WorldWideScience

Sample records for trigger points comparison

  1. Comparison of acupuncture to injection for myofascial trigger point pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazi, Miriam C B; Issy, Adriana M; Avila, Ilíada P; Sakata, Rioko K

    2011-01-01

    Many treatments have been proposed for myofascial pain syndrome. The objective of this study was to compare the analgesic effect of acupuncture to trigger point injection combined with cyclobenzaprine chlorhydrate and sodium dipyrone. A randomized study was performed in 30 patients divided into 2 groups: G1 received trigger point injection with 0.25% bupivacaine twice weekly, and both cyclobenzaprine chlorhydrate 10 mg/day and sodium dipyrone 500 mg every 8 hours; G2 received classical and trigger point acupuncture twice weekly. All patients were instructed in physical exercise. The following parameters were evaluated: pain intensity rated on a numerical scale, number of trigger points, and quality of life before and 4 weeks after treatment. The pain scores and the number of trigger points reduced significantly in both groups, with no significant difference between groups. Significant improvement in the quality of life scores was observed for some of the functional domains in the 2 groups, whereas there was no improvement of the general health status domain in either group or of the emotional domain in G1. Acupuncture, when compared with trigger point injection, combined with cyclobenzaprine chlorhydrate and sodium dipyrone provided similar pain relief and improvement in quality of life measures at 4 weeks.  © 2010 World Institute of Pain.

  2. Comparison between four treatment modalities for active myofascial triggers points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef Fouda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed at the painful trigger points (TrPs for the purpose of ablating muscle spasms and restoring normal muscle length to find the most effective treatment for alleviating pain and improving mouth range of motion in patients with myofascial pain dysfunction. Methods: We enrolled 72 patients with pain and reduced mouth opening due to temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Patients assigned to four groups and four treatment modalities used to treat myofascial TrPs pain. We used mean and standard deviation values. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the two groups. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to study the changes by the time in mean pain scores. The Student's t-test was used to compare maximum mouth opening (MMO groups. Then paired t-test was also used to study the changes of time in an MMO. Results: The results showed that pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF therapy is the most effective treatment modality regarding for pain relief. Both the anesthesia and PEMF groups showed a reduction in mean pain scores throughout all follow-up periods, and a statistically significant increase in mean MMO. Conclusion: The findings suggest that PEMF is the most effective treatment for alleviating pain and improving mouth range of motion in patients with myofascial pain.

  3. Myofascial trigger point pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Myofascial trigger point pain is an extremely prevalent cause of persistent pain disorders in all parts of the body, not just the head, neck, and face. Features include deep aching pain in any structure, referred from focally tender points in taut bands of skeletal muscle (the trigger points). Diagnosis depends on accurate palpation with 2-4 kg/cm2 of pressure for 10 to 20 seconds over the suspected trigger point to allow the referred pain pattern to develop. In the head and neck region, cervical muscle trigger points (key trigger points) often incite and perpetuate trigger points (satellite trigger points) and referred pain from masticatory muscles. Management requires identification and control of as many perpetuating factors as possible (posture, body mechanics, psychological stress or depression, poor sleep or nutrition). Trigger point therapies such as spray and stretch or trigger point injections are best used as adjunctive therapy.

  4. Comparison of shoulder strength in males with and without myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H A; Hwang, U J; Jung, S H; Ahn, S H; Kim, J H; Kwon, O Y

    2017-11-01

    This study was conducted in order to compare the strength of scapular elevator and shoulder abductor with and without restricted scapular elevation between male subjects with and without myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius. In total, 15 male subjects with myofascial trigger points, and 15age- and weight-matched male subjects without myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius. Each subject was measured in the strength of maximum isometric scapular elevation and shoulder abduction with and without restricted scapular elevation. Maximum isometric contractions were measured using the Smart KEMA strength measurement system. Independent t-tests were used to compare shoulder strength values between the myofascial trigger points and non- myofascial trigger points groups. The results showed that shoulder abductor strength in the group with myofascial trigger points (5.64kgf) was significantly lower than in the group without myofascial trigger points (11.96kgf) when scapular elevation was restricted (p0.05). These findings suggest that decreased strength in the shoulder abductor with restricted scapular elevation should be considered in evaluating and treating individuals with myofascial trigger points of the upper trapezius. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Latent myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2011-10-01

    A latent myofascial trigger point (MTP) is defined as a focus of hyperirritability in a muscle taut band that is clinically associated with local twitch response and tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. Current evidence suggests that the temporal profile of the spontaneous electrical activity at an MTP is similar to focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials, which contribute significantly to the induction of local tenderness and pain and motor dysfunctions. This review highlights the potential mechanisms underlying the sensory-motor dysfunctions associated with latent MTPs and discusses the contribution of central sensitization associated with latent MTPs and the MTP network to the spatial propagation of pain and motor dysfunctions. Treating latent MTPs in patients with musculoskeletal pain may not only decrease pain sensitivity and improve motor functions, but also prevent latent MTPs from transforming into active MTPs, and hence, prevent the development of myofascial pain syndrome.

  6. Myofascial Trigger Point Pain Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwin, Robert D

    2016-10-01

    Myofascial pain syndromes caused by trigger points (TrPs) in muscle are a common cause of local and generalized pain. Trigger points are hyperirritable zones in contracted bands of muscle, thought to be caused by muscle overload or stress. Stress TrPs have characteristic electromyographic features, and can be visualized with ultrasound and magnetic resonance elastography. Trigger point needling or injection can be effective in inactivating TrP, but correcting triggers is also critical. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Etiology of myofascial trigger points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, C.; Dommerholt, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is described as the sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms caused by myofascial trigger points (TrPs). Knowing the potential causes of TrPs is important to prevent their development and recurrence, but also to inactivate and eliminate existing TrPs. There is general

  8. A New Look at Trigger Point Injections

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Clara S. M.; Wong, Steven H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and ...

  9. A new look at trigger point injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Clara S M; Wong, Steven H S

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection.

  10. Ischemic Compression After Trigger Point Injection Affect the Treatment of Myofascial Trigger Points

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Soo A; Oh, Ki Young; Choi, Won Hyuck; Kim, In Kyum

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of trigger point injection with or without ischemic compression in treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. Methods Sixty patients with active myofascial trigger points in upper trapezius muscle were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (n=20) received only trigger point injections, group 2 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 30 seconds of ischemic compression, and group 3 (n=20) received trigger point injectio...

  11. Ischemic compression after trigger point injection affect the treatment of myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo A; Oh, Ki Young; Choi, Won Hyuck; Kim, In Kyum

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effects of trigger point injection with or without ischemic compression in treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. SIXTY PATIENTS WITH ACTIVE MYOFASCIAL TRIGGER POINTS IN UPPER TRAPEZIUS MUSCLE WERE RANDOMLY DIVIDED INTO THREE GROUPS: group 1 (n=20) received only trigger point injections, group 2 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 30 seconds of ischemic compression, and group 3 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 60 seconds of ischemic compression. The visual analogue scale, pressure pain threshold, and range of motion of the neck were assessed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 1 week after treatment. Korean Neck Disability Indexes were assessed before treatment and 1 week after treatment. We found a significant improvement in all assessment parameters (ptrigger point injections with ischemic compression group showed significant improvement as compared with the receiving only trigger point injections group. And no significant differences between receiving 30 seconds of ischemic compression group and 60 seconds of ischemic compression group. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of ischemic compression for myofascial trigger point. Trigger point injections combined with ischemic compression shows better effects on treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle than the only trigger point injections therapy. But the duration of ischemic compression did not affect treatment of myofascial trigger point.

  12. Comparison of miniscalpel-needle release, acupuncture needling, and stretching exercise to trigger point in myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Wu, Shaoling; Li, Guoqi; Xiao, Xiuhong; Mai, Mingquan; Yan, Tiebin

    2010-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is one of the most common causes of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Several methods have been recommended for the inactivation of trigger points (TrPs). We carried out this study to investigate the effectiveness of miniscalpel-needle (MSN) release and acupuncture needling and self neck-stretching exercises on myofascial TrPs of the upper trapezius muscle. Eighty-three TrPs in 43 patients with MPS were treated and randomly assigned to 3 groups: group 1 received MSN release in conjunction with self neck-stretching exercises; group 2 received acupuncture needling treatment and performed self neck-stretching exercises; and group 3, the control group, was assigned self neck-stretching exercises only. The therapeutic effectiveness was evaluated using subjective pain intensity (PI) with a visual analog scale, pressure pain threshold (PPT), and contralateral bending range of motion (ROM) of cervical spine at pretreatment, 2 weeks, and 3 months after treatment. The improvement of PI, PPT, and contralateral bending ROM of cervical spine was significantly greater in group 1 and 2 than that in control group at 2 weeks and 3 months follow-up. Compared with group 2, patients in group 1 had a statistically significant reduction in PI, an increase in PPT, contralateral bending ROM of cervical spine at 3 months follow-up. The effectiveness of MSN release for MPS is superior to that of acupuncture needling treatment or self neck-stretching exercises alone. The MSN release is also safe, without severe side effects in treatment of MPS.

  13. Comparison of Upper Trapezius and Infraspinatus Myofascial Trigger Point Therapy by Dry Needling in Overhead Athletes With Unilateral Shoulder Impingement Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Fahimeh; Sinaei, Ehsan; Morovati, Maryam

    2018-01-24

    Chronic musculoskeletal disorders in shoulder joint are often associated with myofascial trigger points (MTrP), particularly in the upper trapezius (UT) muscle. Dry needling (DN) is a treatment of choice for myofascial pain syndrome. However, local lesions and severe post-needle soreness sometimes hamper the direct application of DN in the UT. Therefore, finding an alternative point of treatment seems useful in this regard. To compare the efficacy of UT versus infraspinatus (ISP) DN on pain and disability of subjects with shoulder pain. We hypothesized that ISP DN could be as effective as the direct application of DN in UT MTrP. Single-blind randomized clinical trial. Sports medicine physical therapy clinic. 40 overhead athletes (age 36±16 yo; 20 females, 20 males) with unilateral shoulder impingement syndrome were randomly assigned to the UT DN (n=21) and ISP DN (n=19) groups. An acupuncture needle was directly inserted into the trigger point of UT muscle in the UT DN group and of ISP muscle in the ISP DN group. DN was applied in three sessions (2-day interval between sessions) for each group. Pain intensity (visual analog scale), pain pressure threshold (PPT) and disability in the arm, hand and shoulder (DASH) were assessed before and after the interventions. Pain and disability decreased significantly in both groups (P0.05). Application of DN for active MTrPs in the ISP can be as effective as direct DN of active MTrPs in the UT in improving pain and disability in athletes with shoulder pain, and may be preferred due to greater patient comfort in comparison with direct UT needling.

  14. Comparison of two angles of approach for trigger point dry needling of the lumbar multifidus in human donors (cadavers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Mary C; Cope, Janet; Palermo, Alec; Smith, Walker; Wacker, Valerie

    2016-12-01

    Descriptive comparison study. To assess the accuracy of two needle angle approaches for dry needling of the lumbar multifidus. Low back pain is a leading cause of disability around the world; the lumbar multifidus plays a vital role in low back health. Manual therapy such as dry needling can improve pain mediation and motor control activation of the lumbar multifidus. Clinicians practicing dry needling at the lumbar multifidus typically use an inferomedial approach considered non-controversial. Clinicians practicing electromyography and nerve conduction studies commonly sample the lumbar multifidus in a directly posteroanterior approach that may provide another option for dry needling technique. Four human donors were used for a total of eight needle placements-four with an inferomedial orientation and four with a posteroanterior orientation. Each needle was placed from 1 to 1.5 cm lateral to the spinous process of L4 to the depth of the lumbar lamina. Each lower lumbar spine was then dissected to determine the structures that the needle traversed and the needle's final resting place. All four inferomedial approach needles ended at the lamina of the vertebrae below. All four posterior-anterior approach needles ended in the lamina of the same level. All eight needles traversed the lumbar multifidus and ended in the lumbar lamina with little possibility of the needle entering the subarachnoid space. Thus both the inferomedial and the posteroanterior angles of approach are efficacious for clinicians to use in dry needling of the lumbar mulifidus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of the short-term outcomes between trigger point dry needling and trigger point manual therapy for the management of chronic mechanical neck pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas-Ramos, Rocio; Pecos-Martín, Daniel; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; Llamas-Ramos, Inés; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Cleland, Joshua; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2014-11-01

    Randomized clinical study. To compare the effects of trigger point (TrP) dry needling (DN) and TrP manual therapy (MT) on pain, function, pressure pain sensitivity, and cervical range of motion in subjects with chronic mechanical neck pain. Recent evidence suggests that TrP DN could be effective in the treatment of neck pain. However, no studies have directly compared the outcomes of TrP DN and TrP MT in this population. Ninety-four patients (mean ± SD age, 31 ± 3 years; 66% female) were randomized into a TrP DN group (n = 47) or a TrP MT group (n = 47). Neck pain intensity (11-point numeric pain rating scale), cervical range of motion, and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) over the spinous process of C7 were measured at baseline, postintervention, and at follow-ups of 1 week and 2 weeks after treatment. The Spanish version of the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire was used to measure disability/function at baseline and the 2-week follow-up. Mixed-model, repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to determine if a time-by-group interaction existed on the effects of the treatment on each outcome variable, with time as the within-subject variable and group as the between-subject variable. The ANOVA revealed that participants who received TrP DN had outcomes similar to those who received TrP MT in terms of pain, function, and cervical range of motion. The 4-by-2 mixed-model ANOVA also revealed a significant time-by-group interaction (PTherapy, level 1b.

  16. [Diagnosis and therapy of myofascial trigger points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, D G; Mense, S

    2003-12-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are hyperirritable tender spots in palpable tense bands of skeletal muscle. Muscle is an orphan organ, no medical specialty claims muscle as its organ. The article aims at filling some of the gaps in the current knowledge of MTrPs. The presented findings were partly obtained in experiments on anesthetised rabbits, partly they are the result of ample experience with patients suffering from MTrPs. Each muscle has a characteristic elicited referred pain pattern that, for active MTrPs, is familiar to the patient. Without a laboratory test or imaging method, diagnosis of MTrPs depends entirely on history and physical examination. MTrP symptoms follow muscle overload, are activated acutely by sudden overload, or develop gradually with prolonged contractions or repetitive activity. The diagnostic skill required depends on considerable innate palpation ability, authoritative training, and extensive clinical experience. Effective treatment methods include manual stretching by trigger-point pressure release, contract-relax, vapo coolant spray-and-stretch, and dry needling or injection of MTrPs. The integrated hypothesis presents an explanation for the pathophysiology of MTrPs and begins with excessive release of acetylcholine from involved motor endplates. It depends on a new understanding of the abnormality of endplate noise. Biopsies demonstrate segmental shortening of groups of sarcomeres in individual muscle fibres and possibly waves of contracted sarcomeres to account for palpable taut bands.

  17. A RANDOMIZED TRIAL TO STUDY THE COMPARISON OF TRIGGER POINT DRY NEEDLING VERSUS KINESIO TAPING TECHNIQUE IN MYOFASCIAL PAIN SYNDROME DURING A 3-MONTH FOLLOW UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Hayta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Managemen of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS is a current research subject since there is a small number of randomized studies comparing different management techniques. Multiple studies attempted to assess various treatment options including trigger point dry needling and kinesiotaping. We compared the effects of trigger point dry needling and kinesiotaping in the management of myofascial pain syndome during a 3-month follow-up period. Methods: In this prospective randomized studyin MPS patients with upper trapezius muscle trigger points, the effects of dry needling (n=28 and kinesiotaping (n=27 was compared with regard to the visual analog scale (VAS, neck disability index (NDI, and Nottingham health profile (NHP scores measured at the weeks 0, 4, and 12. Results: Both dry needling and kinesiotaping comparably reduced VAS scores measured at the weeks 4 and 12 and their efficacies were more remarkable at the week 12 (p<0.05. These interventions significantly reduced the NDI and NHP score and their effects were also more remarkable at the week 12; however, dry needling was found more effective (p<0.05. Conclusion: Overall, in current clinical settings, during the management of MPS, pain can be reduced comparably by both dry needling and kinesiotaping; however, restriction in the range of motionin neck region and quality of life are more remarkably reduced by dry needling. Both dry needling and kinesiotaping can provide an increasing effectiveness up to 12 weeks.

  18. The Comparison of the Effects of Trigger Points Pressure Release and Kinesio Taping on Pain and Hip Abductor Muscles Strength in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Mazloum

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Hip muscles insufficiency plays a significant role in deterioration of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS, which can be manifested as myofascial trigger point (MTrPs in hip muscles. Then, our purpose was to determine the prevalence of MTrPs in the gluteus medius (GMe and quadratus lumborum (QL muscles and to investigate the effect of a therapeutic intervention on pain intensity and hip abductor muscles isometric strength in patients with PFPS. Methods: Forty volunteer subjects (20 patients and 20 healthy participated in the study. Latent MTrPs in GMe and QL were evaluated and a handheld dynamometer was used to measure peak isometric strength test (PIST for hip abductors. Patients with PFPS having MTrPs in GMe were randomly divided into either a treatment group (Mean age±SD: 23.2±4.3 years or control (Mean age±SD: 24.4±4.6 years. The therapeutic intervention included trigger point pressure release (TrPPR and Kinesio Taping® (KT. Pain intensity and PIST for hip abductors were assessed at baseline and after intervention in both groups. Results: There is more significant patients with PFPS having latent MTrPs in GMe and QL than the healthy counterparts (p0.05. Conclusion: Concomitant using of TrPPR therapy and KT method can decrease pain intensity in individuals with PFPS. Further studies are required to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  19. Myositis ossificans of the elbow after a trigger point injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Jin; Kang, Sung Shik

    2011-03-01

    Trigger point injection is a simple procedure that is widely performed for relieving pain. Even though there are several complications of trigger point injection, myositis ossificans has not been documented as one of its complications. We treated a patient who suffered from painful limitation of elbow motion and this was caused by myositis ossificans between the insertions of brachialis and supinator muscles after a trigger point injection containing lidocaine mixed with saline, and we also review the relevant medical literature.

  20. Myositis Ossificans of the Elbow after a Trigger Point Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Sang-Jin; Kang, Sung Shik

    2011-01-01

    Trigger point injection is a simple procedure that is widely performed for relieving pain. Even though there are several complications of trigger point injection, myositis ossificans has not been documented as one of its complications. We treated a patient who suffered from painful limitation of elbow motion and this was caused by myositis ossificans between the insertions of brachialis and supinator muscles after a trigger point injection containing lidocaine mixed with saline, and we also r...

  1. Comparison of ischemic compression and lumbopelvic manipulation as trigger point therapy for patellofemoral pain syndrome in young adults: A double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrangrad, Shabnam; Kamali, Fahimeh

    2017-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of ischemic compression (IC) directly to the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) versus lumbopelvic manipulation (LPM) in improving pain, functional status and sensitivity to mechanical stimulation of the VMO trigger point in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). 40 patients with unilateral PFPS aged 20-30 years were selected randomly among patients with unilateral PFPS referred to physical therapy clinics of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Shiraz, Iran, between March 2014 and July 2014. 30 young adults participated. Participants were blinded to treatment allocation, and 15 patients were allocated to either IC or LPM. Patients in both groups were treated in three sessions per week. IC consisted of three sets of continuous pressure applied for on the myofascial trigger point (MTrP) of VMO. LPM consisted of supine rotational glide manipulation of the ipsilateral lumbopelvic region of the involved knee. Numeric pain rating scale (VAS) for pain intensity, Kujala questionnaire for functional status, and pressure pain threshold (PPT) for sensitivity to mechanical stimulation. All three were recorded before treatment, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after the last session. Both groups showed significant improvement (p < 0.05, 95% confidence interval) in pain, functional status and PPT values. However, the IC group showed greater improvements, and outcome measures remained significantly better than in the LPM group during post-intervention follow-up. Both groups showed improvements throughout the study and follow-up period. However, the IC showed better short-term and long-term effectiveness than LPM for treating PFPS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Subcutaneous accessory pain system (SAPS): A novel pain pathway for myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloqayli, Haytham

    2018-02-01

    Despite the accumulating neuro-physiological evidence of myofascial pain, many clinicians are skeptical about its existence as a separate disease entity. No single theory can fully explain the four cardinal features of MPS; taut bands, local tenderness, local twitching and the characteristic pattern of referred pain. Bridging the gap between basic and clinical knowledge mandates coupling the local trigger point changes with the clinically seen distant somatically innervated referred pain. The main question addressed by the present theory is why do trigger points behave differently in comparison to the surrounding muscle tissue and are trigger points the primary problem or secondary to a primary pathology. We propose that trigger points have an extra-innervation system that connect them with other spinal structures such as the facet, the annulus and other trigger points with a role for the subcutaneous fascia as part of trigger points pathogenesis or passage for the extra-innervation. The extra-innervation system is Subcutaneous accessory pain system (SAPS). The novel SAPS system connecting trigger points to the spinal segments via dorsal rami is presented. Individuals with this accessory pathway are prone to myofascial pain, trigger point activation and segmental referred somatic pain similar to other axial spinal structures. Despite the high prevalence of myofascial pain, the mechanism is not universally agreed upon. Why do the trigger points act differently from surrounding muscle tissue and are almost constant in location in different individuals is controversial. Why does myofascial pain and its two components, trigger points and referred pain, exist or are more prevalent in some individuals than in others is unexplained. The correlation between axial spinal structures pathology and the trigger points is not explored well. The existing theories about trigger point formation and referred pain is scientifically credible for each separate component and the SAPS

  3. Electrophysiological characteristics according to activity level of myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seong Hun; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the differences in electrophysiological characteristics of normal muscles versus muscles with latent or active myofascial trigger points, and identified the neuromuscular physiological characteristics of muscles with active myofascial trigger points, thereby providing a quantitative evaluation of myofascial pain syndrome and clinical foundational data for its diagnosis. [Subjects] Ninety adults in their 20s participated in this study. Subjects were equally divided into three groups: the active myofascial trigger point group, the latent myofascial trigger point group, and the control group. [Methods] Maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), endurance, median frequency (MDF), and muscle fatigue index were measured in all subjects. [Results] No significant differences in MVIC or endurance were revealed among the three groups. However, the active trigger point group had significantly different MDF and muscle fatigue index compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Given that muscles with active myofascial trigger points had an increased MDF and suffered muscle fatigue more easily, increased recruitment of motor unit action potential of type II fibers was evident. Therefore, electrophysiological analysis of these myofascial trigger points can be applied to evaluate the effect of physical therapy and provide a quantitative diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome.

  4. [Discussing the relationship among theashipoint, tender point and myofascial trigger point].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Decheng; Yang, Guanhu; Wang, Fuchun; Qi, Wei

    2017-02-12

    The conception and the history of ashi point, tender point and myofascial trigger point are described in the paper. All of three kinds of point are the reaction of musculoskeletal pain and visceral diseases. Theoretically, ashi point originates from the theory of muscle region of meridian, tender point from the theory of soft tissue and muscles and myofascial trigger point from the theory of muscular fasciae. Anatomically, ashi point is localized in the muscle region of meridian, on the boundary between muscles, tender point is on the muscular attachment to skeleton (the starting and ending points) and myofascial trigger point is on the motor point of neuromuscles. Pathologically, ashi point reflects the disorders of soft tissue and internal organ, tender point reflects the disorders of soft tissue and myofascial trigger point reflects the disorders of soft tissue and few disorders of internal organ. To identify the relationship among them is very significant in the target treatment with acupuncture.

  5. Efficacy of myofascial trigger point deactivation for tinnitus control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Carina Bezerra; Sanchez, Tanit Ganz

    2012-12-01

    Chronic pain in areas surrounding the ear may influence tinnitus. To investigate the efficacy of myofascial trigger point deactivation for the relief of tinnitus. A double-blind randomized clinical trial enrolled 71 patients with tinnitus and myofascial pain syndrome. The experimental group (n = 37) underwent 10 sessions of myofascial trigger point deactivation and the control group (n = 34), 10 sessions with sham deactivation. Treatment of the experimental group was effective for tinnitus relief (p trigger point release may provide better results than others described so far.

  6. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis after a trigger point injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jae Young; Kim, Jong Kun; Lee, Dong Eun; Seo, Kang Suk; Park, Jung Bae; Lee, Mi Jin; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Ahn, Jae Yun; Moon, Sungbae

    2017-09-01

    Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a rare form of mediastinal infection. Most cases are associated with esophageal rupture. DNM after a trigger point injection in the upper trapezius has not been described previously. We present a case of DNM after a trigger point injection in the upper trapezius. A 70-year-old man visited the emergency department with chest discomfort and fever after a trigger point injection in the left upper trapezius. Chest computed tomography showed evidence of DNM, and antibiotic therapy was immediately administered intravenously. Because of the risk of sudden death, poor prognosis due to underlying disease, and his age, he declined surgical treatment and died of septic shock. Although trigger point injections are generally considered safe, caution should be used in patients with an underlying disease or in the elderly. Early diagnosis, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and aggressive surgical management are essential to improve the prognosis.

  7. Effect of trigger point injection on lumbosacral radiculopathy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidian, Seyed Reza; Pipelzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Rasras, Saleh; Zeinali, Masud

    2014-10-01

    Active muscular trigger points (aMTPs) presenting with radiating pain can interfere in diagnosis and treatment of patients suffering from lumbosacral radiculopathy. We aimed to diagnose and evaluate the trigger point therapy on the outcome of pain in patients with lumbosacral radiculopathy. A total of 98 patients were enrolled suffered with chronic pain andlumbosacral radiculopathy at L4-L5 and L5-S1 who were candidates of non-surgical management. All patients received conservative modalities, including bed rest, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAID), and physiotherapy. These treatments continued for a week. Patients were examined for the presence of trigger points in their lower extremities. Those who had trigger points were divided into 2 groups (TP and N). Patients in TP group underwent trigger point injection therapy. No further therapy was done for the N group. Pain scores and straight leg raise (SLR) test in both groups were collected and analyzed on the seventh and 10th days of the therapy. Results were analyzed by paired t test and chi-square test. Out of 98 patients, 64 had trigger points. Thirty-two patients were assigned to each group. Pain scores (Mean ± SD) in TP group was 7.12 ± 1.13 and in N group was 6.7 ± 1.16, P = 0.196. Following the treatment, pain scores were 2.4 ± 1.5 in TP group and 4.06 ± 1.76 in N group P = 0.008. SLR test became negative in all patients in TP group but only in 6 (19%) patients in N group, P = 0.001. Results show that trigger point injection therapy in patients suffering from chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy with trigger points can significantly improve their recovery, and conservative therapy may not be adequate.

  8. Responsiveness of Myofascial Trigger Points to Single and Multiple Trigger Point Release Massages: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraska, Albert F; Schmiege, Sarah J; Mann, John D; Butryn, Nathan; Krutsch, Jason P

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of single and multiple massage treatments on pressure-pain threshold (PPT) at myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in people with myofascial pain syndrome expressed as tension-type headache. Individuals (n = 62) with episodic or chronic tension-type headache were randomized to receive 12 twice-weekly 45-min massage or sham ultrasound sessions or wait-list control. Massage focused on trigger point release (ischemic compression) of MTrPs in the bilateral upper trapezius and suboccipital muscles. PPT was measured at MTrPs with a pressure algometer pre and post the first and final (12th) treatments. PPT increased across the study timeframe in all four muscle sites tested for massage, but not sham ultrasound or wait-list groups (P trigger points to myofascial pain; (2) Describe an effective treatment for decreasing tenderness of a myofascial trigger point; and (3) Discuss the relative values of single vs. multiple massage sessions on increasing pressure-pain thresholds at myofascial trigger points. Advanced ACCREDITATION: The Association of Academic Physiatrists is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.The Association of Academic Physiatrists designates this Journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 0.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

  9. DRY NEEDLING FOR MYOFASCIAL TRIGGER POINT PAIN: A CLINICAL COMMENTARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unverzagt, Casey; Berglund, Kathy; Thomas, J J

    2015-06-01

    Sports and orthopaedic physical therapists have long used a multitude of techniques in order to address pain and dysfunction associated with myofascial trigger points. One technique in particular has recently received overwhelming attention: trigger point dry needling (DN). Despite its efficacy and low risk, questions remain as to its effectiveness, safety, and whether the technique is within the scope of practice of physical therapists. Therefore, the purpose of this clinical commentary is to summarize the current literature related to the associated mechanisms of action of DN, the safety of DN, as well as to discuss relevant scope of practice concerns. 5.

  10. The effect of trigger point management by positional release therapy on tension type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Ali; Rahimijaberi, Abbas; Mohamadi, Marzieh; Abbasi, Leila; Sarvestani, Fahimeh Kamali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of trigger points' management by Positional Release Therapy (PRT) and routine medical therapy in treatment of Tension Type Headache. Tension Type Headache is the most frequent headache with the basis of myofascial and trigger point disorders. PRT is an indirect technique that treats trigger points. 30 Patients with active trigger points in cervical muscles entered to the study. They were randomly assigned to PRT or medical therapy group. Headache frequency, intensity and duration and tablet count were recorded by use of a daily headache diary. Sensitivity of trigger points was assessed by numeric pain intensity and by use of a digital force gauge (FG 5020). Both groups showed significant reduction in headache frequency and duration and tablet count after treatment phase. However, the reduction of study variables was persisted only in PRT group after follow up phase. There was no significant reduction in headache intensity, neither in PRT and nor in medication group. Sensitivity of trigger points was significantly reduced. In comparison of the two study groups, there was no significant difference in headache frequency, intensity, duration and tablet count (p> 0.05). Both procedures were equally effective according to the study. Thus, PRT can be a treatment choice for patients with T.T.H.

  11. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability during trigger point acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yoji; Kimura, Kenichi; Yoshida, Sohei

    2014-06-01

    To clarify changes in the cardiovascular autonomic nervous system function due to trigger point acupuncture, we evaluated differences in responses between acupuncture at trigger points and those at other sites using spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Subjects were 35 healthy men. Before measurements began the subjects were assigned to a trigger point acupuncture or control group based on the presence/absence of referred pain on applying pressure to a taut band within the right tibialis anterior muscle. The measurements were conducted in a room with a temperature of 25°C, with subjects in a long sitting position after 10 min rest. Acupuncture needles were retained for 10 min at two sites on the right tibialis anterior muscle. ECG was performed simultaneously with measurements of blood pressure and the respiratory cycle. Based on the R-R interval on the ECG, frequency analysis was performed, low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components were extracted and the ratio of LF to HF components (LF/HF) was evaluated. The trigger point acupuncture group showed a transient decrease in heart rate and an increase in the HF component but no significant changes in LF/HF. In the control group, no significant changes were observed in heart rate, the HF component or LF/HF. There were no consistent changes in systolic or diastolic blood pressure in either group. These data suggest that acupuncture stimulation of trigger points of the tibialis anterior muscle transiently increases parasympathetic nerve activity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberta Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Studies Group (TSG) The Trigger Studies Group has just concluded its third 2013 workshop, where all POGs presented the improvements to the physics object reconstruction, and all PAGs have shown their plans for Trigger development aimed at the 2015 High Level Trigger (HLT) menu. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger menu development, path timing, Trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – this last task in collaboration with PdmV (Physics Data and Monte Carlo Validation group). In the last months the group has delivered several HLT rate estimates and comparisons, using the available data and Monte Carlo samples. The studies were presented at the Trigger workshops in September and December, and STEAM has contacted POGs and PAGs to understand the origin of the discrepancies observed between 8 TeV data and Monte Carlo simulations. The most recent results show what the...

  13. Intramuscular hematoma with motor weakness after trigger point injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Gyun; Shim, Kwang Seok; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Eun ju; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lee, Ji-Hyang; An, Ji hyun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Although trigger point injection is known as an easy and low-risk procedure, it is contraindicated to patients with hemorrhagic disorders or who regularly take anticoagulants/antiplatelets. However, taking clopidogrel is not a defined contraindication to this low-risk procedure. Patient concerns: The chief complaint of a 76-year old woman regularly taking clopidogrel was low back and left buttock pain which prolonged for several years. Diagnoses: The patient was diagnosed with L4-5 and L5-S1 spinal stenosis at the orthopedics department and was referred for lumbar spinal epidural steroid injection. Intervention: She was treated with trigger point injection. Outcomes: Three hours after the injection, she complained motor weakness and pain in the injection area. A hematoma on left gluteus medium muscle was detected with ultrasonography and ultrasound-guided needle aspiration was accomplished to relieve the symptom. Lessons: Trigger point injection for patients taking clopidogrel should be done with a caution to prevent such complication. PMID:28953648

  14. Pneumothorax after trigger point injection: A case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiskalioglu, Elif Oral; Alici, Haci Ahmet; Dostbil, Aysenur; Celik, Mine; Ahiskalioglu, Ali; Aksoy, Mehmet

    2016-11-21

    Myofascial pain syndrome is defined as ``pain and/or autonomic phenomena referred from active myofascial trigger points''. Trigger point injection is an effective treatment option, which is widely used to treat myofascial pain. Trigger point injection in the cervicothoracic regions can be associated with pneumothorax. In this paper, we presented a patient who developed pneumothorax after trigger point injection. This case report indicates there is a risk of pneumothorax during trigger point injection in the cervicothoracic regions.

  15. Trigger point dry needling versus strain-counterstrain technique for upper trapezius myofascial trigger points: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Ortí, E; Prades-Vergara, S; Manzaneda-Piña, L; Valero-Martínez, R; Polo-Traverso, J A

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of active myofascial trigger points includes both invasive and non-invasive techniques. To compare the effects of upper trapezius trigger point dry needling (DN) and strain-counterstrain (SCS) techniques versus sham SCS. Randomised controlled trial. 34 study subjects with active trigger points were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups, and received either three sessions of DN (n=12), six sessions of SCS (n=10), or sham SCS (n=12) over a 3-week period. Subjective pain response and subjects' own ratings of perceived disability were measured. The analysis of variance mixed model showed a significant time effect for pain (ppoints) were significant in the SCS group (5.5, 95% CI 1.6 to 9.4) but not in the DN (1.4, 95% CI -4.9 to 2.1) or sham SCS (1.8, 95% CI -6.4 to 2.7) groups. There was no significant group×time interaction effect for any variables studied. There were no differences between the sham SCS, SCS, and DN groups in any of the outcome measures. DN relieved pain after fewer sessions than SCS and sham SCS, and thus may be a more efficient technique. Future studies should include a larger sample size. NCT01290653. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the March meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, the program of trigger pattern tests and vertical slice tests and planning for the Global Runs starting this summer. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and integration testing is in full swing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. After full checkout, trigger subsystems will be then operated in the CMS Global Runs. Continuous...

  17. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2012-01-01

      Level-1 Trigger The Level-1 Trigger group is ready to deploy improvements to the L1 Trigger algorithms for 2012. These include new high-PT patterns for the RPC endcap, an improved CSC PT assignment, a new PT-matching algorithm for the Global Muon Trigger, and new calibrations for ECAL, HCAL, and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger. These should improve the efficiency, rate, and stability of the L1 Trigger. The L1 Trigger group also is migrating the online systems to SLC5. To make the data transfer from the Global Calorimeter Trigger to the Global Trigger more reliable and also to allow checking the data integrity online, a new optical link system has been developed by the GCT and GT groups and successfully tested at the CMS electronics integration facility in building 904. This new system is now undergoing further tests at Point 5 before being deployed for data-taking this year. New L1 trigger menus have recently been studied and proposed by Emmanuelle Perez and the L1 Detector Performance Group...

  18. Trigger-Point Dry Needling for the SOF Medic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavett, Thomas; Solarczyk, Justin

    We propose that trigger-point dry needle (TrP-DN) therapy is an effective low-risk treatment for pain associated with myofascial trigger points (MTrP), and should be incorporated into the Special Operations Forces (SOF) Medic's scope of practice. Furthermore, TrP-DN therapy can be used as a treatment adjunct on the SOF continuum of care, providing analgesia and increased tolerance for rehabilitative therapy, thereby facilitating improved patient outcomes and faster return to operational readiness. The incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in the SOF community is discussed, as are available treatment options TrP-DN methods, a case study of a Soldier deployed to Afghanistan, the science behind the subject of MTrP and TrP-DN, and the risks associated with TrP-DN and how we can mitigate them effectively. Caution should be used in the interpretation of a body of literature based largely on case studies. Although the amount of published evidence in support of the potential benefits of TrP-DN is growing, larger, randomized, placebo-controlled trials and studies that evaluate the effects of TrP-DN in a methodologically rigorous and statistically significant way are needed. Based on anecdotal evidence of and personal experience with the success of the therapy, as well as its growing use within both civilian and military medicine, the possible therapeutic benefit of TrP-DN is relevant for the SOF community. 2016.

  19. [Manual trigger point therapy of shoulder pain : Randomized controlled study of effectiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohns, S; Schnieder, K; Licht, G; von Piekartz, H

    2016-12-01

    Although chronic shoulder pain is highly prevalent and myofascial trigger points (mTrP) are thought to be found in the majority of patients with shoulder complaints, the influence on the pain mechanism remains unclear. There are only very few controlled clinical studies on the effects of manual trigger point compression therapy. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) compared the short-term effects of manual trigger point compression therapy (n = 6) with manual sham therapy (n = 6) in patients with unilateral shoulder pain due to myofascial syndrome (MFS). The measurement data were collected before and after two sessions of therapy. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) of mTrP and symmetrically located points on the asymptomatic side were measured together with neutral points in order to detect a potential unilateral or generalized hyperalgesia. Additionally, the pain was assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS) at rest and during movement and the neck disability index (NDI) and disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaires were also completed and evaluated. Both treatment modalities led to a significant improvement; however, the manual trigger point compression therapy was significantly more effective in comparison to sham therapy, as measured by different parameters. The significant improvement of PPT values in the interventional group even at sites that were not directly treated, indicates central mechanisms in pain threshold modulation induced by manual compression therapy. The weaker but still measurable effects of sham therapy might be explained by the sham modality being a hands on technique or by sufficient stimulation of the trigger point region during the diagnostics and PPT measurements.

  20. A systematic, critical review of manual palpation for identifying myofascial trigger points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Larsen, Anders Holsgaard; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    To determine the reproducibility of manual palpation in identifying trigger points based on a systematic review of available literature.......To determine the reproducibility of manual palpation in identifying trigger points based on a systematic review of available literature....

  1. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Since nearly all of the Level-1 (L1) Trigger hardware at Point 5 has been commissioned, activities during the past months focused on the fine-tuning of synchronization, particularly for the ECAL and the CSC systems, on firmware upgrades and on improving trigger operation and monitoring. Periodic resynchronizations or hard resets and a shortened luminosity section interval of 23 seconds were implemented. For the DT sector collectors, an automatic power-off was installed in case of high temperatures, and the monitoring capabilities of the opto-receivers and the mini-crates were enhanced. The DTTF and the CSCTF now have improved memory lookup tables. The HCAL trigger primitive logic implemented a new algorithm providing better stability of the energy measurement in the presence of any phase misalignment. For the Global Calorimeter Trigger, additional Source Cards have been manufactured and tested. Testing of the new tau, missing ET and missing HT algorithms is underw...

  2. Myofascial trigger points: spontaneous electrical activity and its consequences for pain induction and propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Hong-You; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Yue, Shou-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Active myofascial trigger points are one of the major peripheral pain generators for regional and generalized musculoskeletal pain conditions. Myofascial trigger points are also the targets for acupuncture and/or dry needling therapies. Recent evidence in the understanding of the pathophysiology of myofascial trigger points supports The Integrated Hypothesis for the trigger point formation; however unanswered questions remain. Current evidence shows that spontaneous electrical activi...

  3. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the December meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, and results from the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) phase II. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and moving towards integration testing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. This is combined with operations and testing without beam that will continue until startup. The plans for start-up, pilot and early running tri...

  4. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos, I. Mikulec, J. Varela and C. Wulz.

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Over the past few months, the Level-1 trigger has successfully recorded data with cosmic rays over long continuous stretches as well as LHC splash events, beam halo, and collision events. The L1 trigger hardware, firmware, synchronization, performance and readiness for beam operation were reviewed in October. All L1 trigger hardware is now installed at Point 5, and most of it is completely commissioned. While the barrel ECAL Trigger Concentrator Cards are fully operational, the recently delivered endcap ECAL TCC system is still being commissioned. For most systems there is a sufficient number of spares available, but for a few systems additional reserve modules are needed. It was decided to increase the overall L1 latency by three bunch crossings to increase the safety margin for trigger timing adjustments. In order for CMS to continue data taking during LHC frequency ramps, the clock distribution tree needs to be reset. The procedures for this have been tested. A repl...

  5. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The road map for the final commissioning of the level-1 trigger system has been set. The software for the trigger subsystems is being upgraded to run under CERN Scientific Linux 4 (SLC4). There is also a new release for the Trigger Supervisor (TS 1.4), which implies upgrade work by the subsystems. As reported by the CERN group, a campaign to tidy the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) racks has begun. The machine interface was upgraded by installing the new RF2TTC module, which receives RF signals from LHC Point 4. Two Beam Synchronous Timing (BST) signals, one for each beam, can now be received in CMS. The machine group will define the exact format of the information content shortly. The margin on the locking range of the CMS QPLL is planned for study for different subsystems in the next Global Runs, using a function generator. The TTC software has been successfully tested on SLC4. Some TTC subsystems have already been upgraded to SLC4. The TTCci Trigger Supervisor ...

  6. Myofascial trigger points: spontaneous electrical activity and its consequences for pain induction and propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Active myofascial trigger points are one of the major peripheral pain generators for regional and generalized musculoskeletal pain conditions. Myofascial trigger points are also the targets for acupuncture and/or dry needling therapies. Recent evidence in the understanding of the pathophysiology of myofascial trigger points supports The Integrated Hypothesis for the trigger point formation; however unanswered questions remain. Current evidence shows that spontaneous electrical activity at myofascial trigger point originates from the extrafusal motor endplate. The spontaneous electrical activity represents focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials depending on trigger point sensitivity. Local pain and tenderness at myofascial trigger points are largely due to nociceptor sensitization with a lesser contribution from non-nociceptor sensitization. Nociceptor and non-nociceptor sensitization at myofascial trigger points may be part of the process of muscle ischemia associated with sustained focal muscle contraction and/or muscle cramps. Referred pain is dependent on the sensitivity of myofascial trigger points. Active myofascial trigger points may play an important role in the transition from localized pain to generalized pain conditions via the enhanced central sensitization, decreased descending inhibition and dysfunctional motor control strategy. PMID:21439050

  7. Myofascial trigger points: spontaneous electrical activity and its consequences for pain induction and propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Yue, Shou-Wei

    2011-03-25

    Active myofascial trigger points are one of the major peripheral pain generators for regional and generalized musculoskeletal pain conditions. Myofascial trigger points are also the targets for acupuncture and/or dry needling therapies. Recent evidence in the understanding of the pathophysiology of myofascial trigger points supports The Integrated Hypothesis for the trigger point formation; however unanswered questions remain. Current evidence shows that spontaneous electrical activity at myofascial trigger point originates from the extrafusal motor endplate. The spontaneous electrical activity represents focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials depending on trigger point sensitivity. Local pain and tenderness at myofascial trigger points are largely due to nociceptor sensitization with a lesser contribution from non-nociceptor sensitization. Nociceptor and non-nociceptor sensitization at myofascial trigger points may be part of the process of muscle ischemia associated with sustained focal muscle contraction and/or muscle cramps. Referred pain is dependent on the sensitivity of myofascial trigger points. Active myofascial trigger points may play an important role in the transition from localized pain to generalized pain conditions via the enhanced central sensitization, decreased descending inhibition and dysfunctional motor control strategy.

  8. Myofascial trigger points: spontaneous electrical activity and its consequences for pain induction and propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas César

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active myofascial trigger points are one of the major peripheral pain generators for regional and generalized musculoskeletal pain conditions. Myofascial trigger points are also the targets for acupuncture and/or dry needling therapies. Recent evidence in the understanding of the pathophysiology of myofascial trigger points supports The Integrated Hypothesis for the trigger point formation; however unanswered questions remain. Current evidence shows that spontaneous electrical activity at myofascial trigger point originates from the extrafusal motor endplate. The spontaneous electrical activity represents focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials depending on trigger point sensitivity. Local pain and tenderness at myofascial trigger points are largely due to nociceptor sensitization with a lesser contribution from non-nociceptor sensitization. Nociceptor and non-nociceptor sensitization at myofascial trigger points may be part of the process of muscle ischemia associated with sustained focal muscle contraction and/or muscle cramps. Referred pain is dependent on the sensitivity of myofascial trigger points. Active myofascial trigger points may play an important role in the transition from localized pain to generalized pain conditions via the enhanced central sensitization, decreased descending inhibition and dysfunctional motor control strategy.

  9. The relationship between latent trigger point and muscle strength in healthy subjects: a double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Derya; Yeldan, Ipek

    2011-01-01

    Trigger points on the palpable taut bands of the muscles are promoted as an important cause of musculoskeletal pain. Our hypothesis was latent trigger points (LTrPs) could decrease muscle strength also in healthy people. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between LTrPs and muscle strength in a group of healthy adults. In total fifty healthy adults (20 women and 30 men) were included in the study. Trigger point examination for upper and middle trapezius, supraspinatus, serratus anterior and rhomboid major and minor were done bilaterally according to four criteria. Subjects who have at least two trigger points in dominant side were assigned to Group 1 (28 subjects), subjects who don't have any trigger points were assigned to Group 2 (23 subjects). Muscle strength for flexion and scaption was assessed with a Hand-Held Dynamometer (HHD) as break test on both sides. Both the subjects and the examiners were blind. For statistical analysis, independent sample t test was used to compare the differences between two groups. No significant differences were found in muscle strength between dominant and non-dominant sides in both groups (p >0.05). Significant difference was observed in both sides when comparison of muscle strength between Group 1 and 2, muscle strength was lower in subjects who had trigger points (p trigger points in comparison with healthy subjects. Our results underline the importance of palpation of LTrPs in scapular and shoulder muscles in healthy subjects as they may contribute to the muscle strength. Further research is needed to facilitate a better understanding of the mechanism of LTrPs and to test the relationship with muscle strength.

  10. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Alimena

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Strategy Group The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for the development of future High-Level Trigger menus, as well as of its DQM and validation, in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Taking into account the beam energy and luminosity expected in 2015, a rough estimate of the trigger rates indicates a factor four increase with respect to 2012 conditions. Assuming that a factor two can be tolerated thanks to the increase in offline storage and processing capabilities, a toy menu has been developed using the new OpenHLT workflow to estimate the transverse energy/momentum thresholds that would halve the current trigger rates. The CPU time needed to run the HLT has been compared between data taken with 25 ns and 50 ns bunch spacing, for equivalent pile-up: no significant difference was observed on the global time per event distribution at the only available data point, corresponding to a pile-up of about 10 interactions. Using th...

  11. Dynamic Pointing Triggers Shifts of Visual Attention in Young Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Katharina J.; Longo, Matthew R.; Bertenthal, Bennett I.

    2012-01-01

    Pointing, like eye gaze, is a deictic gesture that can be used to orient the attention of another person towards an object or an event. Previous research suggests that infants first begin to follow a pointing gesture between 10 and 13 months of age. We investigated whether sensitivity to pointing could be seen at younger ages employing a technique…

  12. Traditional Chinese Medicine acupuncture and myofascial trigger needling: The same stimulation points?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lizhou; Skinner, Margot A; McDonough, Suzanne M; Baxter, George David

    2016-06-01

    Acupuncture originates in China, and its effectiveness has been well documented in musculoskeletal pain disorders and other conditions. A widely accepted contemporary medical treatment option for myofascial pain is trigger point needling. Although there are many differences between Traditional Chinese Medicine acupuncture theory and the myofascial trigger point needling framework, it is argued that the stimulation sites for these two needling modalities are similar. In this paper we examined the correspondence between Traditional Chinese Medicine acupoints and myofascial trigger points. Based on this correspondence, we considered exploration of Ah-shi points from four aspects: pain recognition, distal Ah-shi points, Anti-Ah-shi points, and management approaches. The extent of correspondence is influenced by definitions of acupoints. Myofascial trigger points are significantly correlated to Traditional Chinese Medicine acupoints, including primary channel acupoints, extra acupoints, and Ah-shi points. Considering the correlation between MTrPs and acupoints and the rarely-studied research area of Ah-shi points, it may be reasonable to incorporate research findings of myofascial trigger points into further investigations into Ah-shi points. Correspondence between myofascial trigger points and acupoints enhances contemporary understanding of the mechanism of action of acupuncture, and may serve to facilitate increased integration of acupuncture into clinical management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Trigger point acupuncture for treatment of knee osteoarthritis--a preliminary RCT for a pragmatic trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kazunori; Hirota, Satoko; Katsumi, Yasukazu; Ochi, Hideki; Kitakoji, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    There is evidence for the efficacy of acupuncture treatment in knee osteoarthritis, but it remains unclear which acupuncture modes are most effective. We evaluated the effects of trigger point acupuncture on pain and quality of life in knee osteoarthritis patients, compared with acupuncture at standard points, and sham acupuncture. Thirty patients (27 women, 3 men; aged 61-82 years) with non-radiating knee osteoarthritis pain for at least six months and normal neurological examination were randomised to one of three groups for the study period of 21 weeks. Each group received five acupuncture treatment sessions. The standard acupuncture point group (n=10) received treatment at traditional acupuncture points for knee pain; the trigger point acupuncture group (n=10) received treatment at trigger points; and the third group (n=10) received sham acupuncture treatment at the trigger points. Outcome measures were pain intensity (visual analogue scale, VAS) and WOMAC index (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index). The groups were compared by the area under the curve method. Five patients dropped out of the study because of lack of improvement, and one patient (in the trigger point acupuncture group) dropped out because of deterioration of symptoms; the remaining 24 patients were included in the analysis. After treatment, the trigger point acupuncture group reported less pain intensity on VAS than the standard acupuncture or sham treatment group, but both the trigger point acupuncture and standard acupuncture groups reported improvement of function of knee. There was a significant reduction in pain intensity between pre-treatment and five weeks after treatment for the trigger point acupuncture (Ptrigger point acupuncture and sham treatment groups analysed (Ptrigger point acupuncture therapy may be more effective for osteoarthritis of the knee in some elderly patients than standard acupuncture therapy.

  14. Migraine responds better to a combination of medical therapy and trigger point management than routine medical therapy alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Ali; Askarzadeh, Saghar; Petramfar, Peyman; Mohamadi, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is one of the most frequent headaches. Cervical myofascial and trigger point disorders are effective factors on accession of this type of headache. PRT is an indirect technique that treats trigger points. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of trigger points' management by positional release therapy (PRT) combined with routine medical therapy and routine medical therapy alone in treatment of migraine headache. Forty-four patients with active trigger points in cervical muscles entered to the study. They were randomly assigned to PRT-medical therapy or medical therapy group. Headache frequency, intensity, duration and tablet count were recorded by use of a daily headache diary. The sensitivity of trigger points was assessed by the use of a digital force gauge (Wagner-FDIX). Cervical range of motion was measured by a goniometer. Both groups showed significant reduction in headache intensity, frequency, duration and tablet count after 4 months follow up. The sensitivity of trigger points and all cervical range of motions significantly increased in PRT-medical group after 4 months follow up; however in medication group except cervical right lateral flexion, right and left rotation the other factors showed no change after 4 months follow up. In comparison of the two study groups, there was no significant difference in headache-related variables. Apart from the headache intensity and tablet count, the trends of other factors were significantly different between the two groups (p <  0.05). The combined PRT-medical therapy is more effective than the medical therapy alone. Thus, the combination of PRT and medical therapy is suggested as a treatment choice for patients with migraine headache.

  15. The predetermined sites of examination for tender points in fibromyalgia syndrome are frequently associated with myofascial trigger points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong You; Wang, Ying; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this present study is to test the hypotheses that the 18 predetermined sites of examination for tender points (TP sites) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), and that the induced pain from active MTrPs at TP sites may mimic fibromyalgia pain. Each TP site...

  16. Effects of trigger point acupuncture treatment on temporomandibular disorders: a preliminary randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kazunori; Asai, Sayo; Ohyabu, Hideaki; Imai, Kenji; Kitakoji, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    We compared the effects of trigger point acupuncture with that of sham acupuncture treatments on pain and oral function in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). This 10-week study included 16 volunteers from an acupuncture school with complaints of chronic temporomandibular joint myofascial pain for at least 6 months. The participants were randomized to one of two groups, each receiving five acupuncture treatment sessions. The trigger point acupuncture group received treatment at trigger points for the same muscle, while the other acupuncture group received sham treatment on the trigger points. Outcome measures were pain intensity (visual analogue scale) and oral function (maximal mouth opening). After treatment, pain intensity was less in the trigger point acupuncture group than in the sham treatment group, but oral function remained unchanged in both groups. Pain intensity decreased significantly between pretreatment and 5 weeks after trigger point (ptrigger point acupuncture therapy may be more effective for chronic temporomandibular joint myofascial pain. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. An experimental comparison of triggered and random pulse train uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzlova, Daniela; Menlove, Howard O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an experimental comparison of signal-triggered and randomly triggered based analysis algorithms of neutron multiplicity data. Traditional shift register type signal-triggered multiplicity analysis of singles, doubles and triples rates is compared with analysis using randomly triggered gates. Two methods of random gate generation are explored - non-overlapping gates (Feyrunan approach) and periodic overlapping gates (fast accidentals). Using californium sources with low, medium and high rate in combination with AmLi sources (as a surrogate for plutonium) we investigate relative standard deviation (RSD) of data in order to determine if there are parameter spaces in which one of the measurement methods should be preferred. Neutron correlation analysis is a commonly used NDA technique to assay plutonium mass. The data can be collected in two distinct ways: using signal-triggered or randomly triggered counting gates. Analysis algorithms were developed for both approaches to determine singles (S), doubles (D) and triples (7) rates from the measured sample. Currently the most commonly implemented technique to collect neutron coincidence data utilizes shift register based electronics. Shift register uses signal-triggered counting gates to generate foreground multiplicity distribution of correlated+accidental events and a random gate (opened after a predefined long delay following the signal trigger) to generate background multiplicity distribution of accidental events. Modern shift registers include fast accidental option to sample data with a fixed clock frequency. This way a set of overlapping gates is used to generate background multiplicity distributions in order to improve the measurement precision. In parallel to shift register approach the Feynman variance technique is frequently used, which utilizes set of consecutive non-overlapping gates. In general, different user communities (e.g. safeguards, nuclear material accountancy, emergency

  18. Ultrasound-guided trigger point injections in the cervicothoracic musculature: a new and unreported technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwin, Kenneth P; Sharma, Kavita; Saliba, Romeo; Patel, Bharat C

    2008-01-01

    Myofascial pain is defined as pain that originates from myofascial trigger points in skeletal muscle. It is prevalent in regional musculoskeletal pain syndromes, either alone or in combination with other pain generators. The myofascial pain syndrome is one of the largest groups of under diagnosed and under treated medical problems encountered in clinical practice. Trigger points are commonly seen in patients with myofascial pain which is responsible for localized pain in the affected muscles as well as referred pain patterns. Correct needle placement in a myofascial trigger point is vital to prevent complications and improve efficacy of the trigger point injection to help reduce or relieve myofascial pain. In obese patients, these injections may not reach the target tissue. In the cervicothoracic spine, a misguided or misplaced injection can result in a pneumothorax. Here, we describe an ultrasound-guided trigger point injection technique to avoid this potential pitfall. Office based ultrasound-guided injection techniques for musculoskeletal disorders have been described in the literature with regard to tendon, bursa, cystic, and joint pathologies. For the interventionalist, utilizing ultrasound yields multiple advantages technically and practically, including observation of needle placement in real-time, ability to perform dynamic studies, the possibility of diagnosing musculoskeletal pathologies, avoidance of radiation exposure, reduced overall cost, and portability of equipment within the office setting. To our knowledge, the use of ultrasound guidance in performing trigger point injection in the cervicothoracic area, particularly in obese patients, has not been previously reported. A palpable trigger point in the cervicothoracic musculature was localized and marked by indenting the skin with the tip of a plastic needle cover. The skin was then sterile prepped. Then, using an ultrasound machine with sterile coupling gel and a sterile latex free transducer cover

  19. Capsaicin-induced central sensitization evokes segmental increases in trigger point sensitivity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srbely, John Z; Dickey, James P; Bent, Leah R; Lee, David; Lowerison, Mark

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated whether inducing central sensitization evokes segmental increases in trigger point pressure sensitivity. We evoked central sensitization at the C(5) segment and validated its presence via mechanical cutaneous sensitivity (brush allodynia) testing. Trigger point pressure sensitivity was quantified using the pain pressure threshold (PPT) value. A 50 cm(2) area of the C(5) dermatome at the right lateral elbow was pretreated with 45 degrees heat for 10 minutes. Test subjects (n = 20) then received topical capsaicin cream (0.075%; Medicis, Toronto, Canada) to the C(5) dermatome, whereas control subjects (n = 20) received a topical placebo cream (Biotherm Massage, Montreal, Canada). PPT readings were recorded from the infraspinatus (C(5,6)) and gluteus medius (L(4,5)S(1)) trigger points at zero (pre-intervention), 10, 20, and 30 minutes after intervention; all PPT readings were normalized to pre-intervention (baseline) values. The difference between the PPT readings at the 2 trigger point sites represents the direct influence of segmental mechanisms on the trigger point sensitivity at the infraspinatus site (PPT(seg)). Test subjects demonstrated statistically significant increases in Total Allodynia scores and significant decreases in PPT(seg) at 10, 20, and 30 minutes after application, when compared with control subjects. These results demonstrate that increases in central sensitization evoke increases in trigger point pressure sensitivity in segmentally related muscles. Myofascial pain is the most common form of musculoskeletal pain. Myofascial trigger points play an important role in the clinical manifestation of myofascial pain syndrome. Elucidating the role of central sensitization in the pathophysiology of trigger points is fundamental to developing optimal strategies in the management of myofascial pain syndrome.

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF INTEGRATED NEUROMUSCULAR INHIBITORY TECHNIQUE (INIT WITH SPECIFIC STRENGTH TRAINING EXERCISES IN SUBJECTS WITH UPPER TRAPEZIUS TRIGGER POINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jyothirmai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper trapezius trigger points is a common cause for neck pain, decreased cervical range of motion and functional activities. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of integrated neuromuscular inhibitory technique (INIT along with specific strength training exercises in reducing pain, improving ROM and functional activities in subjects with upper trapezius trigger point. Methods: Thirty subjects were diagnosed with upper trapezius trigger points were included in the study. These patients were randomly allocated to intervention group (n=15, which underwent a 4- weeks training program of INIT along with specific strength training & control group (n=15 that received INIT alone. The outcome measures were taken before and after treatment. Outcomes were measured by visual analogue scale, cervical range of motion and neck disability index. Within the groups VAS, NDI, and cervical lateral flexion and rotation showed significant change in the mean value. The comparison of pre and post VAS in experimental group and control group showed a significant change in the experimental group .Paired sample t- test was used to analyze changes from before and after intervention programmed. Results: There is a statistically significant (p<0.00 improvement in both variables from baseline to 4th week in experimental group and control group but compared to control group, experimental group shows highly significant values in all parameters. Conclusion: INIT along with specific strength training is proved to be effective in reducing pain, decreasing disability and improving range of motion in individuals with upper trapezius trigger points.

  1. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The hardware of the trigger components has been mostly finished. The ECAL Endcap Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC) are in production while Barrel TCC firmware has been upgraded, and the Trigger Primitives can now be stored by the Data Concentrator Card for readout by the DAQ. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) system is complete, and the timing is being finalized. All 502 HCAL trigger links to RCT run without error. The HCAL muon trigger timing has been equalized with DT, RPC, CSC and ECAL. The hardware and firmware for the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) jet triggers are being commissioned and data from these triggers is available for readout. The GCT energy sums from rings of trigger towers around the beam pipe beam have been changed to include two rings from both sides. The firmware for Drift Tube Track Finder, Barrel Sorter and Wedge Sorter has been upgraded, and the synchronization of the DT trigger is satisfactory. The CSC local trigger has operated flawlessly u...

  2. Application of ultrasound-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points in the subscapularis and pectoralis muscles to post-mastectomy patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyuk Jai; Shin, Ji Cheol; Kim, Wan Sung; Chang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Sang Chul

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the internal rotator muscles of the shoulder in post-mastectomy patients. This pilot study was a non-controlled, prospective, clinical trial. Nineteen post-mastectomy patients with a diagnosis of at least one active MTrP in the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles were included. We performed trigger point injections into the subscapularis muscle deep behind the scapula as well as the pectoralis muscle for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose by the newly developed US-guided method. Visual analogue scale and range of motion of the shoulder for external rotation and of abduction showed significant improvement immediately after the first injection and 3 months after the last injection compared with baseline (ptrigger point injections of the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles are effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of shoulder pain is suspected to originate from active MTrPs in these muscles, particularly, the subscapularis.

  3. Factors Associated with the Efficacy of Trigger Point Injection in Advanced Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasuo, Hideaki; Kanbara, Kenji; Abe, Tetsuya; Sakuma, Hiroko; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have reported the efficacy of trigger point injection (TPI) to myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in advanced cancer patients. Factors that are associated with TPI efficacy have not yet been elucidated. The study was aimed at evaluating factors that are associated with TPI efficacy to MTrPs in advanced cancer patients. Factors that are associated with TPI efficacy were retrospectively identified based on a comparison between clinically relevant responders and nonresponders by using multivariate regression analysis. One hundred five advanced cancer patients who visited the Palliative Care Department with a chief complaint of pain and who received TPI treatment to the MTrP at the pain site. The TPI efficacy rate on the day after TPI treatment was 0.59 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.68). Significant factors associated with TPI efficacy were coexistence of cancer pain with MTrP at the pain site (odds ratio [OR]: 3.87, 95% CI: 1.21-12.4), MTrP at areas other than lower back or hip (OR: 6.45, 95% CI: 1.98-21.0), and fewer MTrPs (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.42-0.99). Coexistence of cancer pain at the pain site of the chief complaint was observed in 64% of study subjects (95% CI: 0.55-0.73). The TPI efficacy is likely high when advanced cancer patients have fewer MTrPs together with cancer pain at areas other than the lower back or hip. MTrPs in advanced cancer patients are more commonly observed together with cancer pain rather than independently. Healthcare providers should recognize the relationship between MTrP and cancer pain and proactively perform physical examinations to detect MTrPs for potential TPI.

  4. Trigger point-related sympathetic nerve activity in chronic sciatic leg pain: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupska, Elżbieta; Rychlik, Michał; Pawelec, Wiktoria; Bednarek, Agata; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2014-10-01

    Sciatica has classically been associated with irritation of the sciatic nerve by the vertebral disc and consequent inflammation. Some authors suggest that active trigger points in the gluteus minimus muscle can refer pain in similar way to sciatica. Trigger point diagnosis is based on Travel and Simons criteria, but referred pain and twitch response are significant confirmatory signs of the diagnostic criteria. Although vasoconstriction in the area of a latent trigger point has been demonstrated, the vasomotor reaction of active trigger points has not been examined. We report the case of a 22-year-old Caucasian European man who presented with a 3-year history of chronic sciatic-type leg pain. In the third year of symptoms, coexistent myofascial pain syndrome was diagnosed. Acupuncture needle stimulation of active trigger points under infrared thermovisual camera showed a sudden short-term vasodilatation (an autonomic phenomenon) in the area of referred pain. The vasodilatation spread from 0.2 to 171.9 cm(2) and then gradually decreased. After needling, increases in average and maximum skin temperature were seen as follows: for the thigh, changes were +2.6°C (average) and +3.6°C (maximum); for the calf, changes were +0.9°C (average) and +1.4°C (maximum). It is not yet known whether the vasodilatation observed was evoked exclusively by dry needling of active trigger points. The complex condition of the patient suggests that other variables might have influenced the infrared thermovision camera results. We suggest that it is important to check if vasodilatation in the area of referred pain occurs in all patients with active trigger points. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Changes in blood flow and cellular metabolism at a myofascial trigger point with trigger point release (ischemic compression): a proof-of-principle pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraska, Albert F; Hickner, Robert C; Kohrt, Wendy M; Brewer, Alan

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate proof-of-principle measurement for physiologic change within an active myofascial trigger point (MTrP) undergoing trigger point release (ischemic compression). Interstitial fluid was sampled continuously at a trigger point before and after intervention. A biomedical research clinic at a university hospital. Subjects (N=2) from a pain clinic who had chronic headache pain. A single microdialysis catheter was inserted into an active MTrP of the upper trapezius to allow for continuous sampling of interstitial fluid before and after application of trigger point therapy by a massage therapist. Procedural success, pain tolerance, feasibility of intervention during sample collection, and determination of physiologically relevant values for local blood flow as well as glucose and lactate concentrations. Both patients tolerated the microdialysis probe insertion into the MTrP and treatment intervention without complication. Glucose and lactate concentrations were measured in the physiologic range. After intervention, a sustained increase in lactate was noted for both subjects. Identifying physiologic constituents of MTrPs after intervention is an important step toward understanding pathophysiology and resolution of myofascial pain. The present study forwards that aim by showing that proof-of-concept for collection of interstitial fluid from an MTrP before and after intervention can be accomplished using microdialysis, thus providing methodological insight toward treatment mechanism and pain resolution. Of the biomarkers measured in this study, lactate may be the most relevant for detection and treatment of abnormalities in the MTrP. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger synchronization procedures for running with cosmic muons and operating with the LHC were reviewed during the May electronics week. Firmware maintenance issues were also reviewed. Link tests between the new ECAL endcap trigger concentrator cards (TCC48) and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger have been performed. Firmware for the energy sum triggers and an upgraded tau trigger of the Global Calorimeter Triggers has been developed and is under test. The optical fiber receiver boards for the Track-Finder trigger theta links of the DT chambers are now all installed. The RPC trigger is being made more robust by additional chamber and cable shielding and also by firmware upgrades. For the CSC’s the front-end and trigger motherboard firmware have been updated. New RPC patterns and DT/CSC lookup tables taking into account phi asymmetries in the magnetic field configuration are under study. The motherboard for the new pipeline synchronizer of the Global Trigg...

  7. Treatment of Myofascial Trigger Points of Pelvic Floor with Physiotherapeutic Package: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Shokri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are various factors that may cause pain and dysfunction in the pelvic region. Myofascial trigger points can likewise contribute in pelvic pain. Common treatments for myofascial trigger points include electrotherapy, laser therapy, massage, ischemic compression, dry-needling, stretch, icing, heating, and biofeedback. Case Report: A 26 year old man with an exertion-related pain that lasted 5 months was referred for physiotherapy consultation. He had no pain at rest but reported a referral pain from perineal region to the anus and muscular stiffness following a bout of physical activity. On palpation there was a trigger point in the perineal region with referral pain to anus. At the beginning of the treatment, the patient was asked to stop his physical activities. The patient received a treatment package which was useful in the management of trigger points. After 7 sessions of treatment the pain was diminished and there was no exercise induced stiffness. The patient was followed for 10 months later and no pain and stiffness was reported. Conclusion: The application of heat, friction massage, stretching, combined with endurance exercise could be an effective treatment for reliving the pain and muscular stiffness caused by trigger points.

  8. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The overall status of the L1 trigger has been excellent and the running efficiency has been high during physics fills. The timing is good to about 1%. The fine-tuning of the time synchronization of muon triggers is ongoing and will be completed after more than 10 nb-1 of data have been recorded. The CSC trigger primitive and RPC trigger timing have been refined. A new configuration for the CSC Track Finder featured modified beam halo cuts and improved ghost cancellation logic. More direct control was provided for the DT opto-receivers. New RPC Cosmic Trigger (RBC/TTU) trigger algorithms were enabled for collision runs. There is further work planned during the next technical stop to investigate a few of the links from the ECAL to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT). New firmware and a new configuration to handle trigger rate spikes in the ECAL barrel are also being tested. A board newly developed by the tracker group (ReTRI) has been installed and activated to block re...

  9. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The production of the trigger hardware is now basically finished, and in time for the turn-on of the LHC. The last boards produced are the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcaps (TCC-EE). After the recent installation of the four EE Dees, the TCC-EE prototypes were used for their commissioning. Production boards are arriving and are being tested continuously, with the last ones expected in November. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger hardware is fully integrated after installation of the last EE cables. Pattern tests from the HCAL up to the GCT have been performed successfully. The HCAL triggers are fully operational, including the connection of the HCAL-outer and forward-HCAL (HO/HF) technical triggers to the Global Trigger. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) board firmware has been updated to permit recording of the tower “feature bit” in the data. The Global Calorimeter Trigger hardware is installed, but some firmware developments are still n...

  10. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The Level-1 Trigger hardware has performed well during both the recent proton-proton and heavy ion running. Efforts were made to improve the visibility and handling of alarms and warnings. The tracker ReTRI boards that prevent fixed frequencies of Level-1 Triggers are now configured through the Trigger Supervisor. The Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) team has introduced a buffer cleanup procedure at stops and a reset of the QPLL during configuring to ensure recalibration in case of a switch from the LHC clock to the local clock. A device to test the cables between the Regional Calorimeter Trigger and the GCT has been manufactured. A wrong charge bit was fixed in the CSC Trigger. The ECAL group is improving crystal masking and spike suppression in the trigger primitives. New firmware for the Drift Tube Track Finder (DTTF) sorters was developed to improve fake track tagging and sorting. Zero suppression was implemented in the DT Sector Collector readout. The track finder b...

  11. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Trigger Hardware The status of the trigger components was presented during the September CMS Week and Annual Review and at the monthly trigger meetings in October and November. Procedures for cold and warm starts (e.g. refreshing of trigger parameters stored in registers) of the trigger subsystems have been studied. Reviews of parts of the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) and the Global Trigger (GT) have taken place in October and November. The CERN group summarized the status of the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) system. All TTC crates and boards are installed in the underground counting room, USC55. The central clock system will be upgraded in December (after the Global Run at the end of November GREN) to the new RF2TTC LHC machine interface timing module. Migration of subsystem's TTC PCs to SLC4/ XDAQ 3.12 is being prepared. Work is on going to unify the access to Local Timing Control (LTC) and TTC CMS interface module (TTCci) via SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol, a lightweight XML-based messaging ...

  12. Intramuscular hematoma with motor weakness after trigger point injection: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Gyun; Shim, Kwang Seok; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lee, Ji-Hyang; An, Ji Hyun

    2017-09-01

    Although trigger point injection is known as an easy and low-risk procedure, it is contraindicated to patients with hemorrhagic disorders or who regularly take anticoagulants/antiplatelets. However, taking clopidogrel is not a defined contraindication to this low-risk procedure. The chief complaint of a 76-year old woman regularly taking clopidogrel was low back and left buttock pain which prolonged for several years. The patient was diagnosed with L4-5 and L5-S1 spinal stenosis at the orthopedics department and was referred for lumbar spinal epidural steroid injection. She was treated with trigger point injection. Three hours after the injection, she complained motor weakness and pain in the injection area. A hematoma on left gluteus medium muscle was detected with ultrasonography and ultrasound-guided needle aspiration was accomplished to relieve the symptom. Trigger point injection for patients taking clopidogrel should be done with a caution to prevent such complication.

  13. A needle in the neck: trigger point injections as headache management in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisenauer, Sarah J

    2012-01-01

    A review of recent research suggests that the use of trigger point injections are successful in relieving the acute pain of musculoskeletal headaches. Patients with the chief complaint of headache commonly present to the emergency department (ED) and are often treated with multiple intravenous medications including narcotics. The success of outpatient treatment with trigger point injections can be applied to the acute care setting for improved patient outcomes and decongestion of the ED. This article will address the problems of intravenous medication therapy and discuss the benefits of trigger point therapy as management for musculoskeletal headaches specifically in the ED. In addition, discussion aims to provide tools for the nurse practitioner to integrate this skill into clinical practice.

  14. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger system has been constantly in use in cosmic and commissioning data taking periods. During CRAFT running it delivered 300 million muon and calorimeter triggers to CMS. It has performed stably and reliably. During the abort gaps it has also provided laser and other calibration triggers. Timing issues, namely synchronization and latency issues, have been solved. About half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are installed, and the firmware is being worked on. The production of the other half has started. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) card firmware has been updated, and new features such as fast parallel zero-suppression have been included. Repairs of drift tube (DT) trigger mini-crates, optical links and receivers of sector collectors are under way and have been completed on YB0. New firmware for the optical receivers of the theta links to the drift tube track finder is being installed. In parallel, tests with new eta track finde...

  15. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Carlin with contributions from D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Data-taking continues at cruising speed, with high availability of all components of the Level-1 trigger. We have operated the trigger up to a luminosity of 7.6E33, where we approached 100 kHz using the 7E33 prescale column.  Recently, the pause without triggers in case of an automatic "RESYNC" signal (the "settle" and "recover" time) was reduced in order to minimise the overall dead-time. This may become very important when the LHC comes back with higher energy and luminosity after LS1. We are also preparing for data-taking in the proton-lead run in early 2013. The CASTOR detector will make its comeback into CMS and triggering capabilities are being prepared for this. Steps to be taken include improved cooperation with the TOTEM trigger system and using the LHC clock during the injection and ramp phases of LHC. Studies are being finalised that will have a bearing on the Trigger Technical Design Report (TDR), which is to be rea...

  16. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The final parts of the Level-1 trigger hardware are now being put in place. For the ECAL endcaps, more than half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are now available at CERN, such that one complete endcap can be covered. The Global Trigger now correctly handles ECAL calibration sequences, without being influenced by backpressure. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) hardware is complete and working in USC55. Intra-crate tests of all 18 RCT crates and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) are regularly taking place. Pattern tests have successfully captured data from HCAL through RCT to the GCT Source Cards. HB/HE trigger data are being compared with emulator results to track down the very few remaining hardware problems. The treatment of hot and dead cells, including their recording in the database, has been defined. For the GCT, excellent agreement between the emulator and data has been achieved for jets and HF ET sums. There is still som...

  17. Clinical massage and modified Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation stretching in males with latent myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampas, Athanasios; Kitsios, Athanasios; Sykaras, Evagelos; Symeonidis, Stamatios; Lazarou, Lazaros

    2010-08-01

    To determine the immediate effects of modified Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) stretching (group I) versus Myofascial Trigger Point (MTrP) therapy plus modified PNF stretching (group II) in comparison to a control group receiving no treatment. Randomized, assessor-blind, (3 x 4) mixed-model repeated measures. University laboratory. Thirty physically active males with tight hamstrings and at least one latent MTrP on muscles innervated by the lumbosacral, sciatic, tibial and common peroneal nerves. Knee range of motion (ROM), stretch perception, pressure pain threshold (PPT) and subjective pain intensity. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline, immediately after treatment, at 10 and 30 min. Significant changes over time occurred for group II in all outcomes (p < or = 0.001). Group II also showed lower pain intensity scores than group I immediately post-treatment (p = 0.045) and a strong clinical effect over group I in ROM at all follow-ups (effect sizes = 0.9-1.0, p < or = 0.05). Other differences were found between both stretching groups as compared to the control group (p < or = 0.05). The results indicate immediate pre- to post-treatment benefits from MTrP therapy combined with modified PNF stretching in young and physically active males with latent MTrPs. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith, from contributions of D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

      The L1 Trigger group deployed several major improvements this year. Compared to 2011, the single-muon trigger rate has been reduced by a factor of 2 and the η coverage has been restored to 2.4, with high efficiency. During the current technical stop, a higher jet seed threshold will be applied in the Global Calorimeter Trigger in order to significantly reduce the strong pile-up dependence of the HT and multi-jet triggers. The currently deployed L1 menu, with the “6E33” prescales, has a total rate of less than 100 kHz and operates with detector readout dead time of less than 3% for luminosities up to 6.5 × 1033 cm–2s–1. Further prescale sets have been created for 7 and 8 × 1033 cm–2s–1 luminosities. The L1 DPG is evaluating the performance of the Trigger for upcoming conferences and publication. Progress on the Trigger upgrade was reviewed during the May Upgrade Week. We are investigating scenarios for stagin...

  19. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software New Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) for rapidity gap measurements have been installed and integrated into the Trigger recently. For the Global Muon Trigger, tuning of quality criteria has led to improvements in muon trigger efficiencies. Several subsystems have started campaigns to increase spares by recovering boards or producing new ones. The barrel muon sector collector test system has been reactivated, new η track finder boards are in production, and φ track finder boards are under revision. In the CSC track finder, an η asymmetry problem has been corrected. New pT look-up tables have also improved efficiency. RPC patterns were changed from four out of six coincident layers to three out of six in the barrel, which led to a significant increase in efficiency. A new PAC firmware to trigger on heavy stable charged particles allows looking for chamber hit coincidences in two consecutive bunch-crossings. The redesign of the L1 Trigger Emulator...

  20. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

      In 2013 the Trigger Studies Group (TSG) has been restructured in three sub-groups: STEAM, for the development of new HLT menus and monitoring their performance; STORM, for the development of HLT tools, code and actual configurations; and FOG, responsible for the online operations of the High Level Trigger. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger Menu development, path timing, trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Since the end of proton-proton data taking, the group has started preparing for 2015 data taking, with collisions at 13 TeV and 25 ns bunch spacing. The reliability of the extrapolation to higher energy is being evaluated comparing the trigger rates on 7 and 8 TeV Monte Carlo samples with the data taken in the past two years. The effect of 25 ns bunch spacing is being studied on the d...

  1. The Effects of Active Trigger Point of Upper Trapezius Muscle on Its Electromyography Activity and Maximal Isometric Contraction Force during Scapular Plane Elevation (Scaption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Trigger points may result in referral pain of their close areas. Recent evidence suggests that latent trigger points although they are not sensitive enough to cause pain, can interfere with the normal muscle function. These myofascial trigger points are estimated as an electro-physiological phenomenon. However, there are a few studies which investigated the effect of these points on the muscle activity. Muscle activity is a determinant factor in injuries which may cause or worsen shoulder-neck pain. The aim of the study was to evaluate upper trapezius muscle activity and delay time at the presence of active trigger point during scapular plane elevation (scaption. Materials & Methods: In a case-control comparative study in spring 2012, Seventeen women with active trigger points (mean age 26.76 y and 17 healthy women (mean age 26.18 y in bio-mechanic laboratory of University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation sciences (USWR participated in the study. Using surface EMG, the amplitude of muscle activity and the onset time of upper trapezius during scaption, were recorded and analyzed. Results: The maximum amplitude of the upper trapezius muscle activity (during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of 90°scaption in patients showed significant decrease in comparison with the healthy subjects (P=0.01.Also, the onset time of upper trapezius muscle activation time in the patient group was significantly delayed in comparison to the healthy group (P=0.04. Conclusion: At the presence of trigger points in Upper trapezius muscle, muscle activation pattern changes trigger points can change the amplitude and timing of muscle activity and may consequently lead to abnormal patterns of motion of the shoulder girdle. These findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of shoulder disorders.

  2. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in patients with chronic shoulder pain : a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, Carel; de Gast, Arthur; Dommerholt, Jan; Stegenga, Boudewijn; Wensing, Michel; Oostendorp, Rob A. B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal problem that is often chronic or recurrent. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) cause shoulder pain and are prevalent in patients with shoulder pain. However, few studies have focused on MTrP therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the

  3. Dorsal scapular nerve injury after trigger point injection into the rhomboid major muscle: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Gyu; Chang, Min Cheol

    2018-02-06

    We report the case of a patient who presented with right dorsal scapular neuropathy after a trigger point injection into the right rhomboid major muscle. Through a nerve conduction study and electromyography, we demonstrated dorsal scapular nerve injury in this patient. A 38-year-old man complained that his right shoulder functioned less optimally during push-up exercises after a trigger point injection 4 weeks prior. Physical examination revealed mildly reduced right shoulder retractor muscle strength compared with the left side. We performed a nerve conduction velocity test and electromyography 5 weeks after the injection. The compound muscle action potential of the right dorsal scapular nerve showed low amplitude (left vs. right side: 5.2 vs. 1.6 mV) and delayed latency (left vs. right side: 4.9 vs. 6.8 ms). Positive sharp wave (1+) and mildly reduced recruitment were seen on electromyography of the rhomboid major muscle. The findings of the nerve conduction velocity test and electromyography indicated partial right dorsal scapular neuropathy. The nerve injury seemed to have been caused by the needle inserted during trigger point injection. Clinicians should pay attention to the occurrence of dorsal scapular nerve injury when performing trigger point injection into the rhomboid muscle.

  4. Contribution of the local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Nie, Hongling; Madeleine, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    The generalized hypersensitivity associated with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) may in part be driven by peripheral nociceptive sources. The aim of the study was to investigate whether local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) contributes to fibromyalgia pain. FMS patients...

  5. The role of the pain psychologist, trigger point injections, reflex sympathetic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Scott M

    2006-01-01

    This feature presents information for patients in a question and answer format. It is written to simulate actual questions that many pain patients ask and to provide answers in a context and language that most pain patients will comprehend. Issues addressed in this issue are the role of the pain psychologist, trigger point injections, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy.

  6. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Overall the L1 trigger hardware has been running very smoothly during the last months of proton running. Modifications for the heavy-ion run have been made where necessary. The maximal design rate of 100 kHz can be sustained without problems. All L1 latencies have been rechecked. The recently installed Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) are being used in the heavy ion run. The ZDC scintillators have been dismantled, but the calorimeter itself remains. We now send the L1 accept signal and other control signals to TOTEM. Trigger cables from TOTEM to CMS will be installed during the Christmas shutdown, so that the TOTEM data can be fully integrated within the CMS readout. New beam gas triggers have been developed, since the BSC-based trigger is no longer usable at high luminosities. In particular, a special BPTX signal is used after a quiet period with no collisions. There is an ongoing campaign to provide enough spare modules for the different subsystems. For example...

  7. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software After the winter shutdown minor hardware problems in several subsystems appeared and were corrected. A reassessment of the overall latency has been made. In the TTC system shorter cables between TTCci and TTCex have been installed, which saved one bunch crossing, but which may have required an adjustment of the RPC timing. In order to tackle Pixel out-of-syncs without influencing other subsystems, a special hardware/firmware re-sync protocol has been introduced in the Global Trigger. The link between the Global Calorimeter Trigger and the Global Trigger with the new optical Global Trigger Interface and optical receiver daughterboards has been successfully tested in the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. New firmware in the GCT now allows a setting to remove the HF towers from energy sums. The HF sleeves have been replaced, which should lead to reduced rates of anomalous signals, which may allow their inclusion after this is validated. For ECAL, improvements i...

  8. Neuro Emotional Technique for the treatment of trigger point sensitivity in chronic neck pain sufferers: A controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bablis, Peter; Pollard, Henry; Bonello, Rod

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Trigger points have been shown to be active in many myofascial pain syndromes. Treatment of trigger point pain and dysfunction may be explained through the mechanisms of central and peripheral paradigms. This study aimed to investigate whether the mind/body treatment of Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) could significantly relieve pain sensitivity of trigger points presenting in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers. Methods Sixty participants presenting to a private chiro...

  9. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware The CERN group is working on the TTC system. Seven out of nine sub-detector TTC VME crates with all fibers cabled are installed in USC55. 17 Local Trigger Controller (LTC) boards have been received from production and are in the process of being tested. The RF2TTC module replacing the TTCmi machine interface has been delivered and will replace the TTCci module used to mimic the LHC clock. 11 out of 12 crates housing the barrel ECAL off-detector electronics have been installed in USC55 after commissioning at the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. The cabling to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) is terminated. The Lisbon group has completed the Synchronization and Link mezzanine board (SLB) production. The Palaiseau group has fully tested and installed 33 out of 40 Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC). The seven remaining boards are being remade. The barrel TCC boards have been tested at the H4 test beam, and good agreement with emulator predictions were found. The cons...

  10. Remote therapeutic effectiveness of acupuncture in treating myofascial trigger point of the upper trapezius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Li-Wei; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling; Chen, Hsin-Shui; Hong, Chang-Zern; Kao, Mu-Jung; Han, Ting-I

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the remote effect of acupuncture (AcP) on the pain intensity and the irritability of the myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle. Forty-five patients were equally divided into three groups: patients in the placebo control group received sham AcP, those in the simple needling group were treated using simple needling, and those in the modified AcP received AcP with the rapid "screwed in and out" into multiple sites to elicit local twitch responses. The acupoints of Wai-guan and Qu-chi were treated. The outcome assessments included changes in subjective pain intensity, pressure pain threshold, range of motion, and mean amplitude of endplate noise in the myofascial trigger point region. Immediately after acupuncture, all measured parameters improved significantly in the simple needling and modified AcP groups, but not in the placebo control group. There were significantly larger changes in all parameters in the modified AcP group than that in the simple needling group. The myofascial trigger point irritability could be suppressed after a remote acupuncture treatment. It appears that needling to the remote AcP points with multiple needle insertions of modified AcP technique is a better technique than simple needling insertion of simple needling technique in terms of the decrease in pain intensity and prevalence of endplate noise and the increase in pressure pain threshold in the needling sites (represented either AcP points and or myofascial trigger points). We have further confirmed that the reduction in endplate noise showed good correlation with a decreased in pain.

  11. Exploration of quantitative sensory testing in latent trigger points and referred pain areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambite-Quesada, Silvia; Arías-Buría, José L.; Courtney, Carol A.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate somato-sensory nerve fibre function by applying different quantitative sensory testing including thermal, mechanical and vibration thresholds over latent trigger points (TrP) and in its associated referred pain area. METHODS: A total of 20 subjects with unilateral latent......P area and contra-lateral mirror point compared to their respectively referred pain areas. Finally, VT was higher over the TrP area than in the referred pain area and over both mirror contra-lateral points. DISCUSSION: Assessing sensory changes over latent myofascial TrPs reveal mechanical hyperesthesia...

  12. [Clinical efficacy observation on primary trigeminal neuralgia treated with joint needling method at the trigger point].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhang-mei; Wu, Xin-tian

    2012-06-01

    To observe the clinical efficacy on primary trigeminal neuralgia treated with joint needling method at the trigger point. One hundred and three cases of primary trigeminal neuralgia were divided into a joint needling group (53 cases) and a conventional needling group (50 cases) according to the visit sequence. In the joint needling group, the joint needling method was used at the trigger point in the mandibular joint [the positive point near to Xiaguan (ST 7)]; the conventional needling was used at Hegu (LI 4), Waiguan (TE 5), Taichong (LR 3) and Neiting (ST 44). In the conventional needling group, Xiaguan (ST 7) and Fengchi (GB 20) were used and the supplementary acupoints were selected according to the involved branches of trigeminal nerve. The conventional needling method was used. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the score of trigeminal neuralgia were adopted to assess the pain severity and the comprehensive symptoms before treatment and after the 1st and 2nd sessions of treatment separately. The efficacy was assessed. After the 1st and 2nd sessions of treatment, VAS score and the comprehensive symptom score were reduced obviously as compared with those before treatment in either group (P trigger point achieves the significant efficacy on primary trigeminal neuralgia, which is superior to that with the conventional needling method.

  13. [Migraine prophylaxis with trigger point therapy and lymphatic drainage : A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedikardachian, Delphine; Quasthoff, Stefan; Lechner, Anita T; Giuliani, Albrecht; Fazekas, Franz

    2017-11-01

    Migraine is a complex, multifactorial, neurovascular disorder of the brain. Patients frequently have pericranial trigger points, but trigger point (TP) therapy for migraine has not yet been adequately studied. In contrast, lymphatic drainage (LD) has been studied in patients with migraine. The multifactorial origin of migraine suggests using a combination of approaches such as TP therapy and lymphatic drainage. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of TP therapy alone and in combination with LD in preventing migraine during treatment period and over an 8‑week period after completion of treatment. A wait list control group served as a control group. Patients completed a headache calendar. The results of this pilot study suggest a beneficial effect for TP alone and TP combined with LD for migraine prophylaxis for 8 weeks after completion of treatment.

  14. Acupuncture and Trigger Point Injections for Fibromyalgia: East-West Medicine Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taw, Lawrence B; Henry, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a clinical syndrome characterized by chronic widespread pain that is often accompanied by ≥1 concomitant symptoms (eg, fatigue, poor sleep, cognitive alterations, and mood disturbances). In 2005, an estimated 5 million people in the United States suffered from fibromyalgia, and its growing effect on health-related quality of life is substantial. An increasingly popular hypothesis proposes that noxious, peripheral sensory input might contribute to the initiation and perpetuation of the diffuse pain seen in patients with fibromyalgia. That theory has led to the evaluation of multiple interventions to stimulate distal areas as a means to modulate the peripheral and central nervous systems. It has been the authors' experiences that the combination of trigger point injections and acupuncture provides improved clinical outcomes. In the current article, the authors present a case report of a patient with fibromyalgia who was successfully treated with an integrative approach that combined acupuncture with trigger point injections.

  15. [Clinical Observation of the Proprioceptive Sensibility Reflexotherapy by Tendon Acupuncture at Trigger Points for Cervical Vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fen-Fen; Luo, Jun; Liu, Jiao; Fang, Wen-Yao; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zhang, Sheng; Mao, Yu-Lin; Yuan, Zhen; Wang, Kai

    2017-10-25

    To evaluate the efficacy of the proprioceptive sensibility reflexotherapy by tendon acupuncture needling at trigger points for patients with proprioceptive disorder of cervical vertigo. Seventy-nine patients with proprioceptive disorder of cervical vertigo were randomly assigned into a treatment group (42 cases) and a control group (37 cases). Patients in the treatment group received the proprioceptive sensibility reflexotherapy with tendon acupuncture at trigger points in the neck. And those in the control group were given traditional traction, massage and intermediate frequency electro therapy. All the treatment was given for 2 courses, once a day and 10 days as a course. The cervical vertigo symptom and function, the joint position error (JPE) and stability index (ST) before and after treatment were observed in the two groups and the effects were evaluated. The cervical vertigo symptom and function were improved, JPE and ST decreased after treatment in the two groups (all P sensibility reflexotherapy with tendon acupuncture at trigger points is effective for proprioceptive disorder of cervical vertigo.

  16. Is There an Association Between Lumbosacral Radiculopathy and Painful Gluteal Trigger Points?: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelmanesh, Farhad; Jalali, Ali; Jazayeri Shooshtari, Seyed Mostafa; Raissi, Gholam Reza; Ketabchi, Seyed Mehdi; Shir, Yoram

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of gluteal trigger point in patients with lumbosacral radiculopathy with that in healthy volunteers. In a cross-sectional, multistage sampling method, patients with clinical, electromyographic, and magnetic resonance imaging findings consistent with lumbosacral radiculopathy were examined for the presence of gluteal trigger point. Age- and sex-matched clusters of healthy volunteers were selected as the control group. The primary outcome of the study was the presence or absence of gluteal trigger point in the gluteal region of the patients and the control group. Of 441 screened patients, 271 met all the inclusion criteria for lumbosacral radiculopathy and were included in the study. Gluteal trigger point was identified in 207 (76.4%) of the 271 patients with radiculopathy, compared with 3 (1.9%) of 152 healthy volunteers (P trigger point matched the side of painful radiculopathy in 74.6% of patients with a unilateral radicular pain. There was a significant correlation between the side of the gluteal trigger point and the side of patients' radicular pain (P trigger point, located at the painful side. Further studies are required to test the hypothesis that specific gluteal trigger point therapy could be beneficial in these patients.

  17. The predetermined sites of examination for tender points in fibromyalgia syndrome are frequently associated with myofascial trigger points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hongyou; Wang, Ying; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this present study is to test the hypotheses that the 18 predetermined sites of examination for tender points (TP sites) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), and that the induced pain from active MTrPs at TP sites may mimic fibromyalgia pain. Each TP site......), but not latent MTrPs (r = -.001, P = .99), was positively correlated with spontaneous pain intensity in FMS. The current study provides first evidence that pain from active MTrPs at TP sites mimics fibromyalgia pain. MTrPs may relate to generalized increased sensitivity in FMS due to central sensitization....... PERSPECTIVE: This article underlies the importance of active MTrPs in FMS patients. Most of the TP sites in FMS are MTrPs. Active MTrPs may serve as a peripheral generator of fibromyalgia pain and inactivation of active MTrPs may thus be an alternative for the treatment of FMS....

  18. Immediate effect of electric point stimulation (TENS) in treating latent upper trapezius trigger points: a double blind randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Hugh; Hilland, Axel

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effect of electric point stimulation in treating latent upper trapezius trigger points compared to placebo. Double blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. Anglo-European College of Chiropractic. Sixty participants with latent upper trapezius trigger points. Electric point stimulator type of TENS, or detuned (inactive) electric point stimulator type of TENS. The three outcome measures were pressure pain threshold at the trigger point, a numerical rating scale for pain elicited over the trigger point, and lateral cervical flexion to the side opposite the trigger point. On the outcome of pressure pain threshold the electric point stimulator group had a mean change of 0.49 (0.99) kg/cm(2), while the placebo group had a mean change of 0.45 (0.98) kg/cm(2) (t = 0.16, df = 58, p = 0.88). For change in pain over the trigger point, the electric point stimulator group had a mean decrease of 0.93 (0.87) points, while the placebo group had a mean decrease of 0.23 (0.97) points (t = 0.70, df = 58, p = 0.005). On the outcome of change in lateral cervical flexion the electric point stimulator group had a mean increase of 2.87 (4.55) degrees, while the placebo group had a mean increase of 1.99 (2.49) degrees (t = 0.92, df = 58, p = 0.36). Electric point stimulator type of TENS is superior to placebo only in reduction of pain for treating latent upper trapezius trigger points. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanical pain sensitivity of deep tissues in children - possible development of myofascial trigger points in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ting-I

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is still unclear when latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs develop during early life. This study is designed to investigate the mechanical pain sensitivity of deep tissues in children in order to see the possible timing of the development of latent MTrPs and attachment trigger points (A-TrPs in school children. Methods Five hundreds and five healthy school children (age 4- 11 years were investigated. A pressure algometer was used to measure the pressure pain threshold (PPT at three different sites in the brachioradialis muscle: the lateral epicondyle at elbow (site A, assumed to be the A-TrP site, the mid-point of the muscle belly (site B, assumed to be the MTrP site, and the muscle-tendon junction as a control site (site C. Results The results showed that, for all children in this study, the mean PPT values was significantly lower (p p Conclusions It is concluded that a child had increased sensitivity at the tendon attachment site and the muscle belly (endplate zone after age of 4 years. Therefore, it is likely that a child may develop an A-Trp and a latent MTrP at the brachioradialis muscle after the age of 4 years. The changes in sensitivity, or the development for these trigger points, may not be related to the activity level of children aged 7-11 years. Further investigation is still required to indentify the exact timing of the initial occurrence of a-Trps and latent MTrPs.

  20. Evolution of Skin Temperature after the Application of Compressive Forces on Tendon, Muscle and Myofascial Trigger Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Marina Figueiredo; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; de Oliveira Guirro, Elaine Caldeira; Girasol, Carlos Eduardo; de Oliveira, Alessandra Kelly; Dias, Fabiana Rodrigues Cancio; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Some assessment and diagnosis methods require palpation or the application of certain forces on the skin, which affects the structures beneath, we highlight the importance of defining possible influences on skin temperature as a result of this physical contact. Thus, the aim of the present study is to determine the ideal time for performing thermographic examination after palpation based on the assessment of skin temperature evolution. Randomized and crossover study carried out with 15 computer-user volunteers of both genders, between 18 and 45 years of age, who were submitted to compressive forces of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kg/cm2 for 30 seconds with a washout period of 48 hours using a portable digital dynamometer. Compressive forces were applied on the following spots on the dominant upper limb: myofascial trigger point in the levator scapulae, biceps brachii muscle and palmaris longus tendon. Volunteers were examined by means of infrared thermography before and after the application of compressive forces (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes). In most comparisons made over time, a significant decrease was observed 30, 45 and 60 minutes after the application of compressive forces (p 0.05). In conclusion, infrared thermography can be used after assessment or diagnosis methods focused on the application of forces on tendons and muscles, provided the procedure is performed 15 minutes after contact with the skin. Regarding to the myofascial trigger point, the thermographic examination can be performed within 60 minutes after the contact with the skin.

  1. The local twitch response during trigger point dry needling: Is it necessary for successful outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Thomas; Dunning, James; Butts, Raymond

    2017-10-01

    Myofascial trigger point (MTrP) injection and trigger point dry needling (TrPDN) are widely accepted therapies for myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Empirical evidence suggests eliciting a local twitch response (LTR) during needling is essential. This is the first review exploring the available literature, regardless of study design, on the neurophysiological effects and clinical significance of the LTR as it relates to reductions in pain and disability secondary to MTrP needling. PubMed, MEDLINE, Science Direct and Google Scholar were searched up until October 2016 using terms related to trigger point needling and the LTR. and Discussion: Several studies show that eliciting a LTR does not correlate with changes in pain and disability, and multiple systematic reviews have failed to conclude whether the LTR is relevant to the outcome of TrPDN. Post needling soreness is consistently reported in studies using repeated in and out needling to elicit LTRs and increases in proportion to the number of needle insertions. In contrast, needle winding without LTRs to MTrPs and connective tissue is well supported in the literature, as it is linked to anti-nociception and factors related to tissue repair and remodeling. Additionally, the positive biochemical changes in the MTrP after needling may simply be a wash out effect related to local vasodilation. While the LTR during TrPDN appears unnecessary for managing myofascial pain and unrelated to many of the positive effects of TrPDN, further investigation is required. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness of trigger point dry needling for multiple body regions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyles, Robert; Fowler, Rebecca; Ramsey, Derek; Burrows, Erin

    2015-12-01

    Trigger point dry needling (TDN) is commonly used to treat musculoskeletal pain related to myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). To date, no systematic review of high-quality randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating TDN to multiple body regions exists. The aim of this review is to determine the effectiveness of TDN based on high-quality RCTs for all body regions. To ensure thorough reporting, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed as the methodological basis for this systematic review. PubMed, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Cinahl, Cochrane and reference lists were searched for the years 2000-2014 and the terms 'TDN', 'dry needling NOT trigger point', 'functional dry needling' and 'intramuscular manual therapy'. RCTs with PEDro scores 6-10 investigating TDN. duplicates, non-human participants, non-English language, exclusive focus on acupuncture or medicinal injections. Three investigators searched databases, applied criteria, read and assigned PEDro scores to every RCT. Nineteen studies met the criteria. As compared to either baseline or control groups, significant differences were found for pain (14 studies), range of motion (ROM) (five studies) and at least one item on function and quality of life measures (six studies). This review was limited by inclusion criteria, timeframe, language and databases searched. The majority of high-quality studies included in this review show measured benefit from TDN for MTrPs in multiple body areas, suggesting broad applicability of TDN treatment for multiple muscle groups. Further high-quality research is warranted to standardise TDN methods to determine clinical applicability.

  3. Predictors of upper trapezius pain with myofascial trigger points in food service workers

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Ui-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Ha, Sung-Min

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Shoulder pain occurs commonly in food service workers (FSWs) who repetitively perform motions of the upper limbs. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) on the upper trapezius (UT) are among the most common musculoskeletal shoulder pain syndromes. This study determined the psychological, posture, mobility, and strength factors associated with pain severity in FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs. In this cross-sectional study, we measured 17 variables in 163 FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs: a vi...

  4. Effectiveness of trigger point dry needling for plantar heel pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotchett, Matthew P; Munteanu, Shannon E; Landorf, Karl B

    2014-08-01

    Plantar heel pain can be managed with dry needling of myofascial trigger points; however, there is only poor-quality evidence supporting its use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dry needling for plantar heel pain. The study was a parallel-group, participant-blinded, randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted in a university health sciences clinic. Study participants were 84 patients with plantar heel pain of at least 1 month's duration. Participants were randomly assigned to receive real or sham trigger point dry needling. The intervention consisted of 1 treatment per week for 6 weeks. Participants were followed for 12 weeks. Primary outcome measures included first-step pain, as measured with a visual analog scale (VAS), and foot pain, as measured with the pain subscale of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ). The primary end point for predicting the effectiveness of dry needling for plantar heel pain was 6 weeks. At the primary end point, significant effects favored real dry needling over sham dry needling for pain (adjusted mean difference: VAS first-step pain=-14.4 mm, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=-23.5 to -5.2; FHSQ foot pain=10.0 points, 95% CI=1.0 to 19.1), although the between-group difference was lower than the minimal important difference. The number needed to treat at 6 weeks was 4 (95% CI=2 to 12). The frequency of minor transitory adverse events was significantly greater in the real dry needling group (70 real dry needling appointments [32%] compared with only 1 sham dry needling appointment [Dry needling provided statistically significant reductions in plantar heel pain, but the magnitude of this effect should be considered against the frequency of minor transitory adverse events. © 2014 American Physical Therapy Association.

  5. A Case of Trigger-Point Injection-Induced Hypokalemic Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Paolo K; Bhattarai, Mukul; Vogler, Carrie N; Hudali, Tamer H

    2017-04-26

    BACKGROUND Trigger-point injection (TPI) therapy is an effective modality for symptomatic treatment of myofascial pain. Serious adverse effects are rarely observed. In this report, we present the case of a 39-year-old man who experienced severe, transient hypokalemic paralysis in the context of TPI therapy with methylprednisolone, bupivacaine, and epinephrine. He was successfully treated with electrolyte replacement in a closely monitored setting. CASE REPORT A 39-year-old man with no past medical history except for chronic left hip pain from a work-related injury received a TPI with methylprednisolone and bupivacaine. The TPI targeted the left iliopsoas tendon and was administered using ultrasound guidance. There were no immediately perceived complications, but within 12 h he presented with severe hypokalemic paralysis with a serum potassium 1.7 mmol/L. Judicious potassium repletion was initiated. Repeated tests after 6 h consistently showed normal potassium levels of 4.5 mmol/L. CONCLUSIONS Severe hypokalemic paralysis in the context of trigger-point injection is an incredibly rare occurrence and this is the first case report in English literature. A high index of clinical suspicion and a systematic approach are therefore required for prompt diagnosis and management of this obscure iatrogenic entity. Clinicians can enhance patient safety by allowing the primary pathology to guide them.

  6. Clinical Effectiveness of Dry Needling Immediately After Application on Myofascial Trigger Point in Upper Trapezius Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaeifar, Maryam; Arab, Amir Massoud; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dry needling (DN) on pain intensity and pressure pain threshold (PPT) compared with ischemic compression (IC) immediately and 48 hours after each treatment session in individuals with myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. Thirty-one patients with myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle participated in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to a standard (N = 17) or experimental group (N = 14). The treatment protocol for the standard group consisted of IC, whereas the patients in the experimental group received DN. The results indicated that the effect size of the DN methods for pain intensity and PPT was considerably greater after 2 days compared with immediately after the treatment session. In contrast, the effect of the IC for PPT was greater immediately after treatment compared with the measures after 2 days. There was also no noticeable difference in the effect size for IC on pain intensity between the scores obtained immediately and 2 days after treatment. However, our data also revealed a greater effect size for DN on PPT after 2 days compared with the IC technique. In this study, DN improved the pain intensity and PPT after 2 days. However, it had no clinical improvement immediately after application because of muscle soreness. Thus, assessment of the effect of DN immediately after application can be criticized, and the results should be interpreted with caution.

  7. The effect of Kinesio taping technique on trigger points of the piriformis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemirad, Fahimeh; Karimi, Noureddin; Keshavarz, Roshanak

    2016-10-01

    Kinesio taping (KT) is a novel method which has recently emerged as a viable option to treat various musculoskeletal and neuromuscular deficits. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of KT on pain and hip joint range of motion (ROM) in individuals with myofacial trigger points in the piriformis muscle. 51 patients with involvement of the piriformis muscle were assigned to experimental (N = 33) or control (N = 18) groups. The experimental group received KT with unloading techniques on the piriformis muscle and they were asked to keep this tape in place for three days. Pain and internal rotation (IR) of hip joints were measured at baseline, immediately after the KT application, and at a 72-h follow-up. The analysis of repeated measurement ANOVA yielded no main effects, but the interactions between group and time for each dependent variable (pain and ROM) were significant. A post-hoc analysis revealed significant improvement in pain and hip IR immediately postapplication and at a 72-h follow up in the KT group, while no significant change were found on dependent variables in the control group. Our findings suggests that KT application may be effective for pain relief and increasing ROM in patients with myofacial trigger points in the piriformis muscle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Randomized trial of trigger point acupuncture treatment for chronic shoulder pain: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kazunori; Saito, Shingo; Sahara, Shunsaku; Naitoh, Yuki; Imai, Kenji; Kitakoji, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    There is evidence for the efficacy of acupuncture treatment for chronic shoulder pain, but it remains unclear which acupuncture modes are most effective. We compared the effect of trigger point acupuncture (TrP), with that of sham (SH) acupuncture treatments, on pain and shoulder function in patients with chronic shoulder pain. The participants were 18 patients (15 women, 3 men; aged 42-65 years) with nonradiating shoulder pain for at least 6 months and normal neurological findings. The participants were randomized into two groups, each receiving five treatment sessions. The TrP group received treatment at trigger points for the muscle, while the other group received SH acupuncture treatment on the same muscle. Outcome measures were pain intensity (visual analogue scale, VAS) and shoulder function (Constant-Murley Score: CMS). After treatment, pain intensity between pretreatment and 5 weeks after TrP decreased significantly (pShoulder function also increased significantly between pretreatment and 5 weeks after TrP (pshoulder pain. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Prevalence of myofascial trigger points in the hip in patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Sean; Sorenson, Eric; Headley, Barbara; San Juan, Jun G

    2013-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the gluteus medius (GMe) and quadratus lumborum (QL) for subjects with patellofemoral pain (PFP), and to examine the relationship between MTrPs and force production of the GMe after treatment. Randomized controlled trial. A physical therapy clinic. Subjects (N=52; mean age ± SD, 30±12y; mean height ± SD, 172±10cm; mean mass ± SD, 69±14kg) volunteered and were divided into 2 groups: a PFP group (n=26) consisting of subjects with PFP, and a control group (n=26) with no history of PFP. Patients with PFP received trigger point pressure release therapy (TPPRT). Hip abduction isometric strength and the presence of MTrPs. Prevalence of bilateral GMe and QL MTrPs for the PFP group was significantly higher compared with controls (P=.001). Subjects in the PFP group displayed significantly less hip abduction strength compared with the control group (P=.007). However, TPPRT did not result in increased force production. Subjects with PFP have a higher prevalence of MTrPs in bilateral GMe and QL muscles. They demonstrate less hip abduction strength compared with controls, but the TPPRT did not result in an increase in hip abduction strength. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in female patients with chronic tension-type headache - A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, S.; Wiik, E.; Lund, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of myofascial trigger point massage in the muscles of the head, neck and shoulders regarding pain in the treatment of females with chronic tension-type headache. They were randomized into either a treatment group (n = 20) (one session of trigger......: 8.8 (95% CI 0.1117.4), p = 0.047). Furthermore, a significant decrease in the number of trigger points was observed in the treatment group compared with the control group. Myofascial trigger point massage has a beneficial effect on pain in female patients with chronic tension-type headache....... point massage per week for 10 weeks) or a control group receiving no treatment (n = 19). The patients kept a diary to record their pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS), and the daily intake of drugs (mg) during the 4 weeks before and after the treatment period. The McGill Pain Questionnaire...

  11. Myofascial trigger point therapy for triceps surae dysfunction: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Rob; Barnett, Sue; Coghill, Nikki; Cramp, Fiona

    2013-12-01

    The main aim of the case series was to inform further experimental research to determine the effectiveness of myofascial trigger point (MTrP) therapy for the treatment of triceps surae dysfunction. Ten participants with triceps surae dysfunction were recruited (4 females and 6 males); mean age±standard deviation=43±7.1 years. Participants were screened for inclusion/exclusion criteria and the following outcomes measures were assessed at baseline and discharge; lower extremity functional scale (LEFS), verbal numerical rating scale (NRS), MTrP prevalence, ankle dorsiflexion range of movement (ROM) and pressure pain threshold (PPT). Intervention involved trigger point (TrP) pressure release, self MTrP release and a home stretching programme. There was a high prevalence of active/latent MTrPs and possible myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) for all 10 participants at baseline. Active MTrP prevalence decreased to 0%, while latent MTrPs were still present at discharge. There were positive changes in most outcome measures (LEFS, NRS, ROM and PPT) for all 10 participants. Short term to medium term treatment outcomes (6 week post discharge) showed an overall mean LEFS increase of 11 points from 61/80 at baseline to 72/80 at discharge. This case series suggests that a brief course of multimodal MTrP therapy would be helpful for some patients with sub-acute or chronic calf pain. Important preliminary data was gathered, that will inform more rigorous research in this under investigated area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Dry Needling on Spinal Mobility and Trigger Points in Patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sanchez, Adelaida Maria; Garcia-Lopez, Hector; Mataran-Penarrocha, Guillermo A; Fernandez-Sanchez, Manuel; Fernandez-Sola, Cayetano; Granero-Molina, Jose; Aguilar-Ferrandiz, Maria Encarnacion

    2017-02-01

    The etiology of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is inconclusive, but central mechanisms are well accepted for this pain condition. Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is one of the most common musculoskeletal pain diseases and is characterized by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). It has been suggest that MTrPs have an important factor in the genesis of FMS. The purpose of the current randomized clinical trial was to compare the effectiveness of dry needling versus cross tape on spinal mobility and MTrPs in spinal muscles in patients with FMS. A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on patients with FMS. Clinical setting. Sixty-four patients with FMS were randomly assigned to an experimental group receiving dry needling therapy or to a control group for cross tape therapy in the MTrPs in the latissimus dorsi, iliocostalis, multifidus, and quadratus lumbourum muscles. Spinal mobility measures and MTrPs algometry were recorded at baseline and after 5 weeks of treatment. The repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that significant differences between groups were achieved for the MTrPs in latissimus dorsi muscle (right axillary portion: F = 9.80, P = 0.003); multifidus muscle (right L2 level: F = 11.80, P = 0.001); quadratus lumborum (right lateral superficial upper: F = 6.67, P = 0.012; and right lateral superficial lower: F = 5.38, P = 0.024). In addition, the ANOVA repeated measures test showed significant differences between groups for the segmental amplitude thoracic spine in the standing erect position (F = 7.33, P = 0.009), and segmental amplitude of lumbar spine (F = 11.60, P = 0.001) in the sitting erect position. The outcomes were not collected from a long-term follow-up period. Dry needling therapy or cross tape were used alone when in reality physical therapists usually treat patients with FMS using a multi-modal approach. A non-treatment control group was not included. This study has demonstrated that dry needling therapy

  13. Anatomical Basis of the Myofascial Trigger Points of the Gluteus Maximus Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Emi Akamatsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by pain and limited range of motion in joints and caused by muscular contracture related to dysfunctional motor end plates and myofascial trigger points (MTrPs. We aimed to observe the anatomical correlation between the clinically described MTrPs and the entry point of the branches of the inferior gluteal nerve into the gluteus maximus muscle. We dissected twenty gluteus maximus muscles from 10 human adult cadavers (5 males and 5 females. We measured the muscles and compiled the distribution of the nerve branches into each of the quadrants of the muscle. Statistical analysis was performed by using Student’s t-test and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Although no difference was observed either for muscle measurements or for distribution of nerve branching among the subjects, the topography of MTrPs matched the anatomical location of the entry points into the muscle. Thus, anatomical substract of the MTrPs may be useful for a better understanding of the physiopathology of these disorders and provide basis for their surgical and clinical treatment.

  14. Anatomical Basis of the Myofascial Trigger Points of the Gluteus Maximus Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Flavia Emi; Yendo, Tatiana Mina; Rhode, Ciro; Itezerote, Ana Maria; Hojaij, Flávio; Andrade, Mauro; Hsing, Wu Tu; Jacomo, Alfredo Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by pain and limited range of motion in joints and caused by muscular contracture related to dysfunctional motor end plates and myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). We aimed to observe the anatomical correlation between the clinically described MTrPs and the entry point of the branches of the inferior gluteal nerve into the gluteus maximus muscle. We dissected twenty gluteus maximus muscles from 10 human adult cadavers (5 males and 5 females). We measured the muscles and compiled the distribution of the nerve branches into each of the quadrants of the muscle. Statistical analysis was performed by using Student's t -test and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Although no difference was observed either for muscle measurements or for distribution of nerve branching among the subjects, the topography of MTrPs matched the anatomical location of the entry points into the muscle. Thus, anatomical substract of the MTrPs may be useful for a better understanding of the physiopathology of these disorders and provide basis for their surgical and clinical treatment.

  15. Trigger point injections for headache disorders: expert consensus methodology and narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Matthew S; Kuruvilla, Deena; Blumenfeld, Andrew; Charleston, Larry; Sorrell, Michael; Robertson, Carrie E; Grosberg, Brian M; Bender, Steven D; Napchan, Uri; Ashkenazi, Avi

    2014-10-01

    To review the existing literature and describe a standardized methodology by expert consensus for the performance of trigger point injections (TPIs) in the treatment of headache disorders. Despite their widespread use, the efficacy, safety, and methodology of TPIs have not been reviewed specifically for headache disorders by expert consensus. The Peripheral Nerve Blocks and Other Interventional Procedures Special Interest Section of the American Headache Society over a series of meetings reached a consensus for nomenclature, indications, contraindications, precautions, procedural details, outcomes, and adverse effects for the use of TPIs for headache disorders. A subcommittee of the Section also reviewed the literature. Indications for TPIs may include many types of episodic and chronic primary and secondary headache disorders, with the presence of active trigger points (TPs) on physical examination. Contraindications may include infection, a local open skull defect, or an anesthetic allergy, and precautions are necessary in the setting of anticoagulant use, pregnancy, and obesity with unclear anatomical landmarks. The most common muscles selected for TPIs include the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and temporalis, with bupivacaine and lidocaine the agents used most frequently. Adverse effects are typically mild with careful patient and procedural selection, though pneumothorax and other serious adverse events have been infrequently reported. When performed in the appropriate setting and with the proper expertise, TPIs seem to have a role in the adjunctive treatment of the most common headache disorders. We hope our effort to characterize the methodology of TPIs by expert opinion in the context of published data motivates the performance of evidence-based and standardized treatment protocols. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  16. Prevalence of myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia: the overlap of two common problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You

    2010-10-01

    With the objective evidence of their existence, myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) contribute to an increasing number of chronic regional and widespread pain conditions. The widespread spontaneous pain pattern in fibromyalgia (FM) is a summation of multiple regional pains due to active MTrPs. A regional pain in FM is from local active MTrPs and/or referred from remote active MTrPs. Positive tender points specified in FM are MTrPs, either active or latent. Manual stimulation of active MTrPs located in the muscles in different body regions completely reproduced overall spontaneous FM pain pattern. Active MTrPs as tonic peripheral nociceptive input contribute tremendously to the initiation and maintenance of central sensitization, to the impairment of descending inhibition, to the increased excitability of motor units, and to the induction of sympathetic hyperactivity observed in FM. The considerable overlap of MTrPs and FM in pain characteristics and pathophysiology suggests that FM pain is largely due to MTrPs.

  17. Changes in a patient with neck pain after application of ischemic compression as a trigger point therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montañez-Aguilera, F Javier; Valtueña-Gimeno, Noemí; Pecos-Martín, Daniel; Arnau-Masanet, Rosana; Barrios-Pitarque, Carlos; Bosch-Morell, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    To describe the immediate effects of ischemic compression (IC) as a trigger point therapy in a case of a patient with neck pain. The application of IC is a safe and effective method to successfully treat elicited myofascial trigger points. The purpose of this method is to deliberate the blockage of blood in a trigger point area in order to increase local blood flow. This washes away waste products, supplies necessary oxygen and helps the affected tissue to heal. In this case study, we treated a 27-year-old female patient with a medical report of neck pain for at least four months. The physical examination revealed a neck pain and stiffness at the left side and pain increases when moving the neck. An active myofascial trigger point was found in the left trapezius muscle. The following data were recorded: active range of motion of cervical rachis measured with a cervical range of motion instrument, basal electrical activity of the left trapezius measured with electromyography, and pressure tolerance of the myofascial trigger point measured with visual analogue scale, assessing local pain evoked by the application of 2.5 kg/cm2 pressure with an analogue algometer. Immediately after application of the IC, all measured parameters improved compared to base line. The application of IC has been shown effective in the treatment of myofascial trigger points in a patient with neck pain. The results show a relation between active range of motion of cervical rachis, basal electrical activity of the trapezius muscle and myofascial trigger point sensitivity. In this case of a patient with neck pain, active range of motion of cervical rachis, basal electrical activity of the trapezius muscle and myofascial trigger point sensitivity gaining short-term positive effects with the application of one single ischemic compression session. Nevertheless, randomized controlled double-blinded studies should be conducted in future to examine the effectiveness of this ischemic compression

  18. Pelvic floor myofascial trigger points: manual therapy for interstitial cystitis and the urgency-frequency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J M

    2001-12-01

    The effectiveness of manual physical therapy was evaluated in patients with interstitial cystitis and the urethral syndrome, that is urgency-frequency with or without pelvic pain. The rationale was based on the hypothesis that pelvic floor myofascial trigger points are not only a source of pain and voiding symptoms, but also a trigger for neurogenic bladder inflammation via antidromic reflexes. From September 1995 to November 2000, 45 women and 7 men, including 10 with interstitial cystitis and 42 with the urgency-frequency syndrome, underwent manual physical therapy to the pelvic floor for 1 to 2 visits weekly for 8 to 12 weeks. Results were determined by patient completed symptom score sheets indicating the rate of improvement according to outcome parameters, including 25% to 50%-mild, 51% to 75%-moderate, 76% to 99%-marked and 100%-complete resolution. In 10 cases these subjective results were confirmed by measuring resting pelvic floor tension by electromyography before and after the treatment course. Of the 42 patients with the urgency-frequency syndrome with or without pain 35 (83%) had moderate to marked improvement or complete resolution, while 7 of the 10 (70%) with interstitial cystitis had moderate to marked improvement. The mean duration of symptoms before treatment in those with interstitial cystitis and the urgency-frequency syndrome was 14 (median 12) and 6 years (median 2.5), respectively. In patients with no symptoms or brief, low intensity flares mean followup was 1.5 years. In 10 patients who underwent electromyography mean resting pelvic floor tension decreased from 9.73 to 3.61 microV., which was a 65% improvement. Pelvic floor manual therapy for decreasing pelvic floor hypertonus effectively ameliorates the symptoms of the urgency/frequency syndrome and interstitial cystitis.

  19. Myofascial trigger points of the pelvic floor: associations with urological pain syndromes and treatment strategies including injection therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldwin, Robert M; Fariello, Jennifer Yonaitis

    2013-10-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrP), or muscle "contraction knots," of the pelvic floor may be identified in as many as 85 % of patients suffering from urological, colorectal and gynecological pelvic pain syndromes; and can be responsible for some, if not all, symptoms related to these syndromes. Identification and conservative treatment of MTrPs in these populations has often been associated with impressive clinical improvements. In refractory cases, more "aggressive" therapy with varied trigger point needling techniques, including dry needling, anesthetic injections, or onabotulinumtoxinA injections, may be used, in combination with conservative therapies.

  20. Evaluation of myofascial trigger points using infrared thermography: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review recent studies published on the use of infrared thermography for the assessment of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). A search of the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PEDro, and SciELO databases was carried out between November 2012 and January 2013 for articles published in English, Portuguese, or Spanish from the year 2000 to 2012. Because of the nature of the included studies and the purpose of this review, the analysis of methodological quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. The search retrieved 11 articles, 2 of which were excluded based on language (German and Chinese). Three were duplicated in different databases, 1 did not use infrared thermography for diagnostic purposes, and the other did not use infrared thermography to measure the skin temperature. Thus, the final sample was made up of 4 observational investigations: 3 comparative studies and 1 accuracy study. At present, there are few studies evaluating the accuracy and reliability of infrared thermography for the diagnosis and assessment of MTrPs. Of the few studies present, there is no agreement on skin temperature patterns in the presence of MTrPs. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. EFFECTIVENESS OF ISCHEMIC COMPRESSION ON TRAPEZIUS MYOFASCIAL TRIGGER POINTS IN NECK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragnya Ravichandran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neck pain is a common disorder prevailing among individuals of different populations. The myofascial pain syndrome is a disorder related to myofascial trigger points. It is defined as a hyperirritable locus in skeletal muscle and that is associated with a hypersensitive palpable nodule in a taut band of muscle. Manual therapy has got a profound role in treating and ischemic compression technique has been researched widely. Thus the study intends to analyse the effectiveness of Manual Therapy (Ischemic Compression on functional outcome in neck pain. Methods: A single blinded randomized control study was conducted for subjects of sample size 30 who met the inclusion criteria and random allocation was made. The baseline parameters as like pain severity using VAS, pain pressure threshold using pressure Algometer, active cervical lateral flexion using 360 degree goniometer and disability using NDI were recorded. Study group received ischemic compression followed by myofascial stretches while the control group received ultrasonic therapy of 1.4watts/cm2. Both received Cryotherapy post session. After 2 weeks the baseline parameters were again recorded for t-test analysis. Result: There was no statistical significance between groups (p≥0.05. But active cervical lateral flexion showed improved mobility in study group and a high statistical significance within groups (p≤0.01 in relation to all parameters. Conclusion: Both ultrasonic therapy and Ischemic compression technique was found to show better improvement in pain pressure threshold and functional outcome in neck pain.

  2. Sustained nociceptive mechanical stimulation of latent myofascial trigger point induces central sensitization in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi-Meng; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the study is to test if sustained nociceptive mechanical stimulation (SNMS) of latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) induces widespread mechanical hyperalgesia. SNMS was obtained by inserting and retaining an intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) needle within a latent MTrP or a nonMTrP in the finger extensor muscle for 8 minutes in 12 healthy subjects. Pain intensity (VAS) and referred pain area induced by SNMS were recorded. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) was measured immediately before and after, and 10-, 20-, and 30-minutes after SNMS at the midpoint of the contralateral tibialis anterior muscle. Surface and intramuscular EMG during SNMS were recorded. When compared to nonMTrPs, maximal VAS and the area under VAS curve (VASauc) were significantly higher and larger during SNMS of latent MTrPs (both, P induction of local and referred pain. This study shows that MTrPs are one of the important peripheral pain generators and initiators for central sensitization. Therapeutic methods for decreasing the sensitivity and motor-unit excitability of MTrPs may prevent the development of muscle cramps and thus decrease local and referred pain. Copyright © 2010 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Latent myofascial trigger points are associated with an increased antagonistic muscle activity during agonist muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, José Miota; Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Chao; Martínez Vizcaíno, Vicente; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate motor unit activity from a latent myofascial trigger point (MTP) in an antagonist muscle during isometric agonist muscle contraction. Intramuscular activity was recorded with an intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) needle inserted into a latent MTP or a non-MTP in the posterior deltoid muscle at rest and during isometric shoulder flexion performed at 25% of maximum voluntary contraction in 14 healthy subjects. Surface EMGs were recorded from the anterior and posterior deltoid muscles. Maximal pain intensity and referred pain induced by EMG needle insertion were recorded on a visual analogue scale. The results showed that higher local pain was observed following needle insertion into latent MTPs (4.64 ± .48 cm) than non-MTPs (2.35 ± .43 cm, P muscle was significantly higher at rest and during shoulder flexion at latent MTPs than non-MTPs (P muscle relaxation following exercise, disordered fine movement control, and unbalanced muscle activation. Elimination of latent MTPs and/or prevention of latent MTPs from becoming active may improve motor functions. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Induction of muscle cramps by nociceptive stimulation of latent myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Zhang, Yang; Boudreau, Shellie; Yue, Shou-Wei; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this present study is to test the hypothesis that nociceptive stimulation of latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) increases the occurrence of local muscle cramps. Nociceptive muscle stimulation was obtained by a bolus injection of glutamate (0.1 ml, 0.5 M) into a latent MTrP and a control point (a non-MTrP) located in the right or left gastrocnemius medialis muscles in 14 healthy subjects. A bolus of isotonic saline (0.9%, 0.1 ml) injection served as a control. The injections were guided by intramuscular electromyography (EMG) showing resting spontaneous electrical activity at a latent MTrP and no such activity at a non-MTrP. Intramuscular and surface EMG activities in the gastrocnemius medialis muscle were recorded pre-, during-, and post-injection for a period of 8 min to monitor the occurrence of muscle cramps, which are characterized by a brief episodic burst of high levels of EMG activity. The results showed that glutamate and isotonic saline injections into the latent MTrPs induced higher peak pain intensity than into the non-MTrPs (both P < 0.05). Glutamate injection induced higher peak pain intensity than isotonic saline injection into either latent MTrPs or non-MTrPs (both P < 0.05). Muscle camps were observed in 92.86% of the subjects following glutamate injection into the latent MTrPs, but not into the non-MTrPs (P < 0.001). No muscle cramps were recorded following isotonic saline injection into either the latent MTrPs or the non-MTrPs. These results suggest that latent MTrPs could be involved in the genesis of muscle cramps. Focal increase in nociceptive sensitivity at MTrPs constitutes one of the mechanisms underlying muscle cramps.

  5. Comparison of sparse point distribution models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen; Vester-Christensen, Martin; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares several methods for obtaining sparse and compact point distribution models suited for data sets containing many variables. These are evaluated on a database consisting of 3D surfaces of a section of the pelvic bone obtained from CT scans of 33 porcine carcasses. The superior m...

  6. Trigger Point Dry Needling and Proprioceptive Exercises for the Management of Chronic Ankle Instability: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Salom-Moreno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the effects of combined trigger point dry needling (TrP-DN and proprioceptive/strengthening exercises to proprioceptive/strengthening exercises on pain and function in ankle instability. Methods. Twenty-seven (44% female, mean age: 33±3 years individuals with unilateral ankle instability were randomly assigned to an experimental group who received proprioceptive/strengthening exercises combined with TrP-DN into the lateral peroneus muscle and a comparison group receiving the same proprioceptive/strengthening exercise program alone. Outcome included function assessed with the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM and ankle pain intensity assessed with a numerical pain rate scale (NPRS. They were captured at baseline and 1-month follow-up after the intervention. Results. The ANOVAs found significant Group ∗ Time Interactions for both subscales of the FAAM (ADL: F=8.211; P=0.008; SPORTS: F=13.943; P 2.1 in favor of the TrP-DN group. Conclusions. This study provides evidence that the inclusion of TrP-DN within the lateral peroneus muscle into a proprioceptive/strengthening exercise program resulted in better outcomes in pain and function 1 month after the therapy in ankle instability.

  7. Trigger Point Dry Needling and Proprioceptive Exercises for the Management of Chronic Ankle Instability: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Ayuso-Casado, Blanca; Tamaral-Costa, Beatriz; Sánchez-Milá, Zacarías; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the effects of combined trigger point dry needling (TrP-DN) and proprioceptive/strengthening exercises to proprioceptive/strengthening exercises on pain and function in ankle instability. Methods. Twenty-seven (44% female, mean age: 33 ± 3 years) individuals with unilateral ankle instability were randomly assigned to an experimental group who received proprioceptive/strengthening exercises combined with TrP-DN into the lateral peroneus muscle and a comparison group receiving the same proprioceptive/strengthening exercise program alone. Outcome included function assessed with the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) and ankle pain intensity assessed with a numerical pain rate scale (NPRS). They were captured at baseline and 1-month follow-up after the intervention. Results. The ANOVAs found significant Group ∗ Time Interactions for both subscales of the FAAM (ADL: F = 8.211; P = 0.008; SPORTS: F = 13.943; P 2.1) in favor of the TrP-DN group. Conclusions. This study provides evidence that the inclusion of TrP-DN within the lateral peroneus muscle into a proprioceptive/strengthening exercise program resulted in better outcomes in pain and function 1 month after the therapy in ankle instability. PMID:26064172

  8. The Ultrasonographic Findings of Trigger Points of Myofascial Pain Syndrome in a Rabbit Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Kyung Mi; Park, Seog Hee; Lee, Sang Heon; Kim, Joo Hyun; Kim, Han Kyum

    2005-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common cause of musculoskeletal pain. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) have been repeatedly described by numerous authors. However, there have been few studies in which their existence and behavior was supported and their location confirmed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether diagnostic ultrasonography is an objective diagnostic tool which is able to significantly identify or detect the soft tissue changes in the region of clinically identified active MTrPs by using a rabbit experimental model. Ten MPS model rabbits were used in this study. We made an MPS animal model by causing the rabbits to overuse one leg for 3 weeks by cutting the contralateral L4 spinal nerve root. We compared the ultrasonographic findings of the taut band at pre-OP with those at post-OP during the consecutive three week period. To find the taut bands of the muscle, after skin exposure, the muscles were gently rubbed or pinched with the thumb and index finger on the two opposing surfaces of the muscle across the direction of the fibers. Then, the muscle was held in the same way, but with a 5-8 MHz stick probe being used in place of the thumb. After the palpation of various muscles, we selected the hardest and largest myofascial trigger nodule, in order to observe the ultrasonographic and power Doppler findings of the MPS. The size, shape, echogenecity and vascularity of the MTrPs were observed. The analysis of the results of the ultrasonography revealed that all MTrPs have a hyperechoic area. The mean thickness of the hyperechoic lesion in the biceps was 0.96±0.14 cm in the MPS site (at pre-OP?), and 0.49±0.12 cm at post-OP 3weeks (p < 0.01). The hyperechoic lesions in all of the studied biceps femoris of the rabbits were observed by high resolution ultrasonography. No definitively decreased vascularity was observed within the hyperechoic area by power Doppler imaging. Until now, there has been no objective method for the diagnosis of MPS

  9. Effect of bloodletting therapy at local myofascial trigger points and acupuncture at Jiaji (EX-B 2) points on upper back myofascial pain syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guimei; Jia, Chao; Lin, Mode

    2016-02-01

    To observe the clinical efficacy of bloodletting therapy and acupuncture at Jiaji points for treating upper back myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), and compare this with lidocaine block therapy. A total of 66 upper back MPS patients were randomly assigned to either the treatment group or the control group in a 1: 1 ratio. The treatment group (n = 33) were treated with bloodletting therapy at local myofascial trigger points and acupuncture at Jiaji (EX-B 2) points; one treatment course consisted of five, single 20-min-treatments with a 2-day break between each treatment. The control group (n = 33) were treated with a lidocaine block at trigger points; one treatment course consisted of five sessions of lidocaine block therapy with a 2-day break between each session. The simplified McGill Scale (SF-MPQ) and tenderness threshold determination were used to assess pain before and after a course of treatment. After the third and fifth treatment, the SF-MPQ values were significantly decreased (P pain assessments between the two groups after three and five treatments (P > 0.05). There were five cases with minor adverse reactions reported in the control patients, while no adverse reactions were reported in the treatment group. Bloodletting therapy at local myofascial trigger points and acupuncture at Jiaji points was effective in treating upper back MPS. Clinically, bloodletting and acupuncture therapy had the same efficacy as the lidocaine block therapy, with fewer adverse reactions.

  10. Neuro Emotional Technique for the treatment of trigger point sensitivity in chronic neck pain sufferers: A controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Henry

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trigger points have been shown to be active in many myofascial pain syndromes. Treatment of trigger point pain and dysfunction may be explained through the mechanisms of central and peripheral paradigms. This study aimed to investigate whether the mind/body treatment of Neuro Emotional Technique (NET could significantly relieve pain sensitivity of trigger points presenting in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers. Methods Sixty participants presenting to a private chiropractic clinic with chronic cervical pain as their primary complaint were sequentially allocated into treatment and control groups. Participants in the treatment group received a short course of Neuro Emotional Technique that consists of muscle testing, general semantics and Traditional Chinese Medicine. The control group received a sham NET protocol. Outcome measurements included pain assessment utilizing a visual analog scale and a pressure gauge algometer. Pain sensitivity was measured at four trigger point locations: suboccipital region (S; levator scapulae region (LS; sternocleidomastoid region (SCM and temporomandibular region (TMJ. For each outcome measurement and each trigger point, we calculated the change in measurement between pre- and post- treatment. We then examined the relationships between these measurement changes and six independent variables (i.e. treatment group and the above five additional participant variables using forward stepwise General Linear Model. Results The visual analog scale (0 to 10 had an improvement of 7.6 at S, 7.2 at LS, 7.5 at SCM and 7.1 at the TMJ in the treatment group compared with no improvement of at S, and an improvement of 0.04 at LS, 0.1 at SCM and 0.1 at the TMJ point in the control group, (P Conclusion After a short course of NET treatment, measurements of visual analog scale and pressure algometer recordings of four trigger point locations in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers were significantly

  11. Neuro Emotional Technique for the treatment of trigger point sensitivity in chronic neck pain sufferers: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bablis, Peter; Pollard, Henry; Bonello, Rod

    2008-05-21

    Trigger points have been shown to be active in many myofascial pain syndromes. Treatment of trigger point pain and dysfunction may be explained through the mechanisms of central and peripheral paradigms. This study aimed to investigate whether the mind/body treatment of Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) could significantly relieve pain sensitivity of trigger points presenting in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers. Sixty participants presenting to a private chiropractic clinic with chronic cervical pain as their primary complaint were sequentially allocated into treatment and control groups. Participants in the treatment group received a short course of Neuro Emotional Technique that consists of muscle testing, general semantics and Traditional Chinese Medicine. The control group received a sham NET protocol. Outcome measurements included pain assessment utilizing a visual analog scale and a pressure gauge algometer. Pain sensitivity was measured at four trigger point locations: suboccipital region (S); levator scapulae region (LS); sternocleidomastoid region (SCM) and temporomandibular region (TMJ). For each outcome measurement and each trigger point, we calculated the change in measurement between pre- and post- treatment. We then examined the relationships between these measurement changes and six independent variables (i.e. treatment group and the above five additional participant variables) using forward stepwise General Linear Model. The visual analog scale (0 to 10) had an improvement of 7.6 at S, 7.2 at LS, 7.5 at SCM and 7.1 at the TMJ in the treatment group compared with no improvement of at S, and an improvement of 0.04 at LS, 0.1 at SCM and 0.1 at the TMJ point in the control group, (P algometer recordings of four trigger point locations in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers were significantly improved when compared to a control group which received a sham protocol of NET. Chronic neck pain sufferers may benefit from NET treatment in the relief

  12. Active myofascial trigger points might be more frequent in patients with cervical radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, H; Akarirmak, U; Uludag, M

    2012-06-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are commonly observed in the neck, parascapular region, and upper back muscles of patients with cervical pathology. To assess the frequency of latent and active myofascial trigger point (aMTrP) in the neck and upper back muscles in patients with cervical radiculopathy and healthy subjects. Controlled clinical trials. Outpatients and controls. Two hundred and forty four patients and 122 controls The patients clinically diagnosed as cervical radiculopathy with positive Spurling's test and confirmed by MRI, were enrolled in this study. All subjects were examined for active and latent MTrP. In patients with cervical radiculopathy, an aMTrP was distinguished from a latent one when the referred pain elicited by exploration of the MTrP is recognized as familiar. The patients comprised of 128 female (52.5%) and 116 male (47.5%) patients. Mean age was 44.58(20-65 years). In 125 (51.2%) of patients with cervical radiculopathy were found an aMTrP at least one muscle from upper trapezius, multifidus, splenius capitis, levator scapulae, rhomboid major, minor and deep paraspinal muscles. Number and distribution of MTrPs in patients with 244 cervical radiculopathy and in healthy controls. aMTrPs were detected most common in levator scapula (16.3%), splenius capitis (14.7%), rhomboid minor (14.3%), upper part of trapezius (13.5%), rhomboid major (10.2%) and multifidus (8.6%) muscles. Patients with cervical radiculopathy showed latent MTrP in levator scapula (27%), splenius capitis (16.8%), rhomboid minor (24.6%), upper part of trapezius (33.2%), rhomboid major (9%) and multifidus (8.2%) muscles. There was significant difference in terms of distribution of active and latent MTrPs in patients with cervical radiculopathy (P=0.019). Number of latent MTrPs in upper trapezius muscles in patients with cervical radiculopathy was more than the expected distribution. None of the subjects of control group had aMTrP. However, healthy controls showed latent

  13. Reproduction of overall spontaneous pain pattern by manual stimulation of active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Ying; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2011-01-01

    It has previously been reported that local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the neck and shoulder region contribute to fibromyalgia (FM) pain and that the pain pattern induced from active MTPs can reproduce parts of the spontaneous clinical FM pain pattern...

  14. Reproduction of overall spontaneous pain pattern by manual stimulation of active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Ying; Fernandez-de-las-Penas, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    It has previously been reported that local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the neck and shoulder region contribute to fibromyalgia (FM) pain and that the pain pattern induced from active MTPs can reproduce parts of the spontaneous clinical FM pain pattern. The cu...

  15. Predictors of upper trapezius pain with myofascial trigger points in food service workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ui-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Ha, Sung-Min

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Shoulder pain occurs commonly in food service workers (FSWs) who repetitively perform motions of the upper limbs. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) on the upper trapezius (UT) are among the most common musculoskeletal shoulder pain syndromes. This study determined the psychological, posture, mobility, and strength factors associated with pain severity in FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs. In this cross-sectional study, we measured 17 variables in 163 FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs: a visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, age, sex, Borg rating of perceived exertion (BRPE) scale, beck depression inventory, forward head posture angle, rounded shoulder angle (RSA), shoulder slope angle, scapular downward rotation ratio, cervical lateral-bending side difference angle, cervical rotation side difference angle, glenohumeral internal rotation angle, shoulder horizontal adduction angle, serratus anterior (SA) strength, lower trapezius (LT) strength, bicep strength, and glenohumeral external rotator strength, in 163 FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs. The model for factors influencing UT pain with MTrPs included SA strength, age, BRPE, LT strength, and RSA as predictor variables that accounted for 68.7% of the variance in VAS (P < .001) in multiple regression models with a stepwise selection procedure. The following were independent variables influencing the VAS in the order of standardized coefficients: SA strength (β = −0.380), age (β = 0.287), BRPE (β = 0.239), LT strength (β = −0.195), and RSA (β = 0.125). SA strength, age, BRPE, LT strength, and RSA variables should be considered when evaluating and intervening in UT pain with MTrPs in FSWs. PMID:28658117

  16. Effect of Hyaluronidase Addition to Lidocaine for Trigger Point Injection in Myofascial Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Won; Lee, Chul Joong; Lee, Sangmin M; Shin, Byung Seop; Jun, Byunghui; Sim, Woo Seog

    2015-10-07

    This randomized, double-blind study compared the efficacy of hyaluronidase co-injection with that of local anesthesia alone on the degree of pain and quality of life in patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Sixty-one adults, aged 25 to 75 years, with MPS affecting both trapezius muscles were randomly assigned to one of the 2 treatment groups: lidocaine (group L: n = 31) or hyaluronidase (group H: n = 30). All patients received Trigger point injection (TPI). Group L received 3.2 mL 0.5% lidocaine alone. Group H received the same solution of lidocaine mixed with hyaluronidase (600 iu/mL). Patients were followed for 14 days (pre- and post-TPI days 0, 1, 4, 7, and 14) with the verbal numerical rating scale (VNRS), and the primary outcome was VNRS on day 7. Also, we evaluated the neck disability index (NDI) and the short form of brief pain inventory (BPI-SF) on pre- and post-TPI day 14. In both groups, VNRS decreased on days 4, 7, and 14 compared to the pre-TPI. However, in group H, VNRS decreased on day 1 also. There were no significant differences of VNRS between the 2 groups during 14 days. NDI and BPI-SF scores also significantly decreased after TPI in both groups. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of VNRS, NDI, or BPI-SF scores. However, TPI consisting of lidocaine mixed with hyaluronidase worked more effectively than lidocaine alone on post-TPI day 1. Further, hyaluronidase showed a tendency to reduce TPI-related soreness. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  17. Muscle Trigger Points and Pressure Pain Sensitivity Maps of the Feet in Women with Fibromyalgia Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero-Caballero, Maria C; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Cigarán-Méndez, Margarita; Morales-Cabezas, Matilde; Madeleine, Pascal; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE : To investigate the presence of trigger points (TrPs) in feet musculature and topographical pressure sensitivity maps of the feet as well as the relationship between TrPs, pressure pain maps, and clinical variables in women with fibromyalgia (FMS). METHODS : Fifty-one FMS women and 24 comparable healthy women participated. TrPs within the flexor hallucis brevis, adductor hallucis, dorsal interossei, extensor digitorum brevis, and quadratus plantae, as well as external and internal gastrocnemius, were explored. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed in a blind manner over seven locations on each foot. Topographical pressure sensitivity maps of the plantar region were generated using the averaged PPT of each location. RESULTS : The prevalence rate of foot pain was 63% (n = 32). The number of active TrPs for each FMS woman with foot pain was 5 ± 1.5 without any latent TrPs. Women with FMS without foot pain and healthy controls had only latent TrPs (2.2 ± 0.8 and 1.5 ± 1.3, respectively). Active TrPs in the flexor hallucis brevis and adductor hallucis muscles were the most prevalent. Topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps revealed that FMS women with foot pain had lower PPT than FMS women without pain and healthy controls, and higher PPT on the calcaneus bone (P pain in women with FMS is high. The referred pain elicited by active TrPs in the foot muscles reproduced the symptoms in these patients. FMS women suffering foot pain showed higher pressure hypersensitivity in the plantar region than those FMS women without pain. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Inter- and Intraexaminer Reliability in Identifying and Classifying Myofascial Trigger Points in Shoulder Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, José Diego Sales do; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Vigolvino, Lorena Passos; Oliveira, Wandemberg Fortunato de; Sousa, Catarina de Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    To determine inter- and intraexaminer reliability of examiners without clinical experience in identifying and classifying myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the shoulder muscles of subjects asymptomatic and symptomatic for unilateral subacromial impact syndrome (SIS). Within-day inter- and intraexaminer reliability study. Physical therapy department of a university. Fifty-two subjects participated in the study, 26 symptomatic and 26 asymptomatic for unilateral SIS. Two examiners, without experience for assessing MTPs, independent and blind to the clinical conditions of the subjects, assessed bilaterally the presence of MTPs (present or absent) in 6 shoulder muscles and classified them (latent or active) on the affected side of the symptomatic group. Each examiner performed the same assessment twice in the same day. Reliability was calculated through percentage agreement, prevalence- and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) statistics, and weighted kappa. Intraexaminer reliability in identifying MTPs for the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups was moderate to perfect (PABAK, .46-1 and .60-1, respectively). Interexaminer reliability was between moderate and almost perfect in the 2 groups (PABAK, .46-.92), except for the muscles of the symptomatic group, which were below these values. With respect to MTP classification, intraexaminer reliability was moderate to high for most muscles, but interexaminer reliability was moderate for only 1 muscle (weighted κ=.45), and between weak and reasonable for the rest (weighted κ=.06-.31). Intraexaminer reliability is acceptable in clinical practice to identify and classify MTPs. However, interexaminer reliability proved to be reliable only to identify MTPs, with the symptomatic side exhibiting lower values of reliability. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anaesthetic injection versus ischemic compression for the pain relief of abdominal wall trigger points in women with chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Mary L L S; Braz, Carolina A; Rosa-e-Silva, Julio C; Candido-dos-Reis, Francisco J; Nogueira, Antonio A; Poli-Neto, Omero B

    2015-12-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is a common condition among women, and 10 to 30 % of causes originate from the abdominal wall, and are associated with trigger points. Although little is known about their pathophysiology, variable methods have been practiced clinically. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of local anaesthetic injections versus ischemic compression via physical therapy for pain relief of abdominal wall trigger points in women with chronic pelvic pain. We conducted a parallel group randomized trial including 30 women with chronic pelvic pain with abdominal wall trigger points. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups. One group received an injection of 2 mL 0.5 % lidocaine without a vasoconstrictor into a trigger point. In the other group, ischemic compression via physical therapy was administered at the trigger points three times, with each session lasting for 60 s, and a rest period of 30 s between applications. Both treatments were administered during one weekly session for four weeks. Our primary outcomes were satisfactory clinical response rates and percentages of pain relief. Our secondary outcomes are pain threshold and tolerance at the trigger points. All subjects were evaluated at baseline and 1, 4, and 12 weeks after the interventions. The study was conducted at a tertiary hospital that was associated with a university providing assistance predominantly to working class women who were treated by the public health system. Clinical response rates and pain relief were significantly better at 1, 4, and 12 weeks for those receiving local anaesthetic injections than ischemic compression via physical therapy. The pain relief of women treated with local anaesthetic injections progressively improved at 1, 4, and 12 weeks after intervention. In contrast, women treated with ischemic compression did not show considerable changes in pain relief after intervention. In the local anaesthetic injection group, pain threshold

  20. The Effect of Dry Needling Compared With Ischemic Pressure on Pain Intensity on Active Trigger Point in Upper Trapezius Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ziaeifar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Myofascial trigger point is one of the most common causes of musculoskeletal pain and disorders. Myofascial trigger point in upper trapezius has been reported as a frequent symptom in patients with neck and thoracic pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dry needling compared with ischemic pressure on active trigger point in upper trapezius muscle. Materials & Methods: 32 women with active myofascial trigger point in upper trapezius muscle participated in this randomized clinical trial (RCT study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: dry needling (N=15 and ischemic pressure (N=17. The visual analogue scale (VAS was used to assess the pain intensity before and after treatment in both groups. Paired t-test was used to determine any significant difference in pain intensity after treatment sessions compared with pre-treatment score in control and experimental group. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA was calculated to determine the significance of differences between the control and experimental groups in post-test scores, with pre-treatment scores used as covariates in the analysis. Results: Statistical analysis (paired t-test revealed significant decrease in pain intensity after treatment sessions in control and experimental group (P=0.00 compared with pre-treatment score. In the ANCOVA, controlling for pre-test scores, no significant difference was found between the two groups (P=0.8. Conclusion: It seems that that both dry needling and ischemic pressure are effective in improvement in the pain intensity in subjects with myofascial trigger points. However, dry needling can be used by clinicians and therapist in physiotherapy clinics.

  1. [Effect of Dry Needling Stimulation of Myofascial Trigger Point on Sample Entropy of Electromyography of Gastrocnemius Injured Site in Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chen-Li; Ma, Yan-Tao; Huang, Qiang-Min; Liu, Qing-Guang; Zhao, Jia-Min

    2018-02-25

    To attempt to establish an objective quantitative indicator to characterize the trigger point activity, so as to evaluate the effect of dry needling on myofascial trigger point activity. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into blank control group, dry needling (needling) group, stretching exercise (stretching) group and needling plus stretching group ( n =6 per group). The chronic myofascial pain (trigger point) model was established by freedom vertical fall of a wooden striking device onto the mid-point of gastrocnemius belly of the left hind-limb to induce contusion, followed by forcing the rat to make a continuous downgrade running exercise at a speed of 16 m/min for 90 min on the next day which was conducted once a week for 8 weeks. Electromyography (EMG) of the regional myofascial injured point was monitored and recorded using an EMG recorder via electrodes. It was considered success of the model if spontaneous electrical activities appeared in the injured site. After a 4 weeks' recovery, rats of the needling group were treated by filiform needle stimulation (lifting-thrusting-rotating) of the central part of the injured gastrocnemius belly (about 10 mm deep) for 6 min, and those of the stretching group treated by holding the rat's limb to make the hip and knee joints to an angle of about 180°, and the ankle-joint about 90° for 1 min every time, 3 times altogether (with an interval of 1 min between every 2 times). The activity of the trigger point was estimated by the sample entropy of the EMG signal sequence in reference to Richman's and Moorman's methods to estimate the curative effect of both needling and exercise. After the modeling cycle, the mean sample entropies of EMG signals was significantly decreased in the model groups (needling group [0.034±0.010], stretching group [0.045±0.023], needling plus stretching group [0.047±0.034]) relevant to the blank control group (0.985±0.196, P 0.05), suggesting a better efficacy of

  2. Chronic pain in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hypermobility type): The role of myofascial trigger point injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Saipriya; Madabushi, Rajashree; Agarwal, Anil; Gautam, Sujeet K; Khuba, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain is a cardinal symptom in hypermobility type of Ehler Danlos Syndrome (EDS type III). The management of pain in EDS, however, has not been studied in depth. A 30 year old female, known case of EDS, presented to the pain clinic with complaints of severe upper back pain for 6 months. Physical examination of the back revealed two myofascial trigger points over the left rhomboids and the left erector spinae. Local anaesthetic trigger point injections were given at these points, followed by stretching exercises under analgesic cover for the first week. After 1 week the patient reported 60-80% pain relief. This case highlights that we must keep a high index of suspicion for the more treatable causes of pain like myofascial pain syndrome in patients suffering from EDS, and should address it promptly and appropriately in order to maximise patient comfort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in patients with chronic shoulder pain: a randomized, controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal problem that is often chronic or recurrent. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) cause shoulder pain and are prevalent in patients with shoulder pain. However, few studies have focused on MTrP therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of multimodal treatment of MTrPs in patients with chronic shoulder pain. Methods A single-assessor, blinded, randomized, controlled trial was conducted. The intervention group received comprehensive treatment once weekly consisting of manual compression of the MTrPs, manual stretching of the muscles and intermittent cold application with stretching. Patients were instructed to perform muscle-stretching and relaxation exercises at home and received ergonomic recommendations and advice to assume and maintain good posture. The control group remained on the waiting list for 3 months. The Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire score (primary outcome), Visual Analogue Scale for Pain (VAS-P), Global Perceived Effect (GPE) scale and the number of muscles with MTrPs were assessed at 6 and 12 weeks in the intervention group and compared with those of a control group. Results Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significant improvement (P pain (mean difference, 13.8; 95% CI, 2.6 to 25.0), on the VAS-P2 for pain in the past 7 days (mean difference, 10.2; 95% CI, 0.7 to 19.7) and VAS-P3 most severe pain in the past 7 days (mean difference, 13.8; 95% CI, 0.8 to 28.4). After 12 weeks, 55% of the patients in the intervention group reported improvement (from slightly improved to completely recovered) versus 14% in the control group. The mean number of muscles with active MTrPs decreased in the intervention group compared with the control group (mean difference, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.2). Conclusions The results of this study show that 12-week comprehensive treatment of MTrPs in shoulder muscles reduces the number of muscles with active

  4. High prevalence of shoulder girdle muscles with myofascial trigger points in patients with shoulder pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Shoulder pain is reported to be highly prevalent and tends to be recurrent or persistent despite medical treatment. The pathophysiological mechanisms of shoulder pain are poorly understood. Furthermore, there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of current treatment protocols. Although myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are rarely mentioned in relation to shoulder pain, they may present an alternative underlying mechanism, which would provide new treatment targets through MTrP inactivation. While previous research has demonstrated that trained physiotherapists can reliably identify MTrPs in patients with shoulder pain, the percentage of patients who actually have MTrPs remains unclear. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of muscles with MTrPs and the association between MTrPs and the severity of pain and functioning in patients with chronic non-traumatic unilateral shoulder pain. Methods An observational study was conducted. Subjects were recruited from patients participating in a controlled trial studying the effectiveness of physical therapy on patients with unilateral non-traumatic shoulder pain. Sociodemographic and patient-reported symptom scores, including the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Questionnaire, and Visual Analogue Scales for Pain were compared with other studies. To test for differences in age, gender distribution, and education level between the current study population and the populations from Dutch shoulder studies, the one sample T-test was used. One observer examined all subjects (n = 72) for the presence of MTrPs. Frequency distributions, means, medians, standard deviations, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for descriptive purposes. The Spearman's rank-order correlation (ρ) was used to test for association between variables. Results MTrPs were identified in all subjects. The median number of muscles with MTrPs per subject was 6 (active MTrPs) and 4 (latent MTr

  5. The Prevalence of Latent Trigger Points in Lower Limb Muscles in Asymptomatic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuil-Escobar, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Cepa, Carmen Belén; Martín-Urrialde, Jose Antonio; Gómez-Conesa, Antonia

    2016-11-01

    Latent trigger points (LTrPs) are prevalent in persons with musculoskeletal pain. Because they could be present in healthy persons, it is necessary to evaluate the prevalence of LTrPs in asymptomatic subjects. To assess the prevalence of LTrPs in lower limb muscles, to evaluate the relationship between LTrP prevalence, gender, and leg dominance, and to determine intra-rater reliability for the diagnosis of LTrPs. Cross-sectional study. University community. A total of 206 asymptomatic subjects (113 women and 93 men, aged 23.2 ± 5.2 years). Not applicable. The prevalence of the LTrPs located in the gastrocnemius, soleus, peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum longus, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis was studied, using the diagnosis criteria recommended by Simons, Travell, and Simons. The pressure pain threshold was also evaluated. Of the 206 subjects evaluated, 166 (77.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 72-83.4) were found to have at least one LTrP in the lower limb muscles. The average number of LTrPs found per individual was 7.5 ± 7.7. The prevalence in each muscle group ranged from 19.9% (95% CI, 14.4-25.4) to 37.4% (95% CI, 30.8-44), with gastrocnemius LTrPs being the most prevalent. Women had more LTrPs (9.6 ± 7.8) than did men (4.9 ± 6.6) (P .05). The most prevalent diagnosis criteria were the presence of a taut band and a tender spot (98%-100%); the local twitch response was the least prevalent diagnosis criteria (0%-3.5%). Intra-rater reliability was excellent for all the diagnosis criteria in all the muscles evaluated (κ = 0.762-1), except for the jump sign and the referred pain in several LTrPs. LTrPs were prevalent in the lower limb muscles of asymptomatic subjects. Women have more LTrPs than do men. No differences in LTrP prevalence were found between sides. The presence of the taut band and the tender spot were the most prevalent and reliable diagnosis criteria. It is

  6. Test-retest reliability of myofascial trigger point detection in hip and thigh areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfeld, E; Finestone, A S; Moran, U; Damri, E; Kalichman, L

    2017-10-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrP's) are a primary source of pain in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Nevertheless, they are frequently underdiagnosed. Reliable MTrP palpation is the necessary for their diagnosis and treatment. The few studies that have looked for intra-tester reliability of MTrPs detection in upper body, provide preliminary evidence that MTrP palpation is reliable. Reliability tests for MTrP palpation on the lower limb have not yet been performed. To evaluate inter- and intra-tester reliability of MTrP recognition in hip and thigh muscles. Reliability study. 21 patients (15 males and 6 females, mean age 21.1 years) referred to the physical therapy clinic, 10 with knee or hip pain and 11 with pain in an upper limb, low back, shin or ankle. Two experienced physical therapists performed the examinations, blinded to the subjects' identity, medical condition and results of the previous MTrP evaluation. Each subject was evaluated four times, twice by each examiner in a random order. Dichotomous findings included a palpable taut band, tenderness, referred pain, and relevance of referred pain to patient's complaint. Based on these, diagnosis of latent MTrP's or active MTrP's was established. The evaluation was performed on both legs and included a total of 16 locations in the following muscles: rectus femoris (proximal), vastus medialis (middle and distal), vastus lateralis (middle and distal) and gluteus medius (anterior, posterior and distal). Inter- and intra-tester reliability (Cohen's kappa (κ)) values for single sites ranged from -0.25 to 0.77. Median intra-tester reliability was 0.45 and 0.46 for latent and active MTrP's, and median inter-tester reliability was 0.51 and 0.64 for latent and active MTrPs, respectively. The examination of the distal vastus medialis was most reliable for latent and active MTrP's (intra-tester k = 0.27-0.77, inter-tester k = 0.77 and intra-tester k = 0.53-0.72, inter-tester k = 0.72, correspondingly

  7. Chronic whiplash and central sensitization; an evaluation of the role of a myofascial trigger points in pain modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective it has been established that chronic neck pain following whiplash is associated with the phenomenon of central sensitization, in which injured and uninjured parts of the body exhibit lowered pain thresholds due to an alteration in central pain processing. it has furthermore been hypothesized that peripheral sources of nociception in the muscles may perpetuate central sensitization in chronic whiplash. the hypothesis explored in the present study was whether myofascial trigger points serve as a modulator of central sensitization in subjects with chronic neck pain. Design controlled case series. Setting outpatient chronic pain clinic. Subjects seventeen patients with chronic and intractable neck pain and 10 healthy controls without complaints of neck pain. Intervention symptomatic subjects received anesthetic infiltration of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscles and controls received the anesthetic in the thigh. Outcome measures: pre and post injection cervical range of motion, pressure pain thresholds (ppt over the infraspinatus, wrist extensor, and tibialis anterior muscles. sensitivity to light (photophobia and subjects' perception of pain using a visual analog scale (vas were also evaluated before and after injections. only the ppt was evaluated in the asymptomatic controls. Results immediate (within 1 minute alterations in cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds were observed following an average of 3.8 injections with 1–2 cc of 1% lidocaine into carefully identified trigger points. cervical range of motion increased by an average of 49% (p = 0.000 in flexion and 44% (p = 0.001 in extension, 47% (p = 0.000 and 28% (p Conclusion the present data suggest that myofascial trigger points serve to perpetuate lowered pain thresholds in uninjured tissues. additionally, it appears that lowered pain thresholds associated with central sensitization can be immediately reversed, even when associated

  8. Twenty Thousand Needles Under the Sea. Trigger Point Dry Needling Aboard an Israeli Navy Submarine: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronel, Dror; Gabbay, Oren; Esterson, Akiva; Brand, Ronen; Vulfsons, Simon

    2018-04-04

    Nonspecific lower back pain affects a major part of the population at a certain point of their life. The intensity of pain can be debilitating and it causes a significant burden on society. Trigger point dry needling is a method of alleviating such pain by the introduction of needles into trigger points in muscles. A growing body of evidence supports its use in myofascial pain and specifically lower back pain. Submarine Medicine is a unique field due to the special characteristics and the environment of the submarine. It poses challenges that are not always seen by primary care physicians. Here, we present a case of a 40-yr-old senior submarine officer who complained of pain in his lower back and pelvis before departing on a mission. The pain persisted in spite of treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and he was then treated by the submarine's physician with trigger point dry needling. The officer showed rapid improvement following this treatment, both regarding pain and the range of motion.

  9. Reproduction of overall spontaneous pain pattern by manual stimulation of active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Ying; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2011-01-01

    It has previously been reported that local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the neck and shoulder region contribute to fibromyalgia (FM) pain and that the pain pattern induced from active MTPs can reproduce parts of the spontaneous clinical FM pain pattern....... The current study investigated whether the overall spontaneous FM pain pattern can be reproduced by local and referred pain from active MTPs located in different muscles....

  10. Myofascial trigger points, neck mobility, and forward head posture in episodic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, Maria L; Pareja, Juan A

    2007-05-01

    To assess the differences in the presence of trigger points (TrPs) in head and neck muscles, forward head posture (FHP) and neck mobility between episodic tension-type headache (ETTH) subjects and healthy controls. In addition, we assess the relationship between these muscle TrPs, FHP, neck mobility, and several clinical variables concerning the intensity and the temporal profile of headache. TTH is a headache in which musculoskeletal disorders of the craniocervical region might play an important role in its pathogenesis. Design.-A blinded, controlled pilot study. Fifteen ETTH subjects and 15 matched controls without headache were studied. TrPs in both upper trapezius, both sternocleidomastoids, and both temporalis muscles were identified according to Simons and Gerwin diagnostic criteria (tenderness in a hypersensible spot within a palpable taut band, local twitch response elicited by snapping palpation, and elicited referred pain with palpation). Side-view pictures of each subject were taken in both sitting and standing positions, in order to assess FHP by measuring the craniovertebral angle. A cervical goniometer was employed to measure neck mobility. All measures were taken by a blinded assessor. A headache diary was kept for 4 weeks in order to assess headache intensity, frequency, and duration. The mean number of TrPs for each ETTH subject was 3.7 (SD: 1.3), of which 1.9 (SD: 0.9) were active, and 1.8 (SD: 0.9) were latent. Control subjects only had latent TrPs (mean: 1.5; SD: 1). TrP occurrence between the 2 groups was significantly different for active TrPs (P .05). Differences in the distribution of TrPs were significant for the right upper trapezius muscles (P= .04), the left sternocleidomastoid (P= .03), and both temporalis muscles (P < .001). Within the ETTH group, headache intensity, frequency, and duration outcomes did not differ depending on TrP activity, whether the TrP was active or latent. The craniovertebral angle was smaller, ie, there was a

  11. The Effect of Dry Needling of the Trigger Points of Shoulder Muscles on Pain and Grip Strength in Patients with Lateral Epicondylitis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Kheradmandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is the most common overuse syndrome of the elbow. The severity of pain may not be directly caused by tendinopathy of wrist extensors since trigger points of the shoulder muscles have a referral zone in the arm and elbow. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dry needling of shoulder myofascial trigger points on wrist extensors muscles pain and function. Methods: Fourteen female patients with tennis elbow (aged 20 - 45 years old were recruited after primary evaluation by an orthopedist. They entered the study if they had pain in the lateral aspect of elbow of the dominant hand for more than 3 months along with the presence of myofascial trigger points in any muscles of supra spinatus, infra spinatus, sub scapularis or scalenes. Pain pressure threshold, maximal grip force and pain intensity of the hand extensors on lateral epicondyle of elbow were measured before and after treatment. Pain intensity was measured on a one to ten scale of visual analogue scale (VAS. A hand dynamometer used to measure the maximal grip force value of the affected hand in 0˚shoulder flexion/ abduction, 90˚ elbow extension and mid-poison of forearm in sitting position. A pressure algometer was applied on hand extensor muscles to define their trigger point sensitivity. For the control group, treatment regimens consisted of routine physical therapy of tennis elbow. This regime was accompanied by dry needling of mentioned muscles for the intervention group. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Comparison of the results after intervention showed that the patients’ pain significantly decreased in both groups (P<0.001; but the patient’s PPT and grip force significantly increased solely in the intervention group (P<0.05. Mann Whitney test showed significant pain differences in both groups (P=0.001. The comparison of differences

  12. Evaluation of dry needling and 0.5% lidocaine injection therapies in myofascial pain trigger points in masticatory muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Oliveira Ferreira da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of trigger points injections using lidocaine 0.5% and dry needling without any kind of home-based rehabilitation program. METHODS: Sixteen patients with myofascial pain and trigger points in masticatory muscles were randomly assigned to two groups and received only one application session. The pressure pain threshold (PPT was recorded before and after the injection: Ten minutes, 24 hours later, 7, 15, 21 and 30 days after the treatment. Visual analogue scale (VAS was used to in all evaluation periods. RESULTS: There were no difference between groups for PPT, but for all groups the PPT during the time significantly increased when compared the before treatment. VAS showed differences between groups and during the time. The 0.5% lidocaine had the lowest VAS values when compared to dry needling, but at 30 days there were no differences among them. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the differences in VAS and considering there were no differences in PPT increases, we concluded that, in this study, both groups were able to disrupt the mechanisms of trigger point and relieve the myofascial pain symptoms.

  13. Effect of ischemic compression for cervicogenic headache and elastic behavior of active trigger point in the sternocleidomastoid muscle using ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mehdi; Bahrpeyma, Farid; Togha, Mansoureh

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the effect of ischemic compression on clinical outcomes of a cervicogenic headache and elastic behavior of myofascial trigger points. Randomized, controlled trial. Outpatient headache clinic. 19 subjects with a cervicogenic headache originating from myofascial trigger point within the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Subjects were randomized in treatment group (n = 9) and control group (n = 10). Subjects in the treatment group received 4 sessions of ischemic compression in the myofascial trigger point region. Headache intensity, frequency, and duration, trigger point elastic modulus, trigger point area, pressure tolerance, and pressure pain threshold were assessed before and after treatment. Subjects in the treatment group compared with those in control group showed significant improvements in headache intensity (P = 0.002), headache frequency (P = 0.005), headache duration (P = 0.015), pressure tolerance (P trigger point area (P = 0.017). Changes in myofascial trigger point elastic modulus did not reach a significant level (P > 0.05). The improvements in outcome measures suggest that ischemic compression may be effective in subjects with a cervicogenic headache associated with a myofascial trigger point in the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Data suggests that biomechanical properties of MTrP and severity of headache symptoms are not directly linked, and other mechanisms could be more influential in contributing to symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Trigger point dry needling as an adjunct treatment for a patient with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewley, Derek; Flynn, Timothy W; Koppenhaver, Shane

    2014-02-01

    Case report. Prognosis for adhesive capsulitis has been described as self-limiting and can persist for 1 to 3 years. Conservative treatment that includes physical therapy is commonly advised. The patient was a 54-year-old woman with primary symptoms of shoulder pain and loss of motion consistent with adhesive capsulitis. Manual physical therapy intervention initially consisted of joint mobilizations of the shoulder region and thrust manipulation of the cervicothoracic region. Although manual techniques seemed to result in some early functional improvement, continued progression was limited by pain. Subsequent examination identified trigger points in the upper trapezius, levator scapula, deltoid, and infraspinatus muscles, which were treated with dry needling to decrease pain and allow for higher grades of manual intervention. The patient was treated for a total of 13 visits over a 6-week period. After trigger point dry needling was introduced on the third visit, improvements in pain-free shoulder range of motion and functional outcome measures, assessed with the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index and the shortened form of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire, exceeded the minimal clinically important difference after 2 treatment sessions. At discharge, the patient had achieved significant improvements in shoulder range of motion in all planes, and outcome measures were significantly improved. This case report describes the clinical reasoning behind the use of trigger point dry needling in the treatment of a patient with adhesive capsulitis. The rapid improvement seen in this patient following the initiation of dry needling to the upper trapezius, levator scapula, deltoid, and infraspinatus muscles suggests that surrounding muscles may be a significant source of pain in this condition.

  15. The effect of the combination of dry needling and MET on latent trigger point upper trapezius in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh Lari, Ameneh; Okhovatian, Farshad; Naimi, Sedigheh sadat; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this clinical trial experiment was to compare the effects of the combination of dry needling (DN) and the muscle energy technique (MET) on the upper trapezius latent myofascial trigger point. Sixty female patients, aged 18-30 with latent myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 20) received DN and MET, group 2 (n = 20) received only MET, and group 3 (n = 20) received only DN. The visual analogue scale (VAS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and range of active contra lateral flexion (CLF) were measured before each treatment. The patients were treated for three sessions in a one-week period with at least a two-day break between each session, and in session four, an assessment of primary outcomes was conducted without any treatment. All three treatment groups showed decreases in pain (p = 0.001) and increases in PPT levels (p = 0.001) as well as increases in CLF (p = 0.001). But the group receiving trigger point DN together with MET showed more significant improvement than the other two groups in VAS, PPT and ROM. No significant differences were found between the MET-only group and the DN-only group. Our results indicate that all three treatments used in this study were effective for treating MTP. According to this study, DN and MET is suggested as a new method for the treatment of MTP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rehabilitation of proximal hamstring tendinopathy utilizing eccentric training, lumbopelvic stabilization, and trigger point dry needling: 2 case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaseelan, Dhinu J; Moats, Nick; Ricardo, Christopher R

    2014-03-01

    Case report. Proximal hamstring tendinopathy is a relatively uncommon overuse injury seen in runners. In contrast to the significant amount of literature guiding the evaluation and treatment of hamstring strains, there is little literature about the physical therapy management of proximal hamstring tendinopathy, other than the general recommendations to increase strength and flexibility. Two runners were treated in physical therapy for proximal hamstring tendinopathy. Each presented with buttock pain with running and sitting, as well as tenderness to palpation at the ischial tuberosity. Each patient was prescribed a specific exercise program focusing on eccentric loading of the hamstrings and lumbopelvic stabilization exercises. Trigger point dry needling was also used with both runners to facilitate improved joint motion and to decrease pain. Both patients were treated in 8 to 9 visits over 8 to 10 weeks. Clinically significant improvements were seen in pain, tenderness, and function in each case. Each patient returned to running and sitting without symptoms. Proximal hamstring tendinopathy can be difficult to treat. In these 2 runners, eccentric loading of the hamstrings, lumbopelvic stabilization exercises, and trigger point dry needling provided short- and long-term pain reduction and functional benefits. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of this cluster of interventions for this condition. Therapy, level 4.

  17. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome: reduction of medication use after pelvic floor physical therapy with an internal myofascial trigger point wand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rodney U; Harvey, Richard H; Wise, David; Nevin Smith, J; Nathanson, Brian H; Sawyer, Tim

    2015-03-01

    This study documents the voluntary reduction in medication use in patients with refractory chronic pelvic pain syndrome utilizing a protocol of pelvic floor myofascial trigger point release with an FDA approved internal trigger point wand and paradoxical relaxation therapy. Self-referred patients were enrolled in a 6-day training clinic from October, 2008 to May, 2011 and followed the protocol for 6 months. Medication usage and symptom scores on a 1-10 scale (10 = most severe) were collected at baseline, and 1 and 6 months. All changes in medication use were at the patient's discretion. Changes in medication use were assessed by McNemar's test in both complete case and modified intention to treat (mITT) analyses. 374 out of 396 patients met inclusion criteria; 79.7 % were male, median age of 43 years and median symptom duration of 5 years. In the complete case analysis, the percent of patients using medications at baseline was 63.6 %. After 6 months of treatment the percentage was 40.1 %, a 36.9 % reduction (p < 0.001). In the mITT analysis, there was a 22.7 % overall reduction from baseline (p < 0.001). Medication cessation at 6 months was significantly associated with a reduction in total symptoms (p = 0.03).

  18. Pretreatment anxiety and pain acceptance are associated with response to trigger point injection therapy for chronic myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Gerard M; Finn, David P; O'Gorman, David A; Maharaj, Chris; Raftery, Miriam; Ruane, Nancy; Mitchell, Caroline; Sarma, Kiran; Bohacek, Marek; McGuire, Brian E

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the psychosocial profile of patients who responded or did not respond to trigger point injection therapy for chronic myofascial pain. Seventy one patients with a diagnosis of chronic myofascial pain of the paraspinous muscles completed a pretreatment questionnaire measuring demographic and social factors, and validated scales to assess pain intensity, pain interference (physical and emotional), and defined psychological characteristics (pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, pain self-efficacy, mood and anxiety). Trigger point injection therapy of the affected areas of myofascial pain was performed and follow-up was conducted by telephone at one week (n = 65) and one month (n = 63) post intervention to assess treatment outcome (pain intensity and pain-related physical interference). At one week follow-up and one-month follow-up, using pain-related physical interference as the outcome measure, we found that those who responded well to treatment were characterized by a lower level of pretreatment anxiety and a higher level of pain acceptance, with anxiety being the strongest predictor. These results suggest that responses to interventional pain management in chronic myofascial paraspinous pain may be influenced by psychological characteristics, especially pretreatment anxiety. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A Comparative Study of Trigger Point Therapy with Local Anaesthetic (0.5 % Bupivacaine) Versus Combined Trigger Point Injection Therapy and Levosulpiride in the Management of Myofascial Pain Syndrome in the Orofacial Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pranav; Singh, Virendra; Sethi, Sujata; Kumar, Arun

    2016-09-01

    To compare the efficacy of combined local anesthetic injection with 0.5 % bupivacaine and levosulpiride versus local anesthetic injection alone on outcome measures including levels of pain intensity and depression in the management of myofascial pain syndrome in orofacial region. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled and open-label comparative clinical study. Seventy-four patients diagnosed to have myofascial pain syndrome and fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled for the study. Patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Group A received local anesthetic injection (0.5 % bupivacaine) on trigger points and Group B received combined trigger point injection therapy and 50 mg of tablet Levosulpiride orally B.I.D. They were assessed for pain intensity and depression at baseline and at follow-up of 1, 4, 6 and 12 week intervals. The mean age of patients was 44.54 + 15.977 years in group A and 39.97 + 14.107 years in group B ( P value = 0.2). Group A comprised of 25 females (67.567 %) and 12 males (32.432 %) while group B had 27 females (75 %) and 9 males (25 %). 70.27 % were diagnosed with moderate depression in group A and 75 % in group B. 18.91 % in group A and 19.44 % in group B were diagnosed with severe depression. When the VAS score and BDI score was compared at the follow-up intervals with the baseline scores in both treatment groups, the mean difference was highly significant at all the follow-up intervals. However when the relative efficacies of two interventions were compared between the two groups, improvement in pain was significant at all the follow-up intervals except the 1st week follow-up whereas the improvement in depression was non-significant at 1st and 4th week interval while it was highly significant at 6th and 12th week intervals. The combined therapy with trigger point injection and levosulpiride as antidepressant significantly reduces pain and depression in the study subjects suffering from chronic

  20. The Effect of Dry Needling of the Trigger Points of Shoulder Muscles on Pain and Grip Strength in Patients with Lateral Epicondylitis: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Kheradmandi; Maryam Ebrahimian; Farahnaz Ghaffarinejad; Venous Ehyaii; Mohammad Reza Farazdaghi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is the most common overuse syndrome of the elbow. The severity of pain may not be directly caused by tendinopathy of wrist extensors since trigger points of the shoulder muscles have a referral zone in the arm and elbow. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dry needling of shoulder myofascial trigger points on wrist extensors muscles pain and function. Methods: Fourteen female patients with tennis elbow (a...

  1. Laser-assisted vacuum arc extreme ultraviolet source: a comparison of picosecond and nanosecond laser triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Girum A.; Tobin, Isaac; Juschkin, Larissa; Hayden, Patrick; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Sokell, Emma; Zakharov, Vassily S.; Zakharov, Sergey V.; O'Reilly, Fergal

    2016-06-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light generation by hybrid laser-assisted vacuum arc discharge plasmas, utilizing Sn-coated rotating-disc-electrodes, was investigated. The discharge was initiated by localized ablation of the liquid tin coating of the cathode disc by a laser pulse. The laser pulse, at 1064 nm, was generated by Nd:YAG lasers with variable energy from 1 to 100 mJ per pulse. The impact of shortening the laser pulse from 7 ns to 170 ps on the EUV generation has been investigated in detail. The use of ps pulses resulted in an increase in emission of EUV radiation. With a fixed discharge energy of ~4 J, the EUV conversion efficiency tends to plateau at ~2.4  ±  0.25% for the ps laser pulses, while for the ns pulses, it saturates at ~1.7  ±  0.3%. Under similar discharge and laser energy conditions, operating the EUV source with the ps-triggering resulted also in narrower spectral profiles of the emission in comparison to ns-triggering. The results indicate an advantage in using ps-triggering in laser-assisted discharges to produce brighter plasmas required for applications such as metrology.

  2. Remote Effect of Lower Limb Acupuncture on Latent Myofascial Trigger Point of Upper Trapezius Muscle: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Hua Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To demonstrate the use of acupuncture in the lower limbs to treat myofascial pain of the upper trapezius muscles via a remote effect. Methods. Five adults with latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs of bilateral upper trapezius muscles received acupuncture at Weizhong (UB40 and Yanglingquan (GB34 points in the lower limbs. Modified acupuncture was applied at these points on a randomly selected ipsilateral lower limb (experimental side versus sham needling on the contralateral lower limb (control side in each subject. Each subject received two treatments within a one-week interval. To evaluate the remote effect of acupuncture, the range of motion (ROM upon bending the contralateral side of the cervical spine was assessed before and after each treatment. Results. There was significant improvement in cervical ROM after the second treatment (P=0.03 in the experimental group, and the increased ROM on the modified acupuncture side was greater compared to the sham needling side (P=0.036. Conclusions. A remote effect of acupuncture was demonstrated in this pilot study. Using modified acupuncture needling at remote acupuncture points in the ipsilateral lower limb, our treatments released tightness due to latent MTrPs of the upper trapezius muscle.

  3. Critical points in logistic growth curves and treatment comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raimundo de Souza Passos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several biological phenomena have a behavior over time mathematically characterized by a strong increasing function in the early stages of development, then by a less pronounced growth, sometimes showing stability. The separation between these phases is very important to the researcher, since the maintenance of a less productive phase results in uneconomical activity. In this report we present methods of determining critical points in logistic functions that separate the early stages of growth from the asymptotic phase, with the aim of establishing a stopping critical point in the growth and on this basis determine differences in treatments. The logistic growth model is fitted to experimental data of imbibition of araribá seeds (Centrolobium tomentosum. To determine stopping critical points the following methods were used: i accelerating growth function, ii tangent at the inflection point, iii segmented regression; iv modified segmented regression; v non-significant difference; and vi non-significant difference by simulation. The analysis of variance of the abscissas and ordinates of the breakpoints was performed with the objective of comparing treatments and methods used to determine the critical points. The methods of segmented regression and of the tangent at the inflection point lead to early stopping points, in comparison with other methods, with proportions ordinate/asymptote lower than 0.90. The non-significant difference method by simulation had higher values of abscissas for stopping point, with an average proportion ordinate/asymptote equal to 0.986. An intermediate proportion of 0.908 was observed for the acceleration function method.

  4. Effectiveness of dry needling and injections of myofascial trigger points associated with plantar heel pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotchett Matthew P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plantar heel pain (plantar fasciitis is one of the most common musculoskeletal pathologies of the foot. Plantar heel pain can be managed with dry needling and/or injection of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs however the evidence for its effectiveness is uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the current evidence for the effectiveness of dry needling and/or injections of MTrPs associated with plantar heel pain. Methods We searched specific electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and AMI in April 2010 to identify randomised and non-randomised trials. We included trials where participants diagnosed with plantar heel pain were treated with dry needling and/or injections (local anaesthetics, steroids, Botulinum toxin A and saline alone or in combination with acupuncture. Outcome measures that focussed on pain and function were extracted from the data. Trials were assessed for quality using the Quality Index tool. Results Three quasi-experimental trials matched the inclusion criteria: two trials found a reduction in pain for the use of trigger point dry needling when combined with acupuncture and the third found a reduction in pain using 1% lidocaine injections when combined with physical therapy. However, the methodological quality of the three trials was poor, with Quality Index scores ranging form 7 to 12 out of a possible score of 27. A meta-analysis was not conducted because substantial heterogeneity was present between trials. Conclusions There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of dry needling and/or injections of MTrPs associated with plantar heel pain. However, the poor quality and heterogeneous nature of the included studies precludes definitive conclusions being made. Importantly, this review highlights the need for future trials to use rigorous randomised controlled methodology with measures such as blinding to reduce bias. We also recommend that such trials adhere to the

  5. Effect of myofascial trigger point therapy with an inflatable ball in elderlies with chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sejun; Kim, Minhee; Lee, Minyoung; Kim, Taeyeong; Lee, Dongshin; Yoon, Bumchul

    2018-02-06

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are related to low back pain and back muscle stiffening, and secondarily to movement impairment. MTrP therapy with an inflatable ball would improve clinical outcomes for chronic non-specific low back pain (CNSLBP) after 6 weeks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MTrPs with an inflatable ball for the elderly with CNSLBP. Fifteen elderly patients with chronic non-specific low back pain were evaluated for pain, pressure sensitivity, and physical function at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 weeks of therapy. The visual analog scale (VAS) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were used to measure pain intensity and sensitivity, respectively. Straight-leg-raise (SLR) test, back range of motion (BROM), and Oswestry disability index were used to assess physical function. Significant differences were observed between the 3- and 6-week VAS scores (-34.6%; p= 0.03); baseline and 1-week (7%; p= 0.02), 1- and 3-week (-14%; p= 0.01), and 3- and 6-week PPTs (18%; p= 0.01); 3- and 6-week BROMs (Flexion, 7.1%; Extension, 41%; p= 0.048); baseline and 1-week (-6.9%; p= 0.02), 1- and 3-week (3%; p= 0.01), and 3- and 6-week active SLR test scores (7%; p= 0.011); and baseline and 1-week (-2.6%; p= 0.03), 1- and 3-week (8.34%; p= 0.01), and 3- and 6-week passive SLR test scores (5.3%; p= 0.025). Myofascial trigger point therapy with an inflatable ball relieved pain and improved physical function in the elderly with CNSLBP.

  6. Effect of Therapeutic Sequence of Hot Pack and Ultrasound on Physiological Response Over Trigger Point of Upper Trapezius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjaboonyanupap, Dararat; Paungmali, Aatit; Pirunsan, Ubon

    2015-09-01

    Musculoskeletal pain is a common problem among athletes. Apart from sport injuries, the myofascial pain syndrome is another important problem that affects performance of the athlete. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of therapeutic sequences of the hot pack in combination with ultrasound on the physiological responses over the latent myofascial trigger point (LMTrP) of upper trapezius muscle. Thirty subjects with a latent myofascial trigger point (LMTrP) in both sides of the upper trapezius muscle participated in the study (age 27.33 ± 4.34 years, weight 58.11 ± 7.47 kg, height 161.50 ± 5.82 cm, pressure pain threshold 2.28 ± 0.24 kg/cm(2), pain intensity 7.17 ± 2.25 VAS). All subjects received both treatments (hot pack followed by ultrasound: HP + US; and ultrasound followed by hot pack: US + HP) by randomization with a 24 to 48-hour interval between sessions. Outcome measures, including the tissue blood flow (TBF), pressure pain threshold (PPT), supra-thermal threshold (STT) and visual analog scale (VAS) were evaluated at baseline, immediately, after 30 minutes and after 60 minutes. The TBF and PPT significantly increased from baseline in both treatment conditions (i.e. HP + US and US + HP), while the HP + US condition showed a trend toward significant difference in VAS and STT in 45°C. The application of HP and US treatment induces physiological responses (especially, TBF and PPT) on the LMTrP. This finding provides the direction toward the management of MTrPs condition.

  7. Trigger Point Dry Needling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Increasingly, physical therapists in the United States and throughout the world are using dry needling to treat musculoskeletal pain, even though this treatment has been a controversial addition to practice. To better generalize to physical therapy practice the findings about dry needling thus far, the authors of a study published in the March 2017 issue of JOSPT identified the need for a systematic review examining the effectiveness of dry needling performed by physical therapists on people with musculoskeletal pain. Their review offers a meta-analysis of data from several included studies and assesses the evidence for risks of bias. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(3):150. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0502.

  8. Analgesic efficacy of ultrasound identified trigger point injection in myofascial pain syndrome: A pilot study in Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Parthasarathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS is described as sensory symptoms, sometimes with motor and autonomic symptoms caused by myofascial trigger points (TPs. Injection at TPs is most likely to benefit patients with such disorder. The identification of TPs is usually clinical. However, in sites where there are major vital structures, ultrasound guidance and real-time visualization may help in decreasing complications. Methodology: Twenty patients who presented to pain clinic with classic symptoms of MPS in the neck and shoulder area with clinically detectable TPs were selected. The points were imaged with ultrasound to find correlation with clinical positions. They were injected with a mixture of local anesthetic and steroid on TPs with real-time ultrasound guidance and needle visualization. Pretreatment visual analog scale (VAS scores and posttreatment (immediate and after 1 month were noted. The mean reduction in VAS scores was analyzed with paired Student′s t-test. Any side effect was observed and managed. Results: Clinically detectable TPs coincided with an echogenic point on the undersurface of the trapezius. There was a significant reduction in pain scores at both times. The needle sign was positive in all the cases. There were no major complications. Conclusion: The clinically identified TPs in trapezius muscle coincided well with ultrasound imaged echogenic structure in the muscle in all the cases. Ultrasound-assisted injections also produced the needle sign in all the cases. The achieved analgesia both immediately after the injection and a month later was satisfactory in the majority of cases. The echogenic mass corresponding to the TP is found to be on the undersurface of the muscle rather than inside the mass of the muscle.

  9. Effectiveness of trigger point dry needling for plantar heel pain: a meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He C

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Chunhui He,1,* Hua Ma2,* 1Internal Medicine of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2Medical Image Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Wulumuqi, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Plantar heel pain can be managed with dry needling of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs; however, whether MTrP needling is effective remains controversial. Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of MTrP needling in patients with plantar heel pain. Materials and methods: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, SinoMed (Chinese BioMedical Literature Service System, People’s Republic of China, and CNKI (National Knowledge Infrastructure, People’s Republic of China databases were systematically reviewed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs that assessed the effects of MTrP needling. Pooled weighted mean difference (WMD with 95% CIs were calculated for change in visual analog scale (VAS score, and pooled risk ratio (RR with 95% CIs were calculated for success rate for pain and incidence of adverse events. A fixed-effects model or random-effects model was used to pool the estimates, depending on the heterogeneity among the included studies. Results: Extensive literature search yielded 1,941 articles, of which only seven RCTs met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that MTrP needling significantly reduced the VAS score (WMD =–15.50, 95% CI: –19.48, –11.53; P<0.001 compared with control, but it had a similar success rate for pain with control (risk ratio [RR] =1.15, 95% CI: 0.87, 1.51; P=0.320. Moreover, MTrP needling was associated with a similar incidence of adverse events with control (RR =1.89, 95% CI: 0.38, 9.39; P=0.438. Conclusion: MTrP needling effectively reduced the heel pain due to plantar fasciitis. However, considering the potential limitations in this study, more large-scale, adequately powered, good

  10. The occurrence and inter-rater reliability of myofascial trigger points in the quadratus lumborum and gluteus medius: A prospective study in non-specific low back pain patients and controls in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Njoo (Khing Hua); E. van der Does (Emiel)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe presence of a trigger point is essential to the myofascial pain syndrome. This study centres on identifying clearer criteria for the presence of trigger points in the quadratus lumborum and gluteus medius muscle by investigating the occurrence and inter-rater reliability of trigger

  11. Inclusion of trigger point dry needling in a multimodal physical therapy program for postoperative shoulder pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Buría, José L; Valero-Alcaide, Raquel; Cleland, Joshua Aland; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Atín-Arratibel, María A; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of including 1 session of trigger point dry needling (TrP-DN) into a multimodal physiotherapy treatment on pain and function in postoperative shoulder pain. Twenty patients (5 male; 15 female; age, 58 ± 12 years) with postoperative shoulder pain after either open reduction and internal fixation with Proximal Humeral Internal Locking System plate plate or rotator cuff tear repair were randomly divided into 2 groups: physiotherapy group (n = 10) who received best evidence physical therapy interventions and a physical therapy plus TrP-DN group (n = 10) who received the same intervention plus a single session of TrP-DN targeted at active TrPs. The Constant-Murley score was used to determine pain, activities of daily living, range of motion, and strength, which was captured at baseline and 1 week after by an assessor blinded to group assignment. Analysis of variance showed that subjects receiving TrP-DN plus physical therapy exhibited greater improvement in the Constant-Murley total score (P physical therapy alone. Between-group effect sizes were large in favor of the TrP-DN group (0.97 physical therapy approach may assist with faster increases in function in individuals with postoperative shoulder pain. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Coexistence of Miyofascial Trigger Points and Cervical Disc Herniation: Which One is the Main Source of Pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülcan Öztürk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the coexistence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs and cervical disc herniations (CDH in patients with neck and upper back pain. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, patients having only MTrPs were defined as group-1, patients having only CDH were defined as group-2, patients having both MTrPs and CDH were defined as Group-3. Two hundred twenty three patients (151 females/72 males; mean age 38.2±10.1 years were enrolled in this study. There were 30 patients in group 1, 46 patients in group 2, 147 patients in group 3. Results: Thirty eight patients had radiculopathy, 27 of them had MTrP(s. There was no significant difference in terms of CDH level (p=0.275 and degree of herniation (p=0.188 between groups 2 and 3. There was no significant difference in terms of MTrP localisation (p=0.684 between groups 1 and 3. There was no significant difference in terms of MTrP localisations according to CDH level and nerve root compression level in groups 3. Conclusion: MTrP and CDH coexistence is frequent. Management of the pain in the upper back region should be based on whether if the pain originates from MTrP, CDH or both

  13. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Versus Trigger Point Injection in the Treatment of Myofascial Pain Syndrome in the Quadratus Lumborum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin Oh; Park, Joon Sang; Jeon, Dae Geun; Yoon, Wang Hyeon; Park, Jung Hyun

    2017-08-01

    To compare the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and trigger point injection (TPI) for the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome in the quadratus lumborum. In a retrospective study at our institute, 30 patients with myofascial pain syndrome in the quadratus lumborum were assigned to ESWT or TPI groups. We assessed ESWT and TPI treatment according to their affects on pain relief and disability improvement. The outcome measures for the pain assessment were a visual analogue scale score and pain pressure threshold. The outcome measures for the disability assessment were Oswestry Disability Index, Roles and Maudsley, and Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale scores. Both groups demonstrated statistically significant improvements in pain and disability measures after treatment. However, in comparing the treatments, we found ESWT to be more effective than TPI for pain relief. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with respect to disability. Compared to TPI, ESWT showed superior results for pain relief. Thus, we consider ESWT as an effective treatment for myofascial pain syndrome in the quadratus lumborum.

  14. Does myofascial and trigger point treatment reduce pain and analgesic intake in patients undergoing onabotulinumtoxinA injection due to chronic intractable migraine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Geroin, Christian; Valè, Nicola; Marchioretto, Fabio; Turrina, Andrea; Dimitrova, Eleonora; Tamburin, Stefano; Serina, Anna; Castellazzi, Paola; Meschieri, Andrea; Ricard, François; Saltuari, Leopold; Picelli, Alessandro; Smania, Nicola

    2018-02-01

    Chronic migraine is a disabling disorder associated with myofascial and trigger point disorders in the neck. Pharmacological management is the first line of treatment; however, rehabilitation procedures aimed at lessening symptoms of myofascial and trigger point disorders may add value in the management of headache symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of myofascial and trigger point treatment in chronic migraine patients receiving prophylactic treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA. To evaluate the treatment effects on headache frequency and intensity, analgesic consumption, cervical range of motion, trigger point pressure pain threshold, quality of life, and disability. Pilot, single-blind randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups. Neurorehabilitation Unit. Twenty-two outpatients with chronic migraine. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either cervicothoracic manipulative treatment (N.=12) or transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in the upper trapezius (N.=10). Treatment consisted of 4 sessions (30 min/session, 1 session/week for 4 weeks). A rater blinded to treatment allocation evaluated outcomes before treatment, during treatment, and 1 month after the end of treatment. Consistent with the pilot nature of the study, feasibility was considered the primary outcome and efficacy the secondary outcome. All patients completed the study. No adverse events were reported. No significant between-group differences in pain intensity were observed during the study period. At post-treatment evaluation, the total consumption of analgesics (P=0.02) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (P=0.02) drugs was significantly lower in the manipulative treatment group than in the TENS group. These effects paralleled significant improvements in trigger point sensitivity and cervical active range of motion. Manipulative techniques aimed at reducing peripheral nociceptive triggers might add value in the management of chronic migraine

  15. Comparison of Dose When Prescribed to Point A and Point H for Brachytherapy in Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gang, Ji Hyeong; Gim, Il Hwan; Hwang, Seon Boong; Kim, Woong; Im, Hyeong Seo; Gang, Jin Mook; Gim, Gi Hwan; Lee, Ah Ram [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seou (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to compare plans prescribed to point A with these prescribed to point H recommended by ABS (American Brachytherapy Society) in high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical carcinoma. This study selected 103 patients who received HDR (High Dose Rate) brachytherapy using tandem and ovoids from March 2010 to January 2012. Point A, bladder point, and rectal point conform with Manchester System. Point H conforms with ABS recommendation. Also Sigmoid colon point, and vagina point were established arbitrarily. We examined distance between point A and point H. The percent dose at point A was calculated when 100% dose was prescribed to point H. Additionally, the percent dose at each reference points when dose is prescribed to point H and point A were calculated. The relative dose at point A was lower when point H was located inferior to point A. The relative doses at bladder, rectal, sigmoid colon, and vagina points were higher when point H was located superior to point A, and lower when point H was located inferior to point A. This study found out that as point H got located much superior to point A, the absorbed dose of surrounding normal organs became higher, and as point H got located much inferior to point A, the absorbed dose of surrounding normal organs became lower. This differences dose not seem to affect the treatment. However, we suggest this new point is worth being considered for the treatment of HDR if dose distribution and absorbed dose at normal organs have large differences between prescribed to point A and H.

  16. Comparison of different inspiratory triggering settings in automated ventilators during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dingyu; Xu, Jun; Shao, Shihuan; Fu, Yangyang; Sun, Feng; Zhang, Yazhi; Hu, Yingying; Walline, Joseph; Zhu, Huadong; Yu, Xuezhong

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation via automated in-hospital ventilators is quite common during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It is not known whether different inspiratory triggering sensitivity settings of ordinary ventilators have different effects on actual ventilation, gas exchange and hemodynamics during resuscitation. 18 pigs enrolled in this study were anaesthetized and intubated. Continuous chest compressions and mechanical ventilation (volume-controlled mode, 100% O2, respiratory rate 10/min, and tidal volumes 10ml/kg) were performed after 3 minutes of ventricular fibrillation. Group trig-4, trig-10 and trig-20 (six pigs each) were characterized by triggering sensitivities of 4, 10 and 20 (cmH2O for pressure-triggering and L/min for flow-triggering), respectively. Additionally, each pig in each group was mechanically ventilated using three types of inspiratory triggering (pressure-triggering, flow-triggering and turned-off triggering) of 5 minutes duration each, and each animal matched with one of six random assortments of the three different triggering settings. Blood gas samples, respiratory and hemodynamic parameters for each period were all collected and analyzed. In each group, significantly lower actual respiratory rate, minute ventilation volume, mean airway pressure, arterial pH, PaO2, and higher end-tidal carbon dioxide, aortic blood pressure, coronary perfusion pressure, PaCO2 and venous oxygen saturation were observed in the ventilation periods with a turned-off triggering setting compared to those with pressure- or flow- triggering (all PVentilation with pressure- or flow-triggering tends to induce hyperventilation and deteriorating gas exchange and hemodynamics during CPR. A turned-off patient triggering or a pressure-triggering of 20 cmH2O is preferred for ventilation when an ordinary inpatient hospital ventilator is used during resuscitation.

  17. Treatment of nonspecific thoracic spine pain with trigger point dry needling and intramuscular electrical stimulation: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Jodie M; Rainey, Charles E

    2014-10-01

    Case Series. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are a common occurrence in many musculoskeletal issues and have been shown to be prevalent in both subjects with nonspecific low back pain and whiplash associated disorder. Trigger point dry needling (DN) has been shown to reduce pain and improve function in areas such as the cervical and lumbar spine, shoulder, hip, and knee, but has not been investigated in the thoracic spine. The purpose of this case series was to document the use of DN with intramuscular electrical stimulation (IES) in subjects with nonspecific thoracic spine pain. The subjects were both active duty military males aged 31 and 27 years who self-referred to physical therapy for thoracic spinal pain. Physical examination demonstrated thoracic motor control dysfunction, tissue hypertonicity, and tenderness to palpation of bilateral thoracic paraspinal musculature in both subjects. This indicated the presence of possible MrTPs. Objective findings in the first subject included painful thoracic flexion and bilateral rotation in each of these planes of movement. Pain reduction was observed when postural demands of the spine and trunk musculature were reduced through positional changes. Patient 1 demonstrated pain with posterior to anterior (P/A) pressure at T9 to T12. The second subject had bilaterally limited and painful thoracic rotation actively with normal passive rotation and demonstrated pain with P/A pressure at T4 to T7. The subjects were treated with DN and IES for a total of two visits each. DN was performed to paraspinal and multifidus musculature at the levels of elicited pain with P/A testing and IES set at a frequency level of 4 (1.5Hz) for 20 minutes. Subject 1 reported reduced pain with standing flexion from a 62mm VAS score on initial evaluation to 26mm at his second visit. Subject 2 reported being "quite a bit better" in symptoms on the GROC following his second treatment. His VAS score reported following weightlifting activities changed

  18. Effects of dry needling trigger point therapy in the shoulder region on patients with upper extremity pain and dysfunction: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michelle Louise; Mackie, Angela Claire; Ribeiro, Daniel Cury

    2017-08-07

    What is the effectiveness and what are the adverse effects. Systematic review with meta-analysis. Patients with shoulder or upper extremity pain or dysfunction. Trigger point dry needling (TDN) compared to control, another intervention or another needling technique. Primary outcome measures included shoulder or upper limb pain, shoulder or upper limb dysfunction. Eleven randomized trials involving 496 participants were appraised. There was very low evidence that trigger point dry needling of the shoulder region is effective for reducing pain and improving function in the short term. There is some evidence that needling both active and latent trigger points is more effective than needling an active trigger point alone for pain immediately and 1-week after treatment (SMD=-0.74, 95%CI=-1.2 to -0.3; and SMD=-1.0, 95%CI=-1.52 to -0.59). There is very low evidence to support the use of TDN in the shoulder region for treating patients with upper extremity pain or dysfunction. Two studies reported adverse effects to TDN interventions. Most common adverse effects included bruising, bleeding, and pain during or after treatment. Future studies are likely to change the estimates of the effectiveness of TDN for patients with upper extremity pain or dysfunction. CRD42016045639. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Standardized manual palpation of myofascial trigger points in relation to neck/shoulder pain; the influence of clinical experience on inter-examiner reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Larsen, Anders H

    2011-01-01

    A diagnosis of Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) requires palpation for the identification of at least one clinically relevant trigger point (TP). However, few comparable, high quality studies currently exist from which to draw firm conclusions regarding the robustness of TP examination. An inter-ob...

  20. Treatment of subacute posterior knee pain in an adolescent ballet dancer utilizing trigger point dry needling: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, John S; Tansey, Kimberly A; Westrick, Richard B

    2014-02-01

    Case Report. Dry needling (DN) is an increasingly popular intervention used by clinicians as a treatment of regional neuromusculoskeletal pain. DN is an invasive procedure that involves insertion of a thin monofilament needle directly into a muscle trigger point (MTP) with the intent of stimulating a local twitch response. Current evidence is somewhat limited, but recent literature supports the use of this intervention in specific neuromusculoskeletal conditions. The purpose of this case report is to present the outcomes of DN as a primary treatment intervention in an adolescent subject with subacute posterior knee pain. The subject was a 16-year-old female competitive ballet dancer referred to physical therapy with a two month history of right posterior knee pain. Palpation identified MTPs which reproduced the patient's primary symptoms. In addition to an exercise program promoting lower extremity flexibility and hip stability, the subject was treated with DN to the right gastrocnemius, soleus, and popliteus muscles. The subject reported being pain free on the Numerical Pain Scale and a +7 improvement in perceived change in recovery on the Global Rating of Change at final follow-up. Physical examination demonstrated no observed impairments or functional limitations, including normal mobility, full strength, and unrestricted execution of dance maneuvers. The patient was able to return to high level dance training and competition without physical limitations and resumed pre-injury dynamic movement activities including dancing, running, jumping, and pivoting without pain. DN can be an effective and efficient intervention to assist patients in decreasing pain and returning to high intensity physical activity. Additional research is needed to determine if DN is effective for other body regions and has long-term positive outcomes. Level 4.

  1. The effects of arm movement on reaction time in patients with latent and active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Marzieh; Talebian, Saeed; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Maroufi, Nader; Ahmadi, Amir; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Emrani, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is a significant source of mechanical pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of arm movement on reaction time in females with latent and active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point. In this interventional study, a convenience sample of fifteen women with one active MTP, fifteen women with one latent MTP in the upper trapezius, and fifteen normal healthy women were participated. Participants were asked to stand for 10 seconds in an erect standing position. Muscle reaction times were recorded including anterior deltoid (AD), cervical paraspinal (CP) lumbar paraspinal (LP), both of upper trapezius (UT), sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and medial head of gastrocnemius (GcM). Participants were asked to flex their arms in response to a sound stimulus preceded by a warning sound stimulus. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA Test. There was significant differences in motor time and reaction time between active and control groups (p< 0.05) except for GcM. There was no significant difference in motor time between active and passive groups except for UT without MTP and SCM (p< 0.05). Also, there were no significant differences in motor times between latent MTP and control groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in premotor times between the three groups. The present study shows that patients with active MTP need more time to react to stimulus, but patients with latent MTP are similar to healthy subjects in the reaction time. Patients with active MTP had less compatibility with environmental stimulations, and they responded to a specific stimulation with variability in Surface Electromyography (SEMG).

  2. Effects of spray and stretch on postneedling soreness and sensitivity after dry needling of a latent myofascial trigger point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pintado Zugasti, Aitor; Rodríguez-Fernández, Ángel L; García-Muro, Francisco; López-López, Almudena; Mayoral, Orlando; Mesa-Jiménez, Juan; Fernández-Carnero, Josue

    2014-10-01

    To investigate (1) the effect of spray and stretch versus control on reducing postneedling soreness of 1 latent myofascial trigger point (MTrP) and (2) whether higher levels of psychological distress are associated with increased postneedling pain intensity. A 72-hour follow-up, single-blind randomized controlled trial. University community. Healthy volunteers (N=70; 40 men, 30 women) aged 18 to 36 years (mean age, 21±4y) with latent MTrP in 1 upper trapezius muscle. All subjects received a dry needling application over the upper trapezius muscle. Then, participants were randomly divided into 2 groups: an intervention group, which received spray and stretch over the needled trapezius muscle, and a control group, which did not receive any intervention. Visual analog scale (at postneedling, posttreatment, and 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72h after needling), pressure pain threshold (at preneedling, postneedling, and 24 and 48h after needling). Psychological distress was evaluated by using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Repeated-measures analysis of variance demonstrated a significant interaction between group and time (F3,204.8=3.19; P.05). Repeated measures of covariance showed that none of the psychological covariates affected these results. Somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility were significantly correlated (P<.05) with postneedling pain intensity. Repeated-measures analysis of variance did not show a significant effect of spray and stretch on mechanical hyperalgesia (F2.6,175=1.9; P=.131; ηp(2)=.02). The spray and stretch had a short-term (<6h) effect in reducing postneedling soreness of a latent MTrP. Pressure pain threshold did not significantly change after spray and stretch. Psychological factors are related to postneedling pain. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Relationship between Rate of Algometer Application and Pain Pressure Threshold in the Assessment of Myofascial Trigger Point Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Lukas D; Kumbhare, Dinesh A; Joshi, Maneil; Srbely, John Z

    2018-02-01

    Pressure algometry is a commonly employed technique in the assessment of both regional and widespread musculoskeletal pain. Despite its acceptance amongst clinicians and scientists, the relationship between rate of pressure application (RoA) and pain pressure threshold (PPT) remains poorly understood. We set out to test the hypothesis that a strong, positive, linear relationship exists between the RoA and the PPT within the infraspinatus of young healthy subjects. Thirty-three participants were randomly recruited from the local university community. PPT measures were recorded from a clinically identified myofascial trigger point within the right infraspinatus muscle during pressure algometry. A total of 2 PPT measures were recorded using each of 3 different RoAs, including low (15 N/s), medium (35 N/s), and high (55 N/s). Three baseline trials were also conducted at 30 N/s. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between RoA and PPT was calculated for each subject and averaged across participants. The mean(SD) correlation between subjects was 0.77 (0.19), and the mean (SD) slope of the linear regression was 0.13 (0.09). Our results demonstrate that there is a strong, linear relationship between the RoA and PPT when using the pressure algometry technique. The low slope between RoA and PPT suggests clinicians can rely on PPT assessments despite small RoA fluctuations. Future research should explore this relationship further in a clinical population and in other muscles affected by chronic myofascial pain. Advancing cost-effective, reliable, and clinically feasible tools such as algometry is important to enhancing the diagnosis and management of chronic myofascial pain. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  4. Effectiveness of trigger point dry needling for plantar heel pain: a meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunhui; Ma, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Plantar heel pain can be managed with dry needling of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs); however, whether MTrP needling is effective remains controversial. Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of MTrP needling in patients with plantar heel pain. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, SinoMed (Chinese BioMedical Literature Service System, People's Republic of China), and CNKI (National Knowledge Infrastructure, People's Republic of China) databases were systematically reviewed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the effects of MTrP needling. Pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% CIs were calculated for change in visual analog scale (VAS) score, and pooled risk ratio (RR) with 95% CIs were calculated for success rate for pain and incidence of adverse events. A fixed-effects model or random-effects model was used to pool the estimates, depending on the heterogeneity among the included studies. Extensive literature search yielded 1,941 articles, of which only seven RCTs met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that MTrP needling significantly reduced the VAS score (WMD =-15.50, 95% CI: -19.48, -11.53; P <0.001) compared with control, but it had a similar success rate for pain with control (risk ratio [RR] =1.15, 95% CI: 0.87, 1.51; P =0.320). Moreover, MTrP needling was associated with a similar incidence of adverse events with control (RR =1.89, 95% CI: 0.38, 9.39; P =0.438). MTrP needling effectively reduced the heel pain due to plantar fasciitis. However, considering the potential limitations in this study, more large-scale, adequately powered, good-quality placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more trustworthy evidence in this area.

  5. Histopathological nature of myofascial trigger points at different stages of recovery from injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Lü, Jiao-Jiao; Huang, Qiang-Min; Liu, Lin; Liu, Qing-Guang; Eric, Opoku-Antwi

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the histopathological nature of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) or spots (MTrSs) at different stages of recovery from injury in a rat model. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (CG) and experimental group (EG). The CG was further randomly subdivided into CG1 and CG2 subgroups. The CG2 was used for palpating the taut band and CG1 as a blank. EG was subdivided into three groups according to recovery times: 4 weeks (4W), 8 weeks (8W) and 12 weeks (12W); these groups consisted of eight rats each. All CG rats received no intervention, whereas the intervention in EG rats was by a blunt strike to the vastus medialis and eccentric exercise for 8 weeks. The taut bands with spontaneous electrical activity were then detected in the muscle to guide a muscle biopsy. The histopathological findings were investigated under optical and electron microscopes in all groups. Under optical microscopy, the differently augmented sizes of round fibres (contracture knots) with deep staining in the transverse section and fusiform shapes in a longitudinal view were clearly seen in CG2 and EGs with a large diameter; the number of contracture knots was significantly more in EGs than in CGs. Under an electron microscope, the mitochondria in EGs significantly decreased with abnormal structures. The sarcomeres were significantly shortened in the 8W and 12W EGs. An injury can cause activation of MTrSs in a muscle and an activated level of MTrPs depending on the number of contracture knots in muscle with impaired energy production. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. TREATMENT OF SUBACUTE POSTERIOR KNEE PAIN IN AN ADOLESCENT BALLET DANCER UTILIZING TRIGGER POINT DRY NEEDLING: A CASE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, Kimberly A.; Westrick, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design: Case Report. Background and Purpose: Dry needling (DN) is an increasingly popular intervention used by clinicians as a treatment of regional neuromusculoskeletal pain. DN is an invasive procedure that involves insertion of a thin monofilament needle directly into a muscle trigger point (MTP) with the intent of stimulating a local twitch response. Current evidence is somewhat limited, but recent literature supports the use of this intervention in specific neuromusculoskeletal conditions. The purpose of this case report is to present the outcomes of DN as a primary treatment intervention in an adolescent subject with subacute posterior knee pain. Case Description: The subject was a 16‐year‐old female competitive ballet dancer referred to physical therapy with a two month history of right posterior knee pain. Palpation identified MTPs which reproduced the patient’s primary symptoms. In addition to an exercise program promoting lower extremity flexibility and hip stability, the subject was treated with DN to the right gastrocnemius, soleus, and popliteus muscles. Outcomes: The subject reported being pain free on the Numerical Pain Scale and a +7 improvement in perceived change in recovery on the Global Rating of Change at final follow‐up. Physical examination demonstrated no observed impairments or functional limitations, including normal mobility, full strength, and unrestricted execution of dance maneuvers. Discussion: The patient was able to return to high level dance training and competition without physical limitations and resumed pre‐injury dynamic movement activities including dancing, running, jumping, and pivoting without pain. DN can be an effective and efficient intervention to assist patients in decreasing pain and returning to high intensity physical activity. Additional research is needed to determine if DN is effective for other body regions and has long‐term positive outcomes. Level of Evidence: Level 4 PMID:24567862

  7. Gamma-telescopes Fermi/LAT and GAMMA-400 Trigger Systems Event Recognizing Methods Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Murchenko, A. E.; Chasovikov, E. N.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Kheymits, M. D.

    Usually instruments for high-energy γ-quanta registration consists of converter (where γ-quanta produced pairs) and calorimeter for particles energy measurements surrounded by anticoincidence shield used to events identification (whether incident particle was charged or neutral). The influence of pair formation by γ-quanta in shield and the backsplash (moved in the opposite direction particles created due high energy γ-rays interact with calorimeter) should be taken into account. It leads to decrease both effective area and registration efficiency at E>10 GeV. In the presented article the event recognizing methods used in Fermi/LAT trigger system is considered in comparison with the ones applied in counting and triggers signals formation system of gamma-telescope GAMMA-400. The GAMMA-400 (Gamma Astronomical Multifunctional Modular Apparatus) will be the new high-apogee space γ-observatory. The GAMMA-400 consist of converter-tracker based on silicon-strip coordinate detectors interleaved with tungsten foils, imaging calorimeter make of 2 layers of double (x, y) silicon strip coordinate detectors interleaved with planes of CsI(Tl) crystals and the electromagnetic calorimeter CC2 consists only of CsI(Tl) crystals. Several plastics detections systems used as anticoincidence shield, for particles energy and moving direction estimations. The main differences of GAMMA-400 constructions from Fermi/LAT one are using the time-of-flight system with base of 50 cm and double layer structure of plastic detectors provides more effective particles direction definition and backsplash rejection. Also two calorimeters in GAMMA-400 composed the total absorbtion spectrometer with total thickness ∼ 25 X0 or ∼1.2 λ0 for vertical incident particles registration and 54 X0 or 2.5 λ0 for laterally incident ones (where λ0 is nuclear interaction length). It provides energy resolution 1-2% for 10 GeV-3.0×103 GeV events while the Fermi/LAT energy resolution does not reach such a

  8. Equal Improvement in Men and Women in the Treatment of Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Using a Multi-modal Protocol with an Internal Myofascial Trigger Point Wand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rodney U; Wise, David; Sawyer, Tim; Nathanson, Brian H; Nevin Smith, J

    2016-06-01

    Both men and women require treatment for urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes (UCPPS), which includes interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, pelvic floor dysfunction, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. However, it is unknown if men and women respond differently to a protocol that includes specific physical therapy self-treatment using an internal trigger point wand and training in paradoxical relaxation. We performed a retrospective analysis by gender in a single arm, open label, single center clinical trial designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a protocol for the treatment of UCPPS from October, 2008 to May, 2011. 314 adult men (79.9 %) and 79 (20.1 %) women met inclusion criteria. The median duration of symptoms was 60 months. The protocol required an initial 6-day clinic for training followed by a 6-month self-treatment period. The treatment included self-administered pelvic floor trigger point release with an internal trigger point device for physical therapy along with paradoxical relaxation training. Notable gender differences in prior treatments were observed. Men had a lower median [Interquartile Range] NIH-CPSI score at baseline than women (27 [21, 31] vs. 29 [22, 33], p = 0.04). Using a 1-10 scale with 10 = Most Severe, the median reduction in trigger point sensitivity was 3 units for both men and women after 6 months therapy (p = 0.74). A modified Intention to Treat analysis and a multivariate regression analysis found similar results. We conclude that men and women have similar, significant reductions in trigger point sensitivity with this protocol.

  9. PENURUNAN NYERI DAN DISABILITAS DENGAN INTEGRATED NEUROMUSCULAR INHIBITION TECHNIQUES (INIT DAN MASSAGE EFFLEURAGE PADA MYOFASCIAL TRIGGER POINT SYNDROME OTOT TRAPESIUS BAGIAN ATAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veni Fatmawati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Myofascia Trigger Point Syndrome (MTrPs is trigger point muscle happens in musculoskeletal. Factors which strengthen and trigger the emerge of MTrPs are the muscle contraction which happens continuously, poor body position, wrong body position or movement, poor occupation activity and unsuitable workplace arrangement that affect the unergonomic work behavior. The objective of this reseacrh is to reveal the effectivity of  integrated neuromuscular  inhibition techniques (init and massage efflurage in decreasing pain and disability in myofasial trigger point of upper trapesius muscle. The subjects this research are 34 people which are taken randomly in Puskesmas 2 Kartosuro, Surakarta with 17 samples of each group. Group 1 is integrated neuromuscular inhibition techniques (init and group 2 is massage efflurage. The data used in this research is NDI scale taken before and after therapy. The data collected is processed by using differential test through computer base of SPSS 15.0 version. The data analysis by using paired sample t-test, in group 1 the data resulted before therapy is 48,35±6,68 and the data resulted after therapy is 25,94±5,87 with p = 0,000 (p < 0,05. Whereas in group 2, the  resulted before therapy is 47,53±5,17 and the data resulted before therapy is 28,00±8,91 with p = 0,000 (p < 0,05. To conclude, based on the data resulted in this research, integrated neuromuscular  inhibition techniques (init and massage effleurage are there is no difference decrease pain and disability in myofascial trigger point of upper trapezius muscle.

  10. Effectiveness of trigger point dry needling for plantar heel pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landorf Karl B

    2011-01-01

    be reported in accordance with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials and the Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture guidelines. The findings from this trial will provide evidence for the effectiveness of trigger point dry needling for plantar heel pain. Trial registration Australian New Zealand 'Clinical Trials Registry'. ACTRN12610000611022.

  11. Differ in Socio-Cognitive Processes? Some Comparisons between Paper and Video Triggered PBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jingyan; Chan, Lap Ki

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates whether paper and video triggers stimulate different social and cognitive processes during PBL. The study focused on how medical students identified and described problems, and how they built shared cognitions that lead them to diagnose and solve problems. The results showed that students who used video triggers put more…

  12. Ultrasound-guided myofascial trigger point injection into brachialis muscle for rotator cuff disease patients with upper arm pain: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mi Ri; Chang, Won Hyuk; Choi, Hyo Seon; Lee, Sang Chul

    2014-10-01

    To assess the efficacy of trigger point injection into brachialis muscle for rotator cuff disease patients with upper arm pain. A prospective, randomized, and single-blinded clinical pilot trial was performed at university rehabilitation hospital. Twenty-one patients clinically diagnosed with rotator cuff disease suspected of having brachialis myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) were randomly allocated into two groups. Effect of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection (n=11) and oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (n=10) was compared by visual analog scale (VAS). US-guided trigger point injection of brachialis muscle resulted in excellent outcome compared to the oral NSAID group. Mean VAS scores decreased significantly after 2 weeks of treatment compared to the baseline in both groups (7.3 vs. 4.5 in the injection group and 7.4 vs. 5.9 in the oral group). The decrease of the VAS score caused by injection (ДVAS=-2.8) was significantly larger than caused by oral NSAID (ДVAS=-1.5) (ptrigger point injection of the brachialis muscle is safe and effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of pain is suspected to be originated from the muscle.

  13. Usefulness of a myofascial trigger point injection for groin pain in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Suk; Jeong, Tae Yoong; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Chang, Won Hyuk; Yoon, Jeong-Gyu; Lee, Sang Chul

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of trigger point injection into the muscles around the groin in patients with clinically diagnosed chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Prospective, unicenter trial. University rehabilitation hospital. Patients (N=21) with clinically diagnosed CP/CPPS who are suspected of having myofascial pain syndrome. Ultrasound-guided trigger point injection. Visual analog scale (VAS), National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) score, and injection-associated complications. Ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection of the iliopsoas, hip adductor, and lower abdominal muscles resulted in excellent outcomes. The mean values of the NIH-CPSI score decreased significantly from 20.2 pretreatment to 12.5 after the first treatment (Ptrigger point injections of the iliopsoas, hip adductor, and abdominal muscles are safe and effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of groin pain is suspected to originate from muscles. In particular, the iliopsoas muscle was affected in all patients in this study. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of pressure perception of static and dynamic two point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study was carried out to compare the perception of Static and Dynamic two point discrimination sensibility in the index finger and investigate the influence of some demographic characteristics such as age, gender and limb dominance on two point discrimination sensibility. Methods: One hundred and ...

  15. The Effect of Dry Needling on Range of Motion of Neck Lateral Flexion in Subjects With Active Trigger Point in Upper Trapezius Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaeifar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Myofascial trigger point is one of the most common causes of musculoskeletal disorders. Myofascial trigger point in upper trapezius has been reported as a symptom in patients with neck and upper thoracic pain. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dry needling compared with ischemic pressure on trigger point in upper trapezius muscle. Materials and Methods 28 subjects with myofascial trigger point in upper trapezius participated in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: dry needling (n = 13 and ischemic pressure (n = 15. The neck lateral flexion range of motion was measured before and after treatment in both groups using a standard goniometer. Paired t-test was used to determine any significant difference in range of motion after treatment sessions compared with pre-treatment score in control and experimental group. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA was calculated to determine the significance of differences between the control and experimental groups in post-test scores, with pre-treatment scores used as covariates in the analysis. Results Statistical analysis (paired t-test revealed significant increase in neck lateral flexion range of motion in contra-lateral side after treatment sessions in control and experimental group compared with pre-treatment score (P < 0.05. However, only dry needling was effective in increase of range of motion in Ipsi-lateral side (P = 0.001. In the ANCOVA, controlling for pre-test scores, no significant difference was found between the two groups in the after treatment sessions (P = 0.06 and (P = 0.15. Conclusions The application of DN produces an improvement in ILF and CLF can be prescribed for subjects with MTP in UT muscles.

  16. Utility of trigger point injection as an adjunct to physical therapy in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tadros, Nicholas N.; Shah, Anup B.; Shoskes, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is often associated with pelvic floor muscle spasm. While pelvic floor physical therapy (PFPT) is effective, some men are unable to resolve their symptoms and have residual trigger points (TPs). TP injection has been used for treatment in several neuromuscular pain syndromes. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and side effects of TP injection in men with CP/CPPS and pelvic floor spasm refractory to PT. ...

  17. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in common shoulder disorders by physical therapy: A randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN75722066

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franssen Jo LM

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder disorders are a common health problem in western societies. Several treatment protocols have been developed for the clinical management of persons with shoulder pain. However available evidence does not support any protocol as being superior over others. Systematic reviews provide some evidence that certain physical therapy interventions (i.e. supervised exercises and mobilisation are effective in particular shoulder disorders (i.e. rotator cuff disorders, mixed shoulder disorders and adhesive capsulitis, but there is an ongoing need for high quality trials of physical therapy interventions. Usually, physical therapy consists of active exercises intended to strengthen the shoulder muscles as stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint or perform mobilisations to improve restricted mobility of the glenohumeral or adjacent joints (shoulder girdle. It is generally accepted that a-traumatic shoulder problems are the result of impingement of the subacromial structures, such as the bursa or rotator cuff tendons. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs in shoulder muscles may also lead to a complex of symptoms that are often seen in patients diagnosed with subacromial impingement or rotator cuff tendinopathy. Little is known about the treatment of MTrPs in patients with shoulder disorders. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether physical therapy modalities to inactivate MTrPs can reduce symptoms and improve shoulder function in daily activities in a population of chronic a-traumatic shoulder patients when compared to a wait-and-see strategy. In addition we investigate the recurrence rate during a one-year-follow-up period. Methods/Design This paper presents the design for a randomized controlled trial to be conducted between September 2007 – September 2008, evaluating the effectiveness of a physical therapy treatment for non-traumatic shoulder complaints. One hundred subjects are included in this study. All subjects

  18. A Comparative Pilot Study to Evaluate the Adjunctive Role of Levosulpride with Trigger Point Injection Therapy in the Management of Myofascial Pain Syndrome of Orofacial Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pranav; Singh, Virendra; Sethi, Sujata; Kumar, Arun

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of therapy with levosulpride combined with conventional trigger point injection therapy in terms of pain and depression in the chronic myofascial pain syndrome patients. This was a comparative prospective study in which subjects with at least one trigger point and symptom duration of at least 3 months were recruited and randomized into two groups. Group A subjects received trigger point injections with 0.5 % bupivacaine and tablet levosulpride and group B received trigger point injections and a placebo. Subjects were assessed for pain with visual analog scale (VAS) and depression with Beck's depression inventory (BDI) at the follow-up periods of 1, 4, 6 and 12 weeks. The treatment effect was measured in terms of mean difference of BDI and VAS scores at various studied intervals from the baseline values. The sample was composed of 15 subjects with 8 in group A (6 females and 2 males, with a mean age of 41.88 ± 15.13 years, disease duration of 12.37 ± 16.11 months) and 7 in group B (6 females and 1 male, with a mean age of 43.86 ± 12.34 years, disease duration of 9.64 ± 9.34 months). The mean baseline VAS score and BDI score was 6.75 ± 1.03 in group A and 6.86 ± 1.06 in group B and 24.25 ± 10.20 in group A and 24.43 ± 11.16 in group B respectively. The mean difference of VAS scores at 12th week interval from the baseline values was highly significant. Although the mean difference of VAS scores at all the other intervals and mean difference of BDI scores at all the intervals was statistically nonsignificant, there was improvement in the mean differences at all the follow-up intervals in terms of both pain as well as depression. The combined therapy with conventional trigger point injection and levosulpride as antidepressant significantly reduce pain and depression in the study subjects suffering from chronic myofascial pain with moderate to severe depression in the orofacial region.

  19. Self-gating MR imaging of the fetal heart: comparison with real cardiac triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Jin; Frisch, Michael; Ecker, Hannes; Adam, Gerhard; Wedegaertner, Ulrike; Graessner, Joachim; Hecher, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the self-gating technique for MR imaging of the fetal heart in a sheep model. MR images of 6 fetal sheep heart were obtained at 1.5T. For self-gating MRI of the fetal heart a cine SSFP in short axis, two and four chamber view was used. Self-gated images were compared with real cardiac triggered MR images (pulse-wave triggering). MRI of the fetal heart was performed using both techniques simultaneously. Image quality was assessed and the left ventricular volume and function were measured and compared. Compared with pulse-wave triggering, the self-gating technique produced slightly inferior images with artifacts. Especially the atrial septum could not be so clearly depicted. The contraction of the fetal heart was shown in cine sequences in both techniques. The average blood volumes could be measured with both techniques with no significant difference: at end-systole 3.1 ml (SD± 0.2), at end-diastole 4.9 ml (±0.2), with ejection fractions at 38.6%, respectively 39%. Both self-gating and pulse-wave triggered cardiac MRI of the fetal heart allowed the evaluation of anatomical structures and functional information. Images obtained by self-gating technique were slightly inferior than the pulse-wave triggered MRI. (orig.)

  20. Spatial attention triggered by unimodal, crossmodal, and bimodal exogenous cues: a comparison of reflexive orienting mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santangelo, Valerio; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Postma, Albert

    The aim of this study was to establish whether spatial attention triggered by bimodal exogenous cues acts differently as compared to unimodal and crossmodal exogenous cues due to crossmodal integration. In order to investigate this issue, we examined cuing effects in discrimination tasks and

  1. Comparison between retrospective gating and ECG triggering in magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, L; Ståhlberg, F; Thomsen, C

    1993-01-01

    ECG-triggered cinematographic studies of the cardiovascular system are hampered by several technical restrictions such as the inability to image end-diastole, ghosting, varying signal intensity, and phase contributions from eddy currents. Retrospective gating may solve these problems, but involves...

  2. Comparison study of hybrid VS critical systems in point kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.; Tommasi, J.; Slessarev, L.; Salvatores, M.; Mouney, H.; Vergnes, J.

    1999-01-01

    An essential motivation for hybrid systems is a potentially high level of intrinsic safety against reactivity accidents. In this respect, it is necessary to assess the behaviour of an Accelerator Driven System during a TOP, LOF or TOC accident. A comparison between a critical and sub-critical reactor shows a larger sensitivity for the critical system. The ADS has an unquestionable advantage in case of TOP but a less favourable behaviour as for LOFWS type of accidents. However in the ADS cases, the beam could be easily shut off during the transient. Therefore, a part of the R and D effort should be focused on the monitoring and control of power. (author)

  3. A case study utilizing myofascial release, acupressure and trigger point therapy to treat bilateral "Stringhalt" in a 12 year old Akhal-Teke horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Tammy

    2017-07-01

    "Stringhalt" is a horse condition that causes one or both hind legs to spasm when walking, trotting or backing. The condition is thought to be related to a neurological cause from either plant toxicity or peripheral nerve injury. The prognosis is poor and the horse's performance and quality of life can be affected. Treatment has included surgically cutting the digital extensors with varied results. The objective of the study is to utilize soft tissue release via acupressure, trigger point and myofascial release to decrease symptoms of stringhalt. The case study is a 12 year old Akhal-Teke horse of excellent pedigree. In 2011, she was caught in barbed wire overnight and sustained lacerations to the bone in her hindlimbs. Shortly after the injury the horse was placed in a stall for several months and was unable to walk or run, developing stringhalt. Currently, her condition is aggravated by stress and alleviated by certain types of massage (myofascial, acupressure, and trigger point release). The incidence of stringhalt occurs every 3-5 min, with more frequent and severe symptoms on the right hindlimb. The horse is unable to run or back up. Six 1 to 1½ hour bi-weekly treatments were performed. The treatments consisted of myofascial release at the cervical, sacrum and iliums, acupressure of the bladder meridian (including c-spine, t-spine, l-spine, and hamstring), and trigger point release of the iliacus. The stringhalt symptoms were monitored for 30 min prior to each of the 6 treatment sessions. After 6 treatments, the horse was observed running and standing in a position that promotes hip extension. She has not been able to do either since the injury. The frequency and severity of the spasms have decreased to every 10-20 min. The horse's owners report that her disposition, stress and quality of life are much improved. The results suggest that myofascial release, acupressure and trigger point therapy may be utilized to provide a positive treatment outcome in the

  4. [Appraisal of treatment of the trigger points associated with relaxation to treat chronic headache in the adult. Relationship with anxiety and stress adaptation strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffaux-Dogniez, C; Vanfraechem-Raway, R; Verbanck, P

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1950's and even still today, the concomitance between headaches and psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression) is the subject of considerable research. Even so, headaches still pose a problem of difficult diagnosis related to their multiform aspect. Their understanding may be regarded as neurological, psychological or musculo-articular. This complexity explains the lack of effectiveness of anti-migraine treatments in certain cases. This situation encourages recourse to complementary procedures such as those used in physiotherapy. The questions that could be posed regarding physiotherapeutic treatment are: Is the treatment effective? How does it act on the level of pain? and How does it act at the psychological level? It is to answer these questions that the work, which is the basis of this article, has been carried out. Two groups were studied during this research: a group of 25 patients and a reference group of 100 people. The headache patients were sent for physiotherapy by a GP or consultant neurologist. The pathologies retained for experimentation were: migraines without aura; Arnold's neuralgia; headaches of spinal origin; tension headaches and associated migraines. These pathologies are covered in International Headache Society Classification: Essential headache and in Section 45.4 of DSM IV: Painful problems . The physiotherapeutic treatments applied to the patients were: muscular massage and friction plus ultra-sound vibration of the trigger-points in the spinal, scapular, dorsal and facial regions; articular reharmonisation work on the spinal column; thermotherapy and relaxation as a technique allowing control of physical (muscular) and psychological (anxiety, fear of pain) tension to be regained. The treatment is evaluated by comparison of the periodicity and intensity of the headaches before and after treatment; comparison of anxiety (state and trait) before and after treatment and comparison of coping strategies before and after treatment

  5. Trigger point treatment with radial shock waves in musicians with nonspecific shoulder-neck pain: data from a special physio outpatient clinic for musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Malika; Zalpour, Christoff

    2011-12-01

    Musicians often suffer from disorders of the musculoskeletal system that are related to their instrument playing. Among the most frequent symptoms are complaints in the shoulder-neck area. Radial shock wave therapy is increasingly used in trigger point treatment, but only few high-level studies have examined of shock wave therapy used together with physical therapy in the treatment of musicians. This randomized blinded study in musicians (n = 26) with nonspecific shoulder-neck problems was done to examine the effect of shock wave therapy in addition to current physical therapy on the symptoms and quality of life of the musicians as well as their habits of playing musical instruments (intervention group shock wave vs reference group placebo). The effects were documented by a pain VAS and other instruments. A questionnaire designed specifically for musicians (with initial and final questions) recorded intensity and manifestation of pain and handicaps in daily life, especially when practicing and playing. The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and the Neck Pain Disability Index Questionnaire (NPDIQ) were also used. Both groups reported subjective improvement in pain, but significance was found only for the intervention group for the SPADI and NPDIQ. Trigger point treatment with radial shock wave used in combination with physical therapy makes the subjects feel temporarily relieved of neck and shoulder pains. The effects of radial shock wave without physical therapy will need to be examined in further studies.

  6. The Effect of Methylprednisolone Acetate Injection at Cervical Trigger Points in both Chronic and Drug Resistant Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Hadianfard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Most adults have surely once experienced a headache. A high percentage of these headaches are the referred pain from cervical structures, such as neck muscles, known as cervicogenic headaches. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of injection of methylprednisolone acetate at the Gallbladder-20 acupuncture points in muscle originated chronic and drug resistant headaches. Materials & Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2009-2010, 25 patients with both chronic and drug resistant cervicogenic headaches, who had cervical muscle tender points, underwent methylprednisolone acetate injection. To evaluate the severity of these patients' headache, VAS (Visual Analogue Scale was used. The collected data was analyzed using the SPSS software and Wilcoxon test. Results: The Mean headache intensity on the visual scale of these people before the injection was 3 .2 ± 76.7. This value was 2.60±2.9, 3 days after injection. The values at 1 and 3 months post procedure were 3.52±3.3, and 3.48±3.5, respectively. In other words, a statistically significant loss of pain score (P<0.001 was observed. The frequency of headache attacks 1 and 3 months after injection decreased 72% and 76% among patients, respectively. Average duration of headache attacks, one month and three months after injection, was decreased in 72 percent of patients. Conclusion: Injection of methylprednisolone acetate at the GB-20acu points in muscle originated cervicogenic headache could be used as an appropriate therapy that has significant therapeutic efficacies only when injected once.

  7. Evolution of the methodological quality of controlled clinical trials for myofascial trigger point treatments for the period 1978-2015: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Rahel; Clijsen, Ron; Leoni, Diego; Soldini, Emiliano; Castellini, Greta; Redaelli, Valentina; Barbero, Marco

    2017-08-01

    The methodological quality of controlled clinical trials (CCTs) of physiotherapeutic treatment modalities for myofascial trigger points (MTrP) has not been investigated yet. To detect the methodological quality of CCTs for physiotherapy treatments of MTrPs and demonstrating the possible increase over time. Systematic review. A systematic search was conducted in two databases, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and Medicine Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System online (MEDLINE), using the same keywords and selection procedure corresponding to pre-defined inclusion criteria. The methodological quality, assessed by the 11-item PEDro scale, served as outcome measure. The CCTs had to compare at least two interventions, where one intervention had to lay within the scope of physiotherapy. Participants had to be diagnosed with myofascial pain syndrome or trigger points (active or latent). A total of n = 230 studies was analysed. The cervico-thoracic region was the most frequently treated body part (n = 143). Electrophysical agent applications was the most frequent intervention. The average methodological quality reached 5.5 on the PEDro scale. A total of n = 6 studies scored the value of 9. The average PEDro score increased by 0.7 points per decade between 1978 and 2015. The average PEDro score of CCTs for MTrP treatments does not reach the cut-off of 6 proposed for moderate to high methodological quality. Nevertheless, a promising trend towards an increase of the average methodological quality of CCTs for MTrPs was recorded. More high-quality CCT studies with thorough research procedures are recommended to enhance methodological quality. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of dual trigger with combination GnRH agonist and hCG versus hCG alone trigger of oocyte maturation for normal ovarian responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingyu; Guo, Pingping; Chen, Xin; Ye, Desheng; Liu, Yudong; Chen, Shiling

    2018-02-01

    To investigate whether dual triggering of oocyte maturation with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and standard dose of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) can improve clinical outcomes for normal ovarian responders in GnRH antagonist cycles. The present retrospective cohort study included women aged up to 40 years with normal ovarian response who underwent in vitro fertilization and/or intracytoplasmic sperm injection under the GnRH antagonist protocol at Nanfang Hospital, China, between January 1 and December 31, 2015. Patients were grouped by whether oocyte maturation was triggered with GnRH agonist plus 5000-10 000 IU of hCG (dual trigger) or hCG alone. The primary outcome was live delivery rate. There were 325 women included; 224 in the dual trigger group and 101 in the hCG alone group. The live delivery rate did not differ significantly between the groups (P=0.083). The mean number of retrieved oocytes was similar in the two groups (P=0.719), but the mean number of two-pronuclear embryos (P=0.004), the mean number of embryos available (P=0.001), and the mean number of high-quality embryos (P=0.011) was higher in the dual trigger group. Dual trigger of oocyte maturation was not associated with any change in the live delivery rate but was associated with improvements in the quantity and quality of embryos; it could optimize pregnancy outcomes for normal ovarian responders. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  9. Patterns of Use of Peripheral Nerve Blocks and Trigger Point Injections for Pediatric Headache: Results of a Survey of the American Headache Society Pediatric and Adolescent Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szperka, Christina L; Gelfand, Amy A; Hershey, Andrew D

    2016-11-01

    To describe current patterns of use of nerve blocks and trigger point injections for treatment of pediatric headache. Peripheral nerve blocks are often used to treat headaches in adults and children, but the available studies and practice data from adult headache specialists have shown wide variability in diagnostic indications, sites injected, and medication(s) used. The purpose of this study was to describe current practice patterns in the use of nerve blocks and trigger point injections for pediatric headache disorders. A survey was created in REDCap, and sent via email to the 82 members of the Pediatric and Adolescent Section of the American Headache Society in June 2015. The survey queried about current practice and use of nerve blocks, as well as respondents' opinions regarding gaps in the evidence for use of nerve blocks in this patient population. Forty-one complete, five incomplete, and three duplicate responses were submitted (response rate complete 50%). About 78% of the respondents identified their primary specialty as Child Neurology, and 51% were certified in headache medicine. Twenty-six (63%) respondents perform nerve blocks themselves, and seven (17%) refer patients to another provider for nerve blocks. Chronic migraine with status migrainosus was the most common indication for nerve blocks (82%), though occipital neuralgia (79%), status migrainosus (73%), chronic migraine without flare (70%), post-traumatic headache (70%), and new daily persistent headache (67%) were also common indications. The most commonly selected clinically meaningful response for status migrainosus was ≥50% reduction in severity, while for chronic migraine this was a ≥50% decrease in frequency at 4 weeks. Respondents inject the following locations: 100% inject the greater occipital nerve, 69% lesser occipital nerve, 50% supraorbital, 46% trigger point injections, 42% auriculotemporal, and 34% supratrochlear. All respondents used local anesthetic, while 12 (46%) also use

  10. Use of sequential diagnostic pain blocks in a patient of posttraumatic complex regional pain syndrome-not otherwise specified complicated by myofascial trigger points and thoracolumbar pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Kothari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a case of posttraumatic lower limb Complex regional pain syndrome – Not otherwise specified (CRPS – NOS. As it was not treated in acute phase, the pain became chronic and got complicated by myofascial and thoracolumbar pain syndrome. This case posed us a diagnostic challenge. We used sequential diagnostic pain blocks to identify the pain generators and successfully treat the patient. We used diagnostic blocks step by step to identify and treat pain generators – T12,L1 and L2 Facet joints, Lumbar sympathetic block for CRPS NOS and Trigger point injection with dry needling for myofascial pain syndrome. This case highlights the facet that additional pain generators unrelated to original pain may complicate the presentation. Identifying these pain generators requires out of box thinking and high index of suspicion.

  11. Distance of cleavage trigger point (weakest-link) to the crack tip - fractographic analysis; Distancias dos elos-mais-fracos ate a ponta da trinca - analise fractografica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Carlos Alexandre de J. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). E-mail: cmiranda@net.ipen.br

    2000-07-01

    Among the existing approaches approaches to predict J{sub c,} in the transition region of the ferritic steels, there are statistical and deterministic methods. Among the formers we have the methodology based on the two-parameter J-Q theory and the weakest-link concept with its characteristic distance, r{sub wl.} For this work, an experimental program was developed using 65 fracture mechanics specimens made from an A508 steel, in three geometries with thickness B < 1T = 25.4 mm, and tested at four transition temperatures. After the tests to measure J{sub c,} all specimen fracture surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy to identify the cleavage trigger points (weak-links) and to measure their characteristic distances r{sub wl} to the crap tip. The J{sub c} and r{sub wl} values were presented and compared with the theoretical ones. (author)

  12. Comparison and Outcome Analysis of Patients with Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Triggered by Emotional Stress or Physical Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Giannakopoulos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies revealed that takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC is triggered by physical and emotional stresses. This study was performed to determine the short- and long-term prognostic impact of emotional- and physical stress associated with TTC.Methods and results: Our institutional database constituted a collective of 84 patients diagnosed with TTC between 2003 and 2015. The patients were divided into two groups as per the presence of emotional stress (n = 24, 21% or physical stress (n = 60, 52.6%. The endpoint was a composite of in-hospital events (thromboembolic events and life-threatening arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, all-cause of mortality, re-hospitalization due to heart failure, stroke, and recurrence of TTC. A Kaplan–Meier analysis indicated a significantly lower event-free survival rate over a mean follow-up of 5 years in the emotional group than the physical stress group (log-rank, p < 0.01. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed only emotional stress (HR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2–0.9, p < 0.05 as a negative independent predictor of the primary endpoint.Conclusion: Rates of in-hospital events and short- as well as long-term events were significantly lower in TTC patients suffering from emotional stress as compared to patients with physical stress.

  13. Dry Needling on the Infraspinatus Latent and Active Myofascial Trigger Points in Older Adults With Nonspecific Shoulder Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Lobo, César; Pacheco-da-Costa, Soraya; Martínez-Martínez, Jorge; Rodríguez-Sanz, David; Cuesta-Álvaro, Pedro; López-López, Daniel

    Shoulder pain is a prevalent condition in older adults. Some authors associate nonspecific shoulder pain with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the infraspinatus muscle. Dry needling is recommended to relieve the MTrP pain of shoulders in the short term (dry needling improves shoulder pain and the irritability of the satellite MTrPs in the referred pain area. Nociceptive activity at a latent MTrP may influence motor activity and the sensitivity of MTrPs in distant muscles at a similar segmental level. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate dry needling on 1 latent MTrP, in conjunction with 1 active MTrP, in the infraspinatus muscle of older adults with nonspecific shoulder pain. A single-center, randomized, single-blinded, controlled study (NCT02032602) was carried out. Sixty-six patients aged 65 years and older with trigger points in the ipsilateral infraspinatus of the painful shoulder were randomly assigned to (1) of (2) treatment groups. A session of dry needling on the infraspinatus was performed in (1) the most hyperalgesic active and latent MTrP or (2) only the most hyperalgesic active MTrP. The Numeric Rating Scale, the pressure pain threshold (primary outcome) on the anterior deltoid and extensor carpi radialis brevis latent MTrPs, and grip strength were assessed before, after, and 1 week after the intervention. Statistically significant differences in the reduction of pain intensity (P ≤ .001; η = 0.159-0.269; d = 1.017-1.219) and the increase of pressure pain threshold (P . 05; η = 0.006-0.033; d = 0.158-0.368). One dry needling intervention of the latent MTrP associated with the key active MTrP of the infraspinatus reduces pain intensity and the irritability of the satellite MTrPs located in the referred pain area in the short term in older adults with nonspecific shoulder pain.

  14. The effect of dry needling on pain, pressure pain threshold and disability in patients with a myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaeifar, Maryam; Arab, Amir Massoud; Karimi, Noureddin; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2014-04-01

    Dry needling (DN) has been used recently by physical therapists as a therapy of choice for patients with myofascial trigger points (TrP). The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of DN in the treatment of TrPs in the upper trapezius (UT) muscle. A sample of convenience of 33 patients with TrP in the UT muscle participated in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to a standard (N = 17) or experimental group (N = 16). The treatment protocol for the standard group consisted of trigger point compression technique (TCT) on MTP, while the patients in the experimental group received DN. Pain intensity and pressure pain thresholds were assessed for both groups before and after the treatment sessions. In addition, the Disability of Arm, Hand, and Shoulder (DASH) was administered. Statistical analysis (paired t-test) revealed a significant improvement in pain, PPT and DASH scores after treatment in the experimental (DN) and standard (TCT) group compared with before treatment (P < 0.05). The ANCOVA revealed significant differences between the DN and TCT groups on the post-measurement VAS score (P = 0.01). There was, however, no significant difference between the two groups on the post-measurement score of the PPT (P = 0.08) and DASH (P = 0.34). DN produces an improvement in pain intensity, PPT and DASH and may be prescribed for subjects with TrP in UT muscles especially when pain relief is the goal of the treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Validity and Reliability of Clinical Examination in the Diagnosis of Myofascial Pain Syndrome and Myofascial Trigger Points in Upper Quarter Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral Del Moral, Orlando; Torres Lacomba, María; Russell, I Jon; Sánchez Méndez, Óscar; Sánchez Sánchez, Beatriz

    2017-12-15

    To determine whether two independent examiners can agree on a diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). To evaluate interexaminer reliability in identifying myofascial trigger points in upper quarter muscles. To evaluate the reliability of clinical diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of MPS. To evaluate the validity of clinical diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of MPS. Validity and reliability study. Provincial Hospital. Toledo, Spain. Twenty myofascial pain syndrome patients and 20 healthy, normal control subjects, enrolled by a trained and experienced examiner. Ten bilateral muscles from the upper quarter were evaluated by two experienced examiners. The second examiner was blinded to the diagnosis group. The MPS diagnosis required at least one muscle to have an active myofascial trigger point. Three to four days separated the two examinations. The primary outcome measure was the frequency with which the two examiners agreed on the classification of the subjects as patients or as healthy controls. The kappa statistic (K) was used to determine the level of agreement between both examinations, interpreted as very good (0.81-1.00), good (0.61-0.80), moderate (0.41-0.60), fair (0.21-0.40), or poor (≤0.20). Interexaminer reliability for identifying subjects with MPS was very good (K = 1.0). Interexaminer reliability for identifying muscles leading to a diagnosis of MPS was also very good (K = 0.81). Sensitivity and specificity showed high values for most examination tests in all muscles, which confirms the validity of clinical diagnostic criteria in the diagnosis of MPS. Interrater reliability between two expert examiners identifying subjects with MPS involving upper quarter muscles exhibited substantial agreement. These results suggest that clinical criteria can be valid and reliable in the diagnosis of this condition.

  16. Comparison of two stand-alone CADe systems at multiple operating points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, Berkman; Chen, Weijie; Pezeshk, Aria; Petrick, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CADe) systems are typically designed to work at a given operating point: The device displays a mark if and only if the level of suspiciousness of a region of interest is above a fixed threshold. To compare the standalone performances of two systems, one approach is to select the parameters of the systems to yield a target false-positive rate that defines the operating point, and to compare the sensitivities at that operating point. Increasingly, CADe developers offer multiple operating points, which necessitates the comparison of two CADe systems involving multiple comparisons. To control the Type I error, multiple-comparison correction is needed for keeping the family-wise error rate (FWER) less than a given alpha-level. The sensitivities of a single modality at different operating points are correlated. In addition, the sensitivities of the two modalities at the same or different operating points are also likely to be correlated. It has been shown in the literature that when test statistics are correlated, well-known methods for controlling the FWER are conservative. In this study, we compared the FWER and power of three methods, namely the Bonferroni, step-up, and adjusted step-up methods in comparing the sensitivities of two CADe systems at multiple operating points, where the adjusted step-up method uses the estimated correlations. Our results indicate that the adjusted step-up method has a substantial advantage over other the two methods both in terms of the FWER and power.

  17. Comparison of a 'freeze-all' strategy including GnRH agonist trigger versus a 'fresh transfer' strategy including hCG trigger in assisted reproductive technology (ART)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stormlund, Sacha; Løssl, Kristine; Zedeler, Anne

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy rates after frozen embryo transfer (FET) have improved in recent years and are now approaching or even exceeding those obtained after fresh embryo transfer. This is partly due to improved laboratory techniques, but may also be caused by a more physiological hormonal...... is not yet implemented as standard care due to limitations of large randomised trials showing a benefit of such a strategy. Thus, there is a need to test the concept against standard care in a randomised controlled design. This study aims to compare ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates between a freeze......-all strategy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triggering versus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger and fresh embryo transfer in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Multicentre randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial of women undergoing assisted...

  18. Triggering Artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben Holst; Robinson, Mike

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a general critique of the use of conceptual frameworks in design, illustrated by the well known synchronous/asynchronous, co-located/non-co-located framework. It argues that while frameworks are a necessary and inevitable starting point for design, the business of tailoring...... and adapting them to specific situations need not be ad hoc.Triggering artefacts are a way of systematically challenging both designers' preunderstandings and the conservatism of work practice. Experiences from the Great Belt tunnel and bridge project are used to illustrate howtriggering artefacts change...

  19. Central Sensitization Is Modulated Following Trigger Point Anesthetization in Patients with Chronic Pain from Whiplash Trauma. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, N Ake; Freeman, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    Central sensitization (CS) with low peripheral pain thresholds (PPTs) is a common finding among patients with chronic pain after whiplash (CPWI). While it has been proposed that myofascial myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) may act as modulators of central sensitization, previously reported findings are conflicting and inconclusive. The present study was designed to investigate immediate responsiveness of CS to alterations in nociceptive input. Controlled, double-blind, cross-over. Thirty-one patients with chronic pain (trapezius myalgia) and CS after whiplash. Participants were referred by randomization to group A for injection of a single peripheral pain generator (MTrP or other discrete tender point) with local anesthetic or to group B for sham injection and cross-over. Documentation of PPT (Algometer), maximum jaw opening (caliper), and grip strength (Vigorimeter), as well as subjective overall pain (visual analog scale [VAS]), was made before and after each intervention. Statistical analysis of data (Student's t test, analysis of variance) confirmed that peripheral pain thresholds were significantly higher and maximum jaw opening significantly greater after anesthetizing a focal pain generator in the trapezius, but not after a sham injection. In contrast with the objective variables, subjective generalized pain improved (VAS) after not only an injection of local anesthetic, but also, and to a similar extent, after a sham injection. CS, as expressed by lowered PPT, is a rapidly adjusting physiological response to nociceptive stimuli in some patients with chronic pain after whiplash. PPT are likely modulated by myofascial tender points in selected patients with CS. With reference to the present findings, surgical ablation of MTrPs is discussed as a potential treatment modality for CS. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Alpha-2 adrenergic stimulation triggers Achilles tenocyte hypercellularity: Comparison between two model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, L J; Andersson, G; Fong, G; Alfredson, H; Scott, A; Danielson, P

    2013-12-01

    The histopathology of tendons with painful tendinopathy is often tendinosis, a fibrosis-like condition of unclear pathogenesis characterized by tissue changes including hypercellularity. The primary tendon cells (tenocytes) have been shown to express adrenoreceptors (mainly alpha-2A) as well as markers of catecholamine production, particularly in tendinosis. It is known that adrenergic stimulation can induce proliferation in other cells. The present study investigated the effects of an exogenously administered alpha-2 adrenergic agonist in an established in vivo Achilles tendinosis model (rabbit) and also in an in vitro human tendon cell culture model. The catecholamine producing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase and the alpha-2A-adrenoreceptor (α2A AR) were expressed by tenocytes, and alpha-2 adrenergic stimulation had a proliferative effect on these cells, in both models. The proliferation was inhibited by administration of an α2A AR antagonist, and the in vitro model further showed that the proliferative alpha-2A effect was mediated via a mitogenic cell signaling pathway involving phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. The results indicate that catecholamines produced by tenocytes in tendinosis might contribute to the proliferative nature of the pathology through stimulation of the α2A AR, pointing to a novel target for future therapies. The study furthermore shows that animal models are not necessarily required for all aspects of this research. © 2013 The Authors. Scand J Med Sci Sports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The use of trigger point dry needling and intramuscular electrical stimulation for a subject with chronic low back pain: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Charles E

    2013-04-01

    Case Report. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are widely accepted by clinicians and researchers as a primary source of regional neuromusculoskeletal pain. Trigger point dry needling (TrP-DN) is an invasive procedure that involves stimulation of MTrPs using an monofilament needle. The purpose of this case report is to report the outcomes of TrP-DN and intramuscular electrical stimulation (IES) as a primary treatment intervention in a subject with chronic low back pain. The subject was a 30-year-old female, active duty military, who was referred to physical therapy for low back and right posterolateral hip pain. She noticed symptoms after suffering a lumbar flexion injury while picking up a barbell during weight training. Physical examination demonstrated findings that supported the diagnosis of lumbar segmental instability with a right hip stability dysfunction. Objective findings included a multi-segmental flexion movement pattern dysfunction and MTrPs in the right gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles with deep palpation. The subject was treated with TrP-DN and IES for a total of two visits. Bilateral L3 and L5 multifidus and right gluteus maximus and medius muscles were treated, along with implementing a home exercise program consisting of core stability exercises. The subject reported no existing pain and disability on the Numerical Pain Rating Scale and Oswestry Disability Questionnaire and a large perceived change in recovery on the Global Rating of Change at final follow-up. Physical examination was normal, demonstrating no observed impairments or functional limitations, including normal multi-segmental flexion and no MTrPs with deep palpation. The subject was able to return to full military active duty without any physical limitations and resumed pre-injury activity levels, including the ability to resume all activities without pain. There is much promise regarding the use of TrP-DN with IES intervention for the treatment of lumbar and/or hip stability

  2. Ischemic Compression After Dry Needling of a Latent Myofascial Trigger Point Reduces Postneedling Soreness Intensity and Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pintado-Zugasti, Aitor; Pecos-Martin, Daniel; Rodríguez-Fernández, Ángel Luis; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel María; Portillo-Aceituno, Alicia; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; Fernandez-Carnero, Josue

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effect of ischemic compression (IC) versus placebo and control on reducing postneedling soreness of 1 latent myofascial trigger point and on improving cervical range of motion (CROM) in asymptomatic subjects. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 72-hour follow-up. A university community. Asymptomatic volunteers (N = 90: 40 men and 50 women) aged 18 to 39 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD]: 22 ± 3 years). All subjects received a dry needling application over the upper trapezius muscle. Participants were then randomly divided into 3 groups: a treatment group who received IC over the needled trapezius muscle, a placebo group who received sham IC, and a control group who did not receive any treatment after needling. Visual analog scale (VAS; during needling, at posttreatment and 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours) and CROM (at preneedling, postneedling, and 24 and 72 hours). Subjects in the IC group showed significantly lower postneedling soreness than the placebo and the control group subjects immediately after treatment (mean ± standard deviation [SD]: IC, 20.1 ± 4.8; placebo, 36.7 ± 4.8; control, 34.8 ± 3.6) and at 48 hours (mean ± SD: IC, 0.6 ± 1; placebo, 4.8 ± 1; control, 3.8 ± 0.7). In addition, subjects in the dry needling+IC group showed significantly lower postneedling soreness duration (P = .026). All subjects significantly improved CROM in contralateral lateroflexion and both homolateral and contralateral rotations, but only the improvements found in the IC group reached the minimal detectable change. IC can potentially be added immediately after dry needling of myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle because it has the effect of reducing postneedling soreness intensity and duration. The combination of dry needling and IC seems to improve CROM in homolateral and contralateral cervical rotation movements. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by

  3. THE USE OF TRIGGER POINT DRY NEEDLING AND INTRAMUSCULAR ELECTRICAL STIMULATION FOR A SUBJECT WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN: A CASE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Study Design: Case Report. Background and Purpose: Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are widely accepted by clinicians and researchers as a primary source of regional neuromusculoskeletal pain. Trigger point dry needling (TrP‐DN) is an invasive procedure that involves stimulation of MTrPs using an monofilament needle. The purpose of this case report is to report the outcomes of TrP‐DN and intramuscular electrical stimulation (IES) as a primary treatment intervention in a subject with chronic low back pain. Case Description: The subject was a 30‐year‐old female, active duty military, who was referred to physical therapy for low back and right posterolateral hip pain. She noticed symptoms after suffering a lumbar flexion injury while picking up a barbell during weight training. Physical examination demonstrated findings that supported the diagnosis of lumbar segmental instability with a right hip stability dysfunction. Objective findings included a multi‐segmental flexion movement pattern dysfunction and MTrPs in the right gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles with deep palpation. The subject was treated with TrP‐DN and IES for a total of two visits. Bilateral L3 and L5 multifidus and right gluteus maximus and medius muscles were treated, along with implementing a home exercise program consisting of core stability exercises. Outcomes: The subject reported no existing pain and disability on the Numerical Pain Rating Scale and Oswestry Disability Questionnaire and a large perceived change in recovery on the Global Rating of Change at final follow‐up. Physical examination was normal, demonstrating no observed impairments or functional limitations, including normal multi‐segmental flexion and no MTrPs with deep palpation. Discussion: The subject was able to return to full military active duty without any physical limitations and resumed pre‐injury activity levels, including the ability to resume all activities without pain. There is much promise

  4. Multiple active myofascial trigger points and pressure pain sensitivity maps in the temporalis muscle are related in women with chronic tension type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Caminero, Ana B; Madeleine, Pascal; Guillem-Mesado, Amparo; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-01-01

    To describe the common locations of active trigger points (TrPs) in the temporalis muscle and their referred pain patterns in chronic tension type headache (CTTH), and to determine if pressure sensitivity maps of this muscle can be used to describe the spatial distribution of active TrPs. Forty women with CTTH were included. An electronic pressure algometer was used to assess pressure pain thresholds (PPT) from 9 points over each temporalis muscle: 3 points in the anterior, medial and posterior part, respectively. Both muscles were examined for the presence of active TrPs over each of the 9 points. The referred pain pattern of each active TrP was assessed. Two-way analysis of variance detected significant differences in mean PPT levels between the measurement points (F=30.3; P<0.001), but not between sides (F=2.1; P=0.2). PPT scores decreased from the posterior to the anterior column (P<0.001). No differences were found in the number of active TrPs (F=0.3; P=0.9) between the dominant side the nondominant side. Significant differences were found in the distribution of the active TrPs (chi2=12.2; P<0.001): active TrPs were mostly found in the anterior column and in the middle of the muscle belly. The analysis of variance did not detect significant differences in the referred pain pattern between active TrPs (F=1.1, P=0.4). The topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps showed the distinct distribution of the TrPs indicated by locations with low PPTs. Multiple active TrPs in the temporalis muscle were found, particularly in the anterior column and in the middle of the muscle belly. Bilateral posterior to anterior decreased distribution of PPTs in the temporalis muscle in women with CTTH was found. The locations of active TrPs in the temporalis muscle corresponded well to the muscle areas with lower PPT, supporting the relationship between multiple active muscle TrPs and topographical pressure sensitivity maps in the temporalis muscle in women with CTTH.

  5. Comparison of two oral symptom-triggered pharmacological inpatient treatments of acute alcohol withdrawal: clomethiazole vs. clonazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Udo; Lensing, Maresa; Specka, Michael; Scherbaum, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    To compare two inpatient symptom-triggered pharmacological treatments of acute alcohol withdrawal (AWS) (clomethiazole vs. clonazepam). Prospective observational comparison within a quality improvement project. Because of a need for extra precautions against complications such as seizures and severe respiratory complaints, patients with a history of withdrawal seizures or complications with clomethiazole in their history were automatically assigned to the clonazepam group. The remaining patients were alternately assigned either to the clonazepam group (n = 38 altogether) or the clomethiazole group (n = 36). Rescue medication could consist of adding either extra clonazepam or clomethiazole. Effectiveness was measured by Clinical Global Impression Scale, Revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol Scale, Mainz Alcohol Withdrawal Scale, Essen Self-Assessment-Alcohol Withdrawal and attrition rate. Safety and tolerability was estimated from adverse clinical events. Secondary outcome values were heart rate, blood and pulse pressure. There were no significant differences between the treatments with respect to primary and secondary effectiveness measures, safety or tolerability or duration of medication treatment. Both reduced the severity of initial withdrawal symptoms below 20% up to the ending of withdrawal medications. No withdrawal seizure or delirium occurred. Both score-driven treatments were equally effective, safe and well tolerated in this setting. This is the first study demonstrating the utility of clonazepam in the treatment of AWS syndrome.

  6. Efficacy of Myofascial Trigger Point Dry Needling in the Prevention of Pain after Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, Orlando; Salvat, Isabel; Martín, María Teresa; Martín, Stella; Santiago, Jesús; Cotarelo, José; Rodríguez, Constantino

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the dry needling of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) is superior to placebo in the prevention of pain after total knee arthroplasty. Forty subjects were randomised to a true dry needling group (T) or to a sham group (S). All were examined for MTrPs by an experienced physical therapist 4–5 hours before surgery. Immediately following anesthesiology and before surgery started, subjects in the T group were dry needled in all previously diagnosed MTrPs, while the S group received no treatment in their MTrPs. Subjects were blinded to group allocation as well as the examiner in presurgical and follow-up examinations performed 1, 3, and 6 months after arthroplasty. Subjects in the T group had less pain after intervention, with statistically significant differences in the variation rate of the visual analogue scale (VAS) measurements 1 month after intervention and in the need for immediate postsurgery analgesics. Differences were not significant at 3- and 6-month follow-up examinations. In conclusion, a single dry needling treatment of MTrP under anaesthesia reduced pain in the first month after knee arthroplasty, when pain was the most severe. Results show a superiority of dry needling versus placebo. An interesting novel placebo methodology for dry needling, with a real blinding procedure, is presented. PMID:23606888

  7. Experienced versus Inexperienced Interexaminer Reliability on Location and Classification of Myofascial Trigger Point Palpation to Diagnose Lateral Epicondylalgia: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Mora-Relucio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to evaluate the interexaminer reliability of experienced and inexperienced examiners on location and classification of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs in two epicondylar muscles and the association between the MTrP found and the diagnosis of lateral epicondylalgia (LE. Fifty-two pianists (some suffered LE voluntarily participated in the study. Three physiotherapists (one inexperienced in myofascial pain examined, located, and marked MTrPs in the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB and extensor digitorum communis (EDC muscles. Forearms were photographed and analyzed to establish the degree of agreement on MTrPs diagnosis. Data showed 81.73% and 77.88% of agreement on MTrP classification and 85.58% and 72.12% on MTrP location between the expert evaluators for ECRB and EDC, respectively. The agreement on MTrP classification between experienced and inexperienced examiners was 54.81% and 51.92% for ECRB and 50.00% and 55.77% for EDC. Also, agreement on MTrP location was 54.81% and 60.58% for ECRB and 48.08% and 48.08% for EDC. A strong association was found between presence of relevant MTrPs, LE diagnosis, and forearm pain when the examiners were experts. The analysis of location and classification of MTrPs in the epicondylar muscles through physical examination by experienced evaluators is reliable, reproducible, and suitable for diagnosing LE.

  8. The immediate effect of triceps surae myofascial trigger point therapy on restricted active ankle joint dorsiflexion in recreational runners: a crossover randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Rob; Cranston, Amy; Henderson, Andrew; John, Rachel; Malone, George; Mayall, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the immediate effect on restricted active ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM), after a single intervention of myofascial trigger point (MTrP) therapy on latent triceps surae MTrPs in recreational runners. A crossover randomised controlled trial. Twenty-two recreational runners (11 men and 11 women; mean age 24.57; ±8.7 years) with a restricted active ankle joint dorsiflexion and presence of latent MTrPs. Participants were screened for a restriction in active ankle dorsiflexion in either knee flexion (soleus) or knee extension (gastrocnemius) and the presence of latent MTrPs. Participants were randomly allocated a week apart to both the intervention (combined pressure release and 10 s passive stretch) and the control condition. A clinically meaningful (large effect size) and statistically significant increase in ankle ROM in the intervention compared to the control group was achieved, for the soleus (p = 0.004) and the gastrocnemius (p = 0.026). Apart from the statistical significance (p < 0.05), these results are clinically relevant due to the immediate increase in ankle dorsiflexion. These results must be viewed in caution due to the carry-over effect in the RCT crossover design and the combined MTrP therapy approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Postneedling soreness after deep dry needling of a latent myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle: Characteristics, sex differences and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pintado-Zugasti, Aitor; Rodríguez-Fernández, Ángel Luis; Fernandez-Carnero, Josue

    2016-04-27

    Postneedling soreness is considered the most frequent secondary effect associated to dry needling. A detailed description of postneedling soreness characteristics has not been previously reported. (1) to assess the intensity and duration of postneedling soreness and tenderness after deep dry needling of a trapezius latent myofascial trigger point (MTrP), (2) to evaluate the possible differences in postneedling soreness between sexes and (3) to analyze the influence on postneedling soreness of factors involved in the dry needling process. Sixty healthy subjects (30 men, 30 women) with latent MTrPs in the upper trapezius muscle received a dry needling intervention in the MTrP. Pain and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were assessed during a 72 hours follow-up period. Repeated measures analysis of covariance showed a significant effect for time in pain and in PPT. An interaction between sex and time in pain was obtained: women exhibited higher intensity in postneedling pain than men. The pain during needling and the number of needle insertions significantly correlated with postneedling soreness. Soreness and hyperalgesia are present in all subjects after dry needling of a latent MTrP in the upper trapezius muscle. Women exhibited higher intensity of postneedling soreness than men.

  10. Does Deep Cervical Flexor Muscle Training Affect Pain Pressure Thresholds of Myofascial Trigger Points in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain? A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos Bobos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We need to understand more about how DNF performs in different contexts and whether it affects the pain threshold over myofascial trigger points (MTrPs. Purpose. The objectives were to investigate the effect of neck muscles training on disability and pain and on pain threshold over MTrPs in people with chronic neck pain. Methods. Patients with chronic neck pain were eligible for participation with a Neck Disability Index (NDI score of over 5/50 and having at least one MTrP on either levator scapulae, upper trapezoid, or splenius capitis muscle. Patients were randomly assigned into either DNF training, superficial neck muscle exercise, or advice group. Generalized linear model (GLM was used to detect differences in treatment groups over time. Results. Out of 67 participants, 60 (47 females, mean age: 39.45 ± 12.67 completed the study. Neck disability and neck pain were improved over time between and within groups (p<0.05. However, no differences were found within and between the therapeutic groups (p<0.05 in the tested muscles’ PPTs and in cervicothoracic angle over a 7-week period. Conclusion. All three groups improved over time. This infers that the pain pathways involved in the neck pain relief are not those involved in pain threshold.

  11. SPECIFIC SEQUENTIAL MYOFASCIAL TRIGGER POINT THERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF A PATIENT WITH MYOFASCIAL PAIN SYNDROME ASSOCIATED WITH REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chang-Zern

    2000-01-01

    A patient with traumatic rotator cuff tear of the left shoulder developed severe myofascial pain syndrome with reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) involving the left upper extremity. He was unable to tolerate any type of manual therapy or needle treatment due to severe allodynia in the whole left upper limb. This patient presented for treatment approximately 6 months after the onset of trauma. Treatment consisting of specific myofascial trigger point (MTrP) therapy, beginning with desensitization and gentle massage on the MTrP of the first dorsal interosseous muscle, followed by treatment of MTrPs of the wrist-finger extensors and anterior deltoid muscles was commenced. Allodynia was remarkably reduced and further physical therapy with modalities was administered. After 2 weeks of daily MTrP therapy, he received local steroid injection to the left shoulder and continued MTrP therapy 2-3 times per week. Approximately 2 months after the injection the patient was almost pain free with nearly full range of motion in his left shoulder. The mechanism of MTrPs and their association with RSD is discussed in this paper. PMID:17987165

  12. Performance Comparison of Widely-Used Maximum Power Point Tracker Algorithms under Real Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURUSU, A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs play an essential role in extracting power from photovoltaic (PV panels as they make the solar panels to operate at the maximum power point (MPP whatever the changes of environmental conditions are. For this reason, they take an important place in the increase of PV system efficiency. MPPTs are driven by MPPT algorithms and a number of MPPT algorithms are proposed in the literature. The comparison of the MPPT algorithms in literature are made by a sun simulator based test system under laboratory conditions for short durations. However, in this study, the performances of four most commonly used MPPT algorithms are compared under real environmental conditions for longer periods. A dual identical experimental setup is designed to make a comparison between two the considered MPPT algorithms as synchronized. As a result of this study, the ranking among these algorithms are presented and the results show that Incremental Conductance (IC algorithm gives the best performance.

  13. Comparison, existence, uniqueness and successive approximations for two-point boundary value problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidossich, G.

    1979-01-01

    Bailey, Shampine and Waltman developed an existence theory for two-point boundary value problems of second order differential equations whose second members satisfy one-sided Lipschitz conditions. It is suggested that solutions should exist in a much more general situation. A comparison result is given and applied to uniqueness and existence of the Picard problem as well as to the convergence of successive approximation for this. (author)

  14. GPU-based Point Cloud Superpositioning for Structural Comparisons of Protein Binding Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinweber, Matthias; Fober, Thomas; Freisleben, Bernd

    2016-11-07

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to solve the labeled point cloud superpositioning problem for performing structural comparisons of protein binding sites. The solution is based on a parallel evolution strategy that operates on large populations and runs on GPU hardware. The proposed evolution strategy reduces the likelihood of getting stuck in a local optimum of the multimodal real-valued optimization problem represented by labeled point cloud superpositioning. The performance of the GPU-based parallel evolution strategy is compared to a previously proposed CPU-based sequential approach for labeled point cloud superpositioning, indicating that the GPU-based parallel evolution strategy leads to qualitatively better results and significantly shorter runtimes, with speed improvements of up to a factor of 1,500 for large populations. Binary classification tests based on the ATP, NADH and FAD protein subsets of CavBase, a database containing putative binding sites, show average classification rate improvements from about 92% (CPU) to 96% (GPU). Further experiments indicate that the proposed GPU-based labeled point cloud superpositioning approach can be superior to traditional protein comparison approaches based on sequence alignments.

  15. Comparison of methods for finding saddle points without knowledge of the final states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, R A; Kroes, G J; Henkelman, G; Arnaldsson, A; Jónsson, H

    2004-11-22

    Within the harmonic approximation to transition state theory, the biggest challenge involved in finding the mechanism or rate of transitions is the location of the relevant saddle points on the multidimensional potential energy surface. The saddle point search is particularly challenging when the final state of the transition is not specified. In this article we report on a comparison of several methods for locating saddle points under these conditions and compare, in particular, the well-established rational function optimization (RFO) methods using either exact or approximate Hessians with the more recently proposed minimum mode following methods where only the minimum eigenvalue mode is found, either by the dimer or the Lanczos method. A test problem involving transitions in a seven-atom Pt island on a Pt(111) surface using a simple Morse pairwise potential function is used and the number of degrees of freedom varied by varying the number of movable atoms. In the full system, 175 atoms can move so 525 degrees of freedom need to be optimized to find the saddle points. For testing purposes, we have also restricted the number of movable atoms to 7 and 1. Our results indicate that if attempting to make a map of all relevant saddle points for a large system (as would be necessary when simulating the long time scale evolution of a thermal system) the minimum mode following methods are preferred. The minimum mode following methods are also more efficient when searching for the lowest saddle points in a large system, and if the force can be obtained cheaply. However, if only the lowest saddle points are sought and the calculation of the force is expensive but a good approximation for the Hessian at the starting position of the search can be obtained at low cost, then the RFO approaches employing an approximate Hessian represent the preferred choice. For small and medium sized systems where the force is expensive to calculate, the RFO approaches employing an approximate

  16. Evidence for Dry Needling in the Management of Myofascial Trigger Points Associated With Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Huang, Qiang-Min; Liu, Qing-Guang; Thitham, Nguyen; Li, Li-Hui; Ma, Yan-Tao; Zhao, Jia-Min

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the current evidence of the effectiveness of dry needling of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) associated with low back pain (LBP). PubMed, Ovid, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched until January 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that used dry needling as the main treatment and included participants diagnosed with LBP with the presence of MTrPs were included. Two reviewers independently screened articles, scored methodologic quality, and extracted data. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and functional disability at postintervention and follow-up. A total of 11 RCTs involving 802 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Results suggested that compared with other treatments, dry needling of MTrPs was more effective in alleviating the intensity of LBP (standardized mean difference [SMD], -1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.77 to -0.36; P=.003) and functional disability (SMD, -0.76; 95% CI, -1.46 to -0.06; P=.03); however, the significant effects of dry needling plus other treatments on pain intensity could be superior to dry needling alone for LBP at postintervention (SMD, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.55-1.11; Pdry needling of MTrPs, especially if associated with other therapies, could be recommended to relieve the intensity of LBP at postintervention; however, the clinical superiority of dry needling in improving functional disability and its follow-up effects still remains unclear. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of cross-sectional area of the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle with active trigger points in chronic tension-type headache: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, María Luz; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Ge, Hong-You; Pareja, Juan A

    2008-03-01

    To investigate whether cross-sectional area (CSA) of the suboccipital muscles was associated with active trigger points (TrPs) in chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine was performed in 11 females with CTTH aged from 26 to 50 yrs old. CSA for both rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPmin) and rectus capitis posterior major (RCPmaj) muscles were measured from axial T1-weighted images, using axial MRI slices aligned parallel to the C2/3 intervertebral disc. A headache diary was kept for 4 wks to record the pain history. TrPs in the suboccipital muscle were identified by eliciting referred pain to palpation, and increased referred pain with muscle contraction. TrPs were considered active if the elicited referred pain reproduced the head pain pattern and features of the pattern seen during spontaneous headache attacks. Active TrPs were found in six patients (55%), whereas the remaining five patients showed latent TrPs. CSA of the RCPmin was significantly smaller (F = 13.843; P = 0.002) in the patients with active TrPs (right side: 55.9 +/- 4.4 mm; left side: 61.1 +/-: 3.8 mm) than in patients with latent TrPs (right side: 96.9 +/- 14.4 mm; left side: 88.7 +/- 9.7 mm). No significant differences were found for CSA of the RCPmaj between the patients with either active or latent TrP (P > 0.5). It seems that muscle atrophy in the RCPmin, but not in the RCPmaj, was associated with suboccipital active TrPs in CTTH, although studies with larger sample sizes are now required. It may be that nociceptive inputs in active TrPs could lead to muscle atrophy of the involved muscles. Muscle disuse or avoidance behavior can also be involved in atrophy.

  18. Referred pain from myofascial trigger points in head and neck-shoulder muscles reproduces head pain features in children with chronic tension type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel M; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Ambite-Quesada, Silvia; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Pareja, Juan A

    2011-02-01

    Our aim was to describe the referred pain pattern and areas from trigger points (TrPs) in head, neck, and shoulder muscles in children with chronic tension type headache (CTTH). Fifty children (14 boys, 36 girls, mean age: 8 ± 2) with CTTH and 50 age- and sex- matched children participated. Bilateral temporalis, masseter, superior oblique, upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, suboccipital, and levator scapula muscles were examined for TrPs by an assessor blinded to the children's condition. TrPs were identified with palpation and considered active when local and referred pains reproduce headache pain attacks. The referred pain areas were drawn on anatomical maps, digitalized, and also measured. The total number of TrPs was significantly greater in children with CTTH as compared to healthy children (P < 0.001). Active TrPs were only present in children with CTTH (P < 0.001). Within children with CTTH, a significant positive association between the number of active TrPs and headache duration (r (s) = 0.315; P = 0.026) was observed: the greater the number of active TrPs, the longer the duration of headache attack. Significant differences in referred pain areas between groups (P < 0.001) and muscles (P < 0.001) were found: the referred pain areas were larger in CTTH children (P < 0.001), and the referred pain area elicited by suboccipital TrPs was larger than the referred pain from the remaining TrPs (P < 0.001). Significant positive correlations between some headache clinical parameters and the size of the referred pain area were found. Our results showed that the local and referred pains elicited from active TrPs in head, neck and shoulder shared similar pain pattern as spontaneous CTTH in children, supporting a relevant role of active TrPs in CTTH in children.

  19. Implosive Collapse about Magnetic Null Points: A Quantitative Comparison between 2D and 3D Nulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurgood, Jonathan O.; Pontin, David I.; McLaughlin, James A.

    2018-03-01

    Null collapse is an implosive process whereby MHD waves focus their energy in the vicinity of a null point, forming a current sheet and initiating magnetic reconnection. We consider, for the first time, the case of collapsing 3D magnetic null points in nonlinear, resistive MHD using numerical simulation, exploring key physical aspects of the system as well as performing a detailed parameter study. We find that within a particular plane containing the 3D null, the plasma and current density enhancements resulting from the collapse are quantitatively and qualitatively as per the 2D case in both the linear and nonlinear collapse regimes. However, the scaling with resistivity of the 3D reconnection rate—which is a global quantity—is found to be less favorable when the magnetic null point is more rotationally symmetric, due to the action of increased magnetic back-pressure. Furthermore, we find that, with increasing ambient plasma pressure, the collapse can be throttled, as is the case for 2D nulls. We discuss this pressure-limiting in the context of fast reconnection in the solar atmosphere and suggest mechanisms by which it may be overcome. We also discuss the implications of the results in the context of null collapse as a trigger mechanism of Oscillatory Reconnection, a time-dependent reconnection mechanism, and also within the wider subject of wave–null point interactions. We conclude that, in general, increasingly rotationally asymmetric nulls will be more favorable in terms of magnetic energy release via null collapse than their more symmetric counterparts.

  20. Trigger finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digit; Trigger finger release; Locked finger; Digital flexor tenosynovitis ... cut or hand Yellow or green drainage from the cut Hand pain or discomfort Fever If your trigger finger returns, call your surgeon. You may need another surgery.

  1. Effectiveness of dry needling for myofascial trigger points associated with neck and shoulder pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Huang, Qiang-Min; Liu, Qing-Guang; Ye, Gang; Bo, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Meng-Jin; Li, Ping

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate current evidence of the effectiveness of dry needling of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) associated with neck and shoulder pain. PubMed, EBSCO, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, ScienceDirect, The Cochrane Library, ClinicalKey, Wanfang Data Chinese database, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, Chinese Chongqing VIP Information, and SpringerLink databases were searched from database inception to January 2014. Randomized controlled trials were performed to determine whether dry needling was used as the main treatment and whether pain intensity was included as an outcome. Participants were diagnosed with MTrPs associated with neck and shoulder pain. Two reviewers independently screened the articles, scored methodological quality, and extracted data. The results of the study of pain intensity were extracted in the form of mean and SD data. Twenty randomized controlled trials involving 839 patients were identified for meta-analysis. Meta-analyses were performed using RevMan version 5.2 and Stata version 12.0. The results suggested that compared with control/sham, dry needling of MTrPs was effective in the short term (immediately to 3 days) (standardized mean difference [SMD]=-1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], -3.10 to -.73; P=.002) and medium term (SMD=-1.07; 95% CI, -1.87 to -.27; P=.009); however, wet needling (including lidocaine) was superior to dry needling in relieving MTrP pain in the medium term (SMD=1.69; 95% CI, .40-2.98; P=.01). Other therapies (including physiotherapy) were more effective than dry needling in treating MTrP pain in the medium term (9-28d) (SMD=.62; 95% CI, .02-1.21; P=.04). Dry needling can be recommended for relieving MTrP pain in neck and shoulders in the short and medium term, but wet needling is found to be more effective than dry needling in relieving MTrP pain in neck and shoulders in the medium term. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The local and referred pain from myofascial trigger points in the temporalis muscle contributes to pain profile in chronic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Cuadrado, Maria Luz; Pareja, Juan A

    2007-01-01

    To assess the local and referred pain areas and pain characteristics evoked from temporalis muscle trigger points (TrPs) in chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Thirty CTTH patients and 30 age and sex-matched controls were studied. A headache diary was kept for 4 weeks to substantiate the diagnosis and record the pain history. Both temporalis muscles were examined for the presence of myofascial TrPs in a blinded fashion. The local and referred pain intensities, referred pain pattern, and pressure pain threshold were recorded. Referred pain was evoked in 87% and 54% on the dominant and nondominant sides in CTTH patients, which was significantly higher (P<0.001) than in controls (10% vs. 17%, respectively). Referred pain spread to the temple ipsilateral to the stimulated muscle in both patients and controls, with additional referral behind the eyes in most patients, but none in controls. CTTH patients reported a higher local [visual analog scale (VAS): 5.6+/-1.2 right side, 5.3+/-1.4 left side] and referred pain (VAS: 4.7+/-2 right side, 3.5+/-2.8 left side) intensity than healthy controls (VAS: 0.8+/-0.7 right side, 0.7+/-0.7 left side for local pain; and 0.3+/-0.2 right side, 0.4+/-0.3 left side for referred pain) in both temporalis muscles (both, P<0.001). The local and referred pain areas were larger in patients than in controls (P<0.001). Twenty-three out of 30 CTTH patients (77%) had active TrPs in the temporalis muscle leading to their usual headache (17 patients on the right side; 12 on the left side, whereas 6 with bilateral active TrPs). CTTH patients with active TrPs in either right or left temporalis muscle showed longer headache duration than those with latent TrPs (P=0.004). CTTH patients showed significantly (P<0.001) lower pressure pain threshold (1.1+/-0.2 right side, 1.2+/-0.3 left side) as compared with controls (2.5+/-0.5 right side, 2.6+/-0.4 left side). In CTTH patients, the evoked local and referred pain from active TrPs in the temporalis

  3. Utility of trigger point injection as an adjunct to physical therapy in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Nicholas N; Shah, Anup B; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2017-06-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is often associated with pelvic floor muscle spasm. While pelvic floor physical therapy (PFPT) is effective, some men are unable to resolve their symptoms and have residual trigger points (TPs). TP injection has been used for treatment in several neuromuscular pain syndromes. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and side effects of TP injection in men with CP/CPPS and pelvic floor spasm refractory to PT. Using an IRB approved Men's Health Registry we reviewed the records of all men with a diagnosis of CP/CPPS who received at least 1 TP injection. Patients were phenotyped with UPOINT (all had the "T" domain for tenderness of muscle) and symptoms measured with the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (CPSI). Response was measured by a 5-point Global Response Assessment (GRA) and change in CPSI (paired t -test). For pelvic TPs, a pudendal block was done in lithotomy position and then each TP was identified transrectally by palpation. A nerve block needle was passed through the perineum into the TP confirmed by palpation. Between 0.5-1 cc was injected into each TP of a local anesthetic mixture (30:70 of 2% lidocaine and 0.25% bupivacaine). For anterior TPs, an ultrasound guided ilioinguinal block was done first and then each TP injected by direct palpation through the abdominal skin. Men were offered up to three sets of injections separated by 6 weeks each. We identified 37 patients who had a total of 68 procedures. Three men had no follow-up after their first injection and were included for side effects but not included for outcome. The indication was failure to progress on PT in 33, recurrent symptoms in 1 and refusal to do PT in 3. Mean age was 43.7 years (range 21-70 years) and median UPOINT domains was 3 (range 1-5). Initial CPSI was pain 13.7±3.4, urinary 5.3±2.2, quality of life 9.8±2.1 and total 28.8±6.0. 16 men had 1 injection, 11 had 2 and 10 had 3. All had pelvic TPs injected

  4. Comparison of particle-exposure triggered pulmonary and systemic inflammation in mice fed with three different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrabě de Angelis Martin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity can be linked to disease risks such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders, but recently, the adipose tissue (AT macrophage also emerges as actively participating in inflammation and immune function, producing pro- and anti-inflammatory factors. Connections between the AT and chronic lung diseases, like emphysema and asthma and a protective role of adipocyte-derived proteins against acute lung injury were suggested. In this study we addressed the question, whether a diet challenge increases the inflammatory response in the alveolar and the blood compartment in response to carbon nanoparticles (CNP, as a surrogate for ambient/urban particulate air pollutants. Methods Mice were fed a high caloric carbohydrate-rich (CA or a fat-rich (HF diet for six weeks and were compared to mice kept on a purified low fat (LF diet, respectively. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and blood samples were taken 24 h after intratracheal CNP instillation and checked for cellular and molecular markers of inflammation. Results and discussion The high caloric diets resulted in distinct effects when compared with LF mice, respectively: CA resulted in increased body and fat mass without affecting blood cellular immunity. Conversely, HF activated the blood system, increasing lymphocyte and neutrophil counts, and resulted in slightly increased body fat content. In contrast to higher pro-inflammatory BAL Leptin in CA and HF mice, on a cellular level, both diets did not lead to an increased pro-inflammatory basal status in the alveolar compartment per se, nor did result in differences in the particle-triggered response. However both diets resulted in a disturbance of the alveolar capillary barrier as indicated by enhanced BAL protein and lactate-dehydrogenase concentrations. Systemically, reduced serum Adiponectin in HF mice might be related to the observed white blood cell increase. Conclusion The increase in BAL pro-inflammatory factors in high caloric

  5. Functional MRI of the patellofemoral joint: comparison of ultrafast MRI, motion-triggered cine MRI and static MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhle, C.; Brossmann, J.; Melchert, U.H.; Schroeder, C.; Boer, R. de; Spielmann, R.P.; Heller, M.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of ultrafast MRI (u), patellar tracking from 30 of flexion to knee extension (0 ) was analysed and compared with motion-triggered cine MRI (m) and a static MRI technique (s). The different imaging methods were compared in respect of the patellofemoral relationship, the examination time and image quality. Eight healthy subjects and four patients (in total 18 joints) with patellar subluxation or luxation were examined. Significant differences between the static MRI series without quadriceps contraction and the functional MRI studies (motion-triggered cine MRI and ultrafast MRI) were found for the patellar tilt angle. In the dynamic joint studies there was no statistical difference of the regression coefficients between the motion-triggered cine MRI studies and the ultrafast MRI studies. The findings of the functional MRI studies compared with the static MRI images were significantly different for the lateralisation of the patella, expressed by the lateral patellar displacement and bisect offset. No significant differences in patellar lateralisation were found between motion-triggered cine MRI and ultrafast MRI. Ultrafast MRI was superior to motion-triggered cine MRI in terms of the reduction in imaging time and improvement of the image quality. (orig.)

  6. Functional MRI of the patellofemoral joint: comparison of ultrafast MRI, motion-triggered cine MRI and static MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhle, C. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Brossmann, J. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Melchert, U.H. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Schroeder, C. [Radiologische Abt., Universitaets-Kinderklinik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel (Germany); Boer, R. de [Philips Medical Systems, Best (Netherlands); Spielmann, R.P. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Heller, M. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    To evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of ultrafast MRI (u), patellar tracking from 30 of flexion to knee extension (0 ) was analysed and compared with motion-triggered cine MRI (m) and a static MRI technique (s). The different imaging methods were compared in respect of the patellofemoral relationship, the examination time and image quality. Eight healthy subjects and four patients (in total 18 joints) with patellar subluxation or luxation were examined. Significant differences between the static MRI series without quadriceps contraction and the functional MRI studies (motion-triggered cine MRI and ultrafast MRI) were found for the patellar tilt angle. In the dynamic joint studies there was no statistical difference of the regression coefficients between the motion-triggered cine MRI studies and the ultrafast MRI studies. The findings of the functional MRI studies compared with the static MRI images were significantly different for the lateralisation of the patella, expressed by the lateral patellar displacement and bisect offset. No significant differences in patellar lateralisation were found between motion-triggered cine MRI and ultrafast MRI. Ultrafast MRI was superior to motion-triggered cine MRI in terms of the reduction in imaging time and improvement of the image quality. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of the Argon Triple-Point Temperature in Small Cells of Different Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziej, B.; Kowal, A.; Lipiński, L.; Manuszkiewicz, H.; Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.

    2017-06-01

    The argon triple point (T_{90} = 83.8058 \\hbox {K}) is a fixed point of the International Temperature Scale of Preston-Thomas (Metrologia 27:3, 1990). Cells for realization of the fixed point have been manufactured by several European metrology institutes (Pavese in Metrologia 14:93, 1978; Pavese et al. in Temperature, part 1, American Institute of Physics, College Park, 2003; Hermier et al. in Temperature, part 1, American Institute of Physics, College Park, 2003; Pavese and Beciet in Modern gas-based temperature and pressure measurement, Springer, New York, 2013). The Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research has in its disposal a few argon cells of various constructions used for calibration of capsule-type standard platinum resistance thermometers (CSPRT) that were produced within 40 years. These cells differ in terms of mechanical design and thermal properties, as well as source of gas filling the cell. This paper presents data on differences between temperature values obtained during the realization of the triple point of argon in these cells. For determination of the temperature, a heat-pulse method was applied (Pavese and Beciet in Modern gas-based temperature and pressure measurement, Springer, New York, 2013). The comparisons were performed using three CSPRTs. The temperatures difference was determined in relation to a reference function W(T)=R(T_{90})/R(271.16\\hbox {K}) in order to avoid an impact of CSPRT resistance drift between measurements in the argon cells. Melting curves and uncertainty budgets of the measurements are given in the paper. A construction of measuring apparatus is also presented in this paper.

  8. A dissipated energy comparison to evaluate fatigue resistance using 2-point bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Maggiore

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is the main failure mode in pavement engineering. Typically, micro-cracks originate at the bottom of asphalt concrete layer due to horizontal tensile strains. Micro-cracks start to propagate towards the upper layers under repeated loading which can lead to pavement failure. Different methods are usually used to describe fatigue behavior in asphalt materials such as: phenomenological approach, fracture mechanics approach and dissipated energy approach. This paper presents a comparison of fatigue resistances calculated for different dissipated energy models using 2-point bending (2PB at IFSTTAR in Nantes. 2PB tests have been undertaken under different loading and environmental conditions in order to evaluate the properties of the mixtures (stiffness, dissipated energy, fatigue life and healing effect.

  9. Comparison between non-invasive methods used on paintings by Goya and his contemporaries: hyperspectral imaging vs. point-by-point spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Floréal; Mounier, Aurélie; Pérez-Arantegui, Josefina; Pardos, Carlos; Prieto-Taboada, Nagore; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Castro, Kepa

    2017-06-01

    The development of non-invasive techniques for the characterization of pigments is crucial in order to preserve the integrity of the artwork. In this sense, the usefulness of hyperspectral imaging was demonstrated. It allows pigment characterization of the whole painting. However, it also sometimes requires the complementation of other point-by-point techniques. In the present article, the advantages of hyperspectral imaging over point-by-point spectroscopic analysis were evaluated. For that purpose, three paintings were analysed by hyperspectral imaging, handheld X-ray fluorescence and handheld Raman spectroscopy in order to determine the best non-invasive technique for pigment identifications. Thanks to this work, the main pigments used in Aragonese artworks, and especially in Goya's paintings, were identified and mapped by imaging reflection spectroscopy. All the analysed pigments corresponded to those used at the time of Goya. Regarding the techniques used, the information obtained by the hyperspectral imaging and point-by-point analysis has been, in general, different and complementary. Given this fact, selecting only one technique is not recommended, and the present work demonstrates the usefulness of the combination of all the techniques used as the best non-invasive methodology for the pigments' characterization. Moreover, the proposed methodology is a relatively quick procedure that allows a larger number of Goya's paintings in the museum to be surveyed, increasing the possibility of obtaining significant results and providing a chance for extensive comparisons, which are relevant from the point of view of art history issues.

  10. An in vivo comparison of intestinal pH and bacteria as physiological trigger mechanisms for colonic targeting in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Emma L; Short, Michael D; Basit, Abdul W

    2008-09-10

    Targeting the colon for site-specific oral delivery can exploit one of two main physiological triggers; the intestinal pH changes or the increase in bacterial numbers in the distal gut. This study aimed to assess how these triggers compared in vivo to determine which concept provides better colon-specific release. Pellets were prepared using theophylline (model drug) and coated with methacrylic acid/methylmethcrylate co-polymer (Eudragit S [a pH-responsive polymer which dissolves above pH 7]) or amylose/ethylcellulose (a polysaccharide/polymeric mixture which is partially digested by colonic bacteria). The immediate release (uncoated) and the two sets of modified release (coated) pellets were administered to eight healthy fasted volunteers in a three-way crossover study. Drug levels were measured in the plasma, and the transit of the modified release pellets was followed by gamma scintigraphy. The immediate release pellets had T(max) values ranging from 0.5-2 h and bioavailability (AUC) ranging from 24.8-50.7 mcg h/ml. The pH-responsive pellets released drug in seven out of eight subjects. In those subjects in whom drug release occurred, the pellets had variable in vivo performance (T(max) ranging from 5-9 h; AUC 8.8-55.0 mcg h/ml) and drug release started in the small intestine for these pellets. The bacterially-triggered pellets (T(max) 8-10 h; AUC 16.5-47.9 mcg h/ml) were colon-specific; drug was detected in the blood only when the pellets reached the colon and release was more sustained than the pH system. The use of the bacterially-triggered delivery concept provided improved colonic delivery over the pH approach.

  11. Comparisons of Satellite Soil Moisture, an Energy Balance Model Driven by LST Data and Point Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, Paola; Gabellani, Simone; Rudari, Roberto; Boni, Giorgio; Puca, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    Soil moisture plays a fundamental role in the partitioning of mass and energy fluxes between land surface and atmosphere, thereby influencing climate and weather, and it is important in determining the rainfall-runoff response of catchments; moreover, in hydrological modelling and flood forecasting, a correct definition of moisture conditions is a key factor for accurate predictions. Different sources of information for the estimation of the soil moisture state are currently available: satellite data, point measurements and model predictions. All are affected by intrinsic uncertainty. Among different satellite sensors that can be used for soil moisture estimation three major groups can be distinguished: passive microwave sensors (e.g., SSMI), active sensors (e.g. SAR, Scatterometers), and optical sensors (e.g. Spectroradiometers). The last two families, mainly because of their temporal and spatial resolution seem the most suitable for hydrological applications In this work soil moisture point measurements from 10 sensors in the Italian territory are compared of with the satellite products both from the HSAF project SM-OBS-2, derived from the ASCAT scatterometer, and from ACHAB, an operative energy balance model that assimilate LST data derived from MSG and furnishes daily an evaporative fraction index related to soil moisture content for all the Italian region. Distributed comparison of the ACHAB and SM-OBS-2 on the whole Italian territory are performed too.

  12. A New Study of Maximum Power Point Tracker Techniques and Comparison for PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Atallah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The maximum power point tracker techniques vary in many aspects as simplicity, digital or analogical implementation, sensor required, convergence speed, range of effectiveness, implementation hardware,popularity, cost and in other aspects. This paper presents in details comparative study between two most popular  algorithm  technique  which  is  incremental  conductance  algorithm  and  perturb  and  observe algorithm.  Two  different  converters  buck  and  cuk  converter  use  for  comparative  in  this  study. Few comparisons such as efficiency, voltage, current and power output for each different combination have been recorded. Multi changes in irradiance, temperature by keeping voltage and current as main sensed parameter been done in the simulation. Matlab simulink tools have been used for performance evaluation on energy point. Simulation will consider different solar irradiance and temperature variations.

  13. MR cholangiopancreatography : comparison of breath-hold fast spin echo and respiratory triggered fast spin echo techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myeong Jin; Hong, Hye Suk; Chung, Jae Joon; Chung, Jae Bock; Yang, Hee Chul; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jaong Tae

    1997-01-01

    To determine relative image qualities and to evaluate their ability to visualize biliary trees and pancreatic ducts, we compared the breath-hold fast echo (FSE) and respiratory-triggered FSE technique in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Forty-seven patients with suspected of hepatic disease but no pancreatic or biliary ductal dilatation, as determined by other imaging techniques (group of non-pathologic pancreatobiliary tree), and seven with pancreatic or biliary disease (group of pathologic pancreatobiliary tree) underwent MRCP. Heavily T2-weighted FSE coronal images were obtained by both breath-hold and respiratory triggered techniques. These two images were 3 D-reconstructed using a maximal intensity projection algorithm. Three radiologists scored the image qualities of anatomic by the two techniques. For the visualization of extrahepatic bile ducts, the respiratory triggered FSE sequence was better than the breath-hold sequence; for the evaluation of both a non-dilated and dilated pancreatobiliary system, however, both techniques need further development. (author). 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  14. FDM and DMT performance comparison in high capacity point-to-point fibre links for intra/inter-datacentre connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, A.; Parolari, P.; Boffi, P.

    2018-05-01

    Frequency division multiplexing (FDM) is attractive to achieve high capacities in multiple access networks characterized by direct modulation and direct detection. In this paper we take into account point-to-point intra- and inter-datacenter connections to understand the performance of FDM operation compared with the ones achievable with standard multiple carrier modulation approach based on discrete multitone (DMT). DMT and FDM allow to match the non-uniform and bandwidth-limited response of the system under test, associated with the employment of low-cost directly-modulated sources, such as VCSELs with high-frequency chirp, and with fibre-propagation in presence of chromatic dispersion. While for very short distances typical of intra-datacentre communications, the huge number of DMT subcarriers permits to increase the transported capacity with respect to the FDM employment, in case of few tens-km reaches typical of inter-datacentre connections, the capabilities of FDM are more evident, providing system performance similar to the case of DMT application.

  15. Prospective comparison of liver stiffness measurements between two point wave elastography methods: Virtual ouch quantification and elastography point quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Dong Ho; Chang, Won; Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To prospectively compare technical success rate and reliable measurements of virtual touch quantification (VTQ) elastography and elastography point quantification (ElastPQ), and to correlate liver stiffness (LS) measurements obtained by the two elastography techniques. Our study included 85 patients, 80 of whom were previously diagnosed with chronic liver disease. The technical success rate and reliable measurements of the two kinds of point shear wave elastography (pSWE) techniques were compared by χ{sup 2} analysis. LS values measured using the two techniques were compared and correlated via Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Spearman correlation coefficient, and 95% Bland-Altman limit of agreement. The intraobserver reproducibility of ElastPQ was determined by 95% Bland-Altman limit of agreement and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The two pSWE techniques showed similar technical success rate (98.8% for VTQ vs. 95.3% for ElastPQ, p = 0.823) and reliable LS measurements (95.3% for VTQ vs. 90.6% for ElastPQ, p = 0.509). The mean LS measurements obtained by VTQ (1.71 ± 0.47 m/s) and ElastPQ (1.66 ± 0.41 m/s) were not significantly different (p = 0.209). The LS measurements obtained by the two techniques showed strong correlation (r = 0.820); in addition, the 95% limit of agreement of the two methods was 27.5% of the mean. Finally, the ICC of repeat ElastPQ measurements was 0.991. Virtual touch quantification and ElastPQ showed similar technical success rate and reliable measurements, with strongly correlated LS measurements. However, the two methods are not interchangeable due to the large limit of agreement.

  16. Comparison cosmic ray irradiation simulation and particle beam test on UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger telescope(UBAT) detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, H. M.; Jeong, S.; Kim, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory pathfinder(UFFO-p) was launched onboard Lomonosov on 28th of April, 2016, and now is under various types of calibration for detection of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). Since last September UFFO-p has taken X-ray data in space with UFFO Burst Alert &Trigger telescope (UBAT......), those X-rays are mostly diffused backgrounds however, the rate turns out to be higher than expected by a factor of three. We assumed cosmic rays can contribute by making the count rate higher. We did such a simulation to investigate the effect of cosmic rays. In December 2016, we irradiated fragmented...

  17. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00400931; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-23

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. ...

  18. Topological Trigger Developments

    CERN Multimedia

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected an almost 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%, and its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and uBoost. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. These inclu...

  19. Eficácia da desativação dos pontos-gatilho miofasciais para o controle do zumbido Efficacy of myofascial trigger point deactivation for tinnitus control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Bezerra Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dor crônica nas imediações do ouvido pode influenciar o zumbido. OBJETIVO: Investigar a eficácia da desativação de pontos-gatilho miofasciais na melhora do zumbido. MÉTODO: Ensaio clínico randomizado com 71 pacientes com zumbido e síndrome dolorosa miofascial. O Grupo Experimental (n = 37 foi submetido a 10 sessões de desativação dos pontos-gatilho miofasciais e o Grupo Controle (n = 34, a 10 sessões de desativação placebo. RESULTADOS: O tratamento do Grupo Experimental foi eficaz para o controle do zumbido (p Chronic pain in areas surrounding the ear may influence tinnitus. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of myofascial trigger point deactivation for the relief of tinnitus. METHOD: A double-blind randomized clinical trial enrolled 71 patients with tinnitus and myofascial pain syndrome. The experimental group (n = 37 underwent 10 sessions of myofascial trigger point deactivation and the control group (n = 34, 10 sessions with sham deactivation. RESULTS: Treatment of the experimental group was effective for tinnitus relief (p < 0.001. Pain and tinnitus relieves were associated (p = 0.013, so were the ear with worst tinnitus and the side of the body with more pain (p < 0.001. The presence of temporary tinnitus modulation (increase or decrease upon initial muscle palpation was frequent in both groups, but its temporary decrease was related to the persistent relief at the end of treatment (p = 0.002. CONCLUSION: Besides medical and audiological investigation, patients with tinnitus should also be checked for: 1 presence of myofascial pain surrounding the ear; 2 laterality between both symptoms; 3 initial decrease of tinnitus during muscle palpation. Treating this specific subgroup of tinnitus patients with myofascial trigger point release may provide better results than others described so far.

  20. Broad frequency band full field measurements for advanced applications: Point-wise comparisons between optical technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    The progress of optical systems gives nowadays at disposal on lightweight structures complex dynamic measurements and modal tests, each with its own advantages, drawbacks and preferred usage domains. It is thus more easy than before to obtain highly spatially defined vibration patterns for many applications in vibration engineering, testing and general product development. The potential of three completely different technologies is here benchmarked on a common test rig and advanced applications. SLDV, dynamic ESPI and hi-speed DIC are here first deployed in a complex and unique test on the estimation of FRFs with high spatial accuracy from a thin vibrating plate. The latter exhibits a broad band dynamics and high modal density in the common frequency domain where the techniques can find an operative intersection. A peculiar point-wise comparison is here addressed by means of discrete geometry transforms to put all the three technologies on trial at each physical point of the surface. Full field measurement technologies cannot estimate only displacement fields on a refined grid, but can exploit the spatial consistency of the results through neighbouring locations by means of numerical differentiation operators in the spatial domain to obtain rotational degrees of freedom and superficial dynamic strain distributions, with enhanced quality, compared to other technologies in literature. Approaching the task with the aid of superior quality receptance maps from the three different full field gears, this work calculates and compares rotational and dynamic strain FRFs. Dynamic stress FRFs can be modelled directly from the latter, by means of a constitutive model, avoiding the costly and time-consuming steps of building and tuning a numerical dynamic model of a flexible component or a structure in real life conditions. Once dynamic stress FRFs are obtained, spectral fatigue approaches can try to predict the life of a component in many excitation conditions. Different

  1. Comparison of point-of-care methods for preparation of platelet concentrate (platelet-rich plasma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibrich, Gernot; Kleis, Wilfried K G; Streckbein, Philipp; Moergel, Maximilian; Hitzler, Walter E; Hafner, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the concentrations of platelets and growth factors in platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which are likely to depend on the method used for its production. The cellular composition and growth factor content of platelet concentrates (platelet-rich plasma) produced by six different procedures were quantitatively analyzed and compared. Platelet and leukocyte counts were determined on an automatic cell counter, and analysis of growth factors was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The principal differences between the analyzed PRP production methods (blood bank method of intermittent flow centrifuge system/platelet apheresis and by the five point-of-care methods) and the resulting platelet concentrates were evaluated with regard to resulting platelet, leukocyte, and growth factor levels. The platelet counts in both whole blood and PRP were generally higher in women than in men; no differences were observed with regard to age. Statistical analysis of platelet-derived growth factor AB (PDGF-AB) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) showed no differences with regard to age or gender. Platelet counts and TGF-β1 concentration correlated closely, as did platelet counts and PDGF-AB levels. There were only rare correlations between leukocyte counts and PDGF-AB levels, but comparison of leukocyte counts and PDGF-AB levels demonstrated certain parallel tendencies. TGF-β1 levels derive in substantial part from platelets and emphasize the role of leukocytes, in addition to that of platelets, as a source of growth factors in PRP. All methods of producing PRP showed high variability in platelet counts and growth factor levels. The highest growth factor levels were found in the PRP prepared using the Platelet Concentrate Collection System manufactured by Biomet 3i.

  2. Ectopic expression of AID in a non-B cell line triggers A:T and G:C point mutations in non-replicating episomal vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihana Jovanic

    Full Text Available Somatic hypermutation (SHM of immunoglobulin genes is currently viewed as a two step process initiated by the deamination of deoxycytidine (C to deoxyuridine (U, catalysed by the activation induced deaminase (AID. Phase 1 mutations arise from DNA replication across the uracil residue or the abasic site, generated by the uracil-DNA glycosylase, yielding transitions or transversions at G:C pairs. Phase 2 mutations result from the recognition of the U:G mismatch by the Msh2/Msh6 complex (MutS Homologue, followed by the excision of the mismatched nucleotide and the repair, by the low fidelity DNA polymerase eta, of the gap generated by the exonuclease I. These mutations are mainly focused at A:T pairs. Whereas in activated B cells both G:C and A:T pairs are equally targeted, ectopic expression of AID was shown to trigger only G:C mutations on a stably integrated reporter gene. Here we show that when using non-replicative episomal vectors containing a GFP gene, inactivated by the introduction of stop codons at various positions, a high level of EGFP positive cells was obtained after transient expression in Jurkat cells constitutively expressing AID. We show that mutations at G:C and A:T pairs are produced. EGFP positive cells are obtained in the absence of vector replication demonstrating that the mutations are dependent only on the mismatch repair (MMR pathway. This implies that the generation of phase 1 mutations is not a prerequisite for the expression of phase 2 mutations.

  3. Prospectively ECG-triggered sequential dual-source coronary CT angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation: comparison with retrospectively ECG-gated helical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lei; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Zhaoqi [Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang, Yining; Jin, Zhengyu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhang, Longjiang; Lu, Guangming [Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2013-07-15

    To investigate the feasibility of applying prospectively ECG-triggered sequential coronary CT angiography (CCTA) to patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and evaluate the image quality and radiation dose compared with a retrospectively ECG-gated helical protocol. 100 patients with persistent AF were enrolled. Fifty patients were randomly assigned to a prospective protocol and the other patients to a retrospective protocol using a second-generation dual-source CT (DS-CT). Image quality was evaluated using a four-point grading scale (1 = excellent, 2 = good, 3 = moderate, 4 = poor) by two reviewers on a per-segment basis. The coronary artery segments were considered non-diagnostic with a quality score of 4. The radiation dose was evaluated. Diagnostic segment rate in the prospective group was 99.4 % (642/646 segments), while that in the retrospective group was 96.5 % (604/626 segments) (P < 0.001). Effective dose was 4.29 {+-} 1.86 and 11.95 {+-} 5.34 mSv for each of the two protocols (P < 0.001), which was a 64 % reduction in the radiation dose for prospective sequential imaging compared with retrospective helical imaging. In AF patients, prospectively ECG-triggered sequential CCTA is feasible using second-generation DS-CT and can decrease >60 % radiation exposure compared with retrospectively ECG-gated helical imaging while improving diagnostic image quality. (orig.)

  4. COMPARISON OF UAS-BASED PHOTOGRAMMETRY SOFTWARE FOR 3D POINT CLOUD GENERATION: A SURVEY OVER A HISTORICAL SITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alidoost

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Unmanned Aerial System (UAS-based photogrammetry offers an affordable, fast and effective approach to real-time acquisition of high resolution geospatial information and automatic 3D modelling of objects for numerous applications such as topography mapping, 3D city modelling, orthophoto generation, and cultural heritages preservation. In this paper, the capability of four different state-of-the-art software packages as 3DSurvey, Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4Dmapper Pro and SURE is examined to generate high density point cloud as well as a Digital Surface Model (DSM over a historical site. The main steps of this study are including: image acquisition, point cloud generation, and accuracy assessment. The overlapping images are first captured using a quadcopter and next are processed by different software to generate point clouds and DSMs. In order to evaluate the accuracy and quality of point clouds and DSMs, both visual and geometric assessments are carry out and the comparison results are reported.

  5. Comparison of Uas-Based Photogrammetry Software for 3d Point Cloud Generation: a Survey Over a Historical Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidoost, F.; Arefi, H.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)-based photogrammetry offers an affordable, fast and effective approach to real-time acquisition of high resolution geospatial information and automatic 3D modelling of objects for numerous applications such as topography mapping, 3D city modelling, orthophoto generation, and cultural heritages preservation. In this paper, the capability of four different state-of-the-art software packages as 3DSurvey, Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4Dmapper Pro and SURE is examined to generate high density point cloud as well as a Digital Surface Model (DSM) over a historical site. The main steps of this study are including: image acquisition, point cloud generation, and accuracy assessment. The overlapping images are first captured using a quadcopter and next are processed by different software to generate point clouds and DSMs. In order to evaluate the accuracy and quality of point clouds and DSMs, both visual and geometric assessments are carry out and the comparison results are reported.

  6. A Studentized Permutation Test for the Comparison of Spatial Point Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Ute

    A new test is proposed for the hypothesis that two (or more) observed point patterns are realizations of the same spatial point process model. To this end, the point patterns are divided into disjoint quadrats, on each of which an estimate of Ripley's K-function is calculated. The two groups...... of empirical K-functions are compared by a permutation test using a studentized test statistic. The proposed test performs convincingly in terms of empirical level and power in a simulation study, even for point patterns where the K-function estimates on neighboring subsamples are not strictly exchangeable...

  7. Efficacy and Safety of Single Botulinum Toxin Type A (Botox®) Injection for Relief of Upper Trapezius Myofascial Trigger Point: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwanchuay, Photsawee; Petchnumsin, Thavatchai; Yiemsiri, Pichet; Pasuk, Nakkamol; Srikanok, Wannarat; Hathaiareerug, Chanasak

    2015-12-01

    Botulinum toxin injection has been applied for pain relief in various chronic pain syndromes. Recently, systematic review studies reported inconclusive effects of Botulinum toxin in myofascial pain management. The present study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of Botulinum toxin type A (BTxA) (Botox®) injection for pain reduction in myofascial trigger point (MTrP) of the upper trapezius muscle. Thirty-three patients with 48 MTrP on the upper trapezius muscles over three months with moderate to severe pain intensity diagnosed at physical medicine and rehabilitation outpatient department were recruited between December 2011 and March 2012. Eligible patients were blinded and randomly injected with single 0.2 ml (20 IU) of BTxA for 24 MTrP and 0.2 ml of 0.9% NaCl solution for 24 MTrP at the most tender trigger point on the upper trapezius muscle. All patients were advised for stretching exercise and ergonomic adaptation throughout the study. At 3- and 6-week after injections, visual analogue scale (VAS), the pressure pain threshold (PPT), and reported adverse effects were measured. Both BTxA and control groups demonstrated statistically significant differences in VAS reduction and increased PPT after 3 weeks and 6 weeks compared with before treatment. There were no statistically significant differences in VAS reduction from baseline between the two groups at 3- and 6-week after treatment. A statistically significant difference in improvement of PPT from baseline and 6-week after BTxA injection compared with 0.9% NaCl group was shown (1.0 ± 0.9 and 0.5 ± 0.7, p = 0.036). There was mild degree side-effects that spontaneous resolved within one week in both groups without significant difference in percentage. No severe adverse effects were reported during the study. The efficacy in VAS reduction of a single 20 IU of Botulinum toxin type A (Botox®) injection was not different from 0.9% NaCl for myofascial trigger point at the upper trapezius muscle. However

  8. COMPREHENSIVE COMPARISON OF TWO IMAGE-BASED POINT CLOUDS FROM AERIAL PHOTOS WITH AIRBORNE LIDAR FOR LARGE-SCALE MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Widyaningrum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The integration of computer vision and photogrammetry to generate three-dimensional (3D information from images has contributed to a wider use of point clouds, for mapping purposes. Large-scale topographic map production requires 3D data with high precision and accuracy to represent the real conditions of the earth surface. Apart from LiDAR point clouds, the image-based matching is also believed to have the ability to generate reliable and detailed point clouds from multiple-view images. In order to examine and analyze possible fusion of LiDAR and image-based matching for large-scale detailed mapping purposes, point clouds are generated by Semi Global Matching (SGM and by Structure from Motion (SfM. In order to conduct comprehensive and fair comparison, this study uses aerial photos and LiDAR data that were acquired at the same time. Qualitative and quantitative assessments have been applied to evaluate LiDAR and image-matching point clouds data in terms of visualization, geometric accuracy, and classification result. The comparison results conclude that LiDAR is the best data for large-scale mapping.

  9. Comprehensive Comparison of Two Image-Based Point Clouds from Aerial Photos with Airborne LIDAR for Large-Scale Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyaningrum, E.; Gorte, B. G. H.

    2017-09-01

    The integration of computer vision and photogrammetry to generate three-dimensional (3D) information from images has contributed to a wider use of point clouds, for mapping purposes. Large-scale topographic map production requires 3D data with high precision and accuracy to represent the real conditions of the earth surface. Apart from LiDAR point clouds, the image-based matching is also believed to have the ability to generate reliable and detailed point clouds from multiple-view images. In order to examine and analyze possible fusion of LiDAR and image-based matching for large-scale detailed mapping purposes, point clouds are generated by Semi Global Matching (SGM) and by Structure from Motion (SfM). In order to conduct comprehensive and fair comparison, this study uses aerial photos and LiDAR data that were acquired at the same time. Qualitative and quantitative assessments have been applied to evaluate LiDAR and image-matching point clouds data in terms of visualization, geometric accuracy, and classification result. The comparison results conclude that LiDAR is the best data for large-scale mapping.

  10. A comparison of point counts with a new acoustic sampling method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We showed that the estimates of species richness, abundance and community composition based on point counts and post-hoc laboratory listening to acoustic samples are very similar, especially for a distance limited up to 50 m. Species that were frequently missed during both point counts and listening to acoustic samples ...

  11. A comparison of antibiotic point prevalence survey data from four Irish regional/general hospitals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naughton, C

    2011-06-01

    Point prevalence surveys (PPS) are increasingly used to examining and compare hospital antibiotic consumption. The aim of this study was to identify the (1) point prevalence of antibiotic use in one regional hospital and (2) compare PPS data from similar regional\\/general hospitals.

  12. Comparison of Single-Point and Continuous Sampling Methods for Estimating Residential Indoor Temperature and Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James D; Magnusson, Brianna M; Eggett, Dennis; Collingwood, Scott C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Residential temperature and humidity are associated with multiple health effects. Studies commonly use single-point measures to estimate indoor temperature and humidity exposures, but there is little evidence to support this sampling strategy. This study evaluated the relationship between single-point and continuous monitoring of air temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity over four exposure intervals (5-min, 30-min, 24-hr, and 12-days) in 9 northern Utah homes, from March-June 2012. Three homes were sampled twice, for a total of 12 observation periods. Continuous data-logged sampling was conducted in homes for 2-3 wks, and simultaneous single-point measures (n = 114) were collected using handheld thermo-hygrometers. Time-centered single-point measures were moderately correlated with short-term (30-min) data logger mean air temperature (r = 0.76, β = 0.74), apparent temperature (r = 0.79, β = 0.79), relative humidity (r = 0.70, β = 0.63), and absolute humidity (r = 0.80, β = 0.80). Data logger 12-day means were also moderately correlated with single-point air temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.43) and apparent temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.44), but were weakly correlated with single-point relative humidity (r = 0.53, β = 0.35) and absolute humidity (r = 0.52, β = 0.39). Of the single-point RH measures, 59 (51.8%) deviated more than ±5%, 21 (18.4%) deviated more than ±10%, and 6 (5.3%) deviated more than ±15% from data logger 12-day means. Where continuous indoor monitoring is not feasible, single-point sampling strategies should include multiple measures collected at prescribed time points based on local conditions.

  13. Short-term changes in neck pain, widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and cervical range of motion after the application of trigger point dry needling in patients with acute mechanical neck pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejuto-Vázquez, María J; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Truyols-Domínguez, Sebastián; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2014-04-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To determine the effects of trigger point dry needling (TrPDN) on neck pain, widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and cervical range of motion in patients with acute mechanical neck pain and active trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. TrPDN seems to be effective for decreasing pain in individuals with upper-quadrant pain syndromes. Potential effects of TrPDN for decreasing pain and sensitization in individuals with acute mechanical neck pain are needed. Methods Seventeen patients (53% female) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: a single session of TrPDN or no intervention (waiting list). Pressure pain thresholds over the C5-6 zygapophyseal joint, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscle; neck pain intensity; and cervical spine range-of-motion data were collected at baseline (pretreatment) and 10 minutes and 1 week after the intervention by an assessor blinded to the treatment allocation of the patient. Mixed-model analyses of variance were used to examine the effects of treatment on each outcome variable. Patients treated with 1 session of TrPDN experienced greater decreases in neck pain, greater increases in pressure pain threshold, and higher increases in cervical range of motion than those who did not receive an intervention at both 10 minutes and 1 week after the intervention (Pneck pain intensity and widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and also increase active cervical range of motion, in patients with acute mechanical neck pain. Changes in pain, pressure pain threshold, and cervical range of motion surpassed their respective minimal detectable change values, supporting clinically relevant treatment effects. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b-.

  14. Comparison of roadway roughness derived from LIDAR and SFM 3D point clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report describes a short-term study undertaken to investigate the potential for using dense three-dimensional (3D) point : clouds generated from light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and photogrammetry to assess roadway roughness. Spatially : cont...

  15. Comparison of Sigma-Point and Extended Kalman Filters on a Realistic Orbit Determination Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebler, John; Hur-Diaz. Sun; Carpenter, Russell

    2010-01-01

    Sigma-point filters have received a lot of attention in recent years as a better alternative to extended Kalman filters for highly nonlinear problems. In this paper, we compare the performance of the additive divided difference sigma-point filter to the extended Kalman filter when applied to orbit determination of a realistic operational scenario based on the Interstellar Boundary Explorer mission. For the scenario studied, both filters provided equivalent results. The performance of each is discussed in detail.

  16. Comparison of clinical bracket point registration with 3D laser scanner and coordinate measuring machine

    OpenAIRE

    Nouri,Mahtab; Farzan,Arash; Baghban,Ali Reza Akbarzadeh; Massudi,Reza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic value of a laser scanner developed to determine the coordinates of clinical bracket points and to compare with the results of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). METHODS: This diagnostic experimental study was conducted on maxillary and mandibular orthodontic study casts of 18 adults with normal Class I occlusion. First, the coordinates of the bracket points were measured on all casts by a CMM. Then, the three-dimensional ...

  17. Comparison of two- and three-point sutures for advancing the levator aponeurosis in Asian eyelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y S; Yoon, J S; Jang, S Y

    2015-09-01

    To compare the functional and cosmetic outcomes of two- and three-point sutures for advancing the levator aponeurosis in blepharoptosis surgery on Asians. This retrospective study examined 60 Asian patients with blepharoptosis who had undergone advancement of the levator aponeurosis: 34 patients (46 eyelids) had ptosis correction using the two-point suture technique and 26 patients (41 eyelids) had ptosis correction using the three-point suture technique. The postoperative marginal reflex distance (MRD1), lid height difference, and eyelid contour were evaluated. Twenty-seven (79.4%) of the 34 patients in the two-point group and 19 (73.1%) of 26 patients in the three-point group had a postoperative MRD1 of 2-4 mm, lids within 0.5 mm of each other, and a satisfactory eyelid contour; this difference was not significant. The rate of reoperation did not differ significantly between the two groups. Two- and three-point sutures for advancing the levator aponeurosis were equally effective for correcting blepharoptosis in Asians.

  18. INTRA- AND INTER-OBSERVER RELIABILITY IN SELECTION OF THE HEART RATE DEFLECTION POINT DURING INCREMENTAL EXERCISE: COMPARISON TO A COMPUTER-GENERATED DEFLECTION POINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget A. Duoos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to 1 determine the relative frequency of occurrence of a heart rate deflection point (HRDP, when compared to a linear relationship, during progressive exercise, 2 measure the reproducibility of a visual assessment of a heart rate deflection point (HRDP, both within and between observers 3 compare visual and computer-assessed deflection points. Subjects consisted of 73 competitive male cyclists with mean age of 31.4 ± 6.3 years, mean height 178.3 ± 4.8 cm. and weight 74.0 ± 4.4 kg. Tests were conducted on an electrically-braked cycle ergometer beginning at 25 watts and progressing 25 watts per minute to fatigue. Heart Rates were recorded the last 10 seconds of each stage and at fatigue. Scatter plots of heart rate versus watts were computer-generated and given to 3 observers on two different occasions. A computer program was developed to assess if data points were best represented by a single line or two lines. The HRDP represented the intersection of the two lines. Results of this study showed that 1 computer-assessed HRDP showed that 44 of 73 subjects (60.3% had scatter plots best represented by a straight line with no HRDP 2in those subjects having HRDP, all 3 observers showed significant differences(p = 0.048, p = 0.007, p = 0.001 in reproducibility of their HRDP selection. Differences in HRDP selection were significant for two of the three comparisons between observers (p = 0.002, p = 0.305, p = 0.0003 Computer-generated HRDP was significantly different than visual HRDP for 2 of 3 observers (p = 0.0016, p = 0.513, p = 0.0001. It is concluded that 1 HRDP occurs in a minority of subjects 2 significant differences exist, both within and between observers, in selection of HRDP and 3 differences in agreement between visual and computer-generated HRDP would indicate that, when HRDP exists, it should be computer-assessed

  19. Five-point form of the nodal diffusion method and comparison with finite-difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Nodal Methods have been derived, implemented and numerically tested for several problems in physics and engineering. In the field of nuclear engineering, many nodal formalisms have been used for the neutron diffusion equation, all yielding results which were far more computationally efficient than conventional Finite Difference (FD) and Finite Element (FE) methods. However, not much effort has been devoted to theoretically comparing nodal and FD methods in order to explain the very high accuracy of the former. In this summary we outline the derivation of a simple five-point form for the lowest order nodal method and compare it to the traditional five-point, edge-centered FD scheme. The effect of the observed differences on the accuracy of the respective methods is established by considering a simple test problem. It must be emphasized that the nodal five-point scheme derived here is mathematically equivalent to previously derived lowest order nodal methods. 7 refs., 1 tab

  20. Temperature comparison of initial, middle and final point of polypropylene friction stir welded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusharjanta, Bambang; Raharjo, Wahyu P.; Triyono

    2016-03-01

    Friction Stir Welding is known as a new solid state joining process. This process is applied in thermoplastic polymers material recently. One of member thermoplastic polymer is polypropylene. Polypropylene sheet 6 mm thick was friction stir welded with a cone cut steel pin. Tool rotation, travelling speed, and plunge depth, as welding parameters were 620 rpm, 7.3 mm/minutes and 0.02 mm respectively. Temperature at the initial, middle, and final point of advance side working piece were measured and compared. Measurement were done by thermocouple and recorded by data acquisition. Based on this research, it is concluded that temperature at the initial, middle and final point of friction stir welding process are different. The highest temperature peak reach at the middle point on the advance side which affects face bending strength.

  1. Comparison of BWR-6 pressurization transients with one-dimensional and point kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, J.M.; Mata, P.; Cronin, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper focuses on the differences between the results of core reload licensing calculations for the BWR-6 plant when performed with a one-dimensional (1-D) versus a point kinetics model. More specifically, the improvement in critical power ratio which would be expected from a change in methods from a point to a 1-D kinetics core wide transient calculation for pressurization transients is investigated. To qualitatively assess critical power ratio (CPR) improvement, core wide transient and hot channel calculations of a generator load rejection with failure of the steam by-pass system and a feedwater controller failure of maximum demand are performed with both, point and 1-D kinetics models in the core wide simulation. Additionally, a sensitivity study on the frequency of power shape function updating in the 1-D kinetics calculation is performed

  2. Comparison of Point and Line Features and Their Combination for Rigid Body Motion Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilz, Florian; Pugeault, Nicolas; Krüger, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the usage of dierent image features and their combination in the context of estimating the motion of rigid bodies (RBM estimation). From stereo image sequences, we extract line features at local edges (coded in so called multi-modal primitives) as well as point features (by...

  3. Experimental comparison of point-of-use filters for drinking water ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, M; Valentini, P; Casini, B; Miccoli, M; Costa, A L; Baggiani, A

    2017-06-01

    Waterborne pathogens such as Pseudomonas spp. and Legionella spp. may persist in hospital water networks despite chemical disinfection. Point-of-use filtration represents a physical control measure that can be applied in high-risk areas to contain the exposure to such pathogens. New technologies have enabled an extension of filters' lifetimes and have made available faucet hollow-fibre filters for water ultrafiltration. To compare point-of-use filters applied to cold water within their period of validity. Faucet hollow-fibre filters (filter A), shower hollow-fibre filters (filter B) and faucet membrane filters (filter C) were contaminated in two different sets of tests with standard bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 939 and Brevundimonas diminuta ATCC 19146) and installed at points-of-use. Every day, from each faucet, 100 L of water was flushed. Before and after flushing, 250 mL of water was collected and analysed for microbiology. There was a high capacity of microbial retention from filter C; filter B released only low Brevundimonas spp. counts; filter A showed poor retention of both micro-organisms. Hollow-fibre filters did not show good micro-organism retention. All point-of-use filters require an appropriate maintenance of structural parameters to ensure their efficiency. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Deriving 3d point clouds from terrestrial photographs comparison of different sensors and software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niederheiser, Robert; Mokros, Martin; Lange, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial photogrammetry nowadays offers a reasonably cheap, intuitive and effective approach to 3D-modelling. However, the important choice, which sensor and which software to use is not straight forward and needs consideration as the choice will have effects on the resulting 3D point cloud an...

  5. Comparison of clinical bracket point registration with 3D laser scanner and coordinate measuring machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Mahtab; Farzan, Arash; Baghban, Ali Reza Akbarzadeh; Massudi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic value of a laser scanner developed to determine the coordinates of clinical bracket points and to compare with the results of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). This diagnostic experimental study was conducted on maxillary and mandibular orthodontic study casts of 18 adults with normal Class I occlusion. First, the coordinates of the bracket points were measured on all casts by a CMM. Then, the three-dimensional coordinates (X, Y, Z) of the bracket points were measured on the same casts by a 3D laser scanner designed at Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. The validity and reliability of each system were assessed by means of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Dahlberg's formula. The difference between the mean dimension and the actual value for the CMM was 0.0066 mm. (95% CI: 69.98340, 69.99140). The mean difference for the laser scanner was 0.107 ± 0.133 mm (95% CI: -0.002, 0.24). In each method, differences were not significant. The ICC comparing the two methods was 0.998 for the X coordinate, and 0.996 for the Y coordinate; the mean difference for coordinates recorded in the entire arch and for each tooth was 0.616 mm. The accuracy of clinical bracket point coordinates measured by the laser scanner was equal to that of CMM. The mean difference in measurements was within the range of operator errors.

  6. Comparison of Optimization and Two-point Methods in Estimation of Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian-Alavijeh, B.; Liaghat, A. M.; Huang, G.

    2009-04-01

    Soil water retention curve (SWRC) is one of the soil hydraulic properties in which its direct measurement is time consuming and expensive. Since, its measurement is unavoidable in study of environmental sciences i.e. investigation of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and solute transport, in this study the attempt is to predict soil water retention curve from two measured points. By using Cresswell and Paydar (1996) method (two-point method) and an optimization method developed in this study on the basis of two points of SWRC, parameters of Tyler and Wheatcraft (1990) model (fractal dimension and air entry value) were estimated and then water content at different matric potentials were estimated and compared with their measured values (n=180). For each method, we used both 3 and 1500 kPa (case 1) and 33 and 1500 kPa (case 2) as two points of SWRC. The calculated RMSE values showed that in the Creswell and Paydar (1996) method, there exists no significant difference between case 1 and case 2. However, the calculated RMSE value in case 2 (2.35) was slightly less than case 1 (2.37). The results also showed that the developed optimization method in this study had significantly less RMSE values for cases 1 (1.63) and 2 (1.33) rather than Cresswell and Paydar (1996) method.

  7. Mixing of a point-source indoor pollutant: Numerical predictions and comparison with experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobscheid, C.; Gadgil, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    In most practical estimates of indoor pollutant exposures, it is common to assume that the pollutant is uniformly and instantaneously mixed in the indoor space. It is also commonly known that this assumption is simplistic, particularly for point sources, and for short-term or localized indoor exposures. We report computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions of mixing time of a point-pulse release of a pollutant in an unventilated mechanically mixed isothermal room. We aimed to determine the adequacy of the standard RANS two-equation ({kappa}-{var_epsilon}) turbulence model to predict the mixing times under these conditions. The predictions were made for the twelve mixing time experiments performed by Drescher et al. (1995). We paid attention to adequate grid resolution, suppression of numerical diffusion, and careful simulation of the mechanical blowers used in the experiments. We found that the predictions are in good agreement with experimental measurements.

  8. A comparison of Landsat point and rectangular field training sets for land-use classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, C. H.; Miller, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    Rectangular training fields of homogeneous spectroreflectance are commonly used in supervised pattern recognition efforts. Trial image classification with manually selected training sets gives irregular and misleading results due to statistical bias. A self-verifying, grid-sampled training point approach is proposed as a more statistically valid feature extraction technique. A systematic pixel sampling network of every ninth row and ninth column efficiently replaced the full image scene with smaller statistical vectors which preserved the necessary characteristics for classification. The composite second- and third-order average classification accuracy of 50.1 percent for 331,776 pixels in the full image substantially agreed with the 51 percent value predicted by the grid-sampled, 4,100-point training set.

  9. Comparison of Maximum Power Point Techniques in Electrical Power Systems of CubeSats

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Llorente, Jesus; Ortiz-Rivera, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Most of the electrical power systems for Cubesat use solar arrays as energy source. There are two power regulation techniques for these systems, which are: direct energy transfer (DET) and peak power tracking (PPT). This last one is also known as Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT). In DET, the solar array is directly connected to the battery through a diode for protection; however, this technique requires a matching between the solar array and the batteries for having good efficiency. In MPP...

  10. Comparison of clinical bracket point registration with 3D laser scanner and coordinate measuring machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Nouri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic value of a laser scanner developed to determine the coordinates of clinical bracket points and to compare with the results of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM. METHODS: This diagnostic experimental study was conducted on maxillary and mandibular orthodontic study casts of 18 adults with normal Class I occlusion. First, the coordinates of the bracket points were measured on all casts by a CMM. Then, the three-dimensional coordinates (X, Y, Z of the bracket points were measured on the same casts by a 3D laser scanner designed at Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. The validity and reliability of each system were assessed by means of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Dahlberg's formula. RESULTS: The difference between the mean dimension and the actual value for the CMM was 0.0066 mm. (95% CI: 69.98340, 69.99140. The mean difference for the laser scanner was 0.107 ± 0.133 mm (95% CI: -0.002, 0.24. In each method, differences were not significant. The ICC comparing the two methods was 0.998 for the X coordinate, and 0.996 for the Y coordinate; the mean difference for coordinates recorded in the entire arch and for each tooth was 0.616 mm. CONCLUSION: The accuracy of clinical bracket point coordinates measured by the laser scanner was equal to that of CMM. The mean difference in measurements was within the range of operator errors.

  11. Comparison of Extremum-Seeking Control Techniques for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Han Wu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to Japan’s recent nuclear crisis and petroleum price hikes, the search for renewable energy sources has become an issue of immediate concern. A promising candidate attracting much global attention is solar energy, as it is green and also inexhaustible. A maximum power point tracking (MPPT controller is employed in such a way that the output power provided by a photovoltaic (PV system is boosted to its maximum level. However, in the context of abrupt changes in irradiance, conventional MPPT controller approaches suffer from insufficient robustness against ambient variation, inferior transient response and a loss of output power as a consequence of the long duration required of tracking procedures. Accordingly, in this work the maximum power point tracking is carried out successfully using a sliding mode extremum-seeking control (SMESC method, and the tracking performances of three controllers are compared by simulations, that is, an extremum-seeking controller, a sinusoidal extremum-seeking controller and a sliding mode extremum-seeking controller. Being able to track the maximum power point promptly in the case of an abrupt change in irradiance, the SMESC approach is proven by simulations to be superior in terms of system dynamic and steady state responses, and an excellent robustness along with system stability is demonstrated as well.

  12. Hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in primary health care: comparison of two cutoff points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braz MAD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marina Augusta Dias Braz,1 Jallyne Nunes Vieira,1 Flayane Oliveira Gomes,1 Priscilla Rafaella da Silva,1 Ohanna Thays de Medeiros Santos,1 Ilanna Marques Gomes da Rocha,2 Iasmin Matias de Sousa,2 Ana Paula Trussardi Fayh2 1Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde do Trairi, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, Santa Cruz, 2Department of Nutrition, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, UFRN, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil Objective: We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW phenotype among users of primary health care using two different cutoff points used in the literature. Methods: We evaluated adults and elderly individuals of both sexes who attended the same level of primary health care. HTGW phenotype was determined with measurements of waist circumference (WC and triglyceride levels and compared using cutoff points proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program – NCEP/ATP III (WC ≥102 cm for men and ≥88 cm for women; triglyceride levels ≥150 mg/dL for both sexes and by Lemieux et al (WC ≥90 cm for men and ≥85 cm for women; triglyceride levels ≥177 mg/dL for both. Results: Within the sample of 437 individuals, 73.7% was female. The prevalence of HTGW phenotype was high and statistically different with the use of different cutoff points from the literature. The prevalence was higher using the NCEP/ATP III criteria compared to those proposed by Lemieux et al (36.2% and 32.5%, respectively, p<0.05. Individuals with the presence of the phenotype also presented alterations in other traditional cardiovascular risk markers. Conclusion: The HTGW phenotype identified high prevalence of cardiovascular risk in the population, with higher cutoff points from the NCEP/ATP III criteria. The difference in frequency of risk alerts us to the need to establish cutoff points for the Brazilian population. Keywords: abdominal obesity, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular risk

  13. Symptom-triggered benzodiazepine therapy for alcohol withdrawal syndrome in the emergency department: a comparison with the standard fixed dose benzodiazepine regimen.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Eugene M

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare symptom-triggered and standard benzodiazepine regimens for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome in an emergency department clinical decision unit. The authors found that the symptom-triggered approach reduced cumulative benzodiazepine dose and length of stay.

  14. UAV-BASED PHOTOGRAMMETRIC POINT CLOUDS – TREE STEM MAPPING IN OPEN STANDS IN COMPARISON TO TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNER POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fritz

    2013-08-01

    and complete as in the TLS-point cloud. Only few stems were considered to be fully reconstructed. From the comparison of reconstruction achievement with respect to height above ground, we can state that reconstruction accuracy decreased in the crown layer of the stand. In addition we were cutting 50 [cm] slices in z-direction and applied a robust cylinder fit to the stem slices. Radii of the TLS-cloud and the SFM-cloud surprisingly correlated well with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of r = 0.696. This first study showed promising results for UAV-based forest structure modelling. Yet, there is a demand for additional research with regard to vegetation stages, flight pattern, processing setup and the utilisation of spectral information.

  15. DERIVING 3D POINT CLOUDS FROM TERRESTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHS - COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT SENSORS AND SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Niederheiser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial photogrammetry nowadays offers a reasonably cheap, intuitive and effective approach to 3D-modelling. However, the important choice, which sensor and which software to use is not straight forward and needs consideration as the choice will have effects on the resulting 3D point cloud and its derivatives. We compare five different sensors as well as four different state-of-the-art software packages for a single application, the modelling of a vegetated rock face. The five sensors represent different resolutions, sensor sizes and price segments of the cameras. The software packages used are: (1 Agisoft PhotoScan Pro (1.16, (2 Pix4D (2.0.89, (3 a combination of Visual SFM (V0.5.22 and SURE (1.2.0.286, and (4 MicMac (1.0. We took photos of a vegetated rock face from identical positions with all sensors. Then we compared the results of the different software packages regarding the ease of the workflow, visual appeal, similarity and quality of the point cloud. While PhotoScan and Pix4D offer the user-friendliest workflows, they are also “black-box” programmes giving only little insight into their processing. Unsatisfying results may only be changed by modifying settings within a module. The combined workflow of Visual SFM, SURE and CloudCompare is just as simple but requires more user interaction. MicMac turned out to be the most challenging software as it is less user-friendly. However, MicMac offers the most possibilities to influence the processing workflow. The resulting point-clouds of PhotoScan and MicMac are the most appealing.

  16. Comparison of a 'freeze-all' strategy including GnRH agonist trigger versus a 'fresh transfer' strategy including hCG trigger in assisted reproductive technology (ART): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormlund, Sacha; Løssl, Kristine; Zedeler, Anne; Bogstad, Jeanette; Prætorius, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Bungum, Mona; Skouby, Sven O; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Bergh, Christina; Humaidan, Peter; Pinborg, Anja

    2017-07-31

    Pregnancy rates after frozen embryo transfer (FET) have improved in recent years and are now approaching or even exceeding those obtained after fresh embryo transfer. This is partly due to improved laboratory techniques, but may also be caused by a more physiological hormonal and endometrial environment in FET cycles. Furthermore, the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is practically eliminated in segmentation cycles followed by FET and the use of natural cycles in FETs may be beneficial for the postimplantational conditions of fetal development. However, a freeze-all strategy is not yet implemented as standard care due to limitations of large randomised trials showing a benefit of such a strategy. Thus, there is a need to test the concept against standard care in a randomised controlled design. This study aims to compare ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates between a freeze-all strategy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triggering versus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger and fresh embryo transfer in a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Multicentre randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial of women undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment including 424 normo-ovulatory women aged 18-39 years from Denmark and Sweden. Participants will be randomised (1:1) to either (1) GnRH agonist trigger and single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer in a subsequent hCG triggered natural menstrual cycle or (2) hCG trigger and single blastocyst transfer in the fresh (stimulated) cycle. The primary endpoint is to compare ongoing pregnancy rates per randomised patient in the two treatment groups after the first single blastocyst transfer. The study will be performed in accordance with the ethical principles in the Helsinki Declaration. The study is approved by the Scientific Ethical Committees in Denmark and Sweden. The results of the study will be publically disseminated. NCT02746562; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their

  17. Comparison of human tear film osmolarity measured by electrical impedance and freezing point depression techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Alan; McCann, Louise C; Pearce, Edward I

    2010-09-01

    Tear hyperosmolarity is diagnostic of dry eye disease (DED), yet difficulty in measurement has limited its utility; development of new instruments could facilitate its clinical application. This study compares the new OcuSense TearLab osmometer (OcuSense, Inc, San Diego, CA), based on electrical impedance "lab-on-a-chip" nanoliter technology, with the freezing point depression Clifton Osmometer (Clifton Technical Physics, Hartford, NY). Thirty-six subjects were recruited: 15 DED (9 women, 6 men age: 41 +/- 16 years) and 21 controls (12 women, 9 men age: 35 +/- 12 years); criteria for DED were noninvasive tear breakup time points fell within the 95% confidence limits, and actual values differed by less than 1%. A cutoff value of >316 mOsm/L, derived from the distribution of osmolarity values, was used to diagnose DED with an effectiveness of 73% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 85% positive predictive value for the OcuSense and 73% sensitivity, 71% specificity, and 65% positive predictive value for the Clifton in the study samples. Tear film osmolarity measured with the OcuSense TearLab system correlates well with the Clifton Osmometer. The new instrument has the potential to provide clinicians with a readily available clinically applicable measure, which could become the gold standard in DED.

  18. Comparison of Three Ideal Point-Based Multi-Criteria Decision Methods for Afforestation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Estrella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three ideal point-based multi-criteria decision methods (MCDM, i.e., iterative ideal point thresholding (IIPT, compromise programming (CP and a newly-proposed CP variant, called balanced compromise programming (BCP, were applied to the Tabacay catchment in Ecuador with the aim of finding a distribution of land use types (LUT that optimizes regional land performance. This performance was expressed in terms of several conflicting on-site ecosystem services (ESS, namely water conservation, soil protection, carbon storage and monetary income. IIPT selects the best performing LUT on a per-land unit basis, that is the assignment of a LUT to a land unit is completely independent with respect to other land units. CP and BCP, on the other hand, aim at optimizing the integrated regional performance. These methods produce a LUT distribution that is as close as possible to the absolute optimal performance that would be achieved when conflict among ESS is not considered. In general, similar results were obtained with CP and BCP. This was not the case when the results produced by these two methods were contrasted with IIPT. For most ESS under consideration, CP and BCP produced balanced results that were closer to the absolute optimal values when compared to IIPT. We conclude from our results that, when optimization of land performance at a regional scale is at stake, CP-derived models emerge as the preferable option over IIPT, especially when balanced solutions are a requirement.

  19. Resampling-based multiple comparison procedure with application to point-wise testing with functional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vsevolozhskaya, Olga A; Greenwood, Mark C; Powell, Scott L; Zaykin, Dmitri V

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we describe a coherent multiple testing procedure for correlated test statistics such as are encountered in functional linear models. The procedure makes use of two different p -value combination methods: the Fisher combination method and the Šidák correction-based method. P -values for Fisher's and Šidák's test statistics are estimated through resampling to cope with the correlated tests. Building upon these two existing combination methods, we propose the smallest p -value as a new test statistic for each hypothesis. The closure principle is incorporated along with the new test statistic to obtain the overall p -value and appropriately adjust the individual p -values. Furthermore, a shortcut version for the proposed procedure is detailed, so that individual adjustments can be obtained even for a large number of tests. The motivation for developing the procedure comes from a problem of point-wise inference with smooth functional data where tests at neighboring points are related. A simulation study verifies that the methodology performs well in this setting. We illustrate the proposed method with data from a study on the aerial detection of the spectral effect of below ground carbon dioxide leakage on vegetation stress via spectral responses.

  20. A Comparison of Combustion Dynamics for Multiple 7-Point Lean Direct Injection Combustor Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, K. M.; Hicks, Y. R.

    2017-01-01

    The combustion dynamics of multiple 7-point lean direct injection (LDI) combustor configurations are compared. LDI is a fuel-lean combustor concept for aero gas turbine engines in which multiple small fuel-air mixers replace one traditionally-sized fuel-air mixer. This 7-point LDI configuration has a circular cross section, with a center (pilot) fuel-air mixer surrounded by six outer (main) fuel-air mixers. Each fuel-air mixer consists of an axial air swirler followed by a converging-diverging venturi. A simplex fuel injector is inserted through the center of the air swirler, with the fuel injector tip located near the venturi throat. All 7 fuel-air mixers are identical except for the swirler blade angle, which varies with the configuration. Testing was done in a 5-atm flame tube with inlet air temperatures from 600 to 800 F and equivalence ratios from 0.4 to 0.7. Combustion dynamics were measured using a cooled PCB pressure transducer flush-mounted in the wall of the combustor test section.

  1. Comparison of ring compression testing to three point bend testing for unirradiated ZIRLO cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-04-01

    Safe shipment and storage of nuclear reactor discharged fuel requires an understanding of how the fuel may perform under the various conditions that can be encountered. One specific focus of concern is performance during a shipment drop accident. Tests at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are being performed to characterize the properties of fuel clad relative to a mechanical accident condition such as a container drop. Unirradiated ZIRLO tubing samples have been charged with a range of hydride levels to simulate actual fuel rod levels. Samples of the hydrogen charged tubes were exposed to a radial hydride growth treatment (RHGT) consisting of heating to 400°C, applying initial hoop stresses of 90 to 170 MPa with controlled cooling and producing hydride precipitates. Initial samples have been tested using both a) ring compression test (RCT) which is shown to be sensitive to radial hydride and b) three-point bend tests which are less sensitive to radial hydride effects. Hydrides are generated in Zirconium based fuel cladding as a result of coolant (water) oxidation of the clad, hydrogen release, and a portion of the released (nascent) hydrogen absorbed into the clad and eventually exceeding the hydrogen solubility limit. The orientation of the hydrides relative to the subsequent normal and accident strains has a significant impact on the failure susceptability. In this study the impacts of stress, temperature and hydrogen levels are evaluated in reference to the propensity for hydride reorientation from the circumferential to the radial orientation. In addition the effects of radial hydrides on the Quasi Ductile Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT) were measured. The results suggest that a) the severity of the radial hydride impact is related to the hydrogen level-peak temperature combination (for example at a peak drying temperature of 400°C; 800 PPM hydrogen has less of an impact/ less radial hydride fraction than 200 PPM hydrogen for the same thermal

  2. A comparison of interest point and region detectors on structured, range and texture images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Wajahat; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an evaluation of the image retrieval and classification potential of local features. Several affine invariant region and scale invariant interest point detectors in combination with well known descriptors were evaluated. Tests on building, range and texture databases were......)) and corner based detectors (such as Hessian and Harris with both Affine/Laplace variants, SURF with determinant of Hessian based corners and SIFT with difference of Gaussians) acquired more than 90% mean average precision, whereas on range images, homogeneous region detector did not work well. TLR offered...... and textured images. It is also shown that in a bi-channel approach, combining surface and edge regions (MSER and TLR) boosts the overall performance. Among the descriptors, SIFT and SURF generally offer higher performance but low dimensional descriptors such as Steerable Filters follow closely....

  3. Comparison of P&O and INC Methods in Maximum Power Point Tracker for PV Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hesheng; Cui, Yuanhui; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Zhisen

    2018-03-01

    In the context of renewable energy, the maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is often used to increase the solar power efficiency, taking into account the randomness and volatility of solar energy due to changes in temperature and photovoltaic. In all MPPT techniques, perturb & observe and incremental conductance are widely used in MPPT controllers, because of their simplicity and ease of operation. According to the internal structure of the photovoltaic cell and the output volt-ampere characteristic, this paper established the circuit model and establishes the dynamic simulation model in Matlab/Simulink with the preparation of the s function. The perturb & observe MPPT method and the incremental conductance MPPT method were analyzed and compared by the theoretical analysis and digital simulation. The simulation results have shown that the system with INC MPPT method has better dynamic performance and improves the output power of photovoltaic power generation.

  4. Comparison of poliovirus recombinants: accumulation of point mutations provides further advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Samoilovich, Elena; Kahelin, Heidi; Hiekka, Anna-Kaisa; Hovi, Tapani; Roivainen, Merja

    2009-08-01

    The roles of recombination and accumulation of point mutations in the origin of new poliovirus (PV) characteristics have been hypothesized, but it is not known which are essential to evolution. We studied phenotypic differences between recombinant PV strains isolated from successive stool specimens of an oral PV vaccine recipient. The studied strains included three PV2/PV1 recombinants with increasing numbers of mutations in the VP1 gene, two of the three with an amino acid change I-->T in the DE-loop of VP1, their putative PV1 parent and strains Sabin 1 and 2. Growth of these viruses was examined in three cell lines: colorectal adenocarcinoma, neuroblastoma and HeLa. The main observation was a higher growth rate between 4 and 6 h post-infection of the two recombinants with the I-->T substitution. All recombinants grew at a higher rate than parental strains in the exponential phase of the replication cycle. In a temperature sensitivity test, the I-->T-substituted recombinants replicated equally well at an elevated temperature. Complete genome sequencing of the three recombinants revealed 12 (3), 19 (3) and 27 (3) nucleotide (amino acid) differences from Sabin. Mutations were located in regions defining attenuation, temperature sensitivity, antigenicity and the cis-acting replicating element. The recombination site was in the 5' end of 3D. In a competition assay, the most mutated recombinant beat parental Sabin in all three cell lines, strongly suggesting that this virus has an advantage. Two independent intertypic recombinants, PV3/PV1 and PV3/PV2, also showed similar growth advantages, but they also contained several point mutations. Thus, our data defend the hypothesis that accumulation of certain advantageous mutations plays a key role in gaining increased fitness.

  5. Adaptive brachytherapy of cervical cancer, comparison of conventional point A and CT based individual treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderaas, Anne D.; Langdal, Ingrid; Danielsen, Signe; Frykholm, Gunilla; Marthinsen, Anne B. L; Sundset, Marit

    2012-01-01

    Background. Locally advanced cervical cancer is commonly treated with external radiation therapy combined with local brachytherapy. The brachytherapy is traditionally given based on standard dose planning with prescription of dose to point A. Dosimetric aspects when changing from former standard treatment to individualized treatment plans based on computed tomography (CT) images are here investigated. Material and methods. Brachytherapy data from 19 patients with a total of 72 individual treatment fractions were retrospectively reviewed. Standard library plans were analyzed with respect to doses to organs at risk (OARs), and the result was compared to corresponding delivered individualized plans. The theoretical potential of further optimization based on prescription to target volumes was investigated. The treatments were performed with a Fletcher applicator. Results. For standard treatment planning, the tolerance dose limits were exceeded in the bladder, rectum and sigmoid in 26%, 4% and 15% of the plans, respectively. This was observed most often for the smallest target volumes. The individualized planning of the delivered treatment gave the possibility of controlling the dose to critical organs to below certain limits. The dose was still prescribed to point A. An increase in target dose coverage was achieved when additional individual optimization was performed, while still keeping the dose to the OARs below predefined limits. Relatively low average target coverage, especially for the largest volumes was however seen. Conclusion. The individualized delivered treatment plans ensured that doses to OARs were within acceptable limits. This was not the case in 42% of the corresponding standard plans. Further optimized treatment plans were found to give an overall better dose coverage. In lack of MR capacity, it may be favorable to use CT for planning due to possible protection of OARs. The CT based target volumes were, however, not equivalent to the volumes described

  6. Validation and Test-Retest Reliability of New Thermographic Technique Called Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling for Gluteus Minimus Trigger Points in Sciatica Subjects and TrPs-Negative Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skorupska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the validity and test-retest reliability of Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling (TTDN for the gluteus minimus muscle. TTDN is a new thermography approach used to support trigger points (TrPs diagnostic criteria by presence of short-term vasomotor reactions occurring in the area where TrPs refer pain. Method. Thirty chronic sciatica patients (n=15 TrP-positive and n=15 TrPs-negative and 15 healthy volunteers were evaluated by TTDN three times during two consecutive days based on TrPs of the gluteus minimus muscle confirmed additionally by referred pain presence. TTDN employs average temperature (Tavr, maximum temperature (Tmax, low/high isothermal-area, and autonomic referred pain phenomenon (AURP that reflects vasodilatation/vasoconstriction. Validity and test-retest reliability were assessed concurrently. Results. Two components of TTDN validity and reliability, Tavr and AURP, had almost perfect agreement according to κ (e.g., thigh: 0.880 and 0.938; calf: 0.902 and 0.956, resp.. The sensitivity for Tavr, Tmax, AURP, and high isothermal-area was 100% for everyone, but specificity of 100% was for Tavr and AURP only. Conclusion. TTDN is a valid and reliable method for Tavr and AURP measurement to support TrPs diagnostic criteria for the gluteus minimus muscle when digitally evoked referred pain pattern is present.

  7. The short-term effects of trigger point therapy, stretching and medicine ball exercises on accuracy and back swing hip turn in elite, male golfers - A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Samantha-Lynn; Olivier, Benita; Wood, Wendy-Ann

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of myofascial trigger point therapy (MTPT) and stretching, MTPT and medicine ball exercises, and no intervention, on hip flexor length (HFL), golf swing biomechanics and performance in elite, male golfers. Single blind, randomised controlled trial with two experimental groups (stretch group: MTPT and stretching; and the ball group: MTPT, a single stretch and medicine ball exercises) and one control group (no intervention). Professional golf academy. One hundred, elite, male golfers aged 16-25 years. HFL, 3D biomechanical analysis of the golf swing, club head speed (CHS), smash ratio, accuracy and distance at baseline and after the interventions. Backswing hip turn (BSHT) improved in the ball group relative to the control group (p = 0.0248). Accuracy in the ball group and the stretch group improved relative to the control group (Fisher's exact = 0.016). Other performance parameters such as: smash ratio, distance and CHS were not compromised by either intervention. This study advocates the use of MTPT combined with medicine ball exercises over MTPT combined with stretching in the treatment of golfers with shortened hip flexors - even immediately preceding a tournament. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping and Cross Taping Application in the Treatment of Latent Upper Trapezius Trigger Points: A Prospective, Single-Blind, Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Halski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinesio taping (KT may be a new treatment in patients with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs. A new method available for taping practitioners is cross taping (CT. The main objective was to determine how CT, KT, and medical adhesive tape (sham group affect the subjective assessment of resting bioelectrical activity and pain of the upper trapezius muscle (UT in patients with MTrPs. 105 volunteers were recruited to participate. The primary outcome was resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle as assessed by surface electromyography (sEMG in each group and pain intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS. Assessments were collected before and after intervention and after the 24-hours follow-up. No significant differences were observed in bioelectrical activity of UT between pre-, post-, and follow-up results. In three groups patients had significantly lower pain VAS score after the intervention (CT—p<0.001, KT—p<0.001, and sham—p<0.01. The Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA showed no significant differences in almost all measurements between groups. The application of all three types of tapes does not influence the resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle and may not lead to a reduction in muscle tone in the case of MTrPs.

  9. Validation and Test-Retest Reliability of New Thermographic Technique Called Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling for Gluteus Minimus Trigger Points in Sciatica Subjects and TrPs-Negative Healthy Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlik, Michał; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and test-retest reliability of Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling (TTDN) for the gluteus minimus muscle. TTDN is a new thermography approach used to support trigger points (TrPs) diagnostic criteria by presence of short-term vasomotor reactions occurring in the area where TrPs refer pain. Method. Thirty chronic sciatica patients (n=15 TrP-positive and n=15 TrPs-negative) and 15 healthy volunteers were evaluated by TTDN three times during two consecutive days based on TrPs of the gluteus minimus muscle confirmed additionally by referred pain presence. TTDN employs average temperature (T avr), maximum temperature (T max), low/high isothermal-area, and autonomic referred pain phenomenon (AURP) that reflects vasodilatation/vasoconstriction. Validity and test-retest reliability were assessed concurrently. Results. Two components of TTDN validity and reliability, T avr and AURP, had almost perfect agreement according to κ (e.g., thigh: 0.880 and 0.938; calf: 0.902 and 0.956, resp.). The sensitivity for T avr, T max, AURP, and high isothermal-area was 100% for everyone, but specificity of 100% was for T avr and AURP only. Conclusion. TTDN is a valid and reliable method for T avr and AURP measurement to support TrPs diagnostic criteria for the gluteus minimus muscle when digitally evoked referred pain pattern is present. PMID:26137486

  10. Comparison of image quality and radiation dose between prospectively ECG-triggered and retrospectively ECG-gated CT angiography: Establishing heart rate cut-off values in first-generation dual-source CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Emre; Yıldız, A Elçin; Güler, Ezgi; Karcaaltıncaba, Muşturay; Akata, Deniz; Kılınçer, Abidin; Atlı, Eray; Topçuoğlu, Melih; Hazırolan, Tuncay

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate radiation dose and image quality of prospectively electrocardiography (ECG)-triggered and retrospectively ECG-gated coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography and to establish cut-off values of heart rates (HRs) for each technique in first-generation dual-source CT. A total of 200 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease were accepted into the study. Patients were selected randomly for each technique (prospective triggering group n=99, mean age 55.85±10.74 and retrospective gating group n=101, mean age 53.38±11.58). Two independent radiologists scored coronary artery segments for image quality using a 5-point scale. Also, attenuation values of each coronary artery segment and dose-length product values were measured. For each technique, cut-off HR values were determined for the best image quality. Mean image quality scores and attenuation values were found to be higher in the prospective triggering group (pquality scores were ≤67 beats per minute (bpm) and ≤80 bpm for the prospective triggering and retrospective gating groups, respectively (pquality (pquality scores than retrospective ECG gating, particularly in patients who have an HR of less than 68 bpm. Also, a 73% radiation dose reduction can be achieved with prospective ECG triggering. In patients with higher heart rates, retrospective ECG gating is recommended.

  11. Comparison Between Interactive Closest Point and Procrustes Analysis for Determining the Median Sagittal Plane of Three-Dimensional Facial Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yuxue; Zhao, Yijiao; Yang, Huifang; Sun, Yucun; Wang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    To compare 2 digital methods to determine median sagittal plane of three-dimensional facial data-the interactive closest point algorithm and Procrustes analysis. The three-dimensional facial data of the 30 volunteers were got by the Face Scan 3D optical sensor (3D-Shape GmbH, Erlangen, Germany), and then were input to the reverse engineering software Imageware 13.0 (Siemens, Plano, TX) and Geomagic 2012 (Cary, NC). Their mirrored data were acquired and superimposed with the original data by the methods of interactive closest points and Procrustes analysis. The median sagittal planes of the 2 methods were extracted from the original and mirrored facial data respectively, 3 asymmetry indices were measured for comparison. Differences between the facial asymmetry indices of the 2 methods were evaluated using the paired sample t-test. In terms of the 3 asymmetry indices, there were no significant differences between interactive closest points and Procrustes analysis for extracting median sagittal plane from three-dimensional facial data.(t = 0.0.060, P = 0.953 for asymmetry index (AI) 1, t = -0.926, P = 0.362 for AI 2, t = 1.1172, P = 0.0.251 for AI 3). In this evaluation of 30 subjects, the Procrustes analysis and the interactive closest point median-sagittal planes were similar in terms of the 3 asymmetry indices. Thus, Procrustes analysis and interactive closest point can both be used to abstract median sagittal plane from three-dimensional facial data.

  12. Comparison of Two Variants Of a Kata Technique (Unsu): The Neuromechanical Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camomilla, Valentina; Sbriccoli, Paola; Mario, Alberto Di; Arpante, Alessandro; Felici, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize from a neuromechanical point of view a jump performed within the sequence of Kata Unsu in International top level karateka. A modified jumping technique was proposed to improve the already acquired technique. The neuromechanical evaluation, paralleled by a refereeing judgment, was then used to compare modified and classic technique to test if the modification could lead to a better performance capacity, e.g. a higher score during an official competition. To this purpose, four high ranked karateka were recruited and instructed to perform the two jumps. Surface electromyographic signals were recorded in a bipolar mode from the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, and gastrocnemious muscles of both lower limbs. Mechanical data were collected by means of a stereophotogrammetric system and force platforms. Performance was associated to parameters characterizing the initial conditions of the aerial phase and to the CoM maximal height. The most critical elements having a negative influence on the arbitral evaluation were associated to quantitative error indicators. 3D reconstruction of the movement and videos were used to obtain the referee scores. The Unsu jump was divided into five phases (preparation, take off, ascending flight, descending flight, and landing) and the critical elements were highlighted. When comparing the techniques, no difference was found in the pattern of sEMG activation of the throwing leg muscles, while the push leg showed an earlier activation of RF and GA muscles at the beginning of the modified technique. The only significant improvement associated with the modified technique was evidenced at the beginning of the aerial phase, while there was no significant improvement of the referee score. Nevertheless, the proposed neuromechanical analysis, finalized to correlate technique features with the core performance indicators, is new in the field and is a promising tool to

  13. Point-of-Care Hemoglobin/Hematocrit Testing: Comparison of Methodology and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew; Bert, Arthur; Singh, Arun; Sweeney, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Point-of-care (POC) testing allows rapid assessment of hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) values. This study compared 3 POC testing devices--the Radical-7 pulse oximeter (Radical-7, Neuchȃtel, Switzerland), the i-STAT (Abbott Point of Care, Princeton, NJ), and the GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory, Bedford, MA)--to the hospital reference device, the UniCel DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter, Brea, CA) in cardiac surgery patients. Prospective study. Tertiary care cardiovascular center. Twenty-four consecutive elective adult cardiac surgery patients. Hgb and Hct values were measured using 3 POC devices (the Radical-7, i-STAT, and GEM 4000) and a reference laboratory device (UniCel DxH 800). Data were collected simultaneously before surgery, after heparin administration, after heparin reversal with protamine, and after sternal closure. Data were analyzed using bias analyses. POC testing data were compared with that of the reference laboratory device. Hgb levels ranged from 6.8 to 15.1 g/dL, and Hct levels ranged from 20.1% to 43.8%. The overall mean bias was lowest with the i-STAT (Hct, 0.22%; Hgb 0.05 g/dL) compared with the GEM 4000 (Hct, 2.15%; Hgb, 0.63 g/dL) and the Radical-7 (Hgb 1.16 g/dL). The range of data for the i-STAT and Radical-7 was larger than that with the GEM 4000, and the pattern or slopes changed significantly with the i-STAT and Radical-7, whereas that of the GEM 4000 remained relatively stable. The GEM 4000 demonstrated a consistent overestimation of laboratory data, which tended to improve after bypass and at lower Hct/Hgb levels. The i-STAT bias changed from overestimation to underestimation, the latter in the post-cardiopulmonary bypass period and at lower Hct/Hgb levels. By contrast, the Radical-7 biases increased during the surgical procedure and in the lower ranges of Hgb. Important clinical differences and limitations were found among the 3 POC testing devices that should caution clinicians from relying on these data as sole determinants of

  14. Cross-site comparisons of concentration-discharge relationships reveal climate-driven chemostatic set points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsey, S.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Streamflow solute concentrations often vary predictably with flows, providing insight into processes controlling solute generation and export. Previous work by the authors showed that log-transformed concentration-discharge relationships of weathering-derived solutes in 59 headwater catchments had relatively low slopes, implying that these watersheds behaved almost like chemostats. That is, their rates of solute production and/or mobilization were nearly proportional to water fluxes, on both event and inter-annual time scales. Here we re-examine these findings using data from roughly 1000 catchments, ranging from ˜10 to >1,000,000 sq. km in drainage area, and spanning a wide range of lithologic and climatic settings.Concentration-discharge relationships among this much larger set of much larger catchments are broadly consistent with the chemostatic behavior described above. However, site-to-site variations in mean concentrations among these catchments are negatively correlated with long-term average precipitation and discharge, suggesting dilution of stream concentrations under long-term leaching of the critical zone. Thus, on event and inter-annual time scales, stream solute concentrations are chemostatically buffered by groundwater storage and fast chemical reactions (such as ion exchange), but on much longer time scales, the catchment's chemostatic "set point" is determined by climatically driven critical zone evolution. We present examples illustrating short-term and long-term controls on water quality consistent with variations in weather and climate, and discuss their implications.

  15. Comparison of Result Times Between Urine and Whole Blood Point-of-care Pregnancy Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Michael; Wnek, Kristopher; Moskoff, Jordan; Christian, Errick; Bailitz, John

    2016-07-01

    Point-of-care (POC) pregnancy testing is commonly performed in the emergency department (ED). One prior study demonstrated equivalent accuracy between urine and whole blood for one common brand of POC pregnancy testing. Our study sought to determine the difference in result times when comparing whole blood versus urine for the same brand of POC pregnancy testing. We conducted a prospective, observational study at an urban, academic, tertiary care hospital comparing the turnaround time between order and result for urine and whole blood pregnancy tests collected according to standard protocol without intervention from the investigators. After the blood was collected, the nurse would place three drops onto a Beckman Coulter ICON 25 Rapid HCG bedside pregnancy test and set a timer for 10 minutes. At the end of the 10 minutes, the result and time were recorded on an encoded data sheet and not used clinically. The same make and model analyzer was also used for urine tests in the lab located within the ED. The primary outcome was the difference in mean turnaround time between whole blood in the ED and urine testing in the adjacent lab results. Concordance between samples was assessed as a secondary outcome. 265 total patients were included in the study. The use of whole blood resulted in a mean time savings of 21 minutes (95% CI 16-25 minutes) when compared with urine (ptesting may reduce the total result turnaround time without significant changes in accuracy in this single-center study.

  16. Comparison of point-of-care versus central laboratory measurement of hematocrit, hemoglobin, and electrolyte concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavala, Alexandra; Myrianthefs, Pavlos

    We aimed to investigate the accuracy of certain laboratory examinations obtained by the ABG analyzer (ROCHE AVL OMNI S) as compared to hospital central laboratory (CL). We prospectively collected data obtained from the same arterial blood sample regarding hematocrit, hemoglobin, potassium, and sodium. ABG analyzer results were significantly lower (p < 0.0001) compared to CL values thus values between the two methods are not interchangeable. The mean bias for Hb, Na + and K + were within accepted by US Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (USCLIA) differences (cut-off points) but not for Ht. In 8.0%, 17.5%, 37.5% and 56.0% of Hb, Na + , K + and Ht measurements respectively and 29.75% in sum the differences were over the USCLIA accepted limits. ABG analyzer significantly underestimate the values of Hb, Ht, Na + and K + , compared to CL and almost 30% of all examined parameters were beyond USCLIA accepted biases. ABG analyzer significantly underestimates the values of Hb, Ht, Na + and K + compared to CL and almost 30% for all examined parameters are beyond USCLIA accepted biases. These data do not support widespread or even careful use of POCT for making diagnostic and treatment decisions until technology improves and results in improved outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. DUMAND data acquisition with triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, A.E.; Theriot, D.; March, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    A data acquisition scheme for the standard DUMAND array that includes a simple triggering scheme as a fundamental part of the system is presented. Although there are a number of not yet fully understood parameters, it is assumed that thresholds can be set in such a manner as to give rise to a triggered signal that is not so dominated by randoms that it gives a substantial decrease in the data acquisition rate over that which would be required by a nontriggered system. It is also assumed that the triggering logic is relatively simple and does not need major computational capabilities for a trigger logic decision. With these assumptions, it is possible to generate the trigger at the array and restrict the data transfer to shore. However, with a not unreasonable delay of 200 microseconds, it is even possible to transmit the information for the trigger to shore and perform all that logic on the shore. The critical point is to send the minimum amount of information necessary to construct the trigger such that one need not send all the possible information in all detectors of the array continuously to shore. 1 figure

  18. Optimising diffusion-weighted MR imaging for demonstrating pancreatic cancer: a comparison of respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartalis, Nikolaos; Loizou, Louiza; Edsborg, Nick; Albiin, Nils; Segersvaerd, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    To compare respiratory-triggered, free-breathing, and breath-hold DWI techniques regarding (1) image quality, and (2) signal intensity (SI) and ADC measurements in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Fifteen patients with histopathologically proven PDAC underwent DWI prospectively at 1.5 T (b = 0, 50, 300, 600 and 1,000 s/mm 2 ) with the three techniques. Two radiologists, independently and blindly, assigned total image quality scores [sum of rating diffusion images (lesion detection, anatomy, presence of artefacts) and ADC maps (lesion characterisation, overall image quality)] per technique and ranked them. The lesion SI, signal-to-noise ratio, mean ADC and coefficient of variation (CV) were compared. Total image quality scores for respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques were 17.9, 16.5 and 17.1 respectively (respiratory-triggered was significantly higher than free-breathing but not breath-hold). The respiratory-triggered technique had a significantly higher ranking. Lesion SI on all b-values and signal-to-noise ratio on b300 and b600 were significantly higher for the respiratory-triggered technique. For respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques the mean ADCs were 1.201, 1.132 and 1.253 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, and mean CVs were 8.9, 10.8 and 14.1 % respectively (respiratory-triggered and free-breathing techniques had a significantly lower mean CV than the breath-hold technique). In both analyses, respiratory-triggered DWI showed superiority and seems the optimal DWI technique for demonstrating PDAC. (orig.)

  19. Optimising diffusion-weighted MR imaging for demonstrating pancreatic cancer: a comparison of respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartalis, Nikolaos; Loizou, Louiza; Edsborg, Nick; Albiin, Nils [Karolinska University Hospital, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Segersvaerd, Ralf [Karolinska University Hospital, Division of Surgery, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-10-15

    To compare respiratory-triggered, free-breathing, and breath-hold DWI techniques regarding (1) image quality, and (2) signal intensity (SI) and ADC measurements in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Fifteen patients with histopathologically proven PDAC underwent DWI prospectively at 1.5 T (b = 0, 50, 300, 600 and 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}) with the three techniques. Two radiologists, independently and blindly, assigned total image quality scores [sum of rating diffusion images (lesion detection, anatomy, presence of artefacts) and ADC maps (lesion characterisation, overall image quality)] per technique and ranked them. The lesion SI, signal-to-noise ratio, mean ADC and coefficient of variation (CV) were compared. Total image quality scores for respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques were 17.9, 16.5 and 17.1 respectively (respiratory-triggered was significantly higher than free-breathing but not breath-hold). The respiratory-triggered technique had a significantly higher ranking. Lesion SI on all b-values and signal-to-noise ratio on b300 and b600 were significantly higher for the respiratory-triggered technique. For respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques the mean ADCs were 1.201, 1.132 and 1.253 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, and mean CVs were 8.9, 10.8 and 14.1 % respectively (respiratory-triggered and free-breathing techniques had a significantly lower mean CV than the breath-hold technique). In both analyses, respiratory-triggered DWI showed superiority and seems the optimal DWI technique for demonstrating PDAC. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of cyclic and impact-based reference point indentation measurements in human cadaveric tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Lamya; Van Vliet, Miranda; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2018-01-01

    Although low bone mineral density (BMD) is strongly associated with increased fracture risk, up to 50% of those who suffer fractures are not detected as high-risk patients by BMD testing. Thus, new approaches may improve identification of those at increased risk for fracture by in vivo assessment of altered bone tissue properties, which may contribute to skeletal fragility. Recently developed reference point indentation (RPI) allows for assessment of cortical bone indentation properties in vivo using devices that apply cyclic loading or impact loading, but there is little information available to assist with interpretation of RPI measurements. Our goals were to use human cadaveric tibia to determine: 1) the associations between RPI variables, cortical bone density, and morphology; 2) the association between variables obtained from RPI systems using cyclic, slow loading versus a single impact load; and 3) age-related differences in RPI variables. We obtained 20 human tibia and femur pairs from female donors (53-97years), measured total hip BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, assessed tibial cortical microarchitecture using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), and assessed cortical bone indentation properties at the mid-tibial diaphysis using both the cyclic and impact-based RPI systems (Biodent and Osteoprobe, respectively, Active Life Scientific, Santa Barbara, CA). We found a few weak associations between RPI variables, BMD, and cortical geometry; a few weak associations between measurements obtained by the two RPI systems; and no age-related differences in RPI variables. Our findings indicate that in cadaveric tibia from older women RPI measurements are largely independent of age, femoral BMD, and cortical geometry. Furthermore, measurements from the cyclic and impact loading RPI devices are weakly related to each other, indicating that each device reflects different aspects of cortical bone indentation properties

  1. COMPARISON OF TWO VARIANTS OF A KATA TECHNIQUE (UNSU: THE NEUROMECHANICAL POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Felici

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize from a neuromechanical point of view a jump performed within the sequence of Kata Unsu in International top level karateka. A modified jumping technique was proposed to improve the already acquired technique. The neuromechanical evaluation, paralleled by a refereeing judgment, was then used to compare modified and classic technique to test if the modification could lead to a better performance capacity, e.g. a higher score during an official competition. To this purpose, four high ranked karateka were recruited and instructed to perform the two jumps. Surface electromyographic signals were recorded in a bipolar mode from the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, and gastrocnemious muscles of both lower limbs. Mechanical data were collected by means of a stereophotogrammetric system and force platforms. Performance was associated to parameters characterizing the initial conditions of the aerial phase and to the CoM maximal height. The most critical elements having a negative influence on the arbitral evaluation were associated to quantitative error indicators. 3D reconstruction of the movement and videos were used to obtain the referee scores. The Unsu jump was divided into five phases (preparation, take off, ascending flight, descending flight, and landing and the critical elements were highlighted. When comparing the techniques, no difference was found in the pattern of sEMG activation of the throwing leg muscles, while the push leg showed an earlier activation of RF and GA muscles at the beginning of the modified technique. The only significant improvement associated with the modified technique was evidenced at the beginning of the aerial phase, while there was no significant improvement of the referee score. Nevertheless, the proposed neuromechanical analysis, finalized to correlate technique features with the core performance indicators, is new in the field and is a

  2. Comparison of point-source pollutant loadings to soil and groundwater for 72 chemical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Soonyoung; Hwang, Sang-Il; Yun, Seong-Taek; Chae, Gitak; Lee, Dongsu; Kim, Ki-Eun

    2017-11-01

    Fate and transport of 72 chemicals in soil and groundwater were assessed by using a multiphase compositional model (CompFlow Bio) because some of the chemicals are non-aqueous phase liquids or solids in the original form. One metric ton of chemicals were assumed to leak in a stylized facility. Scenarios of both surface spills and subsurface leaks were considered. Simulation results showed that the fate and transport of chemicals above the water table affected the fate and transport of chemicals below the water table, and vice versa. Surface spill scenarios caused much less concentrations than subsurface leak scenarios because leaching amounts into the subsurface environment were small (at most 6% of the 1 t spill for methylamine). Then, simulation results were applied to assess point-source pollutant loadings to soil and groundwater above and below the water table, respectively, by multiplying concentrations, impact areas, and durations. These three components correspond to the intensity of contamination, mobility, and persistency in the assessment of pollutant loading, respectively. Assessment results showed that the pollutant loadings in soil and groundwater were linearly related (r 2  = 0.64). The pollutant loadings were negatively related with zero-order and first-order decay rates in both soil (r = - 0.5 and - 0.6, respectively) and groundwater (- 1.0 and - 0.8, respectively). In addition, this study scientifically defended that the soil partitioning coefficient (K d ) significantly affected the pollutant loadings in soil (r = 0.6) and the maximum masses in groundwater (r = - 0.9). However, K d was not a representative factor for chemical transportability unlike the expectation in chemical ranking systems of soil and groundwater pollutants. The pollutant loadings estimated using a physics-based hydrogeological model provided a more rational ranking for exposure assessment, compared to the summation of persistency and transportability scores in

  3. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on comparison of non-fossil options to Hinkley Point 'C'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, S.C.

    1988-09-01

    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. This evidence to the Inquiry sets out and explains the non-fossil fuel options, with particular reference to renewable energy sources and other PWR locations; gives feasibility, capital cost, performance and total resource estimates for the renewable sources; and shows that no other non-fossil fuel source is to be preferred to Hinkley Point ''C''. (author)

  4. The LHCb trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolko, I.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes progress in the development of the LHCb trigger system since the letter of intent. The trigger philosophy has significantly changed, resulting in an increase of trigger efficiency for signal B events. It is proposed to implement a level-1 vertex topology trigger in specialised hardware. (orig.)

  5. Comparison of left ventricular function assessment using phonocardiogram- and electrocardiogram-triggered 2D SSFP CINE MR imaging at 1.5 T and 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Meike [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Humboldt-University, Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), Charite Campus Buch, Berlin (Germany); Frauenrath, Tobias; Hezel, Fabian [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility, Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Krombach, Gabriele A.; Kremer, Ute; Koppers, Benedikt [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Butenweg, Christoph; Goemmel, Andreas [Chair of Structural Statics and Dynamics, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Utting, Jane F. [MRI, NHS Grampian, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Schulz-Menger, Jeanette [Humboldt-University, Working Group Cardiovascular MR, Franz-Volhard-Klinik, Department of Cardiology, HELIOS-Klinikum Berlin-Buch and Charite Campus Buch, Berlin (Germany); Niendorf, Thoralf [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Humboldt-University, Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), Charite Campus Buch, Berlin (Germany); Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility, Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    As high-field cardiac MRI (CMR) becomes more widespread the propensity of ECG to interference from electromagnetic fields (EMF) and to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) effects increases and with it the motivation for a CMR triggering alternative. This study explores the suitability of acoustic cardiac triggering (ACT) for left ventricular (LV) function assessment in healthy subjects (n = 14). Quantitative analysis of 2D CINE steady-state free precession (SSFP) images was conducted to compare ACT's performance with vector ECG (VCG). Endocardial border sharpness (EBS) was examined paralleled by quantitative LV function assessment. Unlike VCG, ACT provided signal traces free of interference from EMF or MHD effects. In the case of correct R-wave recognition, VCG-triggered 2D CINE SSFP was immune to cardiac motion effects - even at 3.0 T. However, VCG-triggered 2D SSFP CINE imaging was prone to cardiac motion and EBS degradation if R-wave misregistration occurred. ACT-triggered acquisitions yielded LV parameters (end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular mass (LVM)) comparable with those derived from VCG-triggered acquisitions (1.5 T: ESV{sub VCG} = (56 {+-} 17) ml, EDV{sub VCG} = (151 {+-} 32) ml, LVM{sub VCG} = (97 {+-} 27) g, SV{sub VCG} = (94 {+-} 19) ml, EF{sub VCG} = (63 {+-} 5)% cf. ESV{sub ACT} = (56 {+-} 18) ml, EDV{sub ACT} = (147 {+-} 36) ml, LVM{sub ACT} = (102 {+-} 29) g, SV{sub ACT} = (91 {+-} 22) ml, EF{sub ACT} = (62 {+-} 6)%; 3.0 T: ESV{sub VCG} = (55 {+-} 21) ml, EDV{sub VCG} = (151 {+-} 32) ml, LVM{sub VCG} = (101 {+-} 27) g, SV{sub VCG} = (96 {+-} 15) ml, EF{sub VCG} = (65 {+-} 7)% cf. ESV{sub ACT} = (54 {+-} 20) ml, EDV{sub ACT} = (146 {+-} 35) ml, LVM{sub ACT} = (101 {+-} 30) g, SV{sub ACT} = (92 {+-} 17) ml, EF{sub ACT} = (64 {+-} 6)%). ACT's intrinsic insensitivity to interference from electromagnetic fields renders it suitable for clinical CMR. (orig.)

  6. Comparison of left ventricular function assessment using phonocardiogram- and electrocardiogram-triggered 2D SSFP CINE MR imaging at 1.5 T and 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Meike; Frauenrath, Tobias; Hezel, Fabian; Krombach, Gabriele A.; Kremer, Ute; Koppers, Benedikt; Butenweg, Christoph; Goemmel, Andreas; Utting, Jane F.; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2010-01-01

    As high-field cardiac MRI (CMR) becomes more widespread the propensity of ECG to interference from electromagnetic fields (EMF) and to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) effects increases and with it the motivation for a CMR triggering alternative. This study explores the suitability of acoustic cardiac triggering (ACT) for left ventricular (LV) function assessment in healthy subjects (n = 14). Quantitative analysis of 2D CINE steady-state free precession (SSFP) images was conducted to compare ACT's performance with vector ECG (VCG). Endocardial border sharpness (EBS) was examined paralleled by quantitative LV function assessment. Unlike VCG, ACT provided signal traces free of interference from EMF or MHD effects. In the case of correct R-wave recognition, VCG-triggered 2D CINE SSFP was immune to cardiac motion effects - even at 3.0 T. However, VCG-triggered 2D SSFP CINE imaging was prone to cardiac motion and EBS degradation if R-wave misregistration occurred. ACT-triggered acquisitions yielded LV parameters (end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular mass (LVM)) comparable with those derived from VCG-triggered acquisitions (1.5 T: ESV VCG = (56 ± 17) ml, EDV VCG = (151 ± 32) ml, LVM VCG = (97 ± 27) g, SV VCG = (94 ± 19) ml, EF VCG = (63 ± 5)% cf. ESV ACT = (56 ± 18) ml, EDV ACT = (147 ± 36) ml, LVM ACT = (102 ± 29) g, SV ACT = (91 ± 22) ml, EF ACT = (62 ± 6)%; 3.0 T: ESV VCG = (55 ± 21) ml, EDV VCG = (151 ± 32) ml, LVM VCG = (101 ± 27) g, SV VCG = (96 ± 15) ml, EF VCG = (65 ± 7)% cf. ESV ACT = (54 ± 20) ml, EDV ACT = (146 ± 35) ml, LVM ACT = (101 ± 30) g, SV ACT = (92 ± 17) ml, EF ACT = (64 ± 6)%). ACT's intrinsic insensitivity to interference from electromagnetic fields renders it suitable for clinical CMR. (orig.)

  7. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  8. Comparisons of temperature, pressure and humidity measurements by balloon-borne radiosondes and frost point hygrometers during MOHAVE-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Hurst

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We compare coincident, in situ, balloon-borne measurements of temperature (T and pressure (P by two radiosondes (Vaisala RS92, Intermet iMet-1-RSB and similar measurements of relative humidity (RH by RS92 sondes and frost point hygrometers. Data from a total of 28 balloon flights with at least one pair of radiosondes are analyzed in 1-km altitude bins to quantify measurement differences between the sonde sensors and how they vary with altitude. Each comparison (T, P, RH exposes several profiles of anomalously large measurement differences. Measurement difference statistics, calculated with and without the anomalous profiles, are compared to uncertainties quoted by the radiosonde manufacturers. Excluding seven anomalous profiles, T differences between 19 pairs of RS92 and iMet sondes exceed their measurement uncertainty limits (2 σ 31% of the time and reveal a statistically significant, altitude-independent bias of 0.5 ± 0.2 °C. Similarly, RS92-iMet P differences in 22 non-anomalous profiles exceed their uncertainty limits 23% of the time, with a disproportionate 83% of the excessive P differences at altitudes >16 km. The RS92-iMet pressure differences increase smoothly from −0.6 hPa near the surface to 0.8 hPa above 25 km. Temperature and P differences between all 14 pairs of RS92 sondes exceed manufacturer-quoted, reproducibility limits (σ 28% and 11% of the time, respectively. About 95% of the excessive T differences are eliminated when 5 anomalous RS92-RS92 profiles are excluded. Only 5% of RH measurement differences between 14 pairs of RS92 sondes exceed the manufacturer's measurement reproducibility limit (σ. RH measurements by RS92 sondes are also compared to RH values calculated from frost point hygrometer measurements and coincident T measurements by the radiosondes. The influences of RS92-iMet Tand P differences on RH values and water vapor mixing

  9. Comparison of T-Square, Point Centered Quarter, and N-Tree Sampling Methods in Pittosporum undulatum Invaded Woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lurdes Borges Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tree density is an important parameter affecting ecosystems functions and management decisions, while tree distribution patterns affect sampling design. Pittosporum undulatum stands in the Azores are being targeted with a biomass valorization program, for which efficient tree density estimators are required. We compared T-Square sampling, Point Centered Quarter Method (PCQM, and N-tree sampling with benchmark quadrat (QD sampling in six 900 m2 plots established at P. undulatum stands in São Miguel Island. A total of 15 estimators were tested using a data resampling approach. The estimated density range (344–5056 trees/ha was found to agree with previous studies using PCQM only. Although with a tendency to underestimate tree density (in comparison with QD, overall, T-Square sampling appeared to be the most accurate and precise method, followed by PCQM. Tree distribution pattern was found to be slightly aggregated in 4 of the 6 stands. Considering (1 the low level of bias and high precision, (2 the consistency among three estimators, (3 the possibility of use with aggregated patterns, and (4 the possibility of obtaining a larger number of independent tree parameter estimates, we recommend the use of T-Square sampling in P. undulatum stands within the framework of a biomass valorization program.

  10. Performance Comparison between ĆUK and SEPIC Converters for Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Incremental Conductance Technique in Solar Power Applications

    OpenAIRE

    James Dunia; Bakari M. M. Mwinyiwiwa

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) energy is one of the most important energy resources since it is clean, pollution free, and endless. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is used in photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the photovoltaic output power, irrespective the variations of temperature and radiation conditions. This paper presents a comparison between Ćuk and SEPIC converter in maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of photovoltaic (PV) system. In the paper, advantages and disadvantages of both converter...

  11. Common Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grass Other Triggers If you have asthma, an asthma attack can happen when you are exposed to “asthma ... a second person. Secondhand smoke can trigger an asthma attack. If you have asthma, people should never smoke ...

  12. The KLOE trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, M.; Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Andryakov, A.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Bacci, C.; Bankamp, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Bellini, F.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Cabibbo, G.; Calcaterra, A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Carboni, G.; Cardini, A.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; Conticelli, S.; De Lucia, E.; De Robertis, G.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Denig, E.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Doria, A.; Drago, E.; Elia, V.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Golovatyuk, V.; Gorini, E.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grandegger, W.; Graziani, E.; Guarnaccia, P.; Hagel, U. von; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Jang, Y.Y.; Kim, W.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, F.; Luisi, C.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moalem, A.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nedosekin, A.; Panareo, M.; Pacciani, L.; Pages, P.; Palutan, M.; Paoluzi, L.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passaseo, M.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, G.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pistillo, C.; Pollack, M.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Ruggieri, F.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schwick, C.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Shan, J.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spagnolo, S.; Spiriti, E.; Stanescu, C.; Tong, G.L.; Tortora, L.; Valente, E.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zhao, P.P.; Zhou, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A double-level trigger system has been developed for the KLOE experiment. Custom electronics asserts a trigger in a 2 μs decision time. The decision is based on the combined information of the electromagnetic calorimeter and the drift chamber. The entire trigger system is continuously monitored, and data flowing from the trigger system have allowed both an efficient online monitoring of the detector and an online luminosity measurement

  13. Investigation of ternary and quaternary high-temperature fixed-point cells, based on platinum-carbon-X, as blind comparison artefacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, W.; Machin, G.; Bloembergen, P.; Lowe, D.; Wang, T.

    2016-11-01

    Extensive studies of platinum-carbon eutectic alloy based high temperature fixed point cells have shown that this alloy has extremely good metrological potential as a temperature reference. However, it’s possible adoption as an accepted reference standard means that its eutectic temperature value will soon be agreed with an uncertainty less than most radiation thermometry scales at that temperature. Thus it will lack credibility if used as a future scale comparison artefact. To avoid this, the fixed-point cell can be deliberately doped with an impurity to change its transition temperature by an amount sufficient to test the accuracy of the scales of the institutes, involved in the comparison. In this study dopants of palladium and iridium were added to platinum-carbon to produce ternary alloy and quaternary alloy fixed-point cells. The stability of these artefacts was demonstrated and the fixed-point cells were used to compare the ITS-90 scales of NIM and NPL. It was found that the fixed point temperatures could be changed by an appreciable amount while retaining the stability and repeatability required for comparison artefacts.

  14. ATLAS jet trigger performance in 2016 data

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00535667; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC uses a two-level trigger system to preferentially select events with a predefined topology of interest for future analysis. The hadronic jet trigger is used to select several different topologies containing different types and multiplicities of hadronic jets, thus supporting many different physics searches and measurements. The hadronic jet trigger efficiency for proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV is presented. The efficient selection of events containing hadronic jets requires the characteristics of trigger-level jets and offline jets to be very similar. A comparison of relevant characteristics demonstrates that trigger-level jets and offline jets are in excellent agreement.

  15. ATLAS jet trigger performance in 2015 data

    CERN Document Server

    Herwig, Theodor Christian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC uses a two-level trigger system to preferentially select events with a predefined topology of interest for future analysis. The hadronic jet trigger is used to select several different topologies containing different types and multiplicities of hadronic jets, thus supporting many different physics searches and measurements. The hadronic jet trigger efficiency for proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV is presented. The efficient selection of events containing hadronic jets requires the characteristics of trigger-level jets and offline jets to be very similar. A comparison of relevant characteristics demonstrates that trigger-level jets and offline jets are in excellent agreement.

  16. Single- versus multi-phase acquisition protocol for prospective-triggered sequential dual-source CT coronary angiography: comparison of image quality and radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Xu, Yiming; Lu, Daoyan; Shi, Yuzhen; Lu, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    To investigate image quality and radiation dose of single- versus multi-phase acquisition protocol for prospective-triggered sequential dual-source computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography. A total of 140 patients were randomly assigned to single- or multi-phase group. Image quality and radiation dose were compared. No significant difference was found in image quality between the two groups. Effective dose of single-phase group was 21.6% lower than that of multi-phase group (Psource CT coronary angiography using single-phase protocol can reduce radiation dose without sacrifice of image quality in diastole compared with multi-phase protocol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Comparison of gel point for a Glass/Epoxy Composite and a Neat Epoxy Material during Isothermal Curing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny; Andreasen, Jens H.; Thomsen, Ole Thybo

    2014-01-01

    in bending stiffness, and vitrification is seen as a decrease in the bending stiffness rate. Often gel point predictions for composite materials are based on neat matrix measurements. However, the results presented in this article demonstrate that the gel point is affected by the presence of the fibre...

  18. Comparison of the Selected State-Of-The-Art 3D Indoor Scanning and Point Cloud Generation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville V. Lehtola

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Accurate three-dimensional (3D data from indoor spaces are of high importance for various applications in construction, indoor navigation and real estate management. Mobile scanning techniques are offering an efficient way to produce point clouds, but with a lower accuracy than the traditional terrestrial laser scanning (TLS. In this paper, we first tackle the problem of how the quality of a point cloud should be rigorously evaluated. Previous evaluations typically operate on some point cloud subset, using a manually-given length scale, which would perhaps describe the ranging precision or the properties of the environment. Instead, the metrics that we propose perform the quality evaluation to the full point cloud and over all of the length scales, revealing the method precision along with some possible problems related to the point clouds, such as outliers, over-completeness and misregistration. The proposed methods are used to evaluate the end product point clouds of some of the latest methods. In detail, point clouds are obtained from five commercial indoor mapping systems, Matterport, NavVis, Zebedee, Stencil and Leica Pegasus: Backpack, and three research prototypes, Aalto VILMA , FGI Slammer and the Würzburg backpack. These are compared against survey-grade TLS point clouds captured from three distinct test sites that each have different properties. Based on the presented experimental findings, we discuss the properties of the proposed metrics and the strengths and weaknesses of the above mapping systems and then suggest directions for future research.

  19. Electronic trigger for the ASP experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.J.

    1985-11-01

    The Anomalous Single Photon (ASP) electronic trigger is described. The experiments is based on an electromagnetic calorimeter composed of arrays of lead glass blocks, read out with photo-multiplier tubes, surrounding the interaction point at the PEP storage ring. The primary requirement of the trigger system is to be sensitive to low energy (approx. =0.5 GeV and above) photons whilst discriminating against high backgrounds at PEP. Analogue summing of the PMT signals and a sequence of programmable digital look-up tables produces a ''dead-timeless'' trigger for the beam collision rate of 408 kHz. 6 refs., 6 figs

  20. Electronic trigger for the ASP experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The ASP electronic trigger is described. The experiment is based on an electromagnetic calorimeter composed of arrays of lead glass blocks, read out with photo-multiplier tubes, surrounding the interaction point at the PEP storage ring. The primary requirement of the trigger system is to be sensitive to low energy (≅ 0.5 GeV and above) photons whilst discriminating against high rate backgrounds at PEP. Analogue summing of the PMT signals and a sequence of programmable digital look-up tables produces a ''dead-timeless'' trigger for the beam collision rate of 408 kHz

  1. The Trigger Processor and Trigger Processor Algorithms for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lazovich, Tomo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS New Small Wheel (NSW) is an upgrade to the ATLAS muon endcap detectors that will be installed during the next long shutdown of the LHC. Comprising both MicroMegas (MMs) and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGCs), this system will drastically improve the performance of the muon system in a high cavern background environment. The NSW trigger, in particular, will significantly reduce the rate of fake triggers coming from track segments in the endcap not originating from the interaction point. We will present an overview of the trigger, the proposed sTGC and MM trigger algorithms, and the hardware implementation of the trigger. In particular, we will discuss both the heart of the trigger, an ATCA system with FPGA-based trigger processors (using the same hardware platform for both MM and sTGC triggers), as well as the full trigger electronics chain, including dedicated cards for transmission of data via GBT optical links. Finally, we will detail the challenges of ensuring that the trigger electronics can ...

  2. Comparison of UAV-Enabled Photogrammetry-Based 3D Point Clouds and Interpolated DSMs of Sloping Terrain for Rockfall Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousakis, J.; Zekkos, D.; Saroglou, F.; Clark, M.

    2016-10-01

    UAVs are expected to be particularly valuable to define topography for natural slopes that may be prone to geological hazards, such as landslides or rockfalls. UAV-enabled imagery and aerial mapping can lead to fast and accurate qualitative and quantitative results for photo documentation as well as basemap 3D analysis that can be used for geotechnical stability analyses. In this contribution, the case study of a rockfall near Ponti village that was triggered during the November 17th 2015 Mw 6.5 earthquake in Lefkada, Greece is presented with a focus on feature recognition and 3D terrain model development for use in rockfall hazard analysis. A significant advantage of the UAV was the ability to identify from aerial views the rockfall trajectory along the terrain, the accuracy of which is crucial to subsequent geotechnical back-analysis. Fast static GPS control points were measured for optimizing internal and external camera parameters and model georeferencing. Emphasis is given on an assessment of the error associated with the basemap when fewer and poorly distributed ground control points are available. Results indicate that spatial distribution and image occurrences of control points throughout the mapped area and image block is essential in order to produce accurate geospatial data with minimum distortions.

  3. COMPARISON OF UAV-ENABLED PHOTOGRAMMETRY-BASED 3D POINT CLOUDS AND INTERPOLATED DSMs OF SLOPING TERRAIN FOR ROCKFALL HAZARD ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Manousakis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available UAVs are expected to be particularly valuable to define topography for natural slopes that may be prone to geological hazards, such as landslides or rockfalls. UAV-enabled imagery and aerial mapping can lead to fast and accurate qualitative and quantitative results for photo documentation as well as basemap 3D analysis that can be used for geotechnical stability analyses. In this contribution, the case study of a rockfall near Ponti village that was triggered during the November 17th 2015 Mw 6.5 earthquake in Lefkada, Greece is presented with a focus on feature recognition and 3D terrain model development for use in rockfall hazard analysis. A significant advantage of the UAV was the ability to identify from aerial views the rockfall trajectory along the terrain, the accuracy of which is crucial to subsequent geotechnical back-analysis. Fast static GPS control points were measured for optimizing internal and external camera parameters and model georeferencing. Emphasis is given on an assessment of the error associated with the basemap when fewer and poorly distributed ground control points are available. Results indicate that spatial distribution and image occurrences of control points throughout the mapped area and image block is essential in order to produce accurate geospatial data with minimum distortions.

  4. COMPARISON OF 2D AND 3D APPROACHES FOR THE ALIGNMENT OF UAV AND LIDAR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Persad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The automatic alignment of 3D point clouds acquired or generated from different sensors is a challenging problem. The objective of the alignment is to estimate the 3D similarity transformation parameters, including a global scale factor, 3 rotations and 3 translations. To do so, corresponding anchor features are required in both data sets. There are two main types of alignment: i Coarse alignment and ii Refined Alignment. Coarse alignment issues include lack of any prior knowledge of the respective coordinate systems for a source and target point cloud pair and the difficulty to extract and match corresponding control features (e.g., points, lines or planes co-located on both point cloud pairs to be aligned. With the increasing use of UAVs, there is a need to automatically co-register their generated point cloud-based digital surface models with those from other data acquisition systems such as terrestrial or airborne lidar point clouds. This works presents a comparative study of two independent feature matching techniques for addressing 3D conformal point cloud alignment of UAV and lidar data in different 3D coordinate systems without any prior knowledge of the seven transformation parameters.

  5. Comparison of 2d and 3d Approaches for the Alignment of Uav and LIDAR Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, R. A.; Armenakis, C.

    2017-08-01

    The automatic alignment of 3D point clouds acquired or generated from different sensors is a challenging problem. The objective of the alignment is to estimate the 3D similarity transformation parameters, including a global scale factor, 3 rotations and 3 translations. To do so, corresponding anchor features are required in both data sets. There are two main types of alignment: i) Coarse alignment and ii) Refined Alignment. Coarse alignment issues include lack of any prior knowledge of the respective coordinate systems for a source and target point cloud pair and the difficulty to extract and match corresponding control features (e.g., points, lines or planes) co-located on both point cloud pairs to be aligned. With the increasing use of UAVs, there is a need to automatically co-register their generated point cloud-based digital surface models with those from other data acquisition systems such as terrestrial or airborne lidar point clouds. This works presents a comparative study of two independent feature matching techniques for addressing 3D conformal point cloud alignment of UAV and lidar data in different 3D coordinate systems without any prior knowledge of the seven transformation parameters.

  6. Trigger Finger (Stenosing Tenosynovitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a friend * required fields From * To * DESCRIPTION Stenosing tenosynovitis is a condition commonly known as “trigger finger.” It is sometimes also called “trigger thumb.” The tendons that bend the fingers glide easily with ...

  7. Causality and headache triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  8. Triggering the GRANDE array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, J.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the Gamma Ray And Neutrino Detector Experiment (GRANDE) is presented. The detector elements and electronics are described. The trigger logic for the array is then examined. The triggers for the Gamma Ray and the Neutrino portions of the array are treated separately. (orig.)

  9. Triggering trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Stefano, Giulia; Maarbjerg, Stine; Nurmikko, Turo

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Although it is widely accepted that facial pain paroxysms triggered by innocuous stimuli constitute a hallmark sign of trigeminal neuralgia, very few studies to date have systematically investigated the role of the triggers involved. In the recently published diagnostic classification...

  10. Fast Tracking for the ATLAS LVL2 Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Baines, J T M; Emeliyanov, D; Konstantinidis, N P; Parodi, F; Schiavi, C; Sutton, M; Computing In High Energy Physics

    2005-01-01

    We present a set of algorithms for fast track reconstruction at the second level (LVL2) trigger of ATLAS, using three-dimensional space points (= hits) from the silicon trackers. The strategy is to determine the position z_0 of the interesting pp interaction along the beam axis prior to any track reconstruction and then retain only groups of hits which point back to that z_0 and perform combinatorial tracking only inside those groups. We give results and discuss the advantages of this approach, which is generic enough to be applicable to other multi-collision experiments. We also make a qualitative comparison with a complementary approach which is based on Look-Up Tables (LUT) and is also used in ATLAS.

  11. Study of comparison of point A dose based on lateral fornix or external os in radiotherapy of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, Hiroshi; Ohkawa, Tomohiko; Miyaji, Noriaki; Gotoh, Makiko; Kita, Midori; Ikeda, Michio; Hirabayashi, Hisae

    1987-01-01

    The point A dose based on lateral fornix(LF) or external os(EO) were evaluated in the radiotherapy of 58 patients with previously untreated cervical cancer stage I - III from 1978 - 1984 at T.W.M.C. No significant differences were obtained between point A dose based on LF and EO, in the dose of each intracavitary irradiation with or without external beam and each patient. The differences of point A dose was not detected in the evaluation of radiation injury and local control rate. In two cases out of 58 patients, calculation of dose was impossible, because the location of point A based EO was on the top of ovoid source. These data suggested that the importance of radiotherapy was individualization for each case according to evaluation of tumor and patients' features. (author)

  12. Effectiveness of myofascial trigger point therapy in chronic back pain patients is considerably increased when combined with a new, integrated, low-frequency shock wave vibrotherapy (Cellconnect Impulse): A two-armed, measurement repeated, randomized, controlled pragmatic trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Rainer

    2018-02-06

    The prevalence of chronic back pain poses major challenges for all health care systems and patients worldwide. Myofascial trigger therapy (MT), although a very popular standard non-pharmaceutical form of treatment, only shows small to medium effectiveness. To test a new vibrotreatment (Cellconnect Impulse) transmitting low-frequency, vertical shock waves in a routine clinical practice. Eligible patients were adults seeking physiotherapeutic treatment. They were randomly allocated to either six treatments of MT or to six treatments of combined MT and vibrotreatment. Outcome parameters were pain intensity, pain days, pain duration, and quality of life. The pain relieving effects of the combined treatment were very large (d= 1.6). It clearly outperformed MT and considerably improved patients' health related quality of life. Combining MT with Cellconnect Impulse enhances the physiotherapeutic effectiveness of treating chronic back pain.

  13. Comparison of 3D point clouds produced by LIDAR and UAV photoscan in the Rochefort cave (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watlet, Arnaud; Triantafyllou, Antoine; Kaufmann, Olivier; Le Mouelic, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    Amongst today's techniques that are able to produce 3D point clouds, LIDAR and UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry are probably the most commonly used. Both methods have their own advantages and limitations. LIDAR scans create high resolution and high precision 3D point clouds, but such methods are generally costly, especially for sporadic surveys. Compared to LIDAR, UAV (e.g. drones) are cheap and flexible to use in different kind of environments. Moreover, the photogrammetric processing workflow of digital images taken with UAV becomes easier with the rise of many affordable software packages (e.g. Agisoft, PhotoModeler3D, VisualSFM). We present here a challenging study made at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (South Belgium) comprising surface and underground surveys. The site is located in the Belgian Variscan fold-and-thrust belt, a region that shows many karstic networks within Devonian limestone units. A LIDAR scan has been acquired in the main chamber of the cave (~ 15000 m³) to spatialize 3D point cloud of its inner walls and infer geological beds and structures. Even if the use of LIDAR instrument was not really comfortable in such caving environment, the collected data showed a remarkable precision according to few control points geometry. We also decided to perform another challenging survey of the same cave chamber by modelling a 3D point cloud using photogrammetry of a set of DSLR camera pictures taken from the ground and UAV pictures. The aim was to compare both techniques in terms of (i) implementation of data acquisition and processing, (ii) quality of resulting 3D points clouds (points density, field vs cloud recovery and points precision), (iii) their application for geological purposes. Through Rochefort case study, main conclusions are that LIDAR technique provides higher density point clouds with slightly higher precision than photogrammetry method. However, 3D data modeled by photogrammetry provide visible light spectral information

  14. The Need for Control/Comparison Studies in Establishing Diagnostic Indicators: Prader-Willi Syndrome as a Case in Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald L.; Caldwell, Mary Lou

    1990-01-01

    The psychometric characteristics of 12 adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and a group without PWS but with other similar traits were compared. Results found cognitive, behavioral and educational traits often associated with PWS to be present in both groups, illustrating the importance of control/comparison groups in research establishing…

  15. Comparison of the Effects of Hegu Point Ice Massage and 2% Lidocaine Gel on Arteriovenous Fistula Puncture-Related Pain in Hemodialysis Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihe Arab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of information on the effects of Hegu point ice massage and 2% lidocaine gel on fistula puncture-related pain in hemodialysis patients. The aim of the present research was compare the two methods in terms of their effectiveness. Methods: This study is a randomized controlled trial. Seventy hemodialysis patients were divided into two groups. The fistula puncture-related pain in the two groups was measured in the first session of hemodialysis without any intervention. During a hemodialysis session, 2% lidocaine gel was applied on the patient’s arteriovenous fistula site in one group. Also, for the other group, an ice cube was used to massage on the Hegu point in the hand without fistula in the other hemodialysis session. The pain score was recorded, using the Visual Analogue Scale. The data were analyzed using SPSS ver.13. Results: No significant differences were observed in the mean pain scores of the two groups in the preintervention phase. The comparison of the pain score before and after interventions of the lidocaine gel and ice massage groups was found to bear significant differences. Moreover, the comparison of the mean changes of the pain score before and after the intervention of the Hegu point ice massage groups revealed a further reduction for Hegu point than of lidocaine gel groups. Conclusion: Lidocaine gel and Hegu point ice massage affect the intensity of fistula puncture related pain in hemodialysis patients. Given the higher effectiveness of Hegu point ice massage, this method is recommended to be used for fast and safe pain reduction in hemodialysis patients.

  16. Comparison of 3D point clouds obtained by photogrammetric UAVs and TLS to determine the attitude of dolerite outcrops discontinuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João; Gonçalves, Gil; Duarte, Diogo; Figueiredo, Fernando; Mira, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Photogrammetric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS) are two emerging technologies that allows the production of dense 3D point clouds of the sensed topographic surfaces. Although image-based stereo-photogrammetric point clouds could not, in general, compete on geometric quality over TLS point clouds, fully automated mapping solutions based on ultra-light UAVs (or drones) have recently become commercially available at very reasonable accuracy and cost for engineering and geological applications. The purpose of this paper is to compare the two point clouds generated by these two technologies, in order to automatize the manual process tasks commonly used to detect and represent the attitude of discontinuities (Stereographic projection: Schmidt net - Equal area). To avoid the difficulties of access and guarantee the data survey security conditions, this fundamental step in all geological/geotechnical studies, applied to the extractive industry and engineering works, has to be replaced by a more expeditious and reliable methodology. This methodology will allow, in a more actuated clear way, give answers to the needs of evaluation of rock masses, by mapping the structures present, which will reduce considerably the associated risks (investment, structures dimensioning, security, etc.). A case study of a dolerite outcrop locate in the center of Portugal (the dolerite outcrop is situated in the volcanic complex of Serra de Todo-o-Mundo, Casais Gaiola, intruded in Jurassic sandstones) will be used to assess this methodology. The results obtained show that the 3D point cloud produced by the Photogrammetric UAV platform has the appropriate geometric quality for extracting the parameters that define the discontinuities of the dolerite outcrops. Although, they are comparable to the manual extracted parameters, their quality is inferior to parameters extracted from the TLS point cloud.

  17. Design and Comparison of Cascaded H-Bridge, Modular Multilevel Converter, and 5-L Active Neutral Point Clamped Topologies for Motor Drive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzoughi, Alinaghi [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Center for Power Electronics Systems; Burgos, Rolando [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Bradley Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Boroyevich, Dushan [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Bradley Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Xue, Yaosuo [Siemens Corporate Research, Princeton, NJ (United States). Power Electronics Dept.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the design procedure and comparison of converters currently used in medium-voltage high-power motor drive applications. For this purpose, the cascaded H-bridge (CHB), modular multilevel converter (MMC), and five-level active neutral point clamped (5-L ANPC) topologies are targeted. The design is performed using 1.7-kV insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) for CHB and MMC converters, and utilizing 3.3- and 4.5-kV IGBTs for 5-L ANPC topology as normally done in industry. The comparison is done between the designed converter topologies at three different voltage levels (4.16, 6.9, and 13.8 kV, with only the first two voltage levels in case of the 5-L ANPC) and two different power levels (3 and 5 MVA), in order to elucidate the dependence of different parameters on voltage and power rating. Finally, the comparison is done from several points of view such as efficiency, capacitive energy storage, semiconductor utilization, parts count (for measure of reliability), and power density.

  18. Functional Outcome After Antegrade Femoral Nailing : A Comparison of Trochanteric Fossa Versus Tip of Greater Trochanter Entry Point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moein, Chloe Ansari; ten Duis, Henk-Jan; Oey, Liam; de Kort, Gerard; van der Meulen, Wout; Vermeulen, Karin; van der Werken, Christiaan

    Objectives: This study was performed to explore the relationship between entry point-related soft tissue damage in antegrade femoral nailing and the functional outcome in patients with a proximal third femoral shaft fracture. Design: Retrospective clinical trial. Setting: Level I university trauma

  19. Calculation of point-contact spectra for a simple heavy-fermion Hamiltonian by two approaches. Comparison of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupka, M.; Farkasovsky, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    Point-contact spectra have been calculated for normal metal -heavy-fermion metal system (described by means of a simplified model Hamiltonian). Two approaches are used: one of them states that the differential conductance reflects an energy-dependent quasi-particle density of states, and 2. one drives the differential conductance are compared

  20. The Utility of Image-Based Point Clouds for Forest Inventory: A Comparison with Airborne Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Woods

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS, also known as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR enables an accurate three-dimensional characterization of vertical forest structure. ALS has proven to be an information-rich asset for forest managers, enabling the generation of highly detailed bare earth digital elevation models (DEMs as well as estimation of a range of forest inventory attributes (including height, basal area, and volume. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the advanced processing of high spatial resolution digital airborne imagery to generate image-based point clouds, from which vertical information with similarities to ALS can be produced. Digital airborne imagery is typically less costly to acquire than ALS, is well understood by inventory practitioners, and in addition to enabling the derivation of height information, allows for visual interpretation of attributes that are currently problematic to estimate from ALS (such as species, health status, and maturity. At present, there are two limiting factors associated with the use of image-based point clouds. First, a DEM is required to normalize the image-based point cloud heights to aboveground heights; however DEMs with sufficient spatial resolution and vertical accuracy, particularly in forested areas, are usually only available from ALS data. The use of image-based point clouds may therefore be limited to those forest areas that already have an ALS-derived DEM. Second, image-based point clouds primarily characterize the outer envelope of the forest canopy, whereas ALS pulses penetrate the canopy and provide information on sub-canopy forest structure. The impact of these limiting factors on the estimation of forest inventory attributes has not been extensively researched and is not yet well understood. In this paper, we review the key similarities and differences between ALS data and image-based point clouds, summarize the results of current research related to the comparative use

  1. The ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Hauser, R

    2004-01-01

    ATLAS is one of two general-purpose detectors at the next generation proton-proton collider, the LHC. The high rate of interactions and the large number of read-out channels make the trigger system for ATLAS a challenging task. The initial bunch crossing rate of 40~MHz has to be reduced to about 200 Hz while preserving the physics signals against a large background. ATLAS uses a three-level trigger system, with the first level implemented in custom hardware, while the high level trigger systems are implemented in software on commodity hardware. This note describes the physics motivation, the various selection strategies for different channels as well as the physical implementation of the trigger system.

  2. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  3. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your house and may trigger asthma. Your asthma or your child's asthma may be worse around products such as ... You Can Take If you find that your asthma or your child's asthma gets worse when you use a certain ...

  4. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Igonkina, O; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Alexandre, G; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Backlund, S; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Bee, C; Behera, P; Bell, P; Bendel, M; Benslama, K; Berry, T; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Bold, T; Booth, J R A; Bosman, M; Boyd, J; Bracinik, J; Brawn, I, P; Brelier, B; Brooks, W; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Casadei, D; Casado, P; Cerri, A; Charlton, D G; Childers, J T; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Davis, A O; De Santo, A; Degenhardt, J; Delsart, P A; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Mattia, A; Diaz, M; Djilkibaev, R; Dobson, E; Dova, M, T; Dufour, M A; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Faulkner, P J W; Ferland, J; Flacher, H; Fleckner, J E; Flowerdew, M; Fonseca-Martin, T; Fratina, S; Fhlisch, F; Gadomski, S; Gallacher, M P; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gee, C N P; George, S; Gillman, A R; Goncalo, R; Grabowska-Bold, I; Groll, M; Gringer, C; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hauser, R; Hellman, S; Hidvgi, A; Hillier, S J; Hryn'ova, T; Idarraga, J; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Kalinowski, A; Khoriauli, G; Kirk, J; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Koeneke, K; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Kwee, R; Landon, M; LeCompte, T; Ledroit, F; Lei, X; Lendermann, V; Lilley, J N; Losada, M; Maettig, S; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Maltrana, D; Marino, C; Masik, J; Meier, K; Middleton, R P; Mincer, A; Moa, T; Monticelli, F; Moreno, D; Morris, J D; Mller, F; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nemethy, P; Neusiedl, A; Oltmann, B; Olvito, D; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Parodi, F; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Perez Reale, V; Petersen, B; Pinzon, G; Potter, C; Prieur, D P F; Prokishin, F; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Reinsch, A; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S; Rodriguez, D; Rogriquez, Y; Rhr, F; Saavedra, A; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santamarina Rios, C; Scannicchio, D; Schiavi, C; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schfer, U; Segura, E; Silverstein, D; Silverstein, S; Sivoklokov, S; Sjlin, J; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strom, D; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Torrence, E; Tripiana, M; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Vachon, B; Vercesi, V; Vorwerk, V; Wang, M; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Weidberg, T; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Whiteson, D; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wildt, M; Winklmeier, F; Wu, X; Xella, S; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; de Seixas, J M; dos Anjos, A; Asman, B; Özcan, E

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 105 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  5. The ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Rhys Edward; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment employs a complex trigger system to enable the collaborations physics program. The LHC is now well in to its second running period delivering proton proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with high instantaneous luminosity. This talk will describe the two level hardware and software trigger used to select events in this environment including recent improvements and the latest performance results.

  6. 2017 Tau Trigger Efficiencies

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Triggers selecting events with hadronically decaying $\\tau$ leptons ($\\tau_h$) are used in a wide variety of CMS analyses, in particular those targeting processes with a $H \\rightarrow \\tau\\tau$ decay. The performance of the $\\tau_h$ triggers is presented for data collected in 2017, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 41.5\\,fb$^{-1}$ at 13 TeV, and compared with simulation.

  7. Comparison of modified two-point dixon and chemical shift encoded MRI water-fat separation methods for fetal fat quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giza, Stephanie A; Miller, Michael R; Parthasarathy, Prasiddha; de Vrijer, Barbra; McKenzie, Charles A

    2018-01-10

    Fetal fat is indicative of the energy balance within the fetus, which may be disrupted in pregnancy complications such as fetal growth restriction, macrosomia, and gestational diabetes. Water-fat separated MRI is a technique sensitive to tissue lipid content, measured as fat fraction (FF), and can be used to accurately measure fat volumes. Modified two-point Dixon and chemical shift encoded MRI (CSE-MRI) are water-fat separated MRI techniques that could be applied to imaging of fetal fat. Modified two-point Dixon has biases present that are corrected in CSE-MRI which may contribute to differences in the fat measurements. To compare the measurement of fetal fat volume and FF by modified two-point Dixon and CSE-MRI. Cross-sectional study for comparison of two MRI pulse sequences. Twenty-one pregnant women with singleton pregnancies. 1.5T, modified two-point Dixon and CSE-MRI. Manual segmentation of total fetal fat volume and mean FF from modified 2-point Dixon and CSE-MRI FF images. Reliability was assessed by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreement was assessed using a one-sample t-test on the fat measurements difference values (modified two-point Dixon - CSE-MRI). The difference scores were tested against a value of 0, which would indicate that the measurements were identical. The fat volume and FF measured by modified two-point Dixon and CSE-MRI had excellent reliability, demonstrated by ICCs of 0.93 (P Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Below and above boiling point comparison of microwave irradiation and conductive heating for municipal sludge digestion under identical heating/cooling profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Koupaie, E; Eskicioglu, C

    2015-01-01

    This research provides a comprehensive comparison between microwave (MW) and conductive heating (CH) sludge pretreatments under identical heating/cooling profiles at below and above boiling point temperatures. Previous comparison studies were constrained to an uncontrolled or a single heating rate due to lack of a CH equipment simulating MW under identical thermal profiles. In this research, a novel custom-built pressure-sealed vessel which could simulate MW pretreatment under identical heating/cooling profiles was used for CH pretreatment. No statistically significant difference was proven between MW and CH pretreatments in terms of sludge solubilization, anaerobic biogas yield and organics biodegradation rate (p-value>0.05), while statistically significant effects of temperature and heating rate were observed (p-valueheating/cooling rates) was controlled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Comparison of Airborne Laser Scanning and Image Point Cloud Derived Tree Size Class Distribution Models in Boreal Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Penner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS metrics have been used to develop area-based forest inventories; these metrics generally include estimates of stand-level, per hectare values and mean tree attributes. Tree-based ALS inventories contain desirable information on individual tree dimensions and how much they vary within a stand. Adding size class distribution information to area-based inventories helps to bridge the gap between area- and tree-based inventories. This study examines the potential of ALS and stereo-imagery point clouds to predict size class distributions in a boreal forest. With an accurate digital terrain model, both ALS and imagery point clouds can be used to estimate size class distributions with comparable accuracy. Nonparametric imputations were generally superior to parametric imputations; this may be related to the limitation of using a unimodal Weibull function on a relatively small prediction unit (e.g., 400 m2.

  10. Comparison of single point normalized and modified Gate's method for measurement of glomerular filtration rate by nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, L.M.B. da; Fonseca, N.M.; Martins, E.; Pereira, E.

    1992-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate was measured in 22 patients (mean age 30 years) using a noninvasive modified Gates method and the results were compared to the one point normalized technique. The values obtained were 74-11.7 and 82-11.09 ml/min., respectively. The advantages of the method are its reliability, easy adaptation to small laboratories and the avoidance of blood and urine sampling. (author)

  11. ELISA Cut-off Point for the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis; a Comparison with Serum Agglutination Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a world-wide disease, which has a diverse clinical manifestation, and its diagnosis has to be proven by laboratory data. Serum agglutination test (SAT is the most-widely used test for diagnosing brucellosis. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA can also determine specific antibody classes against brucella. It is a sensitive, simple and rapid test, which could be an acceptable alternative to SAT with fewer limitations, however, like any other new test it should be further evaluated and standardized for various populations. This study was planned to determine an optimal cut-off point, for ELISA which would offer maximum sensitivity and specificity for the test when compared to SAT.Methods: Four hundred and seven patients with fever and other compatible symptoms of brucellosis were enrolled in the study. Serum agglutination test, 2-Mercaptoethanol test, and ELISA were performed on their sera. Results: The cut-off point of 53 IU/ml of ELISA-IgG yielded the maximal sensitivity and specificity comparing to the other levels of ELISA-IgG, and was considered the best cut off-point of ELISA-IgG to diagnose acute brucellosis. At this cut-off, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 84.09%, 85.38%, 62.20, 94.90, 5.75, 0.18, respectively.Conclusion: The best cut-off point of ELISA-IgG is 53 IU/ml, which yields the maximal sensitivity and specificity to diagnose acute brucellosis.

  12. Investigating Surface and Near-Surface Bushfire Fuel Attributes: A Comparison between Visual Assessments and Image-Based Point Clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spits, Christine; Wallace, Luke; Reinke, Karin

    2017-04-20

    Visual assessment, following guides such as the Overall Fuel Hazard Assessment Guide (OFHAG), is a common approach for assessing the structure and hazard of varying bushfire fuel layers. Visual assessments can be vulnerable to imprecision due to subjectivity between assessors, while emerging techniques such as image-based point clouds can offer land managers potentially more repeatable descriptions of fuel structure. This study compared the variability of estimates of surface and near-surface fuel attributes generated by eight assessment teams using the OFHAG and Fuels3D, a smartphone method utilising image-based point clouds, within three assessment plots in an Australian lowland forest. Surface fuel hazard scores derived from underpinning attributes were also assessed. Overall, this study found considerable variability between teams on most visually assessed variables, resulting in inconsistent hazard scores. Variability was observed within point cloud estimates but was, however, on average two to eight times less than that seen in visual estimates, indicating greater consistency and repeatability of this method. It is proposed that while variability within the Fuels3D method may be overcome through improved methods and equipment, inconsistencies in the OFHAG are likely due to the inherent subjectivity between assessors, which may be more difficult to overcome. This study demonstrates the capability of the Fuels3D method to efficiently and consistently collect data on fuel hazard and structure, and, as such, this method shows potential for use in fire management practices where accurate and reliable data is essential.

  13. Forest Parameter Prediction Using an Image-Based Point Cloud: A Comparison of Semi-ITC with ABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Rahlf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Image-based point clouds obtained using aerial photogrammetry share many characteristics with point clouds obtained by airborne laser scanning (ALS. Two approaches have been used to predict forest parameters from ALS: the area-based approach (ABA and the individual tree crown (ITC approach. In this article, we apply the semi-ITC approach, a variety of the ITC approach, on an image-based point cloud to predict forest parameters and compare the performance to the ABA. Norwegian National Forest Inventory sample plots on a site in southeastern Norway were used as the reference data. Tree crown objects were delineated using a watershed segmentation algorithm, and explanatory variables were calculated for each tree crown segment. A multivariate kNN model for timber volume, stem density, basal area and quadratic mean diameter with the semi-ITC approach produced RMSEs of 30%, 46%, 25%, 26%, respectively. The corresponding measures for the ABA were 30%, 51%, 26%, 35%, respectively. Univariate kNN models resulted in timber volume RMSEs of 25% for the semi-ITC approach and 22% for the ABA. A non-linear logistic regression model with the ABA produced an RMSE of 23%. Both approaches predicted timber volume with comparable precision and accuracy at the plot level. The multivariate kNN model was slightly more precise with the semi-ITC approach, while biases were larger

  14. Asymptotic Comparison of the Solutions of Linear Time-Delay Systems with Point and Distributed Lags with Those of Their Limiting Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De la Sen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relations between the particular eigensolutions of a limiting functional differential equation of any order, which is the nominal (unperturbed linear autonomous differential equations, and the associate ones of the corresponding perturbed functional differential equation. Both differential equations involve point and distributed delayed dynamics including Volterra class dynamics. The proofs are based on a Perron-type theorem for functional equations so that the comparison is governed by the real part of a dominant zero of the characteristic equation of the nominal differential equation. The obtained results are also applied to investigate the global stability of the perturbed equation based on that of its corresponding limiting equation.

  15. Comparison of the containment codes used in the benchmark exercise from the modelling and numerical treatment point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washby, V.

    1987-01-01

    This report is the subject of a study contract sponsored by the containment loading and response group (CONT), a sub-group of the safety working group of the fast reactor co-ordinating committee - CEC. The analysises provided here will form part of a final report on containment codes, sensitivity analysis, and benchmark comparison, performed by the group in recent years. The contribution of this study contract is to assess the six different containment codes, used in the benchmark comparison, with regard to their procedures and methods, and also to provide an assessment of their benchmark calculation results, so that an overall assessment of their effectiveness for use in containment problems can be made. Each code description, which has been provided by the relevant user, contains a large amount of detailed information and a large number of equations, which would be unwieldy to reproduce and probably unnecessary. For this reason the report has concentrated on a fuller description of the SEURBNUK code, this being the code most familiar to the author, and other code descriptions have concentrated on noting variations and differences. Also, the code SEURBNUK/EURDYN has been used for the sensitivity analysis, this code being an extension of the original code SEURBNUK with the addition of axi-symmetric finite element capabilities. The six containment codes described and assessed in this report are those which were being actively used within the European community at the time

  16. Linearity analysis and comparison study on the epoc(®) point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianing; Gorman, Monique; O'Reilly, Bill; Chen, Yu

    2016-03-01

    The epoc(®) blood analysis system (Epocal Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) is a newly developed in vitro diagnostic hand-held analyzer for testing whole blood samples at point-of-care, which provides blood gas, electrolytes, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, and hematocrit/calculated hemoglobin rapidly. The analytical performance of the epoc(®) system was evaluated in a tertiary hospital, see related research article "Analytical evaluation of the epoc(®) point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients" [1]. Data presented are the linearity analysis for 9 parameters and the comparison study in 40 cardiopulmonary bypass patients on 3 epoc(®) meters, Instrumentation Laboratory GEM4000, Abbott iSTAT, Nova CCX, and Roche Accu-Chek Inform II and Performa glucose meters.

  17. Linearity analysis and comparison study on the epoc® point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianing; Gorman, Monique; O’Reilly, Bill; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The epoc® blood analysis system (Epocal Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) is a newly developed in vitro diagnostic hand-held analyzer for testing whole blood samples at point-of-care, which provides blood gas, electrolytes, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, and hematocrit/calculated hemoglobin rapidly. The analytical performance of the epoc® system was evaluated in a tertiary hospital, see related research article “Analytical evaluation of the epoc® point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients” [1]. Data presented are the linearity analysis for 9 parameters and the comparison study in 40 cardiopulmonary bypass patients on 3 epoc® meters, Instrumentation Laboratory GEM4000, Abbott iSTAT, Nova CCX, and Roche Accu-Chek Inform II and Performa glucose meters. PMID:26937460

  18. Prospective ECG triggering versus low-dose retrospective ECG-gated 128-channel CT coronary angiography: comparison of image quality and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Q.; Yin, Y.; Hua, X.; Zhu, R.; Hua, J. [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Xu, J., E-mail: xujianr@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2010-10-15

    Aim: To evaluate image quality and radiation dose for 128-detector prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) compared with a low-dose retrospective ECG-gated imaging protocol. Materials and methods: Thirty-one and 47 patients suspected of having coronary artery disease were enrolled into groups examined using prospective and low-dose retrospective ECG-gated CT protocols respectively. All examinations were performed on a 128-detector CT system (Definition AS, Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany). Prospective CTCA was performed using following parameters: tube voltage 100 kV; tube current 205 mAs; centre of acquisition window 70% of the RR interval. The tube current for low-dose retrospective ECG-gated CTCA was full dose during 40-70% of the RR interval and partial dose for the rest of RR interval. The pitch varied between 0.2 and 0.5 depending on heart rate and patient size. Image quality of coronary arteries was evaluated using a four-point grading scale. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of enhanced arteries and myocardium were also measured, corresponding contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated, and the radiation doses received were recorded. Results: There was a significant difference in the image quality scores between the retrospective and prospective gating protocols (Chi-square = 15.331, p = 0.009). There was no significant difference between the SNRs of the contrasted artery and myocardium in these two groups, but the CNRs were increased in the prospective group. The mean radiation dose of prospective gating group was 2.71 {+-} 0.67 mSv (range, 1.67-3.59 mSv), which was significantly lower than that of the retrospective group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Prospective CT angiography can achieve lower radiation dose than that of low-dose retrospective CT angiography, with preserved image quality.

  19. A fast filter processor as a part of the trigger logic in an elastic scattering experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon Gjerpe, I.

    1981-01-01

    A fast special purpose processor as a part of the trigger logic in an elastic scattering experiment is described. The decision to incorporate such a processor was taken because the trigger rate was estimated to be an order of magnitude higher than the date taking capability of the on-line minicomputer, a NORD 10. The processor is capable of checking the coplanarity and the opening angle of the two outgoing tracks within about 100 μs. This is done with a spatial resolution of 1 mm by using two points each track given by 3 MWPCs. For comparison this is two orders of magnitude faster than the same algorithm coded in assembly language on a PDP 11/40. The main contribution to this increased speed is due to extensive use of pipelining and parallelism. When running with the processor in the trigger, 75% more elastic events per incoming beam particle were collected, and 3 times as many elastic events per trigger were recorded on to tape for further in-depth analysis, than previously. Due to major improvements in the primary trigger logic this was less than the gain initially anticipated. A first version of the processor was designed and constructed in the CERN DD division by J. Joosten, M. Letheren and B. Martin under the supervision of C. Verkerk. The author was involved in the final design, construction and testing, and subsequently was responsible for the intergration, programming and running of the processor in the experiment. (orig.)

  20. Application of the Fixed Point Theorem for the solution of the 1D wave equation: comparison with exact Mathieu solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, L; Perez-Molina, M; Blaya, S; Madrigal, R; Acebal, P; Fimia, A

    2005-10-31

    A method based in the application of Fixed Point Theorem (FPT) techniques to the solution of the 1D wave equation at normal incidence for materials that present a continuous (real or complex) dielectric constant is presented. As an example, the method is applied for the calculation of the electric field, reflection and transmission spectra in volume holographic gratings. It is shown that the solution obtained using this method agrees with the exact Mathieu solutions also obtained in this paper for volume holographic reflection gratings.

  1. Molecular dynamics of polarizable point dipole models for molten NaI. Comparison with first principles simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trullàs J.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations of molten NaI at 995 K have been carried out using polarizable ion models based on rigid ion pair potentials to which the anion induced dipole polarization is added. The polarization is added in such a way that point dipoles are induced on the anions by both local electric field and deformation short-range damping interactions that oppose the electrically induced dipole moments. The structure and self-diffusion results are compared with those obtained by Galamba and Costa Cabral using first principles Hellmann-Feynman molecular dynamics simulations and using classical molecular dynamics of a shell model which allows only the iodide polarization

  2. Cuff filling volumes for pediatric classic laryngeal mask airways: comparison of clinical end points versus adjusted cuff pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Babita; Sethi, Sameer; Ram, Jagat; Wig, Jyotsna

    2013-02-01

    Clinical end points are often used to guide inflation and adequacy of cuff seal after laryngeal mask airway placement. However, clinical end points for cuff inflation have been shown to have significantly higher intracuff pressure. The adjusted cuff pressure between 55 and 60 cm H(2)O causes significantly better seal of laryngeal mask airway. We prospectively assessed the cuff pressures generated by cuff inflation guided by clinical end points, and the actual volume of air required to achieve cuff pressures between 55 and 60 cm H(2)O for sizes 1-2.5 reusable classic laryngeal mask airway. Two hundred and three ASA I and II children undergoing elective cataract surgery requiring general anesthesia receiving laryngeal mask airway sizes 1-2.5 were recruited to this study. The laryngeal mask airway was placed using standard technique. After insertion of laryngeal mask airway, the cuff was slowly inflated until a slight outward shift of device was noted. Cuff pressures were measured using calibrated hand held Portex Cuff Inflator Pressure Gauge (Portex Limited, Hythe, Kent, UK). If the cuff pressure was >60 cm H(2)O, the cuff was deflated to achieve a cuff pressure of 55-60 cm H(2)O. The volume of air required to achieve this pressure was recorded. The volume of air required to achieve the pressure between 55 and 60 cm H(2)O in laryngeal mask airway size 1, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 were 2.750 ± 0.2565, 4.951 ± 0.5378, 6.927 ± 0.6328, and 10.208 ± 1.4535 ml, respectively. The difference between the initial and the final cuff volumes and pressures in all laryngeal mask airway sizes were statistically significant(P = 0.000). Lower cuff volumes are required to achieve a pressure of 60 cm H(2)O than those required if clinical end points are used as a sole guide for determining cuff inflation for patients receiving pediatric laryngeal mask airways. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Multitype Events and the Analysis of Heart Failure Readmissions: Illustration of a New Modeling Approach and Comparison With Familiar Composite End Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paul M; Ezekowitz, Justin A

    2017-06-01

    Heart failure-related hospital readmissions and mortality are often outcomes in clinical trials. Patients may experience multiple hospital readmissions over time with mortality acting as a dependent terminal event. Univariate composite end points are used for the analysis of readmissions. We may amend these approaches to include emergency department visits as a further outcome. An alternative multivariate modeling approach that categorizes hospital readmissions and emergency department visits as separate event types is proposed. We seek to compare the modeling approach which handles event types as separate, correlated end points against composites that amalgamate them to create a unified end point. Using a heart failure data set for illustration, a model with random effects for event types is estimated. The time-to-first event, unmatched win-ratio, and days-alive-and-out-of-hospital composites are derived for comparison. The model provides supplementary statistics such as the correlation among event types and yields considerably more power than the competing composite end points. The effect on individual outcomes is lost when they are intermingled to form a univariate composite. Simultaneously modeling different outcomes provides an alternative or supplementary analysis that may yield greater statistical power and additional insights. Improvements in software have made the multitype events model easier to implement and thus a useful, more efficient option when analyzing heart failure hospital readmissions and emergency department visits. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. CMS Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Donato, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    During its second run of operation (Run 2) which started in 2015, the LHC will deliver a peak instantaneous luminosity that may reach $2 \\cdot 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ with an average pile-up of about 55, far larger than the design value. Under these conditions, the online event selection is a very challenging task. In CMS, it is realized by a two-level trigger system the Level-1 (L1) Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. In order to face this challenge, the L1 trigger has been through a major upgrade compared to Run 1, whereby all electronic boards of the system have been replaced, allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be run online. Its last stage, the global trigger, is now able to perform complex selections and to compute high-level quantities, like invariant masses. Likewise, the algorithms that run in the HLT go through big improvements; in particular, new appr...

  5. The CMS trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; El Sawy, Mai; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kothekar, Kunal; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Bartek, Rachel; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Gastler, Daniel; Lawson, Philip; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Derdzinski, Mark; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Jung, Andreas Werner; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Cocoros, Alice; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-01-24

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, $\\tau$ lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  6. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rados, PK; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Physics processes involving tau leptons play a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the high energy frontier. The ability to efficiently trigger on events containing hadronic tau decays is therefore of particular importance to the ATLAS experiment. During the 2012 run, the Large Hadronic Collder (LHC) reached instantaneous luminosities of nearly $10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ with bunch crossings occurring every $50 ns$. This resulted in a huge event rate and a high probability of overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up). With this in mind it was necessary to design an ATLAS tau trigger system that could reduce the event rate to a manageable level, while efficiently extracting the most interesting physics events in a pile-up robust manner. In this poster the ATLAS tau trigger is described, its performance during 2012 is presented, and the outlook for the LHC Run II is briefly summarized.

  7. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM; Schare, Joshua M [Albuquerque, NM; Bunch, Kyle [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  8. Assessment of diabetic polyneuropathy in Zanzibar: Comparison between traditional methods and an automated point-of-care nerve conduction device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor C. Vogt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Scant information is available about the prevalence of diabetic polyneuropathy, as well as the applicability of screening tools in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to investigate these issues in Zanzibar (Tanzania. Methods: One hundred consecutive diabetes patients were included from the diabetes clinic at Mnazi Mmoja Hospital. Clinical characteristics were recorded. Further, we investigated: a self-reported numbness of the lower limbs, b ten-point monofilament test, c the Sibbald 60-s Tool and d nerve conduction studies (NCS, using an automated handheld point-of-care device, the NC-stat DPNCheck. Results: Mean age was 54 years, 90% had type 2 diabetes, and with 9 year average disease duration. Mean HbA1c was 8.5% (69 mmol/mol, blood pressure 155/88 mmHg. Sixty-two% reported numbness, 61% had positive monofilament and 79% positive Sibbald tool. NCS defined neuropathy in 45% of the patients. Only the monofilament showed appreciable concordance with the NCS, Cohen’s κ 0.43. Conclusions: The patient population was characterised by poor glycaemic control and hypertension. In line with this, neuropathy was rampant. The monofilament test tended to define more cases of probable neuropathy than the NCS, however specificity was rather low. Plantar skin thickening may have led to false positives in this population. Overall concordance was, however, appreciable, and could support continued use of monofilament as a neuropathy screening tool. The NC-stat DPNCheck could be useful in cases of diagnostic uncertainty or for research purposes in a low resource setting. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Sub-Saharan Africa, Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN, Nerve conduction studies, NC-stat DPNCheck

  9. Lactate point-of-care testing for acidosis: Cross-comparison of two devices with routine laboratory results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco van Horssen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Lactate is a major parameter in medical decision making. During labor, it is an indicator for fetal acidosis and immediate intervention. In the Emergency Department (ED, rapid analysis of lactate/blood gas is crucial for optimal patient care. Our objectives were to cross-compare-for the first time-two point-of-care testing (POCT lactate devices with routine laboratory results using novel tight precision targets and evaluate different lactate cut-off concentrations to predict metabolic acidosis. Design and methods: Blood samples from the delivery room (n=66 and from the ED (n=85 were analyzed on two POCT devices, the StatStrip-Lactate (Nova Biomedical and the iSTAT-1 (CG4+ cassettes, Abbott, and compared to the routine laboratory analyzer (ABL-735, Radiometer. Lactate concentrations were cross-compared between these analyzers. Results: The StatStrip correlated well with the ABL-735 (R=0.9737 and with the iSTAT-1 (R=0.9774 for lactate in umbilical cord blood. Lactate concentrations in ED samples measured on the iSTAT-1 and ABL-735 showed a correlation coefficient of R=0.9953. Analytical imprecision was excellent for lactate and pH, while for pO2 and pCO2 the coefficient of variation was relatively high using the iSTAT-1. Conclusion: Both POCT devices showed adequate analytical performance to measure lactate. The StatStrip can indicate metabolic acidosis in 1 μl blood and will be implemented at the delivery room. Keywords: Lactate, Point-of-care testing, Blood gas, Fetal acidosis

  10. Trigger and decision processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, G.

    1980-11-01

    In recent years there have been many attempts in high energy physics to make trigger and decision processes faster and more sophisticated. This became necessary due to a permanent increase of the number of sensitive detector elements in wire chambers and calorimeters, and in fact it was possible because of the fast developments in integrated circuits technique. In this paper the present situation will be reviewed. The discussion will be mainly focussed upon event filtering by pure software methods and - rather hardware related - microprogrammable processors as well as random access memory triggers. (orig.)

  11. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  12. Comparison of 3-point Dixon imaging and fuzzy C-means clustering methods for breast density measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendenen, Tess V; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Moy, Linda; Pike, Malcolm C; Rusinek, Henry; Kim, Sungheon

    2013-08-01

    To assess two methods of fat and fibroglandular tissue (FGT) segmentation for measuring breast MRI FGT volume and FGT%, the volume percentage of FGT in the breast, in longitudinal studies. Nine premenopausal women provided one MRI per week for 4 weeks during a natural menstrual cycle for a total of 36 datasets. We compared a fuzzy c-means (FC) and a 3-point Dixon segmentation method for estimation of changes in FGT volume and FGT% across the menstrual cycle. We also assessed whether differences due to changes in positioning each week could be minimized by coregistration, i.e., the application of the breast boundary selected at one visit to images obtained at other visits. FC and Dixon FGT volume were highly correlated (r = 0.93, P < 0.001), as was FC and Dixon FGT% (r = 0.86, P = 0.01), although Dixon measurements were on average 10-20% higher. Although FGT measured by both methods showed the expected pattern of increase during the menstrual cycle, the magnitude, and for one woman the direction, of change varied according to the method used. Measurements of FGT for coregistered images were in close agreement with those for which the boundaries were determined independently. The method of segmentation of fat and FGT tissue may have an impact on the results of longitudinal studies of changes in breast MRI FGT. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Point shear wave elastography of the pancreas in patients with cystic fibrosis: a comparison with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfahler, Matthias Hermann Christian; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Leichsenring, Michael; Graeter, Tilmann; Schmidt, Stefan Andreas; Wendlik, Inka; Lormes, Elisabeth; Schmidberger, Julian; Fabricius, Dorit

    2018-02-19

    Manifestations of cystic fibrosis in the pancreas are gaining in clinical importance as patients live longer. Conventional ultrasonography and point shear wave elastography (pSWE) imaging are non-invasive and readily available diagnostic methods that are easy to perform. The aim of this study was to perform conventional ultrasonography and obtain pSWE values in the pancreases of patients with cystic fibrosis and to compare the findings with those of healthy controls. 27 patients with cystic fibrosis (13 women/14 men; mean age 27.7 ± 13.7 years; range 9-58 years) and 60 healthy control subjects (30 women/30 men; mean age 30.3 ± 10.0 years; range 22-55 years) underwent examinations of the pancreas with conventional ultrasound and pSWE imaging. Patients with cystic fibrosis have an echogenic pancreatic parenchyma. We found cystic lesions of the pancreas in six patients. pSWE imaging of the pancreatic parenchyma gave significantly lower shear wave velocities in patients with cystic fibrosis than in the control group (1.01 m/s vs 1.30 m/s; p cystic fibrosis than in a healthy control population.

  14. Comparison of a Material Point Method and a Galerkin Meshfree Method for the Simulation of Cohesive-Frictional Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Iaconeta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of large deformation problems, involving complex history-dependent constitutive laws, is of paramount importance in several engineering fields. Particular attention has to be paid to the choice of a suitable numerical technique such that reliable results can be obtained. In this paper, a Material Point Method (MPM and a Galerkin Meshfree Method (GMM are presented and verified against classical benchmarks in solid mechanics. The aim is to demonstrate the good behavior of the methods in the simulation of cohesive-frictional materials, both in static and dynamic regimes and in problems dealing with large deformations. The vast majority of MPM techniques in the literatrue are based on some sort of explicit time integration. The techniques proposed in the current work, on the contrary, are based on implicit approaches, which can also be easily adapted to the simulation of static cases. The two methods are presented so as to highlight the similarities to rather than the differences from “standard” Updated Lagrangian (UL approaches commonly employed by the Finite Elements (FE community. Although both methods are able to give a good prediction, it is observed that, under very large deformation of the medium, GMM lacks robustness due to its meshfree natrue, which makes the definition of the meshless shape functions more difficult and expensive than in MPM. On the other hand, the mesh-based MPM is demonstrated to be more robust and reliable for extremely large deformation cases.

  15. Comparison of plastic strains on AA5052 by single point incremental forming process using digital image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugendiran, V.; Gnanavelbabu, A. [Anna University, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, a surface based strain measurement was used to determine the formability of the sheet metal. A strain measurement may employ manual calculation of plastic strains based on the reference circle and the deformed circle. The manual calculation method has a greater margin of error in the practical applications. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare the formability by implementing three different theoretical approaches: Namely conventional method, least square method and digital based strain measurements. As the sheet metal was formed by a single point incremental process the etched circles get deformed into elliptical shapes approximately, image acquisition has been done before and after forming. The plastic strains of the deformed circle grids are calculated based on the non- deformed reference. The coordinates of the deformed circles are measured by various image processing steps. Finally the strains obtained from the deformed circle are used to plot the forming limit diagram. To evaluate the accuracy of the system, the conventional, least square and digital based method of prediction of the forming limit diagram was compared. Conventional method and least square method have marginal error when compared with digital based processing method. Measurement of strain based on image processing agrees well and can be used to improve the accuracy and to reduce the measurement error in prediction of forming limit diagram.

  16. Comparison of discrete-point vs. dimensionality-reduction techniques for describing performance-related aspects of maximal vertical jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chris; O'Connor, Noel E; Marshall, Brendan; Moran, Kieran

    2014-09-22

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare the ability of discrete point analysis (DPA), functional principal component analysis (fPCA) and analysis of characterizing phases (ACP) to describe a dependent variable (jump height) using vertical ground reaction force curves captured during the propulsion phase of a countermovement jump. FPCA and ACP are continuous data analysis techniques that reduce the dimensionality of a data set by identifying phases of variation (key phases), which are used to generate subject scores that describe a subject's behavior. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to measure the ability to describe jump height of each data analysis technique. Findings indicated that the order of effectiveness (high to low) across the examined techniques was: ACP (99%), fPCA (78%) and DPA (21%). DPA was outperformed by fPCA and ACP because it can inadvertently compare unrelated features, does not analyze the whole data set and cannot examine important features that occur solely as a phase. ACP outperformed fPCA because it utilizes information within the combined magnitude-time domain, and identifies and examines key phases separately without the deleterious interaction of other key phases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Comparison of Vibroacoustic Response of Isotropic Plate with Attached Discrete Patches and Point Masses Having Different Thickness Variation with Different Taper Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of sound radiation behavior of plate in air medium with attached discrete patches/point masses having different thickness variations with different taper ratio of 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 is analysed. Finite element method is used to find the vibration characteristics while Rayleigh integral is used to predict the sound radiation characteristics. Minimum peak sound power level obtained is at a taper ratio of 0.6 with parabolic increasing-decreasing thickness variation for plate with four discrete patches. At higher taper ratio, linearly increasing-decreasing thickness variation is another alternative for minimum peak sound power level suppression with discrete patches. It is found that, in low frequency range, average radiation efficiency remains almost the same, but near first peak, four patches or four point masses cause increase in average radiation efficiency; that is, redistribution of point masses/patches does have effect on average radiation efficiency at a given taper ratio.

  18. Uav-Based Acquisition of 3d Point Cloud - a Comparison of a Low-Cost Laser Scanner and Sfm-Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, D.; Blaskow, R.; Westfeld, P.; Maas, H.-G.

    2015-08-01

    The Project ADFEX (Adaptive Federative 3D Exploration of Multi Robot System) pursues the goal to develop a time- and cost-efficient system for exploration and monitoring task of unknown areas or buildings. A fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with appropriate sensors (laser scanner, RGB camera, near infrared camera, thermal camera) were designed and built. A typical operational scenario may include the exploration of the object or area of investigation by an UAV equipped with a laser scanning range finder to generate a rough point cloud in real time to provide an overview of the object on a ground station as well as an obstacle map. The data about the object enables the path planning for the robot fleet. Subsequently, the object will be captured by a RGB camera mounted on the second flying robot for the generation of a dense and accurate 3D point cloud by using of structure from motion techniques. In addition, the detailed image data serves as basis for a visual damage detection on the investigated building. This paper focuses on our experience with use of a low-cost light-weight Hokuyo laser scanner onboard an UAV. The hardware components for laser scanner based 3D point cloud acquisition are discussed, problems are demonstrated and analyzed, and a quantitative analysis of the accuracy potential is shown as well as in comparison with structure from motion-tools presented.

  19. Triggering in Thermoacoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Juniper

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Under certain conditions, the flow in a combustion chamber can sustain large amplitude oscillations even when its steady state is linearly stable. Experimental studies show that these large oscillations can sometimes be triggered by very low levels of background noise. This theoretical paper sets out the conditions that are necessary for triggering to occur. It uses a weakly nonlinear analysis to show when these conditions will be satisfied for cases where the heat release rate is a function of the acoustic velocity. The role played by non-normality is investigated. It is shown that, when a state triggers to sustained oscillations from the lowest possible energy, it exploits transient energy growth around an unstable limit cycle. The positions of these limit cycles in state space is determined by nonlinearity, but the tangled-ness of trajectories in state space is determined by non-normality. When viewed in this dynamical systems framework, triggering in thermoacoustics is seen to be directly analogous to bypass transition to turbulence in pipe flow.

  20. Solated Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Albajar, Carmen

    2000-01-01

    An Isolated Muon L1 Trigger is proposed to reject muons from decays of b and c-quarks preserving high efficiency for muons from heavier objects. It is shown that the proposed algorithm is feasible and significant rejection factor ( 3-10) can be achieved. Similar algorithm can be applied at L2.

  1. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one trigger that you shouldn't avoid because exercise is important for your health. Your doctor will want you to be active, so talk with him or her about what to do before playing ... or 15 minutes before you exercise or play sports. And, of course, you'll ...

  2. A Comparison of Deterministic and Stochastic Modeling Approaches for Biochemical Reaction Systems: On Fixed Points, Means, and Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahl, Sayuri K.; Kremling, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In the mathematical modeling of biochemical reactions, a convenient standard approach is to use ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that follow the law of mass action. However, this deterministic ansatz is based on simplifications; in particular, it neglects noise, which is inherent to biological processes. In contrast, the stochasticity of reactions is captured in detail by the discrete chemical master equation (CME). Therefore, the CME is frequently applied to mesoscopic systems, where copy numbers of involved components are small and random fluctuations are thus significant. Here, we compare those two common modeling approaches, aiming at identifying parallels and discrepancies between deterministic variables and possible stochastic counterparts like the mean or modes of the state space probability distribution. To that end, a mathematically flexible reaction scheme of autoregulatory gene expression is translated into the corresponding ODE and CME formulations. We show that in the thermodynamic limit, deterministic stable fixed points usually correspond well to the modes in the stationary probability distribution. However, this connection might be disrupted in small systems. The discrepancies are characterized and systematically traced back to the magnitude of the stoichiometric coefficients and to the presence of nonlinear reactions. These factors are found to synergistically promote large and highly asymmetric fluctuations. As a consequence, bistable but unimodal, and monostable but bimodal systems can emerge. This clearly challenges the role of ODE modeling in the description of cellular signaling and regulation, where some of the involved components usually occur in low copy numbers. Nevertheless, systems whose bimodality originates from deterministic bistability are found to sustain a more robust separation of the two states compared to bimodal, but monostable systems. In regulatory circuits that require precise coordination, ODE modeling is thus still

  3. Comparison of noninvasive and invasive point-of-care testing methods with reference method for hemoglobin measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcioglu, Gamze; Nural, Cemil; Yilmaz, Fatma Meriç; Baran, Pervin; Erel, Özcan; Yilmaz, Gülsen

    2017-08-23

    Rapid and practical point-of-care testing (POCT) devices become more popular, especially in blood donation centers for determining predonation hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate accordance between the POCT methods and the venous method as the reference to Hb screening. A total of 353 subjects with no known significant health problems were included in the study. Hb screening was performed by two different POCT methods, a noninvasive method (Haemospect, MBR, Germany) and an invasive method (HemoControl, EKF Diagnostic, Germany), and a venous method as the reference (Sysmex XE-2100, Sysmex Europe, Germany). The obtained results were compared. The sensitivity and the specificity values of the invasive POCT method (83.3%, 87.9%) were higher than the noninvasive POCT method (66.7%, 77.1%). The Bland-Altman analysis was evaluated for both sexes and the bias of the noninvasive POCT method of the males (-0.97 g/dL) was higher than the bias of the invasive POCT method of the males (-0.07 g/dL). We found a better correlation between the invasive POCT method (r = .908) compared with the venous method than the noninvasive POCT method (r = .634). Predonation Hb measurements must be performed with accurate, precise, and practical methods. Although the noninvasive POCT method was practical and painless, it had lower levels of specificity and sensitivity, and more false deferral and pass rates than the invasive POCT method. The POCT methods agreeable to the venous method as the reference might be suitable for Hb screening especially for centers of excessive numbers of blood donation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. FEASIBILITY COMPARISON OF AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATA AND 3D-POINT CLOUDS FORMED FROM UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV-BASED IMAGERY USED FOR 3D PROJECTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Rilskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New, innovative methods of aerial surveys have changed the approaches to information provision of projecting dramatically for the last 15 years. Nowadays there are at least two methods that claim to be the most efficient way for collecting geospatial data intended for projecting – the airborne laser scanning (LIDAR data and photogrammetrically processed unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-based aerial imagery, forming 3D point clouds. But these materials are not identical to each other neither in precision, nor in completeness.Airborne laser scanning (LIDAR is normally being performed using manned aircrafts. LIDAR data are very precise, they allow us to achieve data about relief even overgrown with vegetation, or to collect laser reflections from wires, metal constructions and poles. UAV surveys are normally being performed using frame digital cameras (lightweight, full-frame, or mid-size. These cameras form images that are being processed using 3D photogrammetric software in automatic mode that allows one to generate 3D point cloud, which is used for building digital elevation models, surfaces, orthomosaics, etc.All these materials are traditionally being used for making maps and GIS data. LIDAR data have been popular in design work. Also there have been some attempts to use for the same purpose 3D-point clouds, formed by photogrammetric software from images acquired from UAVs.After comparison of the datasets from these two different types of surveying (surveys were made simultaneously on the same territory, it became possible to define some specific, typical for LIDAR or imagery-based 3D data. It can be mentioned that imagery-based 3D data (3D point clouds, formed in automatic mode using photogrammetry, are much worse than LIDAR data – both in terms of precision and completeness.The article highlights these differences and makes attempts at explaining the origin of these differences. 

  5. Source attribution of human campylobacteriosis at the point of exposure by combining comparative exposure assessment and subtype comparison based on comparative genomic fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, André; Hurst, Matt; Petrica, Nicoleta; David, Julie; Mutschall, Steven K; Pintar, Katarina; Taboada, Eduardo N; Pollari, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is a common zoonosis with a significant burden in many countries. Its prevention is difficult because humans can be exposed to Campylobacter through various exposures: foodborne, waterborne or by contact with animals. This study aimed at attributing campylobacteriosis to sources at the point of exposure. It combined comparative exposure assessment and microbial subtype comparison with subtypes defined by comparative genomic fingerprinting (CGF). It used isolates from clinical cases and from eight potential exposure sources (chicken, cattle and pig manure, retail chicken, beef, pork and turkey meat, and surface water) collected within a single sentinel site of an integrated surveillance system for enteric pathogens in Canada. Overall, 1518 non-human isolates and 250 isolates from domestically-acquired human cases were subtyped and their subtype profiles analyzed for source attribution using two attribution models modified to include exposure. Exposure values were obtained from a concurrent comparative exposure assessment study undertaken in the same area. Based on CGF profiles, attribution was possible for 198 (79%) human cases. Both models provide comparable figures: chicken meat was the most important source (65-69% of attributable cases) whereas exposure to cattle (manure) ranked second (14-19% of attributable cases), the other sources being minor (including beef meat). In comparison with other attributions conducted at the point of production, the study highlights the fact that Campylobacter transmission from cattle to humans is rarely meat borne, calling for a closer look at local transmission from cattle to prevent campylobacteriosis, in addition to increasing safety along the chicken supply chain.

  6. Source attribution of human campylobacteriosis at the point of exposure by combining comparative exposure assessment and subtype comparison based on comparative genomic fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, André; Hurst, Matt; Petrica, Nicoleta; David, Julie; Mutschall, Steven K.; Pintar, Katarina; Taboada, Eduardo N.; Pollari, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is a common zoonosis with a significant burden in many countries. Its prevention is difficult because humans can be exposed to Campylobacter through various exposures: foodborne, waterborne or by contact with animals. This study aimed at attributing campylobacteriosis to sources at the point of exposure. It combined comparative exposure assessment and microbial subtype comparison with subtypes defined by comparative genomic fingerprinting (CGF). It used isolates from clinical cases and from eight potential exposure sources (chicken, cattle and pig manure, retail chicken, beef, pork and turkey meat, and surface water) collected within a single sentinel site of an integrated surveillance system for enteric pathogens in Canada. Overall, 1518 non-human isolates and 250 isolates from domestically-acquired human cases were subtyped and their subtype profiles analyzed for source attribution using two attribution models modified to include exposure. Exposure values were obtained from a concurrent comparative exposure assessment study undertaken in the same area. Based on CGF profiles, attribution was possible for 198 (79%) human cases. Both models provide comparable figures: chicken meat was the most important source (65–69% of attributable cases) whereas exposure to cattle (manure) ranked second (14–19% of attributable cases), the other sources being minor (including beef meat). In comparison with other attributions conducted at the point of production, the study highlights the fact that Campylobacter transmission from cattle to humans is rarely meat borne, calling for a closer look at local transmission from cattle to prevent campylobacteriosis, in addition to increasing safety along the chicken supply chain. PMID:28837643

  7. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rados, Petar Kevin

    2013-06-01

    The tau lepton plays a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the Tera scale. One of the most promising probes of the Higgs boson coupling to fermions is with detector signatures involving taus. In addition, many theories beyond the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles (W' and Z'), predict new physics with large couplings to taus. The ability to trigger on hadronic tau decays is therefore critical to achieving the physics goals of the ATLAS experiment. The higher instantaneous luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2012 resulted in a larger probability of overlap (pile-up) between bunch crossings, and so it was critical for ATLAS to have an effective tau trigger strategy. The details of this strategy are summarized in this paper, and the results of the latest performance measurements are presented. (authors)

  8. Minimum risk trigger indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, F.H.

    1979-01-01

    A viable safeguards system includes among other things the development and use of indices which trigger various courses of action. The usual limit of error calculation provides such an index. The classical approach is one of constructing tests which, under certain assumptions, make the likelihood of a false alarm small. Of concern also is the test's failure to indicate a loss (diversion) when in fact one has occurred. Since false alarms are usually costly and losses both costly and of extreme strategic sinificance, there remains the task of balancing the probability of false alarm and its consequences against the probability of undetected loss and its consequences. The application of other than classical hypothesis testing procedures are considered in this paper. Using various consequence models, trigger indices are derived which have certain optimum properties. Application of the techniques would enhance the material control function

  9. The LPS trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benotto, F.; Costa, M.; Staiano, A.; Zampieri, A.; Bollito, M.; Isoardi, P.; Pernigotti, E.; Sacchi, R.; Trapani, P.P.; Larsen, H.; Massam, T.; Nemoz, C.

    1996-03-01

    The Leading Proton Spectrometer (LPS) has been equipped with microstrip silicon detectors specially designed to trigger events with high values of x L vertical stroke anti p' p vertical stroke / vertical stroke anti p p vertical stroke ≥0.95 where vertical stroke anti p' p vertical stroke and vertical stroke anti p p vertical stroke are respectively the momenta of outgoing and incoming protons. The LPS First Level Trigger can provide a clear tag for very high momentum protons in a kinematical region never explored before. In the following we discuss the physics motivation in tagging very forward protons and present a detailed description of the detector design, the front end electronics, the readout electronics, the Monte Carlo simulation and some preliminary results from 1995 data taking. (orig.)

  10. Design studies for the Double Chooz trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The main characteristic of the neutrino mixing effect is assumed to be the coupling between the flavor and the mass eigenstates. Three mixing angles (θ 12 , θ 23 , θ 13 ) are describing the magnitude of this effect. Still unknown, θ 13 is considered very small, based on the measurement done by the CHOOZ experiment. A leading experiment will be Double Chooz, placed in the Ardennes region, on the same site as used by CHOOZ. The Double Chooz goal is the exploration of ∝80% from the currently allowed θ 13 region, by searching the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Double Chooz will use two similar detectors, located at different distances from the reactor cores: a near one at ∝150 m where no oscillations are expected and a far one at 1.05 km distance, close to the first minimum of the survival probability function. The measurement foresees a precise comparison of neutrino rates and spectra between both detectors. The detection mechanism is based on the inverse β-decay. The Double Chooz detectors have been designed to minimize the rate of random background. In a simplified view, two optically separated regions are considered. The target, filled with Gd-doped liquid scintillator, is the main antineutrino interaction volume. Surrounding the target, the inner veto region aims to tag the cosmogenic muon background which hits the detector. Both regions are viewed by photomultipliers. The Double Chooz trigger system has to be highly efficient for antineutrino events as well as for several types of background. The trigger analyzes discriminated signals from the central region and the inner veto photomultipliers. The trigger logic is fully programmable and can combine the input signals. The trigger conditions are based on the total energy released in event and on the PMT groups multiplicity. For redundancy, two independent trigger boards will be used for the central region, each of them receiving signals from half of the photomultipliers. A third trigger board

  11. Design studies for the Double Chooz trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian

    2009-07-24

    The main characteristic of the neutrino mixing effect is assumed to be the coupling between the flavor and the mass eigenstates. Three mixing angles ({theta}{sub 12}, {theta}{sub 23}, {theta}{sub 13}) are describing the magnitude of this effect. Still unknown, {theta}{sub 13} is considered very small, based on the measurement done by the CHOOZ experiment. A leading experiment will be Double Chooz, placed in the Ardennes region, on the same site as used by CHOOZ. The Double Chooz goal is the exploration of {proportional_to}80% from the currently allowed {theta}{sub 13} region, by searching the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Double Chooz will use two similar detectors, located at different distances from the reactor cores: a near one at {proportional_to}150 m where no oscillations are expected and a far one at 1.05 km distance, close to the first minimum of the survival probability function. The measurement foresees a precise comparison of neutrino rates and spectra between both detectors. The detection mechanism is based on the inverse {beta}-decay. The Double Chooz detectors have been designed to minimize the rate of random background. In a simplified view, two optically separated regions are considered. The target, filled with Gd-doped liquid scintillator, is the main antineutrino interaction volume. Surrounding the target, the inner veto region aims to tag the cosmogenic muon background which hits the detector. Both regions are viewed by photomultipliers. The Double Chooz trigger system has to be highly efficient for antineutrino events as well as for several types of background. The trigger analyzes discriminated signals from the central region and the inner veto photomultipliers. The trigger logic is fully programmable and can combine the input signals. The trigger conditions are based on the total energy released in event and on the PMT groups multiplicity. For redundancy, two independent trigger boards will be used for the central region, each of

  12. GLAST's GBM Burst Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, D.; Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V.; Kippen, M.; Preece, R.

    2003-01-01

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will detect and localize bursts for the GLAST mission, and provide the spectral and temporal context in the traditional 10 keV to 25 MeV band for the high energy observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT). The GBM will use traditional rate triggers in up to three energy bands, and on a variety of timescales between 16 ms and 16 s.

  13. The ARGUS vertex trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, N.; Kolander, M.; Kolanoski, H.; Siegmund, T.; Bergter, J.; Eckstein, P.; Schubert, K.R.; Waldi, R.; Imhof, M.; Ressing, D.; Weiss, U.; Weseler, S.

    1995-09-01

    A fast second level trigger has been developed for the ARGUS experiment which recognizes tracks originating from the interaction region. The processor compares the hits in the ARGUS Micro Vertex Drift Chamber to 245760 masks stored in random access memories. The masks which are fully defined in three dimensions are able to reject tracks originating in the wall of the narrow beampipe of 10.5 mm radius. (orig.)

  14. Neural networks for triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, B.; Campbell, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Chriss, N.; Bowers, C.; Nesti, F.

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Physics issues on triggering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The detector at the international linear collider (ILC) should be able to run 'trig- gerless' which means that all events can be read out and then be analysed with the offline reconstruction program in a trigger farm. The event rates for 'high Q2' events like W-pairs or q¯q are low, about 0.1/train. However, there is a significant.

  16. Studies of atlas second level B-physics trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W

    2000-07-01

    ATLAS is a general purpose detector presently under construction for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. In the first few years of operation, LHC will run at low luminosity (10{sup 33} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}) which is optimal for B-physics study. This thesis is concerned with the design of the second level B-physics trigger. The B-physics trigger relies on the partial reconstruction of B decays in order to select semi-exclusively channels of interest. After the tagged muon from one of bb-bar pair is confirmed, track reconstruction in the inner detector will be performed to search for the interesting decays of the second b quark. This thesis presents applications of a tree algorithm to search for tracks in the precision detector. The tracking algorithm constructs tracks from locally related space points. The algorithm has been implemented in C++. There are two applications which are initialised by the pixel full-scan and TRT full-scan. The performance of track reconstruction has been studied and optimised including efficiency, resolution, execution time, etc, for seeding from either the inner pixel or outer continuous tracking detectors. After tracks have been reconstructed using the tree algorithm, B-physics event selection is performed. The trigger selection for the B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} channel has been studied. The efficiency and trigger rate for this channel have been evaluated. This thesis also contains a study of the data preparation process for track reconstruction. This includes implementation of a recursive clustering algorithm in the pixel detector and development of a data pre-selection algorithm. These two algorithms are shown to be efficient and fast. The Readout Buffer (ROB) is an important part of the trigger and DAQ system. Parts of the Buffer, the ROB-in and the PCI bus, have been modelled using the Ptolemy modelling tool. Comparisons with measurements of PCI bus performance are given. (author)

  17. Accurate 3D point cloud comparison and volumetric change analysis of Terrestrial Laser Scan data in a hard rock coastal cliff environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlie, C. S.; Masselink, G.; Russell, P.; Shail, R.; Kingston, K.

    2013-12-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of hard rock coastlines is limited due to the episodic nature and ';slow' rate at which changes occur. High-resolution surveying techniques, such as Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), have just begun to be adopted as a method of obtaining detailed point cloud data to monitor topographical changes over short periods of time (weeks to months). However, the difficulties involved in comparing consecutive point cloud data sets in a complex three-dimensional plane, such as occlusion due to surface roughness and positioning of data capture point as a result of a consistently changing environment (a beach profile), mean that comparing data sets can lead to errors in the region of 10 - 20 cm. Meshing techniques are often used for point cloud data analysis for simple surfaces, but in surfaces such as rocky cliff faces, this technique has been found to be ineffective. Recession rates of hard rock coastlines in the UK are typically determined using aerial photography or airborne LiDAR data, yet the detail of the important changes occurring to the cliff face and toe are missed using such techniques. In this study we apply an algorithm (M3C2 - Multiscale Model to Model Cloud Comparison), initially developed for analysing fluvial morphological change, that directly compares point to point cloud data using surface normals that are consistent with surface roughness and measure the change that occurs along the normal direction (Lague et al., 2013). The surfaces changes are analysed using a set of user defined scales based on surface roughness and registration error. Once the correct parameters are defined, the volumetric cliff face changes are calculated by integrating the mean distance between the point clouds. The analysis has been undertaken at two hard rock sites identified for their active erosion located on the UK's south west peninsular at Porthleven in south west Cornwall and Godrevy in north Cornwall. Alongside TLS point cloud data, in

  18. Comparison of second-generation processes for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse to liquid biofuels in terms of energy efficiency, pinch point analysis and Life Cycle Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, A.M.; Melamu, Rethabi; Knoetze, J.H.; Görgens, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Process evaluation of thermochemical and biological routes for bagasse to fuels. • Pinch point analysis increases overall efficiencies by reducing utility consumption. • Advanced biological route increased efficiency and local environmental impacts. • Thermochemical routes have the highest efficiencies and low life cycle impacts. - Abstract: Three alternative processes for the production of liquid transportation biofuels from sugar cane bagasse were compared, on the perspective of energy efficiencies using process modelling, Process Environmental Assessments and Life Cycle Assessment. Bio-ethanol via two biological processes was considered, i.e. Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation (Process 1) and Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (Process 2), in comparison to Gasification and Fischer Tropsch synthesis for the production of synthetic fuels (Process 3). The energy efficiency of each process scenario was maximised by pinch point analysis for heat integration. The more advanced bio-ethanol process was Process 2 and it had a higher energy efficiency at 42.3%. Heat integration was critical for the Process 3, whereby the energy efficiency was increased from 51.6% to 55.7%. For both the Process Environmental and Life Cycle Assessment, Process 3 had the least potential for detrimental environmental impacts, due to its relatively high energy efficiency. Process 2 had the greatest Process Environmental Impact due to the intensive use of processing chemicals. Regarding the Life Cycle Assessments, Process 1 was the most severe due to its low energy efficiency

  19. The Fast Interaction Trigger Upgrade for ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Solis, Edmundo

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major detector upgrade for the second LHC long shutdown (2019–20). The LHC heavy-ion luminosity and collision rate from 2021 onwards will considerably exceed the design parameters of the present ALICE forward trigger detectors. Furthermore, the introduction of a new Muon Forward Tracker (MFT) will significantly reduce the space available for the upgraded trigger detectors. To comply with these conditions a Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT) has been designed. FIT will be the primary forward trigger, luminosity, and collision time measurement detector. The FIT will be capable of triggering at an interaction rate of 50 kHz, with a time resolution better than 30 ps, with 99% efficiency. It will also determine multiplicity, centrality, and reaction plane. FIT will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov radiators with MCP-PMT sensors and of a single, large-size scintillator ring. The arrays will be placed on both sides of the interaction point (IP). Because of the presence of the h...

  20. Simulation and Validation of the ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Bakker, Pepijn Johannes; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has recently commissioned a new component of its first-level trigger: the L1 topological trigger. This system, using state-of-the-art FPGA processors, makes it possible to reject events by applying topological requirements, such as kinematic criteria involving clusters, jets, muons, and total transverse energy. The data recorded using the L1Topological trigger demonstrates that this innovative trigger strategy allows for an improved rejection rate without efficiency loss. This improvement has been shown for several relevant physics processes leading to low-$p_T$ leptons, including $H\\to{}\\tau{}\\tau{}$ and $J/\\Psi\\to{}\\mu{}\\mu{}$. In addition, an accurate simulation of the L1Topological trigger is used to validate and optimize the performance of this trigger. To reach such an accuracy, this simulation must take into account the fact that the firmware algorithms are executed on a FPGA architecture, while the simulation is executed on a floating point architecture.

  1. A dose point kernel database using GATE Monte Carlo simulation toolkit for nuclear medicine applications: comparison with other Monte Carlo codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Loudos, George; Nikiforidis, George C; Kagadis, George C

    2012-08-01

    GATE is a Monte Carlo simulation toolkit based on the Geant4 package, widely used for many medical physics applications, including SPECT and PET image simulation and more recently CT image simulation and patient dosimetry. The purpose of the current study was to calculate dose point kernels (DPKs) using GATE, compare them against reference data, and finally produce a complete dataset of the total DPKs for the most commonly used radionuclides in nuclear medicine. Patient-specific absorbed dose calculations can be carried out using Monte Carlo simulations. The latest version of GATE extends its applications to Radiotherapy and Dosimetry. Comparison of the proposed method for the generation of DPKs was performed for (a) monoenergetic electron sources, with energies ranging from 10 keV to 10 MeV, (b) beta emitting isotopes, e.g., (177)Lu, (90)Y, and (32)P, and (c) gamma emitting isotopes, e.g., (111)In, (131)I, (125)I, and (99m)Tc. Point isotropic sources were simulated at the center of a sphere phantom, and the absorbed dose was stored in concentric spherical shells around the source. Evaluation was performed with already published studies for different Monte Carlo codes namely MCNP, EGS, FLUKA, ETRAN, GEPTS, and PENELOPE. A complete dataset of total DPKs was generated for water (equivalent to soft tissue), bone, and lung. This dataset takes into account all the major components of radiation interactions for the selected isotopes, including the absorbed dose from emitted electrons, photons, and all secondary particles generated from the electromagnetic interactions. GATE comparison provided reliable results in all cases (monoenergetic electrons, beta emitting isotopes, and photon emitting isotopes). The observed differences between GATE and other codes are less than 10% and comparable to the discrepancies observed among other packages. The produced DPKs are in very good agreement with the already published data, which allowed us to produce a unique DPKs dataset using

  2. Comparison of Laser and Stereo Optical, SAR and InSAR Point Clouds from Air- and Space-Borne Sources in the Retrieval of Forest Inventory Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Yu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is anticipated that many of the future forest mapping applications will be based on three-dimensional (3D point clouds. A comparison study was conducted to verify the explanatory power and information contents of several 3D remote sensing data sources on the retrieval of above ground biomass (AGB, stem volume (VOL, basal area (G, basal-area weighted mean diameter (Dg and Lorey’s mean height (Hg at the plot level, utilizing the following data: synthetic aperture radar (SAR Interferometry, SAR radargrammetry, satellite-imagery having stereo viewing capability, airborne laser scanning (ALS with various densities (0.8–6 pulses/m2 and aerial stereo imagery. Laser scanning is generally known as the primary source providing a 3D point cloud. However, photogrammetric, radargrammetric and interferometric techniques can be used to produce 3D point clouds from space- and air-borne stereo images. Such an image-based point cloud could be utilized in a similar manner as ALS providing that accurate digital terrain model is available. In this study, the performance of these data sources for providing point cloud data was evaluated with 91 sample plots that were established in Evo, southern Finland within a boreal forest zone and surveyed in 2014 for this comparison. The prediction models were built using random forests technique with features derived from each data sources as independent variables and field measurements of forest attributes as response variable. The relative root mean square errors (RMSEs varied in the ranges of 4.6% (0.97 m–13.4% (2.83 m for Hg, 11.7% (3.0 cm–20.6% (5.3 cm for Dg, 14.8% (4.0 m2/ha–25.8% (6.9 m2/ha for G, 15.9% (43.0 m3/ha–31.2% (84.2 m3/ha for VOL and 14.3% (19.2 Mg/ha–27.5% (37.0 Mg/ha for AGB, respectively, depending on the data used. Results indicate that ALS data achieved the most accurate estimates for all forest inventory attributes. For image-based 3D data, high-altitude aerial images and WorldView-2

  3. Combined respiratory and cardiac triggering improves blood pool contrast-enhanced pediatric cardiovascular MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanawala, Shreyas S.; Newman, Beverley; Chan, Frandics P.; Alley, Marcus T.

    2011-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced cardiac MRA suffers from cardiac motion artifacts and often requires a breath-hold. This work develops and evaluates a blood pool contrast-enhanced combined respiratory- and ECG-triggered MRA method. An SPGR sequence was modified to enable combined cardiac and respiratory triggering on a 1.5-T scanner. Twenty-three consecutive children referred for pediatric heart disease receiving gadofosveset were recruited in HIPAA-compliant fashion with IRB approval and informed consent. Children underwent standard non-triggered contrast-enhanced MRA with or without suspended respiration. Additionally, a free-breathing-triggered MRA was acquired. Triggered and non-triggered studies were presented in blinded random order independently to two radiologists twice. Anatomical structure delineation was graded for each triggered and non-triggered acquisition and the visual quality on triggered MRA was compared directly to that on non-triggered MRA. Triggered images received higher scores from each radiologist for all anatomical structures on each of the two reading sessions (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P < 0.05). In direct comparison, triggered images were preferred over non-triggered images for delineating cardiac structures, with most comparisons reaching statistical significance (binomial test, P < 0.05). Combined cardiac and respiratory triggering, enabled by a blood pool contrast agent, improves delineation of most anatomical structures in pediatric cardiovascular MRA. (orig.)

  4. ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Belanger-Champagne, C; Bosman, M; Brenner, R; Casado, MP; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Demers, S; Farrington, S; Igonkina, O; Kalinowski, A; Kanaya, N; Osuna, C; Pérez, E; Ptacek, E; Reinsch, A; Saavedra, A; Sopczak, A; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Tsuno, S; Vorwerk, V; Watson, A; Xella, S

    2008-01-01

    Moving to the high energy scale of the LHC, the identification of tau leptons will become a necessary and very powerful tool, allowing a discovery of physics beyond Standard Model. Many models, among them light SM Higgs and various SUSY models, predict an abundant production of taus with respect to other leptons. The reconstruction of hadronic tau decays, although a very challenging task in hadronic enviroments, allows to increase a signal efficiency by at least of factor 2, and provides an independent control sample to disantangle lepton tau decays from prompt electrons and muons. Thanks to the advanced calorimetry and tracking, the ATLAS experiment has developed tools to efficiently identify hadronic taus at the trigger level. In this presentation we will review the characteristics of taus and the methods to suppress low-multiplicity, low-energy jets contributions as well as we will address the tau trigger chain which provide a rejection rate of 10^5. We will further present plans for commissioning the ATLA...

  5. The D0 calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, J.

    1992-12-01

    The D0 calorimeter trigger system consists of many levels to make physics motivated trigger decisions. The Level-1 trigger uses hardware techniques to reduce the trigger rate from ∼ 100kHz to 200Hz. It forms sums of electromagnetic and hadronic energy, globally and in towers, along with finding the missing transverse energy. A minimum energy is set on these energy sums to pass the event. The Level-2 trigger is a set of software filters, operating in a parallel-processing microvax farm which further reduces the trigger rate to a few Hertz. These filters will reject events which lack electron candidates, jet candidates, or missing transverse energy in the event. The performance of these triggers during the early running of the D0 detector will also be discussed

  6. Minimum Bias Trigger in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kwee, R E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic pp-collisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.09 < |eta| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presen...

  7. Comparisons between a new point kernel-based scheme and the infinite plane source assumption method for radiation calculation of deposited airborne radionuclides from nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaole; Efthimiou, George; Wang, Yan; Huang, Meng

    2018-04-01

    Radiation from the deposited radionuclides is indispensable information for environmental impact assessment of nuclear power plants and emergency management during nuclear accidents. Ground shine estimation is related to multiple physical processes, including atmospheric dispersion, deposition, soil and air radiation shielding. It still remains unclear that whether the normally adopted "infinite plane" source assumption for the ground shine calculation is accurate enough, especially for the area with highly heterogeneous deposition distribution near the release point. In this study, a new ground shine calculation scheme, which accounts for both the spatial deposition distribution and the properties of air and soil layers, is developed based on point kernel method. Two sets of "detector-centered" grids are proposed and optimized for both the deposition and radiation calculations to better simulate the results measured by the detectors, which will be beneficial for the applications such as source term estimation. The evaluation against the available data of Monte Carlo methods in the literature indicates that the errors of the new scheme are within 5% for the key radionuclides in nuclear accidents. The comparisons between the new scheme and "infinite plane" assumption indicate that the assumption is tenable (relative errors within 20%) for the area located 1 km away from the release source. Within 1 km range, the assumption mainly causes errors for wet deposition and the errors are independent of rain intensities. The results suggest that the new scheme should be adopted if the detectors are within 1 km from the source under the stable atmosphere (classes E and F), or the detectors are within 500 m under slightly unstable (class C) or neutral (class D) atmosphere. Otherwise, the infinite plane assumption is reasonable since the relative errors induced by this assumption are within 20%. The results here are only based on theoretical investigations. They should

  8. Quantification of the UK 5-point breast imaging classification and mapping to BI-RADS to facilitate comparison with international literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K; Britton, P; O'Keeffe, S; Wallis, M G

    2011-01-01

    Objective The UK 5-point breast imaging scoring system, recently formalised by the Royal College of Radiologists Breast Group, does not specify the likelihood of malignancy in each category. The breast imaging and reporting data system (BI-RADS) is widely used throughout North America and much of Europe. The main purpose of this study is to quantify the cancer likelihood of each of the UK 5-point categories and map them to comparable BI-RADS categories to facilitate comparison with North American and European literature and publication of UK research abroad. Methods During the 8 year study period, mammogram and ultrasound results were UK scored and the percentage of cancer outcomes within each group calculated. These were then compared with the percentage incidence of the BI-RADS categories. Results Of 23 741 separate assessment episodes, 15 288 mammograms and 10 642 ultrasound examinations were evaluated. There was a direct correlation between UK scoring and BI-RADS for categories 1 and 5. UK Score 2 lipomas and simple cysts correlated with BI-RADS 2, with the remaining UK Score 2 lesions (mostly fibroadenomas) assigned to BI-RADS 3. BI-RADS 4 incorporates a wide range of cancer risk (2–95%) with subdivisions a, b and c indicating increasing, but unspecified, likelihood of malignancy. UK Score 3 correlated with BI-RADS 4 a/b and UK Score 4 corresponded with BI-RADS 4c. Conclusion This study quantifies the cancer likelihood of the UK scoring and maps them to parallel BI-RADS categories, with equivalent cancer risks. This facilitates the ability to share UK research data and clinical practice on an international scale. PMID:22011830

  9. Quantification of the UK 5-point breast imaging classification and mapping to BI-RADS to facilitate comparison with international literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K; Britton, P; O'Keeffe, S; Wallis, M G

    2011-11-01

    The UK 5-point breast imaging scoring system, recently formalised by the Royal College of Radiologists Breast Group, does not specify the likelihood of malignancy in each category. The breast imaging and reporting data system (BI-RADS) is widely used throughout North America and much of Europe. The main purpose of this study is to quantify the cancer likelihood of each of the UK 5-point categories and map them to comparable BI-RADS categories to facilitate comparison with North American and European literature and publication of UK research abroad. During the 8 year study period, mammogram and ultrasound results were UK scored and the percentage of cancer outcomes within each group calculated. These were then compared with the percentage incidence of the BI-RADS categories. Of 23 741 separate assessment episodes, 15 288 mammograms and 10 642 ultrasound examinations were evaluated. There was a direct correlation between UK scoring and BI-RADS for categories 1 and 5. UK Score 2 lipomas and simple cysts correlated with BI-RADS 2, with the remaining UK Score 2 lesions (mostly fibroadenomas) assigned to BI-RADS 3. BI-RADS 4 incorporates a wide range of cancer risk (2-95%) with subdivisions a, b and c indicating increasing, but unspecified, likelihood of malignancy. UK Score 3 correlated with BI-RADS 4 a/b and UK Score 4 corresponded with BI-RADS 4c. This study quantifies the cancer likelihood of the UK scoring and maps them to parallel BI-RADS categories, with equivalent cancer risks. This facilitates the ability to share UK research data and clinical practice on an international scale.

  10. Alcoholic drinks as triggers in primary headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panconesi, Alessandro; Franchini, Michela; Bartolozzi, Maria Letizia; Mugnai, Stefania; Guidi, Leonello

    2013-08-01

    This project aims to investigate the role of alcoholic drinks (ADs) as triggers for primary headaches. Patients followed in the Headache Centre and presenting with migraine without aura, migraine with aura (MA), chronic migraine (CM), and tension-type headache (TH) were asked if their headache was precipitated by AD and also about their alcohol habits. Individual characteristics and drink habits were evaluated within two binary logistic models. About one half (49.7%) of patients were abstainers, 17.6% were habitual consumers, and 32.5% were occasional consumers. Out of 448 patients, only 22 (4.9%), all with migraine, reported AD as a trigger factor. None of 44 patients with MA and none of 47 patients with TH reported AD as a trigger factor. Among those patients with migraine who consume AD, only 8% reported that AD can precipitate their headache. Multivariate analyses showed that AD use, both occasional and habitual, is unrelated to TH. Moreover, analysis performed among migraine patients, points out that occasional and habitual drinkers have a lower risk of presenting with CM than abstainers, although statistical significance occurred only among occasional drinkers. Only 3% of migraine patients who abstain from AD reported that they do not consume alcohol because it triggers their headache. Our study shows that AD acts as headache triggers in a small percentage of migraine patients. Differing from some prior studies, our data suggest that AD do not trigger MA and TH attacks. Moreover, the percentage of abstainers in our sample is higher compared with that reported in general population surveys. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The ZEUS second level calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, S.J. de.

    1990-01-01

    ZEUS is a detector for the HERA ep collider, consisting of several large components. The most important being the inner tracking detectors, which are positioned nearest to the interaction point, the calorimeter surrounding the inner tracking detectors and the muon detectors on the outside of the experimental setup. Each component will deliver a vast amount of information. In order to keep this information manageable, data is preprocessed and condensed per component and then combined to obtain the final global trigger result. The main subject of this thesis is the second level calorimeter trigger processor of the ZEUS detector. In order to be able to reject the unwanted events passing the first level, the topological event signature will have to be used at the second level. The most demanding task of the second level is the recognition of local energy depositions corresponding to isolated electrons and hadron jets. Also part of the work performed by the first level will be repeated with a higher level of accuracy. Additional information not available to the first level trigger will be processed and will be made available to the global second level trigger decision module. For the second level calorimeter trigger processor a special VME module, containing two transputers, has been developed. The second level calorimeter trigger algorithm described in this thesis was tested with simulated events, that were tracked through a computer simulation of the ZEUS detector. A part of this thesis is therefore devoted to the description of the various Monte Carlo models and the justification of the way in which they were used. (author). 132 refs.; 76 figs.; 18 tabs

  12. Arctic climate tipping points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the Arctic are briefly reviewed. Then, the current behaviour of a range of Arctic systems is summarised. Looking ahead, a range of potential tipping phenomena are described. This leads to a revised and expanded list of potential Arctic climate tipping elements, whose likelihood is assessed, in terms of how much warming will be required to tip them. Finally, the available responses are considered, especially the prospects for avoiding Arctic climate tipping points.

  13. Comparison of four monolithic zirconia materials with conventional ones: Contrast ratio, grain size, four-point flexural strength and two-body wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Frevert, Kathrin; Ender, Andreas; Roos, Malgorzata; Sener, Beatrice; Wimmer, Timea

    2016-06-01

    To test the mechanical and optical properties of monolithic zirconia in comparison to conventional zirconia. Specimens were prepared from: monolithic zirconia: Zenostar (ZS), DD Bio ZX(2) hochtransluzent (DD), Ceramill Zolid (CZ), InCoris TZI (IC) and a conventional zirconia Ceramill ZI (CZI). Contrast ratio (N=75/n=15) was measured according to ISO 2471:2008. Grain sizes (N=75/n=15) were investigated with scanning electron microscope. Four-point flexural strength (N=225/n=15/zirconia and aging regime) was measured initially, after aging in autoclave or chewing simulator (ISO 13356:2008). Two-body wear of polished and glazed/veneered specimens (N=108/n=12) was analyzed in a chewing simulator using human teeth as antagonists. Data were analyzed using 2-/1-way ANOVA with post-hoc Scheffé, Kruskal-Wallis-H, Mann-Whitney-U, Spearman-Rho, Weibull statistics and linear mixed models (pzirconia showed higher optical, but lower mechanical properties than conventional zirconia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of four microfinance markets from the point of view of the effectuation theory, complemented by proposed musketeer principle illustrating forces within village banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hes Tomáš

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microfinance services are essential tools of formalization of shadow economics, leveraging immature entrepreneurship with external capital. Given the importance of shadow economics for the social balance of developing countries, the importance of an answer to a question of how microfinance entities come into existence, is rather essential. While decision-taking process leading to entrepreneurship were explained by the effectuation theory developed in the 90’, these explanations were not concerned with the logics of creation of microenterprises in neither developing countries nor microfinance village banks. While the abovementioned theories explain the nascence of companies in environment of developed markets, importance of a focus on emerging markets related to large share of human society of microfinance clientele is obvious. The study provides a development streak to the effectuation Theory, adding the musketeer principle to the five effectuation principles proposed by Sarasvathy. Furthermore, the hitherto not considered relationship between social capital and effectuation related concepts is another proposal of the paper focusing on description of the nature of microfinance clientele from the point of view of effectuation theory and social capital drawing a comparison of microfinance markets in four countries, Turkey, Sierra Leone, Indonesia and Afghanistan.

  15. Levels of the epidermal growth factor-like peptide amphiregulin in follicular fluid reflect the mode of triggering ovulation: a comparison between gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist and urinary human chorionic gonadotrophin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær; Westergaard, Lars Grabow; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis

    2011-01-01

    . INTERVENTION(S): Ovulation triggered with either urinary hCG or GnRH agonist (GnRH-a). Controls: 15 FF samples from small antral follicles (3-9 mm) and 12 FF samples from natural cycle. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Follicular fluid concentration of AR, P(4), E(2), vascular endothelial growth factor, and inhibin B....... RESULT(S): Significantly lower levels of AR were found in FF from the GnRH-a group versus the hCG group, 51 ± 3.5 versus 71 ± 6.0 ng/mL. In FF from natural cycles, levels of AR were significantly higher than those of GnRH-a triggering but significantly lower than those of urinary hCG triggering. In small...... antral follicles only 5 out of 15 follicles contained measurable amounts of AR. When urinary hCG and GnRH-a triggering were compared, FF P(4) was significantly higher after urinary hCG triggering, whereas no difference was seen regarding E(2), vascular endothelial growth factor, and inhibin B. A total...

  16. The computed cranial focal point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G.A. de; Maal, T.J.J.; Delye, H.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stereophotogrammetry is a radiation-free method for monitoring skull development after craniosynostosis repair. Lack of clear fixed reference points complicate longitudinal comparison of 3D photographs. Therefore we developed the 'computed cranial focal point' (CCFP). METHODS: The CCFP

  17. Triggering at high luminosity: fake triggers from pile-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.

    1983-01-01

    Triggers based on a cut in transverse momentum (p/sub t/) have proved to be useful in high energy physics both because they indicte that a hard constituent scattering has occurred and because they can be made quickly enough to gate electronics. These triggers will continue to be useful at high luminosities if overlapping events do not cause an excessive number of fake triggers. In this paper, I determine if this is indeed a problem at high luminosity machines

  18. Nostalgia: content, triggers, functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Arndt, Jamie; Routledge, Clay

    2006-11-01

    Seven methodologically diverse studies addressed 3 fundamental questions about nostalgia. Studies 1 and 2 examined the content of nostalgic experiences. Descriptions of nostalgic experiences typically featured the self as a protagonist in interactions with close others (e.g., friends) or in momentous events (e.g., weddings). Also, the descriptions contained more expressions of positive than negative affect and often depicted the redemption of negative life scenes by subsequent triumphs. Studies 3 and 4 examined triggers of nostalgia and revealed that nostalgia occurs in response to negative mood and the discrete affective state of loneliness. Studies 5, 6, and 7 investigated the functional utility of nostalgia and established that nostalgia bolsters social bonds, increases positive self-regard, and generates positive affect. These findings demarcate key landmarks in the hitherto uncharted research domain of nostalgia.

  19. A Neural Network Approach to Muon Triggering in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Livneh, Ran; CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The extremely high rate of events that will be produced in the future Large Hadron Collider requires the triggering mechanism to make precise decisions in a few nano-seconds. This poses a complicated inverse problem, arising from the inhomogeneous nature of the magnetic fields in ATLAS. This thesis presents a study of an application of Artificial Neural Networks to the muon triggering problem in the ATLAS end-cap. A comparison with realistic results from the ATLAS first level trigger simulation was in favour of the neural network, but this is mainly due to superior resolution available off-line. Other options for applying a neural network to this problem are discussed.

  20. ATLAS trigger: Design and commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, F.; Atlas Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be exposed to proton-proton collisions from beams crossing at 40 MHz. A three-level trigger system was designed to select potentially interesting events and reduce the incoming rate to 100-200 Hz. The first trigger level (LVL1) is implemented in custom-built electronics, the second and third trigger levels are realised in software. The trigger system and its design parameters will be described with focus on computing and data aquision challenges. The results from both commissioning cosmic runs and first experiences from the LHC beam in 2008 will be overviewed. These running periods allowed us to exercise the trigger system online, including its configuration and monitoring infrastructure, as well as reconstruction and selection algorithms. The details on the plans for commissioning the ATLAS trigger when the LHC starts operations will be presented.

  1. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUSHITA, Takashi; CMS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41 fb‑1 with a peak luminosity of 1.5 × 1034 cm‑2s‑1 and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implementation of more algorithms at a time than previously possible, allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the available trigger bandwidth. Algorithms for a trigger menu, including topological requirements on multi-objects, can be realised in the Global Trigger using the newly developed trigger menu specification grammar. Analysis-like trigger algorithms can be represented in an intuitive manner and the algorithms are translated to corresponding VHDL code blocks to build a firmware. The grammar can be extended in future as the needs arise. The experience of implementing trigger menus on the upgraded Global Trigger system will be presented.

  2. Slope instabilities triggered by the 2011 Lorca earthquake (M{sub w} 5.1): a comparison and revision of hazard assessments of earthquake-triggered landslides in Murcia; Inestabilidades de ladera provocadas por el terremoto de Lorca de 2011 (Mw 5,1): comparacion y revision de estudios de peligrosidad de movimientos de ladera por efecto sismico en Murcia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Peces, M. J.; Garcia-Mayordomo, J.; Martinez-Diaz, J. J.; Tsige, M.

    2012-11-01

    The Lorca basin has been the object of recent research aimed at studying the phenomenon of earthquake induced landslides and their assessment within the context of different seismic scenarios, bearing in mind the influence of soil and topographical amplification effects. Nevertheless, it was not until the Lorca earthquakes of 11 May 2011 that it became possible to adopt a systematic approach to the problem. We provide here an inventory of slope instabilities triggered by the Lorca earthquakes comprising 100 cases, mainly small rock and soil falls (1 to 100 m{sup 3}). The distribution of these instabilities is compared to two different earthquake-triggered landslide hazard maps: one considering the occurrence of the most probable earthquake for a 475-yr return period in the Lorca basin (M{sub w} = 5.0), which was previously published on the basis of a low-resolution digital elevation model (DEM), and a second one matching the occurrence of the M{sub w} = 5.1 2011 Lorca earthquake, which was undertaken using a higher resolution DEM. The most frequent Newmark displacement values related to the slope failures triggered by the 2011 Lorca earthquakes are smaller than 2 cm in both hazard scenarios and coincide with areas where significant soil and topographical seismic amplification effects have occurred.

  3. Reliable and accurate point-based prediction of cumulative infiltration using soil readily available characteristics: A comparison between GMDH, ANN, and MLR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Mehdi

    2017-08-01

    Developing accurate and reliable pedo-transfer functions (PTFs) to predict soil non-readily available characteristics is one of the most concerned topic in soil science and selecting more appropriate predictors is a crucial factor in PTFs' development. Group method of data handling (GMDH), which finds an approximate relationship between a set of input and output variables, not only provide an explicit procedure to select the most essential PTF input variables, but also results in more accurate and reliable estimates than other mostly applied methodologies. Therefore, the current research was aimed to apply GMDH in comparison with multivariate linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) to develop several PTFs to predict soil cumulative infiltration point-basely at specific time intervals (0.5-45 min) using soil readily available characteristics (RACs). In this regard, soil infiltration curves as well as several soil RACs including soil primary particles (clay (CC), silt (Si), and sand (Sa)), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), bulk (Db) and particle (Dp) densities, organic carbon (OC), wet-aggregate stability (WAS), electrical conductivity (EC), and soil antecedent (θi) and field saturated (θfs) water contents were measured at 134 different points in Lighvan watershed, northwest of Iran. Then, applying GMDH, MLR, and ANN methodologies, several PTFs have been developed to predict cumulative infiltrations using two sets of selected soil RACs including and excluding Ks. According to the test data, results showed that developed PTFs by GMDH and MLR procedures using all soil RACs including Ks resulted in more accurate (with E values of 0.673-0.963) and reliable (with CV values lower than 11 percent) predictions of cumulative infiltrations at different specific time steps. In contrast, ANN procedure had lower accuracy (with E values of 0.356-0.890) and reliability (with CV values up to 50 percent) compared to GMDH and MLR. The results also revealed

  4. Comparison of two Gram stain point-of-care systems for urogenital gonorrhoea among high-risk patients: diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness before and after changing the screening algorithm at an STI clinic in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelsman, M.; Straetemans, M.; Vaughan, K.; Alba, S.; van Rooijen, M. S.; Faber, W. R.; de Vries, H. J. C.

    2014-01-01

    To compare point-of-care (POC) systems in two different periods: (1) before 2010 when all high-risk patients were offered POC management for urogenital gonorrhoea by Gram stain examination; and (2) after 2010 when only those with symptoms were offered Gram stain examination. Retrospective comparison

  5. Comparison between point-of-care dermatophyte test medium and mycology laboratory culture for diagnosis of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Ronnie; Blum, Shlomo E; Elad, Daniel; Zur, Gila

    2016-08-01

    Point-of-care Dermatophyte Test Medium (PoC-DTM) is a diagnostic procedure to rule in/rule out dermatophytosis in veterinary clinics. To evaluate the performance of PoC-DTM in the clinic compared to DTM plate culture in a mycology laboratory and to compare results obtained by general practitioners and referral clinicians. Hair samples were collected from 47 cats and 54 dogs with suspected dermatophytosis and from nine healthy controls (seven cats and two dogs). This was a multicentre blinded study. In one group (65 suspected cases, 9 healthy controls), PoC-DTM results were evaluated by clinicians in a referral clinic (SP group) who examined the colony morphology macroscopically and microscopically. In the other group (36 suspected cases) PoC-DTM results were evaluated by clinicians from general practice for colour change only, with no macroscopic or microscopic examination (GP group). All hair samples were also cultured on DTM plates in a mycology laboratory. Laboratory culture was considered the gold standard for comparison. Agreements between tests were 97% (two false positive; κ = 0.839) and 80.6% (five false positives and two false negatives; κ = 0.466) in the SP and GP groups, respectively. This difference between groups was significant (P = 0.024). When applying macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of the colony, PoC-DTM is accurate for diagnosing dermatophytes with only a 3% chance of error. However, when macroscopic and microscopic examination is not included there is significant (19.4%) chance for an incorrect diagnosis. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  6. Comparison of Protein Value of Commercial Baby Food with Homemade Baby Food and Casein Standard in Rats as the Refference point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Asemi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesEvaluation of protein quality in food is of great importance due to the biological and economical impacts of food proteins. This study has been conducted with the aim of comparing the protein quality of homemade food (mixture of macaroni and soy bean with commercial baby food (Cerelac Wheat using Casein as the refference point.MethodsThis study was conducted on 64 twenty one day old male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups, and each group was put on a different diet regiments. The diet regiments were as follow: 2 homemade food+Cerelac test diet, 1 Ccasein+Methionine standard diet, 1 protien-free basal diet, 2 test diet, 1 standard diet and 1 basal diet. The purpose of protien-free diet was to evaluate True Protien Digestability (TPD. Net Protein Ratio (NPR and Protien Efficiency Ratios (PER were investigated by the basal diet. Protein intake and increasing of weight were determined for NPR and PER calculating. Nitrogen intake and fecal Nitrogen were determined to calculate TPD. Comparison of TPD, NPR and PER among the groups were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey methods.ResultsTPD values of Standard, Cerelac and homemade food diets were 92.8±4, 87±8 and 85.4±3.2; NPR values were 4.3±0.4, 4.3±0.9, 3.8±0.6; and PER values were 3±0.2, 2.5±0.4, 1.7±0.1 respectively. The statistical difference between TPD and PER values were significant (p 0.05. ConclusionThese results shows that TPD and PER of homemade foods are lower than Cerelac while their NPR are acceptable.Keywords: Protein; Cerelac; Macaroni; Soybeens.

  7. Thermally activated trigger device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.; Camaret, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear space reactor, a thermally activated trigger device for rendering the reactor subcritical upon reentry to the earth's atmosphere, the device comprising: a closed vessel, a piston slideably mounted in the vessel to divide it into first and second compartments, an inert gas contained within each of the compartments at substantially the same pressure, a connecting rod operatively connected to the piston and to actuator means, the actuator means providing for moving means for rendering the reactor subcritical upon movement of the connecting rod; a bellows having opposite ends, one of the ends being affixed to and in sealing engagement with the connecting rod and the other of the ends being affixed to and in sealing engagement with the vessel for permitting linear movement of the connecting rod and preventing any escape of the inert gas from the closed vessel; and normally closed pipes communicating with one of the compartments for venting the inert gas therefrom when any of the pipes is open, the pipes being located at different parts of the nuclear space reactor so that the closed ends thereof are exposed to the atmosphere upon reentry of the reactor to the atmosphere. The pipes are designed to open at a selected temperature resulting from the reentry so that the gas leaves the communicating compartment via an open pipe to cause a difference in pressure between the compartments sufficient for the higher pressure in the other compartment to move the piston and thereby activate the actuator means

  8. Trigger and data acquisition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Gaspar, C

    2001-01-01

    Past LEP experiments generate data at 0.5 MByte/s from particle detectors with over a quarter of a million readout channels. The process of reading out the electronic channels, treating them, and storing the date produced by each collision for further analysis by the physicists is called "Data Acquisition". Not all beam crossings produce interesting physics "events", picking the interesting ones is the task of the "Trigger" system. In order to make sure that the data is collected in good conditions the experiment's operation has to be constantly verified. In all, at LEP experiments over 100 000 parameters were monitored, controlled, and synchronized by the "Monotoring and control" system. In the future, LHC experiments will produce as much data in a single day as a LEP detector did in a full year's running with a raw data rate of 10 - 100 MBytes/s and will have to cope with some 800 million proton-proton collisions a second of these collisions only one in 100 million million is interesting for new particle se...

  9. Coronary CT angiography with single-source and dual-source CT: comparison of image quality and radiation dose between prospective ECG-triggered and retrospective ECG-gated protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarudin, Akmal; Sun, Zhonghua; Yusof, Ahmad Khairuddin Md

    2013-09-30

    This study is conducted to investigate and compare image quality and radiation dose between prospective ECG-triggered and retrospective ECG-gated coronary CT angiography (CCTA) with the use of single-source CT (SSCT) and dual-source CT (DSCT). A total of 209 patients who underwent CCTA with suspected coronary artery disease scanned with SSCT (n=95) and DSCT (n=114) scanners using prospective ECG-triggered and retrospective ECG-gated protocols were recruited from two institutions. The image was assessed by two experienced observers, while quantitative assessment was performed by measuring the image noise, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Effective dose was calculated using the latest published conversion coefficient factor. A total of 2087 out of 2880 coronary artery segments were assessable, with 98.0% classified as of sufficient and 2.0% as of insufficient image quality for clinical diagnosis. There was no significant difference in overall image quality between prospective ECG-triggered and retrospective gated protocols, whether it was performed with DSCT or SSCT scanners. Prospective ECG-triggered protocol was compared in terms of radiation dose calculation between DSCT (6.5 ± 2.9 mSv) and SSCT (6.2 ± 1.0 mSv) scanners and no significant difference was noted (p=0.99). However, the effective dose was significantly lower with DSCT (18.2 ± 8.3 mSv) than with SSCT (28.3 ± 7.0 mSv) in the retrospective gated protocol. Prospective ECG-triggered CCTA reduces radiation dose significantly compared to retrospective ECG-gated CCTA, while maintaining good image quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. BILATERAL KEY COMPARISON SIM.T-K6.5 ON HUMIDITY STANDARDS IN THE DEW/FROST-POINT TEMPERATURE RANGE FROM −30 °C TO +20 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.W.; Solano, A.

    2016-01-01

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures over the range −30 °C TO +20 °C was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the Laboratorio Costarricense de Metrología (LACOMET, Costa Rica), between February 2015 and August 2015. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and LACOMET and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining the degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and LACOMET. PMID:28066029

  11. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  12. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagliesi, M.G., E-mail: mg.bagliesi@pi.infn.i [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy); Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N. [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5{mu}s. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  13. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagliesi, M.G.; Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N.

    2010-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5μs. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  14. Upgrade trigger: Biannual performance update

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Couturier, Ben; Esen, Sevda; De Cian, Michel; De Vries, Jacco Andreas; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Jones, Christopher Rob; Le Gac, Renaud; Matev, Rosen; Neufeld, Niko; Nikodem, Thomas; Polci, Francesco; Del Buono, Luigi; Quagliani, Renato; Schwemmer, Rainer; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha; Szumlak, Tomasz; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Wanczyk, Joanna; Williams, Mark Richard James; Yin, Hang; Zacharjasz, Emilia Anna

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the performance of the LHCb Upgrade trigger reconstruction sequence, incorporating changes to the underlying reconstruction algorithms and detector description since the Trigger and Online Upgrade TDR. An updated extrapolation is presented using the most recent example of an Event Filter Farm node.

  15. Comparison of Protein Value of Commercial Baby Food with Homemade Baby Food and Casein Standard in Rats as the Refference point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Asemi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    Evaluation of protein quality in food is of great importance due to the  biological and economical impacts of food proteins. This study has been conducted with the aim of comparing the protein quality of  homemade food (mixture of macaroni and soy bean with commercial baby food (Cerelac Wheat using Casein as the refference point.

     

    Methods

    This study was conducted on 64 twenty one day old male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups, and each group was put on a different diet regiments. The diet regiments were as follow: 2 homemade food+Cerelac test diet, 1 Ccasein+Methionine standard diet, 1 protien-free basal diet, 2 test diet, 1 standard diet and 1 basal diet. The purpose of protien-free diet was  to evaluate True Protien Digestability (TPD. Net Protein Ratio (NPR and Protien Efficiency Ratios (PER were investigated by the basal diet. Protein intake and increasing of weight were determined for NPR and PER calculating. Nitrogen intake and fecal Nitrogen were determined to calculate TPD. Comparison of TPD, NPR and PER among the groups were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey methods.

     

    Results

    TPD values of Standard, Cerelac and homemade food diets were 92.8±4, 87±8 and 85.4±3.2; NPR values were 4.3±0.4, 4.3±0.9, 3.8±0.6; and PER values were 3±0.2, 2.5±0.4, 1.7±0.1 respectively. The statistical difference between TPD and PER values were significant (p < 0.05, whereas NPR differences were insignificant ( p > 0.05.

     

    Conclusion

    These results shows that TPD and PER of homemade foods are lower than Cerelac while their NPR are acceptable