibitor of FAK activation, ameliorated fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, significantly reduced proteinuria and blood urea nitrogen levels, and partially restored GBM ultrastructure. Glomerular expression of MMP-9, MMP-10 and MMP-12 mRNAs was significantly reduced in TAE226 treated animals. Collectively, this work identifies laminin α2-mediated FAK activation in podocytes as an important early event in Alport glomerular pathogenesis and suggests that FAK inhibitors, if safe formulations can be developed, might be employed as a novel therapeutic approach for treating Alport renal disease in its early stages.

  16. Subtype activation and interaction of protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase controlling receptor expression in cerebral arteries and microvessels after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansar, S.; Edvinsson, L.


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) still remains elusive. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase C (PKC) subtypes in the pathophysiology of cerebral...... ischemia after SAH in cerebral arteries and microvessels and to examine temporal activation of the kinases. We hypothesize that treatment with a MAPK or PKC inhibitor will prevent the SAH-induced kinase activation in brain vessels. METHODS: SAH was induced by injecting 250 microL blood...... into the prechiasmatic cistern in the rat. The activation of different MAPK and PKC isotypes in large circle of Willis cerebral arteries and intracerebral microvessels was examined at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after SAH and after intrathecal treatment with PKC or MAPK inhibitor by use of Western blot. RESULTS...

  17. ‘The octet’: eight protein kinases that control mammalian DNA replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvin L. Depamphilis


    Full Text Available Development of a fertilized human egg into an average sized adult requires about 29 trillion cell divisions, thereby producing enough DNA to stretch to the Sun and back 200 times (DePamphilis and Bell, 2011! Even more amazing is the fact that throughout these mitotic cell cycles, the human genome is duplicated once and only once each time a cell divides. If a cell accidentally begins to re-replicate its nuclear DNA prior to cell division, checkpoint pathways trigger apoptosis. And yet, some cells are developmentally programmed to respond to environmental cues by switching from mitotic cell cycles to endocycles, a process in which multiple S phases occur in the absence of either mitosis or cytokinesis. Endocycles allow production of viable, differentiated, polyploid cells that no longer proliferate. What is surprising is that among the 516 (Manning et al., 2002 to 557 (BioMart web site protein kinases encoded by the human genome, only eight regulate nuclear DNA replication directly. These are Cdk1, Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk6, Cdk7, Cdc7, Chk1 and Chk2. Even more remarkable is the fact that only four of these enzymes (Cdk1, Cdk7, Cdc7 and Chk1 are essential for mammalian development. Here we describe how these protein kinases determine when DNA replication occurs during mitotic cell cycles, how mammalian cells switch from mitotic cell cycles to endocycles, and how cancer cells can be selectively targeted for destruction by inducing them to begin a second S phase before mitosis is complete.

  18. Burst BMP triggered receptor kinase activity drives Smad1 mediated long-term target gene oscillation in C2C12 cells.

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    Daniela Schul

    Full Text Available Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs are important growth factors that regulate many cellular processes. During embryogenesis they act as morphogens and play a critical role during organ development. They influence cell fates via concentration-gradients in the embryos where cells transduce this extracellular information into gene expression profiles and cell fate decisions. How receiving cells decode and quantify BMP2/4 signals is hardly understood. There is little data on the quantitative relationships between signal input, transducing molecules, their states and location, and ultimately their ability to integrate graded systemic inputs and generate qualitative responses. Understanding this signaling network on a quantitative level should be considered a prerequisite for efficient pathway modulation, as the BMP pathway is a prime target for therapeutic invention. Hence, we quantified the spatial distribution of the main signal transducer of the BMP2/4 pathway in response to different types and levels of stimuli in c2c12 cells. We found that the subcellular localization of Smad1 is independent of ligand concentration. In contrast, Smad1 phosphorylation levels relate proportionally to BMP2 ligand concentrations and they are entirely located in the nucleus. Interestingly, we found that BMP2 stimulates target gene expression in non-linear, wave-like forms. Amplitudes showed a clear concentration-dependency, for sustained and transient stimulation. We found that even burst-stimulation triggers gene-expression wave-like modulations that are detectable for at least 30 h. Finally, we show here that target gene expression oscillations depend on receptor kinase activity, as the kinase drives further expression pulses without receptor reactivation and the target gene expression breaks off after inhibitor treatment in c2c12 cells.

  19. Burst BMP triggered receptor kinase activity drives Smad1 mediated long-term target gene oscillation in C2C12 cells. (United States)

    Schul, Daniela; Schmitt, Alexandra; Regneri, Janine; Schartl, Manfred; Wagner, Toni Ulrich


    Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are important growth factors that regulate many cellular processes. During embryogenesis they act as morphogens and play a critical role during organ development. They influence cell fates via concentration-gradients in the embryos where cells transduce this extracellular information into gene expression profiles and cell fate decisions. How receiving cells decode and quantify BMP2/4 signals is hardly understood. There is little data on the quantitative relationships between signal input, transducing molecules, their states and location, and ultimately their ability to integrate graded systemic inputs and generate qualitative responses. Understanding this signaling network on a quantitative level should be considered a prerequisite for efficient pathway modulation, as the BMP pathway is a prime target for therapeutic invention. Hence, we quantified the spatial distribution of the main signal transducer of the BMP2/4 pathway in response to different types and levels of stimuli in c2c12 cells. We found that the subcellular localization of Smad1 is independent of ligand concentration. In contrast, Smad1 phosphorylation levels relate proportionally to BMP2 ligand concentrations and they are entirely located in the nucleus. Interestingly, we found that BMP2 stimulates target gene expression in non-linear, wave-like forms. Amplitudes showed a clear concentration-dependency, for sustained and transient stimulation. We found that even burst-stimulation triggers gene-expression wave-like modulations that are detectable for at least 30 h. Finally, we show here that target gene expression oscillations depend on receptor kinase activity, as the kinase drives further expression pulses without receptor reactivation and the target gene expression breaks off after inhibitor treatment in c2c12 cells.

  20. DMPD: Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-mediated disorders. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14643884 Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-m...g) (.html) (.csml) Show Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-mediated di...sorders. PubmedID 14643884 Title Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation

  1. Membrane protein expression triggers chromosomal locus repositioning in bacteria


    Libby, Elizabeth A.; Roggiani, Manuela; Goulian, Mark


    It has long been hypothesized that subcellular positioning of chromosomal loci in bacteria may be influenced by gene function and expression state. Here we provide direct evidence that membrane protein expression affects the position of chromosomal loci in Escherichia coli. For two different membrane proteins, we observed a dramatic shift of their genetic loci toward the membrane upon induction. In related systems in which a cytoplasmic protein was produced, or translation was eliminated by m...

  2. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by heat shock treatment in Drosophila.


    Chen, F; Torres, M; Duncan, R F


    Heat shock treatment of Drosophila melanogaster tissue culture cells causes increased tyrosine phosphorylation of several 44 kDa proteins, which are identified as Drosophila mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Tyrosine phosphorylation occurs within 5 min, and is maintained at high levels during heat shock. It decreases to basal levels during recovery, concurrent with the repression of heat shock transcription and heat-shock-protein synthesis. The increased MAP kinase tyrosine phosphoryla...

  3. Death Associated Protein Kinases: Molecular Structure and Brain Injury

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    Claire Thornton


    Full Text Available Perinatal brain damage underlies an important share of motor and neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, visual dysfunction and epilepsy. Clinical, epidemiological, and experimental studies have revealed that factors such as inflammation, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress contribute considerably to both white and grey matter injury in the immature brain. A member of the death associated protein kinase (DAPk family, DAPk1, has been implicated in cerebral ischemic damage, whereby DAPk1 potentiates NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity through interaction with the NR2BR subunit. DAPk1 also mediate a range of activities from autophagy, membrane blebbing and DNA fragmentation ultimately leading to cell death. DAPk mRNA levels are particularly highly expressed in the developing brain and thus, we hypothesize that DAPk1 may play a role in perinatal brain injury. In addition to reviewing current knowledge, we present new aspects of the molecular structure of DAPk domains, and relate these findings to interacting partners of DAPk1, DAPk-regulation in NMDA-induced cerebral injury and novel approaches to blocking the injurious effects of DAPk1.

  4. Characterization of the Zebrafish Homolog of Zipper Interacting Protein Kinase

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    Brandon W. Carr


    Full Text Available Zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK is a conserved vertebrate-specific regulator of actomyosin contractility in smooth muscle and non-muscle cells. Murine ZIPK has undergone an unusual divergence in sequence and regulation compared to other ZIPK orthologs. In humans, subcellular localization is controlled by phosphorylation of threonines 299 and 300. In contrast, ZIPK subcellular localization in mouse and rat is controlled by interaction with PAR-4. We carried out a comparative biochemical characterization of the regulation of the zebrafish ortholog of ZIPK. Like the human orthologs zebrafish ZIPK undergoes nucleocytoplasmic-shuttling and is abundant in the cytoplasm, unlike the primarily nuclear rat ZIPK. Rat ZIPK, but not human or zebrafish ZIPK, interacts with zebrafish PAR-4. Mutation of the conserved residues required for activation of the mammalian orthologs abrogated activity of the zebrafish ZIPK. In contrast to the human ortholog, mutation of threonine 299 and 300 in the zebrafish ZIPK has no effect on the activity or subcellular localization. Thus, we found that zebrafish ZIPK functions in a manner most similar to the human ZIPK and quite distinct from murine orthologs, yet the regulation of subcellular localization is not conserved.

  5. The protein tyrosine kinase Tec regulates mast cell function. (United States)

    Schmidt, Uwe; Abramova, Anastasia; Boucheron, Nicole; Eckelhart, Eva; Schebesta, Alexandra; Bilic, Ivan; Kneidinger, Michael; Unger, Bernd; Hammer, Martina; Sibilia, Maria; Valent, Peter; Ellmeier, Wilfried


    Mast cells play crucial roles in a variety of normal and pathophysiological processes and their activation has to be tightly controlled. Here, we demonstrate that the protein tyrosine kinase Tec is a crucial regulator of murine mast cell function. Tec was activated upon Fc epsilon RI stimulation of BM-derived mast cells (BMMC). The release of histamine in the absence of Tec was normal in vitro and in vivo; however, leukotriene C(4) levels were reduced in Tec(-) (/) (-) BMMC. Furthermore, the production of IL-4 was severely impaired, and GM-CSF, TNF-alpha and IL-13 levels were also diminished. Finally, a comparison of WT, Tec(-) (/) (-), Btk(-) (/) (-) and Tec(-) (/) (-)Btk(-) (/) (-) BMMC revealed a negative role for Btk in the regulation of IL-4 production, while for the efficient production of TNF-alpha, IL-13 and GM-CSF, both Tec and Btk were required. Our results demonstrate a crucial role for Tec in mast cells, which is partially different to the function of the well-characterized family member Btk.

  6. Redox regulation of the AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Han


    Full Text Available Redox state is a critical determinant of cell function, and any major imbalances can cause severe damage or death.The aim of this study is to determine if AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, a cellular energy sensor, is activated by oxidants generated by Berberine in endothelial cells (EC.Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC were exposed to Berberine. AMPK activity and reactive oxygen species were monitored after the incubation.In BAEC, Berberine caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in the phosphorylation of AMPK at Thr172 and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC at Ser79, a well characterized downstream target of AMPK. Concomitantly, Berberine increased peroxynitrite, a potent oxidant formed by simultaneous generation of superoxide and nitric oxide. Pre-incubation of BAEC with anti-oxidants markedly attenuated Berberine-enhanced phosphorylation of both AMPK and ACC. Consistently, adenoviral expression of superoxide dismutase and pretreatment of L-N(G-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME; a non-selective NOS inhibitor blunted Berberine-induced phosphorylation of AMPK. Furthermore, mitochondria-targeted tempol (mito-tempol pretreatment or expression of uncoupling protein attenuated AMPK activation caused by Berberine. Depletion of mitochondria abolished the effects of Berberine on AMPK in EC. Finally, Berberine significantly increased the phosphorylation of LKB1 at Ser307 and gene silencing of LKB1 attenuated Berberine-enhanced AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation in BAEC.Our results suggest that mitochondria-derived superoxide anions and peroxynitrite are required for Berberine-induced AMPK activation in endothelial cells.

  7. Membrane protein expression triggers chromosomal locus repositioning in bacteria (United States)

    Libby, Elizabeth A.; Roggiani, Manuela; Goulian, Mark


    It has long been hypothesized that subcellular positioning of chromosomal loci in bacteria may be influenced by gene function and expression state. Here we provide direct evidence that membrane protein expression affects the position of chromosomal loci in Escherichia coli. For two different membrane proteins, we observed a dramatic shift of their genetic loci toward the membrane upon induction. In related systems in which a cytoplasmic protein was produced, or translation was eliminated by mutating the start codon, a shift was not observed. Antibiotics that block transcription and translation similarly prevented locus repositioning toward the membrane. We also found that repositioning is relatively rapid and can be detected at positions that are a considerable distance on the chromosome from the gene encoding the membrane protein (>90 kb). Given that membrane protein-encoding genes are distributed throughout the chromosome, their expression may be an important mechanism for maintaining the bacterial chromosome in an expanded and dynamic state. PMID:22529375

  8. Exploring the function of protein kinases in schistosomes: perspectives from the laboratory and from comparative genomics

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    Anthony John Walker


    Full Text Available Eukaryotic protein kinases are well conserved through evolution. The genome of Schistosoma mansoni, which causes intestinal schistosomiasis, encodes over 250 putative protein kinases with all of the main eukaryotic groups represented. However, unraveling functional roles for these kinases is a considerable endeavour, particularly as protein kinases regulate multiple and sometimes overlapping cell and tissue functions in organisms. In this article, elucidating protein kinase signal transduction and function in schistosomes is considered from the perspective of the state-of-the-art methodologies used and comparative organismal biology, with a focus on current advances and future directions. Using the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a comparator we predict roles for various schistosome protein kinases in processes vital for host invasion and successful parasitism such as sensory behaviour, growth and development. It is anticipated that the characterization of schistosome protein kinases in the context of parasite function will catalyze cutting edge research into host-parasite interactions and will reveal new targets for developing drug interventions against human schistosomiasis.

  9. Ability of CK2beta to selectively regulate cellular protein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte; Guerra, Barbara


    The Wee1 protein kinase plays a prominent role in keeping cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) inactive during the G2 phase of the cell cycle. At the onset of mitosis, Wee1 is ubiquitinated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCF(beta-TrCP) and subsequently degraded by the proteasome machinery. Previously, it...

  10. The receptor-like kinase SOBIR1 interacts with Brassica napus LepR3 and is required for Leptosphaeria maculans AvrLm1-triggered immunity

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    Lisong eMa


    Full Text Available AbstractThe fungus Leptosphaeria maculans (L. maculans is the causal agent of blackleg disease of canola/oilseed rape (Brassica napus worldwide. We previously reported cloning of the B. napus blackleg resistance gene, LepR3, which encodes a receptor-like protein. LepR3 triggers localised cell death upon recognition of its cognate Avr protein, AvrLm1. Here, we exploited the Nicotiana benthamiana model plant to investigate the recognition mechanism of AvrLm1 by LepR3. Co-expression of the LepR3/AvrLm1 gene pair in N. benthamiana resulted in development of a hypersensitive response (HR. However, a truncated AvrLm1 lacking its indigenous signal peptide was compromised in its ability to induce LepR3-mediated HR, indicating that AvrLm1 is perceived by LepR3 extracellularly. Structure-function analysis of the AvrLm1 protein revealed that the C-terminal region of AvrLm1 was required for LepR3-mediated HR in N. benthamiana and for resistance to L. maculans in B. napus. LepR3 was shown to be physically interacting with the B. napus receptor like kinase, SOBIR1 (BnSOBIR1. Silencing of NbSOBIR1 or NbSERK3 (BAK1 compromised LepR3-AvrLm1-dependent HR in N. benthamiana, suggesting that LepR3-mediated resistance to L. maculans in B. napus requires SOBIR1 and BAK1/SERK3. Using this model system, we determined that BnSOBIR1 and SERK3/BAK1 are essential partners in the LepR3 signalling complex and were able to define the AvrLm1 effector domain.

  11. Tv-RIO1 – an atypical protein kinase from the parasitic nematode Trichostrongylus vitrinus

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    Sternberg Paul W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinases are key enzymes that regulate a wide range of cellular processes, including cell-cycle progression, transcription, DNA replication and metabolic functions. These enzymes catalyse the transfer of phosphates to serine, threonine and tyrosine residues, thus playing functional roles in reversible protein phosphorylation. There are two main groups, namely eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs and atypical protein kinases (aPKs; RIO kinases belong to the latter group. While there is some information about RIO kinases and their roles in animals, nothing is known about them in parasites. This is the first study to characterise a RIO1 kinase from any parasite. Results A full-length cDNA (Tv-rio-1 encoding a RIO1 protein kinase (Tv-RIO1 was isolated from the economically important parasitic nematode Trichostrongylus vitrinus (Order Strongylida. The uninterrupted open reading frame (ORF of 1476 nucleotides encoded a protein of 491 amino acids, containing the characteristic RIO1 motif LVHADLSEYNTL. Tv-rio-1 was transcribed at the highest level in the third-stage larva (L3, and a higher level in adult females than in males. Comparison with homologues from other organisms showed that protein Tv-RIO1 had significant homology to related proteins from a range of metazoans and plants. Amino acid sequence identity was most pronounced in the ATP-binding motif, active site and metal binding loop. Phylogenetic analyses of selected amino acid sequence data revealed Tv-RIO1 to be most closely related to the proteins in the species of Caenorhabditis. A structural model of Tv-RIO1 was constructed and compared with the published crystal structure of RIO1 of Archaeoglobus fulgidus (Af-Rio1. Conclusion This study provides the first insights into the RIO1 protein kinases of nematodes, and a foundation for further investigations into the biochemical and functional roles of this molecule in biological processes in parasitic nematodes.

  12. Distinct expression patterns of ICK/MAK/MOK protein kinases in the intestine implicate functional diversity.

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    Tufeng Chen

    Full Text Available ICK/MRK (intestinal cell kinase/MAK-related kinase, MAK (male germ cell-associated kinase, and MOK (MAPK/MAK/MRK-overlapping kinase are closely related serine/threonine protein kinases in the protein kinome. The biological functions and regulatory mechanisms of the ICK/MAK/MOK family are still largely elusive. Despite significant similarities in their catalytic domains, they diverge markedly in the sequence and structural organization of their C-terminal non-catalytic domains, raising the question as to whether they have distinct, overlapping, or redundant biological functions. In order to gain insights into their biological activities and lay a fundamental groundwork for functional studies, we investigated the spatio-temporal distribution patterns and the expression dynamics of ICK/MAK/MOK protein kinases in the intestine. We found that ICK/MAK/MOK proteins display divergent expression patterns along the duodenum-to-colon axis and during postnatal murine development. Furthermore, they are differentially partitioned between intestinal epithelium and mesenchyme. A significant increase in the protein level of ICK, but not MAK, was induced in human primary colon cancer specimens. ICK protein level was up-regulated whereas MOK protein level was down-regulated in mouse intestinal adenomas as compared with their adjacent normal intestinal mucosa. These data suggest distinct roles for ICK/MAK/MOK protein kinases in the regulation of intestinal neoplasia. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the expressions of ICK/MAK/MOK proteins in the intestinal tract can be differentially and dynamically regulated, implicating a significant functional diversity within this group of protein kinases.

  13. Discovery and Characterization of Non-ATP Site Inhibitors of the Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) Kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comess, Kenneth M.; Sun, Chaohong; Abad-Zapatero, Cele; Goedken, Eric R.; Gum, Rebecca J.; Borhani, David W.; Argiriadi, Maria; Groebe, Duncan R.; Jia, Yong; Clampit, Jill E.; Haasch, Deanna L.; Smith, Harriet T.; Wang, Sanyi; Song, Danying; Coen, Michael L.; Cloutier, Timothy E.; Tang, Hua; Cheng, Xueheng; Quinn, Christopher; Liu, Bo; Xin, Zhili; Liu, Gang; Fry, Elizabeth H.; Stoll, Vincent; Ng, Teresa I.; Banach, David; Marcotte, Doug; Burns, David J.; Calderwood, David J.; Hajduk, Philip J. (Abbott)


    Inhibition of protein kinases has validated therapeutic utility for cancer, with at least seven kinase inhibitor drugs on the market. Protein kinase inhibition also has significant potential for a variety of other diseases, including diabetes, pain, cognition, and chronic inflammatory and immunologic diseases. However, as the vast majority of current approaches to kinase inhibition target the highly conserved ATP-binding site, the use of kinase inhibitors in treating nononcology diseases may require great selectivity for the target kinase. As protein kinases are signal transducers that are involved in binding to a variety of other proteins, targeting alternative, less conserved sites on the protein may provide an avenue for greater selectivity. Here we report an affinity-based, high-throughput screening technique that allows nonbiased interrogation of small molecule libraries for binding to all exposed sites on a protein surface. This approach was used to screen both the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase Jnk-1 (involved in insulin signaling) and p38{alpha} (involved in the formation of TNF{alpha} and other cytokines). In addition to canonical ATP-site ligands, compounds were identified that bind to novel allosteric sites. The nature, biological relevance, and mode of binding of these ligands were extensively characterized using two-dimensional {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, protein X-ray crystallography, surface plasmon resonance, and direct enzymatic activity and activation cascade assays. Jnk-1 and p38{alpha} both belong to the MAP kinase family, and the allosteric ligands for both targets bind similarly on a ledge of the protein surface exposed by the MAP insertion present in the CMGC family of protein kinases and distant from the active site. Medicinal chemistry studies resulted in an improved Jnk-1 ligand able to increase adiponectin secretion in human adipocytes and increase insulin-induced protein kinase PKB phosphorylation in human hepatocytes, in

  14. A historical overview of protein kinases and their targeted small molecule inhibitors. (United States)

    Roskoski, Robert


    Protein kinases play a predominant regulatory role in nearly every aspect of cell biology and they can modify the function of a protein in almost every conceivable way. Protein phosphorylation can increase or decrease enzyme activity and it can alter other biological activities such as transcription and translation. Moreover, some phosphorylation sites on a given protein are stimulatory while others are inhibitory. The human protein kinase gene family consists of 518 members along with 106 pseudogenes. Furthermore, about 50 of the 518 gene products lack important catalytic residues and are called protein pseudokinases. The non-catalytic allosteric interaction of protein kinases and pseudokinases with other proteins has added an important regulatory feature to the biochemistry and cell biology of the protein kinase superfamily. With rare exceptions, a divalent cation such as Mg2+ is required for the reaction. All protein kinases exist in a basal state and are activated only as necessary by divergent regulatory stimuli. The mechanisms for switching between dormant and active protein kinases can be intricate. Phosphorylase kinase was the first protein kinase to be characterized biochemically and the mechanism of its regulation led to the discovery of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A, or PKA), which catalyzes the phosphorylation and activation of phosphorylase kinase. This was the first protein kinase cascade or signaling module to be elucidated. The epidermal growth factor receptor-Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling module contains protein-tyrosine, protein-serine/threonine, and dual specificity protein kinases. PKA has served as a prototype of this enzyme family and more is known about this enzyme than any other protein kinase. The inactive PKA holoenzyme consists of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. After binding four molecules of cAMP, the holoenzyme dissociates into a regulatory subunit dimer (each monomer binds two cAMP) and two free and active

  15. Protein kinase C and extracellular signal-regulated kinase regulate movement, attachment, pairing and egg release in Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Ressurreição


    Full Text Available Protein kinases C (PKCs and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs are evolutionary conserved cell signalling enzymes that coordinate cell function. Here we have employed biochemical approaches using 'smart' antibodies and functional screening to unravel the importance of these enzymes to Schistosoma mansoni physiology. Various PKC and ERK isotypes were detected, and were differentially phosphorylated (activated throughout the various S. mansoni life stages, suggesting isotype-specific roles and differences in signalling complexity during parasite development. Functional kinase mapping in adult worms revealed that activated PKC and ERK were particularly associated with the adult male tegument, musculature and oesophagus and occasionally with the oesophageal gland; other structures possessing detectable activated PKC and/or ERK included the Mehlis' gland, ootype, lumen of the vitellaria, seminal receptacle and excretory ducts. Pharmacological modulation of PKC and ERK activity in adult worms using GF109203X, U0126, or PMA, resulted in significant physiological disturbance commensurate with these proteins occupying a central position in signalling pathways associated with schistosome muscular activity, neuromuscular coordination, reproductive function, attachment and pairing. Increased activation of ERK and PKC was also detected in worms following praziquantel treatment, with increased signalling associated with the tegument and excretory system and activated ERK localizing to previously unseen structures, including the cephalic ganglia. These findings support roles for PKC and ERK in S. mansoni homeostasis, and identify these kinase groups as potential targets for chemotherapeutic treatments against human schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of enormous public health significance.

  16. Activation of protein kinase C inhibits synthesis and release of decidual prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, I.; Costello, A.; Ganong, B.; Bell, R.M.; Handwerger, S.


    Activation of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C by diacylglycerol and phorbol esters has been shown to mediate release of hormones in many systems. To determine whether protein kinase C activation is also involved in the regulation of prolactin release from human decidual, the authors have examined the effects of various acylglycerols and phorbol esters on the synthesis and release of prolactin from cultured human decidual cells. sn-1,2-Dioctanolyglycerol (diC 8 ), which is known to stimulate protein kinase C in other systems, inhibited prolactin release in a dose-dependent manner with maximal inhibition of 53.1% at 100 μM. Diolein (100 μM), which also stimulates protein kinase C activity in some systems, inhibited prolactin release by 21.3%. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, and 4β-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, which activate protein kinase C in other systems, also inhibited the release of prolactin, which the protein kinase C inactivate 4α-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate was without effect. The inhibition of prolactin release was secondary to a decrease in prolactin synthesis. Although diC 8 and PMA inhibited the synthesis and release of prolactin, these agents had no effect on the synthesis or release of trichloroacetic acid-precipitable [ 35 S]methionine-labeled decidual proteins and did not cause the release of the cytosolic enzymes lactic dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase. DiC 8 and PMA stimulates the specific activity of protein kinase C in decidual tissue by 14.6 and 14.0-fold, respectively. The inhibition of the synthesis and release of prolactin by diC 8 and phorbol esters strongly implicates protein kinase C in the regulation of the production and release of prolactin from the decidua

  17. Protein kinase C activation induces conductance changes in Hermissenda photoreceptors like those seen in associative learning. (United States)

    Farley, J; Auerbach, S

    Phosphorylation of ion channels has been suggested as one molecular mechanism responsible for learning-produced long-term changes in neuronal excitability. Persistent training-produced changes in two distinct K+ currents (IA (ref. 2), IK-Ca (refs 3,4)) and a voltage-dependent calcium current (ICa; refs 3,4) have previously been shown to occur in type B photoreceptors of Hermissenda, as a result of associative learning. But the identity of the phosphorylation pathway(s) responsible for these changes has not as yet been determined. Injections of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase reduce a K+ current (IK) in B cells which is different from those changed by training, but fails to reduce IA and IK-Ca. Phosphorylase b kinase (an exogenous calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase) reduces IA, but whether IK-Ca and ICa are changed in the manner of associative training is not yet known. Another protein kinase present in high concentrations in both mammalian brain and molluscan nervous systems is protein kinase C, which is both calcium- and phospholipid-sensitive. We now present evidence that activation of protein kinase C by the tumour promoter phorbol ester (PDB) and intracellular injection of the enzyme induce conductance changes similar to those caused by associative training in Hermissenda B cells (that is a reduction of IA and IK-Ca, and enhancement of ICa). These results represent the first direct demonstration that protein kinase C affects membrane K+ ion conductance mechanisms.

  18. Phosphorylation of the regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2 by checkpoint kinase Chk1: identification of the in vitro CK2beta phosphorylation site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars P; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Højrup, Peter


    The regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2 mediates the formation of the CK2 tetrameric form and it has functions independent of CK2 catalytic subunit through interaction with several intracellular proteins. Recently, we have shown that CK2beta associates with the human checkpoint kinase Chk...

  19. Interaction of alcohols and anesthetics with protein kinase Calpha. (United States)

    Slater, S J; Kelly, M B; Larkin, J D; Ho, C; Mazurek, A; Taddeo, F J; Yeager, M D; Stubbs, C D


    The key signal transduction enzyme protein kinase C (PKC) contains a hydrophobic binding site for alcohols and anesthetics (Slater, S. J., Cox, K. J. A., Lombardi, J. V., Ho, C., Kelly, M. B., Rubin, E., and Stubbs, C. D. (1993) Nature 364, 82-84). In this study, we show that interaction of n-alkanols and general anesthetics with PKCalpha results in dramatically different effects on membrane-associated compared with lipid-independent enzyme activity. Furthermore, the effects on membrane-associated PKCalpha differ markedly depending on whether activity is induced by diacylglycerol or phorbol ester and also on n-alkanol chain length. PKCalpha contains two distinct phorbol ester binding regions of low and high affinity for the activator, respectively (Slater, S. J., Ho, C., Kelly, M. B., Larkin, J. D., Taddeo, F. J., Yeager, M. D., and Stubbs, C. D. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 4627-4631). Short chain n-alkanols competed for low affinity phorbol ester binding to the enzyme, resulting in reduced enzyme activity, whereas high affinity phorbol ester binding was unaffected. Long chain n-alkanols not only competed for low affinity phorbol ester binding but also enhanced high affinity phorbol ester binding. Furthermore, long chain n-alkanols enhanced phorbol ester induced PKCalpha activity. This effect of long chain n-alkanols was similar to that of diacylglycerol, although the n-alkanols alone were weak activators of the enzyme. The cellular effects of n-alkanols and general anesthetics on PKC-mediated processes will therefore depend in a complex manner on the locality of the enzyme (e.g. cytoskeletal or membrane-associated) and activator type, apart from any isoform-specific differences. Furthermore, effects mediated by interaction with the region on the enzyme possessing low affinity for phorbol esters represent a novel mechanism for the regulation of PKC activity.

  20. A protein kinase C inhibitor attenuates cyanide toxicity in vivo. (United States)

    Maduh, E U; Nealley, E W; Song, H; Wang, P C; Baskin, S I


    We have examined the effect of pretreatment with a potent protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, 1-(5-isoquinoline-sulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), against metabolic alterations induced by sodium cyanide (NaCN), 4.2 mg/kg, in brain of anesthetized male micropigs (6-10 kg). Brain high energy phosphates were analyzed using a 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic surface coil in a 4.7 Telsa horizontal bore magnet. H-7, 1 mg/kg, was given intravenously (i.v.) 30 min before NaCN challenge (H-7 + CN-). Prior to NaCN, H-7, or H-7 + CN- administration, baseline 31P resonance spectra of 1-min duration were acquired for 5-10 min, and continued for an additional 60 min following i.v. NaCN injection, each animal serving as its own control. Peaks were identified as phosphomonoester (PME), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphodiester (PDE), phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), based on their respective chemical shifts. Without H-7 pretreatment, NaCN effects were marked by a rising Pi and a declining PCr peak 2 min after injection, with only 2/5 of the animals surviving the 60 min experiment. Through a pretreatment period of 30 min, H-7 did not affect baseline cell energy profile as reflected by the 31P-NMR spectra, but in its presence, those changes (i.e. diminishing PCr and rising Pi peaks) elicited by NaCN were markedly blunted; 4/5 of the animals in this group survived the NaCN challenge. It is proposed that H-7, a pharmacologic inhibitor of PKC, may be useful in CN- antagonism, underscoring the role of PKC in cyanide intoxication.

  1. Lack of the mitochondrial protein acylglycerol kinase causes Sengers syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayr, J.A.; Haack, T.B.; Graf, E.; Zimmermann, F.A.; Wieland, T.; Haberberger, B.; Superti-Furga, A.; Kirschner, J.; Steinmann, B.; Baumgartner, M.R.; Moroni, I.; Lamantea, E.; Zeviani, M.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Smeitink, J.; Strom, T.M.; Meitinger, T.; Sperl, W.; Prokisch, H.


    Exome sequencing of an individual with congenital cataracts, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, and lactic acidosis, all typical symptoms of Sengers syndrome, discovered two nonsense mutations in the gene encoding mitochondrial acylglycerol kinase (AGK). Mutation screening of AGK in

  2. Mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in the kidney: Target for intervention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, M.H.; Wassef, L.; Kelly, D.J.; van Goor, H.; Navis, Ger Jan


    Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are intracellular signal transduction molecules, which connect cell-surface receptor signals to intracellular processes. MAPKs regulate a range of cellular activities including cell proliferation, gene expression, apoptosis, cell differentiation and cytokine

  3. Molecular modelling of calcium dependent protein kinase 4 (CDPK4) from Plasmodium falciparum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tsekoa, Tsepo L


    Full Text Available . Development of new drug targets is of vital importance in this regard. The recent availability of genomic information and the resultant observation that in many instances, protein kinases from parasitic protozoa are phylogenetically distant from those...

  4. Molecular Modelling of Calcium Dependent Protein Kinase 4 (CDPK4) from Plasmodium falciparum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tsekoa, Tsepo L


    Full Text Available . Development of new drug targets is of vital importance in this regard. The recent availability of genomic information and the resultant observation that in many instances, protein kinases from parasitic protozoa are phylogenetically distant from those...

  5. Side chain packing below the fusion peptide strongly modulates triggering of the Hendra virus F protein. (United States)

    Smith, Everett Clinton; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis


    Triggering of the Hendra virus fusion (F) protein is required to initiate the conformational changes which drive membrane fusion, but the factors which control triggering remain poorly understood. Mutation of a histidine predicted to lie near the fusion peptide to alanine greatly reduced fusion despite wild-type cell surface expression levels, while asparagine substitution resulted in a moderate restoration in fusion levels. Slowed kinetics of six-helix bundle formation, as judged by sensitivity to heptad repeat B-derived peptides, was observed for all H372 mutants. These data suggest that side chain packing beneath the fusion peptide is an important regulator of Hendra virus F triggering.

  6. Cyclic nucleotide-stimulable protein kinases in the central nervous sytem of Manduca sexta. (United States)

    Albin, E E; Newburgh, R W


    Cyclic nucleotide-stimulable protein kinase (EC has been studied in crude extracts from the central nervous system of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). The insect kinase was fulfhydryl-sensitive and required Mg-2+ for optimal activity. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of supernatants demonstrated the presence of multiple kinases in the larval nerve cord. At low concentrations, cyclic AMP was a much more potent activator of soluble and particulate activities than was cyclic GMP. The specific activity of coluble kinase and the magnitude of its activations by cyclic AMP were greater in the adult than in the larval central nervous system. The exogenous protein substrate specificity of the insect enzyme was similar to that of rat brain kinase with the sole exception that protamine was more readily phosphorylated than histone by nerve cord kinase. It was observed that cyclic AMP lowered the Km of Manduca sexta kinase for ATP, a phenomenon which is apparently nervous tissue=specific in mammals. An effective inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was prepared from the larval central nervous system.

  7. Kinase-specific prediction of protein phosphorylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Martin Lee; Blom, Nikolaj


    As extensive mass spectrometry-based mapping of the phosphoproteome progresses, computational analysis of phosphorylation-dependent signaling becomes increasingly important. The linear sequence motifs that surround phosphorylated residues have successfully been used to characterize kinase......-substrate specificity. Here, we briefly describe the available resources for predicting kinase-specific phosphorylation from sequence properties. We address the strengths and weaknesses of these resources, which are based on methods ranging from simple consensus patterns to more advanced machine-learning algorithms...

  8. Discovery of a Stress-Activated Protein Kinase Inhibitor for Lymphatic Filariasis. (United States)

    Tummalapalli, Sreedhar R; Bhat, Rohit; Chojnowski, Agnieszka; Prorok, Monika; Kreiss, Tamara; Goldberg, Ronald; Canan, Stacie; Hawryluk, Natalie; Mortensen, Deborah; Khetani, Vikram; Zeldis, Jerome; Siekierka, John J; Rotella, David P


    Lymphatic filariasis infects over 120 million people worldwide and can lead to significant disfigurement and disease. Resistance is emerging with current treatments, and these therapies have dose limiting adverse events; consequently new targets are needed. One approach to achieve this goal is inhibition of parasitic protein kinases involved in circumventing host defense mechanisms. This report describes structure-activity relationships leading to the identification of a potent, orally bioavailable stress activated protein kinase inhibitor that may be used to investigate this hypothesis.

  9. Jun N-terminal protein kinase enhance middle ear mucosal proliferation during bacterial otitis media


    Furukawa, Masayuki; Ebmayer, Jörg; Pak , Kwang; Austin, Darrell A.; Melhus , Åsa; Webster, Nicholas J. G.; Ryan, Allen F.


    Mucosal hyperplasia is a characteristic component of otitis media. The present study investigated the participation of signaling via the Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinase in middle ear mucosal hyperplasia in animal models of bacterial otitis media. Otitis media was induced by the inoculation of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae into the middle ear cavity. Western blotting revealed that phosphorylation of JNK isoforms in the middle ear mucosa preceded but pa...

  10. GCN2 kinase plays an important role triggering the remission phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. (United States)

    Orsini, Heloisa; Araujo, Leandro P; Maricato, Juliana T; Guereschi, Marcia G; Mariano, Mario; Castilho, Beatriz A; Basso, Alexandre S


    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been widely employed as a model to study multiple sclerosis (MS) and indeed has allowed some important advances in our comprehension of MS pathogenesis. Several pieces of evidence suggest that infiltrating Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes are important players leading to CNS demyelination and lesion during the peak of murine EAE. Subsequently, effector T cell responses rapidly decline and the recovery phase of the disease strongly correlates with the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the enrichment of Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells within the target organ. However, the mechanisms leading to the increased presence of Treg cells and to the remission phase of the disease are still poorly understood. Recent researches demonstrated that chemically induced amino-acid starvation response might suppress CNS immune activity. Here we verified an important participation of the general control nonrepressible 2 (GCN2), a key regulator kinase of the amino-acid starvation response, in the development of the remission phase of EAE in C57BL/6 mice. By immunizing wild type C57BL/6 (WT) and GCN2 knock-out mice (GCN2 KO) with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG35-55), it was noticed that GCN2 KO mice did not develop the remission phase of the disease and this was associated with higher levels of CNS inflammation and increased presence of effector T cells (Th1/Th17). These animals also showed lower frequency of Treg cells within the CNS as compared to WT animals. Higher expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and higher frequency of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) were found at the peak of the disease in the CNS of WT animals. Our results suggest that the GCN2 kinase-dependent sensing of IDO activity represents an important trigger to the EAE remission phase. The IDO-mediated immunoregulatory events may include the arresting of effector T cell responses and the differentiation/expansion of Treg cells

  11. Protein kinase B/Akt activates c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase by increasing NO production in response to shear stress (United States)

    Go, Y. M.; Boo, Y. C.; Park, H.; Maland, M. C.; Patel, R.; Pritchard, K. A. Jr; Fujio, Y.; Walsh, K.; Darley-Usmar, V.; Jo, H.


    Laminar shear stress activates c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) by the mechanisms involving both nitric oxide (NO) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Because protein kinase B (Akt), a downstream effector of PI3K, has been shown to phosphorylate and activate endothelial NO synthase, we hypothesized that Akt regulates shear-dependent activation of JNK by stimulating NO production. Here, we examined the role of Akt in shear-dependent NO production and JNK activation by expressing a dominant negative Akt mutant (Akt(AA)) and a constitutively active mutant (Akt(Myr)) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). As expected, pretreatment of BAEC with the PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) prevented shear-dependent stimulation of Akt and NO production. Transient expression of Akt(AA) in BAEC by using a recombinant adenoviral construct inhibited the shear-dependent stimulation of NO production and JNK activation. However, transient expression of Akt(Myr) by using a recombinant adenoviral construct did not induce JNK activation. This is consistent with our previous finding that NO is required, but not sufficient on its own, to activate JNK in response to shear stress. These results and our previous findings strongly suggest that shear stress triggers activation of PI3K, Akt, and endothelial NO synthase, leading to production of NO, which (along with O(2-), which is also produced by shear) activates Ras-JNK pathway. The regulation of Akt, NO, and JNK by shear stress is likely to play a critical role in its antiatherogenic effects.

  12. Reduced Activity of Mutant Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 1 Is Compensated in Plasmodium falciparum through the Action of Protein Kinase G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhisheka Bansal


    Full Text Available We used a sensitization approach that involves replacement of the gatekeeper residue in a protein kinase with one with a different side chain. The activity of the enzyme with a bulky gatekeeper residue, such as methionine, cannot be inhibited using bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs. Here, we have used this approach to study Plasmodium falciparum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (PfCDPK1. The methionine gatekeeper substitution, T145M, although it led to a 47% reduction in transphosphorylation, was successfully introduced into the CDPK1 locus using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas9. As methionine is a bulky residue, BKI 1294 had a 10-fold-greater effect in vitro on the wild-type enzyme than on the methionine mutant. However, in contrast to in vitro data with recombinant enzymes, BKI 1294 had a slightly greater inhibition of the growth of CDPK1 T145M parasites than the wild type. Moreover, the CDPK1 T145M parasites were more sensitive to the action of compound 2 (C2, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase G (PKG. These results suggest that a reduction in the activity of CDPK1 due to methionine substitution at the gatekeeper position is compensated through the direct action of PKG or of another kinase under the regulation of PKG. The transcript levels of CDPK5 and CDPK6 were significantly upregulated in the CDPK1 T145M parasites. The increase in CDPK6 or some other kinase may compensate for decrease in CDPK1 activity during invasion. This study suggests that targeting two kinases may be more effective in chemotherapy to treat malaria so as not to select for mutations in one of the enzymes.

  13. Functional and Structural Mimicry of Cellular Protein Kinase A Anchoring Proteins by a Viral Oncoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cason R King


    Full Text Available The oncoproteins of the small DNA tumor viruses interact with a plethora of cellular regulators to commandeer control of the infected cell. During infection, adenovirus E1A deregulates cAMP signalling and repurposes it for activation of viral gene expression. We show that E1A structurally and functionally mimics a cellular A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP. E1A interacts with and relocalizes protein kinase A (PKA to the nucleus, likely to virus replication centres, via an interaction with the regulatory subunits of PKA. Binding to PKA requires the N-terminus of E1A, which bears striking similarity to the amphipathic α-helical domain present in cellular AKAPs. E1A also targets the same docking-dimerization domain of PKA normally bound by cellular AKAPs. In addition, the AKAP like motif within E1A could restore PKA interaction to a cellular AKAP in which its normal interaction motif was deleted. During infection, E1A successfully competes with endogenous cellular AKAPs for PKA interaction. E1A's role as a viral AKAP contributes to viral transcription, protein expression and progeny production. These data establish HAdV E1A as the first known viral AKAP. This represents a unique example of viral subversion of a crucial cellular regulatory pathway via structural mimicry of the PKA interaction domain of cellular AKAPs.

  14. Search of protein kinase CK2 inhibitors based on purine-2,6-diones derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Protopopov


    Full Text Available This work is aimed to the search of protein kinase CK2 inhibitors among the purine-2,6-dione derivatives by molecular docking and biochemical tests. It was found that the most active compound 8-[2-[(3-methoxyphenylmethylidene]hydrazine-1-yl]-3-methyl-7-(3-phenoxypropyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione inhibited protein kinase CK2 with IC50 value of 8.5 µM in vitro in kinase assay. Biochemical tests and computer simulation results allowed determining the binding mode of the most active compound and structure-activity relationships.

  15. The role of the Drosophila LAMMER protein kinase DOA in somatic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Sep 6, 2010 ... 2009), and several labora tories are currently using various immuno- precipition or chromatin-marking strategies to identify addi- tional DSX target genes. Phosphorylation of SR and SR-like proteins by. DOA, the LAMMER protein kinase of Drosophila. The RBP1, TRA and TRA2 proteins which bind the dsx.

  16. Three-Dimentional Structures of Autophosphorylation Complexes in Crystals of Protein Kinases

    KAUST Repository

    Dumbrack, Roland


    Protein kinase autophosphorylation is a common regulatory mechanism in cell signaling pathways. Several autophosphorylation complexes have been identified in crystals of protein kinases, with a known serine, threonine, or tyrosine autophosphorylation site of one kinase monomer sitting in the active site of another monomer of the same protein in the crystal. We utilized a structural bioinformatics method to identify all such autophosphorylation complexes in X-ray crystallographic structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) by generating all unique kinase/kinase interfaces within and between asymmetric units of each crystal and measuring the distance between the hydroxyl oxygen of potential autophosphorylation sites and the oxygen atoms of the active site aspartic acid residue side chain. We have identified 15 unique autophosphorylation complexes in the PDB, of which 5 complexes have not previously been described in the relevant publications on the crystal structures (N-terminal juxtamembrane regions of CSF1R and EPHA2, activation loop tyrosines of LCK and IGF1R, and a serine in a nuclear localization signal region of CLK2. Mutation of residues in the autophosphorylation complex interface of LCK either severely impaired autophosphorylation or increased it. Taking the autophosphorylation complexes as a whole and comparing them with peptide-substrate/kinase complexes, we observe a number of important features among them. The novel and previously observed autophosphorylation sites are conserved in many kinases, indicating that by homology we can extend the relevance of these complexes to many other clinically relevant drug targets.

  17. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) dynamics determine cell fate in the yeast mating response. (United States)

    Li, Yang; Roberts, Julie; AkhavanAghdam, Zohreh; Hao, Nan


    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the exposure to mating pheromone activates a prototypic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade and triggers a dose-dependent differentiation response. Whereas a high pheromone dose induces growth arrest and formation of a shmoo-like morphology in yeast cells, lower pheromone doses elicit elongated cell growth. Previous population-level analysis has revealed that the MAPK Fus3 plays an important role in mediating this differentiation switch. To further investigate how Fus3 controls the fate decision process at the single-cell level, we developed a specific translocation-based reporter for monitoring Fus3 activity in individual live cells. Using this reporter, we observed strikingly different dynamic patterns of Fus3 activation in single cells differentiated into distinct fates. Cells committed to growth arrest and shmoo formation exhibited sustained Fus3 activation. In contrast, most cells undergoing elongated growth showed either a delayed gradual increase or pulsatile dynamics of Fus3 activity. Furthermore, we found that chemically perturbing Fus3 dynamics with a specific inhibitor could effectively redirect the mating differentiation, confirming the causative role of Fus3 dynamics in driving cell fate decisions. MAPKs mediate proliferation and differentiation signals in mammals and are therapeutic targets in many cancers. Our results highlight the importance of MAPK dynamics in regulating single-cell responses and open up the possibility that MAPK signaling dynamics could be a pharmacological target in therapeutic interventions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Ohmyungsamycins promote antimicrobial responses through autophagy activation via AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. (United States)

    Kim, Tae Sung; Shin, Yern-Hyerk; Lee, Hye-Mi; Kim, Jin Kyung; Choe, Jin Ho; Jang, Ji-Chan; Um, Soohyun; Jin, Hyo Sun; Komatsu, Masaaki; Cha, Guang-Ho; Chae, Han-Jung; Oh, Dong-Chan; Jo, Eun-Kyeong


    The induction of host cell autophagy by various autophagy inducers contributes to the antimicrobial host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), a major pathogenic strain that causes human tuberculosis. In this study, we present a role for the newly identified cyclic peptides ohmyungsamycins (OMS) A and B in the antimicrobial responses against Mtb infections by activating autophagy in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). OMS robustly activated autophagy, which was essentially required for the colocalization of LC3 autophagosomes with bacterial phagosomes and antimicrobial responses against Mtb in BMDMs. Using a Drosophila melanogaster-Mycobacterium marinum infection model, we showed that OMS-A-induced autophagy contributed to the increased survival of infected flies and the limitation of bacterial load. We further showed that OMS triggered AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which was required for OMS-mediated phagosome maturation and antimicrobial responses against Mtb. Moreover, treating BMDMs with OMS led to dose-dependent inhibition of macrophage inflammatory responses, which was also dependent on AMPK activation. Collectively, these data show that OMS is a promising candidate for new anti-mycobacterial therapeutics by activating antibacterial autophagy via AMPK-dependent signaling and suppressing excessive inflammation during Mtb infections.

  19. Inhibition of epithelial Na+ transport by atriopeptin, protein kinase c, and pertussis toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrmann, M.; Cantiello, H.F.; Ausiello, D.A.


    The authors have recently shown the selective inhibition of an amiloride-sensitive, conductive pathway for Na + by atrial natriuretic peptide and 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-BrcGMP) in the renal epithelial cell line, LLC-PK i . Using 22 Na + fluxes, they further investigated the modulation of Na + transport by atrial natriuretic peptide and by agents that increase cGMP production, activate protein kinase c, or modulate guanine nucleotide regulatory protein function. Sodium nitroprusside increases intracellular cGMP concentrations without affecting cAMP concentrations and completely inhibits amiloride-sensitive Na + uptake in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Oleoyl 2-acetylglycerol and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, activators of protein kinase c, inhibit Na + uptake by 93 ± 13 and 51 ± 10%, respectively. Prolonged incubation with phorbol ester results in the downregulation of protein kinase c activity and reduces the inhibitory effect of atrial natriuretic peptide, suggesting that the action of this peptide involves stimulation of protein kinase c. Pertussis toxin, which induces the ADP-ribosylation of a 41-kDa guanine nucleotide regulatory protein in LLC-PK i cells, inhibits 22 Na + influx to the same extent as amiloride. Thus, increasing cGMP, activating protein kinase c, and ADP-ribosylating a guanine nucleotide regulatory protein all inhibit Na + uptake. These events may be sequentially involved in the action of atrial natriuretic peptide

  20. Partial purification and characterization of a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase from pea nuclei (United States)

    Li, H.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.


    Almost all the Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase activity in nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum, L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.3 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified 80,000-fold by salt fractionation and high performance liquid chromatography, after which it has a high specific activity of about 100 picomoles per minute per microgram in the presence of Ca2+ and reaches half-maximal activation at about 3 x 10(-7) molar free Ca2+, without calmodulin. It is a monomer with a molecular weight near 90,000. It can efficiently use histone III-S, ribosomal S6 protein, and casein as artificial substrates, but it phosphorylates phosvitin only weakly. Its Ca(2+)-dependent kinase activity is half-maximally inhibited by 0.1 millimolar chlorpromazine, by 35 nanomolar K-252a and by 7 nanomolar staurosporine. It is insensitive to sphingosine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, and to basic polypeptides that block other Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases. It is not stimulated by exogenous phospholipids or fatty acids. In intact isolated pea nuclei it preferentially phosphorylates several chromatin-associated proteins, with the most phosphorylated protein band being near the same molecular weight (43,000) as a nuclear protein substrate whose phosphorylation has been reported to be stimulated by phytochrome in a calcium-dependent fashion.

  1. [Role of protein kinases of human red cell membrane in deformability and aggregation changes]. (United States)

    Murav'ev, A V; Maĭmistova, A A; Tikhomirova, I A; Bulaeva, S V; Mikhaĭlov, P V; Murav'ev, A A


    The proteomic analysis has showed that red cell membrane contains several kinases and phosphatases. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the role of protein kinases of human red cell membrane in deformability and aggregation changes. Exposure of red blood cells (RBCs) to some chemical compounds led to change in the RBC microrheological properties. When forskolin (10 microM), an adenylyl cyclase (AC) and a protein kinase A (PKA) stimulator was added to RBC suspension, the RBC deformability (RBCD) was increased by 20% (p RBCA) was significantly decreased under these conditions (p RBCA lowering. The similar effect was found when cells were incubated with cisplatin as a tyrosine protein kinase (TPK) activator. It is important to note that a selective TPK inhibitor--lavendustin eliminated the above mention effects. On the whole the total data clearly show that the red cell aggregation and deformation changes were connected with an activation of the different intracellular signaling pathways.

  2. Gene expression analysis after receptor tyrosine kinase activation reveals new potential melanoma proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teutschbein, Janka; Haydn, Johannes M; Samans, Birgit; Krause, Michael; Eilers, Martin; Schartl, Manfred; Meierjohann, Svenja


    Melanoma is an aggressive tumor with increasing incidence. To develop accurate prognostic markers and targeted therapies, changes leading to malignant transformation of melanocytes need to be understood. In the Xiphophorus melanoma model system, a mutated version of the EGF receptor Xmrk (Xiphophorus melanoma receptor kinase) triggers melanomagenesis. Cellular events downstream of Xmrk, such as the activation of Akt, Ras, B-Raf or Stat5, were also shown to play a role in human melanomagenesis. This makes the elucidation of Xmrk downstream targets a useful method for identifying processes involved in melanoma formation. Here, we analyzed Xmrk-induced gene expression using a microarray approach. Several highly expressed genes were confirmed by realtime PCR, and pathways responsible for their induction were revealed using small molecule inhibitors. The expression of these genes was also monitored in human melanoma cell lines, and the target gene FOSL1 was knocked down by siRNA. Proliferation and migration of siRNA-treated melanoma cell lines were then investigated. Genes with the strongest upregulation after receptor activation were FOS-like antigen 1 (Fosl1), early growth response 1 (Egr1), osteopontin (Opn), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (Igfbp3), dual-specificity phosphatase 4 (Dusp4), and tumor-associated antigen L6 (Taal6). Interestingly, most genes were blocked in presence of a SRC kinase inhibitor. Importantly, we found that FOSL1, OPN, IGFBP3, DUSP4, and TAAL6 also exhibited increased expression levels in human melanoma cell lines compared to human melanocytes. Knockdown of FOSL1 in human melanoma cell lines reduced their proliferation and migration. Altogether, the data show that the receptor tyrosine kinase Xmrk is a useful tool in the identification of target genes that are commonly expressed in Xmrk-transgenic melanocytes and melanoma cell lines. The identified molecules constitute new possible molecular players in melanoma development

  3. Gene expression analysis after receptor tyrosine kinase activation reveals new potential melanoma proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma is an aggressive tumor with increasing incidence. To develop accurate prognostic markers and targeted therapies, changes leading to malignant transformation of melanocytes need to be understood. In the Xiphophorus melanoma model system, a mutated version of the EGF receptor Xmrk (Xiphophorus melanoma receptor kinase triggers melanomagenesis. Cellular events downstream of Xmrk, such as the activation of Akt, Ras, B-Raf or Stat5, were also shown to play a role in human melanomagenesis. This makes the elucidation of Xmrk downstream targets a useful method for identifying processes involved in melanoma formation. Methods Here, we analyzed Xmrk-induced gene expression using a microarray approach. Several highly expressed genes were confirmed by realtime PCR, and pathways responsible for their induction were revealed using small molecule inhibitors. The expression of these genes was also monitored in human melanoma cell lines, and the target gene FOSL1 was knocked down by siRNA. Proliferation and migration of siRNA-treated melanoma cell lines were then investigated. Results Genes with the strongest upregulation after receptor activation were FOS-like antigen 1 (Fosl1, early growth response 1 (Egr1, osteopontin (Opn, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (Igfbp3, dual-specificity phosphatase 4 (Dusp4, and tumor-associated antigen L6 (Taal6. Interestingly, most genes were blocked in presence of a SRC kinase inhibitor. Importantly, we found that FOSL1, OPN, IGFBP3, DUSP4, and TAAL6 also exhibited increased expression levels in human melanoma cell lines compared to human melanocytes. Knockdown of FOSL1 in human melanoma cell lines reduced their proliferation and migration. Conclusion Altogether, the data show that the receptor tyrosine kinase Xmrk is a useful tool in the identification of target genes that are commonly expressed in Xmrk-transgenic melanocytes and melanoma cell lines. The identified molecules constitute

  4. Systematic identification of the druggable interactions between human protein kinases and naturally occurring compounds in endometriosis. (United States)

    Jiang, Lai; Tang, Chaoliang; Rao, Jie; Xue, Qing; Wu, Hao; Wu, Dabao; Zhang, Aijun; Chen, Ling; Shen, Zhen; Lei, Lei


    Diverse kinase signaling pathways have been involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis (EM), which can be modulated either by directly targeting the hub kinases or by indirectly regulating marginal members in the pathways. Here, a systematic kinase-inhibitor interaction profile was created for 8 naturally occurring compounds against 20 human protein kinases. The compounds are all non-sterid that have been reported as pharmacologically active molecular entities potential for EM therapeutics, while the kinases were curated via gene ontology terms enriched from the gene co-citation network with EM. The resulting profile was analyzed at structural, energetic and dynamic levels to identify druggable kinase-compound interactions. The compounds Gossypol, Curcumin and EGCG showed a similar interaction profile across these kinases; they can bind tightly to the top-listed kinases in gene ontology, while the compounds Marrubiin, Apigenin and DIM were predicted to exhibit generally weak affinity for the 20 curated kinases. The JNK kinase, a MAPK family member, was identified as a putative candidate of druggable target for EM therapeutics; the inhibitory activity of eight naturally occurring compounds as well as a sophisticated kinase inhibitor SP600125 against the JNK was tested using enzymatic activity analysis. As might be expected, the Gossypol and EGCG were determined to have high inhibitory activity at namomolar level (IC 50 =55 and 94nM, respectively), which are comparable with or better than the positive control SP600125 (IC 50 =76nM), while other tested compounds exhibited weak inhibition (IC 50 >100nM) or bad potency (IC 50 =n.d.) against the kinase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Structural Insight into the 14-3-3 Protein-dependent Inhibition of Protein Kinase ASK1 (Apoptosis Signal-regulating kinase 1)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrvalská, Olivia; Košek, Dalibor; Kukačka, Zdeněk; Tošner, Z.; Man, Petr; Večeř, J.; Herman, P.; Obšilová, Veronika; Obšil, Tomáš


    Roč. 291, č. 39 (2016), s. 20753-20765 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10061S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : 14-3-3 protein * apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) * fluorescence * nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) * protein cross-linking * small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.125, year: 2016

  6. Guanylate kinase domains of the MAGUK family scaffold proteins as specific phospho-protein-binding modules. (United States)

    Zhu, Jinwei; Shang, Yuan; Xia, Caihao; Wang, Wenning; Wen, Wenyu; Zhang, Mingjie


    Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) are a large family of scaffold proteins that play essential roles in tissue developments, cell-cell communications, cell polarity control, and cellular signal transductions. Despite extensive studies over the past two decades, the functions of the signature guanylate kinase domain (GK) of MAGUKs are poorly understood. Here we show that the GK domain of DLG1/SAP97 binds to asymmetric cell division regulatory protein LGN in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The structure of the DLG1 SH3-GK tandem in complex with a phospho-LGN peptide reveals that the GMP-binding site of GK has evolved into a specific pSer/pThr-binding pocket. Residues both N- and C-terminal to the pSer are also critical for the specific binding of the phospho-LGN peptide to GK. We further demonstrate that the previously reported GK domain-mediated interactions of DLGs with other targets, such as GKAP/DLGAP1/SAPAP1 and SPAR, are also phosphorylation dependent. Finally, we provide evidence that other MAGUK GKs also function as phospho-peptide-binding modules. The discovery of the phosphorylation-dependent MAGUK GK/target interactions indicates that MAGUK scaffold-mediated signalling complex organizations are dynamically regulated.

  7. Neuron Membrane Trafficking and Protein Kinases Involved in Autism and ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Kitagishi


    Full Text Available A brain-enriched multi-domain scaffolding protein, neurobeachin has been identified as a candidate gene for autism patients. Mutations in the synaptic adhesion protein cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1 are also associated with autism spectrum disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder of uncertain molecular origin. Potential roles of neurobeachin and CADM1 have been suggested to a function of vesicle transport in endosomal trafficking. It seems that protein kinase B (AKT and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA have key roles in the neuron membrane trafficking involved in the pathogenesis of autism. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is documented to dopaminergic insufficiencies, which is attributed to synaptic dysfunction of dopamine transporter (DAT. AKT is also essential for the DAT cell-surface redistribution. In the present paper, we summarize and discuss the importance of several protein kinases that regulate the membrane trafficking involved in autism and ADHD, suggesting new targets for therapeutic intervention.

  8. The Pim-1 protein kinase is an important regulator of MET receptor tyrosine kinase levels and signaling. (United States)

    Cen, Bo; Xiong, Ying; Song, Jin H; Mahajan, Sandeep; DuPont, Rachel; McEachern, Kristen; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Cortes, Jorge E; Minden, Mark D; Ebens, Allen; Mims, Alice; LaRue, Amanda C; Kraft, Andrew S


    MET, the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), plays an important role in signaling normal and tumor cell migration and invasion. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized mechanism that promotes MET expression in multiple tumor cell types. The levels of the Pim-1 protein kinase show a positive correlation with the levels of MET protein in human tumor cell lines and patient-derived tumor materials. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA), Pim knockout mice, small-molecule inhibitors, and overexpression of Pim-1, we confirmed this correlation and found that Pim-1 kinase activity regulates HGF-induced tumor cell migration, invasion, and cell scattering. The novel biochemical mechanism for these effects involves the ability of Pim-1 to control the translation of MET by regulating the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4B (eIF4B) on S406. This targeted phosphorylation is required for the binding of eIF4B to the eIF3 translation initiation complex. Importantly, Pim-1 action was validated by the evaluation of patient blood and bone marrow from a phase I clinical trial of a Pim kinase inhibitor, AZD1208. These results suggest that Pim inhibitors may have an important role in the treatment of patients where MET is driving tumor biology. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Activation of ZmMKK10, a maize mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, induces ethylene-dependent cell death. (United States)

    Chang, Ying; Yang, Hailian; Ren, Dongtao; Li, Yuan


    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play important roles in regulating plant growth, development and stress responses. Here, we report that ZmMKK10, a maize MAP kinase kinase, positively regulates cell death. Sequence comparison to Arabidopsis MKKs has led to ZmMKK10 being classified as a group D MKK. Kinase activity analysis of recombinant ZmMKK10 showed that the Mg 2+ ion was required for its kinase activity. Transient expression of ZmMKK10 WT or ZmMKK10 DD (the active form of ZmMKK10) in maize mesophyll protoplast significantly increased the cell death rate. Inducible expression of ZmMKK10 WT or ZmMKK10 DD in Arabidopsis transgenic plants caused rapid HR-like cell death, whereas induction of ZmMKK10 KR (the inactive form of ZmMKK10) expression in transgenic plants did not yield the same phenotype. Genetic and pharmacological analysis revealed that ZmMKK10-induced cell death in transgenic plants requires the activation of Arabidopsis MPK3 and MPK6 and that it partially depended on ethylene biosynthesis. ZmMPK3 and ZmMPK7, the orthologues of Arabidopsis MPK3 and MPK6, interacted with ZmMKK10 in yeast and ZmMKK10 phosphorylated them both in vitro. Our results demonstrate that ZmMKK10 induces cell death in an ethylene-dependent manner. Furthermore, ZmMPK3 and ZmMPK7 may be the downstream MAPKs in this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Skeletal muscle mitogen-activated protein kinases and ribosomal S6 kinases. Suppression in chronic diabetic rats and reversal by vanadium. (United States)

    Hei, Y J; Chen, X; Pelech, S L; Diamond, J; McNeill, J H


    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and ribosomal S6 protein kinases in the skeletal muscle of insulin-resistant long-term (2 and 6 months' duration) diabetic rats were investigated to understand further the changes in insulin intracellular signaling pathways that accompany diabetes. The effects of insulin-mimetic vanadium compounds on the activity of these kinases were also examined. In the insulin-resistant 2-month diabetic rats, the basal activities of MAP kinases were relatively unchanged, while the basal activities of S6 kinases were significantly increased. Intravenous injection of insulin moderately activated both the 42-kDa MAP kinase (p42mapk) and a 44-kDa MAP kinase (p44erk1) in the 2-month control rats but not in the 2-month diabetic rats. Insulin treatment markedly stimulated the activity of a novel 31-kDa S6 kinase and the previously described 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase encoded by one of the rsk genes (p90rsk) in the 2-month control rats, while the effect was substantially reduced in the diabetic rats. In the 6-month diabetic rats, the basal phosphotransferase activities of both MAP kinases were depressed threefold or greater. This correlated with reductions in the amount of immunoreactive p42mapk and p44erk1 proteins in extracts from the diabetic rats. The basal activity of the 31-kDa S6 kinase activity was also reduced fourfold in the 6-month diabetic rats. Treatment of the 2-month diabetic rats with vanadyl sulfate resulted in euglycemia, prevented the increase in the basal activity of S6 kinase, and improved the activation of S6 kinase by insulin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Regulation of the pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 protein by DNA-dependent protein kinase. (United States)

    Lebrun, Patricia; Montminy, Marc R; Van Obberghen, Emmanuel


    The transcription factor PDX-1 plays a crucial role during pancreatic development and in the function of insulin-producing beta cells. Disruption of the pdx-1 gene in these cells induces overt diabetes in mice, and this gene is modified in several type 2 diabetic families. It is thus crucial to determine the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of PDX-1 expression and/or activation. We identified new proteins associated with PDX-1 by mass spectrometry. These proteins, Ku70 and Ku80, are regulatory subunits of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). We determined that the interaction between PDX-1 and Ku70 or Ku80 is dependent on the homeodomain of PDX-1. Most interestingly, we demonstrated in vitro that the DNA-PK phosphorylates PDX-1 on threonine 11. Although this residue is located in the transactivation domain, this phosphorylation does not seem to be implicated in the transcriptional activation of PDX-1. However, in response to radiation, which activates DNA-PK, a second form of the PDX-1 protein appears rapidly. This form is phosphorylated on threonine and seems to drive PDX-1 degradation by the proteosome. In correlation with this degradation, we observed a subsequent reduction in the activation of the insulin promoter and a decrease in PDX-1-mediated gene expression, i.e. glut2 and glucokinase. Our study demonstrates that radiation, through the activation of DNA-PK, may regulate PDX-1 protein expression.

  12. An active form of calcium and calmodulin dependant protein kinase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The removal of the auto-inhibitory domain that negatively regulates the kinase activity in M. truncatula results in a constitutively-active form, inducing symbiotic responses in the absence of bacterial signals. In this study, we verified the functionality of a DMI3 variant and its ability to induce spontaneous nodules in M.

  13. Redundant role of protein kinase C delta and epsilon during mouse embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carracedo

    Full Text Available Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon are mediators of important cellular events, such as cell proliferation, migration or apoptosis. The formation of blood vessels, i.e., vasculo- and angiogenesis, is a process where these isoforms have also been shown to participate. However, mice deficient in either Protein Kinase C delta or epsilon are viable and therefore their individual contribution to the formation of the vasculature appeared so far dispensable. In this study, we show that double null mutation of Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon causes embryonic lethality at approximately E9.5. At this stage, whole mount staining of the endothelial marker CD31 in double null embryos revealed defective blood vessel formation. Moreover, culture of double deficient mouse allantois showed impaired endothelial cell organization, and analyses of double deficient embryo sections showed dilated vessels, decreased endothelial-specific adherent junctions, and decreased contact of endothelial cells with mural cells. Protein kinase C delta and epsilon also appeared essential for vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation, since α-smooth muscle actin, a classical marker for vascular smooth muscle cells, was almost undetectable in double deficient embryonic aorta at E9.5. Subsequent qPCR analyses showed decreased VE-cadherin, Vegfr2, Cd31, Cdh2, Ets1, and Fli-1, among other angiogenesis related transcripts in double deficient embryos. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time an in vivo redundant role between members of the novel Protein Kinase C subfamily that allows for mutual compensation during mouse embryonic development, with vasculogenesis/angiogenesis as an obvious common function of these two Protein Kinase Cs. Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon might therefore be useful targets for inhibiting vasculo- and/or angiogenesis.

  14. ZmMKK1, a novel group A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase gene in maize, conferred chilling stress tolerance and was involved in pathogen defense in transgenic tobacco. (United States)

    Cai, Guohua; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Li; Pan, Jiaowen; Liu, Yang; Li, Dequan


    As an important intracellular signaling module, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have been previously implicated in signal transduction during plants responsing to various environmental stresses as well as pathogen attack. The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase acts as the convergent point of MAPK cascades during a variety of stress signaling. In this study, a novel MAPKK gene, ZmMKK1, in maize (Zea mays L.) belonging to group A MAPKK was isolated and functionally characterized. ZmMKK1 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm and its constitutive kinase-active form ZmMKK1DD was localized in both cytoplasm and nucleus. QRT-PCR analysis uncovered that ZmMKK1 expression was triggered by abiotic and biotic stresses and exogenous signaling molecules. Moreover, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and Ca(2+) mediated 12°C-induced up-regulated expressing of ZmMKK1 at mRNA level. Ectopic expression of ZmMKK1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) conferred tolerance to chilling stress by higher antioxidant enzyme activities, more accumulation of osmoregulatory substances and more significantly up-expression of ROS-related and stress-responsive genes compared with empty vector control plants. Furthermore, ZmMKK1 played differential functions in biotrophic versus necrotrophic pathogen-induced responses. These results suggested ZmMKK1 played a crucial role in chilling stress and pathogen defense in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of adiponectin/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 19, 2012 ... Lysis buffer (SDS Lysis Buffer) was added to the samples overnight at 4°C. An equal amount of protein was loaded by the Coomassie method for protein quantification after electrophoretic separation. Protein was transferred onto polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes. The transferred blot was blocked ...

  16. Phosphorylation of acidic ribosomal proteins from rabbit reticulocytes by a ribosome-associated casein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G


    Two acidic proteins from 80-S ribosomes were isolated and purified to homogeneity. The purified acidic proteins could be phosphorylated by casein kinase using [gamma-32P]ATP and [gamma-32P]GTP as a phosphoryl donor. The proteins became phosphorylated in situ, too. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacryl...... polyacrylamide gel analysis of the purified acidic proteins and 80-S particles showed identical phosphoproteins in the 16 000 dalton region....

  17. AICA-riboside induces apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells through stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase. (United States)

    Kefas, B A; Heimberg, H; Vaulont, S; Meisse, D; Hue, L; Pipeleers, D; Van de Casteele, M


    Prolonged exposure of beta cells to low glucose concentrations triggers their apoptosis and is known to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in beta cell lines. We examined whether prolonged activation of AMPK can trigger apoptosis in rodent beta cells. Primary beta cells were FACS-purified from rats, and from wild-type and AMPK(alpha2)-deficient mice. AMPK activation in beta cells was induced by the adenosine analog AICA-riboside and detected by immunoblotting using a phosphospecific antibody. Apoptosis of rodent beta cells was monitored by FACS analysis of beta cell DNA content, by direct counting of apoptotic cells using fluorescence microscopy, or by measurement of their caspase-3 activity. Dose-dependent and time-dependent apoptosis of the cells, concommittant with an activation of caspase-3, were suppressed by the caspase inhibitors zVAD-fmk and zDEVD-fmk. Apoptosis induction by AICA-riboside was also prevented by adding the MAPK-inhibitor SB203580 which blocked the AICA-riboside-induced phosphorylation of AMPK. Beta cells isolated from AMPK-(alpha2)-deficient mice were resistant against AICA-riboside induced apoptosis. Sustained activation of AMPK by AICA-riboside can trigger a caspase-dependent apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells.

  18. Computational Simulations to Predict Creatine Kinase-Associated Factors: Protein-Protein Interaction Studies of Brain and Muscle Types of Creatine Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jiang Hu


    Full Text Available Creatine kinase (CK; EC is related to several skin diseases such as psoriasis and dermatomyositis. CK is important in skin energy homeostasis because it catalyzes the reversible transfer of a phosphoryl group from MgATP to creatine. In this study, we predicted CK binding proteins via the use of bioinformatic tools such as protein-protein interaction (PPI mappings and suggest the putative hub proteins for CK interactions. We obtained 123 proteins for brain type CK and 85 proteins for muscle type CK in the interaction networks. Among them, several hub proteins such as NFKB1, FHL2, MYOC, and ASB9 were predicted. Determination of the binding factors of CK can further promote our understanding of the roles of CK in physiological conditions.

  19. Differential effects of vasopressin and phenylephrine on protein kinase C-mediated protein phosphorylations in isolated hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.H.; Johanson, R.A.; Wiliamson, J.R.


    Receptor-mediated breakdown of inositol lipids produces two intracellular signals, diacylglycerol, which activates protein kinase C, and inositol trisphosphate, which causes release of intracellular vesicular Ca 2+ . This study examined the effects of Ca 2+ -ionophores, vasopressin, phenylephrine, and phorbol ester (PMA) on hepatocyte protein phosphorylations. [ 32 P] Phosphoproteins from hepatocytes prelabeled with 32 P were resolved by 2-dimensional SDS-PAGE and corresponding autoradiographs were quantitated by densitometric analysis. The phosphorylation of five proteins, a plasma membrane bound 16 kDa protein with pI 6.4, a cytosolic 16 kDa protein with pI 5.8, and proteins with Mr's of 36 kDa, 52 kDa, and 68 kDa, could be attributed to phosphorylation by protein kinase C since the phosphorylation was stimulated by PMA. When the vasopressin concentration was varied, low vasopressin stimulated the phosphorylation of only the membrane bound 16 kDa protein of the above set of proteins, while higher vasopressin concentrations were required to stimulate the phosphorylation of all five proteins. Phenylephrine, even at supramaximal concentrations, stimulated the phosphorylation of only the membrane bound 16 kDa protein. These results suggest that phenylephrine is a less potent activator of protein kinase C than vasopressin by virtue of limited or localized diacylglycerol production

  20. Molecular basis for activation of G protein-coupled receptor kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boguth, Cassandra A.; Singh, Puja; Huang, Chih-chin; Tesmer, John J.G. (Michigan)


    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) selectively recognize and are allosterically regulated by activated GPCRs, but the molecular basis for this interaction is not understood. Herein, we report crystal structures of GRK6 in which regions known to be critical for receptor phosphorylation have coalesced to stabilize the kinase domain in a closed state and to form a likely receptor docking site. The crux of this docking site is an extended N-terminal helix that bridges the large and small lobes of the kinase domain and lies adjacent to a basic surface of the protein proposed to bind anionic phospholipids. Mutation of exposed, hydrophobic residues in the N-terminal helix selectively inhibits receptor, but not peptide phosphorylation, suggesting that these residues interact directly with GPCRs. Our structural and biochemical results thus provide an explanation for how receptor recognition, phospholipid binding, and kinase activation are intimately coupled in GRKs.

  1. Cyclic AMP activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in PC12 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, M; Peraldi, P; Van Obberghen, E


    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are activated in response to a large variety of extracellular signals, including growth factors, hormones, and neurotransmitters, which activate distinct intracellular signaling pathways. Their activation by the cAMP-dependent pathway, however, has not been...... reported. In rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, we demonstrate here a stimulation of the MAP kinase isozyme extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) following elevation of intracellular cAMP after exposure of the cells to isobutylmethylxanthine, cholera toxin, forskolin, or cAMP-analogues. cAMP acted...... synergistically with phorbol ester, an activator of protein kinase C, in the stimulation of ERK1. In accordance with this observation, the peptide neurotransmitter pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 (PACAP38), which stimulates cAMP production as well as phosphatidylinositol breakdown in PC12...

  2. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 negatively regulates chemokine signaling at a level downstream from G protein subunits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez-Sainz, MC; Murga, C; Kavelaars, A; Jurado-Pueyo, M; Krakstad, BF; Heijnen, CJ; Mayor, F; Aragay, AM

    The G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) phosphorylates and desensitizes ligand-activated G protein-coupled-receptors. Here, evidence is shown for a novel role of GRK2 in regulating chemokine-mediated signals. The presence of increased levels of GRK2 in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells

  3. Neuronal nitric oxide contributes to neuroplasticity-associated protein expression through cGMP, protein kinase G, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. (United States)

    Gallo, Eduardo F; Iadecola, Costantino


    Nitric oxide (NO) synthesized by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) has long been implicated in brain plasticity. However, it is unclear how this short-lived mediator contributes to the long-term molecular changes underlying neuroplasticity, which typically require activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway and gene expression. To address this issue, we used a neuroplasticity model based on treatment of neuronal cultures with bicuculline and a model of experience-dependent plasticity in the barrel cortex. In neuronal cultures, NOS inhibition attenuated the bicuculline-induced activation of ERK and the expression of c-Fos, Egr-1, Arc, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), proteins essential for neuroplasticity. Furthermore, inhibition of the NO target soluble guanylyl cyclase or of the cGMP effector kinase protein kinase G (PKG) reduced both ERK activation and plasticity-related protein expression. NOS inhibition did not affect phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), a well-established ERK nuclear target, but it attenuated the nuclear accumulation of the CREB coactivator TORC1 and suppressed the activation of Elk-1, another transcription factor target of ERK. Consistent with these in vitro observations, induction of c-Fos, Egr-1, and BDNF was attenuated in the D1 cortical barrel of nNOS(-/-) mice subjected to single whisker experience. These results establish nNOS-derived NO as a key factor in the expression of proteins involved in neuroplasticity, an effect mediated through cGMP, PKG, and ERK signaling. These actions of NO do not depend on CREB phosphorylation but may involve TORC1 and Elk-1. Our data unveil a previously unrecognized link between neuronal NO and the molecular machinery responsible for the sustained synaptic changes underlying neuroplasticity.

  4. Protein kinase A-dependent transactivation by the E2A-Pbx1 fusion protein. (United States)

    Ogo, A; Waterman, M R; Kamps, M P; Kagawa, N


    The chimeric gene E2A-PBX1 is formed by the t(1;19) chromosomal translocation exclusively associated with pediatric pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL). The resultant fusion protein from this chimeric gene contains the DNA-binding homeodomain of Pbx1. The first and only functional Pbx1 binding site has been localized in bovine CYP17 to a sequence (CRS1) that participates in cAMP-dependent transcription of this gene encoding the steroid hydroxylase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase cytochrome P450. Because Pbx1 is not expressed in pre-B cells, it may be possible that the E2a-Pbx1 fusion protein expressed in pre-B cells having this translocation will activate, in response to cAMP, transcription of genes not normally expressed in these cells leading to arrest of differentiation at the pre-B cell stage. We have now shown that reporter genes comprising CRS1 are activated transcriptionally by protein kinase A (PKA) in the pre-B cell line 697, which endogenously expresses the fusion protein, and that overexpression of E2A-Pbx1 in additional cell lines enhances transcription of reporter genes in a PKA-dependent fashion. Thus, it seems plausible that arrest in the pre-B stage leading to pre-B ALL includes cAMP-dependent activation of E2A-Pbx1.

  5. Expression, purification and crystallization of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 from Zea mays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Niefind, K; Pinna, L A


    The catalytic (alpha) subunit of protein kinase CK2 (CK2alpha) was originally cloned and overexpressed in the Escherichia coli strain pT7-7/BL21(DE3). The protein has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, they have unit-cell parameter...

  6. Role of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treebak, Jonas Thue; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F. P.


    5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is recognized as an important intracellular energy sensor, shutting down energy-consuming processes and turning on energy-generating processes. Discovery of target proteins of AMPK has dramatically increased in the past 10 years. Historically, AMPK was first...

  7. wKinMut-2: Identification and Interpretation of Pathogenic Variants in Human Protein Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez, Miguel; Pons, Tirso; Brunak, Søren


    forest approach. To understand the biological mechanisms causative of human diseases and cancer, information from pertinent reference knowledgebases and the literature is automatically mined, digested and homogenized. Variants are visualized in their structural contexts and residues affecting catalytic...... is often scattered across different sources, which makes the integrative analysis complex and laborious. wKinMut-2 constitutes a solution to facilitate the interpretation of the consequences of human protein kinase variation. Nine methods predict their pathogenicity, including a kinase-specific random...

  8. Protein kinases responsible for the phosphorylation of the nuclear egress core complex of human cytomegalovirus. (United States)

    Sonntag, Eric; Milbradt, Jens; Svrlanska, Adriana; Strojan, Hanife; Häge, Sigrun; Kraut, Alexandra; Hesse, Anne-Marie; Amin, Bushra; Sonnewald, Uwe; Couté, Yohann; Marschall, Manfred


    Nuclear egress of herpesvirus capsids is mediated by a multi-component nuclear egress complex (NEC) assembled by a heterodimer of two essential viral core egress proteins. In the case of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), this core NEC is defined by the interaction between the membrane-anchored pUL50 and its nuclear cofactor, pUL53. NEC protein phosphorylation is considered to be an important regulatory step, so this study focused on the respective role of viral and cellular protein kinases. Multiply phosphorylated pUL50 varieties were detected by Western blot and Phos-tag analyses as resulting from both viral and cellular kinase activities. In vitro kinase analyses demonstrated that pUL50 is a substrate of both PKCα and CDK1, while pUL53 can also be moderately phosphorylated by CDK1. The use of kinase inhibitors further illustrated the importance of distinct kinases for core NEC phosphorylation. Importantly, mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses identified five major and nine minor sites of pUL50 phosphorylation. The functional relevance of core NEC phosphorylation was confirmed by various experimental settings, including kinase knock-down/knock-out and confocal imaging, in which it was found that (i) HCMV core NEC proteins are not phosphorylated solely by viral pUL97, but also by cellular kinases; (ii) both PKC and CDK1 phosphorylation are detectable for pUL50; (iii) no impact of PKC phosphorylation on NEC functionality has been identified so far; (iv) nonetheless, CDK1-specific phosphorylation appears to be required for functional core NEC interaction. In summary, our findings provide the first evidence that the HCMV core NEC is phosphorylated by cellular kinases, and that the complex pattern of NEC phosphorylation has functional relevance.

  9. Identification of nuclear protein targets for six leukemogenic tyrosine kinases governed by post-translational regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pierce

    Full Text Available Mutated tyrosine kinases are associated with a number of different haematological malignancies including myeloproliferative disorders, lymphoma and acute myeloid leukaemia. The potential commonalities in the action of six of these leukemogenic proteins on nuclear proteins were investigated using systematic proteomic analysis. The effects on over 3600 nuclear proteins and 1500 phosphopeptide sites were relatively quantified in seven isogenic cell lines. The effects of the kinases were diverse although some commonalities were found. Comparison of the nuclear proteomic data with transcriptome data and cytoplasmic proteomic data indicated that the major changes are due to post-translational mechanisms rather than changes in mRNA or protein distribution. Analysis of the promoter regions of genes whose protein levels changed in response to the kinases showed the most common binding site found was that for NFκB whilst other sites such as those for the glucocorticoid receptor were also found. Glucocorticoid receptor levels and phosphorylation were decreased by all 6 PTKs. Whilst Glucocorticoid receptor action can potentiate NFκB action those proteins where genes have NFκB binding sites were in often regulated post-translationally. However all 6 PTKs showed evidence of NFkB pathway modulation via activation via altered IkB and NFKB levels. Validation of a common change was also undertaken with PMS2, a DNA mismatch repair protein. PMS2 nuclear levels were decreased in response to the expression of all 6 kinases, with no concomitant change in mRNA level or cytosolic protein level. Response to thioguanine, that requires the mismatch repair pathway, was modulated by all 6 oncogenic kinases. In summary common targets for 6 oncogenic PTKs have been found that are regulated by post-translational mechanisms. They represent potential new avenues for therapies but also demonstrate the post-translational regulation is a key target of leukaemogenic kinases.

  10. Protein Kinase Pathways That Regulate Neuronal Survival and Death (United States)


    radiography . The incorporation of phosphate into GSK-313 and L-pyruvate kinase addition of the stimulus. Cells that did not receive drugs received a...mesencephalon strands were x400 magnification into SlideBook digital deconvolu- made by bisecting fragments of human fetal ventral mesencephalon, tion...death technique utilized to prevent selective counting bias was that random fields were selected by two independent researchers. Ten fields contain

  11. Protein kinase C is activated in glomeruli from streptozotocin diabetic rats. Possible mediation by glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven, P.A.; DeRubertis, F.R.


    Glomerular inositol content and the turnover of polyphosphoinositides was reduced by 58% in 1-2 wk streptozotocin diabetic rats. Addition of inositol to the incubation medium increased polyphosphoinositide turnover in glomeruli from diabetic rats to control values. Despite the reduction in inositol content and polyphosphoinositide turnover, protein kinase C was activated in glomeruli from diabetic rats, as assessed by an increase in the percentage of enzyme activity associated with the particulate cell fraction. Total protein kinase C activity was not different between glomeruli from control and diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin to achieve near euglycemia prevented the increase in particulate protein kinase C. Moreover, incubation of glomeruli from control rats with glucose (100-1,000 mg/dl) resulted in a progressive increase in labeled diacylglycerol production and in the percentage of protein kinase C activity which was associated with the particulate fraction. These results support a role for hyperglycemia per se in the enhanced state of activation of protein kinase C seen in glomeruli from diabetic rats. Glucose did not appear to increase diacylglycerol by stimulating inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in glomeruli. Other pathways for diacylglycerol production, including de novo synthesis and phospholipase C mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidyl-inositol-glycan are not excluded

  12. Purification of a nitrate reductase kinase from Spinacea oleracea leaves, and its identification as a calmodulin-domain protein kinase. (United States)

    Douglas, P; Moorhead, G; Hong, Y; Morrice, N; MacKintosh, C


    Spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) nitrate reductase (NR) is inactivated by phosphorylation on serine-543, followed by binding of the phosphorylated enzyme to 14-3-3 proteins. We purified one of several chromatographically distinct NRserine-543 kinases from spinach leaf extracts, and established by Edman sequencing of 80 amino acid residues that it is a calcium-dependent (calmodulin-domain) protein kinase (CDPK), with peptide sequences very similar to Arabidopsis CDPK6 (accession no. U20623; also known as CPK3). The spinach CDPK was recognized by antibodies raised against Arabidopsis CDPK. Nitrate reductase was phosphorylated at serine-543 by bacterially expressed His-tagged CDPK6, and the phosphorylated NR was inhibited by 14-3-3 proteins. However, the bacterially expressed CDPK6 had a specific activity approx. 200-fold lower than that of the purified spinach enzyme. The physiological control of NR by CDPK is discussed, and the regulatory properties of the purified CDPK are considered with reference to current models for reversible intramolecular binding of the calmodulin-like domain to the autoinhibitory junction of CDPKs.

  13. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) regulate DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) phosphorylation in mitosis. (United States)

    Douglas, Pauline; Ye, Ruiqiong; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Neal, Jessica A; De Wever, Veerle; Morrice, Nick A; Meek, Katheryn; Lees-Miller, Susan P


    The protein kinase activity of the DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit) and its autophosphorylation are critical for DBS (DNA double-strand break) repair via NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining). Recent studies have shown that depletion or inactivation of DNA-PKcs kinase activity also results in mitotic defects. DNA-PKcs is autophosphorylated on Ser2056, Thr2647 and Thr2609 in mitosis and phosphorylated DNA-PKcs localize to centrosomes, mitotic spindles and the midbody. DNA-PKcs also interacts with PP6 (protein phosphatase 6), and PP6 has been shown to dephosphorylate Aurora A kinase in mitosis. Here we report that DNA-PKcs is phosphorylated on Ser3205 and Thr3950 in mitosis. Phosphorylation of Thr3950 is DNA-PK-dependent, whereas phosphorylation of Ser3205 requires PLK1 (polo-like kinase 1). Moreover, PLK1 phosphorylates DNA-PKcs on Ser3205 in vitro and interacts with DNA-PKcs in mitosis. In addition, PP6 dephosphorylates DNA-PKcs at Ser3205 in mitosis and after IR (ionizing radiation). DNA-PKcs also phosphorylates Chk2 on Thr68 in mitosis and both phosphorylation of Chk2 and autophosphorylation of DNA-PKcs in mitosis occur in the apparent absence of Ku and DNA damage. Our findings provide mechanistic insight into the roles of DNA-PKcs and PP6 in mitosis and suggest that DNA-PKcs' role in mitosis may be mechanistically distinct from its well-established role in NHEJ.

  14. Phosphorylation in vitro of eukaryotic initiation factors IF-E2 and IF-E3 by protein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Benne, R; Hershey, J W


    Purified protein synthesis initiation factors IF-E2 and IF-E3 from rabbit reticulocytes were phosphorylated in vitro with protein kinases isolated from the same source. The highest levels of phosphorylation resulted from incubation of the factors with a cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase...

  15. Time-lapse cinematography study of the germinal vesicle behaviour in mouse primary oocytes treated with activators of protein kinases A and C. (United States)

    Alexandre, H; Mulnard, J


    A passive erratic movement of the germinal vesicle (GV), already visible in small incompetent oocytes, is followed by an active scalloping of the nuclear membrane soon before GV breakdown (GVBD) in cultured competent oocytes. Maturation can be inhibited by activators of protein kinase A (PK-A) and protein kinase C (PK-C). Our time-lapse cinematography analysis allowed us to describe an unexpected behaviour of the GV when PK-C, but not PK-A, is activated: GV undergoes a displacement toward the cortex according to the same biological clock which triggers the programmed translocation of the spindle in control oocytes. It is concluded that, when oocytes become committed to undergo maturation, the cytoplasm acquires a PK-A-controlled "centrifugal displacement property" which is not restricted to the spindle.

  16. Protein Kinase G Induces an Immune Response in Cows Exposed to Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Bach


    Full Text Available To establish infection, pathogens secrete virulence factors, such as protein kinases and phosphatases, to modulate the signal transduction pathways used by host cells to initiate immune response. The protein MAP3893c is annotated in the genome sequence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP, the causative agent of Johne’s disease, as the serine/threonine protein kinase G (PknG. In this work, we report that PknG is a functional kinase that is secreted within macrophages at early stages of infection. The antigen is able to induce an immune response from cattle exposed to MAP in the form of interferon gamma production after stimulation of whole blood with PknG. These findings suggest that PknG may contribute to the pathogenesis of MAP by phosphorylating macrophage signalling and/or adaptor molecules as observed with other pathogenic mycobacterial species.

  17. Fluorescent Reporters and Biosensors for Probing the Dynamic Behavior of Protein Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. González-Vera


    Full Text Available Probing the dynamic activities of protein kinases in real-time in living cells constitutes a major challenge that requires specific and sensitive tools tailored to meet the particular demands associated with cellular imaging. The development of genetically-encoded and synthetic fluorescent biosensors has provided means of monitoring protein kinase activities in a non-invasive fashion in their native cellular environment with high spatial and temporal resolution. Here, we review existing technologies to probe different dynamic features of protein kinases and discuss limitations where new developments are required to implement more performant tools, in particular with respect to infrared and near-infrared fluorescent probes and strategies which enable improved signal-to-noise ratio and controlled activation of probes.

  18. Efficient production of infectious viruses requires enzymatic activity of Epstein-Barr virus protein kinase. (United States)

    Murata, Takayuki; Isomura, Hiroki; Yamashita, Yoriko; Toyama, Shigenori; Sato, Yoshitaka; Nakayama, Sanae; Kudoh, Ayumi; Iwahori, Satoko; Kanda, Teru; Tsurumi, Tatsuya


    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BGLF4 gene product is the only protein kinase encoded by the virus genome. In order to elucidate its physiological roles in viral productive replication, we here established a BGLF4-knockout mutant and a revertant virus. While the levels of viral DNA replication of the deficient mutant were equivalent to those of the wild-type and the revertant, virus production was significantly impaired. Expression of the BGLF4 protein in trans fully complemented the low yield of the mutant virus, while expression of a kinase-dead (K102I) form of the protein failed to restore the virus titer. These results demonstrate that BGLF4 plays a significant role in production of infectious viruses and that the kinase activity is crucial.

  19. Oxidative Stress-Associated Protein Tyrosine Kinases and Phosphatases in Fanconi Anemia (United States)

    Pang, Qishen


    Abstract Significance: Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disorder featuring chromosomal instability, developmental defects, progressive bone marrow failure, and predisposition to cancer. Besides the predominant role in DNA damage response and/or repair, many studies have linked FA proteins to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, defined as imbalance in pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis, has been considered to contribute to disease development, including FA. Recent Advances: A variety of signaling pathways may be influenced by oxidative stress, particularly the equilibrium between protein kinases and phosphatases, consequently leading to an aberrant phosphorylation state of cellular proteins. Dysfunction of kinases/phosphatases has been implicated in the pathophysiology of human diseases. In FA, evidence is emerging that links abnormal phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation of signaling molecules to clinical complications and malformations. Critical Issues: In this study, we review the recent findings on the oxidative stress-related kinases and phosphatases, particularly tyrosine phosphatases in FA. Future Directions: Understanding the role of oxidative stress-related kinases and phosphatases in FA may provide unique and generic possibilities for the future development of therapeutic strategies by targeting the dysregulated protein kinases and phosphatases in a clinical setting. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2290–2301. PMID:24206276

  20. Chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in tobacco: differential regulation by calmodulin isoforms (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Xia, M.; Poovaiah, B. W.


    cDNA clones of chimeric Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) from tobacco (TCCaMK-1 and TCCaMK-2) were isolated and characterized. The polypeptides encoded by TCCaMK-1 and TCCaMK-2 have 15 different amino acid substitutions, yet they both contain a total of 517 amino acids. Northern analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner during anther development. Messenger RNA was detected when tobacco bud sizes were between 0.5 cm and 1.0 cm. The appearance of mRNA coincided with meiosis and became undetectable at later stages of anther development. The reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification assay using isoform-specific primers showed that both of the CCaMK mRNAs were expressed in anther with similar expression patterns. The CCaMK protein expressed in Escherichia coli showed Ca2+-dependent autophosphorylation and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent substrate phosphorylation. Calmodulin isoforms (PCM1 and PCM6) had differential effects on the regulation of autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation of tobacco CCaMK, but not lily CCaMK. The evolutionary tree of plant serine/threonine protein kinases revealed that calmodulin-dependent kinases form one subgroup that is distinctly different from Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) and other serine/threonine kinases in plants.

  1. Protein Kinases in Mammary Gland Development and Carcinogenesis (United States)


    of Krct expression was particularly high in the hippocampus and dentate mRNA expression revealed that although Krct is widely ex- gyms (Fig. 9). 2162...and dentate gyms . The novel serine/threonine kinase, Krct, was isolated initially as Te5U Te a cDA fagmnt n a egeerae oigoucletid PC sceen The 5’-UTR...1996; Vaughn et al., 1996b). These observa- BRCA2 expression by steroid hormones is of considerable tions, together with the finding that BR CA1 is a

  2. Tiam1-Rac1 Axis Promotes Activation of p38 MAP Kinase in the Development of Diabetic Retinopathy: Evidence for a Requisite Role for Protein Palmitoylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajakrishnan Veluthakal


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Evidence in multiple tissues, including retina, suggests generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the ensuing oxidative stress as triggers for mitochondrial defects and cell apoptosis. We recently reported novel roles for Tiam1-Rac1-Nox2 axis in retinal mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death leading to the development of diabetic retinopathy. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that activation of p38 MAP kinase, a stress kinase, represents the downstream signaling event to Rac1-Nox2 activation in diabetes-induced metabolic stress leading to capillary cell apoptosis. Methods: Activation of p38 MAP kinase was quantified by Western blotting in retinal endothelial cells incubated with high glucose (20 mM for up to 96 hours, a duration where mitochondrial dysfunction and capillary cell apoptosis can be observed. NSC23766 and 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP were used to assess the roles of Tiam1-Rac1 and palmitoylation pathways, respectively. Results: Activation of p38 MAP kinase was observed as early as 3 hours after high glucose exposure, and continued until 96 hours. Consistent with this, p38 MAP kinase activation was significantly higher in the retina from diabetic mice compared to age-matched normal mice. NSC23766 markedly attenuated hyperglycemia-induced activation of p38 MAP kinase. Lastly, 2-BP inhibited glucose-induced Rac1, Nox2 and p38 MAP kinase activation in endothelial cells. Conclusions: Tiam1-Rac1-mediated activation of Nox2 and p38 MAP kinase constitutes early signaling events leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and the development of diabetic retinopathy. Our findings also provide the first evidence to implicate novel roles for protein palmitoylation in this signaling cascade.

  3. The potent, indirect adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activator R419 attenuates mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, inhibits nociceptor excitability, and reduces pain hypersensitivity in mice

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    Galo L. Mejia


    Full Text Available Abstract. There is a great need for new therapeutics for the treatment of pain. A possible avenue to development of such therapeutics is to interfere with signaling pathways engaged in peripheral nociceptors that cause these neurons to become hyperexcitable. There is strong evidence that mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathways are key modulators of nociceptor excitability in vitro and in vivo. Activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK can inhibit signaling in both of these pathways, and AMPK activators have been shown to inhibit nociceptor excitability and pain hypersensitivity in rodents. R419 is one of, if not the most potent AMPK activator described to date. We tested whether R419 activates AMPK in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and if this leads to decreased pain hypersensitivity in mice. We find that R419 activates AMPK in DRG neurons resulting in decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, decreased nascent protein synthesis, and enhanced P body formation. R419 attenuates nerve growth factor (NGF-induced changes in excitability in DRG neurons and blocks NGF-induced mechanical pain amplification in vivo. Moreover, locally applied R419 attenuates pain hypersensitivity in a model of postsurgical pain and blocks the development of hyperalgesic priming in response to both NGF and incision. We conclude that R419 is a promising lead candidate compound for the development of potent and specific AMPK activation to inhibit pain hypersensitivity as a result of injury.

  4. Mechanism of nuclear calcium signaling by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate produced in the nucleus, nuclear located protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. (United States)

    Klein, Christian; Malviya, Anant N


    Nuclear phospholipase C-gamma 1 can be phosphorylated by nuclear membrane located epidermal growth factor receptor sequel to epidermal growth factor-mediated signaling to the nucleus. The function of mouse liver phospholipase C-gamma 1 is attributed to a 120 kDa protein fragment which has been found to be a proteolytic product of the 150 kDa native nuclear enzyme. The tyrosine-phosphorylated 120 kDa protein band interacts with activated EGFR, binds phosphatidyl-3-OH kinase enhancer, and activates nuclear phosphatidylinositol-3-OH-kinase, and is capable of generating diacylglycerol in response to the epidermal growth factor signal to the nucleus in vivo. Thus a mechanism for nuclear production of inositol-1,4,5-trisphophate is unraveled. Nuclear generated inositol-1,4,5-trisphophate interacts with the inner membrane located inositol-1,4,5-trisphophate receptor and sequesters calcium into the nucleoplasm. Nuclear inositol-1,4,5-trisphophate receptor is phosphorylated by native nuclear protein kinase C which enhances the receptor-ligand interaction. Nuclear calcium-ATPase and inositol-1,3,4,5-tetrakisphophate receptor are located on the outer nuclear membrane, thus facilitating calcium transport into the nuclear envelope lumen either by ATP or inositol-1,3,4,5-tetrakisphophate depending upon the external free calcium concentrations. Nuclear calcium ATPase is phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase with enhanced calcium pumping activity. A holistic picture emerges here where tyrosine phosphorylation compliments serine phosphorylation of key moieties regulating nuclear calcium signaling. Evidence are forwarded in favor of proteolysis having a profound implications in nuclear calcium homeostasis in particular and signal transduction in general.

  5. The role of protein kinase A and mitogen-activated protein kinases 3/1 and 14 in regulation of meiotic resumption of pig cumulus-oocyte complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Radek; Blaha, Milan; Němcová, Lucie


    Roč. 27, supplement 1 (2012), s. 1245-1246 ISSN 1355-4786. [28th Annual Meeting of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology . 01.07.2012-04.07.2012, Istanbul] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/0593 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : protein kinase A * pig oocyte Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  6. Comprehensive Characterization of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Catalytic Domain by Top-Down Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Yu, Deyang; Peng, Ying; Ayaz-Guner, Serife; Gregorich, Zachery R.; Ge, Ying


    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is essential in regulating energy metabolism in all eukaryotic cells. It is a heterotrimeric protein complex composed of a catalytic subunit (α) and two regulatory subunits (β and γ). C-terminal truncation of AMPKα at residue 312 yielded a protein that is active upon phosphorylation of Thr172 in the absence of β and γ subunits, which is refered to as the AMPK catalytic domain and commonly used to substitute for the AMPK heterotrimeric complex in in vitro kinase assays. However, a comprehensive characterization of the AMPK catalytic domain is lacking. Herein, we expressed a His-tagged human AMPK catalytic domin (denoted as AMPKΔ) in E. coli, comprehensively characterized AMPKΔ in its basal state and after in vitro phosphorylation using top-down mass spectrometry (MS), and assessed how phosphorylation of AMPKΔ affects its activity. Unexpectedly, we found that bacterially-expressed AMPKΔ was basally phosphorylated and localized the phosphorylation site to the His-tag. We found that AMPKΔ had noticeable basal activity and was capable of phosphorylating itself and its substrates without activating phosphorylation at Thr172. Moreover, our data suggested that Thr172 is the only site phosphorylated by its upstream kinase, liver kinase B1, and that this phosphorylation dramatically increases the kinase activity of AMPKΔ. Importantly, we demonstrated that top-down MS in conjunction with in vitro phosphorylation assay is a powerful approach for monitoring phosphorylation reaction and determining sequential order of phosphorylation events in kinase-substrate systems.

  7. Protein kinase that phosphorylates light-harvesting complex is autophosphorylated and is associated with photosystem II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughlan, S.J.; Hind, G.


    Thylakoid membranes were phosphorylated with [γ- 32 P]ATP and extracted with octyl glucoside and cholate. Among the radiolabeled phosphoproteins in the extract was a previously characterized protein kinase of 64-kDa apparent mass. The ability of this enzyme to undergo autophosphorylation in situ was used to monitor its distribution in the membrane. Fractionation studies showed that the kinase is confined to granal regions of the thylakoid, where it appears to be associated with the light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complex of photosystem II. The kinetics of kinase autophosphorylation were investigated both in situ and in extracted, purified enzyme. In the membrane, autophosphorylation saturated within 20-30 min and was reversed with a half-time of 7-8 min upon removal of ATP or oxidative inactivation of the kinase; the accompanying dephosphorylation of light-harvesting complex was slower and kinetically complex. Fluoride (10 mM) inhibited these dephosphorylations. Autophosphorylation of the isolated kinase was independent of enzyme concentration, indicative of an intramolecular mechanism. A maximum of one serine residue per mole of kinase was esterified. Autophosphorylation was more rapid in the presence of histone IIIs, an exogenous substrate. Dephosphorylation of the isolated enzyme was not observed

  8. Differential regulation of synaptic and extrasynaptic α4 GABA(A) receptor populations by protein kinase A and protein kinase C in cultured cortical neurons. (United States)

    Bohnsack, John Peyton; Carlson, Stephen L; Morrow, A Leslie


    The GABAA α4 subunit exists in two distinct populations of GABAA receptors. Synaptic GABAA α4 receptors are localized at the synapse and mediate phasic inhibitory neurotransmission, while extrasynaptic GABAA receptors are located outside of the synapse and mediate tonic inhibitory transmission. These receptors have distinct pharmacological and biophysical properties that contribute to interest in how these different subtypes are regulated under physiological and pathological states. We utilized subcellular fractionation procedures to separate these populations of receptors in order to investigate their regulation by protein kinases in cortical cultured neurons. Protein kinase A (PKA) activation decreases synaptic α4 expression while protein kinase C (PKC) activation increases α4 subunit expression, and these effects are associated with increased β3 S408/409 or γ2 S327 phosphorylation respectively. In contrast, PKA activation increases extrasynaptic α4 and δ subunit expression, while PKC activation has no effect. Our findings suggest synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA α4 subunit expression can be modulated by PKA to inform the development of more specific therapeutics for neurological diseases that involve deficits in GABAergic transmission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antimalarial potential of xestoquinone, a protein kinase inhibitor isolated from a Vanuatu marine sponge Xestospongia sp


    Laurent, Dominique; Jullian, Valérie; Parenty, A.; Knibiehler, M.; Dorin, D.; Schmitt, S.; Lozach, O.; Lebouvier, N.; Frostin, M.; Alby, F.; Maurel, Séverine; Doerig, C.; Meijer, L.; Sauvain, Michel


    As part of our search for new antimalarial drugs, we have screened for inhibitors of Pfnek-1, a protein kinase of Plasmodium falciparum, in south Pacific marine sponges. On the basis of a preliminary screening, the ethanolic crude extract of a new species of Xestospongia collected in Vanuatu was selected for its promising activity. A bioassay-guided fractionation led us to isolate xestoquinone which inhibits Pfnek-1 with an IC50 around 1 mu M. Among a small panel of plasmodial protein kinases...

  10. Mururins A-C, three new lignoids from Brosimum acutifolium and their protein kinase inhibitory activity. (United States)

    Takashima, Junko; Asano, Shoichi; Ohsaki, Ayumi


    Two new flavonolignans, mururins A and B ( 1 and 2), and a new lignan, mururin C ( 3), were isolated from the bark of Brosimum acutifolium Huber together with three known lignans. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means and chemical modifications. They were tested for protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitory activity. Mururin A showed 3 % and 63 % inhibition to PKA and PKC, respectively, at 20 microM. Mururin B showed 58 % and 38 % inhibition, respectively. Mururin C did not have significant activity.

  11. Damage-induced DNA replication stalling relies on MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köpper, Frederik; Bierwirth, Cathrin; Schön, Margarete


    DNA damage can obstruct replication forks, resulting in replicative stress. By siRNA screening, we identified kinases involved in the accumulation of phosphohistone 2AX (γH2AX) upon UV irradiation-induced replication stress. Surprisingly, the strongest reduction of phosphohistone 2AX followed...... knockdown of the MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), a kinase currently implicated in p38 stress signaling and G2 arrest. Depletion or inhibition of MK2 also protected cells from DNA damage-induced cell death, and mice deficient for MK2 displayed decreased apoptosis in the skin upon UV irradiation...... replication impaired by gemcitabine or by Chk1 inhibition. This rescue strictly depended on translesion DNA polymerases. In conclusion, instead of being an unavoidable consequence of DNA damage, alterations of replication speed and origin firing depend on MK2-mediated signaling....

  12. High-throughput kinase assays with protein substrates using fluorescent polymer superquenching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weatherford Wendy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput screening is used by the pharmaceutical industry for identifying lead compounds that interact with targets of pharmacological interest. Because of the key role that aberrant regulation of protein phosphorylation plays in diseases such as cancer, diabetes and hypertension, kinases have become one of the main drug targets. With the exception of antibody-based assays, methods to screen for specific kinase activity are generally restricted to the use of small synthetic peptides as substrates. However, the use of natural protein substrates has the advantage that potential inhibitors can be detected that affect enzyme activity by binding to a site other than the catalytic site. We have previously reported a non-radioactive and non-antibody-based fluorescence quench assay for detection of phosphorylation or dephosphorylation using synthetic peptide substrates. The aim of this work is to develop an assay for detection of phosphorylation of chemically unmodified proteins based on this polymer superquenching platform. Results Using a modified QTL Lightspeed™ assay, phosphorylation of native protein was quantified by the interaction of the phosphorylated proteins with metal-ion coordinating groups co-located with fluorescent polymer deposited onto microspheres. The binding of phospho-protein inhibits a dye-labeled "tracer" peptide from associating to the phosphate-binding sites present on the fluorescent microspheres. The resulting inhibition of quench generates a "turn on" assay, in which the signal correlates with the phosphorylation of the substrate. The assay was tested on three different proteins: Myelin Basic Protein (MBP, Histone H1 and Phosphorylated heat- and acid-stable protein (PHAS-1. Phosphorylation of the proteins was detected by Protein Kinase Cα (PKCα and by the Interleukin -1 Receptor-associated Kinase 4 (IRAK4. Enzyme inhibition yielded IC50 values that were comparable to those obtained using

  13. Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase regulates the motility of breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Xu

    Full Text Available Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR is an interferon-induced protein kinase that plays a central role in the anti-viral process. Due to its pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative action, there is an increased interest in PKR modulation as an anti-tumor strategy. PKR is overexpressed in breast cancer cells; however, the role of PKR in breast cancer cells is unclear. The expression/activity of PKR appears inversely related to the aggressiveness of breast cancer cells. The current study investigated the role of PKR in the motility/migration of breast cancer cells. The activation of PKR by a synthesized dsRNA (PIC significantly decreased the motility of several breast cancer cell lines (BT474, MDA-MB231 and SKBR3. PIC inhibited cell migration and blocked cell membrane ruffling without affecting cell viability. PIC also induced the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and impaired the formation of lamellipodia. These effects of PIC were reversed by the pretreatment of a selective PKR inhibitor. PIC also activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and its downstream MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2. PIC-induced activation of p38 MAPK and MK2 was attenuated by the PKR inhibitor and the PKR siRNA, but a selective p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580 or other MAPK inhibitors did not affect PKR activity, indicating that PKR is upstream of p38 MAPK/MK2. Cofilin is an actin severing protein and regulates membrane ruffling, lamellipodia formation and cell migration. PIC inhibited cofilin activity by enhancing its phosphorylation at Ser3. PIC activated LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1, an upstream kinase of cofilin in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner. We concluded that the activation of PKR suppressed cell motility by regulating the p38 MAPK/MK2/LIMK/cofilin pathway.

  14. Novel adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate dependent protein kinases in a marine diatom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, P.P.C.; Volcani, B.E.


    Two novel adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) dependent protein kinases have been isolated from the diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis. The kinases, designated I and II, are eluted from DEAE-Sephacel at 0.10 and 0.15 M NaCl. They have a high affinity for cAMP and are activated by micromolar cAMP. They exhibit maximal activity at 5 mM Mg 2+ and pH 8 with the preferred phosphate donor ATP and phosphate acceptor histone H1. They phosphorylate sea urchin sperm histone H1 on a single serine site in the sequence Arg-Lys-Gly-Ser( 32 P)-Ser-Asn-Ala-Arg and have an apparent M r of 75,000 as determined by gel filtration and sucrose density sedimentation. In the kinase I preparation a single protein band with an apparent M r of about 78,000 is photolabeled with 8-azido[ 32 P]cAMP and is also phosphorylated with [γ- 32 P]ATP in a cAMP-dependent manner, after autoradiography following sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. The rate of phosphorylation of the 78,000-dalton band is independent of the enzyme concentration. The results indicate that (i) these diatom cAMP-dependent protein kinases are monomeric proteins, possessing both the cAMP-binding regulatory and catalytic domains on the same polypeptide chain, (ii) the enzymes do not dissociate into smaller species upon activation by binding cAMP, and (iii) self-phosphorylation of the enzymes by an intrapeptide reaction is cAMP dependent. The two diatom cAMP kinases are refractory to the heat-stable protein kinase modulator from rabbit muscle, but they respond differently to proteolytic degradation and to inhibition by arachidonic acid and several microbial alkaloids

  15. Evolutionary Paths of the cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Catalytic Subunits (United States)

    Søberg, Kristoffer; Jahnsen, Tore; Rognes, Torbjørn; Skålhegg, Bjørn S.; Laerdahl, Jon K.


    3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) dependent protein kinase or protein kinase A (PKA) has served as a prototype for the large family of protein kinases that are crucially important for signal transduction in eukaryotic cells. The PKA catalytic subunits Cα and Cβ, encoded by the two genes PRKACA and PRKACB, respectively, are among the best understood and characterized human kinases. Here we have studied the evolution of this gene family in chordates, arthropods, mollusks and other animals employing probabilistic methods and show that Cα and Cβ arose by duplication of an ancestral PKA catalytic subunit in a common ancestor of vertebrates. The two genes have subsequently been duplicated in teleost fishes. The evolution of the PRKACG retroposon in simians was also investigated. Although the degree of sequence conservation in the PKA Cα/Cβ kinase family is exceptionally high, a small set of signature residues defining Cα and Cβ subfamilies were identified. These conserved residues might be important for functions that are unique to the Cα or Cβ clades. This study also provides a good example of a seemingly simple phylogenetic problem which, due to a very high degree of sequence conservation and corresponding weak phylogenetic signals, combined with problematic nonphylogenetic signals, is nontrivial for state-of-the-art probabilistic phylogenetic methods. PMID:23593352

  16. Cloning and Sequencing of Protein Kinase cDNA from Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. C. Neale


    Full Text Available Protein kinases (PKs play critical roles in signal transduction and activation of lymphocytes. The identification of PK genes provides a tool for understanding mechanisms of immunotoxic xenobiotics. As part of a larger study investigating persistent organic pollutants in the harbor seal and their possible immunomodulatory actions, we sequenced harbor seal cDNA fragments encoding PKs. The procedure, using degenerate primers based on conserved motifs of human protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs, successfully amplified nine phocid PK gene fragments with high homology to human and rodent orthologs. We identified eight PTKs and one dual (serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase. Among these were several PKs important in early signaling events through the B- and T-cell receptors (FYN, LYN, ITK and SYK and a MAP kinase involved in downstream signal transduction. V-FGR, RET and DDR2 were also expressed. Sequential activation of protein kinases ultimately induces gene transcription leading to the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes critical to adaptive immunity. PKs are potential targets of bioactive xenobiotics, including persistent organic pollutants of the marine environment; characterization of these molecules in the harbor seal provides a foundation for further research illuminating mechanisms of action of contaminants speculated to contribute to large-scale die-offs of marine mammals via immunosuppression.

  17. Identification and analysis of a novel protein-tyrosine kinase from bovine thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zioncheck, T.F.; Harrison, M.L.; Geahlen, R.L.


    A cytosolic protein-tyrosine kinase has been identified and purified to near homogeneity from calf thymus by using the phosphorylation of the tyrosine-containing peptide angiotensin I as an assay. Specific peptide phosphorylating activity was enhanced by carrying out the assay at high ionic strength (2M NaCl). The inclusion of NaCl at this concentration acts to stimulate endogenous protein-tyrosine kinase activity while simultaneously inhibiting other endogenous kinases. The purification procedure involved extraction of the enzyme from calf-thymus and sequential chromatography on columns of DEAE-cellulose, heparin-agarose, casein-sepharose, butylagarose, and Sephadex G-75. Analysis of the most highly purified preparations by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a single Coomassie blue-stained band of 41 KDa. This molecular weight was consistent with results obtained from gel filtration, indicating that the enzyme exists as a monomer. The enzyme has also been found to catalyze an autophosphorylation reaction. Incubation of the enzyme with Mn 2+ and [γ- 32 P]ATP led to its modification on a tyrosine residue. Phosphopeptide mapping experiments indicated that the 41 KDa kinase was distinct from p56, the major membrane-associated protein-tyrosine kinase in T lymphocytes

  18. Complex regulation of CREB-binding protein by homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2. (United States)

    Kovács, Krisztián A; Steinmann, Myriam; Halfon, Olivier; Magistretti, Pierre J; Cardinaux, Jean-René


    CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are transcriptional coactivators involved in numerous biological processes that affect cell growth, transformation, differentiation, and development. In this study, we provide evidence of the involvement of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) in the regulation of CBP activity. We show that HIPK2 interacts with and phosphorylates several regions of CBP. We demonstrate that serines 2361, 2363, 2371, 2376, and 2381 are responsible for the HIPK2-induced mobility shift of CBP C-terminal activation domain. Moreover, we show that HIPK2 strongly potentiates the transcriptional activity of CBP. However, our data suggest that HIPK2 activates CBP mainly by counteracting the repressive action of cell cycle regulatory domain 1 (CRD1), located between amino acids 977 and 1076, independently of CBP phosphorylation. Our findings thus highlight a complex regulation of CBP activity by HIPK2, which might be relevant for the control of specific sets of target genes involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Influence of electromagnetic radiation on raf kinase inhibitor protein and its related proteins of hippocampus]. (United States)

    Zuo, Hong-yan; Wang, De-wen; Peng, Rui-yun; Wang, Shui-ming; Gao, Ya-bing; Xu, Xin-ping; Ma, Jun-jie


    To study the development of changes for Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) and its mRNA in rats hippocampus after electromagnetic radiation. Rats were exposed to X-band high power microwave (X-HPM), S-band high power microwave (S-HPM) and electromagnetic pulse (EMP) radiation source respectively. The animal model of electromagnetic radiation was established. Western blot was used to detect the expression of RKIP, and RT-PCR was applied to detect the expression of RKIP mRNA. The interaction of RKIP and Raf-1 was measured with co-immunoprecipitation method, and the expression of cerebral choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) was measured by immunohistochemistry. The expression of RKIP significantly down-regulated at 6 h after radiation, and recovered at 1 d in group EMP, but the down-regulation continued during 1 approximately 7 d after radiation in the two microwave groups. The expression of RKIP mRNA changed wavily during 6 h approximately 7 d after radiation, which showed down-regulation at 6 h, and up-regulation at 3 d. The interaction of RKIP and Raf-1 decreased during 6 h approximately 7 d after radiation, most significantly at 7 d, and the two microwave groups were more significant. The expression of CHAT decreased continuously during 6 h approximately 7 d after radiation, and generally recovered on 14 d. The down-regulation of RKIP and its related proteins of hippocampus is induced by electromagnetic radiation.

  20. Complex regulation of CREB-binding protein by homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2

    KAUST Repository

    Kovács, Krisztián A.


    CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are transcriptional coactivators involved in numerous biological processes that affect cell growth, transformation, differentiation, and development. In this study, we provide evidence of the involvement of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) in the regulation of CBP activity. We show that HIPK2 interacts with and phosphorylates several regions of CBP. We demonstrate that serines 2361, 2363, 2371, 2376, and 2381 are responsible for the HIPK2-induced mobility shift of CBP C-terminal activation domain. Moreover, we show that HIPK2 strongly potentiates the transcriptional activity of CBP. However, our data suggest that HIPK2 activates CBP mainly by counteracting the repressive action of cell cycle regulatory domain 1 (CRD1), located between amino acids 977 and 1076, independently of CBP phosphorylation. Our findings thus highlight a complex regulation of CBP activity by HIPK2, which might be relevant for the control of specific sets of target genes involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

  1. Involvement of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase signalling pathway in host cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert-Gangneux F.


    Full Text Available Little is known about signalling in Toxoplasma gondii, but it is likely that protein kinases might play a key role in the parasite proliferation, differentiation and probably invasion. We previously characterized Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP kinases in T. gondii lysates. In this study, cultured cells were tested for their susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii infection after tachyzoite pretreatment with drugs interfering with AMP kinase activation pathways. Protein kinases inhibitors, i.e. genistein, R031-8220 and PD098059, reduced tachyzoite infectivity by 38 ± 4.5 %, 85.5 ± 9 % and 56 ± 10 %, respectively. Conversely, protein kinases activators, i.e. bombesin and PMA, markedly increased infectivity (by 202 ± 37 % and 258 ± 14 %, respectively. These results suggest that signalling pathways involving PKC and AAAP kinases play a role in host cell invasion by Toxoplasma.

  2. LmxMPK4, an essential mitogen-activated protein kinase of Leishmania mexicana is phosphorylated and activated by the STE7-like protein kinase LmxMKK5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John von Freyend, Simona; Rosenqvist, Heidi; Fink, Annette


    The essential mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), LmxMPK4, of Leishmania mexicana is minimally active when purified following recombinant expression in Escherichia coli and was therefore unsuitable for drug screening until now. Using an E. coli protein co-expression system we identifie...... for new therapeutic drugs against leishmaniasis....

  3. Colletotrichum higginsianum extracellular LysM proteins play dual roles in appressorial function and suppression of chitin-triggered plant immunity. (United States)

    Takahara, Hiroyuki; Hacquard, Stéphane; Kombrink, Anja; Hughes, H Bleddyn; Halder, Vivek; Robin, Guillaume P; Hiruma, Kei; Neumann, Ulla; Shinya, Tomonori; Kombrink, Erich; Shibuya, Naoto; Thomma, Bart P H J; O'Connell, Richard J


    The genome of the hemibiotrophic anthracnose fungus, Colletotrichum higginsianum, encodes a large repertoire of candidate-secreted effectors containing LysM domains, but the role of such proteins in the pathogenicity of any Colletotrichum species is unknown. Here, we characterized the function of two effectors, ChELP1 and ChELP2, which are transcriptionally activated during the initial intracellular biotrophic phase of infection. Using immunocytochemistry, we found that ChELP2 is concentrated on the surface of bulbous biotrophic hyphae at the interface with living host cells but is absent from filamentous necrotrophic hyphae. We show that recombinant ChELP1 and ChELP2 bind chitin and chitin oligomers in vitro with high affinity and specificity and that both proteins suppress the chitin-triggered activation of two immune-related plant mitogen-activated protein kinases in the host Arabidopsis. Using RNAi-mediated gene silencing, we found that ChELP1 and ChELP2 are essential for fungal virulence and appressorium-mediated penetration of both Arabidopsis epidermal cells and cellophane membranes in vitro. The findings suggest a dual role for these LysM proteins as effectors for suppressing chitin-triggered immunity and as proteins required for appressorium function. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Trophoblast cell fusion and differentiation are mediated by both the protein kinase C and a pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waka Omata

    Full Text Available The syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta is an epithelial barrier that interacts with maternal blood and is a key for the transfer of nutrients and other solutes to the developing fetus. The syncytiotrophoblast is a true syncytium and fusion of progenitor cytotrophoblasts is the cardinal event leading to the formation of this layer. BeWo cells are often used as a surrogate for cytotrophoblasts, since they can be induced to fuse, and then express certain differentiation markers associated with trophoblast syncytialization. Dysferlin, a syncytiotrophoblast membrane repair protein, is up-regulated in BeWo cells induced to fuse by treatment with forskolin; this fusion is thought to occur through cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent mechanisms. We hypothesized that dysferlin may also be up-regulated in response to fusion through other pathways. Here, we show that BeWo cells can also be induced to fuse by treatment with an activator of protein kinase C, and that this fusion is accompanied by increased expression of dysferlin. Moreover, a dramatic synergistic increase in dysferlin expression is observed when both the protein kinase A and protein kinase C pathways are activated in BeWo cells. This synergy in fusion is also accompanied by dramatic increases in mRNA for the placental fusion proteins syncytin 1, syncytin 2, as well as dysferlin. Dysferlin, however, was shown to be dispensable for stimulus-induced BeWo cell syncytialization, since dysferlin knockdown lines fused to the same extent as control cells. The classical trophoblast differentiation marker human chorionic gonadotropin was also monitored and changes in the expression closely parallel that of dysferlin in all of the experimental conditions employed. Thus different biochemical markers of trophoblast fusion behave in concert supporting the hypothesis that activation of both protein kinase C and A pathways lead to trophoblastic differentiation.

  5. Regulation of NADPH oxidase 5 by protein kinase C isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Chen

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidase5 (Nox5 is a novel Nox isoform which has recently been recognized as having important roles in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, fetal ventricular septal defect and cancer. The activity of Nox5 and production of reactive oxygen species is regulated by intracellular calcium levels and phosphorylation. However, the kinases that phosphorylate Nox5 remain poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that the phosphorylation of Nox5 is PKC dependent, but this contention was based on the use of pharmacological inhibitors and the isoforms of PKC involved remain unknown. Thus, the major goals of this study were to determine whether PKC can directly regulate Nox5 phosphorylation and activity, to identify which isoforms are involved in the process, and to understand the functional significance of this pathway in disease. We found that a relatively specific PKCα inhibitor, Ro-32-0432, dose-dependently inhibited PMA-induced superoxide production from Nox5. PMA-stimulated Nox5 activity was significantly reduced in cells with genetic silencing of PKCα and PKCε, enhanced by loss of PKCδ and the silencing of PKCθ expression was without effect. A constitutively active form of PKCα robustly increased basal and PMA-stimulated Nox5 activity and promoted the phosphorylation of Nox5 on Ser490, Thr494, and Ser498. In contrast, constitutively active PKCε potently inhibited both basal and PMA-dependent Nox5 activity. Co-IP and in vitro kinase assay experiments demonstrated that PKCα directly binds to Nox5 and modifies Nox5 phosphorylation and activity. Exposure of endothelial cells to high glucose significantly increased PKCα activation, and enhanced Nox5 derived superoxide in a manner that was in prevented by a PKCα inhibitor, Go 6976. In summary, our study reveals that PKCα is the primary isoform mediating the activation of Nox5 and this maybe of significance in our understanding of the vascular

  6. Protein kinase C-beta II (PKC-betaII) expression in patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Karen-Lise; Lindebjerg, Jan; Lahn, Michael


    the expression of PKC-beta in colorectal cancer or the prognostic value in colorectal cancer, which was the focus of the present study. METHODS: PKC-betaII protein expression was examined in 99 primary colorectal adenocarcinomas and 33 corresponding regional lymph node metastases by immunohistochemistry (IHC......PURPOSE: Current development of targeted agents for the treatment of colorectal cancer include the clinical evaluation of kinase inhibitors, such as enzastaurin, a serine/threonine kinase inhibitor designed to suppress signaling through Protein Kinase C (PKC) and AKT pathways. Little is known about...... with colorectal cancer and show a trend associating with poor survival. The role of PKC-betaII staining in colorectal tumors deserves further evaluation....

  7. Regulation of Ubiquitination-Mediated Protein Degradation by Survival Kinases in Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Hsu, Jennifer L.; Hung, Mien-Chie


    The ubiquitin–proteasome system is essential for multiple physiological processes via selective degradation of target proteins and has been shown to plays a critical role in human cancer. Activation of oncogenic factors and inhibition of tumor suppressors have been shown to be essential for cancer development, and protein ubiquitination has been linked to the regulation of oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors. Three kinases, AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and IκB kinase, we refer to as oncokinases, are activated in multiple human cancers. We and others have identified several key downstream targets that are commonly regulated by these oncokinases, some of which are regulated directly or indirectly via ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation, including FOXO3, β-catenin, myeloid cell leukemia-1, and Snail. In this review, we summarize these findings from our and other groups and discuss potential future studies and applications in the clinic.

  8. The MAP kinase Pmk1 and protein kinase A are required for rotenone resistance in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yiwei; Gulis, Galina; Buckner, Scott; Johnson, P. Connor; Sullivan, Daniel [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Busenlehner, Laura [Department of Chemistry, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Marcus, Stevan, E-mail: [Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)


    Research highlights: {yields} Rotenone induces generation of ROS and mitochondrial fragmentation in fission yeast. {yields} The MAPK Pmk1 and PKA are required for rotenone resistance in fission yeast. {yields} Pmk1 and PKA are required for ROS clearance in rotenone treated fission yeast cells. {yields} PKA plays a role in ROS clearance under normal growth conditions in fission yeast. -- Abstract: Rotenone is a widely used pesticide that induces Parkinson's disease-like symptoms in rats and death of dopaminergic neurons in culture. Although rotenone is a potent inhibitor of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, it can induce death of dopaminergic neurons independently of complex I inhibition. Here we describe effects of rotenone in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which lacks complex I and carries out rotenone-insensitive cellular respiration. We show that rotenone induces generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as fragmentation of mitochondrial networks in treated S. pombe cells. While rotenone is only modestly inhibitory to growth of wild type S. pombe cells, it is strongly inhibitory to growth of mutants lacking the ERK-type MAP kinase, Pmk1, or protein kinase A (PKA). In contrast, cells lacking the p38 MAP kinase, Spc1, exhibit modest resistance to rotenone. Consistent with these findings, we provide evidence that Pmk1 and PKA, but not Spc1, are required for clearance of ROS in rotenone treated S. pombe cells. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of S. pombe for elucidating complex I-independent molecular targets of rotenone as well as mechanisms conferring resistance to the toxin.

  9. The MAP kinase Pmk1 and protein kinase A are required for rotenone resistance in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yiwei; Gulis, Galina; Buckner, Scott; Johnson, P. Connor; Sullivan, Daniel; Busenlehner, Laura; Marcus, Stevan


    Research highlights: → Rotenone induces generation of ROS and mitochondrial fragmentation in fission yeast. → The MAPK Pmk1 and PKA are required for rotenone resistance in fission yeast. → Pmk1 and PKA are required for ROS clearance in rotenone treated fission yeast cells. → PKA plays a role in ROS clearance under normal growth conditions in fission yeast. -- Abstract: Rotenone is a widely used pesticide that induces Parkinson's disease-like symptoms in rats and death of dopaminergic neurons in culture. Although rotenone is a potent inhibitor of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, it can induce death of dopaminergic neurons independently of complex I inhibition. Here we describe effects of rotenone in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which lacks complex I and carries out rotenone-insensitive cellular respiration. We show that rotenone induces generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as fragmentation of mitochondrial networks in treated S. pombe cells. While rotenone is only modestly inhibitory to growth of wild type S. pombe cells, it is strongly inhibitory to growth of mutants lacking the ERK-type MAP kinase, Pmk1, or protein kinase A (PKA). In contrast, cells lacking the p38 MAP kinase, Spc1, exhibit modest resistance to rotenone. Consistent with these findings, we provide evidence that Pmk1 and PKA, but not Spc1, are required for clearance of ROS in rotenone treated S. pombe cells. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of S. pombe for elucidating complex I-independent molecular targets of rotenone as well as mechanisms conferring resistance to the toxin.

  10. Prognostic significance and therapeutic potential of the activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Ju; Yin, Minzhi; Zhu, Yiping; Gu, Ling; Zhang, Yanle; Li, Qiang; Jia, Cangsong; Ma, Zhigui


    Activation of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (AKT/mTOR) pathway has been demonstrated to be involved in nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK)-mediated tumorigenesis in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and correlated with unfavorable outcome in certain types of other cancers. However, the prognostic value of AKT/mTOR activation in ALCL remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we aim to address this question from a clinical perspective by comparing the expressions of the AKT/mTOR signaling molecules in ALCL patients and exploring the therapeutic significance of targeting the AKT/mTOR pathway in ALCL. A cohort of 103 patients with ALCL was enrolled in the study. Expression of ALK fusion proteins and the AKT/mTOR signaling phosphoproteins was studied by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The pathogenic role of ALK fusion proteins and the therapeutic significance of targeting the ATK/mTOR signaling pathway were further investigated in vitro study with an ALK + ALCL cell line and the NPM-ALK transformed BaF3 cells. ALK expression was detected in 60% of ALCLs, of which 79% exhibited the presence of NPM-ALK, whereas the remaining 21% expressed variant-ALK fusions. Phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR, 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1), and 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase polypeptide 1 (p70S6K1) was detected in 76%, 80%, 91%, and 93% of ALCL patients, respectively. Both phospho-AKT (p-AKT) and p-mTOR were correlated to ALK expression, and p-mTOR was closely correlated to p-AKT. Both p-4E-BP1 and p-p70S6K1 were correlated to p-mTOR, but were not correlated to the expression of ALK and p-AKT. Clinically, ALK + ALCL occurred more commonly in younger patients, and ALK + ALCL patients had a much better prognosis than ALK-ALCL cases. However, expression of p-AKT, p-mTOR, p-4E-BP1, or p-p70S6K1 did not have an impact on the clinical outcome. Overexpression of NPM-ALK in a nonmalignant murine pro-B lymphoid cell line, BaF3, induced the

  11. Protein implicated in nonsyndromic mental retardation regulates protein kinase A (PKA) activity

    KAUST Repository

    Altawashi, Azza


    Mutation of the coiled-coil and C2 domain-containing 1A (CC2D1A) gene, which encodes a C2 domain and DM14 domain-containing protein, has been linked to severe autosomal recessive nonsyndromic mental retardation. Using a mouse model that produces a truncated form of CC2D1A that lacks the C2 domain and three of the four DM14 domains, we show that CC2D1A is important for neuronal differentiation and brain development. CC2D1A mutant neurons are hypersensitive to stress and have a reduced capacitytoformdendritesandsynapsesinculture. Atthebiochemical level,CC2D1Atransduces signals to the cyclic adenosine 3?,5?-monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway during neuronal cell differentiation. PKA activity is compromised, and the translocation of its catalytic subunit to the nucleus is also defective in CC2D1A mutant cells. Consistently, phosphorylation of the PKA target cAMP-responsive element-binding protein, at serine 133, is nearly abolished in CC2D1A mutant cells. The defects in cAMP/PKA signaling were observed in fibroblast, macrophage, and neuronal primary cells derived from the CC2D1A KO mice. CC2D1A associates with the cAMP-PKA complex following forskolin treatment and accumulates in vesicles or on the plasma membrane in wild-type cells, suggesting that CC2D1A may recruit the PKA complex to the membrane to facilitate signal transduction. Together, our data show that CC2D1A is an important regulator of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway, which may be the underlying cause for impaired mental function in nonsyndromic mental retardation patients with CC2D1A mutation. 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Identification of a novel receptor-like protein kinase that interacts with a geminivirus nuclear shuttle protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, Andrea C.; Andrade, Maxuel O.; Santos, Anesia A.; Carolino, Sonia M.B.; Oliveira, Marli L.; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; Brommonshenkel, Sergio H.; Fontes, Elizabeth P.B.


    Despite extensive studies in plant virus-host interactions, the molecular mechanisms of geminivirus movement and interactions with host components remain largely unknown. A tomato kinase protein and its soybean homolog were found to interact specifically with the nuclear shuttle protein (NSP) of Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) and Tomato crinkle leaf yellows virus (TCrLYV) through yeast two-hybrid screening and in vitro protein binding assays. These proteins, designated LeNIK (Lycopersicon esculentum NSP-Interacting Kinase) and GmNIK (Glycine max NIK), belong to the LRR-RLK (leucine rich-repeat receptor-like kinase) family that is involved in plant developmental processes and/or resistance response. As such, NIK is structurally organized into characteristic domains, including a serine/threonine kinase domain with a nucleotide binding site at the C-terminal region, an internal transmembrane segment and leucine-rich repeats (LRR) at the N-terminal portion. The potential significance of the NSP-NIK interaction is discussed

  13. Heat Shock Proteins and Mitogen-activated Protein Kinases in Steatotic Livers Undergoing Ischemia-Reperfusion: Some Answers (United States)

    Massip-Salcedo, Marta; Casillas-Ramirez, Araní; Franco-Gou, Rosah; Bartrons, Ramón; Ben Mosbah, Ismail; Serafin, Anna; Roselló-Catafau, Joan; Peralta, Carmen


    Ischemic preconditioning protects steatotic livers against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but just how this is achieved is poorly understood. Here, I/R or preconditioning plus I/R was induced in steatotic and nonsteatotic livers followed by investigating the effect of pharmacological treatments that modulate heat shock proteins (HSPs) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). MAPKs, HSPs, protein kinase C, and transaminase levels were measured after reperfusion. We report that preconditioning increased HSP72 and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) at 6 and 24 hours of reperfusion, respectively. Unlike nonsteatotic livers, steatotic livers benefited from HSP72 activators (geranylgeranylacetone) throughout reperfusion. This protection seemed attributable to HO-1 induction. In steatotic livers, preconditioning and geranylgeranylacetone treatment (which are responsible for HO-1 induction) increased protein kinase C activity. HO-1 activators (cobalt(III) protoporphyrin IX) protected both liver types. Preconditioning reduced p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), resulting in HSP72 induction though HO-1 remained unmodified. Like HSP72, both p38 and JNK appeared not to be crucial in preconditioning, and inhibitors of p38 (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) were less effective against hepatic injury than HO-1 activators. These results provide new data regarding the mechanisms of preconditioning and may pave the way to the development of new pharmacological strategies in liver surgery. PMID:16651615

  14. A-kinase anchoring protein 150 in the mouse brain is concentrated in areas involved in learning and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostroveanu, Anghelus; Van der Zee, Eddy A.; Dolga, Amalia M.; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Eisel, Ulrich L. M.; Nijholt, Ingrid M.


    A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) form large macromolecular signaling complexes that specifically target cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) to unique subcellular compartments and thus, provide high specificity to PKA signaling. For example, the AKAP79/150 family tethers PKA, PKC and PP2B to

  15. Inhibition of PKA anchoring to A-kinase anchoring proteins impairs consolidation and facilitates extinction of contextual fear memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Ingrid M.; Ostroveanu, Anghelus; Scheper, Wouter A.; Penke, Botond; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Van der Zee, Eddy A.; Eisel, Ulrich L. M.

    Both genetic and pharmacological studies demonstrated that contextual fear conditioning is critically regulated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Since PKA is a broad range protein kinase, a mechanism for confining its activity is required. It has been shown that intracellular spatial

  16. AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in brain is dependent on method of sacrifice and tissue preparation (United States)

    Scharf, Matthew T.; Mackiewicz, Miroslaw; Naidoo, Nirinjini; O'Callaghan, James P.; Pack, Allan I.


    AMP-activated protein kinase is activated when the catalytic α subunit is phosphorylated on Thr172 and therefore, phosphorylation of the α subunit is used as a measure of activation. However, measurement of α-AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in vivo can be technically challenging. To determine the most accurate method for measuring α-AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in the mouse brain, we compared different methods of sacrifice and tissue preparation. We found that freeze/thawing samples after homogenization on ice dramatically increased α-AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in mice sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Sacrifice of mice by focused microwave irradiation, which rapidly heats the brain and causes enzymatic inactivation, prevented the freeze/thaw-induced increase in α-AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and similar levels of phosphorylation were observed compared to mice sacrificed with cervical dislocation without freeze/thawing of samples. Sonication of samples in hot 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate blocked the freeze/thaw-induced increase in α-AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, but phosphorylation was higher in mice sacrificed by cervical dislocation compared to mice sacrificed by focused microwave irradiation. These results demonstrate that α-AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation is dependent on method of sacrifice and tissue preparation and that α-AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation can increase in a manner that does not reflect biological alterations. PMID:18088373

  17. DMPD: Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase: potentialregulators of macrophage inflammatory activities. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12472665 Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase: potential...:545-53. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase:... potentialregulators of macrophage inflammatory activities. PubmedID 12472665 Title Macrophage-stimu

  18. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) inhibitors to treat melanoma alone or in combination with other kinase inhibitors. (United States)

    Faghfuri, Elnaz; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Niaz, Kamal; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Abdollahi, Mohammad


    Malignant melanoma (MM) is an aggressive disease with a rapidly rising incidence due to neoplasm of melanocytes. Molecular targeted therapies have demonstrated lower toxicity and improved overall survival versus conventional therapies of MM. The revealing of mutations in the BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway has led to the development of BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib and dabrafenib for the treatment of cutaneous MM. Though, progression of resistance to these agents has prompted attempts to target downstream proteins in this pathway. Trametinib, a MEK1/2 inhibitor, was approved in 2013 for the treatment of BRAF V600E/K mutation-positive unresectable or metastatic cutaneous melanoma patients. Areas covered: The aim of the current review is to present an update on the role of MEK in progressive melanomas and summarize latest results of clinical studies with innovative MEK inhibitors and/or combined approaches with other kinase inhibitors such as BRAF inhibitors in the treatment of MM. Expert opinion: Two combined treatments (i.e. trametinib plus dabrafenib and vemurafenib plus cobimetinib) target two different kinases in the BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway. The simultaneous prohibition of both MEK and BRAF is associated with more durable response rate than BRAF monotherapy and can overcome acquired resistance.

  19. Involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 in the induction of cell dissociation in pancreatic cancer. (United States)

    Tan, Xiaodong; Egami, Hiroshi; Kamohara, Hidenobu; Ishikawa, Shinji; Kurizaki, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoya; Tamori, Yasuhiko; Takai, Eiji; Hirota, Masahiko; Ogawa, Michio


    In our previous investigation, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 (MEK2) was detected as a factor which was correlated to the potential of invasion-metastasis. In this study, the immunocytochemical, immunohistochemical and mRNA expressions of MEK2 were examined in pancreatic cancer cell lines and tissue samples, respectively. Constitutive expressions of MEK2 and phosphorylated MEK (p-MEK) were observed in PC-1.0 and ASPC-1 cells, which exhibited a growth pattern of single cells, whereas the relevant expressions were quite faint in PC-1 cells and CAPAN-2 cells, which exhibited a growth pattern of island-like clonies. Simultaneous inductions of MEK2 expressions and cell dissociation were observed after the treatment with a conditioned medium (CM) of PC-1.0 cells. The expression of MEK2 and p-MEK were reduced and the cell aggregation was found in PC-1.0 and ASPC-1 cells after U0126 (a MEK inhibitor) treatment. In vivo, both the MEK2 and p-MEK overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer tissues and p-MEK was found to be more strongly expressed in the invasive front than that in the center of tumor (Pcell dissociation. MEK2 activation is probably involved in the first step of the cascade in the invasion-metastasis of pancreatic cancer.

  20. TEC protein tyrosine kinase is involved in the Erk signaling pathway induced by HGF. (United States)

    Li, Feifei; Jiang, Yinan; Zheng, Qiping; Yang, Xiaoming; Wang, Siying


    TEC, a member of the TEC family of non-receptor type protein tyrosine kinases, has recently been suggested to play a role in hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration. This study aims to investigate the putative mechanisms of TEC kinase regulation of hepatocyte differentiation, i.e. to explore which signaling pathway TEC is involved in, and how TEC is activated in hepatocyte after hepatectomy and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulation. We performed immunoprecipitation (IP) and immunoblotting (IB) to examine TEC tyrosine phosphorylation after partial hepatectomy in mice and HGF stimulation in WB F-344 hepatic cells. The TEC kinase activity was determined by in vitro kinase assay. Reporter gene assay, antisense oligonucleotide and TEC dominant negative mutant (TEC(KM)) were used to examine the possible signaling pathways in which TEC is involved. The cell proliferation rate was evaluated by (3)H-TdR incorporation. TEC phosphorylation and kinase activity were increased in 1 h after hepatectomy or HGF treatment. TEC enhanced the activity of Elk and serum response element (SRE). Inhibition of MEK1 suppressed TEC phosphorylation. Blocking TEC activity dramatically decreased the activation of Erk. Reduced TEC kinase activity also suppressed the proliferation of WB F-344 cells. These results suggest TEC is involved in the Ras-MAPK pathway and acts between MEK1 and Erk. TEC promotes hepatocyte proliferation and regeneration and is involved in HGF-induced Erk signaling pathway. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparison of protein kinases inhibitor screening methods using both enzymatic activity and binding affinity determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Amalie Frederikke; Skovgaard, Tine; Knapp, Stefan


    Binding assays are increasingly used as a screening method for protein kinase inhibitors; however, as yet only a weak correlation with enzymatic activity-based assays has been demonstrated. We show that the correlation between the two types of assays can be improved using more precise screening...

  2. A subnanomolar fluorescent probe for protein kinase CK2 interaction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkvist, Erki; Viht, Kaido; Bischoff, Nils


    assay that used thin layer chromatography for the measurement of the rate of phosphorylation of fluorescently labelled peptide 5-TAMRA-RADDSDDDDD. The most potent inhibitor, ARC-1502 (K(i) = 0.5 nM), revealed high selectivity for CK2α in a panel of 140 protein kinases. Labelling of ARC-1502 with Promo...

  3. Transient upregulation of protein kinase C in pressure-overloaded neonatal rat myocardium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamplová, B.; Novák, F.; Kolář, František; Nováková, O.


    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2010), s. 25-33 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : protein kinase C * cardiac development * pressure overload Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  4. Fueling the engine: induction of AMP-activated protein kinase in trout skeletal muscle by swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnoni, L.J.; Palstra, A.P.; Planas, J.V.


    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is well known to be induced by exercise and to mediate important metabolic changes in the skeletal muscle of mammals. Despite the physiological importance of exercise as a modulator of energy use by locomotory muscle, the regulation of this enzyme by swimming has

  5. Regulation of taurine homeostasis by protein kinase CK2 in mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Guerra, Barbara; Jacobsen, Jack Hummeland


    Increased expression of the ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase CK2 has been associated with increased proliferative capacity and increased resistance towards apoptosis. Taurine is the primary organic osmolyte involved in cell volume control in mammalian cells, and shift in cell volume is ...

  6. Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 activity during meiosis resumption in mammals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Radek; Blaha, Milan


    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2015), s. 495-502 ISSN 0916-8818 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QJ1510138 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : cumulus oocyte complexes * meiosis resumption * mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 (MAPK3/1) Subject RIV: GI - Animal Husbandry ; Breeding Impact factor: 1.453, year: 2015

  7. Protein kinase C activity is a protective modifier of Purkinje neuron degeneration in cerebellar ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chopra, Ravi; Wasserman, Aaron H; Pulst, Stefan M; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Shakkottai, Vikram G


    Among the many types of neurons expressing protein kinase C (PKC) enzymes, cerebellar Purkinje neurons are particularly reliant on appropriate PKC activity for maintaining homeostasis. The importance of PKC enzymes in Purkinje neuron health is apparent as mutations in PRKCG (encoding PKCγ) cause

  8. Exercise in rats does not alter hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulrika; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Nielsen, Jakob Nis


    Recent studies have demonstrated that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of food intake. Because exercise is known to influence appetite and cause substrate depletion, it may also influence AMPK in the hypothalamus. Male rats that either rested o...

  9. Spatial Organization in Protein Kinase A Signaling Emerged at the Base of Animal Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Mao; Aye, Thin Thin; Snel, Berend; Van Breukelen, Bas; Scholten, Arjen; Heck, Albert J R


    In phosphorylation-directed signaling, spatial and temporal control is organized by complex interaction networks that diligently direct kinases toward distinct substrates to fine-tune specificity. How these protein networks originate and evolve into complex regulatory machineries are among the most

  10. Purification and characterization of recombinant protein kinase CK2 from Zea mays expressed in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riera, Marta; Pages, Montserrat; Issinger, Olaf Georg


    Recombinant protein kinase subunits rmCK2alpha-1 and rmCK2beta-1 from Zea mays were expressed separately in Escherichia coli and assembled to a fully active tetrameric holoenzyme complex in vitro. The obtained maize holoenzyme was purified to homogeneity, biochemically characterized, and compared...

  11. Spermidine-Induced Improvement of Reconsolidation of Memory Involves Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase in Rats (United States)

    Girardi, Bruna Amanda; Ribeiro, Daniela Aymone; Signor, Cristiane; Muller, Michele; Gais, Mayara Ana; Mello, Carlos Fernando; Rubin, Maribel Antonello


    In this study, we determined whether the calcium-dependent protein kinase (PKC) signaling pathway is involved in the improvement of fear memory reconsolidation induced by the intrahippocampal administration of spermidine in rats. Male Wistar rats were trained in a fear conditioning apparatus using a 0.4-mA footshock as an unconditioned stimulus.…

  12. Selective inhibition of Sarcocystis neurona calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis therapy (United States)

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most frequent cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), a debilitating neurologic disease of horses that can be difficult to treat. We identified SnCDPK1, the S. neurona homologue of calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1), a validated drug target in Toxoplasma...

  13. Insulin resistance enhances the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in ovarian granulosa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghui Kong

    Full Text Available The ovary is the main regulator of female fertility. Granulosa cell dysfunction may be involved in various reproductive endocrine disorders. Here we investigated the effect of insulin resistance on the metabolism and function of ovarian granulosa cells, and dissected the functional status of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in these cells. Our data showed that dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in mouse granulosa cells reduced insulin sensitivity, accompanied with an increase in phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, up-regulation of cytochrome P450 subfamily 17 and testosterone and down-regulation of progesterone were observed in insulin-resistant mouse granulosa cells. Inhibition of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase after induction of insulin resistance in mouse granulosa cells decreased phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase, downregulated cytochrome P450 subfamily 17 and lowered progesterone production. This insulin resistance cell model can successfully demonstrate certain mechanisms such as hyperandrogenism, which may inspire a new strategy for treating reproductive endocrine disorders by regulating cell signaling pathways.

  14. Coordinate regulation of the mother centriole component nlp by nek2 and plk1 protein kinases. (United States)

    Rapley, Joseph; Baxter, Joanne E; Blot, Joelle; Wattam, Samantha L; Casenghi, Martina; Meraldi, Patrick; Nigg, Erich A; Fry, Andrew M


    Mitotic entry requires a major reorganization of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Nlp, a centrosomal protein that binds gamma-tubulin, is a G(2)/M target of the Plk1 protein kinase. Here, we show that human Nlp and its Xenopus homologue, X-Nlp, are also phosphorylated by the cell cycle-regulated Nek2 kinase. X-Nlp is a 213-kDa mother centriole-specific protein, implicating it in microtubule anchoring. Although constant in abundance throughout the cell cycle, it is displaced from centrosomes upon mitotic entry. Overexpression of active Nek2 or Plk1 causes premature displacement of Nlp from interphase centrosomes. Active Nek2 is also capable of phosphorylating and displacing a mutant form of Nlp that lacks Plk1 phosphorylation sites. Importantly, kinase-inactive Nek2 interferes with Plk1-induced displacement of Nlp from interphase centrosomes and displacement of endogenous Nlp from mitotic spindle poles, while active Nek2 stimulates Plk1 phosphorylation of Nlp in vitro. Unlike Plk1, Nek2 does not prevent association of Nlp with gamma-tubulin. Together, these results provide the first example of a protein involved in microtubule organization that is coordinately regulated at the G(2)/M transition by two centrosomal kinases. We also propose that phosphorylation by Nek2 may prime Nlp for phosphorylation by Plk1.

  15. rad-Dependent response of the chk1-encoded protein kinase at the DNA damage checkpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walworth, N.C.; Bernards, R.A.


    Exposure of eukaryotic cells to agents that generate DNA damage results in transient arrest of progression through the cell cycle. In fission yeast, the DNA damage checkpoint associated with cell cycle arrest before mitosis requires the protein kinase p56chk1. DNA damage induced by ultraviolet

  16. A-Kinase Anchoring Protein-Lbc: A Molecular Scaffold Involved in Cardiac Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Diviani


    Full Text Available Heart failure is a lethal disease that can develop after myocardial infarction, hypertension, or anticancer therapy. In the damaged heart, loss of function is mainly due to cardiomyocyte death and associated cardiac remodeling and fibrosis. In this context, A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs constitute a family of scaffolding proteins that facilitate the spatiotemporal activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA and other transduction enzymes involved in cardiac remodeling. AKAP-Lbc, a cardiac enriched anchoring protein, has been shown to act as a key coordinator of the activity of signaling pathways involved in cardiac protection and remodeling. This review will summarize and discuss recent advances highlighting the role of the AKAP-Lbc signalosome in orchestrating adaptive responses in the stressed heart.

  17. Sch proteins are localized on endoplasmic reticulum membranes and are redistributed after tyrosine kinase receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotti, L V; Lanfrancone, L; Migliaccio, E


    The intracellular localization of Shc proteins was analyzed by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy in normal cells and cells expressing the epidermal growth factor receptor or the EGFR/erbB2 chimera. In unstimulated cells, the immunolabeling was localized in the central perinuclear...... and endocytic structures, such as coated pits and endosomes, and with the peripheral cytosol. Receptor activation in cells expressing phosphorylation-defective mutants of Shc and erbB-2 kinase showed that receptor autophosphorylation, but not Shc phosphorylation, is required for redistribution of Shc proteins....... The rough endoplasmic reticulum localization of Shc proteins in unstimulated cells and their massive recruitment to the plasma membrane, endocytic structures, and peripheral cytosol following receptor tyrosine kinase activation could account for multiple putative functions of the adaptor protein....

  18. Emergency Spatiotemporal Shift: The Response of Protein Kinase D to Stress Signals in the Cardiovascular System. (United States)

    Wood, Brent M; Bossuyt, Julie


    Protein Kinase D isoforms (PKD 1-3) are key mediators of neurohormonal, oxidative, and metabolic stress signals. PKDs impact a wide variety of signaling pathways and cellular functions including actin dynamics, vesicle trafficking, cell motility, survival, contractility, energy substrate utilization, and gene transcription. PKD activity is also increasingly linked to cancer, immune regulation, pain modulation, memory, angiogenesis, and cardiovascular disease. This increasing complexity and diversity of PKD function, highlights the importance of tight spatiotemporal control of the kinase via protein-protein interactions, post-translational modifications or targeting via scaffolding proteins. In this review, we focus on the spatiotemporal regulation and effects of PKD signaling in response to neurohormonal, oxidant and metabolic signals that have implications for myocardial disease. Precise targeting of these mechanisms will be crucial in the design of PKD-based therapeutic strategies.

  19. Indispensable roles of mammalian Cbl family proteins as negative regulators of protein tyrosine kinase signaling: Insights from in vivo models


    Naramura, Mayumi; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid


    All higher eukaryotes utilize protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) as molecular switches to control a variety of cellular signals. Notably, many PTKs have been identified as proto-oncogenes whose aberrant expression, mutations or co-option by pathogens can lead to human malignancies. Thus, it is obvious that PTK functions must be precisely regulated in order to maintain homeostasis of an organism. Investigations over the past fifteen years have revealed that members of the Cbl family proteins can ...

  20. Effects of protein kinase C activators and staurosporine on protein kinase activity, cell survival, and proliferation in Tetrahymena thermophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, EM; Schousboe, P; Hansen, HQ


    with either PMA or OAG, or at 2,500 cells ml-1. At 500 cells ml-1 PMA induced the in vivo phosphorylation of at least six proteins. The myelin basic protein fragment 4-14 was phosphorylated in vitro in crude extracts of a culture of 250,000 cells ml-1. Both the in vivo and the in vitro phosphorylation were...

  1. The NDR/LATS protein kinases in immunology and cancer biology. (United States)

    Sharif, Ahmad A D; Hergovich, Alexander


    The NDR (nuclear Dbf2-related)/LATS (large tumour suppressor) family of kinases represents a subclass of the AGC (protein kinase A (PKA)/PKG/PKC-like) group of serine/threonine protein kinases. Members of the NDR/LATS family are vital components of conserved pathways controlling essential cellular processes, such as proliferation (cell cycle progression) and cell death. In particular, the central involvement of NDR/LATS as YAP/TAZ kinases in the Hippo tissue growth control pathway has gained much interest. In this review, we summarise the roles of mammalian NDR1/2 (aka STK38/STK38L) and LATS1/2 in immunity and cancer biology. We also discuss the activation mechanisms of NDR/LATS involving Ste20-like kinases and the MOB1 signal transducer, followed by an overview of NDR/LATS knockout mouse models. We further review the mutation and expression status of NDR/LATS in human cancers and their possible predictive and/or prognostic value in cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. AMP-activated protein kinase induces actin cytoskeleton reorganization in epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Lisa; Carpentier, Sarah; Platek, Anna; Hussain, Nusrat; Gueuning, Marie-Agnes; Vertommen, Didier; Ozkan, Yurda; Sid, Brice; Hue, Louis; Courtoy, Pierre J.; Rider, Mark H.; Horman, Sandrine


    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a known regulator of cellular and systemic energy balance, is now recognized to control cell division, cell polarity and cell migration, all of which depend on the actin cytoskeleton. Here we report the effects of A769662, a pharmacological activator of AMPK, on cytoskeletal organization and signalling in epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We show that AMPK activation induced shortening or radiation of stress fibers, uncoupling from paxillin and predominance of cortical F-actin. In parallel, Rho-kinase downstream targets, namely myosin regulatory light chain and cofilin, were phosphorylated. These effects resembled the morphological changes in MDCK cells exposed to hyperosmotic shock, which led to Ca 2+ -dependent AMPK activation via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β(CaMKKβ), a known upstream kinase of AMPK. Indeed, hypertonicity-induced AMPK activation was markedly reduced by the STO-609 CaMKKβ inhibitor, as was the increase in MLC and cofilin phosphorylation. We suggest that AMPK links osmotic stress to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

  3. 2-Aminopyridine-Based Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Inhibitors: Assessment of Mechanism-Based Safety. (United States)

    Dow, Robert L; Ammirati, Mark; Bagley, Scott W; Bhattacharya, Samit K; Buckbinder, Leonard; Cortes, Christian; El-Kattan, Ayman F; Ford, Kristen; Freeman, Gary B; Guimarães, Cristiano R W; Liu, Shenping; Niosi, Mark; Skoura, Athanasia; Tess, David


    Studies have linked the serine-threonine kinase MAP4K4 to the regulation of a number of biological processes and/or diseases, including diabetes, cancer, inflammation, and angiogenesis. With a majority of the members of our lead series (e.g., 1) suffering from time-dependent inhibition (TDI) of CYP3A4, we sought design avenues that would eliminate this risk. One such approach arose from the observation that carboxylic acid-based intermediates employed in our discovery efforts retained high MAP4K4 inhibitory potency and were devoid of the TDI risk. The medicinal chemistry effort that led to the discovery of this central nervous system-impaired inhibitor together with its preclinical safety profile is described.

  4. Mining frequent patterns for AMP-activated protein kinase regulation on skeletal muscle


    Chen, Qingfeng; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe


    Abstract Background AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has emerged as a significant signaling intermediary that regulates metabolisms in response to energy demand and supply. An investigation into the degree of activation and deactivation of AMPK subunits under exercise can provide valuable data for understanding AMPK. In particular, the effect of AMPK on muscle cellular energy status makes this protein a promising pharmacological target for disease treatment. As more AMPK regulation data ar...

  5. 2BC Non-Structural Protein of Enterovirus A71 Interacts with SNARE Proteins to Trigger Autolysosome Formation. (United States)

    Lai, Jeffrey K F; Sam, I-Ching; Verlhac, Pauline; Baguet, Joël; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Faure, Mathias; Chan, Yoke Fun


    Viruses have evolved unique strategies to evade or subvert autophagy machinery. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) induces autophagy during infection in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we report that EV-A71 triggers autolysosome formation during infection in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells to facilitate its replication. Blocking autophagosome-lysosome fusion with chloroquine inhibited virus RNA replication, resulting in lower viral titres, viral RNA copies and viral proteins. Overexpression of the non-structural protein 2BC of EV-A71 induced autolysosome formation. Yeast 2-hybrid and co-affinity purification assays showed that 2BC physically and specifically interacted with a N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor (SNARE) protein, syntaxin-17 (STX17). Co-immunoprecipitation assay further showed that 2BC binds to SNARE proteins, STX17 and synaptosome associated protein 29 (SNAP29). Transient knockdown of STX17, SNAP29, and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B), crucial proteins in the fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes) as well as the lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) impaired production of infectious EV-A71 in RD cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the generation of autolysosomes triggered by the 2BC non-structural protein is important for EV-A71 replication, revealing a potential molecular pathway targeted by the virus to exploit autophagy. This study opens the possibility for the development of novel antivirals that specifically target 2BC to inhibit formation of autolysosomes during EV-A71 infection.

  6. Interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor stimulate two novel protein kinases that phosphorylate the heat shock protein hsp27 and beta-casein. (United States)

    Guesdon, F; Freshney, N; Waller, R J; Rawlinson, L; Saklatvala, J


    We have partially purified and characterized two protein kinases that were strongly activated by interleukin-1 (IL-1) or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in MRC-5 fibroblasts. The kinases were separated by anion exchange chromatography of cytosolic fractions. They phosphorylated in vitro the small heat shock protein (hsp27) or beta-casein and were stimulated 3- and 4.5-fold, respectively, in cells that had been exposed to IL-1 or TNF for 10 min. They were distinct from the mitogen-activated protein kinases, whose activation by IL-1 or TNF has been reported recently. The hsp27 kinase phosphorylated its substrate on serine residues. Its molecular mass was estimated to be 45-kDa by gel filtration. It is probably involved in the increase in hsp27 phosphorylation seen in intact cells. The beta-casein kinase behaved as a 65-kDa protein. It phosphorylated its substrate on serine and threonine residues and had little activity on alpha-casein. The hsp27 and beta-casein kinases were not activated after stimulation of the cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). In contrast, the MAP kinases were activated to a similar extent (2-3-fold) by the cytokines and by PMA. The hsp27- and beta-casein kinases probably correspond to novel enzymes whose mechanisms of activation may be independent of protein kinase C or MAP kinases.

  7. Complexes of γ-tubulin with nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases Src and Fyn in differentiating P19 embryonal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukharskyy, Vitaliy; Sulimenko, Vadym; Macurek, Libor; Sulimenko, Tetyana; Draberova, Eduarda; Draber, Pavel


    Nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases of the Src family have been shown to play an important role in signal transduction as well as in regulation of microtubule protein interactions. Here we show that γ-tubulin (γ-Tb) in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells undergoing neuronal differentiation is phosphorylated and forms complexes with protein tyrosine kinases of the Src family, Src and Fyn. Elevated expression of both kinases during differentiation corresponded with increased level of proteins phosphorylated on tyrosine. Immunoprecipitation experiments with antibodies against Src, Fyn, γ-tubulin, and with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody revealed that γ-tubulin appeared in complexes with these kinases. In vitro kinase assays showed tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in γ-tubulin complexes isolated from differentiated cells. Pretreatment of cells with Src family selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2 reduced the amount of phosphorylated γ-tubulin in the complexes. Binding experiments with recombinant SH2 and SH3 domains of Src and Fyn kinases revealed that protein complexes containing γ-tubulin bound to SH2 domains and that these interactions were of SH2-phosphotyrosine type. The combined data suggest that Src family kinases might have an important role in the regulation of γ-tubulin interaction with tubulin dimers or other proteins during neurogenesis

  8. Bovine herpesvirus-1 US3 protein kinase: critical residues and involvement in the phosphorylation of VP22. (United States)

    Labiuk, Shaunivan L; Lobanov, Vladislav; Lawman, Zoe; Snider, Marlene; Babiuk, Lorne A; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia


    The US3 gene product of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) is a protein kinase that is expressed early during infection and capable of autophosphorylation. By examining differentially labelled US3 moieties by co-immunoprecipitation, we demonstrated that the protein kinase interacts with itself in vitro, which supports autophosphorylation by US3. Based on its homology to other serine/threonine protein kinases, we defined two highly conserved lysines in US3, at position 195 within the ATP-binding pocket and at position 282 within the catalytic loop; altering either residue resulted in kinase-dead mutants, demonstrating that these two residues are critical for the catalytic activity of BoHV-1 US3. During immunoprecipitation experiments, US3 interacted weakly with VP22, another tegument protein of BoHV-1. Furthermore, VP22 co-localized with US3 inside the nucleus in BoHV-1-infected cells. In vitro kinase assays demonstrated that VP22 is phosphorylated not only by US3, but also by the cellular casein kinase 2 (CK2) protein. The selective CK2 protein kinase inhibitor, 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (DMAT) and the less specific CK2 inhibitor Kenpaullone reduced VP22 phosphorylation, while CK1, protein kinase C or protein kinase A inhibitors did not affect phosphorylation. When US3 was included with VP22 in the kinase assay in the presence of DMAT, a low level of VP22 phosphorylation was observed. These data demonstrate that BoHV-1 VP22 interacts with both CK2 and US3, and that CK2 is the major kinase phosphorylating VP22, with US3 playing a minor role.

  9. Characterization and enzymatic properties of protein kinase ACR4 from Arabidopsis thaliana. (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Liu, Xuehe; Xu, Ziyan; Yang, Hui; Li, Jixi


    Serine/threonine-protein kinase-like protein ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY4 (ACR4), a transmembrane protein of Arabidopsis thaliana, plays important roles in cell division and differentiation. Although accumulating studies shed light on the function of ACR4, the structure and catalytic mechanism of ACR4 remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the purification and enzymatic properties of the intracellular kinase domain (residues 464-799) of ACR4 (ACR4 IKD ). Through Ni-affinity chromatography and gel filter chromatography methods, we successfully obtain high-purity ACR4 IKD protein from Escherichia coli. Dynamic light scattering and gel-filtration methods reveal that ACR4 IKD distributes with high homogeneity and exists as a monomer in solution. In addition, the ACR4 IKD protein has typical kinase activity with myelin basic protein (MBP) as the substrate. Our study may lay the foundation for structure determination of ACR4 IKD and further functional research, for example, screening significant substrates of ACR4 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Overcoming endocrine resistance due to reduced PTEN levels in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer by co-targeting mammalian target of rapamycin, protein kinase B, or mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase. (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoyong; Creighton, Chad J; Biswal, Nrusingh C; Kumar, Vijetha; Shea, Martin; Herrera, Sabrina; Contreras, Alejandro; Gutierrez, Carolina; Wang, Tao; Nanda, Sarmistha; Giuliano, Mario; Morrison, Gladys; Nardone, Agostina; Karlin, Kristen L; Westbrook, Thomas F; Heiser, Laura M; Anur, Pavana; Spellman, Paul; Guichard, Sylvie M; Smith, Paul D; Davies, Barry R; Klinowska, Teresa; Lee, Adrian V; Mills, Gordon B; Rimawi, Mothaffar F; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Gray, Joe W; Joshi, Amit; Osborne, C Kent; Schiff, Rachel


    Activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancer is associated with reduced ER expression and activity, luminal B subtype, and poor outcome. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a negative regulator of this pathway, is typically lost in ER-negative breast cancer. We set out to clarify the role of reduced PTEN levels in endocrine resistance, and to explore the combination of newly developed PI3K downstream kinase inhibitors to overcome this resistance. Altered cellular signaling, gene expression, and endocrine sensitivity were determined in inducible PTEN-knockdown ER-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer cell and/or xenograft models. Single or two-agent combinations of kinase inhibitors were examined to improve endocrine therapy. Moderate PTEN reduction was sufficient to enhance PI3K signaling, generate a gene signature associated with the luminal B subtype of breast cancer, and cause endocrine resistance in vitro and in vivo. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), protein kinase B (AKT), or mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors, alone or in combination, improved endocrine therapy, but the efficacy varied by PTEN levels, type of endocrine therapy, and the specific inhibitor(s). A single-agent AKT inhibitor combined with fulvestrant conferred superior efficacy in overcoming resistance, inducing apoptosis and tumor regression. Moderate reduction in PTEN, without complete loss, can activate the PI3K pathway to cause endocrine resistance in ER-positive breast cancer, which can be overcome by combining endocrine therapy with inhibitors of the PI3K pathway. Our data suggests that the ER degrader fulvestrant, to block both ligand-dependent and -independent ER signaling, combined with an AKT inhibitor is an effective strategy to test in patients.

  11. DNA replication stress in CHK1-depleted tumour cells triggers premature (S-phase) mitosis through inappropriate activation of Aurora kinase B. (United States)

    Zuazua-Villar, P; Rodriguez, R; Gagou, M E; Eyers, P A; Meuth, M


    The disruption of DNA replication in cells triggers checkpoint responses that slow-down S-phase progression and protect replication fork integrity. These checkpoints are also determinants of cell fate and can help maintain cell viability or trigger cell death pathways. CHK1 has a pivotal role in such S-phase responses. It helps maintain fork integrity during replication stress and protects cells from several catastrophic fates including premature mitosis, premature chromosome condensation and apoptosis. Here we investigated the role of CHK1 in protecting cancer cells from premature mitosis and apoptosis. We show that premature mitosis (characterized by the induction of histone H3 phosphorylation, aberrant chromatin condensation, and persistent RPA foci in arrested S-phase cells) is induced in p53-deficient tumour cells depleted of CHK1 when DNA synthesis is disrupted. These events are accompanied by an activation of Aurora kinase B in S-phase cells that is essential for histone H3 Ser10 phosphorylation. Histone H3 phosphorylation precedes the induction of apoptosis in p53-/- tumour cell lines but does not appear to be required for this fate as an Aurora kinase inhibitor suppresses phosphorylation of both Aurora B and histone H3 but has little effect on cell death. In contrast, only a small fraction of p53+/+ tumour cells shows this premature mitotic response, although they undergo a more rapid and robust apoptotic response. Taken together, our results suggest a novel role for CHK1 in the control of Aurora B activation during DNA replication stress and support the idea that premature mitosis is a distinct cell fate triggered by the disruption of DNA replication when CHK1 function is suppressed.

  12. Phosphorylation and activation of protamine kinase by two forms of a myelin basic protein kinase from extracts of bovine kidney cortex. (United States)

    Reddy, S A; Guo, H; Tarun, S Z; Damuni, Z


    Two myelin basic protein kinases designated MBPK-1 and MBPK-2 were purified to apparent homogeneity from extracts of bovine kidney cortex. The purified preparations exhibited an apparent M(r) approximately 40,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and approximately 42,000 (MBPK-1) and 45,000 (MBPK-2) by gel permeation chromatography. Up to 0.4 and 1.8 mol of phosphoryl groups were incorporated per mol of MBPK-1 and MBPK-2, respectively, on threonines following incubation with ATP. Autophosphorylation, incubation with protein phosphatase 2A2 (PP2A2), CD45, or T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase did not affect MBPK-1 activity. Autophosphorylation increased by about 3-fold MBPK-2 activity. This autophosphorylation and activation was reversed by PP2A2 but not by CD45 or T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase. MBPK-1 and MBPK-2 displayed a positive reaction with an antibody to mitogen-activated protein kinase. Purified preparations of protamine kinase were activated by about 1.5-6-fold and, after inactivation with PP2A2, were reactivated by about 30% by MBPK-1 and MBPK-2. Activation and reactivation correlated with the incorporation, respectively, of 0.1-0.5 and 0.5 mol of phosphoryl groups/mol of the protamine kinase on serines. The results show that MBPK-1 and MBPK-2 are protamine kinase-activating kinases and suggest that MBPK-1 and MBPK-2 may be related to mitogen-activated protein kinase.

  13. Modulation of the Chromatin Phosphoproteome by the Haspin Protein Kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiolica, Alessio; de Medina-Redondo, Maria; Schoof, Erwin


    , histone H3 is the only confirmed Haspin substrate. We used a combination of biochemical, pharmacological, and mass spectrometric approaches to study the consequences of Haspin inhibition in mitotic cells. We quantified 3964 phosphorylation sites on chromatin- associated proteins and identified a Haspin...

  14. Chapter Three - Ubiquitination and Protein Turnover of G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases in GPCR Signaling and Cellular Regulation. (United States)

    Penela, P


    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are responsible for regulating a wide variety of physiological processes, and distinct mechanisms for GPCR inactivation exist to guarantee correct receptor functionality. One of the widely used mechanisms is receptor phosphorylation by specific G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), leading to uncoupling from G proteins (desensitization) and receptor internalization. GRKs and β-arrestins also participate in the assembly of receptor-associated multimolecular complexes, thus initiating alternative G-protein-independent signaling events. In addition, the abundant GRK2 kinase has diverse "effector" functions in cellular migration, proliferation, and metabolism homeostasis by means of the phosphorylation or interaction with non-GPCR partners. Altered expression of GRKs (particularly of GRK2 and GRK5) occurs during pathological conditions characterized by impaired GPCR signaling including inflammatory syndromes, cardiovascular disease, and tumor contexts. It is increasingly appreciated that different pathways governing GRK protein stability play a role in the modulation of kinase levels in normal and pathological conditions. Thus, enhanced GRK2 degradation by the proteasome pathway occurs upon GPCR stimulation, what allows cellular adaptation to chronic stimulation in a physiological setting. β-arrestins participate in this process by facilitating GRK2 phosphorylation by different kinases and by recruiting diverse E3 ubiquitin ligase to the receptor complex. Different proteolytic systems (ubiquitin-proteasome, calpains), chaperone activities and signaling pathways influence the stability of GRKs in different ways, thus endowing specificity to GPCR regulation as protein turnover of GRKs can be differentially affected. Therefore, modulation of protein stability of GRKs emerges as a versatile mechanism for feedback regulation of GPCR signaling and basic cellular processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Data on the effect of knockout of cytohesin-1 in myelination-related protein kinase signaling. (United States)

    Tsuneishi, Ruri; Matsumoto, Naoto; Itaoka, Misa; Urai, Yuri; Kaneko, Minami; Watanabe, Natsumi; Takashima, Shou; Seki, Yoichi; Morimoto, Takako; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Yuki; Yamauchi, Junji


    Cytohesin-1 is the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor of Arf6, a small GTPase of Arf family, and participates in cellular morphological changes. Knockout mice of cytohesin-1 exhibit decreased myelination of neuronal axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) "Phosphorylation of cytohesin-1 by Fyn is required for initiation of myelination and the extent of myelination during development (Yamauchi et al., 2012) [1]". Herein we provide the data regarding decreased phosphorylation levels of protein kinases involved in two major myelination-related kinase cascades in cytohesin-1 knockout mice.

  16. Induction of rat hepatic zinc thionein by phorbol ester-mediated protein kinase C pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, S.H.; Funk, A.E.; Brady, F.O.


    Metallothionein (MT) exists in rat liver mainly as a zinc protein. The levels of this protein fluctuate in response to a variety of internal and external stimuli. Among these inducers of MT are metals, glucocorticoids, catecholamines, and polypeptide hormones. Metals and glucocorticoids are primary inducers of MT, while the others operate either via adenylate cyclase/cAMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase, or via phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate, diacylglycerol/Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C. The authors have examined the role of the protein kinase C pathway in the induction of MT by using a phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate (TPA), to activate it. In vivo TPA is a good inducer of Zn/sub 7/-MT with an ED/sub 0.5/ of 26.5 nmoles/kg b.w. Maximal levels reached were about Zn in MT/g liver, an induction increase of 8 to 10-fold. An inactive compound, 4..beta..-phorbol, and the vehicle (DMSO) did not stimulate the synthesis of Zn/sub 7/-MT. This induction by TPA requires de novo protein synthesis, as demonstrated by a cycloheximide/(/sup 35/S)-cysteine experiment. TPA stimulated Zn incorporation by 8.6-fold and (/sup 35/S)-cysteine incorporation by 4.8-fold during an 11h induction. These increases were blocked 100% by treatment with cycloheximide at -1 and +5h. These experiments have been repeated in cultured hepatocytes, using (/sup 35/S)-cysteine incorporation, slab SDS-PAGE, and autoradiography to quantitate MT levels.

  17. Drosophila Protein Kinase CK2: Genetics, Regulatory Complexity and Emerging Roles during Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohna Bandyopadhyay


    Full Text Available CK2 is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that is highly conserved amongst all eukaryotes. It is a well-known oncogenic kinase that regulates vital cell autonomous functions and animal development. Genetic studies in the fruit fly Drosophila are providing unique insights into the roles of CK2 in cell signaling, embryogenesis, organogenesis, neurogenesis, and the circadian clock, and are revealing hitherto unknown complexities in CK2 functions and regulation. Here, we review Drosophila CK2 with respect to its structure, subunit diversity, potential mechanisms of regulation, developmental abnormalities linked to mutations in the gene encoding CK2 subunits, and emerging roles in multiple aspects of eye development. We examine the Drosophila CK2 “interaction map” and the eye-specific “transcriptome” databases, which raise the prospect that this protein kinase has many additional targets in the developing eye. We discuss the possibility that CK2 functions during early retinal neurogenesis in Drosophila and mammals bear greater similarity than has been recognized, and that this conservation may extend to other developmental programs. Together, these studies underscore the immense power of the Drosophila model organism to provide new insights and avenues to further investigate developmentally relevant targets of this protein kinase.

  18. Comparison of phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins from HeLa and Krebs II ascites-tumour cells by cyclic AMP-dependent and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Beier, H; Speichermann, N


    Phosphorylation of eukaryotic ribosomal proteins in vitro by essentially homogeneous preparations of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase was compared. Each protein kinase was added at a concentration of 30nM. Ribosomal proteins were identi...

  19. 2,5-hexanedione (HD) treatment alters calmodulin, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and protein kinase C in rats' nerve tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingshan; Hou Liyan; Zhang Cuili; Zhao Xiulan; Yu Sufang; Xie, Ke-Qin


    Calcium-dependent mechanisms, particularly those mediated by Ca 2+ /calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), have been implicated in neurotoxicant-induced neuropathy. However, it is unknown whether similar mechanisms exist in 2,5-hexanedione (HD)-induced neuropathy. For that, we investigated the changes of CaM, CaMKII, protein kinase C (PKC) and polymerization ratios (PRs) of NF-L, NF-M and NF-H in cerebral cortex (CC, including total cortex and some gray), spinal cord (SC) and sciatic nerve (SN) of rats treated with HD at a dosage of 1.75 or 3.50 mmol/kg for 8 weeks (five times per week). The results showed that CaM contents in CC, SC and SN were significantly increased, which indicated elevation of Ca 2+ concentrations in nerve tissues. CaMKII contents and activities were also increased in CC and were positively correlated with gait abnormality, but it could not be found in SC and SN. The increases of PKC contents and activities were also observed in SN and were positively correlated with gait abnormality. Except for that of NF-M in CC, the PRs of NF-L, NF-M and NF-H were also elevated in nerve tissues, which was consistent with the activation of protein kinases. The results suggested that CaMKII might be partly (in CC but not in SC and SN) involved in HD-induced neuropathy. CaMKII and PKC might mediate the HD neurotoxicity by altering the NF phosphorylation status and PRs

  20. The regulatory effect of nucleoside diphosphate kinase on G-protein and G-protein mediated phospholipase C. (United States)

    Zhang, D; Chang, K


    The effect of nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) on the activity of guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (G-protein) mediated phospholipase C (PLC) and on the [35S] GTPT tau S binding of G-protein was investigated in this work in order to demonstrate the mechanism behind the regulation of G-protein and its effector PLC by NDPK. The stimulation of PLC in turkey erythrocyte membrane by both GTP and GTP tau S indicated that the PLC stimulation was mediated by G-protein. NDPK alone stimulated PLC activity, as well as the stimulation in the presence of GTP and GDP, in a dose-dependent manner. However, NDPK inhibited GTP tau S-stimulated PLC. Furthermore, NDPK inhibited [35S]GTP tau S binding of purified Gi-protein in a non-competitive manner. A hypothesis implying an important role of direct interaction of G-protein and NDPK in the regulation of their functions is suggested and discussed.

  1. Protein Kinase D Enzymes as Regulators of EMT and Cancer Cell Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Durand


    Full Text Available The Protein Kinase D (PKD isoforms PKD1, PKD2, and PKD3 are effectors of the novel Protein Kinase Cs (nPKCs and diacylglycerol (DAG. PKDs impact diverse biological processes like protein transport, cell migration, proliferation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT and apoptosis. PKDs however, have distinct effects on these functions. While PKD1 blocks EMT and cell migration, PKD2 and PKD3 tend to drive both processes. Given the importance of EMT and cell migration to the initiation and progression of various malignancies, abnormal expression of PKDs has been reported in multiple types of cancers, including breast, pancreatic and prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss how EMT and cell migration are regulated by PKD isoforms and the significance of this regulation in the context of cancer development.

  2. G-Protein Gα13Functions with Abl Kinase to Regulate Actin Cytoskeletal Reorganization. (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Wang, Dawei; Xing, Bowen; Tan, Ying-Cai; Huang, Jianyun; Liu, Bingqian; Syrovatkina, Viktoriya; Espenel, Cedric; Kreitzer, Geri; Guo, Lin; Zhang, J Jillian; Huang, Xin-Yun


    Heterotrimeric G-proteins are essential cellular signal transducers. One of the G-proteins, Gα 13 , is critical for actin cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Previously, we have shown that Gα 13 is essential for both G-protein-coupled receptor and receptor tyrosine kinase-induced actin cytoskeletal reorganization such as dynamic dorsal ruffle turnover and cell migration. However, the mechanism by which Gα 13 signals to actin cytoskeletal reorganization is not completely understood. Here we show that Gα 13 directly interacts with Abl tyrosine kinase, which is a critical regulator of actin cytoskeleton. This interaction is critical for Gα 13 -induced dorsal ruffle turnover, endothelial cell remodeling, and cell migration. Our data uncover a new molecular signaling pathway by which Gα 13 controls actin cytoskeletal reorganization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization and functional analyses of the human G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 gene promoter. (United States)

    Hasenkamp, Sandra; Telgmann, Ralph; Staessen, Jan A; Hagedorn, Claudia; Dördelmann, Corinna; Bek, Martin; Brand-Herrmann, Stefan-Martin; Brand, Eva


    The G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 is involved in renal sodium handling and blood pressure regulation. Missense variants have already been tested functionally and are associated with hypertension, but no data on promoter analyses are yet available. We scanned 94 hypertensive white subjects for genetic variation and performed promoter reporter gene analyses in HEK293T, COS7, and SaOs-2 cells. Transient transfections with various full lengths and wild-type deletion constructs revealed that 1851 bp of the flanking region and 275 bp of the 5'-untranslated region were sufficient for transcriptional activities and composed a powerful cis-active element in the distal 293 bp. The -1702T and +2T alleles resulted in drastic general reductions of promoter function, whereas an activity increasing effect of +268C was cell type specific. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay, supershift, and cotransfection analyses of transcription factor binding sites predicted in silico (Alibaba2.1/Transfac7) resulted in allele-specific binding patterns of nuclear proteins and identified the participation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein transcription factor family members. The G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 core promoter resides in the first 1851 bp upstream of its transcription start site. The 4 identified genetic variants within this region exert allele-specific impact on both cell type- and stimulation-dependent transcription and may affect the expression balance of renal G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4.

  4. Interacting factors and cellular localization of SR protein-specific kinase Dsk1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhaohua, E-mail: [W.M. Keck Science Center, The Claremont Colleges, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Luca, Maria; Taggart-Murphy, Laura; Portillio, Jessica; Chang, Cathey; Guven, Ayse [W.M. Keck Science Center, The Claremont Colleges, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Lin, Ren-Jang [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010 (United States); Murray, Johanne; Carr, Antony [Genome Damage and Stability Center, University of Sussex, Falmer, BN1 9RQ (United Kingdom)


    Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dsk1 is an SR protein-specific kinase (SRPK), whose homologs have been identified in every eukaryotic organism examined. Although discovered as a mitotic regulator with protein kinase activity toward SR splicing factors, it remains largely unknown about what and how Dsk1 contributes to cell cycle and pre-mRNA splicing. In this study, we investigated the Dsk1 function by determining interacting factors and cellular localization of the kinase. Consistent with its reported functions, we found that pre-mRNA processing and cell cycle factors are prominent among the proteins co-purified with Dsk1. The identification of these factors led us to find Rsd1 as a novel Dsk1 substrate, as well as the involvement of Dsk1 in cellular distribution of poly(A){sup +} RNA. In agreement with its role in nuclear events, we also found that Dsk1 is mainly localized in the nucleus during G{sub 2} phase and at mitosis. Furthermore, we revealed the oscillation of Dsk1 protein in a cell cycle-dependent manner. This paper marks the first comprehensive analysis of in vivo Dsk1-associated proteins in fission yeast. Our results reflect the conserved role of SRPK family in eukaryotic organisms, and provide information about how Dsk1 functions in pre-mRNA processing and cell-division cycle.

  5. JAK1 kinase forms complexes with interleukin-4 receptor and 4PS/insulin receptor substrate-1-like protein and is activated by interleukin-4 and interleukin-9 in T lymphocytes. (United States)

    Yin, T; Tsang, M L; Yang, Y C


    Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-9 regulate the proliferation of T lymphocytes through interactions with their receptors. Previous studies have shown that unknown tyrosine kinases are involved in the proliferative signaling triggered by IL-4 and IL-9. Here we show that IL-4 and IL-9 induce overlapping (170, 130, and 125 kilodalton (kDa)) and distinct (45 and 88/90 kDa, respectively) protein tyrosine phosphorylation in T lymphocytes. We further identify the 170-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein as 4PS/insulin receptor substrate-1-like (IRS-1L) protein and 130-kDa protein as JAK1 kinase. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that JAK1 forms complexes with the IL-4 receptor and 4PS/IRS-1L protein following ligand-receptor interaction. In addition, we demonstrate that IL-9, but not IL-4, induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat 91 transcriptional factor. The overlapping and distinct protein tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the same JAK1 kinase in T lymphocytes strongly suggests that IL-4 and IL-9 share the common signal transduction pathways and that the specificity for each cytokine could be achieved through the unique tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins triggered by individual cytokines.

  6. Negative regulation of active zone assembly by a newly identified SR protein kinase. (United States)

    Johnson, Ervin L; Fetter, Richard D; Davis, Graeme W


    Presynaptic, electron-dense, cytoplasmic protrusions such as the T-bar (Drosophila) or ribbon (vertebrates) are believed to facilitate vesicle movement to the active zone (AZ) of synapses throughout the nervous system. The molecular composition of these structures including the T-bar and ribbon are largely unknown, as are the mechanisms that specify their synapse-specific assembly and distribution. In a large-scale, forward genetic screen, we have identified a mutation termed air traffic controller (atc) that causes T-bar-like protein aggregates to form abnormally in motoneuron axons. This mutation disrupts a gene that encodes for a serine-arginine protein kinase (SRPK79D). This mutant phenotype is specific to SRPK79D and is not secondary to impaired kinesin-dependent axonal transport. The srpk79D gene is neuronally expressed, and transgenic rescue experiments are consistent with SRPK79D kinase activity being necessary in neurons. The SRPK79D protein colocalizes with the T-bar-associated protein Bruchpilot (Brp) in both the axon and synapse. We propose that SRPK79D is a novel T-bar-associated protein kinase that represses T-bar assembly in peripheral axons, and that SRPK79D-dependent repression must be relieved to facilitate site-specific AZ assembly. Consistent with this model, overexpression of SRPK79D disrupts AZ-specific Brp organization and significantly impairs presynaptic neurotransmitter release. These data identify a novel AZ-associated protein kinase and reveal a new mechanism of negative regulation involved in AZ assembly. This mechanism could contribute to the speed and specificity with which AZs are assembled throughout the nervous system.

  7. Negative regulation of active zone assembly by a newly identified SR protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervin L Johnson


    Full Text Available Presynaptic, electron-dense, cytoplasmic protrusions such as the T-bar (Drosophila or ribbon (vertebrates are believed to facilitate vesicle movement to the active zone (AZ of synapses throughout the nervous system. The molecular composition of these structures including the T-bar and ribbon are largely unknown, as are the mechanisms that specify their synapse-specific assembly and distribution. In a large-scale, forward genetic screen, we have identified a mutation termed air traffic controller (atc that causes T-bar-like protein aggregates to form abnormally in motoneuron axons. This mutation disrupts a gene that encodes for a serine-arginine protein kinase (SRPK79D. This mutant phenotype is specific to SRPK79D and is not secondary to impaired kinesin-dependent axonal transport. The srpk79D gene is neuronally expressed, and transgenic rescue experiments are consistent with SRPK79D kinase activity being necessary in neurons. The SRPK79D protein colocalizes with the T-bar-associated protein Bruchpilot (Brp in both the axon and synapse. We propose that SRPK79D is a novel T-bar-associated protein kinase that represses T-bar assembly in peripheral axons, and that SRPK79D-dependent repression must be relieved to facilitate site-specific AZ assembly. Consistent with this model, overexpression of SRPK79D disrupts AZ-specific Brp organization and significantly impairs presynaptic neurotransmitter release. These data identify a novel AZ-associated protein kinase and reveal a new mechanism of negative regulation involved in AZ assembly. This mechanism could contribute to the speed and specificity with which AZs are assembled throughout the nervous system.

  8. Molecular Mechanism of Selectivity among G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thal, David M.; Yeow, Raymond Y.; Schoenau, Christian; Huber, Jochen; Tesmer, John J.G. (Sanofi); (Michigan)


    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key regulators of cell physiology and control processes ranging from glucose homeostasis to contractility of the heart. A major mechanism for the desensitization of activated GPCRs is their phosphorylation by GPCR kinases (GRKs). Overexpression of GRK2 is strongly linked to heart failure, and GRK2 has long been considered a pharmaceutical target for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Several lead compounds developed by Takeda Pharmaceuticals show high selectivity for GRK2 and therapeutic potential for the treatment of heart failure. To understand how these drugs achieve their selectivity, we determined crystal structures of the bovine GRK2-G{beta}{gamma} complex in the presence of two of these inhibitors. Comparison with the apoGRK2-G{beta}{gamma} structure demonstrates that the compounds bind in the kinase active site in a manner similar to that of the AGC kinase inhibitor balanol. Both balanol and the Takeda compounds induce a slight closure of the kinase domain, the degree of which correlates with the potencies of the inhibitors. Based on our crystal structures and homology modeling, we identified five amino acids surrounding the inhibitor binding site that we hypothesized could contribute to inhibitor selectivity. However, our results indicate that these residues are not major determinants of selectivity among GRK subfamilies. Rather, selectivity is achieved by the stabilization of a unique inactive conformation of the GRK2 kinase domain.

  9. [Isolation and identification of proteins with anti-tumor and fibrinolysogen kinase activities from Eisenia foetida]. (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Ji, Jian-Guo; Tong, Yuan-Peng; Chen, Qian; Pu, Hai; Ru, Bing-Gen


    Proteins from Eisenia foetida possess many biological activities. A group of proteins precipitated by ethanol were isolated and purified by Sephadex G-75 and HiPrep 16/60 DEAE columns, then identified by one- or two- dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. 2D gel experiments displayed that the pI of proteins from Eisenia foetida were mainly from 3.0 to 4.0. Anti-tumor and kinase activities were determined by in vitro experiments. The enthanol fraction D2(8) showed both of the activities. These ethanol-precipitated proteins were identified further by native polyacrylamide electrophoresis, the protein spots were cut off from gels and digested by trypsin, the peptide mass fingerprints (PMFs) were determined by mass spectrometry. PMF, molecular weight, amino acid composition and N-terminus of 6 proteins were characterized, and band 9 was identified as D2(8). The results suggested that there exist proteins in Eisenia foetida possessed both anti-tumor and fibrinolysogen kinase activities. These methods can be used for identification of the natural bioactive proteins.

  10. Identification of phosphorylation sites in protein kinase A substrates using artificial neural networks and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerrild, M.; Stensballe, A.; Rasmussen, T.E.


    Protein phosphorylation plays a key role in cell regulation and identification of phosphorylation sites is important for understanding their functional significance. Here, we present an artificial neural network algorithm: NetPhosK ( that predicts protein...... kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation sites. The neural network was trained with a positive set of 258 experimentally verified PKA phosphorylation sites. The predictions by NetPhosK were! validated using four novel PKA substrates: Necdin, RFX5, En-2, and Wee 1. The four proteins were phosphorylated by PKA...

  11. Biodentine induces human dental pulp stem cell differentiation through mitogen-activated protein kinase and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II pathways. (United States)

    Luo, Zhirong; Kohli, Meetu R; Yu, Qing; Kim, Syngcuk; Qu, Tiejun; He, Wen-xi


    Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossès, France), a new tricalcium silicate cement formulation, has been introduced as a bioactive dentine substitute to be used in direct contact with pulp tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to the material and whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signal pathways played a regulatory role in Biodentine-induced odontoblast differentiation. hDPCs obtained from impacted third molars were incubated with Biodentine. Odontoblastic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining, and quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the analysis of messenger RNA expression of the following differentiation gene markers: osteocalcin (OCN), dentin sialophosprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), and bone sialoprotein (BSP). Cell cultures in the presence of Biodentine were exposed to specific inhibitors of MAPK (U0126, SB203580, and SP600125), NF-κB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate), and CaMKII (KN-93) pathways to evaluate the regulatory effect on the expression of these markers and mineralization assay. Biodentine significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized nodule formation and the expression of OCN, DSPP, DMP1, and BSP. The MAPK inhibitor for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (U0126) and Jun N-terminal kinase (SP600125) significantly decreased the Biodentine-induced mineralized differentiation of hDPSCs and OCN, DSPP, DMP1, and BSP messenger RNA expression, whereas p38 MAPK inhibitors (SB203580) had no effect. The CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 significantly attenuated and the NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate further enhanced the up-regulation of Biodentine-induced gene expression and mineralization. Biodentine is a bioactive and biocompatible material capable

  12. Induction of viral, 7-methyl-guanosine cap-independent translation and oncolysis by mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase-mediated effects on the serine/arginine-rich protein kinase. (United States)

    Brown, Michael C; Bryant, Jeffrey D; Dobrikova, Elena Y; Shveygert, Mayya; Bradrick, Shelton S; Chandramohan, Vidyalakshmi; Bigner, Darell D; Gromeier, Matthias


    Protein synthesis, the most energy-consuming process in cells, responds to changing physiologic priorities, e.g., upon mitogen- or stress-induced adaptations signaled through the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The prevailing status of protein synthesis machinery is a viral pathogenesis factor, particularly for plus-strand RNA viruses, where immediate translation of incoming viral RNAs shapes host-virus interactions. In this study, we unraveled signaling pathways centered on the ERK1/2 and p38α MAPK-interacting kinases MNK1/2 and their role in controlling 7-methyl-guanosine (m(7)G) "cap"-independent translation at enterovirus type 1 internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs). Activation of Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 signals induced viral IRES-mediated translation in a manner dependent on MNK1/2. This effect was not due to MNK's known functions as eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G binding partner or eIF4E(S209) kinase. Rather, MNK catalytic activity enabled viral IRES-mediated translation/host cell cytotoxicity through negative regulation of the Ser/Arg (SR)-rich protein kinase (SRPK). Our investigations suggest that SRPK activity is a major determinant of type 1 IRES competency, host cell cytotoxicity, and viral proliferation in infected cells. We are targeting unfettered enterovirus IRES activity in cancer with PVSRIPO, the type 1 live-attenuated poliovirus (PV) (Sabin) vaccine containing a human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2) IRES. A phase I clinical trial of PVSRIPO with intratumoral inoculation in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) is showing early promise. Viral translation proficiency in infected GBM cells is a core requirement for the antineoplastic efficacy of PVSRIPO. Therefore, it is critically important to understand the mechanisms controlling viral cap-independent translation in infected host cells. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Bruton's tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C µ are required for TLR7/9-induced IKKα and IRF-1 activation and interferon-β production in conventional dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Feng Li

    Full Text Available Stimulation of TLR7/9 by their respective ligands leads to the activation of IκB kinase α (IKKα and Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 (IRF-1 and results in interferon (IFN-β production in conventional dendritic cells (cDC. However, which other signaling molecules are involved in IKKα and IRF-1 activation during TLR7/9 signaling pathway are not known. We and others have shown that Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK played a part in TLR9-mediated cytokine production in B cells and macrophages. However, it is unclear if BTK participates in TLR7/9-induced IFN-β production in cDC. In this study, we show that BTK is required for IFN-β synthesis in cDC upon TLR7/9 stimulation and that stimulated BTK-deficient cDC are defective in the induction of IKKα/β phosphorylation and IRF-1 activation. In addition, we demonstrate that Protein Kinase C µ (PKCµ is also required for TLR7/9-induced IRF-1 activation and IFN-β upregulation in cDC and acts downstream of BTK. Taken together, we have uncovered two new molecules, BTK and PKCµ, that are involved in TLR7/9-triggered IFN-β production in cDC.

  14. DMPD: Manipulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB-signalingcascades during intracellular Toxoplasma gondii infection. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15361242 Manipulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB-sig...mmunol Rev. 2004 Oct;201:191-205. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Manipulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear... gondii infection. PubmedID 15361242 Title Manipulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-k

  15. Outer Membrane Protein 25 of Brucella Activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signal Pathway in Human Trophoblast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang


    Full Text Available Outer membrane protein 25 (OMP25, a virulence factor from Brucella, plays an important role in maintaining the structural stability of Brucella. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signal pathway widely exists in eukaryotic cells. In this study, human trophoblast cell line HPT-8 and BALB/c mice were infected with Brucella abortus 2308 strain (S2308 and 2308ΔOmp25 mutant strain. The expression of cytokines and activation of MAPK signal pathway were detected. We found that the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1, and interleukin-10 (IL-10 were increased in HPT-8 cells infected with S2308 and 2308ΔOmp25 mutant. S2308 also activated p38 phosphorylation protein, extracellular-regulated protein kinases (ERK, and Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK from MAPK signal pathway. 2308ΔOmp25 could not activate p38, ERK, and JNK branches. Immunohistochemistry experiments showed that S2308 was able to activate phosphorylation of p38 and ERK in BABL/c mice. However, 2308ΔOmp25 could weakly activate phosphorylation of p38 and ERK. These results suggest that Omp25 played an important role in the process of Brucella activation of the MAPK signal pathway.

  16. Protein-tyrosine kinase activity profiling in knock down zebrafish embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Lemeer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs regulate virtually all biological processes. PTKs phosphorylate substrates in a sequence-specific manner and relatively short peptide sequences determine selectivity. Here, we developed new technology to determine PTK activity profiles using peptide arrays. The zebrafish is an excellent model system to investigate signaling in the whole organism, given its wealth of genetic tools, including morpholino-mediated knock down technology. We used zebrafish embryo lysates to determine PTK activity profiles, thus providing the unique opportunity to directly compare the effect of protein knock downs on PTK activity profiles on the one hand and phenotypic changes on the other. METHODOLOGY: We used multiplex arrays of 144 distinct peptides, spotted on a porous substrate, allowing the sample to be pumped up and down, optimizing reaction kinetics. Kinase reactions were performed using complex zebrafish embryo lysates or purified kinases. Peptide phosphorylation was detected by fluorescent anti-phosphotyrosine antibody binding and the porous chips allowed semi-continuous recording of the signal. We used morpholinos to knock down protein expression in the zebrafish embryos and subsequently, we determined the effects on the PTK activity profiles. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Reproducible PTK activity profiles were derived from one-day-old zebrafiish embryos. Morpholino-mediated knock downs of the Src family kinases, Fyn and Yes, induced characteristic phenotypes and distinct changes in the PTK activity profiles. Interestingly, the peptide substrates that were less phosphorylated upon Fyn and Yes knock down were preferential substrates of purified Fyn and Yes. Previously, we demonstrated that Wnt11 knock down phenocopied Fyn/Yes knock down. Interestingly, Wnt11 knock down induced similar changes in the PTK activity profile as Fyn/Yes knock down. The control Nacre/Mitfa knock down did not affect the PTK activity profile

  17. Stimulation of Leishmania tropica protein kinase CK2 activities by platelet-activating factor (PAF). (United States)

    Dutra, Patricia M L; Vieira, Danielle P; Meyer-Fernandes, Jose R; Silva-Neto, Mario A C; Lopes, Angela H


    Leishmania tropica is one of the causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a phospholipid mediator in diverse biological and pathophysiological processes. Here we show that PAF promoted a three-fold increase on ecto-protein kinase and a three-fold increase on the secreted kinase activity of L. tropica live promastigotes. When casein was added to the reaction medium, along with PAF, there was a four-fold increase on the ecto-kinase activity. When live L. tropica promastigotes were pre-incubated for 30 min in the presence of PAF-plus casein, a six-fold increase on the secreted kinase activity was observed. Also, a protein released from L. tropica promastigotes reacted with polyclonal antibodies for the mammalian CK2 alpha catalytic subunit. Furthermore, in vitro mouse macrophage infection by L. tropica was doubled when promastigotes were pre-treated for 2 h with PAF. Similar results were obtained when the interaction was performed in the presence of purified CK2 or casein. TBB and DRB, CK2 inhibitors, reversed PAF enhancement of macrophage infection by L. tropica. WEB 2086, a competitive PAF antagonist, reversed all PAF effects here described. This study shows for the first time that PAF promotes the activation of two isoforms of CK2, secreted and membrane-bound, correlating these activities to infection of mouse macrophages.

  18. Evolution of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA catalytic subunit isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Søberg

    Full Text Available The 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP-dependent protein kinase, or protein kinase A (PKA, pathway is one of the most versatile and best studied signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells. The two paralogous PKA catalytic subunits Cα and Cβ, encoded by the genes PRKACA and PRKACB, respectively, are among the best understood model kinases in signal transduction research. In this work, we explore and elucidate the evolution of the alternative 5' exons and the splicing pattern giving rise to the numerous PKA catalytic subunit isoforms. In addition to the universally conserved Cα1/Cβ1 isoforms, we find kinase variants with short N-termini in all main vertebrate classes, including the sperm-specific Cα2 isoform found to be conserved in all mammals. We also describe, for the first time, a PKA Cα isoform with a long N-terminus, paralogous to the PKA Cβ2 N-terminus. An analysis of isoform-specific variation highlights residues and motifs that are likely to be of functional importance.

  19. Structure of protein kinase CK2: dimerization of the human beta-subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Mietens, U; Issinger, O G


    Protein kinase CK2 has been shown to be elevated in all so far investigated solid tumors and its catalytic subunit has been shown to serve as an oncogene product. CK2 is a heterotetrameric serine-threonine kinase composed of two catalytic (alpha and/or alpha') and two regulatory beta-subunits. Us......Protein kinase CK2 has been shown to be elevated in all so far investigated solid tumors and its catalytic subunit has been shown to serve as an oncogene product. CK2 is a heterotetrameric serine-threonine kinase composed of two catalytic (alpha and/or alpha') and two regulatory beta......-subunits. Using the two-hybrid system we could show that the alpha- or alpha'-subunits of CK2 can interact with the beta-subunits of CK2, but not with other alpha- or alpha'-subunits. By comparison, the beta-subunit of CK2 can interact with another beta-subunit. Important amino acids for successful dimerization...... of the beta-subunit were localized between amino acid residues 156 and 165. Furthermore, we identified residues between amino acid 170 and 180 which antagonize the dimerization....

  20. Phosphorylation of Tat-interactive protein 60 kDa by protein kinase C epsilon is important for its subcellular localisation. (United States)

    Sapountzi, Vasileia; Logan, Ian R; Nelson, Glyn; Cook, Susan; Robson, Craig N


    Tat-interactive protein 60 kDa is a nuclear acetyltransferase that both coactivates and corepresses transcription factors and has a definitive function in the DNA damage response. Here, we provide evidence that Tat-interactive protein 60 kDa is phosphorylated by protein kinase C epsilon. In vitro, protein kinase C epsilon phosphorylates Tat-interactive protein 60 kDa on at least two sites within the acetyltransferase domain. In whole cells, activation of protein kinase C increases the levels of phosphorylated Tat-interactive protein 60 kDa and the interaction of Tat-interactive protein 60 kDa with protein kinase C epsilon. A phosphomimetic mutant Tat-interactive protein 60 kDa has distinct subcellular localisation compared to the wild-type protein in whole cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that the protein kinase C epsilon phosphorylation sites on Tat-interactive protein 60 kDa are important for its subcellular localisation. Regulation of the subcellular localisation of Tat-interactive protein 60 kDa via phosphorylation provides a novel means of controlling Tat-interactive protein 60 kDa function.

  1. Protein kinases in plant-pathogenic fungi: conserved regulators of infection. (United States)

    Turrà, David; Segorbe, David; Di Pietro, Antonio


    Phytopathogenic fungi have evolved an amazing diversity of infection modes and nutritional strategies, yet the signaling pathways that govern pathogenicity are remarkably conserved. Protein kinases (PKs) catalyze the reversible phosphorylation of proteins, regulating a variety of cellular processes. Here, we present an overview of our current understanding of the different classes of PKs that contribute to fungal pathogenicity on plants and of the mechanisms that regulate and coordinate PK activity during infection-related development. In addition to the well-studied PK modules, such as MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate)-PKA (protein kinase A) cascades, we also discuss new PK pathways that have emerged in recent years as key players of pathogenic development and disease. Understanding how conserved PK signaling networks have been recruited during the evolution of fungal pathogenicity not only advances our knowledge of the highly elaborate infection process but may also lead to the development of novel strategies for the control of plant disease.

  2. The Cytoplasmic Adaptor Protein Dok7 Activates the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase MuSK via Dimerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamin, E.; Hallock, P; Burden, S; Hubbard, S


    Formation of the vertebrate neuromuscular junction requires, among others proteins, Agrin, a neuronally derived ligand, and the following muscle proteins: LRP4, the receptor for Agrin; MuSK, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK); and Dok7 (or Dok-7), a cytoplasmic adaptor protein. Dok7 comprises a pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain, and C-terminal sites of tyrosine phosphorylation. Unique among adaptor proteins recruited to RTKs, Dok7 is not only a substrate of MuSK, but also an activator of MuSK's kinase activity. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Dok7 PH-PTB domains in complex with a phosphopeptide representing the Dok7-binding site on MuSK. The structure and biochemical data reveal a dimeric arrangement of Dok7 PH-PTB that facilitates trans-autophosphorylation of the kinase activation loop. The structure provides the molecular basis for MuSK activation by Dok7 and for rationalizing several Dok7 loss-of-function mutations found in patients with congenital myasthenic syndromes.

  3. The involvement of a protein kinase in phototaxis and gravitaxis of Euglena gracilis. (United States)

    Daiker, Viktor; Häder, Donat-P; Richter, Peter R; Lebert, Michael


    The unicellular flagellate Euglena gracilis shows positive phototaxis at low-light intensities (10 W/m(2)). Phototaxis is based on blue light-activated adenylyl cyclases, which produce cAMP upon irradiation. In the absence of light the cells swim upward in the water column (negative gravitaxis). The results of sounding rocket campaigns and of a large number of ground experiments led to the following model of signal perception and transduction in gravitaxis of E. gracilis: The body of the cell is heavier than the surrounding medium, sediments and thereby exerts a force onto the lower membrane. Upon deviation from a vertical swimming path mechano-sensitive ion channels are activated. Calcium is gated inwards which leads to an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration and causes a change of the membrane potential. After influx, calcium activates one of several calmodulins found in Euglena, which in turn activates an adenylyl cyclase (different from the one involved in phototaxis) to produce cAMP from ATP. One further element in the sensory transduction chain of both phototaxis and gravitaxis is a specific protein kinase A. We found five different protein kinases A in E. gracilis. The blockage of only one of these (PK.4, accession No. EU935859) by means of RNAi inhibited both phototaxis and gravitaxis, while inhibition of the other four affected neither phototaxis nor gravitaxis. It is assumed that cAMP directly activates this protein kinase A which may in turn phosphorylate a protein involved in the flagellar beating mechanism.

  4. Protein kinase A regulates AKAP250 (gravin) scaffold binding to the beta2-adrenergic receptor. (United States)

    Tao, Jiangchuan; Wang, Hsien-Yu; Malbon, Craig C


    A-kinase-anchoring protein 250 (AKAP250; gravin) acts as a scaffold that binds protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C and protein phosphatases, associating reversibly with the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor. The receptor-binding domain of the scaffold and the regulation of the receptor-scaffold association was revealed through mutagenesis and biochemical analyses. The AKAP domain found in other members of this superfamily is essential for the scaffold-receptor interactions. Gravin constructs lacking the AKAP domain displayed no binding to the receptor. Metabolic labeling studies in vivo demonstrate agonist-stimulated phosphorylation of gravin and enhanced gravin-receptor association. Analysis of the AKAP domain revealed two canonical PKA sites phosphorylated in response to elevated cAMP, blocked by PKA inhibitor, and essential for scaffold-receptor association and for resensitization of the receptor. The AKAP appears to provide the catalytic PKA activity responsible for phosphorylation of the scaffold in response to agonist activation of the receptor as well as for the association of the scaffold with the receptor, a step critical to receptor resensitization.

  5. Neuronal phosphorylated RNA-dependent protein kinase in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Paquet, Claire


    The mechanisms of neuronal apoptosis in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and their relationship to accumulated prion protein (PrP) are unclear. A recent cell culture study showed that intracytoplasmic PrP may induce phosphorylated RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR(p))-mediated cell stress. The double-stranded RNA protein kinase PKR is a proapoptotic and stress kinase that accumulates in degenerating neurons in Alzheimer disease. To determine whether neuronal apoptosis in human CJD is associated with activation of the PKR(p) signaling pathway, we assessed in situ end labeling and immunocytochemistry for PrP, glial fibrillary acidic protein, CD68, activated caspase 3, and phosphorylated PKR (Thr451) in samples of frontal, occipital, and temporal cortex, striatum, and cerebellum from 6 patients with sporadic CJD and 5 controls. Neuronal immunostaining for activated PKR was found in all CJD cases. The most staining was in nuclei and, in contrast to findings in Alzheimer disease, cytoplasmic labeling was not detected. Both the number and distribution of PKR(p)-positive neurons correlated closely with the extent of neuronal apoptosis, spongiosis, astrocytosis, and microglial activation and with the phenotype and disease severity. There was no correlation with the type, topography, or amount of extracellular PrP deposits. These findings suggest that neuronal apoptosis in human CJD may result from PKR(p)-mediated cell stress and are consistent with recent studies supporting a pathogenic role for intracellular or transmembrane PrP.

  6. Protective features of resveratrol on human spermatozoa cryopreservation may be mediated through 5' AMP-activated protein kinase activation. (United States)

    Shabani Nashtaei, M; Amidi, F; Sedighi Gilani, M A; Aleyasin, A; Bakhshalizadeh, Sh; Naji, M; Nekoonam, S


    Biochemical and physical modifications during the freeze-thaw process adversely influence the restoration of energy-dependent sperm functions required for fertilization. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin, has been introduced to activate 5' AMP-activated protein kinase which is a cell energy sensor and a cell metabolism regulator. The cryoprotection of resveratrol on sperm cryoinjury via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase also remains to be elucidated. Our aim, thus, was to investigate: (i) the presence and intracellular localization of AMP-activated protein kinase protein; (ii) whether resveratrol may exert a protective effect on certain functional properties of fresh and post-thaw human spermatozoa through modulation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Spermatozoa from normozoospermic men were incubated with or without different concentrations of Compound C as an AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor or resveratrol as an AMP-activated protein kinase activator for different lengths of time and were then cryopreserved. AMP-activated protein kinase is expressed essentially in the entire flagellum and the post-equatorial region. Viability of fresh spermatozoa was not significantly affected by the presence of Compound C or resveratrol. However, although Compound C caused a potent inhibition of spermatozoa motility parameters, resveratrol did not induce negative effect, except a significant reduction in motility at 25 μm for 1 h. Furthermore, resveratrol significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased reactive oxygen species and apoptosis-like changes in frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Nevertheless, it was not able to compensate decreased sperm viability and motility parameters following cryopreservation. In contrast, Compound C showed opposite effects to resveratrol on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis-like changes, mitochondrial membrane potential, and

  7. Structural and Functional Characterization of the Protein Kinase Mps1 in Arabidopsis thaliana (United States)

    de Oliveira, Eduardo Alves Gamosa; Romeiro, Nelilma Correia; Ribeiro, Elane da Silva; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Silveira, Vanildo; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo Apolinário; Venancio, Thiago Motta; Cruz, Marco Antônio Lopes


    In eukaryotes, protein kinases catalyze the transfer of a gamma-phosphate from ATP (or GTP) to specific amino acids in protein targets. In plants, protein kinases have been shown to participate in signaling cascades driving responses to environmental stimuli and developmental processes. Plant meristems are undifferentiated tissues that provide the major source of cells that will form organs throughout development. However, non-dividing specialized cells can also dedifferentiate and re-initiate cell division if exposed to appropriate conditions. Mps1 (Monopolar spindle) is a dual-specificity protein kinase that plays a critical role in monitoring the accuracy of chromosome segregation in the mitotic checkpoint mechanism. Although Mps1 functions have been clearly demonstrated in animals and fungi, its role in plants is so far unclear. Here, using structural and biochemical analyses here we show that Mps1 has highly similar homologs in many plant genomes across distinct lineages (e.g. AtMps1 in Arabidopsis thaliana). Several structural features (i.e. catalytic site, DFG motif and threonine triad) are clearly conserved in plant Mps1 kinases. Structural and sequence analysis also suggest that AtMps1 interact with other cell cycle proteins, such as Mad2 and MAPK1. By using a very specific Mps1 inhibitor (SP600125) we show that compromised AtMps1 activity hampers the development of A. thaliana seedlings in a dose-dependent manner, especially in secondary roots. Moreover, concomitant administration of the auxin IAA neutralizes the AtMps1 inhibition phenotype, allowing secondary root development. These observations let us to hypothesize that AtMps1 might be a downstream regulator of IAA signaling in the formation of secondary roots. Our results indicate that Mps1 might be a universal component of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint machinery across very distant lineages of eukaryotes. PMID:23049844

  8. dsRNA-Dependent Protein Kinase PKR and its Role in Stress, Signaling and HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane F. Meurs


    Full Text Available The double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR plays multiple roles in cells, in response to different stress situations. As a member of the interferon (IFN‑Stimulated Genes, PKR was initially recognized as an actor in the antiviral action of IFN, due to its ability to control translation, through phosphorylation, of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2a. As such, PKR participates in the generation of stress granules, or autophagy and a number of viruses have designed strategies to inhibit its action. However, PKR deficient mice resist most viral infections, indicating that PKR may play other roles in the cell other than just acting as an antiviral agent. Indeed, PKR regulates several signaling pathways, either as an adapter protein and/or using its kinase activity. Here we review the role of PKR as an eIF2a kinase, its participation in the regulation of the NF-kB, p38MAPK and insulin pathways, and we focus on its role during infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV. PKR binds the HCV IRES RNA, cooperates with some functions of the HCV core protein and may represent a target for NS5A or E2. Novel data points out for a role of PKR as a pro-HCV agent, both as an adapter protein and as an eIF2a-kinase, and in cooperation with the di-ubiquitin-like protein ISG15. Developing pharmaceutical inhibitors of PKR may help in resolving some viral infections as well as stress-related damages.

  9. A class of selective antibacterials derived from a protein kinase inhibitor pharmacophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J. Richard; Dunham, Steve; Mochalkin, Igor; Banotai, Craig; Bowman, Matthew; Buist, Susan; Dunkle, Bill; Hanna, Debra; Harwood, H. James; Huband, Michael D.; Karnovsky, Alla; Kuhn, Michael; Limberakis, Chris; Liu, Jia Y.; Mehrens, Shawn; Mueller, W. Thomas; Narasimhan, Lakshmi; Ogden, Adam; Ohren, Jeff; Prasad, J.V.N. Vara; Shelly, John A.; Skerlos, Laura; Sulavik, Mark; Thomas, V. Hayden; VanderRoest, Steve; Wang, LiAnn; Wang, Zhigang; Whitton, Amy; Zhu, Tong; Stover, C. Kendall; (Pfizer)


    As the need for novel antibiotic classes to combat bacterial drug resistance increases, the paucity of leads resulting from target-based antibacterial screening of pharmaceutical compound libraries is of major concern. One explanation for this lack of success is that antibacterial screening efforts have not leveraged the eukaryotic bias resulting from more extensive chemistry efforts targeting eukaryotic gene families such as G protein-coupled receptors and protein kinases. Consistent with a focus on antibacterial target space resembling these eukaryotic targets, we used whole-cell screening to identify a series of antibacterial pyridopyrimidines derived from a protein kinase inhibitor pharmacophore. In bacteria, the pyridopyrimidines target the ATP-binding site of biotin carboxylase (BC), which catalyzes the first enzymatic step of fatty acid biosynthesis. These inhibitors are effective in vitro and in vivo against fastidious Gram-negative pathogens including Haemophilus influenzae. Although the BC active site has architectural similarity to those of eukaryotic protein kinases, inhibitor binding to the BC ATP-binding site is distinct from the protein kinase-binding mode, such that the inhibitors are selective for bacterial BC. In summary, we have discovered a promising class of potent antibacterials with a previously undescribed mechanism of action. In consideration of the eukaryotic bias of pharmaceutical libraries, our findings also suggest that pursuit of a novel inhibitor leads for antibacterial targets with active-site structural similarity to known human targets will likely be more fruitful than the traditional focus on unique bacterial target space, particularly when structure-based and computational methodologies are applied to ensure bacterial selectivity.

  10. Insulin receptor substrate 1 is a substrate of the Pim protein kinases. (United States)

    Song, Jin H; Padi, Sathish K R; Luevano, Libia A; Minden, Mark D; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Hardiman, Gary; Ball, Lauren E; Warfel, Noel A; Kraft, Andrew S


    The Pim family of serine/threonine protein kinases (Pim 1, 2, and 3) contribute to cellular transformation by regulating glucose metabolism, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Drugs targeting the Pim protein kinases are being tested in phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of hematopoietic malignancies. The goal of these studies was to identify Pim substrate(s) that could help define the pathway regulated by these enzymes and potentially serve as a biomarker of Pim activity. To identify novel substrates, bioinformatics analysis was carried out to identify proteins containing a consensus Pim phosphorylation site. This analysis identified the insulin receptor substrate 1 and 2 (IRS1/2) as potential Pim substrates. Experiments were carried out in tissue culture, animals, and human samples from phase I trials to validate this observation and define the biologic readout of this phosphorylation. Our study demonstrates in both malignant and normal cells using either genetic or pharmacological inhibition of the Pim kinases or overexpression of this family of enzymes that human IRS1S1101 and IRS2S1149 are Pim substrates. In xenograft tumor experiments and in a human phase I clinical trial, a pan-Pim inhibitor administered in vivo to animals or humans decreased IRS1S1101 phosphorylation in tumor tissues. This phosphorylation was shown to have effects on the half-life of the IRS family of proteins, suggesting a role in insulin or IGF signaling. These results demonstrate that IRS1S1101 is a novel substrate for the Pim kinases and provide a novel marker for evaluation of Pim inhibitor therapy.

  11. Protein kinase expression as a predictive factor for interferon response in chronic hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal A. Mohamed


    Full Text Available Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV worldwide. Currently, combined pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy are the standard treatment. The biological activity of interferon (IFN is mediated by the induction of intracellular antiviral proteins, such as 2′–5′ oligoadenylate synthetase, and dsRNA-activated protein kinase. IFN-inducible double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR is thought to play a key antiviral role against HCV. Some studies observed that PKR expression was higher in sustained viral responders compared with the non-responders. The PKR is considered as antiviral toward HCV and responsible for IFN’s effect against HCV while others have showed that, there were kinetic results indicate that HCV infection is not altered by reduced levels of PKR, indicating that HCV is resistant to the translational inhibitory effects of the phosphorylated forms of PKR. This study was conducted on 50 consecutive patients with chronic HCV infection (CHC and 20 healthy controls. All the patients were subjected to clinical and laboratory assessment, abdominal ultrasound, and liver biopsy. Determination of PKR gene quantity by using a real time PCR was done at the baseline and at the end of treatment for all patients and controls. Pre-treatment levels of protein kinase gene were significantly higher in responders in comparison with non-responders (P < 0.001. It was found that 97.06% of patients who were responding to treatment had the expression of protein kinase gene greater than 26 cycle threshold.

  12. Ethanol extract of the seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa potentiates hippocampal synaptic transmission through mitogen-activated protein kinase, adenylyl cyclase, and protein kinase A pathways. (United States)

    Jo, So Yeon; Jung, In Ho; Yi, Jee Hyun; Choi, Tae Joon; Lee, Seungheon; Jung, Ji Wook; Yun, Jeanho; Lee, Young Choon; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun


    As the seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H.F. Chow (Rhamnaceae) has been used to sleep disturbances in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine, many previous studies have focused on its sedative effect. Recently, we reported the neuroprotective effect of the effect of Z. jujuba var. spinosa. However, its effects on synaptic function have not yet been studied. In this project, we examined the action of ethanol extract of the seed of Z. jujuba var. spinosa (DHP1401) on synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. To investigate the effects of DHP1401, field recordings were conducted using hippocampal slices (400µm). Object recognition test was introduced to examine whether DHP1401 affect normal recognition memory. DHP1401 (50μg/ml) induced a significant increase in synaptic activity in Shaffer collateral pathway in a concentration-dependent manner. This increase of synaptic responses was blocked by NBQX, a broad spectrum α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor antagonist, but not IEM-1460, a Ca 2+ -permeable AMPAR blocker. Moreover, U0126, a mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, SQ22536, an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, and PKI, a protein kinase A inhibitor, blocked DHP1401-induced increase in synaptic transmission. Finally, DHP1401 facilitated object recognition memory. These results suggest that DHP1401 increase synaptic transmission through increase of synaptic AMPAR transmission via MAPK, AC and PAK. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. HTLV-1 Tax protein recruitment into IKKε and TBK1 kinase complexes enhances IFN-I expression. (United States)

    Diani, Erica; Avesani, Francesca; Bergamo, Elisa; Cremonese, Giorgia; Bertazzoni, Umberto; Romanelli, Maria Grazia


    The Tax protein expressed by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) plays a pivotal role in the deregulation of cellular pathways involved in the immune response, inflammation, cell survival, and cancer. Many of these effects derive from Tax multiple interactions with host factors, including the subunits of the IKK-complex that are required for NF-κB activation. IKKɛ and TBK1 are two IKK-related kinases that allow the phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factors that trigger IFN type I gene expression. We observed that IKKɛ and TBK1 recruit Tax into cellular immunocomplexes. We also found that TRAF3, which regulates cell receptor signaling effectors, forms complexes with Tax. Transactivation analyses revealed that expression of Tax, in presence of IKKɛ and TBK1, enhances IFN-β promoter activity, whereas the activation of NF-κB promoter is not modified. We propose that Tax may be recruited into the TBK1/IKKɛ complexes as a scaffolding-adaptor protein that enhances IFN-I gene expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Heterotrimeric G proteins interact with defense-related receptor-like kinases in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Aranda-Sicilia, María Nieves; Trusov, Yuri; Maruta, Natsumi; Chakravorty, David; Zhang, Yuelin; Botella, José Ramón


    Heterotrimeric G proteins (G-proteins) are versatile signaling elements conserved in Eukaryotes. In animals G-proteins relay signals from 7-transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to intracellular downstream effectors; however, the existence of GPCRs in plants is controversial. Contrastingly, a surplus of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) provides signal recognition at the plant cell surface. It is established that G proteins are involved in plant defense and suggested that they relay signals from defense-related RLKs. However, it is unclear how the signaling is conducted, as physical interaction between the RLKs and G proteins has not been demonstrated. Using yeast split-ubiquitin system and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation assays, we demonstrate physical interaction between the Gα, Gγ1 and Gγ2 subunits, and the defense-related RD-type receptor like kinases CERK1, BAK1 and BIR1. At the same time, no interaction was detected with the non-RD RLK FLS2. We hypothesize that G-proteins mediate signal transduction immediately downstream of the pathogenesis-related RLKs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Protein Kinase C Epsilon and Genetic Networks in Osteosarcoma Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudarzi, Atta; Gokgoz, Nalan; Gill, Mona; Pinnaduwage, Dushanthi; Merico, Daniele; Wunder, Jay S.; Andrulis, Irene L.


    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the bone, and pulmonary metastasis is the most frequent cause of OS mortality. The aim of this study was to discover and characterize genetic networks differentially expressed in metastatic OS. Expression profiling of OS tumors, and subsequent supervised network analysis, was performed to discover genetic networks differentially activated or organized in metastatic OS compared to localized OS. Broad trends among the profiles of metastatic tumors include aberrant activity of intracellular organization and translation networks, as well as disorganization of metabolic networks. The differentially activated PRKCε-RASGRP3-GNB2 network, which interacts with the disorganized DLG2 hub, was also found to be differentially expressed among OS cell lines with differing metastatic capacity in xenograft models. PRKCε transcript was more abundant in some metastatic OS tumors; however the difference was not significant overall. In functional studies, PRKCε was not found to be involved in migration of M132 OS cells, but its protein expression was induced in M112 OS cells following IGF-1 stimulation

  16. Redox-dependent dimerization of p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase with mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3. (United States)

    Bassi, Rekha; Burgoyne, Joseph R; DeNicola, Gian F; Rudyk, Olena; DeSantis, Vittorio; Charles, Rebecca L; Eaton, Philip; Marber, Michael S


    The kinase p38α MAPK (p38α) plays a pivotal role in many biological processes. p38α is activated by canonical upstream kinases that phosphorylate the activation region. The purpose of our study was to determine whether such activation may depend on redox-sensing cysteines within p38α. p38α was activated and formed a disulfide-bound heterodimer with MAP2K3 (MKK3) in rat cardiomyocytes and isolated hearts exposed to H 2 O 2 This disulfide heterodimer was sensitive to reduction by mercaptoethanol and was enhanced by the thioredoxin-reductase inhibitor auranofin. We predicted that Cys-119 or Cys-162 of p38α, close to the known MKK3 docking domain, were relevant for these redox characteristics. The C119S mutation decreased whereas the C162S mutation increased the dimer formation, suggesting that these two Cys residues act as vicinal thiols, consistent with C119S/C162S being incapable of sensing H 2 O 2 Similarly, disulfide heterodimer formation was abolished in H9C2 cells expressing both MKK3 and p38α C119S/C162S and subjected to simulated ischemia and reperfusion. However, the p38α C119S/C162S mutants did not exhibit appreciable alteration in activating dual phosphorylation. In contrast, the anti-inflammatory agent 10-nitro-oleic acid (NO 2 -OA), a component of the Mediterranean diet, reduced p38α activation and covalently modified Cys-119/Cys-162, probably obstructing MKK3 access. Moreover, NO 2 -OA reduced the dephosphorylation of p38α by hematopoietic tyrosine phosphatase (HePTP). Furthermore, steric obstruction of Cys-119/Cys-162 by NO 2 -OA pretreatment in Langendorff-perfused murine hearts prevented the p38-MKK3 disulfide dimer formation and attenuated H 2 O 2 -induced contractile dysfunction. Our findings suggest that cysteine residues within p38α act as redox sensors that can dynamically regulate the association between p38 and MKK3. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 signaling regulates mammalian life span. (United States)

    Selman, Colin; Tullet, Jennifer M A; Wieser, Daniela; Irvine, Elaine; Lingard, Steven J; Choudhury, Agharul I; Claret, Marc; Al-Qassab, Hind; Carmignac, Danielle; Ramadani, Faruk; Woods, Angela; Robinson, Iain C A; Schuster, Eugene; Batterham, Rachel L; Kozma, Sara C; Thomas, George; Carling, David; Okkenhaug, Klaus; Thornton, Janet M; Partridge, Linda; Gems, David; Withers, Dominic J


    Caloric restriction (CR) protects against aging and disease, but the mechanisms by which this affects mammalian life span are unclear. We show in mice that deletion of ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (S6K1), a component of the nutrient-responsive mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling pathway, led to increased life span and resistance to age-related pathologies, such as bone, immune, and motor dysfunction and loss of insulin sensitivity. Deletion of S6K1 induced gene expression patterns similar to those seen in CR or with pharmacological activation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a conserved regulator of the metabolic response to CR. Our results demonstrate that S6K1 influences healthy mammalian life-span and suggest that therapeutic manipulation of S6K1 and AMPK might mimic CR and could provide broad protection against diseases of aging.

  18. Functional Roles of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Yang


    Full Text Available Inflammation is a natural host defensive process that is largely regulated by macrophages during the innate immune response. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs are proline-directed serine and threonine protein kinases that regulate many physiological and pathophysiological cell responses. p38 MAPKs are key MAPKs involved in the production of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. p38 MAPK signaling plays an essential role in regulating cellular processes, especially inflammation. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of p38 signaling in macrophage-mediated inflammation. In addition, we discuss the potential of using inhibitors targeting p38 expression in macrophages to treat inflammatory diseases.

  19. Protein-Tyrosine Kinase Signaling in the Biological Functions Associated with Sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi W. Ijiri


    Full Text Available In sexual reproduction, two gamete cells (i.e., egg and sperm fuse (fertilization to create a newborn with a genetic identity distinct from those of the parents. In the course of these developmental processes, a variety of signal transduction events occur simultaneously in each of the two gametes, as well as in the fertilized egg/zygote/early embryo. In particular, a growing body of knowledge suggests that the tyrosine kinase Src and/or other protein-tyrosine kinases are important elements that facilitate successful implementation of the aforementioned processes in many animal species. In this paper, we summarize recent findings on the roles of protein-tyrosine phosphorylation in many sperm-related processes (from spermatogenesis to epididymal maturation, capacitation, acrosomal exocytosis, and fertilization.

  20. A protein kinase target of a PDK1 signalling pathway is involved in root hair growth in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anthony, R.G.; Henriques, R.; Helfer, A.; Mészáros, T.; Rios, G.; Testerink, C.; Munnik, T.; Deák, M.; Koncz, C.; Bögre, L.


    Here we report on a lipid-signalling pathway in plants that is downstream of phosphatidic acid and involves the Arabidopsis protein kinase, AGC2-1, regulated by the 3'-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (AtPDK1). AGC2-1 specifically interacts with AtPDK1 through a conserved C-terminal hydrophobic

  1. Resveratrol reduces prostaglandin E1-stimulated osteoprotegerin synthesis in osteoblasts: suppression of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naohiro; Otsuka, Takanobu; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Kondo, Akira; Kainuma, Shingo; Nakakami, Akira; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Kozawa, Osamu; Tokuda, Haruhiko


    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol mainly existing in red grapes and berries, possesses beneficial effects on human being. We have previously reported that prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) stimulates vascular endothelial growth factor synthesis via activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) but not p44/p42 MAP kinase in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. In the present study, we investigated the PGE1-effect on osteoprotegerin (OPG) synthesis and the effect of resveratrol on the synthesis in MC3T3-E1 cells. PGE1 induced the expression levels of OPG mRNA and stimulated the OPG release. Resveratrol significantly reduced the PGE1-induced OPG release and the mRNA expression. SRT1720, an activator of SIRT1, suppressed the release of OPG. The protein levels of SIRT1 were not up-regulated by resveratrol with or without PGE1. Both SB203580 and SP600125, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor and a specific SAPK/JNK inhibitor, respectively, but not PD98059, a specific MEK inhibitor, reduced the PGE1-stimulated OPG release. Resveratrol or SRT1720 failed to affect the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase. On the contrary, PGE1-induced phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK was significantly attenuated by both resveratrol and SRT1720. Our results strongly suggest that resveratrol inhibits PGE1-stimulated OPG synthesis via suppressing SAPK/JNK but not p38 MAP kinase in osteoblasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring some of the physico-chemical properties of the LAMMER protein kinase DOA of Drosophila

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farkaš, R.; Kováčiková, M.; Liszeková, D.; Beňo, M.; Daniš, P.; Rabinow, L.; Chase, B. A.; Raška, Ivan


    Roč. 3, č. 2 (2009), s. 130-142 ISSN 1933-6934 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LC535; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/02/0342; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/04/0692 Program:LC; GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : protein kinase structure * function * genetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.156, year: 2009

  3. Protein kinase A cascade regulates quantal release dispersion at frog muscle endplate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bukharaeva, E. A.; Samigullin, D.; Nikolsky, E.; Vyskočil, František


    Roč. 538, č. 3 (2002), s. 837-848 ISSN 0022-3751 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7011902 Grant - others:EU(XC) EU Nesting; RFBR(RU) 99-04-48286 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : EPCs * latency dispersion * protein kinase A Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.650, year: 2002

  4. Up-regulation and redistribution of protein kinase C-delta in chronically hypoxic heart

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváčková, M.; Kožichová, K.; Neckář, Jan; Kolář, František; Musters, R.J.P.; Novák, O.; Nováková, O.


    Roč. 345, 1-2 (2010), s. 271-282 ISSN 0300-8177 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/07/0875; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 97908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : protein kinase C * chronic intermittent hypoxia * heart Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.168, year: 2010

  5. Adolescent and adult rat cortical protein kinase A display divergent responses to acute ethanol exposure


    Gigante, Eduardo D.; Santerre, Jessica L.; Carter, Jenna M.; Werner, David F.


    Adolescent rats display reduced sensitivity to many dysphoria-related effects of alcohol (ethanol) including motor ataxia and sedative hypnosis, but the underlying neurobiological factors that contribute to these differences remain unknown. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, particularly the type II regulatory subunit (RII), has been implicated in ethanol-induced molecular and behavioral responses in adults. Therefore, the current study examine...

  6. Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II in Vascular Smooth Muscle. (United States)

    Saddouk, F Z; Ginnan, R; Singer, H A


    Ca 2+ -dependent signaling pathways are central regulators of differentiated vascular smooth muscle (VSM) contractile function. In addition, Ca 2+ signals regulate VSM gene transcription, proliferation, and migration of dedifferentiated or "synthetic" phenotype VSM cells. Synthetic phenotype VSM growth and hyperplasia are hallmarks of pervasive vascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, postangioplasty/in-stent restenosis, and vein graft failure. The serine/threonine protein kinase Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a ubiquitous mediator of intracellular Ca 2+ signals. Its multifunctional nature, structural complexity, diversity of isoforms, and splice variants all characterize this protein kinase and make study of its activity and function challenging. The kinase has unique autoregulatory mechanisms, and emerging studies suggest that it can function to integrate Ca 2+ and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species signaling. Differentiated VSM expresses primarily CaMKIIγ and -δ isoforms. CaMKIIγ isoform expression correlates closely with the differentiated phenotype, and some studies link its function to regulation of contractile activity and Ca 2+ homeostasis. Conversely, synthetic phenotype VSM cells primarily express CaMKIIδ and substantial evidence links it to regulation of gene transcription, proliferation, and migration of VSM in vitro, and vascular hypertrophic and hyperplastic remodeling in vivo. CaMKIIδ and -γ isoforms have opposing functions at the level of cell cycle regulation, proliferation, and VSM hyperplasia in vivo. Isoform switching following vascular injury is a key step in promoting vascular remodeling. Recent availability of genetically engineered mice with smooth muscle deletion of specific isoforms and transgenics expressing an endogenous inhibitor protein (CAMK2N) has enabled a better understanding of CaMKII function in VSM and should facilitate future studies. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. DNA-dependent protein kinase in nonhomologous end joining: a lock with multiple keys? (United States)

    Weterings, Eric; Chen, David J


    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is one of the central enzymes involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. It facilitates proper alignment of the two ends of the broken DNA molecule and coordinates access of other factors to the repair complex. We discuss the latest findings on DNA-PK phosphorylation and offer a working model for the regulation of DNA-PK during DSB repair.

  8. Do post-translational beta cell protein modifications trigger type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Størling, Joachim; Overgaard, Anne Julie; Brorsson, Caroline Anna


    Type 1 diabetes is considered an autoimmune disease characterised by specific T cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells. Yet, except for insulin, no beta cell-specific antigens have been discovered. This may imply that the autoantigens in type 1 diabetes exist in modified...... forms capable of specifically triggering beta cell destruction. In other immune-mediated diseases, autoantigens targeted by the immune system have undergone post-translational modification (PTM), thereby creating tissue-specific neo-epitopes. In a similar manner, PTM of beta cell proteins might create...... beta cell-specific neo-epitopes. We suggest that the current paradigm of type 1 diabetes as a classical autoimmune disease should be reconsidered since the immune response may not be directed against native beta cell proteins. A modified model for the pathogenetic events taking place in islets leading...

  9. Mechanisms of triggering H1 helix in prion proteins unfolding revealed by molecular dynamic simulation (United States)

    Tseng, Chih-Yuan; Lee, H. C.


    In template-assistance model, normal Prion protein (PrP^C), the pathogen to cause several prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD) in human, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in cow, and scrapie in sheep, converts to infectious prion (PrP^Sc) through a transient interaction with PrP^Sc. Furthermore, conventional studies showed S1-H1-S2 region in PrP^C to be the template of S1-S2 β-sheet in PrP^Sc, and Prion protein's conformational conversion may involve an unfolding of H1 and refolding into β-sheet. Here we prepare several mouse prion peptides that contain S1-H1-S2 region with specific different structures, which are corresponding to specific interactions, to investigate possible mechanisms to trigger H1 α-helix unfolding process via molecular dynamic simulation. Three properties, conformational transition, salt-bridge in H1, and hydrophobic solvent accessible surface (SAS) are analyzed. From these studies, we found the interaction that triggers H1 unfolding to be the one that causes dihedral angle at residue Asn^143 changes. Whereas interactions that cause S1 segment's conformational changes play a minor in this process. These studies offers an additional evidence for template-assistance model.

  10. Analysis of A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) interaction with protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunits: PKA isoform specificity in AKAP binding. (United States)

    Herberg, F W; Maleszka, A; Eide, T; Vossebein, L; Tasken, K


    Compartmentalization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is in part mediated by specialized protein motifs in the dimerization domain of the regulatory (R)-subunits of PKA that participate in protein-protein interactions with an amphipathic helix region in A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). In order to develop a molecular understanding of the subcellular distribution and specific functions of PKA isozymes mediated by association with AKAPs, it is of importance to determine the apparent binding constants of the R-subunit-AKAP interactions. Here, we present a novel approach using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to examine directly the association and dissociation of AKAPs with all four R-subunit isoforms immobilized on a modified cAMP surface with a high level of accuracy. We show that both AKAP79 and S-AKAP84/D-AKAP1 bind RIIalpha very well (apparent K(D) values of 0.5 and 2 nM, respectively). Both proteins also bind RIIbeta quite well, but with three- to fourfold lower affinities than those observed versus RIIalpha. However, only S-AKAP84/D-AKAP1 interacts with RIalpha at a nanomolar affinity (apparent K(D) of 185 nM). In comparison, AKAP95 binds RIIalpha (apparent K(D) of 5.9 nM) with a tenfold higher affinity than RIIbeta and has no detectable binding to RIalpha. Surface competition assays with increasing concentrations of a competitor peptide covering amino acid residues 493 to 515 of the thyroid anchoring protein Ht31, demonstrated that Ht31, but not a proline-substituted peptide, Ht31-P, competed binding of RIIalpha and RIIbeta to all the AKAPs examined (EC(50)-values from 6 to 360 nM). Furthermore, RIalpha interaction with S-AKAP84/D-AKAP1 was competed (EC(50) 355 nM) with the same peptide. Here we report for the first time an approach to determine apparent rate- and equilibria binding constants for the interaction of all PKA isoforms with any AKAP as well as a novel approach for characterizing peptide competitors that disrupt PKA-AKAP anchoring

  11. A targeted library screen reveals a new inhibitor scaffold for protein kinase D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuj Tandon

    Full Text Available Protein kinase D (PKD has emerged as a potential therapeutic target in multiple pathological conditions, including cancer and heart diseases. Potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of PKD are valuable for dissecting PKD-mediated cellular signaling pathways and for therapeutic application. In this study, we evaluated a targeted library of 235 small organic kinase inhibitors for PKD1 inhibitory activity at a single concentration. Twenty-eight PKD inhibitory chemotypes were identified and six exhibited excellent PKD1 selectivity. Five of the six lead structures share a common scaffold, with compound 139 being the most potent and selective for PKD vs PKC and CAMK. Compound 139 was an ATP-competitive PKD1 inhibitor with a low double-digit nanomolar potency and was also cell-active. Kinase profiling analysis identified this class of small molecules as pan-PKD inhibitors, confirmed their selectivity again PKC and CAMK, and demonstrated an overall favorable selectivity profile that could be further enhanced through structural modification. Furthermore, using a PKD homology model based on similar protein kinase structures, docking modes for compound 139 were explored and compared to literature examples of PKD inhibition. Modeling of these compounds at the ATP-binding site of PKD was used to rationalize its high potency and provide the foundation for future further optimization. Accordingly, using biochemical screening of a small number of privileged scaffolds and computational modeling, we have identified a new core structure for highly potent PKD inhibition with promising selectivity against closely related kinases. These lead structures represent an excellent starting point for the further optimization and the design of selective and therapeutically effective small molecule inhibitors of PKD.

  12. Aptamer/Protein Proximity Binding-Triggered Molecular Machine for Amplified Electrochemical Sensing of Thrombin. (United States)

    Yang, Jianmei; Dou, Baoting; Yuan, Ruo; Xiang, Yun


    The development of convenient and sensitive methods without involving any enzymes or complex nanomaterials for the monitoring of proteins is of great significance in disease diagnostics. In this work, we describe the validation of a new aptamer/protein proximity binding-triggered molecular machinery amplification strategy for sensitive electrochemical assay of thrombin in complex serum samples. The sensing interface is prepared by self-assembly of three-stranded DNA complexes on the gold electrode. The association of two distinct functional aptamers with different sites of thrombin triggers proximity binding-induced displacement of one of the short single-stranded DNAs (ssDNAs) from the surface-immobilized three-stranded DNA complexes, exposing a prelocked toehold domain to hybridize with a methylene blue (MB)-tagged fuel ssDNA strand (MB-DNA). Subsequent toehold-mediated strand displacement by the MB-DNA leads to the release and recycling of the aptamer/protein complexes and the function of the molecular machine. Eventually, a large number of MB-DNA strands are captured by the sensor surface, generating drastically amplified electrochemical responses from the MB tags for sensitive detection of thrombin. Our signal amplified sensor is completely enzyme-free and shows a dynamic range from 5 pM to 1 nM with a detection limit of 1.7 pM. Such sensor also has a high specificity for thrombin assay in serum samples. By changing the affinity probe pairs, the developed sensor can be readily expanded as a more general platform for sensitive detection of different types of proteins.

  13. Fatty acid oxidation promotes reprogramming by enhancing oxidative phosphorylation and inhibiting protein kinase C. (United States)

    Lin, Zhaoyu; Liu, Fei; Shi, Peiliang; Song, Anying; Huang, Zan; Zou, Dayuan; Chen, Qin; Li, Jianxin; Gao, Xiang


    Changes in metabolic pathway preferences are key events in the reprogramming process of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The optimization of metabolic conditions can enhance reprogramming; however, the detailed underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. By comparing the gene expression profiles of somatic cells, intermediate-phase cells, and iPSCs, we found that carnitine palmitoyltransferase (Cpt)1b, a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid oxidation, was significantly upregulated in the early stage of the reprogramming process. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts isolated from transgenic mice carrying doxycycline (Dox)-inducible Yamanaka factor constructs were used for reprogramming. Various fatty acid oxidation-related metabolites were added during the reprogramming process. Colony counting and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) were used to calculate reprogramming efficiency. Fatty acid oxidation-related metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seahorse was used to measure the level of oxidative phosphorylation. We found that overexpression of cpt1b enhanced reprogramming efficiency. Furthermore, palmitoylcarnitine or acetyl-CoA, the primary and final products of Cpt1-mediated fatty acid oxidation, also promoted reprogramming. In the early reprogramming process, fatty acid oxidation upregulated oxidative phosphorylation and downregulated protein kinase C activity. Inhibition of protein kinase C also promoted reprogramming. We demonstrated that fatty acid oxidation promotes reprogramming by enhancing oxidative phosphorylation and inhibiting protein kinase C activity in the early stage of the reprogramming process. This study reveals that fatty acid oxidation is crucial for the reprogramming efficiency.

  14. Action of mercurials on activity of partially purified soluble protein kinase C from mice brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Saijoh, K.; Sumino, K.


    The enzymatic activity of soluble protein kinase C from mice brain was inhibited by mercuric chloride (II) (HgCl 2 ) and organic mercurials, i.e. methyl mercury, phenyl mercury and p-chloromercuribenzoic acid (PCMB). The IC50 was 0.08 μM for HgCl 2 and about 1 μM for organic mercurials. Sulfhydryl blocking reagents such as 5.5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) were less potent but nevertheless inhibited the enzymic activity of protein kinase C. The Hill coefficients of HgCl 2 , DTNB and NEM were close to unity whereas the values for organic mercurials were 1.3 to 1.5. The inhibition was of a non-competitive type with respect to Hl histone. 3 H-PDBu binding activity was also inhibited by all of the reagents in a non-competitive manner. Mercurials apparently bind to sulfhydryl groups of protein kinase C to inhibit the enzymatic activity. (author)

  15. Conformational transitions and interactions underlying the function of membrane embedded receptor protein kinases. (United States)

    Bocharov, Eduard V; Sharonov, Georgy V; Bocharova, Olga V; Pavlov, Konstantin V


    Among membrane receptors, the single-span receptor protein kinases occupy a broad but specific functional niche determined by distinctive features of the underlying transmembrane signaling mechanisms that are briefly overviewed on the basis of some of the most representative examples, followed by a more detailed discussion of several hierarchical levels of organization and interactions involved. All these levels, including single-molecule interactions (e.g., dimerization, liganding, chemical modifications), local processes (e.g. lipid membrane perturbations, cytoskeletal interactions), and larger scale phenomena (e.g., effects of membrane surface shape or electrochemical potential gradients) appear to be closely integrated to achieve the observed diversity of the receptor functioning. Different species of receptor protein kinases meet their specific functional demands through different structural features defining their responses to stimulation, but certain common patterns exist. Signaling by receptor protein kinases is typically associated with the receptor dimerization and clustering, ligand-induced rearrangements of receptor domains through allosteric conformational transitions with involvement of lipids, release of the sequestered lipids, restriction of receptor diffusion, cytoskeleton and membrane shape remodeling. Understanding of complexity and continuity of the signaling processes can help identifying currently neglected opportunities for influencing the receptor signaling with potential therapeutic implications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interactions between membrane receptors in cellular membranes edited by Kalina Hristova. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Conformational dynamics of human protein kinase CK2α and its effect on function and inhibition. (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashutosh; Hirota, Tsuyoshi; Irle, Stephan; Tama, Florence


    Protein kinase, casein kinase II (CK2), is ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved protein kinase that shows constitutive activity. It phosphorylates a diverse set of proteins and plays crucial role in several cellular processes. The catalytic subunit of this enzyme (CK2α) shows remarkable flexibility as evidenced in numerous crystal structures determined till now. Here, using analysis of multiple crystal structures and long timescale molecular dynamics simulations, we explore the conformational flexibility of CK2α. The enzyme shows considerably higher flexibility in the solution as compared to that observed in crystal structure ensemble. Multiple conformations of hinge region, located near the active site, were observed during the dynamics. We further observed that among these multiple conformations, the most populated conformational state was inadequately represented in the crystal structure ensemble. The catalytic spine, was found to be less dismantled in this state as compared to the "open" hinge/αD state crystal structures. The comparison of dynamics in unbound (Apo) state and inhibitor (CX4945) bound state exhibits inhibitor induced suppression in the overall dynamics of the enzyme. This is especially true for functionally important glycine-rich loop above the active site. Together, this work gives novel insights into the dynamics of CK2α in solution and relates it to the function. This work also explains the effect of inhibitor on the dynamics of CK2α and paves way for development of better inhibitors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Antimalarial potential of xestoquinone, a protein kinase inhibitor isolated from a Vanuatu marine sponge Xestospongia sp. (United States)

    Laurent, Dominique; Jullian, Valérie; Parenty, Arnaud; Knibiehler, Martine; Dorin, Dominique; Schmitt, Sophie; Lozach, Olivier; Lebouvier, Nicolas; Frostin, Maryvonne; Alby, Frédéric; Maurel, Séverine; Doerig, Christian; Meijer, Laurent; Sauvain, Michel


    As part of our search for new antimalarial drugs, we have screened for inhibitors of Pfnek-1, a protein kinase of Plasmodium falciparum, in south Pacific marine sponges. On the basis of a preliminary screening, the ethanolic crude extract of a new species of Xestospongia collected in Vanuatu was selected for its promising activity. A bioassay-guided fractionation led us to isolate xestoquinone which inhibits Pfnek-1 with an IC(50) around 1 microM. Among a small panel of plasmodial protein kinases, xestoquinone showed modest protein kinase inhibitory activity toward PfPK5 and no activity toward PfPK7 and PfGSK-3. Xestoquinone showed in vitro antiplasmodial activity against a FCB1 P. falciparum strain with an IC(50) of 3 microM and a weak selectivity index (SI 7). Xestoquinone exhibited a weak in vivo activity at 5mg/kg in Plasmodium berghei NK65 infected mice and was toxic at higher doses.

  18. Inhibition of Cartilage Acidic Protein 1 Reduces Ultraviolet B Irradiation Induced-Apoptosis through P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghong Ji


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ultraviolet B (UVB irradiation can easily induce apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs and further lead to various eye diseases including cataract. Here for the first time, we investigated the role of cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1 gene in UVB irradiation induced-apoptosis in HLECs. Methods: Three groups of HLECs were employed including model group, empty vector group, and CRTAC1 interference group. Results: After UVB irradiation, the percentage of primary apoptotic cells was obviously fewer in CRTAC1 interference group. Meanwhile, inhibition of CRTAC1 also reduced both reactive oxygen species (ROS production and intracellular Ca2+ concentration, but the level of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm was increased in HLECs. Further studies indicated that superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and total antioxidative (T-AOC level were significantly increased in CRTAC1-inhibited cells, while the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were significantly decreased. ELISA analysis of CRTAC1-inhibited cells showed that the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 were significantly decreased, but the concentration of interleukin-10 (IL-10 was significantly increased. Western blot analyses of eight apoptosis-associated proteins including Bax, Bcl-2, p38, phospho-p38 (p-p38, Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK1/2, phospho-JNK1/2 (p-JNK1/2, calcium-sensing receptor (CasR, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII indicated that the inhibition of CRTAC1 alleviated oxidative stress and inflammation response, inactivated calcium-signaling pathway, p38 and JNK1/2 signal pathways, and eventually reduced UVB irradiation induced-apoptosis in HLECs. Conclusion: These results provided new insights into the mechanism of cataract development, and demonstrated that CRTAC1 could be a potentially novel target for cataract treatment.

  19. Inhibition of Cartilage Acidic Protein 1 Reduces Ultraviolet B Irradiation Induced-Apoptosis through P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase Pathways. (United States)

    Ji, Yinghong; Rong, Xianfang; Li, Dan; Cai, Lei; Rao, Jun; Lu, Yi


    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation can easily induce apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) and further lead to various eye diseases including cataract. Here for the first time, we investigated the role of cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1) gene in UVB irradiation induced-apoptosis in HLECs. Three groups of HLECs were employed including model group, empty vector group, and CRTAC1 interference group. After UVB irradiation, the percentage of primary apoptotic cells was obviously fewer in CRTAC1 interference group. Meanwhile, inhibition of CRTAC1 also reduced both reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and intracellular Ca2+ concentration, but the level of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was increased in HLECs. Further studies indicated that superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total antioxidative (T-AOC) level were significantly increased in CRTAC1-inhibited cells, while the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly decreased. ELISA analysis of CRTAC1-inhibited cells showed that the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were significantly decreased, but the concentration of interleukin-10 (IL-10) was significantly increased. Western blot analyses of eight apoptosis-associated proteins including Bax, Bcl-2, p38, phospho-p38 (p-p38), Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK1/2), phospho-JNK1/2 (p-JNK1/2), calcium-sensing receptor (CasR), and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) indicated that the inhibition of CRTAC1 alleviated oxidative stress and inflammation response, inactivated calcium-signaling pathway, p38 and JNK1/2 signal pathways, and eventually reduced UVB irradiation induced-apoptosis in HLECs. These results provided new insights into the mechanism of cataract development, and demonstrated that CRTAC1 could be a potentially novel target for cataract treatment. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. p56Lck and p59Fyn Regulate CD28 Binding to Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase, Growth Factor Receptor-Bound Protein GRB-2, and T Cell-Specific Protein-Tyrosine Kinase ITK: Implications for T-Cell Costimulation (United States)

    Raab, Monika; Cai, Yun-Cai; Bunnell, Stephen C.; Heyeck, Stephanie D.; Berg, Leslie J.; Rudd, Christopher E.


    T-cell activation requires cooperative signals generated by the T-cell antigen receptor ξ-chain complex (TCRξ-CD3) and the costimulatory antigen CD28. CD28 interacts with three intracellular proteins-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), T cell-specific protein-tyrosine kinase ITK (formerly TSK or EMT), and the complex between growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 and son of sevenless guanine nucleotide exchange protein (GRB-2-SOS). PI 3-kinase and GRB-2 bind to the CD28 phosphotyrosine-based Tyr-Met-Asn-Met motif by means of intrinsic Src-homology 2 (SH2) domains. The requirement for tyrosine phosphorylation of the Tyr-Met-Asn-Met motif for SH2 domain binding implicates an intervening protein-tyrosine kinase in the recruitment of PI 3-kinase and GRB-2 by CD28. Candidate kinases include p56Lck, p59Fyn, ξ-chain-associated 70-kDa protein (ZAP-70), and ITK. In this study, we demonstrate in coexpression studies that p56Lck and p59Fyn phosphorylate CD28 primarily at Tyr-191 of the Tyr-Met-Asn-Met motif, inducing a 3- to 8-fold increase in p85 (subunit of PI 3-kinase) and GRB-2 SH2 binding to CD28. Phosphatase digestion of CD28 eliminated binding. In contrast to Src kinases, ZAP-70 and ITK failed to induce these events. Further, ITK binding to CD28 was dependent on the presence of p56Lck and is thus likely to act downstream of p56Lck/p59Fyn in a signaling cascade. p56Lck is therefore likely to be a central switch in T-cell activation, with the dual function of regulating CD28-mediated costimulation as well as TCR-CD3-CD4 signaling.

  1. Indomethacin promotes apoptosis in gastric cancer cells through concomitant degradation of Survivin and Aurora B kinase proteins. (United States)

    Chiou, Shiun-Kwei; Hoa, Neil; Hodges, Amy; Ge, Lishen; Jadus, Martin R


    Regular usage of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with reduced incidence of a variety of cancers. The molecular mechanisms underlying these chemopreventive effects remain poorly understood. This current investigation showed that in gastric cancer cells: (1) Indomethacin treatment enhanced the degradation of chromosomal passenger proteins, Survivin and Aurora B kinase; (2) Indomethacin treatment down-regulated Aurora B kinase activity in a cell cycle-independent fashion; (3) siRNA knockdown of Survivin level promoted Aurora B kinase protein degradation, and vice versa; (4) ectopic overexpression of Survivin blocked reduction of Aurora B kinase level and activity by indomethacin treatment, and vice versa; (5) siRNA knockdown of Aurora B kinase level and AZD1152 inhibition of its activity induced apoptosis, and overexpression of Aurora B kinase inhibited indomethacin-induced apoptosis; (6) indomethacin treatment reduced Aurora B kinase level, coinciding with reduction of Survivin level and induction of apoptosis, in KATO III and HT-29 cells, and in mouse gastric mucosa. A role for Aurora B kinase function in NSAID-induced apoptosis was not previously explored. Thus this report provides better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effect of NSAIDs by elucidating a significant role for Aurora B kinase in indomethacin-induced apoptosis.

  2. Resveratrol Inhibits Porcine Intestinal Glucose and Alanine Transport: Potential Roles of Na+/K+-ATPase Activity, Protein Kinase A, AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and the Association of Selected Nutrient Transport Proteins with Detergent Resistant Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Klinger


    Full Text Available Background: Beneficial effects of Resveratrol (RSV have been demonstrated, including effects on transporters and channels. However, little is known about how RSV influences intestinal transport. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effects of RSV on intestinal transport and the respective mechanisms. Methods: Porcine jejunum and ileum were incubated with RSV (300 µM, 30 min in Ussing chambers (functional studies and tissue bathes (detection of protein expression, phosphorylation, association with detergent resistant membranes (DRMs. Results: RSV reduced alanine and glucose-induced short circuit currents (ΔIsc and influenced forskolin-induced ΔIsc. The phosphorylation of sodium–glucose-linked transporter 1 (SGLT1, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, protein kinase A substrates (PKA-S and liver kinase B1 (LKB1 increased but a causative relation to the inhibitory effects could not directly be established. The DRM association of SGLT1, peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1 and (phosphorylated Na+/H+-exchanger 3 (NHE3 did not change. Conclusion: RSV influences the intestinal transport of glucose, alanine and chloride and is likely to affect other transport processes. As the effects of protein kinase activation vary between the intestinal localizations, it would appear that increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP levels are part of the mechanism. Nonetheless, the physiological responses depend on cell type-specific structures.

  3. Protein kinase C-dependent dephosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase requires the B56δ heterotrimeric form of protein phosphatase 2A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hyuck Ahn

    Full Text Available Tyrosine hydroxylase, which plays a critical role in regulation of dopamine synthesis, is known to be controlled by phosphorylation at several critical sites. One of these sites, Ser40, is phosphorylated by a number of protein kinases, including protein kinase A. The major protein phosphatase that dephosphorylates Ser40 is protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A. A recent study has also linked protein kinase C to the dephosphorylation of Ser40 [1], but the mechanism is unclear. PP2A isoforms are comprised of catalytic, scaffold, and regulatory subunits, the regulatory B subunits being able to influence cellular localization and substrate selection. In the current study, we find that protein kinase C is able to phosphorylate a key regulatory site in the B56δ subunit leading to activation of PP2A. In turn, activation of the B56δ-containing heterotrimeric form of PP2A is responsible for enhanced dephosphorylation of Ser40 of tyrosine hydroylase in response to stimulation of PKC. In support of this mechanism, down-regulation of B56δ expression in N27 cells using RNAi was found to increase dopamine synthesis. Together these studies reveal molecular details of how protein kinase C is linked to reduced tyrosine hydroxylase activity via control of PP2A, and also add to the complexity of protein kinase/protein phosphatase interactions.

  4. Identification and Characterization of Amlexanox as a G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 5 Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoff T. Homan


    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs have been implicated in human diseases ranging from heart failure to diabetes. Previous studies have identified several compounds that selectively inhibit GRK2, such as paroxetine and balanol. Far fewer selective inhibitors have been reported for GRK5, a target for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy, and the mechanism of action of reported compounds is unknown. To identify novel scaffolds that selectively inhibit GRK5, a differential scanning fluorometry screen was used to probe a library of 4480 compounds. The best hit was amlexanox, an FDA-approved anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic immunomodulator. The crystal structure of amlexanox in complex with GRK1 demonstrates that its tricyclic aromatic ring system forms ATP-like interactions with the hinge of the kinase domain, which is likely similar to how this drug binds to IκB kinase ε (IKKε, another kinase known to be inhibited by this compound. Amlexanox was also able to inhibit myocyte enhancer factor 2 transcriptional activity in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes in a manner consistent with GRK5 inhibition. The GRK1 amlexanox structure thus serves as a springboard for the rational design of inhibitors with improved potency and selectivity for GRK5 and IKKε.

  5. Structural insights into the architecture and allostery of full-length AMP-activated protein kinase. (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Yi-Jiong; Zhao, Jing; Ji, Shang-Rong; Wu, Jia-Wei; Wu, Yi


    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric complex composed of α catalytic subunit, β scaffolding subunit, and γ regulatory subunit with critical roles in maintaining cellular energy homeostasis. However, the molecular architecture of the intact complex and the allostery associated with the adenosine binding-induced regulation of kinase activity remain unclear. Here, we determine the three-dimensional reconstruction and subunit organization of the full-length rat AMPK (α1β1γ1) through single-particle electron-microscopy. By comparing the structures of AMPK in ATP- and AMP-bound states, we are able to visualize the sequential conformational changes underlying kinase activation that transmits from the adenosine binding sites in the γ subunit to the kinase domain of the α subunit. These results not only make substantial revision to the current model of AMPK assembly, but also highlight a central role of the linker sequence of the α subunit in mediating the allostery of AMPK. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Overexpression of atypical protein kinase C in HeLa cells facilitates macropinocytosis via Src activation. (United States)

    Tisdale, Ellen J; Shisheva, Assia; Artalejo, Cristina R


    Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) is the first recognized kinase oncogene. However, the specific contribution of aPKC to cancer progression is unclear. The pseudosubstrate domain of aPKC is different from the other PKC family members, and therefore a synthetic peptide corresponding to the aPKC pseudosubstrate (aPKC-PS) sequence, which specifically blocks aPKC kinase activity, is a valuable tool to assess the role of aPKC in various cellular processes. Here, we learned that HeLa cells incubated with membrane permeable aPKC-PS peptide displayed dilated heterogeneous vesicles labeled with peptide that were subsequently identified as macropinosomes. A quantitative membrane binding assay revealed that aPKC-PS peptide stimulated aPKC recruitment to membranes and activated Src. Similarly, aPKC overexpression in transfected HeLa cells activated Src and induced macropinosome formation. Src-aPKC interaction was essential; substitution of the proline residues in aPKC that associate with the Src-SH3 binding domain rendered the mutant kinase unable to induce macropinocytosis in transfected cells. We propose that aPKC overexpression is a contributing factor to cell transformation by interacting with and consequently promoting Src activation and constitutive macropinocytosis, which increases uptake of extracellular factors, required for altered cell growth and accelerated cell migration. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. NF-kappaB regulates the transcription of protein tyrosine kinase Tec. (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Simonson, Oscar E; Mohamed, Abdalla J; Smith, C I Edvard


    The tyrosine kinase expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (Tec) is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) that is expressed in hematopoietic cells, such as B and T lymphocytes, myeloid lineage cells and neutrophils. Mutations in the human Btk gene cause X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), but the corresponding mutation in mice results in a much milder defect. However, the combined inactivation of Btk and Tec genes in mice cause a severe phenotype resembling XLA. Tec is involved in the regulation of both B and T lymphocytes, fine-tuning of TCR/BCR signaling, and also activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells. Previous work has shown that the transcription factors Sp1 and PU.1 can bind and regulate the Tec promoter. In this study, we demonstrate that NF-kappaB is an essential transcription factor for optimal expression of the Tec gene, and identify a unique functionally active NF-kappaB binding site in its promoter. The NF-kappaB subunit p65/RelA directly induced transcriptional activity of the Tec promoter. Moreover, we also found that proteasome inhibitors, including Bortezomib, repress Tec transcription through inactivation of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. This study, together with our previous findings on the transcriptional regulation of Btk (Bruton's tyrosine kinase) by proteasome inhibitors, provides important insight into the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the role of NF-kappaB in Tec family kinase signaling and lymphocyte development.

  8. Identification of phosphorylation sites in protein kinase A substrates using artificial neural networks and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerrild, M.; Stensballe, A.; Rasmussen, T.E.


    kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation sites. The neural network was trained with a positive set of 258 experimentally verified PKA phosphorylation sites. The predictions by NetPhosK were! validated using four novel PKA substrates: Necdin, RFX5, En-2, and Wee 1. The four proteins were phosphorylated by PKA...... in vitro and 13 PKA phosphorylation sites were identified by mass spectrometry. NetPhosK was 100% sensitive and 41% specific in predicting PKA sites in the four proteins. These results demonstrate the potential of using integrated computational and experimental methods for detailed investigations...

  9. RACK1 Targets the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase/Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway To Link Integrin Engagement with Focal Adhesion Disassembly and Cell Motility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vomastek, Tomáš; Iwanicki, M. P.; Schaeffer, J.; J.; Tarcsafalvi, A.; Parsons, J. T.; Weber, M. J.


    Roč. 27, č. 23 (2007), s. 8296-8305 ISSN 0270-7306 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200716 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : protein kinase * adhesion * cell Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.420, year: 2007

  10. Recruitment of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin to β1 integrin promotes cancer cell migration via mitogen activated protein kinase activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohannessian Arthur


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrin-extracellular matrix interactions activate signaling cascades such as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK. Integrin binding to extracellular matrix increases tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK. Inhibition of FAK activity by expression of its carboxyl terminus decreases cell motility, and cells from FAK deficient mice also show reduced migration. Paxillin is a focal adhesion protein which is also phosphorylated on tyrosine. FAK recruitment of paxillin to the cell membrane correlates with Shc phosphorylation and activation of MAPK. Decreased FAK expression inhibits papilloma formation in a mouse skin carcinogenesis model. We previously demonstrated that MAPK activation was required for growth factor induced in vitro migration and invasion by human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC lines. Methods Adapter protein recruitment to integrin subunits was examined by co-immunoprecipitation in SCC cells attached to type IV collagen or plastic. Stable clones overexpressing FAK or paxillin were created using the lipofection technique. Modified Boyden chambers were used for invasion assays. Results In the present study, we showed that FAK and paxillin but not Shc are recruited to the β1 integrin cytoplasmic domain following attachment of SCC cells to type IV collagen. Overexpression of either FAK or paxillin stimulated cancer cell migration on type IV collagen and invasion through reconstituted basement membrane which was dependent on MAPK activity. Conclusions We concluded that recruitment of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin to β1 integrin promoted cancer cell migration via the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway.

  11. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase rapidly suppresses multiple pro-inflammatory pathways in adipocytes including IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancini, Sarah J; White, Anna D; Bijland, Silvia


    Inflammation of adipose tissue in obesity is associated with increased IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α secretion and proposed to contribute to insulin resistance. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates nutrient metabolism and is reported to have anti-inflammatory actions in adipose tissue, yet the m...

  12. Protein kinase D stabilizes aldosterone-induced ERK1/2 MAP kinase activation in M1 renal cortical collecting duct cells to promote cell proliferation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McEneaney, Victoria


    Aldosterone elicits transcriptional responses in target tissues and also rapidly stimulates the activation of protein kinase signalling cascades independently of de novo protein synthesis. Here we investigated aldosterone-induced cell proliferation and extra-cellular regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1\\/2) mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signalling in the M1 cortical collecting duct cell line (M1-CCD). Aldosterone promoted the proliferative growth of M1-CCD cells, an effect that was protein kinase D1 (PKD1), PKCdelta and ERK1\\/2-dependent. Aldosterone induced the rapid activation of ERK1\\/2 with peaks of activation at 2 and 10 to 30 min after hormone treatment followed by sustained activation lasting beyond 120 min. M1-CCD cells suppressed in PKD1 expression exhibited only the early, transient peaks in ERK1\\/2 activation without the sustained phase. Aldosterone stimulated the physical association of PKD1 with ERK1\\/2 within 2 min of treatment. The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist RU28318 inhibited the early and late phases of aldosterone-induced ERK1\\/2 activation, and also aldosterone-induced proliferative cell growth. Aldosterone induced the sub-cellular redistribution of ERK1\\/2 to the nuclei at 2 min and to cytoplasmic sites, proximal to the nuclei after 30 min. This sub-cellular distribution of ERK1\\/2 was inhibited in cells suppressed in the expression of PKD1.

  13. Roles of Mitogen-Activating Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase-3 (MAP4K3) in Preterm Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell Myogenesis and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Activation Regulation. (United States)

    Guo, Chu-Yi; Yu, Mu-Xue; Dai, Jie-Min; Pan, Si-Nian; Lu, Zhen-Tong; Qiu, Xiao-Shan; Zhuang, Si-Qi


    BACKGROUND Preterm skeletal muscle genesis is a paradigm for myogenesis. The role of mitogen-activating protein kinase kinase kinase kinase-3 (MAP4K3) in preterm skeletal muscle satellite cells myogenesis or its relationship to mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity have not been previously elaborated. MATERIAL AND METHODS Small interfering RNA (siRNA) interference technology was used to inhibit MAP4K3 expression. Leucine stimulation experiments were performed following MAP4K3-siRNA interference. The differentiation of primary preterm skeletal muscle satellite cells was observed after siRNA-MAP4K3 interference. Western blot analysis was used to determine the expression of MAP4K3, MyHC, MyoD, myogenin, p-mTOR, and p-S6K1. The immunofluorescence fusion index of MyHC and myogenin were detected. MAP4K3 effects on preterm rat satellite cells differentiation and its relationship to mTORC1 activity are reported. RESULTS MAP4K3 siRNA knockdown inhibited myotube formation and both MyoD and myogenin expression in primary preterm rat skeletal muscle satellite cells, but MAP4K3 siRNA had no effect on the activity of mTORC1. In primary preterm rat skeletal muscle satellite cells, MAP4K3 knockdown resulted in significantly weaker, but not entirely blunted, leucine-induced mTORC1 signaling. CONCLUSIONS MAP4K3 positively regulates preterm skeletal muscle satellite cell myogenesis, but may not regulate mTORC1 activity. MAP4K3 may play a role in mTORC1 full activation in response to leucine.

  14. Mitogen-activated protein kinases in the porcine retinal arteries and neuroretina following retinal ischemia-reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesslein, Bodil; Håkansson, Gisela; Carpio, Ronald


    The aim of the present study was to examine changes in the expression of intracellular signal-transduction pathways, specifically mitogen-activated protein kinases, following retinal ischemia-reperfusion....

  15. Regorafenib impairs mitochondrial functions, activates AMP-activated protein kinase, induces autophagy, and causes rat hepatocyte necrosis. (United States)

    Weng, Zuquan; Luo, Yong; Yang, Xi; Greenhaw, James J; Li, Haibo; Xie, Liming; Mattes, William B; Shi, Qiang


    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor regorafenib was approved by regulatory agencies for cancer treatment, albeit with strong warnings of severe hepatotoxicity included in the product label. The basis of this toxicity is unknown; one possible mechanism, that of mitochondrial damage, was tested. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, regorafenib directly uncoupled oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and promoted calcium overload-induced swelling, which were respectively prevented by the recoupler 6-ketocholestanol (KC) and the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore blocker cyclosporine A (CsA). In primary hepatocytes, regorafenib uncoupled OXPHOS, disrupted mitochondrial inner membrane potential (MMP), and decreased cellular ATP at 1h, and triggered MPT at 3h, which was followed by necrosis but not apoptosis at 7h and 24h, all of which were abrogated by KC. The combination of the glycolysis enhancer fructose plus the mitochondrial ATPase synthase inhibitor oligomycin A abolished regorafenib induced necrosis at 7h. This effect was not seen at 24h nor with the fructose or oligomycin A separately. CsA in combination with trifluoperazine, both MPT blockers, showed similar effects. Two compensatory mechanisms, activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to ameliorate ATP shortage and induction of autophagy to remove dysfunctional mitochondria, were found to be mobilized. Hepatocyte necrosis was enhanced either by the AMPK inhibitor Compound C or the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine, while autophagy inducer rapamycin was strongly cytoprotective. Remarkably, all toxic effects were observed at clinically-relevant concentrations of 2.5-15μM. These data suggest that uncoupling of OXPHOS and the resulting ATP shortage and MPT induction are the key mechanisms for regorafenib induced hepatocyte injury, and AMPK activation and autophagy induction serve as pro-survival pathways against such toxicity. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. PGD2 stimulates osteoprotegerin synthesis via AMP-activated protein kinase in osteoblasts: Regulation of ERK and SAPK/JNK. (United States)

    Kainuma, Shingo; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Yamamoto, Naohiro; Ohguchi, Reou; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Kozawa, Osamu; Otsuka, Takanobu


    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key enzyme sensing cellular energy metabolism, is currently known to regulate multiple metabolic pathways. Osteoprotegerin plays a pivotal role in the regulation of bone metabolism by inhibiting osteoclast activation. We have previously reported that prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) stimulates the synthesis of osteoprotegerin through the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, p44/p42 MAP kinase and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. On the basis of these findings, we herein investigated the implication of AMPK in PGD2-stimulated osteoprotegerin synthesis in these cells. PGD2 induced the phosphorylation of AMPKα (Thr-172) and AMPKβ (Ser-108), and the phosphorylation of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, a direct AMPK substrate. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, which suppressed the phosphorylation of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, significantly attenuated both the release and the mRNA levels of osteoprotegerin stimulated by PGD2. The PGD2-induced phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK but not p38 MAP kinase were markedly inhibited by compound C. These results strongly suggest that AMPK regulates the PGD2-stimulated osteoprotegerin synthesis at a point upstream of p44/p42 MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK in osteoblasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Active zone proteins are transported via distinct mechanisms regulated by Par-1 kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara R Barber


    Full Text Available Disruption of synapses underlies a plethora of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease. Presynaptic specialization called the active zone plays a critical role in the communication with postsynaptic neuron. While the role of many proteins at the active zones in synaptic communication is relatively well studied, very little is known about how these proteins are transported to the synapses. For example, are there distinct mechanisms for the transport of active zone components or are they all transported in the same transport vesicle? Is active zone protein transport regulated? In this report we show that overexpression of Par-1/MARK kinase, a protein whose misregulation has been implicated in Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs and neurodegenerative disorders, lead to a specific block in the transport of an active zone protein component- Bruchpilot at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. Consistent with a block in axonal transport, we find a decrease in number of active zones and reduced neurotransmission in flies overexpressing Par-1 kinase. Interestingly, we find that Par-1 acts independently of Tau-one of the most well studied substrates of Par-1, revealing a presynaptic function for Par-1 that is independent of Tau. Thus, our study strongly suggests that there are distinct mechanisms that transport components of active zones and that they are tightly regulated.

  18. Applying conformational selection theory to improve crossdocking efficiency in 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1. (United States)

    Kotasthane, Anuja; Mulakala, Chandrika; Viswanadhan, Vellarkad N


    The emerging picture of biomolecular recognition is that of conformational selection followed by induced-fit. Conformational selection theory states that binding partners exist in various conformations in solution, with binding involving a "selection" between complementary conformers. In this study, we devise a docking protocol that mimics conformational selection in protein-ligand binding and demonstrate that it significantly enhances crossdocking accuracy over Glide's flexible docking protocol, which is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. Our protocol uses a pregenerated conformational ensemble to simulate ligand flexibility. The ensemble was generated by thorough conformational sampling coupled with conformer minimization. The generated conformers were then rigidly docked in the active site of the protein along with a postdocking minimization step that allows limited induced fit effects to be modeled for the ligand. We illustrate the improved performance of our protocol through crossdocking of 31 ligands to cocomplexed proteins of the kinase 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 extracted from the crystal structures 1H1W (ATP bound), 1OKY (staurosporine bound) and 3QD0 (bound to a potent inhibitor). Consistent with conformational selection theory, the performance of our protocol was the best for crossdocking to the cognate protein bound to the natural ligand, ATP. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Insulin receptors mediate growth effects in cultured fetal neurons. II. Activation of a protein kinase that phosphorylates ribosomal protein S6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, K.A.; Toledo, S.P.


    As an initial attempt to identify early steps in insulin action that may be involved in the growth responses of neurons to insulin, we investigated whether insulin receptor activation increases the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in cultured fetal neurons and whether activation of a protein kinase is involved in this process. When neurons were incubated for 2 h with 32Pi, the addition of insulin (100 ng/ml) for the final 30 min increased the incorporation of 32Pi into a 32K microsomal protein. The incorporation of 32Pi into the majority of other neuronal proteins was unaltered by the 30-min exposure to insulin. Cytosolic extracts from insulin-treated neurons incubated in the presence of exogenous rat liver 40S ribosomes and [gamma-32P]ATP displayed a 3- to 8-fold increase in the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 compared to extracts from untreated cells. Inclusion of cycloheximide during exposure of the neurons to insulin did not inhibit the increased cytosolic kinase activity. Activation of S6 kinase activity by insulin was dose dependent (seen at insulin concentration as low as 0.1 ng/ml) and reached a maximum after 20 min of incubation. Addition of phosphatidylserine, diolein, and Ca2+ to the in vitro kinase reaction had no effect on the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6. Likewise, treatment of neurons with (Bu)2cAMP did not alter the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 by neuronal cytosolic extracts. We conclude that insulin activates a cytosolic protein kinase that phosphorylates ribosomal S6 in neurons and is distinct from protein kinase-C and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Stimulation of this kinase may play a role in insulin signal transduction in neurons

  20. Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase IIα (αCaMKII) Controls the Activity of the Dopamine Transporter (United States)

    Steinkellner, Thomas; Yang, Jae-Won; Montgomery, Therese R.; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Winkler, Marie-Therese; Sucic, Sonja; Lubec, Gert; Freissmuth, Michael; Elgersma, Ype; Sitte, Harald H.; Kudlacek, Oliver


    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a crucial regulator of dopaminergic neurotransmission, controlling the length and brevity of dopaminergic signaling. DAT is also the primary target of psychostimulant drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines. Conversely, methylphenidate and amphetamine are both used clinically in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. The action of amphetamines, which induce transport reversal, relies primarily on the ionic composition of the intra- and extracellular milieus. Recent findings suggest that DAT interacting proteins may also play a significant role in the modulation of reverse dopamine transport. The pharmacological inhibition of the serine/threonine kinase αCaMKII attenuates amphetamine-triggered DAT-mediated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) efflux. More importantly, αCaMKII has also been shown to bind DAT in vitro and is therefore believed to be an important player within the DAT interactome. Herein, we show that αCaMKII co-immunoprecipitates with DAT in mouse striatal synaptosomes. Mice, which lack αCaMKII or which express a permanently self-inhibited αCaMKII (αCaMKIIT305D), exhibit significantly reduced amphetamine-triggered DAT-mediated MPP+ efflux. Additionally, we investigated mice that mimic a neurogenetic disease known as Angelman syndrome. These mice possess reduced αCaMKII activity. Angelman syndrome mice demonstrated an impaired DAT efflux function, which was comparable with that of the αCaMKII mutant mice, indicating that DAT-mediated dopaminergic signaling is affected in Angelman syndrome. PMID:22778257

  1. Protein Kinase Signalling in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azevedo de Silva, Raquel

    of the pathways involved in stress signalling, phosphorylating several downstream substrates in order to produce appropriate responses. We report here that P. patens has a receptor-like kinase CERK1 responsible for chitin perception which can rescue Atcerk1 mutant. Activation of PpCERK1 triggers the activation...... of the following MAPK module: MEKK1A/MEKK1B-MKK1A/MKK1C-MPK4A/MPK4B. In Arabidopsis, some of these modules were demonstrated to be activated during PTI but also during abiotic stress. However, PpMPK4a and PpMPK4b are involved in chitin-dependent defense responses but are not activated during abiotic stresses...

  2. Protein Kinase G facilitates EGFR-mediated cell death in MDA-MB-468 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Nicole M.; Ceresa, Brian P., E-mail:


    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase with critical implications in cell proliferation, migration, wound healing and the regulation of apoptosis. However, the EGFR has been shown to be hyper-expressed in a number of human malignancies. The MDA-MB-468 metastatic breast cell line is one example of this. This particular cell line hyper-expresses the EGFR and undergoes EGFR-mediated apoptosis in response to EGF ligand. The goal of this study was to identify the kinases that could be potential intermediates for the EGFR-mediated induction of apoptosis intracellularly. After identifying Cyclic GMP-dependent Protein Kinase G (PKG) as a plausible intermediate, we wanted to determine the temporal relationship of these two proteins in the induction of apoptosis. We observed a dose-dependent decrease in MDA-MB-468 cell viability, which was co-incident with increased PKG activity as measured by VASPSer239 phosphorylation. In addition, we observed a dose dependent decrease in cell viability, as well as an increase in apoptosis, in response to two different PKG agonists, 8-Bromo-cGMP and 8-pCPT-cGMP. MDA-MB-468 cells with reduced PKG activity had attenuated EGFR-mediated apoptosis. These findings indicate that PKG does not induce cell death via transphosphorylation of the EGFR. Instead, PKG activity occurs following EGFR activation. Together, these data indicate PKG as an intermediary in EGFR-mediated cell death, likely via apoptotic pathway.

  3. Protein Kinase G facilitates EGFR-mediated cell death in MDA-MB-468 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Nicole M.; Ceresa, Brian P.


    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase with critical implications in cell proliferation, migration, wound healing and the regulation of apoptosis. However, the EGFR has been shown to be hyper-expressed in a number of human malignancies. The MDA-MB-468 metastatic breast cell line is one example of this. This particular cell line hyper-expresses the EGFR and undergoes EGFR-mediated apoptosis in response to EGF ligand. The goal of this study was to identify the kinases that could be potential intermediates for the EGFR-mediated induction of apoptosis intracellularly. After identifying Cyclic GMP-dependent Protein Kinase G (PKG) as a plausible intermediate, we wanted to determine the temporal relationship of these two proteins in the induction of apoptosis. We observed a dose-dependent decrease in MDA-MB-468 cell viability, which was co-incident with increased PKG activity as measured by VASPSer239 phosphorylation. In addition, we observed a dose dependent decrease in cell viability, as well as an increase in apoptosis, in response to two different PKG agonists, 8-Bromo-cGMP and 8-pCPT-cGMP. MDA-MB-468 cells with reduced PKG activity had attenuated EGFR-mediated apoptosis. These findings indicate that PKG does not induce cell death via transphosphorylation of the EGFR. Instead, PKG activity occurs following EGFR activation. Together, these data indicate PKG as an intermediary in EGFR-mediated cell death, likely via apoptotic pathway.

  4. The systematic functional analysis of plasmodium protein kinases identifies essential regulators of mosquito transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Tewari, Rita


    Although eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) contribute to many cellular processes, only three Plasmodium falciparum ePKs have thus far been identified as essential for parasite asexual blood stage development. To identify pathways essential for parasite transmission between their mammalian host and mosquito vector, we undertook a systematic functional analysis of ePKs in the genetically tractable rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei. Modeling domain signatures of conventional ePKs identified 66 putative Plasmodium ePKs. Kinomes are highly conserved between Plasmodium species. Using reverse genetics, we show that 23 ePKs are redundant for asexual erythrocytic parasite development in mice. Phenotyping mutants at four life cycle stages in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes revealed functional clusters of kinases required for sexual development and sporogony. Roles for a putative SR protein kinase (SRPK) in microgamete formation, a conserved regulator of clathrin uncoating (GAK) in ookinete formation, and a likely regulator of energy metabolism (SNF1/KIN) in sporozoite development were identified. 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  5. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5, a node protein in diminished tauopathy: a systems biology approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fredy Castro-Alvarez


    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia worldwide. One of the main pathological changes that occurs in AD is the intracellular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein in neurons. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5 is one of the major kinases involved in Tau phosphorylation, directly phosphorylating various residues and simultaneously regulating various substrates such as kinases and phosphatases that influence Tau phosphorylation in a synergistic and antagonistic way. It remains unknown how the interaction between CDK5 and its substrates promotes Tau phosphorylation, and systemic approaches are needed that allow an analysis of all the proteins involved. In this review, the role of the CDK5 signaling pathway in Tau hyperphosphorylation is described, an in silico model of the CDK5 signaling pathway is presented. The relationship among these theoretical and computational models shows that the regulation of Tau phosphorylation by PP2A and GSK3β is essential under basal conditions and also describes the leading role of CDK5 under excitotoxic conditions, where silencing of CDK5 can generate changes in these enzymes to reverse a pathological condition that simulates AD.

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ser/Thr protein kinase B mediates an oxygen-dependent replication switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Corrie; Liao, Reiling; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Rustad, Tige; Ollodart, Anja R.; Wright, Aaron T.; Sherman, David R.; Grundner, Christoph


    In the majority of cases, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections are clinically latent, characterized by little or no bacterial replication and drug tolerance. Low oxygen tension is a major host factor inducing bacteriostasis, but the molecular mechanisms driving oxygen-dependent replication are poorly understood. Mtb encodes eleven serine/threonine protein kinases, a family of signaling molecules known to regulate similar replicative adaptations in other bacteria. Here, we tested the role of serine/threonine phosphorylation in the Mtb response to altered oxygen status, using an in vitro model of latency (hypoxia) and reactivation (reaeration). Broad kinase inhibition compromised survival of Mtb in hypoxia. Activity-based protein profiling and genetic mutation identified PknB as the kinase critical for surviving hypoxia. Mtb replication was highly sensitive to changes in PknB levels in aerated culture, and even more so in hypoxia. A mutant overexpressing PknB specifically in hypoxia showed a 10-fold loss in viability in low oxygen conditions. In contrast, chemically reducing PknB activity during hypoxia specifically compromised resumption of growth during reaeration. These data support a model in which PknB activity is reduced to achieve bacteriostasis, and elevated when replication resumes. Together, these data show that phosphosignaling controls replicative transitions associated with latency and reactivation, that PknB is a major regulator of these transitions, and that PknB could provide a highly vulnerable therapeutic target at every step of the Mtb life cycle - active disease, latency, and reactivation.

  7. Role of Cbl-associated protein/ponsin in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and cell adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Tikkanen


    Full Text Available The Cbl-associated protein/ponsin (CAP is an adaptor protein that contains a so-called Sorbin homology (SoHo domain and three Src homology 3 (SH3 domains which are engaged in diverse protein-protein interactions. CAP has been shown to function in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and cell adhesion and to be involved in the differentiation of muscle cells and adipocytes. In addition, it participates in signaling pathways through several receptor tyrosine kinases such as insulin and neurotrophin receptors. In the last couple of years, several studies have shed light on the details of these processes and identified novel interaction partners of CAP. In this review, we summarize these recent findings and provide an overview on the function of CAP especially in cell adhesion and membrane receptor signaling.

  8. Regulation of ADAM12 cell-surface expression by protein kinase C epsilon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundberg, Christina; Thodeti, Charles Kumar; Kveiborg, Marie


    The ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family consists of multidomain cell-surface proteins that have a major impact on cell behavior. These transmembrane-anchored proteins are synthesized as proforms that have (from the N terminus): a prodomain; a metalloprotease-, disintegrin......-like-, cysteine-rich, epidermal growth factor-like, and transmembrane domain; and a cytoplasmic tail. The 90-kDa mature form of human ADAM12 is generated in the trans-Golgi through cleavage of the prodomain by a furin-peptidase and is stored intracellularly until translocation to the cell surface...... as a constitutively active protein. However, little is known about the regulation of ADAM12 cell-surface translocation. Here, we used human RD rhabdomyosarcoma cells, which express ADAM12 at the cell surface, in a temporal pattern. We report that protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon induces ADAM12 translocation to the cell...

  9. The conversion of rapid TCCD nongenomic signals to persistent inflammatory effects via select protein kinases in MCF10A cells. (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Matsumura, Fumio


    Previously we found that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces rapid inflammatory cellular responses in MCF10A mammary epithelial cells through a distinct nongenomic pathway by activating cytosolic phospholipase A2 and Src kinase within 30 min. In the current study we investigated how such an initial, seemingly transient signaling induced by TCDD is subsequently converted into more stable long-term messages. We found that TCDD causes prolonged activation of the binding activity of nuclear proteins to the oligonucleotide probes representing consensus activator protein 1 and CCAAT enhancer binding protein response element sequences, followed by later induction of some diagnostic marker including cyclooxgenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-2, colony stimulating factor-1, and cytochrome P450 19 (or aromatase). Blocking the early steps of the nongenomic pathway inhibits this action of TCDD. It was also found that Src kinase is mainly responsible for the increase of binding activity to the activator protein 1 probe, and another kinase, protein kinase A (PKA), is accountable for most of the increase of binding activity to the CCAAT enhancer binding protein probe. The induction of those diagnostic markers is also affected by 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (a Src kinase inhibitor) or H89 (a PKA inhibitor). These results indicate that Src kinase and PKA act as the second messengers in propagating the initial nongenomic signaling of TCDD.

  10. Synthetic (+)-antroquinonol exhibits dual actions against insulin resistance by triggering AMP kinase and inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase IV activities. (United States)

    Hsu, C Y; Sulake, R S; Huang, P-K; Shih, H-Y; Sie, H-W; Lai, Y-K; Chen, C; Weng, C F


    The fungal product (+)-antroquinonol activates AMP kinase (AMPK) activity in cancer cell lines. The present study was conducted to examine whether chemically synthesized (+)-antroquinonol exhibited beneficial metabolic effects in insulin-resistant states by activating AMPK and inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) activity. Effects of (+)-antroquinonol on DPP IV activity were measured with a DPPIV Assay Kit and effects on GLP-1-induced PKA were measured in AR42J cells. Translocation of the glucose transporter 4, GLUT4, induced either by insulin-dependent PI3K/AKT signalling or by insulin-independent AMPK activation, was assayed in differentiated myotubes. Glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation were assayed in L6 myocytes. Mice with diet-induced obesity were used to assess effects of acute and chronic treatment with (+)-antroquinonol on glycaemic control in vivo. The results showed that of (+)-antroquinonol (100 μM ) inhibited the DPP IV activity as effectively as the clinically used inhibitor, sitagliptin. The phosphorylation of AMPK Thr(172) in differentiated myotubes was significantly increased by (+)-antroquinonol. In cells simultaneously treated with S961 (insulin receptor antagonist), insulin and (+)-antroquinonol, the combination of (+)-antroquinonol plus insulin still increased both GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake. Further, (+)-antroquinonol and sitagliptin reduced blood glucose, when given acutely or chronically to DIO mice. Chemically synthesized (+)-antroquinonol exhibits dual effects to ameliorate insulin resistance, by increasing AMPK activity and GLUT4 translocation, along with inhibiting DPP IV activity. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways of the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Ren Chung


    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK- mediated signaling pathways have been known to have important functions in eukaryotic organisms. The mechanisms by which the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata senses and responds to environmental signals have begun to be elucidated. Available data indicate that A. alternata utilizes the Fus3, Hog1 and Slt2 MAPK-mediated signaling pathways, either separately or in a cooperative manner, for conidia formation, resistance to oxidative and osmotic stress, and pathogenesis to citrus. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of MAPK signaling pathways, in conjunction with the two-component histidine kinase and the Skn7 response regulator, in the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata.

  12. Protein kinase D1 signaling in angiogenic gene expression and VEGF-mediated angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eRen MD, Phd, FAHA


    Full Text Available Protein kinase D 1 (PKD-1 is a signaling kinase important in fundamental cell functions including migration, proliferation and differentiation. PKD-1 is also a key regulator of gene expression and angiogenesis that is essential for cardiovascular development and tumor progression. Further understanding molecular aspects of PKD-1 signaling in the regulation of angiogenesis may have translational implications in obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The author will summarize and provide the insights into molecular mechanisms by which PKD-1 regulates transcriptional expression of angiogenic genes, focusing on the transcriptional regulation of CD36 by PKD-1-FoxO1 signaling axis along with the potential implications of this axis in arterial differentiation and morphogenesis. He will also discuss a new concept of dynamic balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic signaling in determining angiogenic switch, and stress how PKD-1 signaling regulates VEGF signaling-mediated angiogenesis.

  13. Protein Kinase CK2: A Targetable BCR-ABL Partner in Philadelphia Positive Leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Morotti


    Full Text Available BCR-ABL-mediated leukemias, either Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML or Philadelphia positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL, are the paradigm of targeted molecular therapy of cancer due to the impressive clinical responses obtained with BCR-ABL specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs. However, BCR-ABL TKIs do not allow completely eradicating both CML and ALL. Furthermore, ALL therapy is associated with much worse responses to TKIs than those observed in CML. The identification of additional pathways that mediate BCR-ABL leukemogenesis is indeed mandatory to achieve synthetic lethality together with TKI. Here, we review the role of BCR-ABL/protein kinase CK2 interaction in BCR-ABL leukemias, with potentially relevant implications for therapy.

  14. Substituted aminopyrimidine protein kinase B (PknB) inhibitors show activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (United States)

    Chapman, Timothy M.; Bouloc, Nathalie; Buxton, Roger S.; Chugh, Jasveen; Lougheed, Kathryn E.A.; Osborne, Simon A.; Saxty, Barbara; Smerdon, Stephen J.; Taylor, Debra L.; Whalley, David


    A high-throughput screen against PknB, an essential serine–threonine protein kinase present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), allowed the identification of an aminoquinazoline inhibitor which was used as a starting point for SAR investigations. Although a significant improvement in enzyme affinity was achieved, the aminoquinazolines showed little or no cellular activity against M. tuberculosis. However, switching to an aminopyrimidine core scaffold and the introduction of a basic amine side chain afforded compounds with nanomolar enzyme binding affinity and micromolar minimum inhibitory concentrations against M. tuberculosis. Replacement of the pyrazole head group with pyridine then allowed equipotent compounds with improved selectivity against a human kinase panel to be obtained. PMID:22469702

  15. Characterization of the interactions between the active site of a protein tyrosine kinase and a divalent metal activator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayrapetov Marina K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein tyrosine kinases are important enzymes for cell signalling and key targets for anticancer drug discovery. The catalytic mechanisms of protein tyrosine kinase-catalysed phosphorylation are not fully understood. Protein tyrosine kinase Csk requires two Mg2+ cations for activity: one (M1 binds to ATP, and the other (M2 acts as an essential activator. Results Experiments in this communication characterize the interaction between M2 and Csk. Csk activity is sensitive to pH in the range of 6 to 7. Kinetic characterization indicates that the sensitivity is not due to altered substrate binding, but caused by the sensitivity of M2 binding to pH. Several residues in the active site with potential of binding M2 are mutated and the effect on metal activation studied. An active mutant of Asn319 is generated, and this mutation does not alter the metal binding characteristics. Mutations of Glu236 or Asp332 abolish the kinase activity, precluding a positive or negative conclusion on their role in M2 coordination. Finally, the ability of divalent metal cations to activate Csk correlates to a combination of ionic radius and the coordination number. Conclusion These studies demonstrate that M2 binding to Csk is sensitive to pH, which is mainly responsible for Csk activity change in the acidic arm of the pH response curve. They also demonstrate critical differences in the metal activator coordination sphere in protein tyrosine kinase Csk and a protein Ser/Thr kinase, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. They shed light on the physical interactions between a protein tyrosine kinase and a divalent metal activator.

  16. Selective inhibition of Sarcocystis neurona calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis therapy. (United States)

    Ojo, Kayode K; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Verma, Shiv K; Scheele, Suzanne; DeRocher, Amy E; Yeargan, Michelle; Choi, Ryan; Smith, Tess R; Rivas, Kasey L; Hulverson, Matthew A; Barrett, Lynn K; Fan, Erkang; Maly, Dustin J; Parsons, Marilyn; Dubey, Jitender P; Howe, Daniel K; Van Voorhis, Wesley C


    Sarcocystis neurona is the most frequent cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, a debilitating neurological disease of horses that can be difficult to treat. We identified SnCDPK1, the S. neurona homologue of calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1), a validated drug target in Toxoplasma gondii. SnCDPK1 shares the glycine "gatekeeper" residue of the well-characterized T. gondii enzyme, which allows the latter to be targeted by bumped kinase inhibitors. This study presents detailed molecular and phenotypic evidence that SnCDPK1 can be targeted for rational drug development. Recombinant SnCDPK1 was tested against four bumped kinase inhibitors shown to potently inhibit both T. gondii (Tg) CDPK1 and T. gondii tachyzoite growth. SnCDPK1 was inhibited by low nanomolar concentrations of these BKIs and S. neurona growth was inhibited at 40-120nM concentrations. Thermal shift assays confirmed these bumped kinase inhibitors bind CDPK1 in S. neurona cell lysates. Treatment with bumped kinase inhibitors before or after invasion suggests that bumped kinase inhibitors interfere with S. neurona mammalian host cell invasion in the 0.5-2.5μM range but interfere with intracellular division at 2.5μM. In vivo proof-of-concept experiments were performed in a murine model of S. neurona infection. The experimental infected groups treated for 30days with compound BKI-1553 (n=10 mice) had no signs of disease, while the infected control group had severe signs and symptoms of infection. Elevated antibody responses were found in 100% of control infected animals, but only 20% of BKI-1553 treated infected animals. Parasites were found in brain tissues of 100% of the control infected animals, but only in 10% of the BKI-1553 treated animals. The bumped kinase inhibitors used in these assays have been chemically optimized for potency, selectivity and pharmacokinetic properties, and hence are good candidates for treatment of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. Copyright © 2016

  17. Heat shock protein 90β stabilizes focal adhesion kinase and enhances cell migration and invasion in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Xiangyang [Center for Experimental Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, 17 Yongwai Street, Donghu District, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330047 (China); Wang, Yao [Center for Experimental Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, 17 Yongwai Street, Donghu District, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Liu, Chengmei [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330047 (China); Lu, Quqin [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Liu, Tao [Center for Experimental Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, 17 Yongwai Street, Donghu District, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Chen, Guoan [Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China); Rao, Hai [Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); Luo, Shiwen, E-mail: [Center for Experimental Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, 17 Yongwai Street, Donghu District, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006 (China)


    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) acts as a regulator of cellular signaling and may promote cell spreading, motility, invasion and survival in malignancy. Elevated expression and activity of FAK frequently correlate with tumor cell metastasis and poor prognosis in breast cancer. However, the mechanisms by which the turnover of FAK is regulated remain elusive. Here we report that heat shock protein 90β (HSP90β) interacts with FAK and the middle domain (amino acids 233–620) of HSP90β is mainly responsible for this interaction. Furthermore, we found that HSP90β regulates FAK stability since HSP90β inhibitor 17-AAG triggers FAK ubiquitylation and subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation. Moreover, disrupted FAK-HSP90β interaction induced by 17-AAG contributes to attenuation of tumor cell growth, migration, and invasion. Together, our results reveal how HSP90β regulates FAK stability and identifies a potential therapeutic strategy to breast cancer. - Highlights: • HSP90β protects FAK from degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. • Inhibition of HSP90β or FAK attenuates tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. • Genetic repression of HSP90β or FAK inhibits tumor cell migration and proliferation. • Inhibition of HSP90β or FAK interferes cell invasion and cytoskeleton.

  18. Protein kinase Calpha plays a critical role in mannosylerythritol lipid-induced differentiation of melanoma B16 cells. (United States)

    Zhao, X; Murata, T; Ohno, S; Day, N; Song, J; Nomura, N; Nakahara, T; Yokoyama, K K


    Mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL), a novel extracellular glycolipid from yeast, was found to inhibit the proliferation of mouse melanoma B16 cells in a dose-dependent manner and to induce the apoptosis of B16 cells at concentrations higher than 10 microm (Zhao, X., Wakamatsu, Y., Shibahara, M., Nomura, N., Geltinger, C., Nakahara, T., Murata, T., and Yokoyama, K. K. (1999) Cancer Res. 59, 482-486). We show here that exposure of B16 cells to MEL (5 microm) for 2 days resulted in an increase of the levels of differentiation-associated markers of melanoma cells such as melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity, which were accompanied by morphological changes. The MEL-induced differentiation of B16 cells at this concentration was closely associated with arrest of the cell cycle at G(1) phase, but no significant population of apoptotic cells was identified. Expression of protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) was enhanced after exposure of B16 cells to MEL for 48 h. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides against the mouse gene for PKCalpha prevented MEL-induced melanogenesis in B16 cells. Conversely, the effects of the expression of a constitutively active form of PKCalpha mimicked the effects of MEL on B16 cells. These data suggest that MEL, a yeast-derived glycolipid, triggers the differentiation of B16 melanoma cells through a signaling pathway that involves PKCalpha.

  19. Heat shock protein 90β stabilizes focal adhesion kinase and enhances cell migration and invasion in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Xiangyang; Wang, Yao; Liu, Chengmei; Lu, Quqin; Liu, Tao; Chen, Guoan; Rao, Hai; Luo, Shiwen


    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) acts as a regulator of cellular signaling and may promote cell spreading, motility, invasion and survival in malignancy. Elevated expression and activity of FAK frequently correlate with tumor cell metastasis and poor prognosis in breast cancer. However, the mechanisms by which the turnover of FAK is regulated remain elusive. Here we report that heat shock protein 90β (HSP90β) interacts with FAK and the middle domain (amino acids 233–620) of HSP90β is mainly responsible for this interaction. Furthermore, we found that HSP90β regulates FAK stability since HSP90β inhibitor 17-AAG triggers FAK ubiquitylation and subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation. Moreover, disrupted FAK-HSP90β interaction induced by 17-AAG contributes to attenuation of tumor cell growth, migration, and invasion. Together, our results reveal how HSP90β regulates FAK stability and identifies a potential therapeutic strategy to breast cancer. - Highlights: • HSP90β protects FAK from degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. • Inhibition of HSP90β or FAK attenuates tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. • Genetic repression of HSP90β or FAK inhibits tumor cell migration and proliferation. • Inhibition of HSP90β or FAK interferes cell invasion and cytoskeleton

  20. p38 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK): A New Therapeutic Target for Reducing the Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (United States)

    Menon, Ramkumar; Papaconstantinou, John


    Introduction Spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) and preterm premature rupture of the membranes (pPROM) remain as a major clinical and therapeutic problem for intervention and management. Current strategies, based on our knowledge of pathways of preterm labor, have only been effective, in part, due to major gaps in our existing knowledge of risks and risk specific pathways. Areas covered Recent literature has identified physiologic aging of fetal tissues as a potential mechanistic feature of normal parturition. This process is affected by telomere dependent and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) induced senescence activation. Pregnancy associated risk factors can cause pathologic activation of this pathway that can cause oxidative stress induced p38 MAPK activation leading to senescence and premature aging of fetal tissues. Premature aging is associated with sterile inflammation capable of triggering preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes. Preterm activation of p38MAPK can be considered as a key contributor to adverse pregnancies. Expert Opinion This review considers p38MAPK activation as a potential target for therapeutic interventions to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes mediated by stress factors. In this review, we propose multiple strategies to prevent p38MAPK activation and its functional effects. PMID:27459026

  1. A study on the protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Genistein against radiation mortality on Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lata, Manju; Patni, Shikha; Gaur, Ajay; Bhatia, A.L.


    Full text: The radioprotective effects of an acute administration of the isoflavone, Genistein (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone) obtained from Soya foods has been investigated in adult mice. Genistein is also classified as a phytoestrogen. Genistein (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone) is a naturally occurring isoflavone mainly found in legumes, such as soyabeans. Genistein has gained increasing attention because of its association with beneficial effects for treatment of cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. Genistein block protein-tyrosine kinase and other enzymes that trigger tumor formation. Genistein apparently reverse the process in which cancerous cells loose their individual identity. Mice were administered with different doses (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg body weight) of Genistein before 8 Gy gamma radiations and optimum dose (200 mg/kg) was worked out for the experiment. The dose of Genistein (200 mg/kg) was administered intra peritoneally (I.P.; in 0.5 ml) to mice 15 minutes and 24 hrs before gamma irradiation. Mice treated with Genistein (200 mg/kg), 24 hr before irradiation demonstrated a significant increase in 30-day survival in contrast to mice treated with Genistein 15 minutes before irradiation

  2. Tau-Induced Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase-IV Activation Aggravates Nuclear Tau Hyperphosphorylation. (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Ping; Ye, Jin-Wang; Wang, Xiong; Zhu, Li-Ping; Hu, Qing-Hua; Wang, Qun; Ke, Dan; Tian, Qing; Wang, Jian-Zhi


    Hyperphosphorylated tau is the major protein component of neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying tau hyperphosphorylation is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that exogenously expressed wild-type human tau40 was detectable in the phosphorylated form at multiple AD-associated sites in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions from HEK293 cells. Among these sites, tau phosphorylated at Thr205 and Ser214 was almost exclusively found in the nuclear fraction at the conditions used in the present study. With the intracellular tau accumulation, the Ca 2+ concentration was significantly increased in both cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions. Further studies using site-specific mutagenesis and pharmacological treatment demonstrated that phosphorylation of tau at Thr205 increased nuclear Ca 2+ concentration with a simultaneous increase in the phosphorylation of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) at Ser196. On the other hand, phosphorylation of tau at Ser214 did not significantly change the nuclear Ca 2+ /CaMKIV signaling. Finally, expressing calmodulin-binding protein-4 that disrupts formation of the Ca 2+ /calmodulin complex abolished the okadaic acid-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in the nuclear fraction. We conclude that the intracellular accumulation of phosphorylated tau, as detected in the brains of AD patients, can trigger nuclear Ca 2+ /CaMKIV signaling, which in turn aggravates tau hyperphosphorylation. Our findings provide new insights for tauopathies: hyperphosphorylation of intracellular tau and an increased Ca 2+ concentration may induce a self-perpetuating harmful loop to promote neurodegeneration.

  3. Molecular characterization of protein kinase C delta (PKCδ)-Smac interactions. (United States)

    Holmgren, Christian; Cornmark, Louise; Lønne, Gry Kalstad; Masoumi, Katarzyna Chmielarska; Larsson, Christer


    Protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) is known to be an important regulator of apoptosis, having mainly pro- but also anti-apoptotic effects depending on context. In a previous study, we found that PKCδ interacts with the pro-apoptotic protein Smac. Smac facilitates apoptosis by suppressing inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). We previously established that the PKCδ-Smac complex dissociates during induction of apoptosis indicating a functional importance. Because the knowledge on the molecular determinants of the interaction is limited, we aimed at characterizing the interactions between PKCδ and Smac. We found that PKCδ binds directly to Smac through its regulatory domain. The interaction is enhanced by the PKC activator TPA and seems to be independent of PKCδ catalytic activity since the PKC kinase inhibitor GF109203X did not inhibit the interaction. In addition, we found that C1 and C2 domains from several PKC isoforms have Smac-binding capacity. Our data demonstrate that the Smac-PKCδ interaction is direct and that it is facilitated by an open conformation of PKCδ. The binding is mediated via the PKCδ regulatory domain and both the C1 and C2 domains have Smac-binding capacity. With this study we thereby provide molecular information on an interaction between two apoptosis-regulating proteins.

  4. LIM domains regulate protein kinase C activity: a novel molecular function. (United States)

    Maturana, Andrés D; Nakagawa, Noritaka; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Tatematsu, Kenji; Hoshijima, Masahiko; Tanizawa, Katsuyuki; Kuroda, Shun'ichi


    Enigma homolog protein 1 (ENH1) acts as a scaffold that selectively associates protein kinases and transcription factors with cytoskeletal elements. ENH1 comprises an N-terminal PDZ domain and three C-terminal LIM domains. Through the LIM domains ENH1 interacts with the N-terminal region of protein kinase C βI (PKCβI). Here, we show that when ENH1 is co-expressed, PKCβI is translocated from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane in the absence of any other stimulation. Moreover expression of ENH1 markedly increases PKCβI activity in the absence of PKC activators. A similar activation of PKCβI was observed with co-expression of Cypher1 or Enigma, but not other LIM proteins. The region including the three LIM domains of ENH1 (residues 415-591) appears to be sufficient for this PKCβI activation. Finally, interaction with ENH1 also increases the activity of PKCα and PKCγ, whereas it reduces PKCζ activity. These findings provide strong evidence that ENH1 activates conventional PKCs by directly binding through its LIM domains. Thus, LIM domains have a novel molecular function: the regulation of PKC activities in a PKC isoform-specific manner. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Spatial regulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase during chemotactic cell migration. (United States)

    Howe, Alan K; Baldor, Linda C; Hogan, Brian P


    Historically, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) has a paradoxical role in cell motility, having been shown to both facilitate and inhibit actin cytoskeletal dynamics and cell migration. In an effort to understand this dichotomy, we show here that PKA is regulated in subcellular space during cell migration. Immunofluorescence microscopy and biochemical enrichment of pseudopodia showed that type II regulatory subunits of PKA and PKA activity are enriched in protrusive cellular structures formed during chemotaxis. This enrichment correlates with increased phosphorylation of key cytoskeletal substrates for PKA, including the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and the protein tyrosine phosphatase containing a PEST motif. Importantly, inhibition of PKA activity or its ability to interact with A kinase anchoring proteins inhibited the activity of the Rac GTPase within pseudopodia. This effect correlated with both decreased guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity and increased GTPase activating protein activity. Finally, inhibition of PKA anchoring, like inhibition of total PKA activity, inhibited pseudopod formation and chemotactic cell migration. These data demonstrate that spatial regulation of PKA via anchoring is an important facet of normal chemotactic cell movement.

  6. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 gene variants in human essential hypertension (United States)

    Felder, Robin A.; Sanada, Hironobu; Xu, Jing; Yu, Pei-Ying; Wang, Zheng; Watanabe, Hidetsuna; Asico, Laureano D.; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Shaopeng; Yamaguchi, Ikuyo; Williams, Scott M.; Gainer, James; Brown, Nancy J.; Hazen-Martin, Debra; Wong, Lee-Jun C.; Robillard, Jean E.; Carey, Robert M.; Eisner, Gilbert M.; Jose, Pedro A.


    Essential hypertension has a heritability as high as 30–50%, but its genetic cause(s) has not been determined despite intensive investigation. The renal dopaminergic system exerts a pivotal role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and participates in the pathogenesis of genetic hypertension. In genetic hypertension, the ability of dopamine and D1-like agonists to increase urinary sodium excretion is impaired. A defective coupling between the D1 dopamine receptor and the G protein/effector enzyme complex in the proximal tubule of the kidney is the cause of the impaired renal dopaminergic action in genetic rodent and human essential hypertension. We now report that, in human essential hypertension, single nucleotide polymorphisms of a G protein-coupled receptor kinase, GRK4γ, increase G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) activity and cause the serine phosphorylation and uncoupling of the D1 receptor from its G protein/effector enzyme complex in the renal proximal tubule and in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. Moreover, expressing GRK4γA142V but not the wild-type gene in transgenic mice produces hypertension and impairs the diuretic and natriuretic but not the hypotensive effects of D1-like agonist stimulation. These findings provide a mechanism for the D1 receptor coupling defect in the kidney and may explain the inability of the kidney to properly excrete sodium in genetic hypertension. PMID:11904438

  7. Phosphorylation of Staphylococcus aureus Protein-Tyrosine Kinase Affects the Function of Glucokinase and Biofilm Formation. (United States)

    Vasu, Dudipeta; Kumar, Pasupuleti Santhosh; Prasad, Uppu Venkateswara; Swarupa, Vimjam; Yeswanth, Sthanikam; Srikanth, Lokanathan; Sunitha, Manne Mudhu; Choudhary, Abhijith; Sarma, Potukuchi Venkata Gurunadha Krishna


    When Staphylococcus aureus is grown in the presence of high concentration of external glucose, this sugar is phosphorylated by glucokinase (glkA) to form glucose-6-phosphate. This product subsequently enters into anabolic phase, which favors biofilm formation. The presence of ROK (repressor protein, open reading frame, sugar kinase) motif, phosphate-1 and -2 sites, and tyrosine kinase sites in glkA of S. aureus indicates that phosphorylation must regulate the glkA activity. The aim of the present study was to identify the effect of phosphorylation on the function of S. aureus glkA and biofilm formation. Pure glkA and protein-tyrosine kinase (BYK) of S. aureus ATCC 12600 were obtained by fractionating the cytosolic fractions of glkA1 and BYK-1 expressing recombinant clones through nickel metal chelate column. The pure glkA was used as a substrate for BYK and the phosphorylation of glkA was confirmed by treating with reagent A and resolving in SDS-PAGE, as well as staining with reagent A. The kinetic parameters of glkA and phosphorylated glkA were determined spectrophotometrically, and in silico tools were used for validation. S. aureus was grown in brain heart infusion broth, which was supplemented with glucose, and then biofilm units were calculated. Fourfold elevated glkA activity was observed upon the phosphorylation by BYK. Protein-protein docking analysis revealed that glkA structure docked close to the adenosine triphosphate-binding site of BYK structure corroborating the kinetic results. Further, S. aureus grown in the presence of elevated glucose concentration exhibited an increase in the rate of biofilm formation. The elevated function of glkA is an essential requirement for increased biofilm units in S. aureus, a key pathogenic factor that helps its survival and spread the infection.

  8. Activation of protein kinase C alters the intracellular distribution and mobility of cardiac Na+ channels. (United States)

    Hallaq, Haifa; Wang, Dao W; Kunic, Jennifer D; George, Alfred L; Wells, K Sam; Murray, Katherine T


    Na(+) current derived from expression of the cardiac isoform SCN5A is reduced by receptor-mediated or direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Previous work has suggested a possible role for loss of Na(+) channels at the plasma membrane in this effect, but the results are controversial. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that PKC activation acutely modulates the intracellular distribution of SCN5A channels and that this effect can be visualized in living cells. In human embryonic kidney cells that stably expressed SCN5A with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the channel COOH-terminus (SCN5A-GFP), Na(+) currents were suppressed by an exposure to PKC activation. Using confocal microscopy, colocalization of SCN5A-GFP channels with the plasma membrane under control and stimulated conditions was quantified. A separate population of SCN5A channels containing an extracellular epitope was immunolabeled to permit temporally stable labeling of the plasma membrane. Our results demonstrated that Na(+) channels were preferentially trafficked away from the plasma membrane by PKC activation, with a major contribution by Ca(2+)-sensitive or conventional PKC isoforms, whereas stimulation of protein kinase A (PKA) had the opposite effect. Removal of the conserved PKC site Ser(1503) or exposure to the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin eliminated the PKC-mediated effect to alter channel trafficking, indicating that both channel phosphorylation and ROS were required. Experiments using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching demonstrated that both PKC and PKA also modified channel mobility in a manner consistent with the dynamics of channel distribution. These results demonstrate that the activation of protein kinases can acutely regulate the intracellular distribution and molecular mobility of cardiac Na(+) channels in living cells.

  9. Protein kinase CK2 is coassembled with small conductance ca(2+)-activated k(+) channels and regulates channel gating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bildl, Wolfgang; Strassmaier, Tim; Thurm, Henrike


    and serves as the Ca2+ sensor. Here we show that, in addition, the cytoplasmic N and C termini of the channel protein form a polyprotein complex with the catalytic and regulatory subunits of protein kinase CK2 and protein phosphatase 2A. Within this complex, CK2 phosphorylates calmodulin at threonine 80......, reducing by 5-fold the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity and accelerating channel deactivation. The results show that native SK channels are polyprotein complexes and demonstrate that the balance between kinase and phosphatase activities within the protein complex shapes the hyperpolarizing response mediated by SK...

  10. Arabidopsis Raf-Like Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Gene Raf43 Is Required for Tolerance to Multiple Abiotic Stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasar Virk

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades are critical signaling modules that mediate the transduction of extracellular stimuli into intracellular response. A relatively large number of MAPKKKs have been identified in a variety of plant genomes but only a few of them have been studied for their biological function. In the present study, we identified an Arabidopsis Raf-like MAPKKK gene Raf43 and studied its function in biotic and abiotic stress response using a T-DNA insertion mutant raf43-1 and two Raf43-overexpressing lines Raf43-OE#1 and Raf43-OE#13. Expression of Raf43 was induced by multiple abiotic and biotic stresses including treatments with drought, mannitol and oxidative stress or defense signaling molecule salicylic acid and infection with necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Seed germination and seedling root growth of raf43-1 were significantly inhibited on MS medium containing mannitol, NaCl, H2O2 or methyl viologen (MV while seed germination and seedling root growth of the Raf43-OE#1 and Raf43-OE#13 lines was similar to wild type Col-0 under the above stress conditions. Soil-grown raf43-1 plants exhibited reduced tolerance to MV, drought and salt stress. Abscisic acid inhibited significantly seed germination and seedling root growth of the raf43-1 line but had no effect on the two Raf43-overexpressing lines. Expression of stress-responsive RD17 and DREB2A genes was significantly down-regulated in raf43-1 plants. However, the raf43-1 and Raf43-overexpressing plants showed similar disease phenotype to the wild type plants after infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Our results demonstrate that Raf43, encoding for a Raf-like MAPKKK, is required for tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis.

  11. LRRK2 kinase inhibition prevents pathological microglial phagocytosis in response to HIV-1 Tat protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marker Daniel F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs are accompanied by significant morbidity, which persists despite the use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART. While activated microglia play a role in pathogenesis, changes in their immune effector functions, including phagocytosis and proinflammatory signaling pathways, are not well understood. We have identified leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 as a novel regulator of microglial phagocytosis and activation in an in vitro model of HANDs, and hypothesize that LRRK2 kinase inhibition will attenuate microglial activation during HANDs. Methods We treated BV-2 immortalized mouse microglia cells with the HIV-1 trans activator of transcription (Tat protein in the absence or presence of LRRK2 kinase inhibitor (LRRK2i. We used Western blot, qRT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and latex bead engulfment assays to analyze LRRK2 protein levels, proinflammatory cytokine and phagocytosis receptor expression, LRRK2 cellular distribution and phagocytosis, respectively. Finally, we utilized ex vivo microfluidic chambers containing primary hippocampal neurons and BV-2 microglia cells to investigate microglial phagocytosis of neuronal axons. Results We found that Tat-treatment of BV-2 cells induced kinase activity associated phosphorylation of serine 935 on LRRK2 and caused the formation of cytoplasmic LRRK2 inclusions. LRRK2i decreased Tat-induced phosphorylation of serine 935 on LRRK2 and inhibited the formation of Tat-induced cytoplasmic LRRK2 inclusions. LRRK2i also decreased Tat-induced process extension in BV-2 cells. Furthermore, LRRK2i attenuated Tat-induced cytokine expression and latex bead engulfment. We examined relevant cellular targets in microfluidic chambers and found that Tat-treated BV-2 microglia cells cleared axonal arbor and engulfed neuronal elements, whereas saline treated controls did not. LRRK2i was found to protect axons in the presence

  12. A comprehensive protein-protein interactome for yeast PAS kinase 1 reveals direct inhibition of respiration through the phosphorylation of Cbf1. (United States)

    DeMille, Desiree; Bikman, Benjamin T; Mathis, Andrew D; Prince, John T; Mackay, Jordan T; Sowa, Steven W; Hall, Tacie D; Grose, Julianne H


    Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) kinase is a sensory protein kinase required for glucose homeostasis in yeast, mice, and humans, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms of its function. Using both yeast two-hybrid and copurification approaches, we identified the protein-protein interactome for yeast PAS kinase 1 (Psk1), revealing 93 novel putative protein binding partners. Several of the Psk1 binding partners expand the role of PAS kinase in glucose homeostasis, including new pathways involved in mitochondrial metabolism. In addition, the interactome suggests novel roles for PAS kinase in cell growth (gene/protein expression, replication/cell division, and protein modification and degradation), vacuole function, and stress tolerance. In vitro kinase studies using a subset of 25 of these binding partners identified Mot3, Zds1, Utr1, and Cbf1 as substrates. Further evidence is provided for the in vivo phosphorylation of Cbf1 at T211/T212 and for the subsequent inhibition of respiration. This respiratory role of PAS kinase is consistent with the reported hypermetabolism of PAS kinase-deficient mice, identifying a possible molecular mechanism and solidifying the evolutionary importance of PAS kinase in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. © 2014 DeMille et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (

  13. Phagocytosis of nano-sized titanium dioxide triggers changes in protein acetylation. (United States)

    Sund, Jukka; Palomäki, Jaana; Ahonen, Niina; Savolainen, Kai; Alenius, Harri; Puustinen, Anne


    Nano-sized titanium dioxide (nTiO2) is one of the most produced engineered nanomaterials and therefore carries a high risk for workplace exposure. In several nanosafety studies, exposure to nTiO2 has been shown to trigger inflammation in mice lung and to cause oxidative stress. Here, cytoplasmic proteome changes in human monocyte derived macrophages were investigated with two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry to evaluate the adverse cellular effects after exposure to different types of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). Both studied TiO2 NPs (rutile TiO2 with or without silica coating) evoked similar proteome alterations. The identified proteins were linked to metabolic homeostasis, cytoskeleton remodeling and oxidative stress. The abundances of chloride intracellular channel protein 1 and cathepsin D changed only after exposure to nTiO2 as compared to a coarse particle analog. Enrichment analysis revealed that 70% of the proteins with changed intensities contained known acetylation sites, and it was possible to confirm a significant induction of cytoplasmic protein acetylation after nTiO2 exposure. The course of the events during phagocytosis could account for the observed membrane maintenance, metabolic and cytoskeletal protein expression changes. Lysine acetylation of cytoplasmic proteins in macrophages is emerging as a major cell regulation mechanism after nTiO2 exposure. While the amount of nanosafety research conducted in recent years has been constantly increasing, proteomics has not yet been utilized widely in this field. In addition, reversible protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as acetylation and phosphorylation have not been investigated in-depth in nanomaterial exposed cells. Proteome changes observed in nanomaterial exposed macrophages revealed active phagocytosis of the particles and provided new insights into underlying mechanisms of biological responses to nTiO2 exposures. Moreover, reversible

  14. Light-mediated Reversible Modulation of the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway during Cell Differentiation and Xenopus Embryonic Development. (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Vishnu V; Turgeon, Aurora J; Khamo, John S; Mondal, Payel; Sharum, Savanna R; Mei, Wenyan; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Kai


    Kinase activity is crucial for a plethora of cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. During early embryonic development, kinase activity is highly dynamic and widespread across the embryo. Pharmacological and genetic approaches are commonly used to probe kinase activities. Unfortunately, it is challenging to achieve superior spatial and temporal resolution using these strategies. Furthermore, it is not feasible to control the kinase activity in a reversible fashion in live cells and multicellular organisms. Such a limitation remains a bottleneck for achieving a quantitative understanding of kinase activity during development and differentiation. This work presents an optogenetic strategy that takes advantage of a bicistronic system containing photoactivatable proteins Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) and the N-terminal domain of cryptochrome-interacting basic-helix-loop-helix (CIBN). Reversible activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is achieved through light-mediated protein translocation in live cells. This approach can be applied to mammalian cell cultures and live vertebrate embryos. This bicistronic system can be generalized to control the activity of other kinases with similar activation mechanisms and can be applied to other model systems.

  15. Disruption of the serine/threonine protein kinase H affects phthiocerol dimycocerosates synthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (United States)

    Gómez-Velasco, Anaximandro; Bach, Horacio; Rana, Amrita K.; Cox, Liam R.; Bhatt, Apoorva; Besra, Gurdyal S.


    Mycobacterium tuberculosis possesses a complex cell wall that is unique and essential for interaction of the pathogen with its human host. Emerging evidence suggests that the biosynthesis of complex cell-wall lipids is mediated by serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs). Herein, we show, using in vivo radiolabelling, MS and immunostaining analyses, that targeted deletion of one of the STPKs, pknH, attenuates the production of phthiocerol dimycocerosates (PDIMs), a major M. tuberculosis virulence lipid. Comparative protein expression analysis revealed that proteins in the PDIM biosynthetic pathway are differentially expressed in a deleted pknH strain. Furthermore, we analysed the composition of the major lipoglycans, lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and lipomannan (LM), and found a twofold higher LAM/LM ratio in the mutant strain. Thus, we provide experimental evidence that PknH contributes to the production and synthesis of M. tuberculosis cell-wall components. PMID:23412844

  16. Computationally-guided optimization of small-molecule inhibitors of the Aurora A kinase-TPX2 protein-protein interaction. (United States)

    Cole, Daniel J; Janecek, Matej; Stokes, Jamie E; Rossmann, Maxim; Faver, John C; McKenzie, Grahame J; Venkitaraman, Ashok R; Hyvönen, Marko; Spring, David R; Huggins, David J; Jorgensen, William L


    Free energy perturbation theory, in combination with enhanced sampling of protein-ligand binding modes, is evaluated in the context of fragment-based drug design, and used to design two new small-molecule inhibitors of the Aurora A kinase-TPX2 protein-protein interaction.

  17. Identification and Structure-Function Analysis of Subfamily Selective G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase Inhibitors

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    Homan, Kristoff T.; Larimore, Kelly M.; Elkins, Jonathan M.; Szklarz, Marta; Knapp, Stefan; Tesmer, John J.G. [Michigan; (Oxford)


    Selective inhibitors of individual subfamilies of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) would serve as useful chemical probes as well as leads for therapeutic applications ranging from heart failure to Parkinson’s disease. To identify such inhibitors, differential scanning fluorimetry was used to screen a collection of known protein kinase inhibitors that could increase the melting points of the two most ubiquitously expressed GRKs: GRK2 and GRK5. Enzymatic assays on 14 of the most stabilizing hits revealed that three exhibit nanomolar potency of inhibition for individual GRKs, some of which exhibiting orders of magnitude selectivity. Most of the identified compounds can be clustered into two chemical classes: indazole/dihydropyrimidine-containing compounds that are selective for GRK2 and pyrrolopyrimidine-containing compounds that potently inhibit GRK1 and GRK5 but with more modest selectivity. The two most potent inhibitors representing each class, GSK180736A and GSK2163632A, were cocrystallized with GRK2 and GRK1, and their atomic structures were determined to 2.6 and 1.85 Å spacings, respectively. GSK180736A, developed as a Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase inhibitor, binds to GRK2 in a manner analogous to that of paroxetine, whereas GSK2163632A, developed as an insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor inhibitor, occupies a novel region of the GRK active site cleft that could likely be exploited to achieve more selectivity. However, neither compound inhibits GRKs more potently than their initial targets. This data provides the foundation for future efforts to rationally design even more potent and selective GRK inhibitors.

  18. Using existing drugs as leads for broad spectrum anthelmintics targeting protein kinases.

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    Christina M Taylor


    Full Text Available As one of the largest protein families, protein kinases (PKs regulate nearly all processes within the cell and are considered important drug targets. Much research has been conducted on inhibitors for PKs, leading to a wealth of compounds that target PKs that have potential to be lead anthelmintic drugs. Identifying compounds that have already been developed to treat neglected tropical diseases is an attractive way to obtain lead compounds inexpensively that can be developed into much needed drugs, especially for use in developing countries. In this study, PKs from nematodes, hosts, and DrugBank were identified and classified into kinase families and subfamilies. Nematode proteins were placed into orthologous groups that span the phylum Nematoda. A minimal kinome for the phylum Nematoda was identified, and properties of the minimal kinome were explored. Orthologous groups from the minimal kinome were prioritized for experimental testing based on RNAi phenotype of the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog, transcript expression over the life-cycle and anatomic expression patterns. Compounds linked to targets in DrugBank belonging to the same kinase families and subfamilies in the minimal nematode kinome were extracted. Thirty-five compounds were tested in the non-parasitic C. elegans and active compounds progressed to testing against nematode species with different modes of parasitism, the blood-feeding Haemonchus contortus and the filarial Brugia malayi. Eighteen compounds showed efficacy in C. elegans, and six compounds also showed efficacy in at least one of the parasitic species. Hypotheses regarding the pathway the compounds may target and their molecular mechanism for activity are discussed.

  19. ASH1L Suppresses Matrix Metalloproteinase through Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway in Pulpitis. (United States)

    Bei, Yin; Tianqian, Hui; Fanyuan, Yu; Haiyun, Luo; Xueyang, Liao; Jing, Yang; Chenglin, Wang; Ling, Ye


    Pulpitis is an inflammation of dental pulp produced by a response to external stimuli. The response entails substantial cellular and molecular activities. Both genetic and epigenetic regulators contribute to the occurrence of pulpitis. However, the epigenetic mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this research, we studied the role of the absent, small, or homeotic-like (ASH1L) gene in the process of pulpitis. Human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) were stimulated with proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Gene expression profiling was performed to assess the occurrence of epigenetic regulators. Pulp tissue from rat experimental pulpitis was subjected to immunofluorescence to detect the occurrence of ASH1L and trimethylation of lysine 4 histone 3 (H3K4me3). The presence of ASH1L in HDPCs that had been generated by TNF-α stimulation was analyzed by Western blot procedures and cellular immunofluorescence. Once detected, ASH1L was silenced through the use of specific small interfering RNA. The effects of ASH1L on the occurrence and operation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were then tested by analysis of quantitative polymerase chain reactions, Western blotting, and zymography. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed to detect whether ASH1L and H3K4me3 were present in the promoter regions of MMPs. We then used Western blot procedures to examine the nuclear factor kappa B and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) responses to the silencing of ASH1L. We also examined the specific pathway involved in ASH1L regulation of the MMPs. After stimulating HDPCs with TNF-α, ASH1L emerged as 1 of the most strongly induced epigenetic mediators. We found that TNF-α treatment induced the expression of ASH1L through the nuclear factor kappa B and MAPK signal pathways. ASH1L was found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. TNF-α treatment was particularly active in inducing the accumulation of ASH1L in cellular cytoplasm. As is also consistent

  20. Nitrate Activation of Cytosolic Protein Kinases Diverts Photosynthetic Carbon from Sucrose to Amino Acid Biosynthesis (United States)

    Champigny, Marie-Louise; Foyer, Christine


    The regulation of carbon partitioning between carbohydrates (principally sucrose) and amino acids has been only poorly characterized in higher plants. The hypothesis that the pathway of sucrose and amino acid biosynthesis compete for carbon skeletons and energy is widely accepted. In this review, we suggest a mechanism involving the regulation of cytosolic protein kinases whereby the flow of carbon is regulated at the level of partitioning between the pathways of carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism via the covalent modulation of component enzymes. The addition of nitrate to wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum) grown in the absence of exogenous nitrogen has a dramatic, if transient, impact on sucrose formation and on the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (which is inactivated) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (which is activated). The activities of these two enzymes are modulated by protein phosphorylation in response to the addition of nitrate, but they respond in an inverse fashion. Sucrose phosphate synthase in inactivated and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase is activated. Nitrate functions as a signal metabolite activating the cytosolic protein kinase, thereby modulating the activities of at least two of the key enzymes in assimilate partitioning and redirecting the flow of carbon away from sucrose biosynthesis toward amino acid synthesis. PMID:16653003