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Sample records for trigger points comparison

  1. Comparison between the effects of trigger point mesotherapy versus acupuncture points mesotherapy in the treatment of chronic low back pain: a short term randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Annalisa; Giombini, Arrigo; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Ripani, Maurizio; Vulpiani, Maria Chiara; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the effects of trigger point (TRP) mesotherapy and acupuncture (ACP) mesotherapy in the treatment of patients with chronic low back pain. Short term randomized controlled trial. 62 subjects with chronic low back pain were recruited at outpatients Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic at the University of Rome "La Sapienza" in the period between July 2006 and May 2008. Study subjects were assigned to receive 4 weeks treatments with either trigger point mesotherapy (TRP mesotherapy, n=29) or acupoints mesotherapy (ACP mesotherapy, n=33). Pain intensity with a pain visual analogic scale (VAS) and verbal rating scale (VRS) and pain disability with McGill Pain Questionnaire Short Form (SFMPQ), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ) and Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionaire (ODQ). ACP mesotherapy shows a more effective results in VRS and VAS measures in the follow-up (p(VRS)=mesotherapy group. Our results suggest that the response to ACP mesotherapy may be greater than the response to TRP mesotherapy in the short term follow-up. This technique could be nevertheless a viable option as an adjunct treatment in an overall treatment planning of CLBP. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A RANDOMIZED TRIAL TO STUDY THE COMPARISON OF TRIGGER POINT DRY NEEDLING VERSUS KINESIO TAPING TECHNIQUE IN MYOFASCIAL PAIN SYNDROME DURING A 3-MONTH FOLLOW UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Hayta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Managemen of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS is a current research subject since there is a small number of randomized studies comparing different management techniques. Multiple studies attempted to assess various treatment options including trigger point dry needling and kinesiotaping. We compared the effects of trigger point dry needling and kinesiotaping in the management of myofascial pain syndome during a 3-month follow-up period. Methods: In this prospective randomized studyin MPS patients with upper trapezius muscle trigger points, the effects of dry needling (n=28 and kinesiotaping (n=27 was compared with regard to the visual analog scale (VAS, neck disability index (NDI, and Nottingham health profile (NHP scores measured at the weeks 0, 4, and 12. Results: Both dry needling and kinesiotaping comparably reduced VAS scores measured at the weeks 4 and 12 and their efficacies were more remarkable at the week 12 (p<0.05. These interventions significantly reduced the NDI and NHP score and their effects were also more remarkable at the week 12; however, dry needling was found more effective (p<0.05. Conclusion: Overall, in current clinical settings, during the management of MPS, pain can be reduced comparably by both dry needling and kinesiotaping; however, restriction in the range of motionin neck region and quality of life are more remarkably reduced by dry needling. Both dry needling and kinesiotaping can provide an increasing effectiveness up to 12 weeks.

  3. The effect of trigger point management by positional release therapy on tension type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Ali; Rahimijaberi, Abbas; Mohamadi, Marzieh; Abbasi, Leila; Sarvestani, Fahimeh Kamali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of trigger points' management by Positional Release Therapy (PRT) and routine medical therapy in treatment of Tension Type Headache. Tension Type Headache is the most frequent headache with the basis of myofascial and trigger point disorders. PRT is an indirect technique that treats trigger points. 30 Patients with active trigger points in cervical muscles entered to the study. They were randomly assigned to PRT or medical therapy group. Headache frequency, intensity and duration and tablet count were recorded by use of a daily headache diary. Sensitivity of trigger points was assessed by numeric pain intensity and by use of a digital force gauge (FG 5020). Both groups showed significant reduction in headache frequency and duration and tablet count after treatment phase. However, the reduction of study variables was persisted only in PRT group after follow up phase. There was no significant reduction in headache intensity, neither in PRT and nor in medication group. Sensitivity of trigger points was significantly reduced. In comparison of the two study groups, there was no significant difference in headache frequency, intensity, duration and tablet count (p> 0.05). Both procedures were equally effective according to the study. Thus, PRT can be a treatment choice for patients with T.T.H.

  4. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberta Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Studies Group (TSG) The Trigger Studies Group has just concluded its third 2013 workshop, where all POGs presented the improvements to the physics object reconstruction, and all PAGs have shown their plans for Trigger development aimed at the 2015 High Level Trigger (HLT) menu. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger menu development, path timing, Trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – this last task in collaboration with PdmV (Physics Data and Monte Carlo Validation group). In the last months the group has delivered several HLT rate estimates and comparisons, using the available data and Monte Carlo samples. The studies were presented at the Trigger workshops in September and December, and STEAM has contacted POGs and PAGs to understand the origin of the discrepancies observed between 8 TeV data and Monte Carlo simulations. The most recent results show what the...

  5. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the March meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, the program of trigger pattern tests and vertical slice tests and planning for the Global Runs starting this summer. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and integration testing is in full swing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. After full checkout, trigger subsystems will be then operated in the CMS Global Runs. Continuous...

  6. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2012-01-01

      Level-1 Trigger The Level-1 Trigger group is ready to deploy improvements to the L1 Trigger algorithms for 2012. These include new high-PT patterns for the RPC endcap, an improved CSC PT assignment, a new PT-matching algorithm for the Global Muon Trigger, and new calibrations for ECAL, HCAL, and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger. These should improve the efficiency, rate, and stability of the L1 Trigger. The L1 Trigger group also is migrating the online systems to SLC5. To make the data transfer from the Global Calorimeter Trigger to the Global Trigger more reliable and also to allow checking the data integrity online, a new optical link system has been developed by the GCT and GT groups and successfully tested at the CMS electronics integration facility in building 904. This new system is now undergoing further tests at Point 5 before being deployed for data-taking this year. New L1 trigger menus have recently been studied and proposed by Emmanuelle Perez and the L1 Detector Performance Group...

  7. Myofascial trigger points in cluster headache patients: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico-Villademoros Fernando

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active myofascial trigger points (MTrPs have been found to contribute to chronic tension-type headache and migraine. The purpose of this case series was to examine if active trigger points (TrPs provoking cluster-type referred pain could be found in cluster headache patients and, if so, to evaluate the effectiveness of active TrPs anaesthetic injections both in the acute and preventive headache's treatment. Twelve patients, 4 experiencing episodic and 8 chronic cluster headache, were studied. TrPs were found in all of them. Abortive infiltrations could be done in 2 episodic and 4 chronic patients, and preemptive infiltrations could be done in 2 episodic and 5 chronic patients, both kind of interventions being successful in 5 (83.3% and in 6 (85.7% of the cases respectively. When combined with prophylactic drug therapy, injections were associated with significant improvement in 7 of the 8 chronic cluster patients. Our data suggest that peripheral sensitization may play a role in cluster headache pathophysiology and that first neuron afferent blockade can be useful in cluster headache management.

  8. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Since nearly all of the Level-1 (L1) Trigger hardware at Point 5 has been commissioned, activities during the past months focused on the fine-tuning of synchronization, particularly for the ECAL and the CSC systems, on firmware upgrades and on improving trigger operation and monitoring. Periodic resynchronizations or hard resets and a shortened luminosity section interval of 23 seconds were implemented. For the DT sector collectors, an automatic power-off was installed in case of high temperatures, and the monitoring capabilities of the opto-receivers and the mini-crates were enhanced. The DTTF and the CSCTF now have improved memory lookup tables. The HCAL trigger primitive logic implemented a new algorithm providing better stability of the energy measurement in the presence of any phase misalignment. For the Global Calorimeter Trigger, additional Source Cards have been manufactured and tested. Testing of the new tau, missing ET and missing HT algorithms is underw...

  9. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the December meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, and results from the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) phase II. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and moving towards integration testing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. This is combined with operations and testing without beam that will continue until startup. The plans for start-up, pilot and early running tri...

  10. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos, I. Mikulec, J. Varela and C. Wulz.

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Over the past few months, the Level-1 trigger has successfully recorded data with cosmic rays over long continuous stretches as well as LHC splash events, beam halo, and collision events. The L1 trigger hardware, firmware, synchronization, performance and readiness for beam operation were reviewed in October. All L1 trigger hardware is now installed at Point 5, and most of it is completely commissioned. While the barrel ECAL Trigger Concentrator Cards are fully operational, the recently delivered endcap ECAL TCC system is still being commissioned. For most systems there is a sufficient number of spares available, but for a few systems additional reserve modules are needed. It was decided to increase the overall L1 latency by three bunch crossings to increase the safety margin for trigger timing adjustments. In order for CMS to continue data taking during LHC frequency ramps, the clock distribution tree needs to be reset. The procedures for this have been tested. A repl...

  11. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The road map for the final commissioning of the level-1 trigger system has been set. The software for the trigger subsystems is being upgraded to run under CERN Scientific Linux 4 (SLC4). There is also a new release for the Trigger Supervisor (TS 1.4), which implies upgrade work by the subsystems. As reported by the CERN group, a campaign to tidy the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) racks has begun. The machine interface was upgraded by installing the new RF2TTC module, which receives RF signals from LHC Point 4. Two Beam Synchronous Timing (BST) signals, one for each beam, can now be received in CMS. The machine group will define the exact format of the information content shortly. The margin on the locking range of the CMS QPLL is planned for study for different subsystems in the next Global Runs, using a function generator. The TTC software has been successfully tested on SLC4. Some TTC subsystems have already been upgraded to SLC4. The TTCci Trigger Supervisor ...

  12. Muscle trigger point therapy in tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; de-la-Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2012-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that active trigger points (TrPs) in neck and shoulder muscles contribute to tension-type headache. Active TrPs within the suboccipital, upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, temporalis, superior oblique and lateral rectus muscles have been associated with chronic and episodic tension-type headache forms. It seems that the pain profile of this headache may be provoked by referred pain from active TrPs in the posterior cervical, head and shoulder muscles. In fact, the presence of active TrPs has been related to a higher degree of sensitization in tension-type headache. Different therapeutic approaches are proposed for proper TrP management. Preliminary evidence indicates that inactivation of TrPs may be effective for the management of tension-type headache, particularly in a subgroup of patients who may respond positively to this approach. Different treatment approaches targeted to TrP inactivation are discussed in the current paper, focusing on tension-type headache. New studies are needed to further delineate the relationship between muscle TrP inactivation and tension-type headache.

  13. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Alimena

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Strategy Group The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for the development of future High-Level Trigger menus, as well as of its DQM and validation, in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Taking into account the beam energy and luminosity expected in 2015, a rough estimate of the trigger rates indicates a factor four increase with respect to 2012 conditions. Assuming that a factor two can be tolerated thanks to the increase in offline storage and processing capabilities, a toy menu has been developed using the new OpenHLT workflow to estimate the transverse energy/momentum thresholds that would halve the current trigger rates. The CPU time needed to run the HLT has been compared between data taken with 25 ns and 50 ns bunch spacing, for equivalent pile-up: no significant difference was observed on the global time per event distribution at the only available data point, corresponding to a pile-up of about 10 interactions. Using th...

  14. Skin Resistivity Value of Upper Trapezius Latent Trigger Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skorupska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The skin resistivity (SkR measurement is commonly recommended for acupoints measurement, but for trigger points (TrPs only one study is available. The purpose of the study was to evaluate SkR for latent TrPs compared to non-TrPs and the surrounding tissue. Material and Methods. Forty-two healthy volunteers with unilateral latent upper trapezius TrPs (12 men, 30 women aged 21–23 (mean age: 22.1 ± 0.6 y participated in the study. Keithley electrometer 610B was used for measuring SkR (Ag/AgCl self-adhesive, disposable ground electrode: 30 mm diameter. SkR was measured for latent TrPs and compared to opposite non-TrPs sites and the surrounding tissue. Results. The SkR decrease of TrPs-positive sites as compared to TrPs-negative sites and the surrounding tissue was confirmed. However, no statistically significant difference in the SkR value occurred when all data were analyzed. The same was confirmed after gender division and for TrPs-positive subjects examined for referred pain and twitch response presence. Conclusion. SkR reactive changes at latent TrPs are possible but the results were not consistent with the previous study. Thus, caution in applying SkR to latent TrPs isolation is recommended and its clinical use should not be encouraged yet. Further studies, especially on active TrPs, are yet required.

  15. Dynamic Pointing Triggers Shifts of Visual Attention in Young Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Katharina J.; Longo, Matthew R.; Bertenthal, Bennett I.

    2012-01-01

    Pointing, like eye gaze, is a deictic gesture that can be used to orient the attention of another person towards an object or an event. Previous research suggests that infants first begin to follow a pointing gesture between 10 and 13 months of age. We investigated whether sensitivity to pointing could be seen at younger ages employing a technique…

  16. Reliability of physical examination for diagnosis of myofascial trigger points: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Nicholas; Macaskill, Petra; Irwig, Les; Moran, Robert; Bogduk, Nikolai

    2009-01-01

    Trigger points are promoted as an important cause of musculoskeletal pain. There is no accepted reference standard for the diagnosis of trigger points, and data on the reliability of physical examination for trigger points are conflicting. To systematically review the literature on the reliability of physical examination for the diagnosis of trigger points. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other sources were searched for articles reporting the reliability of physical examination for trigger points. Included studies were evaluated for their quality and applicability, and reliability estimates were extracted and reported. Nine studies were eligible for inclusion. None satisfied all quality and applicability criteria. No study specifically reported reliability for the identification of the location of active trigger points in the muscles of symptomatic participants. Reliability estimates varied widely for each diagnostic sign, for each muscle, and across each study. Reliability estimates were generally higher for subjective signs such as tenderness (kappa range, 0.22-1.0) and pain reproduction (kappa range, 0.57-1.00), and lower for objective signs such as the taut band (kappa range, -0.08-0.75) and local twitch response (kappa range, -0.05-0.57). No study to date has reported the reliability of trigger point diagnosis according to the currently proposed criteria. On the basis of the limited number of studies available, and significant problems with their design, reporting, statistical integrity, and clinical applicability, physical examination cannot currently be recommended as a reliable test for the diagnosis of trigger points. The reliability of trigger point diagnosis needs to be further investigated with studies of high quality that use current diagnostic criteria in clinically relevant patients.

  17. An experimental comparison of triggered and random pulse train uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzlova, Daniela; Menlove, Howard O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an experimental comparison of signal-triggered and randomly triggered based analysis algorithms of neutron multiplicity data. Traditional shift register type signal-triggered multiplicity analysis of singles, doubles and triples rates is compared with analysis using randomly triggered gates. Two methods of random gate generation are explored - non-overlapping gates (Feyrunan approach) and periodic overlapping gates (fast accidentals). Using californium sources with low, medium and high rate in combination with AmLi sources (as a surrogate for plutonium) we investigate relative standard deviation (RSD) of data in order to determine if there are parameter spaces in which one of the measurement methods should be preferred. Neutron correlation analysis is a commonly used NDA technique to assay plutonium mass. The data can be collected in two distinct ways: using signal-triggered or randomly triggered counting gates. Analysis algorithms were developed for both approaches to determine singles (S), doubles (D) and triples (7) rates from the measured sample. Currently the most commonly implemented technique to collect neutron coincidence data utilizes shift register based electronics. Shift register uses signal-triggered counting gates to generate foreground multiplicity distribution of correlated+accidental events and a random gate (opened after a predefined long delay following the signal trigger) to generate background multiplicity distribution of accidental events. Modern shift registers include fast accidental option to sample data with a fixed clock frequency. This way a set of overlapping gates is used to generate background multiplicity distributions in order to improve the measurement precision. In parallel to shift register approach the Feynman variance technique is frequently used, which utilizes set of consecutive non-overlapping gates. In general, different user communities (e.g. safeguards, nuclear material accountancy, emergency

  18. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The hardware of the trigger components has been mostly finished. The ECAL Endcap Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC) are in production while Barrel TCC firmware has been upgraded, and the Trigger Primitives can now be stored by the Data Concentrator Card for readout by the DAQ. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) system is complete, and the timing is being finalized. All 502 HCAL trigger links to RCT run without error. The HCAL muon trigger timing has been equalized with DT, RPC, CSC and ECAL. The hardware and firmware for the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) jet triggers are being commissioned and data from these triggers is available for readout. The GCT energy sums from rings of trigger towers around the beam pipe beam have been changed to include two rings from both sides. The firmware for Drift Tube Track Finder, Barrel Sorter and Wedge Sorter has been upgraded, and the synchronization of the DT trigger is satisfactory. The CSC local trigger has operated flawlessly u...

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF INTEGRATED NEUROMUSCULAR INHIBITORY TECHNIQUE (INIT WITH SPECIFIC STRENGTH TRAINING EXERCISES IN SUBJECTS WITH UPPER TRAPEZIUS TRIGGER POINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jyothirmai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper trapezius trigger points is a common cause for neck pain, decreased cervical range of motion and functional activities. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of integrated neuromuscular inhibitory technique (INIT along with specific strength training exercises in reducing pain, improving ROM and functional activities in subjects with upper trapezius trigger point. Methods: Thirty subjects were diagnosed with upper trapezius trigger points were included in the study. These patients were randomly allocated to intervention group (n=15, which underwent a 4- weeks training program of INIT along with specific strength training & control group (n=15 that received INIT alone. The outcome measures were taken before and after treatment. Outcomes were measured by visual analogue scale, cervical range of motion and neck disability index. Within the groups VAS, NDI, and cervical lateral flexion and rotation showed significant change in the mean value. The comparison of pre and post VAS in experimental group and control group showed a significant change in the experimental group .Paired sample t- test was used to analyze changes from before and after intervention programmed. Results: There is a statistically significant (p<0.00 improvement in both variables from baseline to 4th week in experimental group and control group but compared to control group, experimental group shows highly significant values in all parameters. Conclusion: INIT along with specific strength training is proved to be effective in reducing pain, decreasing disability and improving range of motion in individuals with upper trapezius trigger points.

  20. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger synchronization procedures for running with cosmic muons and operating with the LHC were reviewed during the May electronics week. Firmware maintenance issues were also reviewed. Link tests between the new ECAL endcap trigger concentrator cards (TCC48) and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger have been performed. Firmware for the energy sum triggers and an upgraded tau trigger of the Global Calorimeter Triggers has been developed and is under test. The optical fiber receiver boards for the Track-Finder trigger theta links of the DT chambers are now all installed. The RPC trigger is being made more robust by additional chamber and cable shielding and also by firmware upgrades. For the CSC’s the front-end and trigger motherboard firmware have been updated. New RPC patterns and DT/CSC lookup tables taking into account phi asymmetries in the magnetic field configuration are under study. The motherboard for the new pipeline synchronizer of the Global Trigg...

  1. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The production of the trigger hardware is now basically finished, and in time for the turn-on of the LHC. The last boards produced are the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcaps (TCC-EE). After the recent installation of the four EE Dees, the TCC-EE prototypes were used for their commissioning. Production boards are arriving and are being tested continuously, with the last ones expected in November. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger hardware is fully integrated after installation of the last EE cables. Pattern tests from the HCAL up to the GCT have been performed successfully. The HCAL triggers are fully operational, including the connection of the HCAL-outer and forward-HCAL (HO/HF) technical triggers to the Global Trigger. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) board firmware has been updated to permit recording of the tower “feature bit” in the data. The Global Calorimeter Trigger hardware is installed, but some firmware developments are still n...

  2. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The overall status of the L1 trigger has been excellent and the running efficiency has been high during physics fills. The timing is good to about 1%. The fine-tuning of the time synchronization of muon triggers is ongoing and will be completed after more than 10 nb-1 of data have been recorded. The CSC trigger primitive and RPC trigger timing have been refined. A new configuration for the CSC Track Finder featured modified beam halo cuts and improved ghost cancellation logic. More direct control was provided for the DT opto-receivers. New RPC Cosmic Trigger (RBC/TTU) trigger algorithms were enabled for collision runs. There is further work planned during the next technical stop to investigate a few of the links from the ECAL to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT). New firmware and a new configuration to handle trigger rate spikes in the ECAL barrel are also being tested. A board newly developed by the tracker group (ReTRI) has been installed and activated to block re...

  3. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The Level-1 Trigger hardware has performed well during both the recent proton-proton and heavy ion running. Efforts were made to improve the visibility and handling of alarms and warnings. The tracker ReTRI boards that prevent fixed frequencies of Level-1 Triggers are now configured through the Trigger Supervisor. The Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) team has introduced a buffer cleanup procedure at stops and a reset of the QPLL during configuring to ensure recalibration in case of a switch from the LHC clock to the local clock. A device to test the cables between the Regional Calorimeter Trigger and the GCT has been manufactured. A wrong charge bit was fixed in the CSC Trigger. The ECAL group is improving crystal masking and spike suppression in the trigger primitives. New firmware for the Drift Tube Track Finder (DTTF) sorters was developed to improve fake track tagging and sorting. Zero suppression was implemented in the DT Sector Collector readout. The track finder b...

  4. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Trigger Hardware The status of the trigger components was presented during the September CMS Week and Annual Review and at the monthly trigger meetings in October and November. Procedures for cold and warm starts (e.g. refreshing of trigger parameters stored in registers) of the trigger subsystems have been studied. Reviews of parts of the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) and the Global Trigger (GT) have taken place in October and November. The CERN group summarized the status of the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) system. All TTC crates and boards are installed in the underground counting room, USC55. The central clock system will be upgraded in December (after the Global Run at the end of November GREN) to the new RF2TTC LHC machine interface timing module. Migration of subsystem's TTC PCs to SLC4/ XDAQ 3.12 is being prepared. Work is on going to unify the access to Local Timing Control (LTC) and TTC CMS interface module (TTCci) via SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol, a lightweight XML-based messaging ...

  5. Treatment of Myofascial Trigger Points of Pelvic Floor with Physiotherapeutic Package: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Shokri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are various factors that may cause pain and dysfunction in the pelvic region. Myofascial trigger points can likewise contribute in pelvic pain. Common treatments for myofascial trigger points include electrotherapy, laser therapy, massage, ischemic compression, dry-needling, stretch, icing, heating, and biofeedback. Case Report: A 26 year old man with an exertion-related pain that lasted 5 months was referred for physiotherapy consultation. He had no pain at rest but reported a referral pain from perineal region to the anus and muscular stiffness following a bout of physical activity. On palpation there was a trigger point in the perineal region with referral pain to anus. At the beginning of the treatment, the patient was asked to stop his physical activities. The patient received a treatment package which was useful in the management of trigger points. After 7 sessions of treatment the pain was diminished and there was no exercise induced stiffness. The patient was followed for 10 months later and no pain and stiffness was reported. Conclusion: The application of heat, friction massage, stretching, combined with endurance exercise could be an effective treatment for reliving the pain and muscular stiffness caused by trigger points.

  6. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The final parts of the Level-1 trigger hardware are now being put in place. For the ECAL endcaps, more than half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are now available at CERN, such that one complete endcap can be covered. The Global Trigger now correctly handles ECAL calibration sequences, without being influenced by backpressure. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) hardware is complete and working in USC55. Intra-crate tests of all 18 RCT crates and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) are regularly taking place. Pattern tests have successfully captured data from HCAL through RCT to the GCT Source Cards. HB/HE trigger data are being compared with emulator results to track down the very few remaining hardware problems. The treatment of hot and dead cells, including their recording in the database, has been defined. For the GCT, excellent agreement between the emulator and data has been achieved for jets and HF ET sums. There is still som...

  7. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger system has been constantly in use in cosmic and commissioning data taking periods. During CRAFT running it delivered 300 million muon and calorimeter triggers to CMS. It has performed stably and reliably. During the abort gaps it has also provided laser and other calibration triggers. Timing issues, namely synchronization and latency issues, have been solved. About half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are installed, and the firmware is being worked on. The production of the other half has started. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) card firmware has been updated, and new features such as fast parallel zero-suppression have been included. Repairs of drift tube (DT) trigger mini-crates, optical links and receivers of sector collectors are under way and have been completed on YB0. New firmware for the optical receivers of the theta links to the drift tube track finder is being installed. In parallel, tests with new eta track finde...

  8. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Carlin with contributions from D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Data-taking continues at cruising speed, with high availability of all components of the Level-1 trigger. We have operated the trigger up to a luminosity of 7.6E33, where we approached 100 kHz using the 7E33 prescale column.  Recently, the pause without triggers in case of an automatic "RESYNC" signal (the "settle" and "recover" time) was reduced in order to minimise the overall dead-time. This may become very important when the LHC comes back with higher energy and luminosity after LS1. We are also preparing for data-taking in the proton-lead run in early 2013. The CASTOR detector will make its comeback into CMS and triggering capabilities are being prepared for this. Steps to be taken include improved cooperation with the TOTEM trigger system and using the LHC clock during the injection and ramp phases of LHC. Studies are being finalised that will have a bearing on the Trigger Technical Design Report (TDR), which is to be rea...

  9. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software New Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) for rapidity gap measurements have been installed and integrated into the Trigger recently. For the Global Muon Trigger, tuning of quality criteria has led to improvements in muon trigger efficiencies. Several subsystems have started campaigns to increase spares by recovering boards or producing new ones. The barrel muon sector collector test system has been reactivated, new η track finder boards are in production, and φ track finder boards are under revision. In the CSC track finder, an η asymmetry problem has been corrected. New pT look-up tables have also improved efficiency. RPC patterns were changed from four out of six coincident layers to three out of six in the barrel, which led to a significant increase in efficiency. A new PAC firmware to trigger on heavy stable charged particles allows looking for chamber hit coincidences in two consecutive bunch-crossings. The redesign of the L1 Trigger Emulator...

  10. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith, from contributions of D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

      The L1 Trigger group deployed several major improvements this year. Compared to 2011, the single-muon trigger rate has been reduced by a factor of 2 and the η coverage has been restored to 2.4, with high efficiency. During the current technical stop, a higher jet seed threshold will be applied in the Global Calorimeter Trigger in order to significantly reduce the strong pile-up dependence of the HT and multi-jet triggers. The currently deployed L1 menu, with the “6E33” prescales, has a total rate of less than 100 kHz and operates with detector readout dead time of less than 3% for luminosities up to 6.5 × 1033 cm–2s–1. Further prescale sets have been created for 7 and 8 × 1033 cm–2s–1 luminosities. The L1 DPG is evaluating the performance of the Trigger for upcoming conferences and publication. Progress on the Trigger upgrade was reviewed during the May Upgrade Week. We are investigating scenarios for stagin...

  11. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

      In 2013 the Trigger Studies Group (TSG) has been restructured in three sub-groups: STEAM, for the development of new HLT menus and monitoring their performance; STORM, for the development of HLT tools, code and actual configurations; and FOG, responsible for the online operations of the High Level Trigger. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger Menu development, path timing, trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Since the end of proton-proton data taking, the group has started preparing for 2015 data taking, with collisions at 13 TeV and 25 ns bunch spacing. The reliability of the extrapolation to higher energy is being evaluated comparing the trigger rates on 7 and 8 TeV Monte Carlo samples with the data taken in the past two years. The effect of 25 ns bunch spacing is being studied on the d...

  12. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software After the winter shutdown minor hardware problems in several subsystems appeared and were corrected. A reassessment of the overall latency has been made. In the TTC system shorter cables between TTCci and TTCex have been installed, which saved one bunch crossing, but which may have required an adjustment of the RPC timing. In order to tackle Pixel out-of-syncs without influencing other subsystems, a special hardware/firmware re-sync protocol has been introduced in the Global Trigger. The link between the Global Calorimeter Trigger and the Global Trigger with the new optical Global Trigger Interface and optical receiver daughterboards has been successfully tested in the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. New firmware in the GCT now allows a setting to remove the HF towers from energy sums. The HF sleeves have been replaced, which should lead to reduced rates of anomalous signals, which may allow their inclusion after this is validated. For ECAL, improvements i...

  13. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Overall the L1 trigger hardware has been running very smoothly during the last months of proton running. Modifications for the heavy-ion run have been made where necessary. The maximal design rate of 100 kHz can be sustained without problems. All L1 latencies have been rechecked. The recently installed Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) are being used in the heavy ion run. The ZDC scintillators have been dismantled, but the calorimeter itself remains. We now send the L1 accept signal and other control signals to TOTEM. Trigger cables from TOTEM to CMS will be installed during the Christmas shutdown, so that the TOTEM data can be fully integrated within the CMS readout. New beam gas triggers have been developed, since the BSC-based trigger is no longer usable at high luminosities. In particular, a special BPTX signal is used after a quiet period with no collisions. There is an ongoing campaign to provide enough spare modules for the different subsystems. For example...

  14. The Effects of Active Trigger Point of Upper Trapezius Muscle on Its Electromyography Activity and Maximal Isometric Contraction Force during Scapular Plane Elevation (Scaption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Trigger points may result in referral pain of their close areas. Recent evidence suggests that latent trigger points although they are not sensitive enough to cause pain, can interfere with the normal muscle function. These myofascial trigger points are estimated as an electro-physiological phenomenon. However, there are a few studies which investigated the effect of these points on the muscle activity. Muscle activity is a determinant factor in injuries which may cause or worsen shoulder-neck pain. The aim of the study was to evaluate upper trapezius muscle activity and delay time at the presence of active trigger point during scapular plane elevation (scaption. Materials & Methods: In a case-control comparative study in spring 2012, Seventeen women with active trigger points (mean age 26.76 y and 17 healthy women (mean age 26.18 y in bio-mechanic laboratory of University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation sciences (USWR participated in the study. Using surface EMG, the amplitude of muscle activity and the onset time of upper trapezius during scaption, were recorded and analyzed. Results: The maximum amplitude of the upper trapezius muscle activity (during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of 90°scaption in patients showed significant decrease in comparison with the healthy subjects (P=0.01.Also, the onset time of upper trapezius muscle activation time in the patient group was significantly delayed in comparison to the healthy group (P=0.04. Conclusion: At the presence of trigger points in Upper trapezius muscle, muscle activation pattern changes trigger points can change the amplitude and timing of muscle activity and may consequently lead to abnormal patterns of motion of the shoulder girdle. These findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of shoulder disorders.

  15. Contribution of the local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Nie, Hongling; Madeleine, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    The generalized hypersensitivity associated with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) may in part be driven by peripheral nociceptive sources. The aim of the study was to investigate whether local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) contributes to fibromyalgia pain. FMS patients...

  16. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware The CERN group is working on the TTC system. Seven out of nine sub-detector TTC VME crates with all fibers cabled are installed in USC55. 17 Local Trigger Controller (LTC) boards have been received from production and are in the process of being tested. The RF2TTC module replacing the TTCmi machine interface has been delivered and will replace the TTCci module used to mimic the LHC clock. 11 out of 12 crates housing the barrel ECAL off-detector electronics have been installed in USC55 after commissioning at the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. The cabling to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) is terminated. The Lisbon group has completed the Synchronization and Link mezzanine board (SLB) production. The Palaiseau group has fully tested and installed 33 out of 40 Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC). The seven remaining boards are being remade. The barrel TCC boards have been tested at the H4 test beam, and good agreement with emulator predictions were found. The cons...

  17. Neuro Emotional Technique for the treatment of trigger point sensitivity in chronic neck pain sufferers: A controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bablis, Peter; Pollard, Henry; Bonello, Rod

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Trigger points have been shown to be active in many myofascial pain syndromes. Treatment of trigger point pain and dysfunction may be explained through the mechanisms of central and peripheral paradigms. This study aimed to investigate whether the mind/body treatment of Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) could significantly relieve pain sensitivity of trigger points presenting in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers. Methods Sixty participants presenting to a private chiro...

  18. The predetermined sites of examination for tender points in fibromyalgia syndrome are frequently associated with myofascial trigger points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hongyou; Wang, Ying; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2010-01-01

    . PERSPECTIVE: This article underlies the importance of active MTrPs in FMS patients. Most of the TP sites in FMS are MTrPs. Active MTrPs may serve as a peripheral generator of fibromyalgia pain and inactivation of active MTrPs may thus be an alternative for the treatment of FMS.......The aim of this present study is to test the hypotheses that the 18 predetermined sites of examination for tender points (TP sites) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), and that the induced pain from active MTrPs at TP sites may mimic fibromyalgia pain. Each TP site......), but not latent MTrPs (r = -.001, P = .99), was positively correlated with spontaneous pain intensity in FMS. The current study provides first evidence that pain from active MTrPs at TP sites mimics fibromyalgia pain. MTrPs may relate to generalized increased sensitivity in FMS due to central sensitization...

  19. Mechanical pain sensitivity of deep tissues in children - possible development of myofascial trigger points in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ting-I

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is still unclear when latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs develop during early life. This study is designed to investigate the mechanical pain sensitivity of deep tissues in children in order to see the possible timing of the development of latent MTrPs and attachment trigger points (A-TrPs in school children. Methods Five hundreds and five healthy school children (age 4- 11 years were investigated. A pressure algometer was used to measure the pressure pain threshold (PPT at three different sites in the brachioradialis muscle: the lateral epicondyle at elbow (site A, assumed to be the A-TrP site, the mid-point of the muscle belly (site B, assumed to be the MTrP site, and the muscle-tendon junction as a control site (site C. Results The results showed that, for all children in this study, the mean PPT values was significantly lower (p p Conclusions It is concluded that a child had increased sensitivity at the tendon attachment site and the muscle belly (endplate zone after age of 4 years. Therefore, it is likely that a child may develop an A-Trp and a latent MTrP at the brachioradialis muscle after the age of 4 years. The changes in sensitivity, or the development for these trigger points, may not be related to the activity level of children aged 7-11 years. Further investigation is still required to indentify the exact timing of the initial occurrence of a-Trps and latent MTrPs.

  20. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in female patients with chronic tension-type headache - A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, S.; Wiik, E.; Lund, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of myofascial trigger point massage in the muscles of the head, neck and shoulders regarding pain in the treatment of females with chronic tension-type headache. They were randomized into either a treatment group (n = 20) (one session of trigger......: 8.8 (95% CI 0.1117.4), p = 0.047). Furthermore, a significant decrease in the number of trigger points was observed in the treatment group compared with the control group. Myofascial trigger point massage has a beneficial effect on pain in female patients with chronic tension-type headache....... point massage per week for 10 weeks) or a control group receiving no treatment (n = 19). The patients kept a diary to record their pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS), and the daily intake of drugs (mg) during the 4 weeks before and after the treatment period. The McGill Pain Questionnaire...

  1. Anatomical Basis of the Myofascial Trigger Points of the Gluteus Maximus Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Emi Akamatsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by pain and limited range of motion in joints and caused by muscular contracture related to dysfunctional motor end plates and myofascial trigger points (MTrPs. We aimed to observe the anatomical correlation between the clinically described MTrPs and the entry point of the branches of the inferior gluteal nerve into the gluteus maximus muscle. We dissected twenty gluteus maximus muscles from 10 human adult cadavers (5 males and 5 females. We measured the muscles and compiled the distribution of the nerve branches into each of the quadrants of the muscle. Statistical analysis was performed by using Student’s t-test and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Although no difference was observed either for muscle measurements or for distribution of nerve branching among the subjects, the topography of MTrPs matched the anatomical location of the entry points into the muscle. Thus, anatomical substract of the MTrPs may be useful for a better understanding of the physiopathology of these disorders and provide basis for their surgical and clinical treatment.

  2. Pelvic floor myofascial trigger points: manual therapy for interstitial cystitis and the urgency-frequency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J M

    2001-12-01

    The effectiveness of manual physical therapy was evaluated in patients with interstitial cystitis and the urethral syndrome, that is urgency-frequency with or without pelvic pain. The rationale was based on the hypothesis that pelvic floor myofascial trigger points are not only a source of pain and voiding symptoms, but also a trigger for neurogenic bladder inflammation via antidromic reflexes. From September 1995 to November 2000, 45 women and 7 men, including 10 with interstitial cystitis and 42 with the urgency-frequency syndrome, underwent manual physical therapy to the pelvic floor for 1 to 2 visits weekly for 8 to 12 weeks. Results were determined by patient completed symptom score sheets indicating the rate of improvement according to outcome parameters, including 25% to 50%-mild, 51% to 75%-moderate, 76% to 99%-marked and 100%-complete resolution. In 10 cases these subjective results were confirmed by measuring resting pelvic floor tension by electromyography before and after the treatment course. Of the 42 patients with the urgency-frequency syndrome with or without pain 35 (83%) had moderate to marked improvement or complete resolution, while 7 of the 10 (70%) with interstitial cystitis had moderate to marked improvement. The mean duration of symptoms before treatment in those with interstitial cystitis and the urgency-frequency syndrome was 14 (median 12) and 6 years (median 2.5), respectively. In patients with no symptoms or brief, low intensity flares mean followup was 1.5 years. In 10 patients who underwent electromyography mean resting pelvic floor tension decreased from 9.73 to 3.61 microV., which was a 65% improvement. Pelvic floor manual therapy for decreasing pelvic floor hypertonus effectively ameliorates the symptoms of the urgency/frequency syndrome and interstitial cystitis.

  3. Simulating Ice Shelf Response to Potential Triggers of Collapse Using the Material Point Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, A.; Smith, B. E.

    2017-12-01

    Weakening or collapse of an ice shelf can reduce the buttressing effect of the shelf on its upstream tributaries, resulting in sea level rise as the flux of grounded ice into the ocean increases. Here we aim to improve sea level rise projections by developing a prognostic 2D plan-view model that simulates the response of an ice sheet/ice shelf system to potential triggers of ice shelf weakening or collapse, such as calving events, thinning, and meltwater ponding. We present initial results for Larsen C. Changes in local ice shelf stresses can affect flow throughout the entire domain, so we place emphasis on calibrating our model to high-resolution data and precisely evolving fracture-weakening and ice geometry throughout the simulations. We primarily derive our initial ice geometry from CryoSat-2 data, and initialize the model by conducting a dual inversion for the ice viscosity parameter and basal friction coefficient that minimizes mismatch between modeled velocities and velocities derived from Landsat data. During simulations, we implement damage mechanics to represent fracture-weakening, and track ice thickness evolution, grounding line position, and ice front position. Since these processes are poorly represented by the Finite Element Method (FEM) due to mesh resolution issues and numerical diffusion, we instead implement the Material Point Method (MPM) for our simulations. In MPM, the ice domain is discretized into a finite set of Lagrangian material points that carry all variables and are tracked throughout the simulation. Each time step, information from the material points is projected to a Eulerian grid where the momentum balance equation (shallow shelf approximation) is solved similarly to FEM, but essentially treating the material points as integration points. The grid solution is then used to determine the new positions of the material points and update variables such as thickness and damage in a diffusion-free Lagrangian frame. The grid does not store

  4. Kinesio taping and manual pressure release: Short-term effects in subjects with myofasical trigger point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu Wen; Lin, Jiu Jenq; Yang, Jing Lan; Wang, Wendy Tzyy-Jiuan

    2016-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial. Myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) and fascia tenderness. We investigated the effects of manual pressure release (MPR) alone or in combination with taping (MPR/MKT) in subjects with MTrPs. Fifteen and 16 subjects received MPR and MPR/MKT respectively. Outcomes including Pressure pain threshold, muscle stiffness, mechanomyography were assessed at baseline, post-intervention and 7-days later. Pressure pain threshold improved significantly (d = 1.79, p < 0.005) in both groups. Significant improvement in muscle stiffness in the MPR/MKT group (0.27-0.49 mm) as compared to the MPR group (-0.02-0.23 mm). Mechanomyography amplitude in the MPR/MKT group was significantly higher than that of the MPR group (p < 0.05). MPR and MPR/MKT are effective in reducing pain in these subjects. MPR/MKT has a greater effect on muscle stiffness and contraction amplitude. IV. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. EFFECTIVENESS OF ISCHEMIC COMPRESSION ON TRAPEZIUS MYOFASCIAL TRIGGER POINTS IN NECK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragnya Ravichandran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neck pain is a common disorder prevailing among individuals of different populations. The myofascial pain syndrome is a disorder related to myofascial trigger points. It is defined as a hyperirritable locus in skeletal muscle and that is associated with a hypersensitive palpable nodule in a taut band of muscle. Manual therapy has got a profound role in treating and ischemic compression technique has been researched widely. Thus the study intends to analyse the effectiveness of Manual Therapy (Ischemic Compression on functional outcome in neck pain. Methods: A single blinded randomized control study was conducted for subjects of sample size 30 who met the inclusion criteria and random allocation was made. The baseline parameters as like pain severity using VAS, pain pressure threshold using pressure Algometer, active cervical lateral flexion using 360 degree goniometer and disability using NDI were recorded. Study group received ischemic compression followed by myofascial stretches while the control group received ultrasonic therapy of 1.4watts/cm2. Both received Cryotherapy post session. After 2 weeks the baseline parameters were again recorded for t-test analysis. Result: There was no statistical significance between groups (p≥0.05. But active cervical lateral flexion showed improved mobility in study group and a high statistical significance within groups (p≤0.01 in relation to all parameters. Conclusion: Both ultrasonic therapy and Ischemic compression technique was found to show better improvement in pain pressure threshold and functional outcome in neck pain.

  6. The Ultrasonographic Findings of Trigger Points of Myofascial Pain Syndrome in a Rabbit Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Kyung Mi; Park, Seog Hee; Lee, Sang Heon; Kim, Joo Hyun; Kim, Han Kyum

    2005-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common cause of musculoskeletal pain. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) have been repeatedly described by numerous authors. However, there have been few studies in which their existence and behavior was supported and their location confirmed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether diagnostic ultrasonography is an objective diagnostic tool which is able to significantly identify or detect the soft tissue changes in the region of clinically identified active MTrPs by using a rabbit experimental model. Ten MPS model rabbits were used in this study. We made an MPS animal model by causing the rabbits to overuse one leg for 3 weeks by cutting the contralateral L4 spinal nerve root. We compared the ultrasonographic findings of the taut band at pre-OP with those at post-OP during the consecutive three week period. To find the taut bands of the muscle, after skin exposure, the muscles were gently rubbed or pinched with the thumb and index finger on the two opposing surfaces of the muscle across the direction of the fibers. Then, the muscle was held in the same way, but with a 5-8 MHz stick probe being used in place of the thumb. After the palpation of various muscles, we selected the hardest and largest myofascial trigger nodule, in order to observe the ultrasonographic and power Doppler findings of the MPS. The size, shape, echogenecity and vascularity of the MTrPs were observed. The analysis of the results of the ultrasonography revealed that all MTrPs have a hyperechoic area. The mean thickness of the hyperechoic lesion in the biceps was 0.96±0.14 cm in the MPS site (at pre-OP?), and 0.49±0.12 cm at post-OP 3weeks (p < 0.01). The hyperechoic lesions in all of the studied biceps femoris of the rabbits were observed by high resolution ultrasonography. No definitively decreased vascularity was observed within the hyperechoic area by power Doppler imaging. Until now, there has been no objective method for the diagnosis of MPS

  7. Comparison of sparse point distribution models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen; Vester-Christensen, Martin; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares several methods for obtaining sparse and compact point distribution models suited for data sets containing many variables. These are evaluated on a database consisting of 3D surfaces of a section of the pelvic bone obtained from CT scans of 33 porcine carcasses. The superior m...

  8. Neuro Emotional Technique for the treatment of trigger point sensitivity in chronic neck pain sufferers: A controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Henry

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trigger points have been shown to be active in many myofascial pain syndromes. Treatment of trigger point pain and dysfunction may be explained through the mechanisms of central and peripheral paradigms. This study aimed to investigate whether the mind/body treatment of Neuro Emotional Technique (NET could significantly relieve pain sensitivity of trigger points presenting in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers. Methods Sixty participants presenting to a private chiropractic clinic with chronic cervical pain as their primary complaint were sequentially allocated into treatment and control groups. Participants in the treatment group received a short course of Neuro Emotional Technique that consists of muscle testing, general semantics and Traditional Chinese Medicine. The control group received a sham NET protocol. Outcome measurements included pain assessment utilizing a visual analog scale and a pressure gauge algometer. Pain sensitivity was measured at four trigger point locations: suboccipital region (S; levator scapulae region (LS; sternocleidomastoid region (SCM and temporomandibular region (TMJ. For each outcome measurement and each trigger point, we calculated the change in measurement between pre- and post- treatment. We then examined the relationships between these measurement changes and six independent variables (i.e. treatment group and the above five additional participant variables using forward stepwise General Linear Model. Results The visual analog scale (0 to 10 had an improvement of 7.6 at S, 7.2 at LS, 7.5 at SCM and 7.1 at the TMJ in the treatment group compared with no improvement of at S, and an improvement of 0.04 at LS, 0.1 at SCM and 0.1 at the TMJ point in the control group, (P Conclusion After a short course of NET treatment, measurements of visual analog scale and pressure algometer recordings of four trigger point locations in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers were significantly

  9. Neuro Emotional Technique for the treatment of trigger point sensitivity in chronic neck pain sufferers: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bablis, Peter; Pollard, Henry; Bonello, Rod

    2008-05-21

    Trigger points have been shown to be active in many myofascial pain syndromes. Treatment of trigger point pain and dysfunction may be explained through the mechanisms of central and peripheral paradigms. This study aimed to investigate whether the mind/body treatment of Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) could significantly relieve pain sensitivity of trigger points presenting in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers. Sixty participants presenting to a private chiropractic clinic with chronic cervical pain as their primary complaint were sequentially allocated into treatment and control groups. Participants in the treatment group received a short course of Neuro Emotional Technique that consists of muscle testing, general semantics and Traditional Chinese Medicine. The control group received a sham NET protocol. Outcome measurements included pain assessment utilizing a visual analog scale and a pressure gauge algometer. Pain sensitivity was measured at four trigger point locations: suboccipital region (S); levator scapulae region (LS); sternocleidomastoid region (SCM) and temporomandibular region (TMJ). For each outcome measurement and each trigger point, we calculated the change in measurement between pre- and post- treatment. We then examined the relationships between these measurement changes and six independent variables (i.e. treatment group and the above five additional participant variables) using forward stepwise General Linear Model. The visual analog scale (0 to 10) had an improvement of 7.6 at S, 7.2 at LS, 7.5 at SCM and 7.1 at the TMJ in the treatment group compared with no improvement of at S, and an improvement of 0.04 at LS, 0.1 at SCM and 0.1 at the TMJ point in the control group, (P algometer recordings of four trigger point locations in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers were significantly improved when compared to a control group which received a sham protocol of NET. Chronic neck pain sufferers may benefit from NET treatment in the relief

  10. Reproduction of overall spontaneous pain pattern by manual stimulation of active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Ying; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2011-01-01

    It has previously been reported that local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the neck and shoulder region contribute to fibromyalgia (FM) pain and that the pain pattern induced from active MTPs can reproduce parts of the spontaneous clinical FM pain pattern. The cu...

  11. Predictors of upper trapezius pain with myofascial trigger points in food service workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ui-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Ha, Sung-Min

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Shoulder pain occurs commonly in food service workers (FSWs) who repetitively perform motions of the upper limbs. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) on the upper trapezius (UT) are among the most common musculoskeletal shoulder pain syndromes. This study determined the psychological, posture, mobility, and strength factors associated with pain severity in FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs. In this cross-sectional study, we measured 17 variables in 163 FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs: a visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, age, sex, Borg rating of perceived exertion (BRPE) scale, beck depression inventory, forward head posture angle, rounded shoulder angle (RSA), shoulder slope angle, scapular downward rotation ratio, cervical lateral-bending side difference angle, cervical rotation side difference angle, glenohumeral internal rotation angle, shoulder horizontal adduction angle, serratus anterior (SA) strength, lower trapezius (LT) strength, bicep strength, and glenohumeral external rotator strength, in 163 FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs. The model for factors influencing UT pain with MTrPs included SA strength, age, BRPE, LT strength, and RSA as predictor variables that accounted for 68.7% of the variance in VAS (P < .001) in multiple regression models with a stepwise selection procedure. The following were independent variables influencing the VAS in the order of standardized coefficients: SA strength (β = −0.380), age (β = 0.287), BRPE (β = 0.239), LT strength (β = −0.195), and RSA (β = 0.125). SA strength, age, BRPE, LT strength, and RSA variables should be considered when evaluating and intervening in UT pain with MTrPs in FSWs. PMID:28658117

  12. Predictors of upper trapezius pain with myofascial trigger points in food service workers: The STROBE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ui-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Ha, Sung-Min

    2017-06-01

    Shoulder pain occurs commonly in food service workers (FSWs) who repetitively perform motions of the upper limbs. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) on the upper trapezius (UT) are among the most common musculoskeletal shoulder pain syndromes. This study determined the psychological, posture, mobility, and strength factors associated with pain severity in FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs.In this cross-sectional study, we measured 17 variables in 163 FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs: a visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, age, sex, Borg rating of perceived exertion (BRPE) scale, beck depression inventory, forward head posture angle, rounded shoulder angle (RSA), shoulder slope angle, scapular downward rotation ratio, cervical lateral-bending side difference angle, cervical rotation side difference angle, glenohumeral internal rotation angle, shoulder horizontal adduction angle, serratus anterior (SA) strength, lower trapezius (LT) strength, bicep strength, and glenohumeral external rotator strength, in 163 FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs.The model for factors influencing UT pain with MTrPs included SA strength, age, BRPE, LT strength, and RSA as predictor variables that accounted for 68.7% of the variance in VAS (P < .001) in multiple regression models with a stepwise selection procedure. The following were independent variables influencing the VAS in the order of standardized coefficients: SA strength (β = -0.380), age (β = 0.287), BRPE (β = 0.239), LT strength (β = -0.195), and RSA (β = 0.125).SA strength, age, BRPE, LT strength, and RSA variables should be considered when evaluating and intervening in UT pain with MTrPs in FSWs.

  13. Inter- and Intraexaminer Reliability in Identifying and Classifying Myofascial Trigger Points in Shoulder Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, José Diego Sales do; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Vigolvino, Lorena Passos; Oliveira, Wandemberg Fortunato de; Sousa, Catarina de Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    To determine inter- and intraexaminer reliability of examiners without clinical experience in identifying and classifying myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the shoulder muscles of subjects asymptomatic and symptomatic for unilateral subacromial impact syndrome (SIS). Within-day inter- and intraexaminer reliability study. Physical therapy department of a university. Fifty-two subjects participated in the study, 26 symptomatic and 26 asymptomatic for unilateral SIS. Two examiners, without experience for assessing MTPs, independent and blind to the clinical conditions of the subjects, assessed bilaterally the presence of MTPs (present or absent) in 6 shoulder muscles and classified them (latent or active) on the affected side of the symptomatic group. Each examiner performed the same assessment twice in the same day. Reliability was calculated through percentage agreement, prevalence- and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) statistics, and weighted kappa. Intraexaminer reliability in identifying MTPs for the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups was moderate to perfect (PABAK, .46-1 and .60-1, respectively). Interexaminer reliability was between moderate and almost perfect in the 2 groups (PABAK, .46-.92), except for the muscles of the symptomatic group, which were below these values. With respect to MTP classification, intraexaminer reliability was moderate to high for most muscles, but interexaminer reliability was moderate for only 1 muscle (weighted κ=.45), and between weak and reasonable for the rest (weighted κ=.06-.31). Intraexaminer reliability is acceptable in clinical practice to identify and classify MTPs. However, interexaminer reliability proved to be reliable only to identify MTPs, with the symptomatic side exhibiting lower values of reliability. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anaesthetic injection versus ischemic compression for the pain relief of abdominal wall trigger points in women with chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Mary L L S; Braz, Carolina A; Rosa-e-Silva, Julio C; Candido-dos-Reis, Francisco J; Nogueira, Antonio A; Poli-Neto, Omero B

    2015-12-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is a common condition among women, and 10 to 30 % of causes originate from the abdominal wall, and are associated with trigger points. Although little is known about their pathophysiology, variable methods have been practiced clinically. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of local anaesthetic injections versus ischemic compression via physical therapy for pain relief of abdominal wall trigger points in women with chronic pelvic pain. We conducted a parallel group randomized trial including 30 women with chronic pelvic pain with abdominal wall trigger points. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups. One group received an injection of 2 mL 0.5 % lidocaine without a vasoconstrictor into a trigger point. In the other group, ischemic compression via physical therapy was administered at the trigger points three times, with each session lasting for 60 s, and a rest period of 30 s between applications. Both treatments were administered during one weekly session for four weeks. Our primary outcomes were satisfactory clinical response rates and percentages of pain relief. Our secondary outcomes are pain threshold and tolerance at the trigger points. All subjects were evaluated at baseline and 1, 4, and 12 weeks after the interventions. The study was conducted at a tertiary hospital that was associated with a university providing assistance predominantly to working class women who were treated by the public health system. Clinical response rates and pain relief were significantly better at 1, 4, and 12 weeks for those receiving local anaesthetic injections than ischemic compression via physical therapy. The pain relief of women treated with local anaesthetic injections progressively improved at 1, 4, and 12 weeks after intervention. In contrast, women treated with ischemic compression did not show considerable changes in pain relief after intervention. In the local anaesthetic injection group, pain threshold

  15. The Effect of Dry Needling Compared With Ischemic Pressure on Pain Intensity on Active Trigger Point in Upper Trapezius Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ziaeifar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Myofascial trigger point is one of the most common causes of musculoskeletal pain and disorders. Myofascial trigger point in upper trapezius has been reported as a frequent symptom in patients with neck and thoracic pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dry needling compared with ischemic pressure on active trigger point in upper trapezius muscle. Materials & Methods: 32 women with active myofascial trigger point in upper trapezius muscle participated in this randomized clinical trial (RCT study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: dry needling (N=15 and ischemic pressure (N=17. The visual analogue scale (VAS was used to assess the pain intensity before and after treatment in both groups. Paired t-test was used to determine any significant difference in pain intensity after treatment sessions compared with pre-treatment score in control and experimental group. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA was calculated to determine the significance of differences between the control and experimental groups in post-test scores, with pre-treatment scores used as covariates in the analysis. Results: Statistical analysis (paired t-test revealed significant decrease in pain intensity after treatment sessions in control and experimental group (P=0.00 compared with pre-treatment score. In the ANCOVA, controlling for pre-test scores, no significant difference was found between the two groups (P=0.8. Conclusion: It seems that that both dry needling and ischemic pressure are effective in improvement in the pain intensity in subjects with myofascial trigger points. However, dry needling can be used by clinicians and therapist in physiotherapy clinics.

  16. Chronic pain in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hypermobility type): The role of myofascial trigger point injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Saipriya; Madabushi, Rajashree; Agarwal, Anil; Gautam, Sujeet K; Khuba, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain is a cardinal symptom in hypermobility type of Ehler Danlos Syndrome (EDS type III). The management of pain in EDS, however, has not been studied in depth. A 30 year old female, known case of EDS, presented to the pain clinic with complaints of severe upper back pain for 6 months. Physical examination of the back revealed two myofascial trigger points over the left rhomboids and the left erector spinae. Local anaesthetic trigger point injections were given at these points, followed by stretching exercises under analgesic cover for the first week. After 1 week the patient reported 60-80% pain relief. This case highlights that we must keep a high index of suspicion for the more treatable causes of pain like myofascial pain syndrome in patients suffering from EDS, and should address it promptly and appropriately in order to maximise patient comfort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Test-retest reliability of myofascial trigger point detection in hip and thigh areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfeld, E; Finestone, A S; Moran, U; Damri, E; Kalichman, L

    2017-10-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrP's) are a primary source of pain in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Nevertheless, they are frequently underdiagnosed. Reliable MTrP palpation is the necessary for their diagnosis and treatment. The few studies that have looked for intra-tester reliability of MTrPs detection in upper body, provide preliminary evidence that MTrP palpation is reliable. Reliability tests for MTrP palpation on the lower limb have not yet been performed. To evaluate inter- and intra-tester reliability of MTrP recognition in hip and thigh muscles. Reliability study. 21 patients (15 males and 6 females, mean age 21.1 years) referred to the physical therapy clinic, 10 with knee or hip pain and 11 with pain in an upper limb, low back, shin or ankle. Two experienced physical therapists performed the examinations, blinded to the subjects' identity, medical condition and results of the previous MTrP evaluation. Each subject was evaluated four times, twice by each examiner in a random order. Dichotomous findings included a palpable taut band, tenderness, referred pain, and relevance of referred pain to patient's complaint. Based on these, diagnosis of latent MTrP's or active MTrP's was established. The evaluation was performed on both legs and included a total of 16 locations in the following muscles: rectus femoris (proximal), vastus medialis (middle and distal), vastus lateralis (middle and distal) and gluteus medius (anterior, posterior and distal). Inter- and intra-tester reliability (Cohen's kappa (κ)) values for single sites ranged from -0.25 to 0.77. Median intra-tester reliability was 0.45 and 0.46 for latent and active MTrP's, and median inter-tester reliability was 0.51 and 0.64 for latent and active MTrPs, respectively. The examination of the distal vastus medialis was most reliable for latent and active MTrP's (intra-tester k = 0.27-0.77, inter-tester k = 0.77 and intra-tester k = 0.53-0.72, inter-tester k = 0.72, correspondingly

  18. Chronic whiplash and central sensitization; an evaluation of the role of a myofascial trigger points in pain modulation

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    Freeman Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective it has been established that chronic neck pain following whiplash is associated with the phenomenon of central sensitization, in which injured and uninjured parts of the body exhibit lowered pain thresholds due to an alteration in central pain processing. it has furthermore been hypothesized that peripheral sources of nociception in the muscles may perpetuate central sensitization in chronic whiplash. the hypothesis explored in the present study was whether myofascial trigger points serve as a modulator of central sensitization in subjects with chronic neck pain. Design controlled case series. Setting outpatient chronic pain clinic. Subjects seventeen patients with chronic and intractable neck pain and 10 healthy controls without complaints of neck pain. Intervention symptomatic subjects received anesthetic infiltration of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscles and controls received the anesthetic in the thigh. Outcome measures: pre and post injection cervical range of motion, pressure pain thresholds (ppt over the infraspinatus, wrist extensor, and tibialis anterior muscles. sensitivity to light (photophobia and subjects' perception of pain using a visual analog scale (vas were also evaluated before and after injections. only the ppt was evaluated in the asymptomatic controls. Results immediate (within 1 minute alterations in cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds were observed following an average of 3.8 injections with 1–2 cc of 1% lidocaine into carefully identified trigger points. cervical range of motion increased by an average of 49% (p = 0.000 in flexion and 44% (p = 0.001 in extension, 47% (p = 0.000 and 28% (p Conclusion the present data suggest that myofascial trigger points serve to perpetuate lowered pain thresholds in uninjured tissues. additionally, it appears that lowered pain thresholds associated with central sensitization can be immediately reversed, even when associated

  19. Reproduction of overall spontaneous pain pattern by manual stimulation of active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Ying; Fernandez-de-las-Penas, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    It has previously been reported that local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the neck and shoulder region contribute to fibromyalgia (FM) pain and that the pain pattern induced from active MTPs can reproduce parts of the spontaneous clinical FM pain pattern....... The current study investigated whether the overall spontaneous FM pain pattern can be reproduced by local and referred pain from active MTPs located in different muscles....

  20. Myofascial trigger points, neck mobility, and forward head posture in episodic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, Maria L; Pareja, Juan A

    2007-05-01

    To assess the differences in the presence of trigger points (TrPs) in head and neck muscles, forward head posture (FHP) and neck mobility between episodic tension-type headache (ETTH) subjects and healthy controls. In addition, we assess the relationship between these muscle TrPs, FHP, neck mobility, and several clinical variables concerning the intensity and the temporal profile of headache. TTH is a headache in which musculoskeletal disorders of the craniocervical region might play an important role in its pathogenesis. Design.-A blinded, controlled pilot study. Fifteen ETTH subjects and 15 matched controls without headache were studied. TrPs in both upper trapezius, both sternocleidomastoids, and both temporalis muscles were identified according to Simons and Gerwin diagnostic criteria (tenderness in a hypersensible spot within a palpable taut band, local twitch response elicited by snapping palpation, and elicited referred pain with palpation). Side-view pictures of each subject were taken in both sitting and standing positions, in order to assess FHP by measuring the craniovertebral angle. A cervical goniometer was employed to measure neck mobility. All measures were taken by a blinded assessor. A headache diary was kept for 4 weeks in order to assess headache intensity, frequency, and duration. The mean number of TrPs for each ETTH subject was 3.7 (SD: 1.3), of which 1.9 (SD: 0.9) were active, and 1.8 (SD: 0.9) were latent. Control subjects only had latent TrPs (mean: 1.5; SD: 1). TrP occurrence between the 2 groups was significantly different for active TrPs (P .05). Differences in the distribution of TrPs were significant for the right upper trapezius muscles (P= .04), the left sternocleidomastoid (P= .03), and both temporalis muscles (P < .001). Within the ETTH group, headache intensity, frequency, and duration outcomes did not differ depending on TrP activity, whether the TrP was active or latent. The craniovertebral angle was smaller, ie, there was a

  1. Influence of the trigger technique on ventricular function measurements using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging: comparison of ECG versus pulse wave triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievers, Burkhard; Wiesner, Marco; Kiria, Nino; Speiser, Uwe; Schoen, Steffen; Strasser, Ruth H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Three Tesla cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (3T-CMR) is increasingly used in clinical practice. Despite many advantages one drawback is that ECG signal disturbances and artifacts increase with higher magnetic field strength resulting in trigger problems and false gating. This particularly affects cardiac imaging because most pulse sequences require ECG triggering. Pulse wave (PW) triggering is robust and might have advantages over ECG triggering. Purpose To evaluate differences in left ventricular (LV) function as an integral part of most CMR studies between ECG- and PW-triggered short-axis imaging using 3T-CMR. Material and Methods Forty-three patients underwent multiple short-axis cine imaging for LV-function assessment with ECG and PW triggering using standard multi breath hold steady-state free precession. LV-volumes (EDV, ESV), ejection fraction (EF), and mass were determined by slice summation. LV-wall motion was assessed by using a 4-point scoring scale. Bland Altman statistics for inter-observer variability were performed. Results ECG triggering failed in 15 patients (34.8%). Thus, analysis was performed in 28 patients (13 with impaired LV function). Difference in volumes (EDV 0.13 ± 1.8 mL, ESV 0.59 ± 1.1 mL), EF (-0.32 ± 0.6%) and mass (0.01 ± 1.1 g) between ECG and PW triggering were very small and significant only for ESV and EF (p 0.011). In patients with impaired LV function (n = 19) differences were not significant (p = 0.128). Wall motion scores did not differ between ECG and PW triggering (p = 0.295). Inter-observer variability for function measurements was low. Conclusion Short-axis cine imaging for LV-function assessment can accurately be performed using PW triggering on 3T magnets, and may be used in clinical practice when ECG triggering is disturbed

  2. The Effect of Dry Needling of the Trigger Points of Shoulder Muscles on Pain and Grip Strength in Patients with Lateral Epicondylitis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Kheradmandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is the most common overuse syndrome of the elbow. The severity of pain may not be directly caused by tendinopathy of wrist extensors since trigger points of the shoulder muscles have a referral zone in the arm and elbow. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dry needling of shoulder myofascial trigger points on wrist extensors muscles pain and function. Methods: Fourteen female patients with tennis elbow (aged 20 - 45 years old were recruited after primary evaluation by an orthopedist. They entered the study if they had pain in the lateral aspect of elbow of the dominant hand for more than 3 months along with the presence of myofascial trigger points in any muscles of supra spinatus, infra spinatus, sub scapularis or scalenes. Pain pressure threshold, maximal grip force and pain intensity of the hand extensors on lateral epicondyle of elbow were measured before and after treatment. Pain intensity was measured on a one to ten scale of visual analogue scale (VAS. A hand dynamometer used to measure the maximal grip force value of the affected hand in 0˚shoulder flexion/ abduction, 90˚ elbow extension and mid-poison of forearm in sitting position. A pressure algometer was applied on hand extensor muscles to define their trigger point sensitivity. For the control group, treatment regimens consisted of routine physical therapy of tennis elbow. This regime was accompanied by dry needling of mentioned muscles for the intervention group. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Comparison of the results after intervention showed that the patients’ pain significantly decreased in both groups (P<0.001; but the patient’s PPT and grip force significantly increased solely in the intervention group (P<0.05. Mann Whitney test showed significant pain differences in both groups (P=0.001. The comparison of differences

  3. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome: reduction of medication use after pelvic floor physical therapy with an internal myofascial trigger point wand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rodney U; Harvey, Richard H; Wise, David; Nevin Smith, J; Nathanson, Brian H; Sawyer, Tim

    2015-03-01

    This study documents the voluntary reduction in medication use in patients with refractory chronic pelvic pain syndrome utilizing a protocol of pelvic floor myofascial trigger point release with an FDA approved internal trigger point wand and paradoxical relaxation therapy. Self-referred patients were enrolled in a 6-day training clinic from October, 2008 to May, 2011 and followed the protocol for 6 months. Medication usage and symptom scores on a 1-10 scale (10 = most severe) were collected at baseline, and 1 and 6 months. All changes in medication use were at the patient's discretion. Changes in medication use were assessed by McNemar's test in both complete case and modified intention to treat (mITT) analyses. 374 out of 396 patients met inclusion criteria; 79.7 % were male, median age of 43 years and median symptom duration of 5 years. In the complete case analysis, the percent of patients using medications at baseline was 63.6 %. After 6 months of treatment the percentage was 40.1 %, a 36.9 % reduction (p < 0.001). In the mITT analysis, there was a 22.7 % overall reduction from baseline (p < 0.001). Medication cessation at 6 months was significantly associated with a reduction in total symptoms (p = 0.03).

  4. A new comparison method for dew-point generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Martti

    1999-12-01

    A new method for comparing dew-point generators was developed at the Centre for Metrology and Accreditation. In this method, the generators participating in a comparison are compared with a transportable saturator unit using a dew-point comparator. The method was tested by constructing a test apparatus and by comparing it with the MIKES primary dew-point generator several times in the dew-point temperature range from -40 to +75 °C. The expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of the apparatus was estimated to be between 0.05 and 0.07 °C and the difference between the comparator system and the generator is well within these limits. In particular, all of the results obtained in the range below 0 °C are within ±0.03 °C. It is concluded that a new type of a transfer standard with characteristics most suitable for dew-point comparisons can be developed on the basis of the principles presented in this paper.

  5. Children with migraine: Provocation of headache via pressure to myofascial trigger points in the trapezius muscle? - A prospective controlled observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, M N; Biebl, J T; Langhagen, T; Hannibal, I; Eggert, T; Vill, K; Gerstl, L; Albers, L; von Kries, R; Straube, A; Heinen, F

    2018-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate a supposed clinical interdependency of myofascial trigger points and migraine in children. Such interdependency would support an interaction of spinal and trigeminal afferences in the trigemino-cervical complex as a contributing factor in migraine. Children ≤18 years with the confirmed diagnosis of migraine were prospectively investigated. Comprehensive data on medical history, clinical neurological and psychological status were gathered. Trigger points in the trapezius muscle were identified by palpation and the threshold of pressure pain at these points was measured. Manual pressure was applied to the trigger points, and the occurrence and duration of induced headache were recorded. At a second consultation (4 weeks after the first), manual pressure with the detected pressure threshold was applied to non-trigger points within the same trapezius muscle (control). Headache and related parameters were again recorded and compared to the results of the first consultation. A total of 13 girls and 13 boys with migraine and a median age of 14.5 (Range 6.3-17.8) years took part in the study. Manual pressure to trigger points in the trapezius muscle led to lasting headache after termination of the manual pressure in 13 patients while no patient experienced headache when manual pressure was applied to non-trigger points at the control visit (p complex, especially in adolescents. In children with migraine headache can often be induced by pressure to myofascial trigger points, but not by pressure to non-trigger points in the trapezius muscle. This supports the hypothesis of a trigemino-cervical-complex in the pathophysiology of migraine, which might have implications for innovative therapies in children with migraine. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  6. Laser-assisted vacuum arc extreme ultraviolet source: a comparison of picosecond and nanosecond laser triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Girum A.; Tobin, Isaac; Juschkin, Larissa; Hayden, Patrick; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Sokell, Emma; Zakharov, Vassily S.; Zakharov, Sergey V.; O'Reilly, Fergal

    2016-06-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light generation by hybrid laser-assisted vacuum arc discharge plasmas, utilizing Sn-coated rotating-disc-electrodes, was investigated. The discharge was initiated by localized ablation of the liquid tin coating of the cathode disc by a laser pulse. The laser pulse, at 1064 nm, was generated by Nd:YAG lasers with variable energy from 1 to 100 mJ per pulse. The impact of shortening the laser pulse from 7 ns to 170 ps on the EUV generation has been investigated in detail. The use of ps pulses resulted in an increase in emission of EUV radiation. With a fixed discharge energy of ~4 J, the EUV conversion efficiency tends to plateau at ~2.4  ±  0.25% for the ps laser pulses, while for the ns pulses, it saturates at ~1.7  ±  0.3%. Under similar discharge and laser energy conditions, operating the EUV source with the ps-triggering resulted also in narrower spectral profiles of the emission in comparison to ns-triggering. The results indicate an advantage in using ps-triggering in laser-assisted discharges to produce brighter plasmas required for applications such as metrology.

  7. Remote Effect of Lower Limb Acupuncture on Latent Myofascial Trigger Point of Upper Trapezius Muscle: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Hua Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To demonstrate the use of acupuncture in the lower limbs to treat myofascial pain of the upper trapezius muscles via a remote effect. Methods. Five adults with latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs of bilateral upper trapezius muscles received acupuncture at Weizhong (UB40 and Yanglingquan (GB34 points in the lower limbs. Modified acupuncture was applied at these points on a randomly selected ipsilateral lower limb (experimental side versus sham needling on the contralateral lower limb (control side in each subject. Each subject received two treatments within a one-week interval. To evaluate the remote effect of acupuncture, the range of motion (ROM upon bending the contralateral side of the cervical spine was assessed before and after each treatment. Results. There was significant improvement in cervical ROM after the second treatment (P=0.03 in the experimental group, and the increased ROM on the modified acupuncture side was greater compared to the sham needling side (P=0.036. Conclusions. A remote effect of acupuncture was demonstrated in this pilot study. Using modified acupuncture needling at remote acupuncture points in the ipsilateral lower limb, our treatments released tightness due to latent MTrPs of the upper trapezius muscle.

  8. Remote Effect of Lower Limb Acupuncture on Latent Myofascial Trigger Point of Upper Trapezius Muscle: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Hua; Hsiao, Kuang-Yu; Lin, Chu-Hsu; Chang, Wen-Ming; Hsu, Hung-Chih; Hsieh, Wei-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To demonstrate the use of acupuncture in the lower limbs to treat myofascial pain of the upper trapezius muscles via a remote effect. Methods. Five adults with latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) of bilateral upper trapezius muscles received acupuncture at Weizhong (UB40) and Yanglingquan (GB34) points in the lower limbs. Modified acupuncture was applied at these points on a randomly selected ipsilateral lower limb (experimental side) versus sham needling on the contralateral lower limb (control side) in each subject. Each subject received two treatments within a one-week interval. To evaluate the remote effect of acupuncture, the range of motion (ROM) upon bending the contralateral side of the cervical spine was assessed before and after each treatment. Results. There was significant improvement in cervical ROM after the second treatment (P = 0.03) in the experimental group, and the increased ROM on the modified acupuncture side was greater compared to the sham needling side (P = 0.036). Conclusions. A remote effect of acupuncture was demonstrated in this pilot study. Using modified acupuncture needling at remote acupuncture points in the ipsilateral lower limb, our treatments released tightness due to latent MTrPs of the upper trapezius muscle. PMID:23710218

  9. Analgesic efficacy of ultrasound identified trigger point injection in myofascial pain syndrome: A pilot study in Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Parthasarathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS is described as sensory symptoms, sometimes with motor and autonomic symptoms caused by myofascial trigger points (TPs. Injection at TPs is most likely to benefit patients with such disorder. The identification of TPs is usually clinical. However, in sites where there are major vital structures, ultrasound guidance and real-time visualization may help in decreasing complications. Methodology: Twenty patients who presented to pain clinic with classic symptoms of MPS in the neck and shoulder area with clinically detectable TPs were selected. The points were imaged with ultrasound to find correlation with clinical positions. They were injected with a mixture of local anesthetic and steroid on TPs with real-time ultrasound guidance and needle visualization. Pretreatment visual analog scale (VAS scores and posttreatment (immediate and after 1 month were noted. The mean reduction in VAS scores was analyzed with paired Student′s t-test. Any side effect was observed and managed. Results: Clinically detectable TPs coincided with an echogenic point on the undersurface of the trapezius. There was a significant reduction in pain scores at both times. The needle sign was positive in all the cases. There were no major complications. Conclusion: The clinically identified TPs in trapezius muscle coincided well with ultrasound imaged echogenic structure in the muscle in all the cases. Ultrasound-assisted injections also produced the needle sign in all the cases. The achieved analgesia both immediately after the injection and a month later was satisfactory in the majority of cases. The echogenic mass corresponding to the TP is found to be on the undersurface of the muscle rather than inside the mass of the muscle.

  10. Effectiveness of trigger point dry needling for plantar heel pain: a meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He C

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Chunhui He,1,* Hua Ma2,* 1Internal Medicine of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2Medical Image Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Wulumuqi, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Plantar heel pain can be managed with dry needling of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs; however, whether MTrP needling is effective remains controversial. Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of MTrP needling in patients with plantar heel pain. Materials and methods: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, SinoMed (Chinese BioMedical Literature Service System, People’s Republic of China, and CNKI (National Knowledge Infrastructure, People’s Republic of China databases were systematically reviewed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs that assessed the effects of MTrP needling. Pooled weighted mean difference (WMD with 95% CIs were calculated for change in visual analog scale (VAS score, and pooled risk ratio (RR with 95% CIs were calculated for success rate for pain and incidence of adverse events. A fixed-effects model or random-effects model was used to pool the estimates, depending on the heterogeneity among the included studies. Results: Extensive literature search yielded 1,941 articles, of which only seven RCTs met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that MTrP needling significantly reduced the VAS score (WMD =–15.50, 95% CI: –19.48, –11.53; P<0.001 compared with control, but it had a similar success rate for pain with control (risk ratio [RR] =1.15, 95% CI: 0.87, 1.51; P=0.320. Moreover, MTrP needling was associated with a similar incidence of adverse events with control (RR =1.89, 95% CI: 0.38, 9.39; P=0.438. Conclusion: MTrP needling effectively reduced the heel pain due to plantar fasciitis. However, considering the potential limitations in this study, more large-scale, adequately powered, good

  11. Assessment of the Short-Term Effectiveness of Kinesiotaping and Trigger Points Release Used in Functional Disorders of the Masticatory Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Lietz-Kijak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic face pain syndrome is a diagnostic and therapeutic problem for many specialists, and this proves the interdisciplinary and complex nature of this ailment. Physiotherapy is of particular importance in the treatment of pain syndrome in the course of temporomandibular joint functional disorders. In patients with long-term dysfunction of masticatory muscles, the palpation examination can localize trigger points, that is, thickening in the form of nodules in the size of rice grains or peas. Latent trigger points located in the muscles can interfere with muscular movement patterns, cause cramps, and reduce muscle strength. Because hidden trigger points can spontaneously activate, they should be found and released to prevent further escalation of the discomfort. Kinesiotaping (KT is considered as an intervention that can be used to release latent myofascial trigger points. It is a method that involves applying specific tapes to the patient’s skin in order to take advantage of the natural self-healing processes of the body. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the kinesiotaping method and trigger points inactivation on the nonpharmacological elimination of pain in patients with temporomandibular disorders. The study was conducted in 60 patients (18 to 35 years old. The subjects were randomly divided into two subgroups of 30 people each. Group KT (15 women and 15 men were subjected to active kinesiotaping application. Group TrP, composed of 16 women and 14 men, was subjected to physiotherapy with the release of trigger points by the ischemic compression method. The results show that the KT method and TrP inactivation brought significant therapeutic analgesic effects in the course of pain-related functional disorders of the muscles of mastication. The more beneficial outcomes of the therapy were observed after using the KT method, which increased the analgesic effect in dysfunctional patients.

  12. Comparison of different inspiratory triggering settings in automated ventilators during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dingyu; Xu, Jun; Shao, Shihuan; Fu, Yangyang; Sun, Feng; Zhang, Yazhi; Hu, Yingying; Walline, Joseph; Zhu, Huadong; Yu, Xuezhong

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation via automated in-hospital ventilators is quite common during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It is not known whether different inspiratory triggering sensitivity settings of ordinary ventilators have different effects on actual ventilation, gas exchange and hemodynamics during resuscitation. 18 pigs enrolled in this study were anaesthetized and intubated. Continuous chest compressions and mechanical ventilation (volume-controlled mode, 100% O2, respiratory rate 10/min, and tidal volumes 10ml/kg) were performed after 3 minutes of ventricular fibrillation. Group trig-4, trig-10 and trig-20 (six pigs each) were characterized by triggering sensitivities of 4, 10 and 20 (cmH2O for pressure-triggering and L/min for flow-triggering), respectively. Additionally, each pig in each group was mechanically ventilated using three types of inspiratory triggering (pressure-triggering, flow-triggering and turned-off triggering) of 5 minutes duration each, and each animal matched with one of six random assortments of the three different triggering settings. Blood gas samples, respiratory and hemodynamic parameters for each period were all collected and analyzed. In each group, significantly lower actual respiratory rate, minute ventilation volume, mean airway pressure, arterial pH, PaO2, and higher end-tidal carbon dioxide, aortic blood pressure, coronary perfusion pressure, PaCO2 and venous oxygen saturation were observed in the ventilation periods with a turned-off triggering setting compared to those with pressure- or flow- triggering (all PVentilation with pressure- or flow-triggering tends to induce hyperventilation and deteriorating gas exchange and hemodynamics during CPR. A turned-off patient triggering or a pressure-triggering of 20 cmH2O is preferred for ventilation when an ordinary inpatient hospital ventilator is used during resuscitation.

  13. Comparison of Dose When Prescribed to Point A and Point H for Brachytherapy in Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gang, Ji Hyeong; Gim, Il Hwan; Hwang, Seon Boong; Kim, Woong; Im, Hyeong Seo; Gang, Jin Mook; Gim, Gi Hwan; Lee, Ah Ram [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seou (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to compare plans prescribed to point A with these prescribed to point H recommended by ABS (American Brachytherapy Society) in high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical carcinoma. This study selected 103 patients who received HDR (High Dose Rate) brachytherapy using tandem and ovoids from March 2010 to January 2012. Point A, bladder point, and rectal point conform with Manchester System. Point H conforms with ABS recommendation. Also Sigmoid colon point, and vagina point were established arbitrarily. We examined distance between point A and point H. The percent dose at point A was calculated when 100% dose was prescribed to point H. Additionally, the percent dose at each reference points when dose is prescribed to point H and point A were calculated. The relative dose at point A was lower when point H was located inferior to point A. The relative doses at bladder, rectal, sigmoid colon, and vagina points were higher when point H was located superior to point A, and lower when point H was located inferior to point A. This study found out that as point H got located much superior to point A, the absorbed dose of surrounding normal organs became higher, and as point H got located much inferior to point A, the absorbed dose of surrounding normal organs became lower. This differences dose not seem to affect the treatment. However, we suggest this new point is worth being considered for the treatment of HDR if dose distribution and absorbed dose at normal organs have large differences between prescribed to point A and H.

  14. Standardized manual palpation of myofascial trigger points in relation to neck/shoulder pain; the influence of clinical experience on inter-examiner reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Larsen, Anders H

    2011-01-01

    A diagnosis of Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) requires palpation for the identification of at least one clinically relevant trigger point (TP). However, few comparable, high quality studies currently exist from which to draw firm conclusions regarding the robustness of TP examination. An inter-ob...

  15. TREATMENT OF SUBACUTE POSTERIOR KNEE PAIN IN AN ADOLESCENT BALLET DANCER UTILIZING TRIGGER POINT DRY NEEDLING: A CASE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, Kimberly A.; Westrick, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design: Case Report. Background and Purpose: Dry needling (DN) is an increasingly popular intervention used by clinicians as a treatment of regional neuromusculoskeletal pain. DN is an invasive procedure that involves insertion of a thin monofilament needle directly into a muscle trigger point (MTP) with the intent of stimulating a local twitch response. Current evidence is somewhat limited, but recent literature supports the use of this intervention in specific neuromusculoskeletal conditions. The purpose of this case report is to present the outcomes of DN as a primary treatment intervention in an adolescent subject with subacute posterior knee pain. Case Description: The subject was a 16‐year‐old female competitive ballet dancer referred to physical therapy with a two month history of right posterior knee pain. Palpation identified MTPs which reproduced the patient’s primary symptoms. In addition to an exercise program promoting lower extremity flexibility and hip stability, the subject was treated with DN to the right gastrocnemius, soleus, and popliteus muscles. Outcomes: The subject reported being pain free on the Numerical Pain Scale and a +7 improvement in perceived change in recovery on the Global Rating of Change at final follow‐up. Physical examination demonstrated no observed impairments or functional limitations, including normal mobility, full strength, and unrestricted execution of dance maneuvers. Discussion: The patient was able to return to high level dance training and competition without physical limitations and resumed pre‐injury dynamic movement activities including dancing, running, jumping, and pivoting without pain. DN can be an effective and efficient intervention to assist patients in decreasing pain and returning to high intensity physical activity. Additional research is needed to determine if DN is effective for other body regions and has long‐term positive outcomes. Level of Evidence: Level 4 PMID:24567862

  16. Prevalence of and referred pain from myofascial trigger points in the forearm muscles in patients with lateral epicondylalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2007-05-01

    Referred pain and pain characteristics evoked from the extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor digitorum communis, and brachioradialis muscles was investigated in 20 patients with lateral epicondylalgia (LE) and 20-matched controls. Both groups were examined for the presence of myofascial trigger points (TrPs) in a blinded fashion. The quality and location of the evoked referred pain, and the pressure pain threshold (PPT) at the lateral epicondyle on the right upper extremity (symptomatic side in patients, and dominant-side on controls) were recorded. Several lateral elbow pain parameters were also evaluated. Within the patient group, the elicited referred pain by manual exploration of 13 out of 20 (65%) extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles, 12/20 (70%) extensor carpi radialis longus muscles, 10/20 (50%) brachioradialis muscles, and 5/20 (25%) extensor digitorum communis muscles, shares similar pain patterns as their habitual lateral elbow and forearm pain. The mean number of muscles with TrPs for each patient was 2.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1,4] of which 2 (95% CI 1,3) were active, and 0.9 (95% CI 0,2) were latent TrPs. Control participants only had latent TrPs (mean: 0.4; 95% CI 0,2). TrP occurrence between the 2 groups was significantly different for active TrPs (P0.05). The referred pain pattern was larger in patients than in controls, with pain referral to the lateral epicondyle (proximally) and to the dorso-lateral aspect of the forearm in the patients, and confined to the dorso-lateral aspect of the forearm in the controls. Patients with LE showed a significant (Plateral epicondyle was negatively correlated with both the total number of TrPs (rs=-0.63; P=0.003) and the number of active TrPs (rs=-0.5; P=0.02): the greater the number of active TrPs, the lower the PPT at the lateral epicondyle. Our results suggest that in patients with LE, the evoked referred pain and its sensory characteristics shared similar patterns

  17. Effectiveness of trigger point dry needling for plantar heel pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landorf Karl B

    2011-01-01

    be reported in accordance with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials and the Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture guidelines. The findings from this trial will provide evidence for the effectiveness of trigger point dry needling for plantar heel pain. Trial registration Australian New Zealand 'Clinical Trials Registry'. ACTRN12610000611022.

  18. Friction massage versus kinesiotaping for short-term management of latent trigger points in the upper trapezius: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadi, Marzieh; Piroozi, Soraya; Rashidi, Iman; Hosseinifard, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Latent trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle may disrupt muscle movement patterns and cause problems such as cramping and decreased muscle strength. Because latent trigger points may spontaneously become active trigger points, they should be addressed and treated to prevent further problems. In this study we compared the short-term effect of kinesiotaping versus friction massage on latent trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. Fifty-eight male students enrolled with a stratified sampling method participated in this single-blind randomized clinical trial (Registration ID: IRCT2016080126674N3) in 2016. Pressure pain threshold was recorded with a pressure algometer and grip strength was recorded with a Collin dynamometer. The participants were randomly assigned to two different treatment groups: kinesiotape or friction massage. Friction massage was performed daily for 3 sessions and kinesiotape was used for 72 h. One hour after the last session of friction massage or removal of the kinesiotape, pressure pain threshold and grip strength were evaluated again. Pressure pain threshold decreased significantly after both friction massage (2.66 ± 0.89 to 2.25 ± 0.76; P  = 0.02) and kinesiotaping (2.00 ± 0.74 to 1.71 ± 0.65; P  = 0.01). Grip strength increased significantly after friction massage (40.78 ± 9.55 to 42.17 ± 10.68; P  = 0.03); however there was no significant change in the kinesiotape group (39.72 ± 6.42 to 40.65 ± 7.3; P  = 0.197). There were no significant differences in pressure pain threshold (2.10 ± 0.11 & 1.87 ± 0.11; P  = 0.66) or grip strength (42.17 ± 10.68 & 40.65 ± 7.3; P  = 0.53) between the two study groups. Friction massage and kinesiotaping had identical short-term effects on latent trigger points in the upper trapezius. Three sessions of either of these two interventions did not improve latent trigger points. Registration ID in IRCT: IRCT2016080126674N3.

  19. A comparison of temporal and location-based sampling strategies for global positioning system-triggered electronic diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnros, Tobias; Dorn, Helen; Reichert, Markus; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Zipf, Alexander

    2016-11-21

    Self-reporting is a well-established approach within the medical and psychological sciences. In order to avoid recall bias, i.e. past events being remembered inaccurately, the reports can be filled out on a smartphone in real-time and in the natural environment. This is often referred to as ambulatory assessment and the reports are usually triggered at regular time intervals. With this sampling scheme, however, rare events (e.g. a visit to a park or recreation area) are likely to be missed. When addressing the correlation between mood and the environment, it may therefore be beneficial to include participant locations within the ambulatory assessment sampling scheme. Based on the geographical coordinates, the database query system then decides if a self-report should be triggered or not. We simulated four different ambulatory assessment sampling schemes based on movement data (coordinates by minute) from 143 voluntary participants tracked for seven consecutive days. Two location-based sampling schemes incorporating the environmental characteristics (land use and population density) at each participant's location were introduced and compared to a time-based sampling scheme triggering a report on the hour as well as to a sampling scheme incorporating physical activity. We show that location-based sampling schemes trigger a report less often, but we obtain more unique trigger positions and a greater spatial spread in comparison to sampling strategies based on time and distance. Additionally, the location-based methods trigger significantly more often at rarely visited types of land use and less often outside the study region where no underlying environmental data are available.

  20. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in common shoulder disorders by physical therapy: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN75722066].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bron, Carel; Wensing, Michel; Franssen, Jo Lm; Oostendorp, Rob Ab

    2007-11-05

    Shoulder disorders are a common health problem in western societies. Several treatment protocols have been developed for the clinical management of persons with shoulder pain. However available evidence does not support any protocol as being superior over others. Systematic reviews provide some evidence that certain physical therapy interventions (i.e. supervised exercises and mobilisation) are effective in particular shoulder disorders (i.e. rotator cuff disorders, mixed shoulder disorders and adhesive capsulitis), but there is an ongoing need for high quality trials of physical therapy interventions. Usually, physical therapy consists of active exercises intended to strengthen the shoulder muscles as stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint or perform mobilisations to improve restricted mobility of the glenohumeral or adjacent joints (shoulder girdle). It is generally accepted that a-traumatic shoulder problems are the result of impingement of the subacromial structures, such as the bursa or rotator cuff tendons. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in shoulder muscles may also lead to a complex of symptoms that are often seen in patients diagnosed with subacromial impingement or rotator cuff tendinopathy. Little is known about the treatment of MTrPs in patients with shoulder disorders.The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether physical therapy modalities to inactivate MTrPs can reduce symptoms and improve shoulder function in daily activities in a population of chronic a-traumatic shoulder patients when compared to a wait-and-see strategy. In addition we investigate the recurrence rate during a one-year-follow-up period. This paper presents the design for a randomized controlled trial to be conducted between September 2007 - September 2008, evaluating the effectiveness of a physical therapy treatment for non-traumatic shoulder complaints. One hundred subjects are included in this study. All subjects have unilateral shoulder pain for at least six months

  1. Additional Effect of Static Ultrasound and Diadynamic Currents on Myofascial Trigger Points in a Manual Therapy Program for Patients With Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; de Oliveira, Alessandra Kelly; Girasol, Carlos Eduardo; Dias, Fabiana Rodrigues Cancio; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus

    2017-04-01

    To assess the additional effect of static ultrasound and diadynamic currents on myofascial trigger points in a manual therapy program to treat individuals with chronic neck pain. A single-blind randomized trial was conducted. Both men and women, between ages 18 and 45, with chronic neck pain and active myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius were included in the study. Subjects were assigned to 3 different groups: group 1 (n = 20) was treated with manual therapy; group 2 (n = 20) was treated with manual therapy and static ultrasound; group 3 (n = 20) was treated with manual therapy and diadynamic currents. Individuals were assessed before the first treatment session, 48 hours after the first treatment session, 48 hours after the tenth treatment session, and 4 weeks after the last session. There was no group-versus-time interaction for Numeric Rating Scale, Neck Disability Index, Pain-Related Self-Statement Scale, pressure pain threshold, cervical range of motion, and skin temperature (F-value range, 0.089-1.961; P-value range, 0.106-0.977). Moreover, we found no differences between groups regarding electromyographic activity (P > 0.05). The use of static ultrasound or diadynamic currents on myofascial trigger points in upper trapezius associated with a manual therapy program did not generate greater benefits than manual therapy alone.

  2. Comparison of dew point temperature estimation methods in Southwestern Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus D. Williams; Scott L. Goodrick; Andrew Grundstein; Marshall Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    Recent upward trends in acres irrigated have been linked to increasing near-surface moisture. Unfortunately, stations with dew point data for monitoring near-surface moisture are sparse. Thus, models that estimate dew points from more readily observed data sources are useful. Daily average dew temperatures were estimated and evaluated at 14 stations in...

  3. Comparison of pressure perception of static and dynamic two point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the right and left index finger (p<0.05). Conclusion: Age and gender did not affect the perception of static and dynamic two point discrimination while the limb side (left or right) affected the perception of static and dynamic two point discrimination. The index finger is also more sensitive to moving rather static sensations.

  4. Self-gating MR imaging of the fetal heart: comparison with real cardiac triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Jin; Frisch, Michael; Ecker, Hannes; Adam, Gerhard; Wedegaertner, Ulrike; Graessner, Joachim; Hecher, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the self-gating technique for MR imaging of the fetal heart in a sheep model. MR images of 6 fetal sheep heart were obtained at 1.5T. For self-gating MRI of the fetal heart a cine SSFP in short axis, two and four chamber view was used. Self-gated images were compared with real cardiac triggered MR images (pulse-wave triggering). MRI of the fetal heart was performed using both techniques simultaneously. Image quality was assessed and the left ventricular volume and function were measured and compared. Compared with pulse-wave triggering, the self-gating technique produced slightly inferior images with artifacts. Especially the atrial septum could not be so clearly depicted. The contraction of the fetal heart was shown in cine sequences in both techniques. The average blood volumes could be measured with both techniques with no significant difference: at end-systole 3.1 ml (SD± 0.2), at end-diastole 4.9 ml (±0.2), with ejection fractions at 38.6%, respectively 39%. Both self-gating and pulse-wave triggered cardiac MRI of the fetal heart allowed the evaluation of anatomical structures and functional information. Images obtained by self-gating technique were slightly inferior than the pulse-wave triggered MRI. (orig.)

  5. Comparison between retrospective gating and ECG triggering in magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, L; Ståhlberg, F; Thomsen, C

    1993-01-01

    ECG-triggered cinematographic studies of the cardiovascular system are hampered by several technical restrictions such as the inability to image end-diastole, ghosting, varying signal intensity, and phase contributions from eddy currents. Retrospective gating may solve these problems, but involves...... of flow pulses. However, by reducing the time window retrospectively gated flow measurements were in good agreement with those that are ECG triggered. When fulfilling the demand of a narrow time window for interpolation, retrospective gating offers several advantages in MR velocity mapping....

  6. Calibration and comparison of accelerometer cut points in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Labarque, Valery; Trost, Stewart G; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet

    2011-06-01

    The present study aimed to develop accelerometer cut points to classify physical activities (PA) by intensity in preschoolers and to investigate discrepancies in PA levels when applying various accelerometer cut points. To calibrate the accelerometer, 18 preschoolers (5.8 ± 0.4 years) performed eleven structured activities and one free play session while wearing a GT1M ActiGraph accelerometer using 15 s epochs. The structured activities were chosen based on the direct observation system Children's Activity Rating Scale (CARS) while the criterion measure of PA intensity during free play was provided using a second-by-second observation protocol (modified CARS). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to determine the accelerometer cut points. To examine the classification differences, accelerometer data of four consecutive days from 114 preschoolers (5.5 ± 0.3 years) were classified by intensity according to previously published and the newly developed accelerometer cut points. Differences in predicted PA levels were evaluated using repeated measures ANOVA and Chi Square test. Cut points were identified at 373 counts/15 s for light (sensitivity: 86%; specificity: 91%; Area under ROC curve: 0.95), 585 counts/15 s for moderate (87%; 82%; 0.91) and 881 counts/15 s for vigorous PA (88%; 91%; 0.94). Further, applying various accelerometer cut points to the same data resulted in statistically and biologically significant differences in PA. Accelerometer cut points were developed with good discriminatory power for differentiating between PA levels in preschoolers and the choice of accelerometer cut points can result in large discrepancies.

  7. Spatial attention triggered by unimodal, crossmodal, and bimodal exogenous cues: a comparison of reflexive orienting mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santangelo, Valerio; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Postma, Albert

    The aim of this study was to establish whether spatial attention triggered by bimodal exogenous cues acts differently as compared to unimodal and crossmodal exogenous cues due to crossmodal integration. In order to investigate this issue, we examined cuing effects in discrimination tasks and

  8. Comparison study of hybrid VS critical systems in point kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.; Tommasi, J.; Slessarev, L.; Salvatores, M.; Mouney, H.; Vergnes, J.

    1999-01-01

    An essential motivation for hybrid systems is a potentially high level of intrinsic safety against reactivity accidents. In this respect, it is necessary to assess the behaviour of an Accelerator Driven System during a TOP, LOF or TOC accident. A comparison between a critical and sub-critical reactor shows a larger sensitivity for the critical system. The ADS has an unquestionable advantage in case of TOP but a less favourable behaviour as for LOFWS type of accidents. However in the ADS cases, the beam could be easily shut off during the transient. Therefore, a part of the R and D effort should be focused on the monitoring and control of power. (author)

  9. Compound nucleus decay: Comparison between saddle point and scission point barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T. J.; Carlson, B. V. [Depto. de Física, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-11-11

    One of the principal characteristics of nuclear multifragmentation is the emission of complex fragments of intermediate mass. An extension of the statistical multifragmentation model has been developed, in which the process can be interpreted as the near simultaneous limit of a series of sequential binary decays. In this extension, intermediate mass fragment emissions are described by expressions almost identical to those of light particle emission. At lower temperatures, similar expressions have been shown to furnish a good description of very light intermediate mass fragment emission but not of the emission of heavier fragments, which seems to be determined by the transition density at the saddle-point rather than at the scission point. Here, we wish to compare these different formulations of intermediate fragmment emission and analyze the extent to which they remain distinguishable at high excitation energy.

  10. Objective measurement of tissue tension in myofascial trigger point areas before and during the administration of anesthesia with complete blocking of neuromuscular transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Johannes; Neustadt, Beate; Buchmann-Barthel, Katharina; Rudolph, Soeren; Klauer, Thomas; Reis, Olaf; Smolenski, Ulrich; Buchmann, Hella; Wagner, Klaus F; Haessler, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTPs) are extremely frequent in the human musculoskeletal system. Despite this, little is known about their etiology. Increased muscular tension in the trigger point area could be a major factor for the development of MTPs. To investigate the impact of muscular tension in the taut band with an MTP and thereby, the spinal excitability of associated segmental neurons, we objectively measured the tissue tension in MTPs before and during the administration of anesthesia using a transducer. Three target muscles (m. temporalis, upper part of m. trapezius, and m. extensor carpi radialis longus) with an MTP and 1 control muscle without an MTP were examined in 62 patients scheduled for an operation. We found significant 2-way interactions (ANOVA, Pspinal segmental excitability. In line with this, we assume a predominant, but not unique, impact of increased spinal excitability resulting in an augmented tension of segmental-associated muscle fibers for the etiology of MTP. Consequently, postisometric relaxation might be a promising therapeutic option for MTPs.

  11. Myofascial trigger point-focused head and neck massage for recurrent tension-type headache: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraska, Albert F.; Stenerson, Lea; Butryn, Nathan; Krutsch, Jason P.; Schmiege, Sarah J.; Mann, J. Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Objective Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are focal disruptions in skeletal muscle that can refer pain to the head and reproduce the pain patterns of tension-type headache (TTH). The present study applied massage focused on MTrPs of subjects with TTH in a placebo-controlled, clinical trial to assess efficacy on reducing headache pain. Methods Fifty-six subjects with TTH were randomized to receive 12 massage or placebo (detuned ultrasound) sessions over six weeks, or to wait-list. Trigger point release (TPR) massage focused on MTrPs in cervical musculature. Headache pain (frequency, intensity and duration) was recorded in a daily headache diary. Additional outcome measures included self-report of perceived clinical change in headache pain and pressure-pain threshold (PPT) at MTrPs in the upper trapezius and sub-occipital muscles. Results From diary recordings, group differences across time were detected in headache frequency (p=0.026), but not for intensity or duration. Post hoc analysis indicated headache frequency decreased from baseline for both massage (pheadache pain for massage than placebo or wait-list groups (p=0.002). PPT improved in all muscles tested for massage only (all p'streatment of TTH, and 2) TTH, like other chronic conditions, is responsive to placebo. Clinical trials on headache that do not include a placebo group are at risk for overestimating the specific contribution from the active intervention. PMID:25329141

  12. Trigger mechanisms of debris avalanche. Comparison between Bandai-san 1888 and the other cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ui, Tadahide

    1988-08-25

    This report describes a trial of classifying the trigger mechanisms of debris avalanche in a volcanic action, on the basis of a geography and the structure of the sedimentation. Reason of disintegration is diversified but the debris avalanche is caused by the destruction of the unstable mountain mass. In the case of the 1888 debris avalanche of Bandai-san, a small steam explosion at the end of the strato-volcanic activity caused the instability of a part of the mountain mass, inducing a landslide. At the active period of the volcano, a viscous magma penetrates into the volcano mass, sometimes deforming the mountain body and eventually reaching disintegration. Furthermore, an eroded valley on the surface of the volcano body develops and disintegrates and, also along the slope of the volcano, a disintegration towards the sea-bottom will occur. (4 figs, 4 tabs, 19 refs)

  13. EURAMET.T-K7 Key Comparison of Water Triple-Point Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruzzi, A.; Bosma, R.; Kerkhof, O.; Rosenkranz, P.; Del Campo Maldonado, M. D.; Strnad, R.; Nielsen, J.; Anagnostou, M.; Veliki, T.; Zvizdic, D.; Grudnewicz, E.; Nedea, M.; Neagu, D. M.; Steur, P.; Filipe, E.; Lobo, I.; Antonsen, I.; Renaot, E.; Heinonen, M.; Weckstrom, T.; Bojkovski, J.; Turzo-Andras, E.; Nemeth, S.; White, M.; Tegeler, E.; Dobre, M.; Duris, S.; Kartal Dogan, A.; Uytun, A.; Augevicius, V.; Pauzha, A.; Pokhodun, A.; Simic, S.

    2011-12-01

    The results of a EURAMET key comparison of water triple-point cells (EURAMET.T-K7) are reported. The equipment used, the measuring conditions applied, and the procedures adopted for the water triple-point measurement at the participating laboratories are synthetically presented. The definitions of the national reference for the water triple-point temperature adopted by each laboratory are disclosed. The multiplicity of degrees of equivalence arising for the linking laboratories with respect to the "mother" comparison CCT-K7 is discussed in detail.

  14. Comparison of checkpoint responses triggered by DNA polymerase inhibition versus DNA damaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.-S.; Kuo, S.-R.; Melendy, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    To better understand the different cellular responses to replication fork pausing versus blockage, early DNA damage response markers were compared after treatment of cultured mammalian cells with agents that either inhibit DNA polymerase activity (hydroxyurea (HU) or aphidicolin) or selectively induce S-phase DNA damage responses (the DNA alkylating agents, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and adozelesin). These agents were compared for their relative abilities to induce phosphorylation of Chk1, H2AX, and replication protein A (RPA), and intra-nuclear focalization of γ-H2AX and RPA. Treatment by aphidicolin and HU resulted in phosphorylation of Chk1, while HU, but not aphidicolin, induced focalization of γ-H2AX and RPA. Surprisingly, pre-treatment with aphidicolin to stop replication fork progression, did not abrogate HU-induced γ-H2AX and RPA focalization. This suggests that HU may act on the replication fork machinery directly, such that fork progression is not required to trigger these responses. The DNA-damaging fork-blocking agents, adozelesin and MMS, both induced phosphorylation and focalization of H2AX and RPA. Unlike adozelesin and HU, the pattern of MMS-induced RPA focalization did not match the BUdR incorporation pattern and was not blocked by aphidicolin, suggesting that MMS-induced damage is not replication fork-dependent. In support of this, MMS was the only reagent used that did not induce phosphorylation of Chk1. These results indicate that induction of DNA damage checkpoint responses due to adozelesin is both replication fork and fork progression dependent, induction by HU is replication fork dependent but progression independent, while induction by MMS is independent of both replication forks and fork progression

  15. Comparison of checkpoint responses triggered by DNA polymerase inhibition versus DNA damaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.-S.; Kuo, S.-R.; Melendy, Thomas

    2003-11-27

    To better understand the different cellular responses to replication fork pausing versus blockage, early DNA damage response markers were compared after treatment of cultured mammalian cells with agents that either inhibit DNA polymerase activity (hydroxyurea (HU) or aphidicolin) or selectively induce S-phase DNA damage responses (the DNA alkylating agents, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and adozelesin). These agents were compared for their relative abilities to induce phosphorylation of Chk1, H2AX, and replication protein A (RPA), and intra-nuclear focalization of {gamma}-H2AX and RPA. Treatment by aphidicolin and HU resulted in phosphorylation of Chk1, while HU, but not aphidicolin, induced focalization of {gamma}-H2AX and RPA. Surprisingly, pre-treatment with aphidicolin to stop replication fork progression, did not abrogate HU-induced {gamma}-H2AX and RPA focalization. This suggests that HU may act on the replication fork machinery directly, such that fork progression is not required to trigger these responses. The DNA-damaging fork-blocking agents, adozelesin and MMS, both induced phosphorylation and focalization of H2AX and RPA. Unlike adozelesin and HU, the pattern of MMS-induced RPA focalization did not match the BUdR incorporation pattern and was not blocked by aphidicolin, suggesting that MMS-induced damage is not replication fork-dependent. In support of this, MMS was the only reagent used that did not induce phosphorylation of Chk1. These results indicate that induction of DNA damage checkpoint responses due to adozelesin is both replication fork and fork progression dependent, induction by HU is replication fork dependent but progression independent, while induction by MMS is independent of both replication forks and fork progression.

  16. Use of sequential diagnostic pain blocks in a patient of posttraumatic complex regional pain syndrome-not otherwise specified complicated by myofascial trigger points and thoracolumbar pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Kothari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a case of posttraumatic lower limb Complex regional pain syndrome – Not otherwise specified (CRPS – NOS. As it was not treated in acute phase, the pain became chronic and got complicated by myofascial and thoracolumbar pain syndrome. This case posed us a diagnostic challenge. We used sequential diagnostic pain blocks to identify the pain generators and successfully treat the patient. We used diagnostic blocks step by step to identify and treat pain generators – T12,L1 and L2 Facet joints, Lumbar sympathetic block for CRPS NOS and Trigger point injection with dry needling for myofascial pain syndrome. This case highlights the facet that additional pain generators unrelated to original pain may complicate the presentation. Identifying these pain generators requires out of box thinking and high index of suspicion.

  17. Validity and Reliability of Clinical Examination in the Diagnosis of Myofascial Pain Syndrome and Myofascial Trigger Points in Upper Quarter Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral Del Moral, Orlando; Torres Lacomba, María; Russell, I Jon; Sánchez Méndez, Óscar; Sánchez Sánchez, Beatriz

    2017-12-15

    To determine whether two independent examiners can agree on a diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). To evaluate interexaminer reliability in identifying myofascial trigger points in upper quarter muscles. To evaluate the reliability of clinical diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of MPS. To evaluate the validity of clinical diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of MPS. Validity and reliability study. Provincial Hospital. Toledo, Spain. Twenty myofascial pain syndrome patients and 20 healthy, normal control subjects, enrolled by a trained and experienced examiner. Ten bilateral muscles from the upper quarter were evaluated by two experienced examiners. The second examiner was blinded to the diagnosis group. The MPS diagnosis required at least one muscle to have an active myofascial trigger point. Three to four days separated the two examinations. The primary outcome measure was the frequency with which the two examiners agreed on the classification of the subjects as patients or as healthy controls. The kappa statistic (K) was used to determine the level of agreement between both examinations, interpreted as very good (0.81-1.00), good (0.61-0.80), moderate (0.41-0.60), fair (0.21-0.40), or poor (≤0.20). Interexaminer reliability for identifying subjects with MPS was very good (K = 1.0). Interexaminer reliability for identifying muscles leading to a diagnosis of MPS was also very good (K = 0.81). Sensitivity and specificity showed high values for most examination tests in all muscles, which confirms the validity of clinical diagnostic criteria in the diagnosis of MPS. Interrater reliability between two expert examiners identifying subjects with MPS involving upper quarter muscles exhibited substantial agreement. These results suggest that clinical criteria can be valid and reliable in the diagnosis of this condition. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Comparison of vertical hydraulic conductivity in a streambed-point bar system of a gaining stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weihong; Chen, Xunhong; Wang, Zhaowei; Ou, Gengxin; Liu, Can

    2012-07-01

    SummaryVertical hydraulic conductivities (Kv) of both streambed and point bars can influence water and solute exchange between streams and surrounding groundwater systems. The sediments in point bars are relatively young compared to the older sediments in the adjacent aquifers but slightly older compared to submerged streambeds. Thus, the permeability in point bar sediments can be different not only from regional aquifer but also from modern streambed. However, there is a lack of detailed studies that document spatial variability of vertical hydraulic conductivity in point bars of meandering streams. In this study, the authors proposed an in situ permeameter test method to measure vertical hydraulic conductivity of the two point bars in Clear Creek, Nebraska, USA. We compared the Kv values in streambed and adjacent point bars through 45 test locations in the two point bars and 51 test locations in the streambed. The Kv values in the point bars were lower than those in the streambed. Kruskal-Wallis test confirmed that the Kv values from the point bars and from the channel came from two statistically different populations. Within a point bar, the Kv values were higher along the point bar edges than those from inner point bars. Grain size analysis indicated that slightly more silt and clay particles existed in sediments from inner point bars, compared to that from streambed and from locations near the point bar edges. While point bars are the deposits of the adjacent channel, the comparison of two groups of Kv values suggests that post-depositional processes had an effect on the evolution of Kv from channel to point bars in fluvial deposits. We believed that the transport of fine particles and the gas ebullition in this gaining stream had significant effects on the distribution of Kv values in a streambed-point bar system. With the ageing of deposition in a floodplain, the permeability of point bar sediments can likely decrease due to reduced effects of the upward

  19. Bilateral Comparison of Mercury and Gallium Fixed-Point Cells Using Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovski, J.; Veliki, T.; Zvizdić, D.; Drnovšek, J.

    2011-08-01

    The objective of project EURAMET 1127 (Bilateral comparison of triple point of mercury and melting point of gallium) in the field of thermometry is to compare realization of a triple point of mercury (-38.8344 °C) and melting point of gallium (29.7646 °C) between the Slovenian national laboratory MIRS/UL-FE/LMK and the Croatian national laboratory HMI/FSB-LPM using a long-stem 25 Ω standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT). MIRS/UL/FE-LMK participated in a number of intercomparisons on the level of EURAMET. On the other hand, the HMI/LPM-FSB laboratory recently acquired new fixed-point cells which had to be evaluated in the process of intercomparisons. A quartz-sheathed SPRT has been selected and calibrated at HMI/LPM-FSB at the triple point of mercury, the melting point of gallium, and the water triple point. A second set of measurements was made at MIRS/UL/FE-LMK. After its return, the SPRT was again recalibrated at HMI/LPM-FSB. In the comparison, the W value of the SPRT has been used. Results of the bilateral intercomparison confirmed that the new gallium cell of the HMI/LPM-FSB has a value that is within uncertainty limits of both laboratories that participated in the exercise, while the mercury cell experienced problems. After further research, a small leakage in the mercury fixed-point cell has been found.

  20. COMPARISON OF POINT CLOUDS DERIVED FROM AERIAL IMAGE MATCHING WITH DATA FROM AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to invest igate the properties of point clouds derived from aerial image matching and to compare them with point clouds from airborne laser scanning. A set of aerial images acquired in years 2010 - 2013 over the city of Elblag were used for the analysis. Images were acquired with the use of three digital cameras: DMC II 230, DMC I and DigiCAM60 with a GSD varying from 4.5 cm to 15 cm. Eight sets of images that were used in the study were acquired at different stages of the growing season – from March to December. Two L iDAR point clouds were used for the comparison – one with a density of 1.3 p/m 2 and a second with a density of 10 p/m 2 . Based on the input images point clouds were created with the use of the semi - global matching method. The properties of the obtained poi nt clouds were analyzed in three ways: – b y the comparison of the vertical accuracy of point clouds with reference to a terrain profile surveyed on bare ground with GPS - RTK method – b y visual assessment of point cloud profiles generated both from SGM and LiDAR point clouds – b y visual assessment of a digital surface model generated from a SGM point cloud with reference to a digital surface model generated from a LiDAR point cloud. The conducted studies allowed a number of observations about the quality o f SGM point clouds to be formulated with respect to different factors. The main factors having influence on the quality of SGM point clouds are GSD and base/height ratio. The essential problem related to SGM point clouds are areas covered with vegetation w here SGM point clouds are visibly worse in terms of both accuracy and the representation of terrain surface. It is difficult to expect that in these areas SG M point clouds could replace LiDAR point clouds. This leads to a general conclusion that SGM point clouds are less reliable, more unpredictable and are dependent on more factors than LiDAR point clouds. Nevertheless, SGM point

  1. Alpha-2 adrenergic stimulation triggers Achilles tenocyte hypercellularity: Comparison between two model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, L J; Andersson, G; Fong, G; Alfredson, H; Scott, A; Danielson, P

    2013-12-01

    The histopathology of tendons with painful tendinopathy is often tendinosis, a fibrosis-like condition of unclear pathogenesis characterized by tissue changes including hypercellularity. The primary tendon cells (tenocytes) have been shown to express adrenoreceptors (mainly alpha-2A) as well as markers of catecholamine production, particularly in tendinosis. It is known that adrenergic stimulation can induce proliferation in other cells. The present study investigated the effects of an exogenously administered alpha-2 adrenergic agonist in an established in vivo Achilles tendinosis model (rabbit) and also in an in vitro human tendon cell culture model. The catecholamine producing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase and the alpha-2A-adrenoreceptor (α2A AR) were expressed by tenocytes, and alpha-2 adrenergic stimulation had a proliferative effect on these cells, in both models. The proliferation was inhibited by administration of an α2A AR antagonist, and the in vitro model further showed that the proliferative alpha-2A effect was mediated via a mitogenic cell signaling pathway involving phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. The results indicate that catecholamines produced by tenocytes in tendinosis might contribute to the proliferative nature of the pathology through stimulation of the α2A AR, pointing to a novel target for future therapies. The study furthermore shows that animal models are not necessarily required for all aspects of this research. © 2013 The Authors. Scand J Med Sci Sports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. BAT Triggering Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kassandra M.; Fenimore, E. E.; Palmer, D. M.; BAT Team

    2006-09-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) onboard Swift has detected and located about 160 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in its first twenty months of operation. BAT employs two triggering systems to find GRBs: image triggering, which looks for a new point source in the field of view, and rate triggering, which looks for a significant increase in the observed counts. The image triggering system looks at 1 minute, 5 minute, and full pointing accumulations of counts in the detector plane in the energy range of 15-50 keV, with about 50 evaluations per pointing (about 40 minutes). The rate triggering system looks through 13 different time scales (from 4ms to 32s), 4 overlapping energy bins (covering 15-350 keV), 9 regions of the detector plane (from the full plane to individual quarters), and two background sampling models to search for GRBs. It evaluates 27000 trigger criteria in a second, for close to 1000 criteria. The image triggering system looks at 1, 5, and 40 minute accumulations of counts in the detector plane in the energy range of 15-50 keV. Both triggering systems are working very well with the settings from before launch and after we turned on BAT. However, we now have more than a year and a half of data to evaluate these triggering systems and tweak them for optimal performance, as well as lessons learned from these triggering systems.

  3. A Studentized Permutation Test for the Comparison of Spatial Point Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Ute

    of empirical K-functions are compared by a permutation test using a studentized test statistic. The proposed test performs convincingly in terms of empirical level and power in a simulation study, even for point patterns where the K-function estimates on neighboring subsamples are not strictly exchangeable....... It also shows improved behavior compared to a test suggested by Diggle et al. (1991, 2000) for the comparison of groups of independently replicated point patterns. In an application to two point patterns from pathology that represent capillary positions in sections of healthy and tumorous tissue, our...

  4. Botulinum toxin a in the treatment of chronic tension-type headache with cervical myofascial trigger points: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, R Norman; Cottrill, Jerod; Gagnon, Christine M; Smitherman, Todd A; Weinland, Stephan R; Tann, Beverley; Joseph, Petra; Lee, Thomas S; Houle, Timothy T

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of botulinum toxin A (BT-A) as a prophylactic treatment for chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) with myofascial trigger points (MTPs) producing referred head pain. Although BT-A has received mixed support for the treatment of TTH, deliberate injection directly into the cervical MTPs very often found in this population has not been formally evaluated. Patients with CTTH and specific MTPs producing referred head pain were assigned randomly to receive intramuscular injections of BT-A or isotonic saline (placebo) in a double-blind design. Daily headache diaries, pill counts, trigger point pressure algometry, range of motion assessment, and responses to standardized pain and psychological questionnaires were used as outcome measures; patients returned for follow-up assessment at 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months post injection. After 3 months, all patients were offered participation in an open-label extension of the study. Effect sizes were calculated to index treatment effects among the intent-to-treat population; individual time series models were computed for average pain intensity. The 23 participants reported experiencing headache on a near-daily basis (average of 27 days/month). Compared with placebo, patients in the BT-A group reported greater reductions in headache frequency during the first part of the study (P = .013), but these effects dissipated by week 12. Reductions in headache intensity over time did not differ significantly between groups (P = .80; maximum d = 0.13), although a larger proportion of BT-A patients showed evidence of statistically significant improvements in headache intensity in the time series analyses (62.5% for BT-A vs 30% for placebo). There were no differences between the groups on any of the secondary outcome measures. The evidence for BT-A in headache is mixed, and even more so in CTTH. However, the putative technique of injecting BT-A directly into the ubiquitous MTPs in CTTH is partially supported

  5. Multiple active myofascial trigger points and pressure pain sensitivity maps in the temporalis muscle are related in women with chronic tension type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Caminero, Ana B; Madeleine, Pascal; Guillem-Mesado, Amparo; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-01-01

    To describe the common locations of active trigger points (TrPs) in the temporalis muscle and their referred pain patterns in chronic tension type headache (CTTH), and to determine if pressure sensitivity maps of this muscle can be used to describe the spatial distribution of active TrPs. Forty women with CTTH were included. An electronic pressure algometer was used to assess pressure pain thresholds (PPT) from 9 points over each temporalis muscle: 3 points in the anterior, medial and posterior part, respectively. Both muscles were examined for the presence of active TrPs over each of the 9 points. The referred pain pattern of each active TrP was assessed. Two-way analysis of variance detected significant differences in mean PPT levels between the measurement points (F=30.3; P<0.001), but not between sides (F=2.1; P=0.2). PPT scores decreased from the posterior to the anterior column (P<0.001). No differences were found in the number of active TrPs (F=0.3; P=0.9) between the dominant side the nondominant side. Significant differences were found in the distribution of the active TrPs (chi2=12.2; P<0.001): active TrPs were mostly found in the anterior column and in the middle of the muscle belly. The analysis of variance did not detect significant differences in the referred pain pattern between active TrPs (F=1.1, P=0.4). The topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps showed the distinct distribution of the TrPs indicated by locations with low PPTs. Multiple active TrPs in the temporalis muscle were found, particularly in the anterior column and in the middle of the muscle belly. Bilateral posterior to anterior decreased distribution of PPTs in the temporalis muscle in women with CTTH was found. The locations of active TrPs in the temporalis muscle corresponded well to the muscle areas with lower PPT, supporting the relationship between multiple active muscle TrPs and topographical pressure sensitivity maps in the temporalis muscle in women with CTTH.

  6. Does Deep Cervical Flexor Muscle Training Affect Pain Pressure Thresholds of Myofascial Trigger Points in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain? A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos Bobos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We need to understand more about how DNF performs in different contexts and whether it affects the pain threshold over myofascial trigger points (MTrPs. Purpose. The objectives were to investigate the effect of neck muscles training on disability and pain and on pain threshold over MTrPs in people with chronic neck pain. Methods. Patients with chronic neck pain were eligible for participation with a Neck Disability Index (NDI score of over 5/50 and having at least one MTrP on either levator scapulae, upper trapezoid, or splenius capitis muscle. Patients were randomly assigned into either DNF training, superficial neck muscle exercise, or advice group. Generalized linear model (GLM was used to detect differences in treatment groups over time. Results. Out of 67 participants, 60 (47 females, mean age: 39.45 ± 12.67 completed the study. Neck disability and neck pain were improved over time between and within groups (p<0.05. However, no differences were found within and between the therapeutic groups (p<0.05 in the tested muscles’ PPTs and in cervicothoracic angle over a 7-week period. Conclusion. All three groups improved over time. This infers that the pain pathways involved in the neck pain relief are not those involved in pain threshold.

  7. Performance Comparison of Widely-Used Maximum Power Point Tracker Algorithms under Real Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURUSU, A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs play an essential role in extracting power from photovoltaic (PV panels as they make the solar panels to operate at the maximum power point (MPP whatever the changes of environmental conditions are. For this reason, they take an important place in the increase of PV system efficiency. MPPTs are driven by MPPT algorithms and a number of MPPT algorithms are proposed in the literature. The comparison of the MPPT algorithms in literature are made by a sun simulator based test system under laboratory conditions for short durations. However, in this study, the performances of four most commonly used MPPT algorithms are compared under real environmental conditions for longer periods. A dual identical experimental setup is designed to make a comparison between two the considered MPPT algorithms as synchronized. As a result of this study, the ranking among these algorithms are presented and the results show that Incremental Conductance (IC algorithm gives the best performance.

  8. Analysis and research on Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Array with Fuzzy Logic Control and Three-point Weight Comparison Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; Kuang-Jang; LIN; Chii-Ruey

    2010-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Array has a best optimal operating point where the array operating can obtain the maximum power.However, the optimal operating point can be compromised by the strength of solar radiation,angle,and by the change of environment and load.Due to the constant changes in these conditions,it has become very difficult to locate the optimal operating point by following a mathematical model.Therefore,this study will focus mostly on the application of Fuzzy Logic Control theory and Three-point Weight Comparison Method in effort to locate the optimal operating point of solar panel and achieve maximum efficiency in power generation. The Three-point Weight Comparison Method is the comparison between the characteristic curves of the voltage of photovoltaic array and output power;it is a rather simple way to track the maximum power.The Fuzzy Logic Control,on the other hand,can be used to solve problems that cannot be effectively dealt with by calculation rules,such as concepts,contemplation, deductive reasoning,and identification.Therefore,this paper uses these two kinds of methods to make simulation successively. The simulation results show that,the Three-point Comparison Method is more effective under the environment with more frequent change of solar radiation;however,the Fuzzy Logic Control has better tacking efficiency under the environment with violent change of solar radiation.

  9. Trigger finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digit; Trigger finger release; Locked finger; Digital flexor tenosynovitis ... cut or hand Yellow or green drainage from the cut Hand pain or discomfort Fever If your trigger finger returns, call your surgeon. You may need another surgery.

  10. Referred pain from myofascial trigger points in head and neck-shoulder muscles reproduces head pain features in children with chronic tension type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel M; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Ambite-Quesada, Silvia; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Pareja, Juan A

    2011-02-01

    Our aim was to describe the referred pain pattern and areas from trigger points (TrPs) in head, neck, and shoulder muscles in children with chronic tension type headache (CTTH). Fifty children (14 boys, 36 girls, mean age: 8 ± 2) with CTTH and 50 age- and sex- matched children participated. Bilateral temporalis, masseter, superior oblique, upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, suboccipital, and levator scapula muscles were examined for TrPs by an assessor blinded to the children's condition. TrPs were identified with palpation and considered active when local and referred pains reproduce headache pain attacks. The referred pain areas were drawn on anatomical maps, digitalized, and also measured. The total number of TrPs was significantly greater in children with CTTH as compared to healthy children (P < 0.001). Active TrPs were only present in children with CTTH (P < 0.001). Within children with CTTH, a significant positive association between the number of active TrPs and headache duration (r (s) = 0.315; P = 0.026) was observed: the greater the number of active TrPs, the longer the duration of headache attack. Significant differences in referred pain areas between groups (P < 0.001) and muscles (P < 0.001) were found: the referred pain areas were larger in CTTH children (P < 0.001), and the referred pain area elicited by suboccipital TrPs was larger than the referred pain from the remaining TrPs (P < 0.001). Significant positive correlations between some headache clinical parameters and the size of the referred pain area were found. Our results showed that the local and referred pains elicited from active TrPs in head, neck and shoulder shared similar pain pattern as spontaneous CTTH in children, supporting a relevant role of active TrPs in CTTH in children.

  11. Association of cross-sectional area of the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle with active trigger points in chronic tension-type headache: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, María Luz; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Ge, Hong-You; Pareja, Juan A

    2008-03-01

    To investigate whether cross-sectional area (CSA) of the suboccipital muscles was associated with active trigger points (TrPs) in chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine was performed in 11 females with CTTH aged from 26 to 50 yrs old. CSA for both rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPmin) and rectus capitis posterior major (RCPmaj) muscles were measured from axial T1-weighted images, using axial MRI slices aligned parallel to the C2/3 intervertebral disc. A headache diary was kept for 4 wks to record the pain history. TrPs in the suboccipital muscle were identified by eliciting referred pain to palpation, and increased referred pain with muscle contraction. TrPs were considered active if the elicited referred pain reproduced the head pain pattern and features of the pattern seen during spontaneous headache attacks. Active TrPs were found in six patients (55%), whereas the remaining five patients showed latent TrPs. CSA of the RCPmin was significantly smaller (F = 13.843; P = 0.002) in the patients with active TrPs (right side: 55.9 +/- 4.4 mm; left side: 61.1 +/-: 3.8 mm) than in patients with latent TrPs (right side: 96.9 +/- 14.4 mm; left side: 88.7 +/- 9.7 mm). No significant differences were found for CSA of the RCPmaj between the patients with either active or latent TrP (P > 0.5). It seems that muscle atrophy in the RCPmin, but not in the RCPmaj, was associated with suboccipital active TrPs in CTTH, although studies with larger sample sizes are now required. It may be that nociceptive inputs in active TrPs could lead to muscle atrophy of the involved muscles. Muscle disuse or avoidance behavior can also be involved in atrophy.

  12. Neuroscience education in addition to trigger point dry needling for the management of patients with mechanical chronic low back pain: A preliminary clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez-García, Mario; de-la-Llave-Rincón, Ana I; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Palacios-Ceña, Maria; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the short-term effects of trigger point dry needling (TrP-DN) alone or combined with neuroscience education on pain, disability, kinesiophobia and widespread pressure sensitivity in patients with mechanical low back pain (LBP). Twelve patients with LBP were randomly assigned to receive either TrP-DN (TrP-DN) or TrP-DN plus neuroscience education (TrP-DN + EDU). Pain intensity (Numerical Pain Rating Scale, 0-10), disability (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire-RMQ-, Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index-ODI), kinesiophobia (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia-TSK), and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, transverse process of L3 vertebra, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscle were collected at baseline and 1-week after the intervention. Patients treated with TrP-DN + EDU experienced a significantly greater reduction of kinesiophobia (P = 0.008) and greater increases in PPT over the transverse process of L3 (P = 0.049) than those patients treated only with TrP-DN. Both groups experienced similar decreases in pain, ODI and RMQ, and similar increases in PPT over the C5/C6 joint, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior after the intervention (all, P > 0.05). The results suggest that TrP-DN was effective for improving pain, disability, kinesiophobia and widespread pressure sensitivity in patients with mechanical LBP at short-term. The inclusion of a neuroscience educational program resulted in a greater improvement in kinesiophobia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. GPU-Based Point Cloud Superpositioning for Structural Comparisons of Protein Binding Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinweber, Matthias; Fober, Thomas; Freisleben, Bernd

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to solve the labeled point cloud superpositioning problem for performing structural comparisons of protein binding sites. The solution is based on a parallel evolution strategy that operates on large populations and runs on GPU hardware. The proposed evolution strategy reduces the likelihood of getting stuck in a local optimum of the multimodal real-valued optimization problem represented by labeled point cloud superpositioning. The performance of the GPU-based parallel evolution strategy is compared to a previously proposed CPU-based sequential approach for labeled point cloud superpositioning, indicating that the GPU-based parallel evolution strategy leads to qualitatively better results and significantly shorter runtimes, with speed improvements of up to a factor of 1,500 for large populations. Binary classification tests based on the ATP, NADH, and FAD protein subsets of CavBase, a database containing putative binding sites, show average classification rate improvements from about 92 percent (CPU) to 96 percent (GPU). Further experiments indicate that the proposed GPU-based labeled point cloud superpositioning approach can be superior to traditional protein comparison approaches based on sequence alignments.

  14. Quality Assessment and Comparison of Smartphone and Leica C10 Laser Scanner Based Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmacek, Beril; Lindenbergh, Roderik; Wang, Jinhu

    2016-06-01

    3D urban models are valuable for urban map generation, environment monitoring, safety planning and educational purposes. For 3D measurement of urban structures, generally airborne laser scanning sensors or multi-view satellite images are used as a data source. However, close-range sensors (such as terrestrial laser scanners) and low cost cameras (which can generate point clouds based on photogrammetry) can provide denser sampling of 3D surface geometry. Unfortunately, terrestrial laser scanning sensors are expensive and trained persons are needed to use them for point cloud acquisition. A potential effective 3D modelling can be generated based on a low cost smartphone sensor. Herein, we show examples of using smartphone camera images to generate 3D models of urban structures. We compare a smartphone based 3D model of an example structure with a terrestrial laser scanning point cloud of the structure. This comparison gives us opportunity to discuss the differences in terms of geometrical correctness, as well as the advantages, disadvantages and limitations in data acquisition and processing. We also discuss how smartphone based point clouds can help to solve further problems with 3D urban model generation in a practical way. We show that terrestrial laser scanning point clouds which do not have color information can be colored using smartphones. The experiments, discussions and scientific findings might be insightful for the future studies in fast, easy and low-cost 3D urban model generation field.

  15. QUALITY ASSESSMENT AND COMPARISON OF SMARTPHONE AND LEICA C10 LASER SCANNER BASED POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sirmacek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D urban models are valuable for urban map generation, environment monitoring, safety planning and educational purposes. For 3D measurement of urban structures, generally airborne laser scanning sensors or multi-view satellite images are used as a data source. However, close-range sensors (such as terrestrial laser scanners and low cost cameras (which can generate point clouds based on photogrammetry can provide denser sampling of 3D surface geometry. Unfortunately, terrestrial laser scanning sensors are expensive and trained persons are needed to use them for point cloud acquisition. A potential effective 3D modelling can be generated based on a low cost smartphone sensor. Herein, we show examples of using smartphone camera images to generate 3D models of urban structures. We compare a smartphone based 3D model of an example structure with a terrestrial laser scanning point cloud of the structure. This comparison gives us opportunity to discuss the differences in terms of geometrical correctness, as well as the advantages, disadvantages and limitations in data acquisition and processing. We also discuss how smartphone based point clouds can help to solve further problems with 3D urban model generation in a practical way. We show that terrestrial laser scanning point clouds which do not have color information can be colored using smartphones. The experiments, discussions and scientific findings might be insightful for the future studies in fast, easy and low-cost 3D urban model generation field.

  16. Effectiveness of Trigger Point Manual Treatment on the Frequency, Intensity, and Duration of Attacks in Primary Headaches: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Falsiroli Maistrello

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA variety of interventions has been proposed for symptomatology relief in primary headaches. Among these, manual trigger points (TrPs treatment gains popularity, but its effects have not been investigated yet.ObjectiveThe aim was to establish the effectiveness of manual TrP compared to minimal active or no active interventions in terms of frequency, intensity, and duration of attacks in adult people with primary headaches.MethodsWe searched MEDLINE, COCHRANE, Web Of Science, and PEDro databases up to November 2017 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Two independent reviewers appraised the risk-of-bias (RoB and the grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE to evaluate the overall quality of evidence.ResultsSeven RCTs that compared manual treatment vs minimal active intervention were included: 5 focused on tension-type headache (TTH and 2 on Migraine (MH; 3 out of 7 RCTs had high RoB. Combined TTH and MH results show statistically significant reduction for all outcomes after treatment compared to controls, but the level of evidence was very low. Subgroup analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in attack frequency (no. of attacks per month after treatment in TTH (MD −3.50; 95% CI from −4.91 to −2.09; 4 RCTs and in MH (MD −1.92; 95% CI from −3.03 to −0.80; 2 RCTs. Pain intensity (0–100 scale was reduced in TTH (MD −12.83; 95% CI from −19.49 to −6.17; 4 RCTs and in MH (MD −13.60; 95% CI from −19.54 to −7.66; 2RCTs. Duration of attacks (hours was reduced in TTH (MD −0.51; 95% CI from −0.97 to −0.04; 2 RCTs and in MH (MD −10.68; 95% CI from −14.41 to −6.95; 1 RCT.ConclusionManual TrPs treatment of head and neck muscles may reduce frequency, intensity, and duration of attacks in TTH and MH, but the quality of evidence according to GRADE approach was very low for the presence of few studies, high RoB, and imprecision of results.

  17. The local and referred pain from myofascial trigger points in the temporalis muscle contributes to pain profile in chronic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Cuadrado, Maria Luz; Pareja, Juan A

    2007-01-01

    To assess the local and referred pain areas and pain characteristics evoked from temporalis muscle trigger points (TrPs) in chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Thirty CTTH patients and 30 age and sex-matched controls were studied. A headache diary was kept for 4 weeks to substantiate the diagnosis and record the pain history. Both temporalis muscles were examined for the presence of myofascial TrPs in a blinded fashion. The local and referred pain intensities, referred pain pattern, and pressure pain threshold were recorded. Referred pain was evoked in 87% and 54% on the dominant and nondominant sides in CTTH patients, which was significantly higher (P<0.001) than in controls (10% vs. 17%, respectively). Referred pain spread to the temple ipsilateral to the stimulated muscle in both patients and controls, with additional referral behind the eyes in most patients, but none in controls. CTTH patients reported a higher local [visual analog scale (VAS): 5.6+/-1.2 right side, 5.3+/-1.4 left side] and referred pain (VAS: 4.7+/-2 right side, 3.5+/-2.8 left side) intensity than healthy controls (VAS: 0.8+/-0.7 right side, 0.7+/-0.7 left side for local pain; and 0.3+/-0.2 right side, 0.4+/-0.3 left side for referred pain) in both temporalis muscles (both, P<0.001). The local and referred pain areas were larger in patients than in controls (P<0.001). Twenty-three out of 30 CTTH patients (77%) had active TrPs in the temporalis muscle leading to their usual headache (17 patients on the right side; 12 on the left side, whereas 6 with bilateral active TrPs). CTTH patients with active TrPs in either right or left temporalis muscle showed longer headache duration than those with latent TrPs (P=0.004). CTTH patients showed significantly (P<0.001) lower pressure pain threshold (1.1+/-0.2 right side, 1.2+/-0.3 left side) as compared with controls (2.5+/-0.5 right side, 2.6+/-0.4 left side). In CTTH patients, the evoked local and referred pain from active TrPs in the temporalis

  18. Functional MRI of the patellofemoral joint: comparison of ultrafast MRI, motion-triggered cine MRI and static MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhle, C. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Brossmann, J. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Melchert, U.H. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Schroeder, C. [Radiologische Abt., Universitaets-Kinderklinik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel (Germany); Boer, R. de [Philips Medical Systems, Best (Netherlands); Spielmann, R.P. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Heller, M. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    To evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of ultrafast MRI (u), patellar tracking from 30 of flexion to knee extension (0 ) was analysed and compared with motion-triggered cine MRI (m) and a static MRI technique (s). The different imaging methods were compared in respect of the patellofemoral relationship, the examination time and image quality. Eight healthy subjects and four patients (in total 18 joints) with patellar subluxation or luxation were examined. Significant differences between the static MRI series without quadriceps contraction and the functional MRI studies (motion-triggered cine MRI and ultrafast MRI) were found for the patellar tilt angle. In the dynamic joint studies there was no statistical difference of the regression coefficients between the motion-triggered cine MRI studies and the ultrafast MRI studies. The findings of the functional MRI studies compared with the static MRI images were significantly different for the lateralisation of the patella, expressed by the lateral patellar displacement and bisect offset. No significant differences in patellar lateralisation were found between motion-triggered cine MRI and ultrafast MRI. Ultrafast MRI was superior to motion-triggered cine MRI in terms of the reduction in imaging time and improvement of the image quality. (orig.)

  19. Functional MRI of the patellofemoral joint: comparison of ultrafast MRI, motion-triggered cine MRI and static MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhle, C.; Brossmann, J.; Melchert, U.H.; Schroeder, C.; Boer, R. de; Spielmann, R.P.; Heller, M.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of ultrafast MRI (u), patellar tracking from 30 of flexion to knee extension (0 ) was analysed and compared with motion-triggered cine MRI (m) and a static MRI technique (s). The different imaging methods were compared in respect of the patellofemoral relationship, the examination time and image quality. Eight healthy subjects and four patients (in total 18 joints) with patellar subluxation or luxation were examined. Significant differences between the static MRI series without quadriceps contraction and the functional MRI studies (motion-triggered cine MRI and ultrafast MRI) were found for the patellar tilt angle. In the dynamic joint studies there was no statistical difference of the regression coefficients between the motion-triggered cine MRI studies and the ultrafast MRI studies. The findings of the functional MRI studies compared with the static MRI images were significantly different for the lateralisation of the patella, expressed by the lateral patellar displacement and bisect offset. No significant differences in patellar lateralisation were found between motion-triggered cine MRI and ultrafast MRI. Ultrafast MRI was superior to motion-triggered cine MRI in terms of the reduction in imaging time and improvement of the image quality. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of particle-exposure triggered pulmonary and systemic inflammation in mice fed with three different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Alexander A; Rozman, Jan; Rödel, Heiko G; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Klingenspor, Martin; Stoeger, Tobias

    2011-09-27

    Obesity can be linked to disease risks such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders, but recently, the adipose tissue (AT) macrophage also emerges as actively participating in inflammation and immune function, producing pro- and anti-inflammatory factors. Connections between the AT and chronic lung diseases, like emphysema and asthma and a protective role of adipocyte-derived proteins against acute lung injury were suggested.In this study we addressed the question, whether a diet challenge increases the inflammatory response in the alveolar and the blood compartment in response to carbon nanoparticles (CNP), as a surrogate for ambient/urban particulate air pollutants. Mice were fed a high caloric carbohydrate-rich (CA) or a fat-rich (HF) diet for six weeks and were compared to mice kept on a purified low fat (LF) diet, respectively. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood samples were taken 24 h after intratracheal CNP instillation and checked for cellular and molecular markers of inflammation. The high caloric diets resulted in distinct effects when compared with LF mice, respectively: CA resulted in increased body and fat mass without affecting blood cellular immunity. Conversely, HF activated the blood system, increasing lymphocyte and neutrophil counts, and resulted in slightly increased body fat content. In contrast to higher pro-inflammatory BAL Leptin in CA and HF mice, on a cellular level, both diets did not lead to an increased pro-inflammatory basal status in the alveolar compartment per se, nor did result in differences in the particle-triggered response. However both diets resulted in a disturbance of the alveolar capillary barrier as indicated by enhanced BAL protein and lactate-dehydrogenase concentrations. Systemically, reduced serum Adiponectin in HF mice might be related to the observed white blood cell increase. The increase in BAL pro-inflammatory factors in high caloric groups and reductions in serum concentrations of anti-inflammatory factors

  1. Comparison of particle-exposure triggered pulmonary and systemic inflammation in mice fed with three different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrabě de Angelis Martin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity can be linked to disease risks such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders, but recently, the adipose tissue (AT macrophage also emerges as actively participating in inflammation and immune function, producing pro- and anti-inflammatory factors. Connections between the AT and chronic lung diseases, like emphysema and asthma and a protective role of adipocyte-derived proteins against acute lung injury were suggested. In this study we addressed the question, whether a diet challenge increases the inflammatory response in the alveolar and the blood compartment in response to carbon nanoparticles (CNP, as a surrogate for ambient/urban particulate air pollutants. Methods Mice were fed a high caloric carbohydrate-rich (CA or a fat-rich (HF diet for six weeks and were compared to mice kept on a purified low fat (LF diet, respectively. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and blood samples were taken 24 h after intratracheal CNP instillation and checked for cellular and molecular markers of inflammation. Results and discussion The high caloric diets resulted in distinct effects when compared with LF mice, respectively: CA resulted in increased body and fat mass without affecting blood cellular immunity. Conversely, HF activated the blood system, increasing lymphocyte and neutrophil counts, and resulted in slightly increased body fat content. In contrast to higher pro-inflammatory BAL Leptin in CA and HF mice, on a cellular level, both diets did not lead to an increased pro-inflammatory basal status in the alveolar compartment per se, nor did result in differences in the particle-triggered response. However both diets resulted in a disturbance of the alveolar capillary barrier as indicated by enhanced BAL protein and lactate-dehydrogenase concentrations. Systemically, reduced serum Adiponectin in HF mice might be related to the observed white blood cell increase. Conclusion The increase in BAL pro-inflammatory factors in high caloric

  2. Comparison of one-dimensional and point kinetics for various light water reactor transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.A.; Lin, C.; Gose, G.C.; McClure, J.A.; Matsui, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The object of this paper is to compare the results from the three kinetics options: 1) point kinetics; 2) point kinetics by not changing the shape function; and 3) one-dimensional kinetics for various transients on both BWRs and PWRs. A systematic evaluation of the one-dimensional kinetics calculation and its alternatives is performed to determine the status of these models and to identify additional development work. In addition, for PWRs, the NODEP-2 - NODETRAN and SIMULATE - SIMTRAN paths for calculating kinetics parameters are compared. This type of comparison has not been performed before and is needed to properly evaluate the RASP methodology of which these codes are a part. It should be noted that RASP is in its early pre-release stage and this is the first serious attempt to examine the consistency between these two similar but different methods of generating physics parameters for the RETRAN computer code

  3. Trigger circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verity, P.R.; Chaplain, M.D.; Turner, G.D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A monostable trigger circuit comprises transistors TR2 and TR3 arranged with their collectors and bases interconnected. The collector of the transistor TR2 is connected to the base of transistor TR3 via a capacitor C2 the main current path of a grounded base transistor TR1 and resistive means R2,R3. The collector of transistor TR3 is connected to the base of transistor TR2 via resistive means R6, R7. In the stable state all the transistors are OFF, the capacitor C2 is charged, and the output is LOW. A positive pulse input to the base of TR2 switches it ON, which in turn lowers the voltage at points A and B and so switches TR1 ON so that C2 can discharge via R2, R3, which in turn switches TR3 ON making the output high. Thus all three transistors are latched ON. When C2 has discharged sufficiently TR1 switches OFF, followed by TR3 (making the output low again) and TR2. The components C1, C3 and R4 serve to reduce noise, and the diode D1 is optional. (author)

  4. Comparison cosmic ray irradiation simulation and particle beam test on UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger telescope(UBAT) detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, H. M.; Jeong, S.; Kim, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory pathfinder(UFFO-p) was launched onboard Lomonosov on 28th of April, 2016, and now is under various types of calibration for detection of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). Since last September UFFO-p has taken X-ray data in space with UFFO Burst Alert &Trigger telescope (UBAT),...

  5. Comparison of the Argon Triple-Point Temperature in Small Cells of Different Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziej, B.; Kowal, A.; Lipiński, L.; Manuszkiewicz, H.; Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.

    2017-06-01

    The argon triple point (T_{90} = 83.8058 \\hbox {K}) is a fixed point of the International Temperature Scale of Preston-Thomas (Metrologia 27:3, 1990). Cells for realization of the fixed point have been manufactured by several European metrology institutes (Pavese in Metrologia 14:93, 1978; Pavese et al. in Temperature, part 1, American Institute of Physics, College Park, 2003; Hermier et al. in Temperature, part 1, American Institute of Physics, College Park, 2003; Pavese and Beciet in Modern gas-based temperature and pressure measurement, Springer, New York, 2013). The Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research has in its disposal a few argon cells of various constructions used for calibration of capsule-type standard platinum resistance thermometers (CSPRT) that were produced within 40 years. These cells differ in terms of mechanical design and thermal properties, as well as source of gas filling the cell. This paper presents data on differences between temperature values obtained during the realization of the triple point of argon in these cells. For determination of the temperature, a heat-pulse method was applied (Pavese and Beciet in Modern gas-based temperature and pressure measurement, Springer, New York, 2013). The comparisons were performed using three CSPRTs. The temperatures difference was determined in relation to a reference function W(T)=R(T_{90})/R(271.16\\hbox {K}) in order to avoid an impact of CSPRT resistance drift between measurements in the argon cells. Melting curves and uncertainty budgets of the measurements are given in the paper. A construction of measuring apparatus is also presented in this paper.

  6. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Ilten, Philip; Williams, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so- called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all ’interesting” decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. Methods studied include cascading, ensembling and blending techniques. Furthermore, novel boosting techniques have been implemented that will help reduce systematic uncertainties in Run 2 measurements. We demonstrate that the reoptimized topological trigger is expected to significantly improve on the Run 1 performance for a wide range of b-hadron decays. (paper)

  7. A dissipated energy comparison to evaluate fatigue resistance using 2-point bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Maggiore

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is the main failure mode in pavement engineering. Typically, micro-cracks originate at the bottom of asphalt concrete layer due to horizontal tensile strains. Micro-cracks start to propagate towards the upper layers under repeated loading which can lead to pavement failure. Different methods are usually used to describe fatigue behavior in asphalt materials such as: phenomenological approach, fracture mechanics approach and dissipated energy approach. This paper presents a comparison of fatigue resistances calculated for different dissipated energy models using 2-point bending (2PB at IFSTTAR in Nantes. 2PB tests have been undertaken under different loading and environmental conditions in order to evaluate the properties of the mixtures (stiffness, dissipated energy, fatigue life and healing effect.

  8. Trigger Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a bent position. People whose work or hobbies require repetitive gripping actions are at higher risk ... developing trigger finger include: Repeated gripping. Occupations and hobbies that involve repetitive hand use and prolonged gripping ...

  9. Comparisons of Satellite Soil Moisture, an Energy Balance Model Driven by LST Data and Point Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, Paola; Gabellani, Simone; Rudari, Roberto; Boni, Giorgio; Puca, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    Soil moisture plays a fundamental role in the partitioning of mass and energy fluxes between land surface and atmosphere, thereby influencing climate and weather, and it is important in determining the rainfall-runoff response of catchments; moreover, in hydrological modelling and flood forecasting, a correct definition of moisture conditions is a key factor for accurate predictions. Different sources of information for the estimation of the soil moisture state are currently available: satellite data, point measurements and model predictions. All are affected by intrinsic uncertainty. Among different satellite sensors that can be used for soil moisture estimation three major groups can be distinguished: passive microwave sensors (e.g., SSMI), active sensors (e.g. SAR, Scatterometers), and optical sensors (e.g. Spectroradiometers). The last two families, mainly because of their temporal and spatial resolution seem the most suitable for hydrological applications In this work soil moisture point measurements from 10 sensors in the Italian territory are compared of with the satellite products both from the HSAF project SM-OBS-2, derived from the ASCAT scatterometer, and from ACHAB, an operative energy balance model that assimilate LST data derived from MSG and furnishes daily an evaporative fraction index related to soil moisture content for all the Italian region. Distributed comparison of the ACHAB and SM-OBS-2 on the whole Italian territory are performed too.

  10. A New Study of Maximum Power Point Tracker Techniques and Comparison for PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Atallah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The maximum power point tracker techniques vary in many aspects as simplicity, digital or analogical implementation, sensor required, convergence speed, range of effectiveness, implementation hardware,popularity, cost and in other aspects. This paper presents in details comparative study between two most popular  algorithm  technique  which  is  incremental  conductance  algorithm  and  perturb  and  observe algorithm.  Two  different  converters  buck  and  cuk  converter  use  for  comparative  in  this  study. Few comparisons such as efficiency, voltage, current and power output for each different combination have been recorded. Multi changes in irradiance, temperature by keeping voltage and current as main sensed parameter been done in the simulation. Matlab simulink tools have been used for performance evaluation on energy point. Simulation will consider different solar irradiance and temperature variations.

  11. [Comparison of the "Trigger" tool with the minimum basic data set for detecting adverse events in general surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Zapata, A I; Gutiérrez Samaniego, M; Rodríguez Cuéllar, E; Gómez de la Cámara, A; Ruiz López, P

    Surgery is a high risk for the occurrence of adverse events (AE). The main objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of the Trigger tool with the Hospital National Health System registration of Discharges, the minimum basic data set (MBDS), in detecting adverse events in patients admitted to General Surgery and undergoing surgery. Observational and descriptive retrospective study of patients admitted to general surgery of a tertiary hospital, and undergoing surgery in 2012. The identification of adverse events was made by reviewing the medical records, using an adaptation of "Global Trigger Tool" methodology, as well as the (MBDS) registered on the same patients. Once the AE were identified, they were classified according to damage and to the extent to which these could have been avoided. The area under the curve (ROC) were used to determine the discriminatory power of the tools. The Hanley and Mcneil test was used to compare both tools. AE prevalence was 36.8%. The TT detected 89.9% of all AE, while the MBDS detected 28.48%. The TT provides more information on the nature and characteristics of the AE. The area under the curve was 0.89 for the TT and 0.66 for the MBDS. These differences were statistically significant (P<.001). The Trigger tool detects three times more adverse events than the MBDS registry. The prevalence of adverse events in General Surgery is higher than that estimated in other studies. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison between cross sections, saddle point and scission point barriers for the 32S+24Mg reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos T. J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the principal characteristics of nuclear multifragmentation is the emission of complex fragments of intermediate mass. The statistical multifragmentation model has been used for many years to describe the distribution of these fragments. An extension of the statistical multifragmentation model to include partial widths and lifetimes for emission, interprets the fragmentation process as the near simultaneous limit of a series of sequential binary decays. In this extension, the expression describing intermediate mass fragment emission is almost identical to that of light particle emission. At lower temperatures, similar expressions have been shown to furnish a good description of very light intermediate mass fragment emission. However, this is usually not considered a good approximation to the emission of heavier fragments. These emissions seem to be determined by the characteristics of the system at the saddle-point and its subsequent dynamical evolution rather than by the scission point. Here, we compare the barriers and decay widths of these different formulations of intermediate fragment emission and analyze the extent to which they remain distinguishable at high excitation energy.

  13. Comparison between cross sections, saddle point and scission point barriers for the {sup 32}S+{sup 24}Mg reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.J.; Carlson, B.V., E-mail: nztiago@gmail.com [Instituto Tecnologia de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    One of the principal characteristics of nuclear multifragmentation is the emission of complex fragments of intermediate mass. The statistical multifragmentation model has been used for many years to describe the distribution of these fragments. An extension of the statistical multifragmentation model to include partial widths and lifetimes for emission, interprets the fragmentation process as the near simultaneous limit of a series of sequential binary decays. In this extension, the expression describing intermediate mass fragment emission is almost identical to that of light particle emission. At lower temperatures, similar expressions have been shown to furnish a good description of very light intermediate mass fragment emission. However, this is usually not considered a good approximation to the emission of heavier fragments. These emissions seem to be determined by the characteristics of the system at the saddle-point and its subsequent dynamical evolution rather than by the scission point. Here, we compare the barriers and decay widths of these different formulations of intermediate fragment emission and analyze the extent to which they remain distinguishable at high excitation energy. (author)

  14. FDM and DMT performance comparison in high capacity point-to-point fibre links for intra/inter-datacentre connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, A.; Parolari, P.; Boffi, P.

    2018-05-01

    Frequency division multiplexing (FDM) is attractive to achieve high capacities in multiple access networks characterized by direct modulation and direct detection. In this paper we take into account point-to-point intra- and inter-datacenter connections to understand the performance of FDM operation compared with the ones achievable with standard multiple carrier modulation approach based on discrete multitone (DMT). DMT and FDM allow to match the non-uniform and bandwidth-limited response of the system under test, associated with the employment of low-cost directly-modulated sources, such as VCSELs with high-frequency chirp, and with fibre-propagation in presence of chromatic dispersion. While for very short distances typical of intra-datacentre communications, the huge number of DMT subcarriers permits to increase the transported capacity with respect to the FDM employment, in case of few tens-km reaches typical of inter-datacentre connections, the capabilities of FDM are more evident, providing system performance similar to the case of DMT application.

  15. Prospective comparison of liver stiffness measurements between two point wave elastography methods: Virtual ouch quantification and elastography point quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Dong Ho; Chang, Won; Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To prospectively compare technical success rate and reliable measurements of virtual touch quantification (VTQ) elastography and elastography point quantification (ElastPQ), and to correlate liver stiffness (LS) measurements obtained by the two elastography techniques. Our study included 85 patients, 80 of whom were previously diagnosed with chronic liver disease. The technical success rate and reliable measurements of the two kinds of point shear wave elastography (pSWE) techniques were compared by χ{sup 2} analysis. LS values measured using the two techniques were compared and correlated via Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Spearman correlation coefficient, and 95% Bland-Altman limit of agreement. The intraobserver reproducibility of ElastPQ was determined by 95% Bland-Altman limit of agreement and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The two pSWE techniques showed similar technical success rate (98.8% for VTQ vs. 95.3% for ElastPQ, p = 0.823) and reliable LS measurements (95.3% for VTQ vs. 90.6% for ElastPQ, p = 0.509). The mean LS measurements obtained by VTQ (1.71 ± 0.47 m/s) and ElastPQ (1.66 ± 0.41 m/s) were not significantly different (p = 0.209). The LS measurements obtained by the two techniques showed strong correlation (r = 0.820); in addition, the 95% limit of agreement of the two methods was 27.5% of the mean. Finally, the ICC of repeat ElastPQ measurements was 0.991. Virtual touch quantification and ElastPQ showed similar technical success rate and reliable measurements, with strongly correlated LS measurements. However, the two methods are not interchangeable due to the large limit of agreement.

  16. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00400931; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-23

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. ...

  17. Topological Trigger Developments

    CERN Multimedia

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected an almost 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%, and its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and uBoost. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. These inclu...

  18. Methodologies for the assessment of earthquake-triggered landslides hazard. A comparison of Logistic Regression and Artificial Neural Network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, M. J.; Malpica, J. A.; Benito, B.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, interest in landslide hazard assessment studies has increased substantially. They are appropriate for evaluation and mitigation plan development in landslide-prone areas. There are several techniques available for landslide hazard research at a regional scale. Generally, they can be classified in two groups: qualitative and quantitative methods. Most of qualitative methods tend to be subjective, since they depend on expert opinions and represent hazard levels in descriptive terms. On the other hand, quantitative methods are objective and they are commonly used due to the correlation between the instability factors and the location of the landslides. Within this group, statistical approaches and new heuristic techniques based on artificial intelligence (artificial neural network (ANN), fuzzy logic, etc.) provide rigorous analysis to assess landslide hazard over large regions. However, they depend on qualitative and quantitative data, scale, types of movements and characteristic factors used. We analysed and compared an approach for assessing earthquake-triggered landslides hazard using logistic regression (LR) and artificial neural networks (ANN) with a back-propagation learning algorithm. One application has been developed in El Salvador, a country of Central America where the earthquake-triggered landslides are usual phenomena. In a first phase, we analysed the susceptibility and hazard associated to the seismic scenario of the 2001 January 13th earthquake. We calibrated the models using data from the landslide inventory for this scenario. These analyses require input variables representing physical parameters to contribute to the initiation of slope instability, for example, slope gradient, elevation, aspect, mean annual precipitation, lithology, land use, and terrain roughness, while the occurrence or non-occurrence of landslides is considered as dependent variable. The results of the landslide susceptibility analysis are checked using landslide

  19. Physics issues on triggering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The detectors at the ILC are planned to run without hardware trigger. The ... as not coming from the interaction point and not matching to the silicon detectors ... electrons so that additional dE/dx cuts can help, making also here a factor 10 or.

  20. Triggering Artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben Holst; Robinson, Mike

    1995-01-01

    and adapting them to specific situations need not be ad hoc.Triggering artefacts are a way of systematically challenging both designers' preunderstandings and the conservatism of work practice. Experiences from the Great Belt tunnel and bridge project are used to illustrate howtriggering artefacts change...

  1. Prospectively ECG-triggered sequential dual-source coronary CT angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation: comparison with retrospectively ECG-gated helical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lei; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Zhaoqi [Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang, Yining; Jin, Zhengyu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhang, Longjiang; Lu, Guangming [Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2013-07-15

    To investigate the feasibility of applying prospectively ECG-triggered sequential coronary CT angiography (CCTA) to patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and evaluate the image quality and radiation dose compared with a retrospectively ECG-gated helical protocol. 100 patients with persistent AF were enrolled. Fifty patients were randomly assigned to a prospective protocol and the other patients to a retrospective protocol using a second-generation dual-source CT (DS-CT). Image quality was evaluated using a four-point grading scale (1 = excellent, 2 = good, 3 = moderate, 4 = poor) by two reviewers on a per-segment basis. The coronary artery segments were considered non-diagnostic with a quality score of 4. The radiation dose was evaluated. Diagnostic segment rate in the prospective group was 99.4 % (642/646 segments), while that in the retrospective group was 96.5 % (604/626 segments) (P < 0.001). Effective dose was 4.29 {+-} 1.86 and 11.95 {+-} 5.34 mSv for each of the two protocols (P < 0.001), which was a 64 % reduction in the radiation dose for prospective sequential imaging compared with retrospective helical imaging. In AF patients, prospectively ECG-triggered sequential CCTA is feasible using second-generation DS-CT and can decrease >60 % radiation exposure compared with retrospectively ECG-gated helical imaging while improving diagnostic image quality. (orig.)

  2. The Comparison of Point Data Models for the Output of WRF Hydro Model in the IDV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Y.; Weber, J.

    2017-12-01

    WRF Hydro netCDF output files contain streamflow, flow depth, longitude, latitude, altitude and stream order values for each forecast point. However, the data are not CF compliant. The total number of forecast points for the US CONUS is approximately 2.7 million and it is a big challenge for any visualization and analysis tool. The IDV point cloud display shows point data as a set of points colored by parameter. This display is very efficient compared to a standard point type display for rendering a large number of points. The one problem we have is that the data I/O can be a bottleneck issue when dealing with a large collection of point input files. In this presentation, we will experiment with different point data models and their APIs to access the same WRF Hydro model output. The results will help us construct a CF compliant netCDF point data format for the community.

  3. Comparison of Points of Departure for Health Risk Assessment Based on High-Throughput Screening Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Salomon; Parham, Fred; Portier, Christopher J.; Tice, Raymond R.; Krewski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background: The National Research Council’s vision for toxicity testing in the 21st century anticipates that points of departure (PODs) for establishing human exposure guidelines in future risk assessments will increasingly be based on in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) data. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare different PODs for HTS data. Specifically, benchmark doses (BMDs) were compared to the signal-to-noise crossover dose (SNCD), which has been suggested as the lowest dose applicable as a POD. Methods: Hill models were fit to > 10,000 in vitro concentration–response curves, obtained for > 1,400 chemicals tested as part of the U.S. Tox21 Phase I effort. BMDs and lower confidence limits on the BMDs (BMDLs) corresponding to extra effects (i.e., changes in response relative to the maximum response) of 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% were estimated for > 8,000 curves, along with BMDs and BMDLs corresponding to additional effects (i.e., absolute changes in response) of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%. The SNCD, defined as the dose where the ratio between the additional effect and the difference between the upper and lower bounds of the two-sided 90% confidence interval on absolute effect was 1, 0.67, and 0.5, respectively, was also calculated and compared with the BMDLs. Results: The BMDL40, BMDL25, and BMDL18, defined in terms of extra effect, corresponded to the SNCD1.0, SNCD0.67, and SNCD0.5, respectively, at the median. Similarly, the BMDL25, BMDL17, and BMDL13, defined in terms of additional effect, corresponded to the SNCD1.0, SNCD0.67, and SNCD0.5, respectively, at the median. Conclusions: The SNCD may serve as a reference level that guides the determination of standardized BMDs for risk assessment based on HTS concentration–response data. The SNCD may also have application as a POD for low-dose extrapolation. Citation: Sand S, Parham F, Portier CJ, Tice RR, Krewski D. 2017. Comparison of points of departure for health risk assessment based on

  4. Ectopic expression of AID in a non-B cell line triggers A:T and G:C point mutations in non-replicating episomal vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihana Jovanic

    Full Text Available Somatic hypermutation (SHM of immunoglobulin genes is currently viewed as a two step process initiated by the deamination of deoxycytidine (C to deoxyuridine (U, catalysed by the activation induced deaminase (AID. Phase 1 mutations arise from DNA replication across the uracil residue or the abasic site, generated by the uracil-DNA glycosylase, yielding transitions or transversions at G:C pairs. Phase 2 mutations result from the recognition of the U:G mismatch by the Msh2/Msh6 complex (MutS Homologue, followed by the excision of the mismatched nucleotide and the repair, by the low fidelity DNA polymerase eta, of the gap generated by the exonuclease I. These mutations are mainly focused at A:T pairs. Whereas in activated B cells both G:C and A:T pairs are equally targeted, ectopic expression of AID was shown to trigger only G:C mutations on a stably integrated reporter gene. Here we show that when using non-replicative episomal vectors containing a GFP gene, inactivated by the introduction of stop codons at various positions, a high level of EGFP positive cells was obtained after transient expression in Jurkat cells constitutively expressing AID. We show that mutations at G:C and A:T pairs are produced. EGFP positive cells are obtained in the absence of vector replication demonstrating that the mutations are dependent only on the mismatch repair (MMR pathway. This implies that the generation of phase 1 mutations is not a prerequisite for the expression of phase 2 mutations.

  5. Macrophage triggering by aggregated immunoglobulins. II. Comparison of IgE and IgG aggregates or immune complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, J; Dessaint, J P; Joseph, M; Bazin, H; Capron, A

    1984-01-01

    Macrophages incubated with complexed or aggregated IgE released beta-glucuronidase (beta-G) within 30 min. In contrast in the presence of aggregated or complexed IgG, macrophages liberated equivalent amount of beta-G only after 6 h incubation. In addition the rapid macrophage stimulation induced by aggregated IgE was also followed by a faster 3H-glucosamine incorporation when compared to the delayed activation caused by aggregated IgG. However, macrophages stimulated either by IgG or by IgE oligomers produced the same percentage of plasminogen activator at 24 h. In contrast, while the interaction between macrophages and aggregated IgE was only followed by a peak of cyclic GMP and a beta-G release during the first 30 min of incubation, the interaction between macrophages and IgG oligomers was accompanied by a simultaneous increase of cyclic GMP and AMP nucleotides and by an absence of beta-G exocytosis. Moreover, the beta-G release induced by aggregated IgE was increased when macrophages were preincubated with aggregated IgG. This additive effect was not observed in the reverse situation. Finally macrophages activated by IgG oligomers were demonstrated to exert a cytotoxic effect on tumour cells and to kill schistosomula in the presence of a low level of complement. Taken together these results underline the peculiar ability of aggregated or complexed IgE to trigger rapidly the macrophage activation compared to aggregated IgG and can explain the important role of complexed IgE in some macrophage dependent cytotoxicity mechanisms (i.e. in parasitic diseases). PMID:6088135

  6. Broad frequency band full field measurements for advanced applications: Point-wise comparisons between optical technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    The progress of optical systems gives nowadays at disposal on lightweight structures complex dynamic measurements and modal tests, each with its own advantages, drawbacks and preferred usage domains. It is thus more easy than before to obtain highly spatially defined vibration patterns for many applications in vibration engineering, testing and general product development. The potential of three completely different technologies is here benchmarked on a common test rig and advanced applications. SLDV, dynamic ESPI and hi-speed DIC are here first deployed in a complex and unique test on the estimation of FRFs with high spatial accuracy from a thin vibrating plate. The latter exhibits a broad band dynamics and high modal density in the common frequency domain where the techniques can find an operative intersection. A peculiar point-wise comparison is here addressed by means of discrete geometry transforms to put all the three technologies on trial at each physical point of the surface. Full field measurement technologies cannot estimate only displacement fields on a refined grid, but can exploit the spatial consistency of the results through neighbouring locations by means of numerical differentiation operators in the spatial domain to obtain rotational degrees of freedom and superficial dynamic strain distributions, with enhanced quality, compared to other technologies in literature. Approaching the task with the aid of superior quality receptance maps from the three different full field gears, this work calculates and compares rotational and dynamic strain FRFs. Dynamic stress FRFs can be modelled directly from the latter, by means of a constitutive model, avoiding the costly and time-consuming steps of building and tuning a numerical dynamic model of a flexible component or a structure in real life conditions. Once dynamic stress FRFs are obtained, spectral fatigue approaches can try to predict the life of a component in many excitation conditions. Different

  7. Comparison of point-of-care methods for preparation of platelet concentrate (platelet-rich plasma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibrich, Gernot; Kleis, Wilfried K G; Streckbein, Philipp; Moergel, Maximilian; Hitzler, Walter E; Hafner, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the concentrations of platelets and growth factors in platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which are likely to depend on the method used for its production. The cellular composition and growth factor content of platelet concentrates (platelet-rich plasma) produced by six different procedures were quantitatively analyzed and compared. Platelet and leukocyte counts were determined on an automatic cell counter, and analysis of growth factors was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The principal differences between the analyzed PRP production methods (blood bank method of intermittent flow centrifuge system/platelet apheresis and by the five point-of-care methods) and the resulting platelet concentrates were evaluated with regard to resulting platelet, leukocyte, and growth factor levels. The platelet counts in both whole blood and PRP were generally higher in women than in men; no differences were observed with regard to age. Statistical analysis of platelet-derived growth factor AB (PDGF-AB) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) showed no differences with regard to age or gender. Platelet counts and TGF-β1 concentration correlated closely, as did platelet counts and PDGF-AB levels. There were only rare correlations between leukocyte counts and PDGF-AB levels, but comparison of leukocyte counts and PDGF-AB levels demonstrated certain parallel tendencies. TGF-β1 levels derive in substantial part from platelets and emphasize the role of leukocytes, in addition to that of platelets, as a source of growth factors in PRP. All methods of producing PRP showed high variability in platelet counts and growth factor levels. The highest growth factor levels were found in the PRP prepared using the Platelet Concentrate Collection System manufactured by Biomet 3i.

  8. Intracavitary dosimetry: a comparison of MGHR prescription to doses at points A and B in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, D.E.; Stryker, J.A.; Velkley, D.E.; Chung, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    This study, involving 77 patients with carcinoma of the cervix, compares the doses at points A and B with the milligram-hour (mg-h) prescription for the intracavitary use of the Fletcher-Suit after loading applicators. The doses at points A and B were computer calculated. A linear least-square regression analysis was used to compare the two sets of data. Correlation coefficients between doses at points A and B and the mg-h prescription are 0.84 (p < 0.001) and 0.88 (p < 0.001) respectively. The slope of the point A line is 0.78 and the slope of the point B line is 0.24. Therefore, for purposes of a nominal comparison, the dose at point A is approximately 3/4 the mg-h prescription; the dose at point B is approximately 1/4 the mg-h prescription. The limitations and significance of the comparison of the two approaches to intracavitary dosimetry is discussed

  9. Comparison of Uas-Based Photogrammetry Software for 3d Point Cloud Generation: a Survey Over a Historical Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidoost, F.; Arefi, H.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)-based photogrammetry offers an affordable, fast and effective approach to real-time acquisition of high resolution geospatial information and automatic 3D modelling of objects for numerous applications such as topography mapping, 3D city modelling, orthophoto generation, and cultural heritages preservation. In this paper, the capability of four different state-of-the-art software packages as 3DSurvey, Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4Dmapper Pro and SURE is examined to generate high density point cloud as well as a Digital Surface Model (DSM) over a historical site. The main steps of this study are including: image acquisition, point cloud generation, and accuracy assessment. The overlapping images are first captured using a quadcopter and next are processed by different software to generate point clouds and DSMs. In order to evaluate the accuracy and quality of point clouds and DSMs, both visual and geometric assessments are carry out and the comparison results are reported.

  10. COMPARISON OF UAS-BASED PHOTOGRAMMETRY SOFTWARE FOR 3D POINT CLOUD GENERATION: A SURVEY OVER A HISTORICAL SITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alidoost

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Unmanned Aerial System (UAS-based photogrammetry offers an affordable, fast and effective approach to real-time acquisition of high resolution geospatial information and automatic 3D modelling of objects for numerous applications such as topography mapping, 3D city modelling, orthophoto generation, and cultural heritages preservation. In this paper, the capability of four different state-of-the-art software packages as 3DSurvey, Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4Dmapper Pro and SURE is examined to generate high density point cloud as well as a Digital Surface Model (DSM over a historical site. The main steps of this study are including: image acquisition, point cloud generation, and accuracy assessment. The overlapping images are first captured using a quadcopter and next are processed by different software to generate point clouds and DSMs. In order to evaluate the accuracy and quality of point clouds and DSMs, both visual and geometric assessments are carry out and the comparison results are reported.

  11. COMPREHENSIVE COMPARISON OF TWO IMAGE-BASED POINT CLOUDS FROM AERIAL PHOTOS WITH AIRBORNE LIDAR FOR LARGE-SCALE MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Widyaningrum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The integration of computer vision and photogrammetry to generate three-dimensional (3D information from images has contributed to a wider use of point clouds, for mapping purposes. Large-scale topographic map production requires 3D data with high precision and accuracy to represent the real conditions of the earth surface. Apart from LiDAR point clouds, the image-based matching is also believed to have the ability to generate reliable and detailed point clouds from multiple-view images. In order to examine and analyze possible fusion of LiDAR and image-based matching for large-scale detailed mapping purposes, point clouds are generated by Semi Global Matching (SGM and by Structure from Motion (SfM. In order to conduct comprehensive and fair comparison, this study uses aerial photos and LiDAR data that were acquired at the same time. Qualitative and quantitative assessments have been applied to evaluate LiDAR and image-matching point clouds data in terms of visualization, geometric accuracy, and classification result. The comparison results conclude that LiDAR is the best data for large-scale mapping.

  12. A comparison of point counts with a new acoustic sampling method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We showed that the estimates of species richness, abundance and community composition based on point counts and post-hoc laboratory listening to acoustic samples are very similar, especially for a distance limited up to 50 m. Species that were frequently missed during both point counts and listening to acoustic samples ...

  13. A comparison of antibiotic point prevalence survey data from four Irish regional/general hospitals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naughton, C

    2011-06-01

    Point prevalence surveys (PPS) are increasingly used to examining and compare hospital antibiotic consumption. The aim of this study was to identify the (1) point prevalence of antibiotic use in one regional hospital and (2) compare PPS data from similar regional\\/general hospitals.

  14. Short-term changes in neck pain, widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and cervical range of motion after the application of trigger point dry needling in patients with acute mechanical neck pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejuto-Vázquez, María J; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Truyols-Domínguez, Sebastián; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2014-04-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To determine the effects of trigger point dry needling (TrPDN) on neck pain, widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and cervical range of motion in patients with acute mechanical neck pain and active trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. TrPDN seems to be effective for decreasing pain in individuals with upper-quadrant pain syndromes. Potential effects of TrPDN for decreasing pain and sensitization in individuals with acute mechanical neck pain are needed. Methods Seventeen patients (53% female) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: a single session of TrPDN or no intervention (waiting list). Pressure pain thresholds over the C5-6 zygapophyseal joint, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscle; neck pain intensity; and cervical spine range-of-motion data were collected at baseline (pretreatment) and 10 minutes and 1 week after the intervention by an assessor blinded to the treatment allocation of the patient. Mixed-model analyses of variance were used to examine the effects of treatment on each outcome variable. Patients treated with 1 session of TrPDN experienced greater decreases in neck pain, greater increases in pressure pain threshold, and higher increases in cervical range of motion than those who did not receive an intervention at both 10 minutes and 1 week after the intervention (Ppain intensity and widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and also increase active cervical range of motion, in patients with acute mechanical neck pain. Changes in pain, pressure pain threshold, and cervical range of motion surpassed their respective minimal detectable change values, supporting clinically relevant treatment effects. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b-.

  15. Comparison of Single-Point and Continuous Sampling Methods for Estimating Residential Indoor Temperature and Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James D; Magnusson, Brianna M; Eggett, Dennis; Collingwood, Scott C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Residential temperature and humidity are associated with multiple health effects. Studies commonly use single-point measures to estimate indoor temperature and humidity exposures, but there is little evidence to support this sampling strategy. This study evaluated the relationship between single-point and continuous monitoring of air temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity over four exposure intervals (5-min, 30-min, 24-hr, and 12-days) in 9 northern Utah homes, from March-June 2012. Three homes were sampled twice, for a total of 12 observation periods. Continuous data-logged sampling was conducted in homes for 2-3 wks, and simultaneous single-point measures (n = 114) were collected using handheld thermo-hygrometers. Time-centered single-point measures were moderately correlated with short-term (30-min) data logger mean air temperature (r = 0.76, β = 0.74), apparent temperature (r = 0.79, β = 0.79), relative humidity (r = 0.70, β = 0.63), and absolute humidity (r = 0.80, β = 0.80). Data logger 12-day means were also moderately correlated with single-point air temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.43) and apparent temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.44), but were weakly correlated with single-point relative humidity (r = 0.53, β = 0.35) and absolute humidity (r = 0.52, β = 0.39). Of the single-point RH measures, 59 (51.8%) deviated more than ±5%, 21 (18.4%) deviated more than ±10%, and 6 (5.3%) deviated more than ±15% from data logger 12-day means. Where continuous indoor monitoring is not feasible, single-point sampling strategies should include multiple measures collected at prescribed time points based on local conditions.

  16. Comparison of methods for accurate end-point detection of potentiometric titrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villela, R L A; Borges, P P; Vyskočil, L

    2015-01-01

    Detection of the end point in potentiometric titrations has wide application on experiments that demand very low measurement uncertainties mainly for certifying reference materials. Simulations of experimental coulometric titration data and consequential error analysis of the end-point values were conducted using a programming code. These simulations revealed that the Levenberg-Marquardt method is in general more accurate than the traditional second derivative technique used currently as end-point detection for potentiometric titrations. Performance of the methods will be compared and presented in this paper

  17. Comparison of methods for accurate end-point detection of potentiometric titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela, R. L. A.; Borges, P. P.; Vyskočil, L.

    2015-01-01

    Detection of the end point in potentiometric titrations has wide application on experiments that demand very low measurement uncertainties mainly for certifying reference materials. Simulations of experimental coulometric titration data and consequential error analysis of the end-point values were conducted using a programming code. These simulations revealed that the Levenberg-Marquardt method is in general more accurate than the traditional second derivative technique used currently as end-point detection for potentiometric titrations. Performance of the methods will be compared and presented in this paper.

  18. Comparison of Sigma-Point and Extended Kalman Filters on a Realistic Orbit Determination Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebler, John; Hur-Diaz. Sun; Carpenter, Russell

    2010-01-01

    Sigma-point filters have received a lot of attention in recent years as a better alternative to extended Kalman filters for highly nonlinear problems. In this paper, we compare the performance of the additive divided difference sigma-point filter to the extended Kalman filter when applied to orbit determination of a realistic operational scenario based on the Interstellar Boundary Explorer mission. For the scenario studied, both filters provided equivalent results. The performance of each is discussed in detail.

  19. A comparison of groundwater investigation using temporary points versus permanent monitoring wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, N.T.

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater investigation within the environmental industry is most often conducted using permanent monitoring wells. A monitoring well, as the term suggests, is permanent to the extent that it is fixed in place to monitor groundwater quality in its immediate vicinity at any given time over the course of an environmental project. Because monitoring wells are relatively time consuming and expensive to construct, a minimum number of wells is normally installed as part of a single investigation event. The initial information obtained from monitoring wells could also be obtained from temporary groundwater sampling points. Temporary points generally are smaller in diameter than monitoring wells, are installed to provide a one time snap shot of the subsurface, and are removed at the completion of the investigation. Since temporary points are usually easier to install and less expensive than monitoring wells, more temporary points can be installed over a single investigation event and can often reduce or eliminate subsequent assessment(s). A brief discussion of temporary point installation and sampling is offered before considering two case studies within the context of the above advantages to temporary point installation. One case study focuses on vertical delineation of dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, while the second case study discusses lateral delineation of light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL)

  20. INTRA- AND INTER-OBSERVER RELIABILITY IN SELECTION OF THE HEART RATE DEFLECTION POINT DURING INCREMENTAL EXERCISE: COMPARISON TO A COMPUTER-GENERATED DEFLECTION POINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget A. Duoos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to 1 determine the relative frequency of occurrence of a heart rate deflection point (HRDP, when compared to a linear relationship, during progressive exercise, 2 measure the reproducibility of a visual assessment of a heart rate deflection point (HRDP, both within and between observers 3 compare visual and computer-assessed deflection points. Subjects consisted of 73 competitive male cyclists with mean age of 31.4 ± 6.3 years, mean height 178.3 ± 4.8 cm. and weight 74.0 ± 4.4 kg. Tests were conducted on an electrically-braked cycle ergometer beginning at 25 watts and progressing 25 watts per minute to fatigue. Heart Rates were recorded the last 10 seconds of each stage and at fatigue. Scatter plots of heart rate versus watts were computer-generated and given to 3 observers on two different occasions. A computer program was developed to assess if data points were best represented by a single line or two lines. The HRDP represented the intersection of the two lines. Results of this study showed that 1 computer-assessed HRDP showed that 44 of 73 subjects (60.3% had scatter plots best represented by a straight line with no HRDP 2in those subjects having HRDP, all 3 observers showed significant differences(p = 0.048, p = 0.007, p = 0.001 in reproducibility of their HRDP selection. Differences in HRDP selection were significant for two of the three comparisons between observers (p = 0.002, p = 0.305, p = 0.0003 Computer-generated HRDP was significantly different than visual HRDP for 2 of 3 observers (p = 0.0016, p = 0.513, p = 0.0001. It is concluded that 1 HRDP occurs in a minority of subjects 2 significant differences exist, both within and between observers, in selection of HRDP and 3 differences in agreement between visual and computer-generated HRDP would indicate that, when HRDP exists, it should be computer-assessed

  1. Five-point form of the nodal diffusion method and comparison with finite-difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Nodal Methods have been derived, implemented and numerically tested for several problems in physics and engineering. In the field of nuclear engineering, many nodal formalisms have been used for the neutron diffusion equation, all yielding results which were far more computationally efficient than conventional Finite Difference (FD) and Finite Element (FE) methods. However, not much effort has been devoted to theoretically comparing nodal and FD methods in order to explain the very high accuracy of the former. In this summary we outline the derivation of a simple five-point form for the lowest order nodal method and compare it to the traditional five-point, edge-centered FD scheme. The effect of the observed differences on the accuracy of the respective methods is established by considering a simple test problem. It must be emphasized that the nodal five-point scheme derived here is mathematically equivalent to previously derived lowest order nodal methods. 7 refs., 1 tab

  2. Comparison of BWR-6 pressurization transients with one-dimensional and point kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, J.M.; Mata, P.; Cronin, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper focuses on the differences between the results of core reload licensing calculations for the BWR-6 plant when performed with a one-dimensional (1-D) versus a point kinetics model. More specifically, the improvement in critical power ratio which would be expected from a change in methods from a point to a 1-D kinetics core wide transient calculation for pressurization transients is investigated. To qualitatively assess critical power ratio (CPR) improvement, core wide transient and hot channel calculations of a generator load rejection with failure of the steam by-pass system and a feedwater controller failure of maximum demand are performed with both, point and 1-D kinetics models in the core wide simulation. Additionally, a sensitivity study on the frequency of power shape function updating in the 1-D kinetics calculation is performed

  3. Comparison of cutting and pencil-point spinal needle in spinal anesthesia regarding postdural puncture headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong; Liu, Yang; Song, WenYe; Kan, ShunLi; Liu, FeiFei; Zhang, Di; Ning, GuangZhi; Feng, ShiQing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Postdural puncture headache (PDPH), mainly resulting from the loss of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), is a well-known iatrogenic complication of spinal anesthesia and diagnostic lumbar puncture. Spinal needles have been modified to minimize complications. Modifiable risk factors of PDPH mainly included needle size and needle shape. However, whether the incidence of PDPH is significantly different between cutting-point and pencil-point needles was controversial. Then we did a meta-analysis to assess the incidence of PDPH of cutting spinal needle and pencil-point spinal needle. Methods: We included all randomly designed trials, assessing the clinical outcomes in patients given elective spinal anesthesia or diagnostic lumbar puncture with either cutting or pencil-point spinal needle as eligible studies. All selected studies and the risk of bias of them were assessed by 2 investigators. Clinical outcomes including success rates, frequency of PDPH, reported severe PDPH, and the use of epidural blood patch (EBP) were recorded as primary results. Results were evaluated using risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for dichotomous variables. Rev Man software (version 5.3) was used to analyze all appropriate data. Results: Twenty-five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in our study. The analysis result revealed that pencil-point spinal needle would result in lower rate of PDPH (RR 2.50; 95% CI [1.96, 3.19]; P < 0.00001) and severe PDPH (RR 3.27; 95% CI [2.15, 4.96]; P < 0.00001). Furthermore, EBP was less used in pencil-point spine needle group (RR 3.69; 95% CI [1.96, 6.95]; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Current evidences suggest that pencil-point spinal needle was significantly superior compared with cutting spinal needle regarding the frequency of PDPH, PDPH severity, and the use of EBP. In view of this, we recommend the use of pencil-point spinal needle in spinal anesthesia and lumbar puncture. PMID:28383416

  4. Comparison of Clothing Cultures from the View Point of Funeral Procession

    OpenAIRE

    増田, 美子; 大枝, 近子; 梅谷, 知世; 杉本, 浄; 内村, 理奈

    2011-01-01

    This study was for its object to research for the look in the funeral ceremony and make the point of the different and common point between the respective cultural spheres of the Buddhism,Hinduism, Islam and Christianity clearly. In the year 21, we tried to grasp the reality of costumes of funeral courtesy in modern times and present-day. And it became clear in the result, Japan, the Buddhist cultural sphere, China and Taiwan, the Buddhism, the Confucianism and the Taoism intermingled cultura...

  5. Comparison of a UAV-derived point-cloud to Lidar data at Haig Glacier, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bash, E. A.; Moorman, B.; Montaghi, A.; Menounos, B.; Marshall, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is expanding rapidly in glaciological research as a result of technological improvements that make UAVs a cost-effective solution for collecting high resolution datasets with relative ease. The cost and difficult access traditionally associated with performing fieldwork in glacial environments makes UAVs a particularly attractive tool. In the small, but growing, body of literature using UAVs in glaciology the accuracy of UAV data is tested through the comparison of a UAV-derived DEM to measured control points. A field campaign combining simultaneous lidar and UAV flights over Haig Glacier in April 2015, provided the unique opportunity to directly compare UAV data to lidar. The UAV was a six-propeller Mikrokopter carrying a Panasonic Lumix DMC-GF1 camera with a 12 Megapixel Live MOS sensor and Lumix G 20 mm lens flown at a height of 90 m, resulting in sub-centimetre ground resolution per image pixel. Lidar data collection took place April 20, while UAV flights were conducted April 20-21. A set of 65 control points were laid out and surveyed on the glacier surface on April 19 and 21 using a RTK GPS with a vertical uncertainty of 5 cm. A direct comparison of lidar points to these control points revealed a 9 cm offset between the control points and the lidar points on average, but the difference changed distinctly from points collected on April 19 versus those collected April 21 (7 cm and 12 cm). Agisoft Photoscan was used to create a point-cloud from imagery collected with the UAV and CloudCompare was used to calculate the difference between this and the lidar point cloud, revealing an average difference of less than 17 cm. This field campaign also highlighted some of the benefits and drawbacks of using a rotary UAV for glaciological research. The vertical takeoff and landing capabilities, combined with quick responsiveness and higher carrying capacity, make the rotary vehicle favourable for high-resolution photos when

  6. Temporally resolved electrocardiogram-triggered diffusion-weighted imaging of the human kidney: correlation between intravoxel incoherent motion parameters and renal blood flow at different time points of the cardiac cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittsack, Hans-Jörg; Lanzman, Rotem S; Quentin, Michael; Kuhlemann, Julia; Klasen, Janina; Pentang, Gael; Riegger, Caroline; Antoch, Gerald; Blondin, Dirk

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of pulsatile blood flow on apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and the fraction of pseudodiffusion (F(P)) in the human kidney. The kidneys of 6 healthy volunteers were examined by a 3-T magnetic resonance scanner. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated and respiratory-triggered diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and phase-contrast flow measurements were performed. Flow imaging of renal arteries was carried out to quantify the dependence of renal blood flow on the cardiac cycle. ECG-triggered DWI was acquired in the coronal plane with 16 b values in the range of 0 s/mm(2) and 750 s/mm(2) at the time of minimum (MIN) (20 milliseconds after R wave) and maximum renal blood flow (MAX) (197 ± 24 milliseconds after R wave). The diffusion coefficients were calculated using the monoexponential approach as well as the biexponential intravoxel incoherent motion model and correlated to phase-contrast flow measurements. Flow imaging showed pulsatile renal blood flow depending on the cardiac cycle. The mean flow velocity at MIN was 45 cm/s as compared with 61 cm/s at MAX. F(p) at MIN (0.29) was significantly lower than at MAX (0.40) (P = 0.001). Similarly, ADC(mono), derived from the monoexponential model, also showed a significant difference (P renal blood flow and F(p) (r = 0.85) as well as ADC(mono) (r = 0.67) was statistically significant. Temporally resolved ECG-gated DWI enables for the determination of the diffusion coefficients at different time points of the cardiac cycle. ADC(mono) and FP vary significantly among acquisitions at minimum (diastole) and maximum (systole) renal blood flow. Temporally resolved ECG-gated DWI might therefore serve as a novel technique for the assessment of pulsatility in the human kidney.

  7. Comparison of Optimization and Two-point Methods in Estimation of Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian-Alavijeh, B.; Liaghat, A. M.; Huang, G.

    2009-04-01

    Soil water retention curve (SWRC) is one of the soil hydraulic properties in which its direct measurement is time consuming and expensive. Since, its measurement is unavoidable in study of environmental sciences i.e. investigation of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and solute transport, in this study the attempt is to predict soil water retention curve from two measured points. By using Cresswell and Paydar (1996) method (two-point method) and an optimization method developed in this study on the basis of two points of SWRC, parameters of Tyler and Wheatcraft (1990) model (fractal dimension and air entry value) were estimated and then water content at different matric potentials were estimated and compared with their measured values (n=180). For each method, we used both 3 and 1500 kPa (case 1) and 33 and 1500 kPa (case 2) as two points of SWRC. The calculated RMSE values showed that in the Creswell and Paydar (1996) method, there exists no significant difference between case 1 and case 2. However, the calculated RMSE value in case 2 (2.35) was slightly less than case 1 (2.37). The results also showed that the developed optimization method in this study had significantly less RMSE values for cases 1 (1.63) and 2 (1.33) rather than Cresswell and Paydar (1996) method.

  8. Comparison of Point and Line Features and Their Combination for Rigid Body Motion Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilz, Florian; Pugeault, Nicolas; Krüger, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    evaluate and compare the results using line and point features as 3D-2D constraints and we discuss the qualitative advantages and disadvantages of both feature types for RBM estimation. We also demonstrate an improvement in robustness through the combination of these features on large data sets...

  9. Symptom-triggered benzodiazepine therapy for alcohol withdrawal syndrome in the emergency department: a comparison with the standard fixed dose benzodiazepine regimen.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Eugene M

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare symptom-triggered and standard benzodiazepine regimens for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome in an emergency department clinical decision unit. The authors found that the symptom-triggered approach reduced cumulative benzodiazepine dose and length of stay.

  10. Comparison of clinical outcomes of multi-point umbrella suturing and single purse suturing with two-point traction after procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids (PPH) surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huiyong; Hao, Xiuyan; Xin, Ying; Pan, Youzhen

    2017-11-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes of multipoint umbrella suture and single-purse suture with two-point traction after procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids surgery (PPH) for the treatment of mixed hemorrhoids. Ninety patients were randomly divided into a PPH plus single-purse suture group (Group A) and a PPH plus multipoint umbrella suture (Group B). All operations were performed by an experienced surgeon. Operation time, width of the specimen, hemorrhoids retraction extent, postoperative pain, postoperative bleeding, and length of hospitalization were recorded and compared. Statistical analysis was conducted by t-test and χ2 test. There were no significant differences in sex, age, course of disease, and degree of prolapse of hemorrhoids between the two groups. The operative time in Group A was significantly shorter than that in Group B (P hemorrhoid core retraction were significantly lower in Group B (P  0.05 for all comparisons) was observed. The multipoint umbrella suture showed better clinical outcomes because of its targeted suture according to the extent of hemorrhoid prolapse. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Expanded uncertainty associated with determination of isotope enrichment factors: Comparison of two point calculation and Rayleigh-plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Maxime; Gilbert, Alexis; Yamada, Keita; Robins, Richard J; Höhener, Patrick; Yoshida, Naohiro; Remaud, Gérald S

    2018-01-01

    The enrichment factor (ε) is a common way to express Isotope Effects (IEs) associated with a phenomenon. Many studies determine ε using a Rayleigh-plot, which needs multiple data points. More recent articles describe an alternative method using the Rayleigh equation that allows the determination of ε using only one experimental point, but this method is often subject to controversy. However, a calculation method using two points (one experimental point and one at t 0 ) should lead to the same results because the calculation is derived from the Rayleigh equation. But, it is frequently asked "what is the valid domain of use of this two point calculation?" The primary aim of the present work is a systematic comparison of results obtained with these two methodologies and the determination of the conditions required for the valid calculation of ε. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the two approaches, the expanded uncertainty (U) associated with determining ε has been calculated using experimental data from three published articles. The second objective of the present work is to describe how to determine the expanded uncertainty (U) associated with determining ε. Comparative methodologies using both Rayleigh-plot and two point calculation are detailed and it is clearly demonstrated that calculation of ε using a single data point can give the same result as a Rayleigh-plot provided one strict condition is respected: that the experimental value is measured at a small fraction of unreacted substrate (f < 30%). This study will help stable isotope users to present their results in a more rigorous expression: ε ± U and therefore to define better the significance of an experimental results prior interpretation. Capsule: Enrichment factor can be determined through two different methods and the calculation of associated expanded uncertainty allows checking its significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of fuzzy logic and neural network in maximum power point tracker for PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salah, Chokri; Ouali, Mohamed [Research Unit on Intelligent Control, Optimization, Design and Optimization of Complex Systems (ICOS), Department of Electrical Engineering, National School of Engineers of Sfax, BP. W, 3038, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2011-01-15

    This paper proposes two methods of maximum power point tracking using a fuzzy logic and a neural network controllers for photovoltaic systems. The two maximum power point tracking controllers receive solar radiation and photovoltaic cell temperature as inputs, and estimated the optimum duty cycle corresponding to maximum power as output. The approach is validated on a 100 Wp PVP (two parallels SM50-H panel) connected to a 24 V dc load. The new method gives a good maximum power operation of any photovoltaic array under different conditions such as changing solar radiation and PV cell temperature. From the simulation and experimental results, the fuzzy logic controller can deliver more power than the neural network controller and can give more power than other different methods in literature. (author)

  13. A comparison of Landsat point and rectangular field training sets for land-use classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, C. H.; Miller, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    Rectangular training fields of homogeneous spectroreflectance are commonly used in supervised pattern recognition efforts. Trial image classification with manually selected training sets gives irregular and misleading results due to statistical bias. A self-verifying, grid-sampled training point approach is proposed as a more statistically valid feature extraction technique. A systematic pixel sampling network of every ninth row and ninth column efficiently replaced the full image scene with smaller statistical vectors which preserved the necessary characteristics for classification. The composite second- and third-order average classification accuracy of 50.1 percent for 331,776 pixels in the full image substantially agreed with the 51 percent value predicted by the grid-sampled, 4,100-point training set.

  14. Measurement and estimation of dew point for SNG. [Comparison of calculated and measured values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuyama, Y.

    1974-08-01

    Toho Gas measured and estimated SNG dew points in high-pressure deliveries by calculating the theoretical values by the high-pressure gas-liquid equilibrium theory using the pressure-extrapolation method to reach K = 1, and the BWR method to estimate fugacity, then verifying these values experimentally. The experimental values were measured at 161.7 to 367.5 psi using the conventional static and circulation methods, in addition to a newly developed method consisting of circulating a known composition of gas mixtures, partially freezing them, and monitoring the dew point by observing the droplets on a mirror cooled by blowing liquid nitrogen. Good agreement was found between the calculated and the experimental values.

  15. Comparison of Extremum-Seeking Control Techniques for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Han Wu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to Japan’s recent nuclear crisis and petroleum price hikes, the search for renewable energy sources has become an issue of immediate concern. A promising candidate attracting much global attention is solar energy, as it is green and also inexhaustible. A maximum power point tracking (MPPT controller is employed in such a way that the output power provided by a photovoltaic (PV system is boosted to its maximum level. However, in the context of abrupt changes in irradiance, conventional MPPT controller approaches suffer from insufficient robustness against ambient variation, inferior transient response and a loss of output power as a consequence of the long duration required of tracking procedures. Accordingly, in this work the maximum power point tracking is carried out successfully using a sliding mode extremum-seeking control (SMESC method, and the tracking performances of three controllers are compared by simulations, that is, an extremum-seeking controller, a sinusoidal extremum-seeking controller and a sliding mode extremum-seeking controller. Being able to track the maximum power point promptly in the case of an abrupt change in irradiance, the SMESC approach is proven by simulations to be superior in terms of system dynamic and steady state responses, and an excellent robustness along with system stability is demonstrated as well.

  16. Hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in primary health care: comparison of two cutoff points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braz MAD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marina Augusta Dias Braz,1 Jallyne Nunes Vieira,1 Flayane Oliveira Gomes,1 Priscilla Rafaella da Silva,1 Ohanna Thays de Medeiros Santos,1 Ilanna Marques Gomes da Rocha,2 Iasmin Matias de Sousa,2 Ana Paula Trussardi Fayh2 1Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde do Trairi, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, Santa Cruz, 2Department of Nutrition, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, UFRN, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil Objective: We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW phenotype among users of primary health care using two different cutoff points used in the literature. Methods: We evaluated adults and elderly individuals of both sexes who attended the same level of primary health care. HTGW phenotype was determined with measurements of waist circumference (WC and triglyceride levels and compared using cutoff points proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program – NCEP/ATP III (WC ≥102 cm for men and ≥88 cm for women; triglyceride levels ≥150 mg/dL for both sexes and by Lemieux et al (WC ≥90 cm for men and ≥85 cm for women; triglyceride levels ≥177 mg/dL for both. Results: Within the sample of 437 individuals, 73.7% was female. The prevalence of HTGW phenotype was high and statistically different with the use of different cutoff points from the literature. The prevalence was higher using the NCEP/ATP III criteria compared to those proposed by Lemieux et al (36.2% and 32.5%, respectively, p<0.05. Individuals with the presence of the phenotype also presented alterations in other traditional cardiovascular risk markers. Conclusion: The HTGW phenotype identified high prevalence of cardiovascular risk in the population, with higher cutoff points from the NCEP/ATP III criteria. The difference in frequency of risk alerts us to the need to establish cutoff points for the Brazilian population. Keywords: abdominal obesity, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular risk

  17. DERIVING 3D POINT CLOUDS FROM TERRESTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHS - COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT SENSORS AND SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Niederheiser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial photogrammetry nowadays offers a reasonably cheap, intuitive and effective approach to 3D-modelling. However, the important choice, which sensor and which software to use is not straight forward and needs consideration as the choice will have effects on the resulting 3D point cloud and its derivatives. We compare five different sensors as well as four different state-of-the-art software packages for a single application, the modelling of a vegetated rock face. The five sensors represent different resolutions, sensor sizes and price segments of the cameras. The software packages used are: (1 Agisoft PhotoScan Pro (1.16, (2 Pix4D (2.0.89, (3 a combination of Visual SFM (V0.5.22 and SURE (1.2.0.286, and (4 MicMac (1.0. We took photos of a vegetated rock face from identical positions with all sensors. Then we compared the results of the different software packages regarding the ease of the workflow, visual appeal, similarity and quality of the point cloud. While PhotoScan and Pix4D offer the user-friendliest workflows, they are also “black-box” programmes giving only little insight into their processing. Unsatisfying results may only be changed by modifying settings within a module. The combined workflow of Visual SFM, SURE and CloudCompare is just as simple but requires more user interaction. MicMac turned out to be the most challenging software as it is less user-friendly. However, MicMac offers the most possibilities to influence the processing workflow. The resulting point-clouds of PhotoScan and MicMac are the most appealing.

  18. Comparison of Acupressure Effect on Sanyinjiao Point with that of Vitamin E on Primary Dysmenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Bostani khalesi

    2009-10-01

    Results: The present study revealed that there was significant differences in the rate of pain during the cycles in both groups. There was a significant difference in pain intensity for each group before and after the treatment (P<0.05. Significant difference was found between two groups in the duration of pain in second months (P<0.05. Conclusion: The findings showed that acupressure at Sanyinjiao point can be used as an effective, available, cost effective intervention for reducing pain in dysmenorrheal.

  19. UAV-BASED PHOTOGRAMMETRIC POINT CLOUDS – TREE STEM MAPPING IN OPEN STANDS IN COMPARISON TO TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNER POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fritz

    2013-08-01

    and complete as in the TLS-point cloud. Only few stems were considered to be fully reconstructed. From the comparison of reconstruction achievement with respect to height above ground, we can state that reconstruction accuracy decreased in the crown layer of the stand. In addition we were cutting 50 [cm] slices in z-direction and applied a robust cylinder fit to the stem slices. Radii of the TLS-cloud and the SFM-cloud surprisingly correlated well with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of r = 0.696. This first study showed promising results for UAV-based forest structure modelling. Yet, there is a demand for additional research with regard to vegetation stages, flight pattern, processing setup and the utilisation of spectral information.

  20. A Comparison of Combustion Dynamics for Multiple 7-Point Lean Direct Injection Combustor Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacina, K. M.; Hicks, Y. R.

    2017-01-01

    The combustion dynamics of multiple 7-point lean direct injection (LDI) combustor configurations are compared. LDI is a fuel-lean combustor concept for aero gas turbine engines in which multiple small fuel-air mixers replace one traditionally-sized fuel-air mixer. This 7-point LDI configuration has a circular cross section, with a center (pilot) fuel-air mixer surrounded by six outer (main) fuel-air mixers. Each fuel-air mixer consists of an axial air swirler followed by a converging-diverging venturi. A simplex fuel injector is inserted through the center of the air swirler, with the fuel injector tip located near the venturi throat. All 7 fuel-air mixers are identical except for the swirler blade angle, which varies with the configuration. Testing was done in a 5-atm flame tube with inlet air temperatures from 600 to 800 F and equivalence ratios from 0.4 to 0.7. Combustion dynamics were measured using a cooled PCB pressure transducer flush-mounted in the wall of the combustor test section.

  1. Validation and Test-Retest Reliability of New Thermographic Technique Called Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling for Gluteus Minimus Trigger Points in Sciatica Subjects and TrPs-Negative Healthy Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlik, Michał; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and test-retest reliability of Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling (TTDN) for the gluteus minimus muscle. TTDN is a new thermography approach used to support trigger points (TrPs) diagnostic criteria by presence of short-term vasomotor reactions occurring in the area where TrPs refer pain. Method. Thirty chronic sciatica patients (n=15 TrP-positive and n=15 TrPs-negative) and 15 healthy volunteers were evaluated by TTDN three times during two consecutive days based on TrPs of the gluteus minimus muscle confirmed additionally by referred pain presence. TTDN employs average temperature (T avr), maximum temperature (T max), low/high isothermal-area, and autonomic referred pain phenomenon (AURP) that reflects vasodilatation/vasoconstriction. Validity and test-retest reliability were assessed concurrently. Results. Two components of TTDN validity and reliability, T avr and AURP, had almost perfect agreement according to κ (e.g., thigh: 0.880 and 0.938; calf: 0.902 and 0.956, resp.). The sensitivity for T avr, T max, AURP, and high isothermal-area was 100% for everyone, but specificity of 100% was for T avr and AURP only. Conclusion. TTDN is a valid and reliable method for T avr and AURP measurement to support TrPs diagnostic criteria for the gluteus minimus muscle when digitally evoked referred pain pattern is present. PMID:26137486

  2. Comparison of ring compression testing to three point bend testing for unirradiated ZIRLO cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-04-01

    Safe shipment and storage of nuclear reactor discharged fuel requires an understanding of how the fuel may perform under the various conditions that can be encountered. One specific focus of concern is performance during a shipment drop accident. Tests at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are being performed to characterize the properties of fuel clad relative to a mechanical accident condition such as a container drop. Unirradiated ZIRLO tubing samples have been charged with a range of hydride levels to simulate actual fuel rod levels. Samples of the hydrogen charged tubes were exposed to a radial hydride growth treatment (RHGT) consisting of heating to 400°C, applying initial hoop stresses of 90 to 170 MPa with controlled cooling and producing hydride precipitates. Initial samples have been tested using both a) ring compression test (RCT) which is shown to be sensitive to radial hydride and b) three-point bend tests which are less sensitive to radial hydride effects. Hydrides are generated in Zirconium based fuel cladding as a result of coolant (water) oxidation of the clad, hydrogen release, and a portion of the released (nascent) hydrogen absorbed into the clad and eventually exceeding the hydrogen solubility limit. The orientation of the hydrides relative to the subsequent normal and accident strains has a significant impact on the failure susceptability. In this study the impacts of stress, temperature and hydrogen levels are evaluated in reference to the propensity for hydride reorientation from the circumferential to the radial orientation. In addition the effects of radial hydrides on the Quasi Ductile Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT) were measured. The results suggest that a) the severity of the radial hydride impact is related to the hydrogen level-peak temperature combination (for example at a peak drying temperature of 400°C; 800 PPM hydrogen has less of an impact/ less radial hydride fraction than 200 PPM hydrogen for the same thermal

  3. DUMAND data acquisition with triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, A.E.; Theriot, D.; March, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    A data acquisition scheme for the standard DUMAND array that includes a simple triggering scheme as a fundamental part of the system is presented. Although there are a number of not yet fully understood parameters, it is assumed that thresholds can be set in such a manner as to give rise to a triggered signal that is not so dominated by randoms that it gives a substantial decrease in the data acquisition rate over that which would be required by a nontriggered system. It is also assumed that the triggering logic is relatively simple and does not need major computational capabilities for a trigger logic decision. With these assumptions, it is possible to generate the trigger at the array and restrict the data transfer to shore. However, with a not unreasonable delay of 200 microseconds, it is even possible to transmit the information for the trigger to shore and perform all that logic on the shore. The critical point is to send the minimum amount of information necessary to construct the trigger such that one need not send all the possible information in all detectors of the array continuously to shore. 1 figure

  4. Optimising diffusion-weighted MR imaging for demonstrating pancreatic cancer: a comparison of respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartalis, Nikolaos; Loizou, Louiza; Edsborg, Nick; Albiin, Nils [Karolinska University Hospital, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Segersvaerd, Ralf [Karolinska University Hospital, Division of Surgery, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-10-15

    To compare respiratory-triggered, free-breathing, and breath-hold DWI techniques regarding (1) image quality, and (2) signal intensity (SI) and ADC measurements in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Fifteen patients with histopathologically proven PDAC underwent DWI prospectively at 1.5 T (b = 0, 50, 300, 600 and 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}) with the three techniques. Two radiologists, independently and blindly, assigned total image quality scores [sum of rating diffusion images (lesion detection, anatomy, presence of artefacts) and ADC maps (lesion characterisation, overall image quality)] per technique and ranked them. The lesion SI, signal-to-noise ratio, mean ADC and coefficient of variation (CV) were compared. Total image quality scores for respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques were 17.9, 16.5 and 17.1 respectively (respiratory-triggered was significantly higher than free-breathing but not breath-hold). The respiratory-triggered technique had a significantly higher ranking. Lesion SI on all b-values and signal-to-noise ratio on b300 and b600 were significantly higher for the respiratory-triggered technique. For respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques the mean ADCs were 1.201, 1.132 and 1.253 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, and mean CVs were 8.9, 10.8 and 14.1 % respectively (respiratory-triggered and free-breathing techniques had a significantly lower mean CV than the breath-hold technique). In both analyses, respiratory-triggered DWI showed superiority and seems the optimal DWI technique for demonstrating PDAC. (orig.)

  5. Optimising diffusion-weighted MR imaging for demonstrating pancreatic cancer: a comparison of respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartalis, Nikolaos; Loizou, Louiza; Edsborg, Nick; Albiin, Nils; Segersvaerd, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    To compare respiratory-triggered, free-breathing, and breath-hold DWI techniques regarding (1) image quality, and (2) signal intensity (SI) and ADC measurements in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Fifteen patients with histopathologically proven PDAC underwent DWI prospectively at 1.5 T (b = 0, 50, 300, 600 and 1,000 s/mm 2 ) with the three techniques. Two radiologists, independently and blindly, assigned total image quality scores [sum of rating diffusion images (lesion detection, anatomy, presence of artefacts) and ADC maps (lesion characterisation, overall image quality)] per technique and ranked them. The lesion SI, signal-to-noise ratio, mean ADC and coefficient of variation (CV) were compared. Total image quality scores for respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques were 17.9, 16.5 and 17.1 respectively (respiratory-triggered was significantly higher than free-breathing but not breath-hold). The respiratory-triggered technique had a significantly higher ranking. Lesion SI on all b-values and signal-to-noise ratio on b300 and b600 were significantly higher for the respiratory-triggered technique. For respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques the mean ADCs were 1.201, 1.132 and 1.253 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, and mean CVs were 8.9, 10.8 and 14.1 % respectively (respiratory-triggered and free-breathing techniques had a significantly lower mean CV than the breath-hold technique). In both analyses, respiratory-triggered DWI showed superiority and seems the optimal DWI technique for demonstrating PDAC. (orig.)

  6. Qualitative performance comparison of reactivity estimation between the extended Kalman filter technique and the inverse point kinetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Y.; Rooijen, W.F.G. van

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Estimation of the reactivity of nuclear reactor based on neutron flux measurements. • Comparison of the traditional method, and the new approach based on Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF). • Estimation accuracy depends on filter parameters, the selection of which is described in this paper. • The EKF algorithm is preferred if the signal to noise ratio is low (low flux situation). • The accuracy of the EKF depends on the ratio of the filter coefficients. - Abstract: The Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF) technique has been applied for estimation of subcriticality with a good noise filtering and accuracy. The Inverse Point Kinetic (IPK) method has also been widely used for reactivity estimation. The important parameters for the EKF estimation are the process noise covariance, and the measurement noise covariance. However the optimal selection is quite difficult. On the other hand, there is only one parameter in the IPK method, namely the time constant for the first order delay filter. Thus, the selection of this parameter is quite easy. Thus, it is required to give certain idea for the selection of which method should be selected and how to select the required parameters. From this point of view, a qualitative performance comparison is carried out

  7. Comparison of P&O and INC Methods in Maximum Power Point Tracker for PV Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hesheng; Cui, Yuanhui; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Zhisen

    2018-03-01

    In the context of renewable energy, the maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is often used to increase the solar power efficiency, taking into account the randomness and volatility of solar energy due to changes in temperature and photovoltaic. In all MPPT techniques, perturb & observe and incremental conductance are widely used in MPPT controllers, because of their simplicity and ease of operation. According to the internal structure of the photovoltaic cell and the output volt-ampere characteristic, this paper established the circuit model and establishes the dynamic simulation model in Matlab/Simulink with the preparation of the s function. The perturb & observe MPPT method and the incremental conductance MPPT method were analyzed and compared by the theoretical analysis and digital simulation. The simulation results have shown that the system with INC MPPT method has better dynamic performance and improves the output power of photovoltaic power generation.

  8. Comments on the comparison of global methods for linear two-point boundary value problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Boor, C.; Swartz, B.

    1977-01-01

    A more careful count of the operations involved in solving the linear system associated with collocation of a two-point boundary value problem using a rough splines reverses results recently reported by others in this journal. In addition, it is observed that the use of the technique of ''condensation of parameters'' can decrease the computer storage required. Furthermore, the use of a particular highly localized basis can also reduce the setup time when the mesh is irregular. Finally, operation counts are roughly estimated for the solution of certain linear system associated with two competing collocation methods; namely, collocation with smooth splines and collocation of the equivalent first order system with continuous piecewise polynomials

  9. Comparison of poliovirus recombinants: accumulation of point mutations provides further advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Samoilovich, Elena; Kahelin, Heidi; Hiekka, Anna-Kaisa; Hovi, Tapani; Roivainen, Merja

    2009-08-01

    The roles of recombination and accumulation of point mutations in the origin of new poliovirus (PV) characteristics have been hypothesized, but it is not known which are essential to evolution. We studied phenotypic differences between recombinant PV strains isolated from successive stool specimens of an oral PV vaccine recipient. The studied strains included three PV2/PV1 recombinants with increasing numbers of mutations in the VP1 gene, two of the three with an amino acid change I-->T in the DE-loop of VP1, their putative PV1 parent and strains Sabin 1 and 2. Growth of these viruses was examined in three cell lines: colorectal adenocarcinoma, neuroblastoma and HeLa. The main observation was a higher growth rate between 4 and 6 h post-infection of the two recombinants with the I-->T substitution. All recombinants grew at a higher rate than parental strains in the exponential phase of the replication cycle. In a temperature sensitivity test, the I-->T-substituted recombinants replicated equally well at an elevated temperature. Complete genome sequencing of the three recombinants revealed 12 (3), 19 (3) and 27 (3) nucleotide (amino acid) differences from Sabin. Mutations were located in regions defining attenuation, temperature sensitivity, antigenicity and the cis-acting replicating element. The recombination site was in the 5' end of 3D. In a competition assay, the most mutated recombinant beat parental Sabin in all three cell lines, strongly suggesting that this virus has an advantage. Two independent intertypic recombinants, PV3/PV1 and PV3/PV2, also showed similar growth advantages, but they also contained several point mutations. Thus, our data defend the hypothesis that accumulation of certain advantageous mutations plays a key role in gaining increased fitness.

  10. Adaptive brachytherapy of cervical cancer, comparison of conventional point A and CT based individual treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderaas, Anne D.; Langdal, Ingrid; Danielsen, Signe; Frykholm, Gunilla; Marthinsen, Anne B. L; Sundset, Marit

    2012-01-01

    Background. Locally advanced cervical cancer is commonly treated with external radiation therapy combined with local brachytherapy. The brachytherapy is traditionally given based on standard dose planning with prescription of dose to point A. Dosimetric aspects when changing from former standard treatment to individualized treatment plans based on computed tomography (CT) images are here investigated. Material and methods. Brachytherapy data from 19 patients with a total of 72 individual treatment fractions were retrospectively reviewed. Standard library plans were analyzed with respect to doses to organs at risk (OARs), and the result was compared to corresponding delivered individualized plans. The theoretical potential of further optimization based on prescription to target volumes was investigated. The treatments were performed with a Fletcher applicator. Results. For standard treatment planning, the tolerance dose limits were exceeded in the bladder, rectum and sigmoid in 26%, 4% and 15% of the plans, respectively. This was observed most often for the smallest target volumes. The individualized planning of the delivered treatment gave the possibility of controlling the dose to critical organs to below certain limits. The dose was still prescribed to point A. An increase in target dose coverage was achieved when additional individual optimization was performed, while still keeping the dose to the OARs below predefined limits. Relatively low average target coverage, especially for the largest volumes was however seen. Conclusion. The individualized delivered treatment plans ensured that doses to OARs were within acceptable limits. This was not the case in 42% of the corresponding standard plans. Further optimized treatment plans were found to give an overall better dose coverage. In lack of MR capacity, it may be favorable to use CT for planning due to possible protection of OARs. The CT based target volumes were, however, not equivalent to the volumes described

  11. Point-of-Care Hemoglobin/Hematocrit Testing: Comparison of Methodology and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew; Bert, Arthur; Singh, Arun; Sweeney, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Point-of-care (POC) testing allows rapid assessment of hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) values. This study compared 3 POC testing devices--the Radical-7 pulse oximeter (Radical-7, Neuchȃtel, Switzerland), the i-STAT (Abbott Point of Care, Princeton, NJ), and the GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory, Bedford, MA)--to the hospital reference device, the UniCel DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter, Brea, CA) in cardiac surgery patients. Prospective study. Tertiary care cardiovascular center. Twenty-four consecutive elective adult cardiac surgery patients. Hgb and Hct values were measured using 3 POC devices (the Radical-7, i-STAT, and GEM 4000) and a reference laboratory device (UniCel DxH 800). Data were collected simultaneously before surgery, after heparin administration, after heparin reversal with protamine, and after sternal closure. Data were analyzed using bias analyses. POC testing data were compared with that of the reference laboratory device. Hgb levels ranged from 6.8 to 15.1 g/dL, and Hct levels ranged from 20.1% to 43.8%. The overall mean bias was lowest with the i-STAT (Hct, 0.22%; Hgb 0.05 g/dL) compared with the GEM 4000 (Hct, 2.15%; Hgb, 0.63 g/dL) and the Radical-7 (Hgb 1.16 g/dL). The range of data for the i-STAT and Radical-7 was larger than that with the GEM 4000, and the pattern or slopes changed significantly with the i-STAT and Radical-7, whereas that of the GEM 4000 remained relatively stable. The GEM 4000 demonstrated a consistent overestimation of laboratory data, which tended to improve after bypass and at lower Hct/Hgb levels. The i-STAT bias changed from overestimation to underestimation, the latter in the post-cardiopulmonary bypass period and at lower Hct/Hgb levels. By contrast, the Radical-7 biases increased during the surgical procedure and in the lower ranges of Hgb. Important clinical differences and limitations were found among the 3 POC testing devices that should caution clinicians from relying on these data as sole determinants of

  12. Comparison of Visual and Acoustic Emission Observations in a Four Point Bending Experiment on Barre Granite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing Qiuyi; Einstein, Herbert H.

    2017-09-01

    We present an experimental study in which a pre-notched specimen of Barre Granite was subjected to four point bending under crack mouth opening displacement control. The experimental observations consisted of load-displacement measurements, acoustic emissions, and photography on a macroscopic ( cm) as well as microscopic ( μm) scale. These observations were compared and analysed to better understand process zone development and crack propagation. Load-displacement data showed that the load reaches its maximum at crack initiation, and the machine input work is constant while the crack propagates. AE moment magnitudes between Mw = -6 to -10 were observed, and focal mechanisms consisted of both shear and tensile components. During process zone development, AE formed a large cloud of events located near the notch tip and then tended to occur away from the notch tip as the crack propagated. Image analysis at the microscopic scale showed that microcracks formed and coalesced during process zone development; specifically, the microcracks initiated in tension and then propagated as a series of en-echelon cracks. In general, the synthesis of the three observations showed that a wider bulb of activity at lower energy tended to occur during process zone development, while crack propagation tended to be more spatially concentrated and contained higher energy.

  13. Performance comparison of liquid metal and gas cooled ATW system point designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.S.; Taiwo, T.A.; Hill, R.N.; Khalil, H.S.; Wade, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Advanced Accelerator Application (AAA) program in the U.S., preliminary design studies have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to define and compare candidate Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) systems. The studies at ANL have focused primarily on the transmutation blanket component of the overall system. Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), sodium, and gas cooled systems are among the blanket technology options currently under consideration. This paper summarizes the results from neutronics trade studies performed at ANL. Core designs have been developed for LBE and sodium cooled 840 MWt fast spectrum accelerator driven systems employing re-cycle. Additionally, neutronics analyses have been performed for a helium-cooled 600 MWt hybrid thermal and fast spectrum system proposed by General Atomics (GA), which is operated in the critical mode for three cycles and in a subcritical accelerator driven mode for a subsequent single cycle. For these three point designs, isotopic inventories, consumption rates, and annual burnup rates are compared. The mass flows and the ultimate loss of transuranic (TRU) isotopes to the waste stream per unit of heat generated during transmutation are also compared on a consistent basis. (author)

  14. Cross-site comparisons of concentration-discharge relationships reveal climate-driven chemostatic set points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsey, S.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Streamflow solute concentrations often vary predictably with flows, providing insight into processes controlling solute generation and export. Previous work by the authors showed that log-transformed concentration-discharge relationships of weathering-derived solutes in 59 headwater catchments had relatively low slopes, implying that these watersheds behaved almost like chemostats. That is, their rates of solute production and/or mobilization were nearly proportional to water fluxes, on both event and inter-annual time scales. Here we re-examine these findings using data from roughly 1000 catchments, ranging from ˜10 to >1,000,000 sq. km in drainage area, and spanning a wide range of lithologic and climatic settings.Concentration-discharge relationships among this much larger set of much larger catchments are broadly consistent with the chemostatic behavior described above. However, site-to-site variations in mean concentrations among these catchments are negatively correlated with long-term average precipitation and discharge, suggesting dilution of stream concentrations under long-term leaching of the critical zone. Thus, on event and inter-annual time scales, stream solute concentrations are chemostatically buffered by groundwater storage and fast chemical reactions (such as ion exchange), but on much longer time scales, the catchment's chemostatic "set point" is determined by climatically driven critical zone evolution. We present examples illustrating short-term and long-term controls on water quality consistent with variations in weather and climate, and discuss their implications.

  15. Comparison of point-of-care versus central laboratory measurement of hematocrit, hemoglobin, and electrolyte concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavala, Alexandra; Myrianthefs, Pavlos

    We aimed to investigate the accuracy of certain laboratory examinations obtained by the ABG analyzer (ROCHE AVL OMNI S) as compared to hospital central laboratory (CL). We prospectively collected data obtained from the same arterial blood sample regarding hematocrit, hemoglobin, potassium, and sodium. ABG analyzer results were significantly lower (p < 0.0001) compared to CL values thus values between the two methods are not interchangeable. The mean bias for Hb, Na + and K + were within accepted by US Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (USCLIA) differences (cut-off points) but not for Ht. In 8.0%, 17.5%, 37.5% and 56.0% of Hb, Na + , K + and Ht measurements respectively and 29.75% in sum the differences were over the USCLIA accepted limits. ABG analyzer significantly underestimate the values of Hb, Ht, Na + and K + , compared to CL and almost 30% of all examined parameters were beyond USCLIA accepted biases. ABG analyzer significantly underestimates the values of Hb, Ht, Na + and K + compared to CL and almost 30% for all examined parameters are beyond USCLIA accepted biases. These data do not support widespread or even careful use of POCT for making diagnostic and treatment decisions until technology improves and results in improved outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparisons of adaptive TIN modelling filtering method and threshold segmentation filtering method of LiDAR point cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lin; Fan, Xiangtao; Du, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    Point cloud filtering is the basic and key step in LiDAR data processing. Adaptive Triangle Irregular Network Modelling (ATINM) algorithm and Threshold Segmentation on Elevation Statistics (TSES) algorithm are among the mature algorithms. However, few researches concentrate on the parameter selections of ATINM and the iteration condition of TSES, which can greatly affect the filtering results. First the paper presents these two key problems under two different terrain environments. For a flat area, small height parameter and angle parameter perform well and for areas with complex feature changes, large height parameter and angle parameter perform well. One-time segmentation is enough for flat areas, and repeated segmentations are essential for complex areas. Then the paper makes comparisons and analyses of the results by these two methods. ATINM has a larger I error in both two data sets as it sometimes removes excessive points. TSES has a larger II error in both two data sets as it ignores topological relations between points. ATINM performs well even with a large region and a dramatic topology while TSES is more suitable for small region with flat topology. Different parameters and iterations can cause relative large filtering differences

  17. COMPARISON OF TWO VARIANTS OF A KATA TECHNIQUE (UNSU: THE NEUROMECHANICAL POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Felici

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize from a neuromechanical point of view a jump performed within the sequence of Kata Unsu in International top level karateka. A modified jumping technique was proposed to improve the already acquired technique. The neuromechanical evaluation, paralleled by a refereeing judgment, was then used to compare modified and classic technique to test if the modification could lead to a better performance capacity, e.g. a higher score during an official competition. To this purpose, four high ranked karateka were recruited and instructed to perform the two jumps. Surface electromyographic signals were recorded in a bipolar mode from the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, and gastrocnemious muscles of both lower limbs. Mechanical data were collected by means of a stereophotogrammetric system and force platforms. Performance was associated to parameters characterizing the initial conditions of the aerial phase and to the CoM maximal height. The most critical elements having a negative influence on the arbitral evaluation were associated to quantitative error indicators. 3D reconstruction of the movement and videos were used to obtain the referee scores. The Unsu jump was divided into five phases (preparation, take off, ascending flight, descending flight, and landing and the critical elements were highlighted. When comparing the techniques, no difference was found in the pattern of sEMG activation of the throwing leg muscles, while the push leg showed an earlier activation of RF and GA muscles at the beginning of the modified technique. The only significant improvement associated with the modified technique was evidenced at the beginning of the aerial phase, while there was no significant improvement of the referee score. Nevertheless, the proposed neuromechanical analysis, finalized to correlate technique features with the core performance indicators, is new in the field and is a

  18. Comparison of solar photospheric bright points between Sunrise observations and MHD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmüller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Schüssler, M.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Feller, A.; Gandorfer, A.; Hirzberger, J.

    2014-08-01

    Bright points (BPs) in the solar photosphere are thought to be the radiative signatures (small-scale brightness enhancements) of magnetic elements described by slender flux tubes or sheets located in the darker intergranular lanes in the solar photosphere. They contribute to the ultraviolet (UV) flux variations over the solar cycle and hence may play a role in influencing the Earth's climate. Here we aim to obtain a better insight into their properties by combining high-resolution UV and spectro-polarimetric observations of BPs by the Sunrise Observatory with 3D compressible radiation magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations. To this end, full spectral line syntheses are performed with the MHD data and a careful degradation is applied to take into account all relevant instrumental effects of the observations. In a first step it is demonstrated that the selected MHD simulations reproduce the measured distributions of intensity at multiple wavelengths, line-of-sight velocity, spectral line width, and polarization degree rather well. The simulated line width also displays the correct mean, but a scatter that is too small. In the second step, the properties of observed BPs are compared with synthetic ones. Again, these are found to match relatively well, except that the observations display a tail of large BPs with strong polarization signals (most likely network elements) not found in the simulations, possibly due to the small size of the simulation box. The higher spatial resolution of the simulations has a significant effect, leading to smaller and more numerous BPs. The observation that most BPs are weakly polarized is explained mainly by the spatial degradation, the stray light contamination, and the temperature sensitivity of the Fe i line at 5250.2 Å. Finally, given that the MHD simulations are highly consistent with the observations, we used the simulations to explore the properties of BPs further. The Stokes V asymmetries increase with the distance to the

  19. Comparison of point-source pollutant loadings to soil and groundwater for 72 chemical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Soonyoung; Hwang, Sang-Il; Yun, Seong-Taek; Chae, Gitak; Lee, Dongsu; Kim, Ki-Eun

    2017-11-01

    Fate and transport of 72 chemicals in soil and groundwater were assessed by using a multiphase compositional model (CompFlow Bio) because some of the chemicals are non-aqueous phase liquids or solids in the original form. One metric ton of chemicals were assumed to leak in a stylized facility. Scenarios of both surface spills and subsurface leaks were considered. Simulation results showed that the fate and transport of chemicals above the water table affected the fate and transport of chemicals below the water table, and vice versa. Surface spill scenarios caused much less concentrations than subsurface leak scenarios because leaching amounts into the subsurface environment were small (at most 6% of the 1 t spill for methylamine). Then, simulation results were applied to assess point-source pollutant loadings to soil and groundwater above and below the water table, respectively, by multiplying concentrations, impact areas, and durations. These three components correspond to the intensity of contamination, mobility, and persistency in the assessment of pollutant loading, respectively. Assessment results showed that the pollutant loadings in soil and groundwater were linearly related (r 2  = 0.64). The pollutant loadings were negatively related with zero-order and first-order decay rates in both soil (r = - 0.5 and - 0.6, respectively) and groundwater (- 1.0 and - 0.8, respectively). In addition, this study scientifically defended that the soil partitioning coefficient (K d ) significantly affected the pollutant loadings in soil (r = 0.6) and the maximum masses in groundwater (r = - 0.9). However, K d was not a representative factor for chemical transportability unlike the expectation in chemical ranking systems of soil and groundwater pollutants. The pollutant loadings estimated using a physics-based hydrogeological model provided a more rational ranking for exposure assessment, compared to the summation of persistency and transportability scores in

  20. The LHCb trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolko, I.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes progress in the development of the LHCb trigger system since the letter of intent. The trigger philosophy has significantly changed, resulting in an increase of trigger efficiency for signal B events. It is proposed to implement a level-1 vertex topology trigger in specialised hardware. (orig.)

  1. Four points function fitted and first derivative procedure for determining the end points in potentiometric titration curves: statistical analysis and method comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholeif, S A

    2001-06-01

    A new method that belongs to the differential category for determining the end points from potentiometric titration curves is presented. It uses a preprocess to find first derivative values by fitting four data points in and around the region of inflection to a non-linear function, and then locate the end point, usually as a maximum or minimum, using an inverse parabolic interpolation procedure that has an analytical solution. The behavior and accuracy of the sigmoid and cumulative non-linear functions used are investigated against three factors. A statistical evaluation of the new method using linear least-squares method validation and multifactor data analysis are covered. The new method is generally applied to symmetrical and unsymmetrical potentiometric titration curves, and the end point is calculated using numerical procedures only. It outperforms the "parent" regular differential method in almost all factors levels and gives accurate results comparable to the true or estimated true end points. Calculated end points from selected experimental titration curves compatible with the equivalence point category of methods, such as Gran or Fortuin, are also compared with the new method.

  2. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on comparison of non-fossil options to Hinkley Point 'C'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, S.C.

    1988-09-01

    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. This evidence to the Inquiry sets out and explains the non-fossil fuel options, with particular reference to renewable energy sources and other PWR locations; gives feasibility, capital cost, performance and total resource estimates for the renewable sources; and shows that no other non-fossil fuel source is to be preferred to Hinkley Point ''C''. (author)

  3. Comparison of left ventricular function assessment using phonocardiogram- and electrocardiogram-triggered 2D SSFP CINE MR imaging at 1.5 T and 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Meike [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Humboldt-University, Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), Charite Campus Buch, Berlin (Germany); Frauenrath, Tobias; Hezel, Fabian [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility, Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Krombach, Gabriele A.; Kremer, Ute; Koppers, Benedikt [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Butenweg, Christoph; Goemmel, Andreas [Chair of Structural Statics and Dynamics, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Utting, Jane F. [MRI, NHS Grampian, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Schulz-Menger, Jeanette [Humboldt-University, Working Group Cardiovascular MR, Franz-Volhard-Klinik, Department of Cardiology, HELIOS-Klinikum Berlin-Buch and Charite Campus Buch, Berlin (Germany); Niendorf, Thoralf [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Humboldt-University, Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), Charite Campus Buch, Berlin (Germany); Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility, Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    As high-field cardiac MRI (CMR) becomes more widespread the propensity of ECG to interference from electromagnetic fields (EMF) and to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) effects increases and with it the motivation for a CMR triggering alternative. This study explores the suitability of acoustic cardiac triggering (ACT) for left ventricular (LV) function assessment in healthy subjects (n = 14). Quantitative analysis of 2D CINE steady-state free precession (SSFP) images was conducted to compare ACT's performance with vector ECG (VCG). Endocardial border sharpness (EBS) was examined paralleled by quantitative LV function assessment. Unlike VCG, ACT provided signal traces free of interference from EMF or MHD effects. In the case of correct R-wave recognition, VCG-triggered 2D CINE SSFP was immune to cardiac motion effects - even at 3.0 T. However, VCG-triggered 2D SSFP CINE imaging was prone to cardiac motion and EBS degradation if R-wave misregistration occurred. ACT-triggered acquisitions yielded LV parameters (end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular mass (LVM)) comparable with those derived from VCG-triggered acquisitions (1.5 T: ESV{sub VCG} = (56 {+-} 17) ml, EDV{sub VCG} = (151 {+-} 32) ml, LVM{sub VCG} = (97 {+-} 27) g, SV{sub VCG} = (94 {+-} 19) ml, EF{sub VCG} = (63 {+-} 5)% cf. ESV{sub ACT} = (56 {+-} 18) ml, EDV{sub ACT} = (147 {+-} 36) ml, LVM{sub ACT} = (102 {+-} 29) g, SV{sub ACT} = (91 {+-} 22) ml, EF{sub ACT} = (62 {+-} 6)%; 3.0 T: ESV{sub VCG} = (55 {+-} 21) ml, EDV{sub VCG} = (151 {+-} 32) ml, LVM{sub VCG} = (101 {+-} 27) g, SV{sub VCG} = (96 {+-} 15) ml, EF{sub VCG} = (65 {+-} 7)% cf. ESV{sub ACT} = (54 {+-} 20) ml, EDV{sub ACT} = (146 {+-} 35) ml, LVM{sub ACT} = (101 {+-} 30) g, SV{sub ACT} = (92 {+-} 17) ml, EF{sub ACT} = (64 {+-} 6)%). ACT's intrinsic insensitivity to interference from electromagnetic fields renders it suitable for clinical CMR. (orig.)

  4. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  5. Development of a clinical prediction rule for identifying women with tension-type headache who are likely to achieve short-term success with joint mobilization and muscle trigger point therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Cleland, Joshua A; Palomeque-del-Cerro, Luis; Caminero, Ana Belén; Guillem-Mesado, Amparo; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo

    2011-02-01

    To identify prognostic factors from the history and physical examination in women with tension-type headache (TTH) who are likely to experience self-perceived clinical improvement following a multimodal physical therapy session including joint mobilization and muscle trigger point (TrP) therapies. No definitive therapeutic intervention is available for TTH. It would be useful for clinicians to have a clinical prediction rule for selecting which TTH patients may experience improved outcomes following a multimodal physical therapy program. Women diagnosed with pure TTH by 3 experienced neurologists according to the International Headache Society criteria from different neurology departments were included. They underwent a standardized examination (neck mobility, pressure pain thresholds, total tenderness score, presence of muscle TrPs, Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form, the Neck Disability Index [NDI], the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Headache Disability Inventory) and then a multimodal physical therapy session including joint mobilization and TrP therapies. The treatment session included a 30-second grade III or IV central posterior-anterior nonthrust mobilization applied from T4 to T1 thoracic vertebrae, at C7-T1 cervico-thoracic junction and C1-C2 vertebrae for an overall intervention time of 5 minutes Different TrP techniques, particularly soft tissue stroke, pressure release, or muscle energy were applied to head and neck-shoulder muscles (temporalis, suboccipital, upper trapezius, splenius capitis, semispinalis capitis, sternocleidomastoid) to inactivate active muscle TrPs. Participants were classified as having achieved a successful outcome 1 week after the session based on their self-perceived recovery. Potential prognostic variables were entered into a stepwise logistic regression model to determine the most accurate set of variables for prediction of success. Data for 76 subjects were included in the analysis, of which 36 experienced a

  6. Surgery for trigger finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Haroldo Junior; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun; Lenza, Mário; Gomes Dos Santos, Joao Baptista; Faloppa, Flávio; Belloti, Joao Carlos

    2018-02-20

    Trigger finger is a common clinical disorder, characterised by pain and catching as the patient flexes and extends digits because of disproportion between the diameter of flexor tendons and the A1 pulley. The treatment approach may include non-surgical or surgical treatments. Currently there is no consensus about the best surgical treatment approach (open, percutaneous or endoscopic approaches). To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different methods of surgical treatment for trigger finger (open, percutaneous or endoscopic approaches) in adults at any stage of the disease. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS up to August 2017. We included randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that assessed adults with trigger finger and compared any type of surgical treatment with each other or with any other non-surgical intervention. The major outcomes were the resolution of trigger finger, pain, hand function, participant-reported treatment success or satisfaction, recurrence of triggering, adverse events and neurovascular injury. Two review authors independently selected the trial reports, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Measures of treatment effect for dichotomous outcomes calculated risk ratios (RRs), and mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMD) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). When possible, the data were pooled into meta-analysis using the random-effects model. GRADE was used to assess the quality of evidence for each outcome. Fourteen trials were included, totalling 1260 participants, with 1361 trigger fingers. The age of participants included in the studies ranged from 16 to 88 years; and the majority of participants were women (approximately 70%). The average duration of symptoms ranged from three to 15 months, and the follow-up after the procedure ranged from eight weeks to 23 months.The studies reported nine types of comparisons: open surgery versus steroid injections (two

  7. Comparison of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) between two-point and multi-point analyses using high-B-value diffusion MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Hitoshi; Maeda, Masayuki; Araki, Akinobu

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of calculating apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) using high-B-value diffusion images. Echo planar diffusion-weighted MR images were obtained at 1.5 tesla in five standard locations in six subjects using gradient strengths corresponding to B values from 0 to 3000 s/mm 2 . Estimation of ADCs was made using two methods: a nonlinear regression model using measurements from a full set of B values (multi-point method) and linear estimation using B values of 0 and max only (two-point method). A high correlation between the two methods was noted (r=0.99), and the mean percentage differences were -0.53% and 0.53% in phantom and human brain, respectively. These results suggest there is little error in estimating ADCs calculated by the two-point technique using high-B-value diffusion MR images. (author)

  8. Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...... in this paper should be regarded as a further documentation of the technique. The key point in Random Decrement estimation is the formulation of a triggering condition. If the triggering condition is fulfilled a time segment from each measurement is picked out and averaged with previous time segments. The final...

  9. Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    1997-01-01

    result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...... in this paper should be regarded as a further documentation of the technique. The key point in Random Decrement estimation is the formulation of a triggering condition. If the triggering condition is fulfilled a time segment from each measurement is picked out and averaged with previous time segments. The final...

  10. Comparisons of temperature, pressure and humidity measurements by balloon-borne radiosondes and frost point hygrometers during MOHAVE-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Hurst

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We compare coincident, in situ, balloon-borne measurements of temperature (T and pressure (P by two radiosondes (Vaisala RS92, Intermet iMet-1-RSB and similar measurements of relative humidity (RH by RS92 sondes and frost point hygrometers. Data from a total of 28 balloon flights with at least one pair of radiosondes are analyzed in 1-km altitude bins to quantify measurement differences between the sonde sensors and how they vary with altitude. Each comparison (T, P, RH exposes several profiles of anomalously large measurement differences. Measurement difference statistics, calculated with and without the anomalous profiles, are compared to uncertainties quoted by the radiosonde manufacturers. Excluding seven anomalous profiles, T differences between 19 pairs of RS92 and iMet sondes exceed their measurement uncertainty limits (2 σ 31% of the time and reveal a statistically significant, altitude-independent bias of 0.5 ± 0.2 °C. Similarly, RS92-iMet P differences in 22 non-anomalous profiles exceed their uncertainty limits 23% of the time, with a disproportionate 83% of the excessive P differences at altitudes >16 km. The RS92-iMet pressure differences increase smoothly from −0.6 hPa near the surface to 0.8 hPa above 25 km. Temperature and P differences between all 14 pairs of RS92 sondes exceed manufacturer-quoted, reproducibility limits (σ 28% and 11% of the time, respectively. About 95% of the excessive T differences are eliminated when 5 anomalous RS92-RS92 profiles are excluded. Only 5% of RH measurement differences between 14 pairs of RS92 sondes exceed the manufacturer's measurement reproducibility limit (σ. RH measurements by RS92 sondes are also compared to RH values calculated from frost point hygrometer measurements and coincident T measurements by the radiosondes. The influences of RS92-iMet Tand P differences on RH values and water vapor mixing

  11. Comparison between amperometric and true potentiometric end-point detection in the determination of water by the Karl Fischer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedergren, A

    1974-06-01

    A rapid and sensitive method using true potentiometric end-point detection has been developed and compared with the conventional amperometric method for Karl Fischer determination of water. The effect of the sulphur dioxide concentration on the shape of the titration curve is shown. By using kinetic data it was possible to calculate the course of titrations and make comparisons with those found experimentally. The results prove that the main reaction is the slow step, both in the amperometric and the potentiometric method. Results obtained in the standardization of the Karl Fischer reagent showed that the potentiometric method, including titration to a preselected potential, gave a standard deviation of 0.001(1) mg of water per ml, the amperometric method using extrapolation 0.002(4) mg of water per ml and the amperometric titration to a pre-selected diffusion current 0.004(7) mg of water per ml. Theories and results dealing with dilution effects are presented. The time of analysis was 1-1.5 min for the potentiometric and 4-5 min for the amperometric method using extrapolation.

  12. Comparison of T-Square, Point Centered Quarter, and N-Tree Sampling Methods in Pittosporum undulatum Invaded Woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lurdes Borges Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tree density is an important parameter affecting ecosystems functions and management decisions, while tree distribution patterns affect sampling design. Pittosporum undulatum stands in the Azores are being targeted with a biomass valorization program, for which efficient tree density estimators are required. We compared T-Square sampling, Point Centered Quarter Method (PCQM, and N-tree sampling with benchmark quadrat (QD sampling in six 900 m2 plots established at P. undulatum stands in São Miguel Island. A total of 15 estimators were tested using a data resampling approach. The estimated density range (344–5056 trees/ha was found to agree with previous studies using PCQM only. Although with a tendency to underestimate tree density (in comparison with QD, overall, T-Square sampling appeared to be the most accurate and precise method, followed by PCQM. Tree distribution pattern was found to be slightly aggregated in 4 of the 6 stands. Considering (1 the low level of bias and high precision, (2 the consistency among three estimators, (3 the possibility of use with aggregated patterns, and (4 the possibility of obtaining a larger number of independent tree parameter estimates, we recommend the use of T-Square sampling in P. undulatum stands within the framework of a biomass valorization program.

  13. Performance Comparison between ĆUK and SEPIC Converters for Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Incremental Conductance Technique in Solar Power Applications

    OpenAIRE

    James Dunia; Bakari M. M. Mwinyiwiwa

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) energy is one of the most important energy resources since it is clean, pollution free, and endless. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is used in photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the photovoltaic output power, irrespective the variations of temperature and radiation conditions. This paper presents a comparison between Ćuk and SEPIC converter in maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of photovoltaic (PV) system. In the paper, advantages and disadvantages of both converter...

  14. Antimicrobial usage in German acute care hospitals: results of the third national point prevalence survey and comparison with previous national point prevalence surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdassi, Seven Johannes Sam; Gastmeier, Petra; Piening, Brar Christian; Behnke, Michael; Peña Diaz, Luis Alberto; Gropmann, Alexander; Rosenbusch, Marie-Luise; Kramer, Tobias Siegfried; Hansen, Sonja

    2018-04-01

    Previous point prevalence surveys (PPSs) revealed the potential for improving antimicrobial usage (AU) in German acute care hospitals. Data from the 2016 German national PPS on healthcare-associated infections and AU were used to evaluate efforts in antimicrobial stewardship (AMS). A national PPS in Germany was organized by the German National Reference Centre for Surveillance of Nosocomial Infections in 2016 as part of the European PPS initiated by the ECDC. The data were collected in May and June 2016. Results were compared with data from the PPS 2011. A total of 218 hospitals with 64 412 observed patients participated in the PPS 2016. The prevalence of patients with AU was 25.9% (95% CI 25.6%-26.3%). No significant increase or decrease in AU prevalence was revealed in the group of all participating hospitals. Prolonged surgical prophylaxis was found to be common (56.1% of all surgical prophylaxes on the prevalence day), but significantly less prevalent than in 2011 (P < 0.01). The most frequently administered antimicrobial groups were penicillins plus β-lactamase inhibitors (BLIs) (23.2%), second-generation cephalosporins (12.9%) and fluoroquinolones (11.3%). Significantly more penicillins plus BLIs and fewer second-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones were used in 2016. Overall, an increase in the consumption of broad-spectrum antimicrobials was noted. For 68.7% of all administered antimicrobials, the indication was documented in the patient notes. The current data reaffirm the points of improvement that previous data identified and reveal that recent efforts in AMS in German hospitals require further intensification.

  15. Stay away from asthma triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma triggers - stay away from; Asthma triggers - avoiding; Reactive airway disease - triggers; Bronchial asthma - triggers ... clothes. They should leave the coat outside or away from your child. Ask people who work at ...

  16. Software trigger for the TOPAZ detector at TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, T.; Yamauchi, M.; Enomoto, R.

    1990-01-01

    A new software trigger system was developed and installed at the TOPAZ detector to the trigger system for the TRISTAN e + e - collider to take data efficiently in the scheduled high luminosity experiment. This software trigger requires two or more charged tracks originated at the interaction point by examining the timing of signals from the time projection chamber. To execute the vertex finding very quickly, four microprocessors are used in parallel. By this new trigger the rate of the track trigger was reduced down to 30-40% with very small inefficiency. The additional dead time by this trigger is negligible. (orig.)

  17. Subsequent bilateral comparison to CCT-K3, CIPM key comparison CCT-K3.1: Comparison of standard platinum resistance thermometers at the triple point of water (T = 273.16 K) and at the melting point of gallium (T = 302.9146 K)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, S.; Nonis, M.; Solve, S.; Allisy-Roberts, P. J.; Renaot, E.; Martin, C.

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs) has been carried out between the BIPM and the Laboratoire commun de métrologie LNE-CNAM using the melting point of gallium and the triple point of water. The temperature difference at Ga between the BIPM and the LNE-CNAM was determined as 108 µK with an associated combined standard uncertainty of 223 µK. This outcome indicates a present temperature difference of the BIPM of -65 µK with respect to an Average Reference Value from an earlier comparison, with an associated uncertainty of uc = 262 µK. It should be noted that the present BIPM scale is not independent, but traceable to cells used in KC7. The comparison results validate the re-establishment of thermometer calibrations at the BIPM for internal use. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  18. A comparison of mghr prescription to doses at points A and B in intracavitary radiotherapy of cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.I.; Ha, S.W.; Kang, W.S.

    1981-01-01

    The 42 patients with carcinoma of the cervix, performed intracavitary radiotherapy, were analysed the doses at points A and B comparing to the mghr prescription. The doses at points A and B were calculated by PC-12 computer planning system. Correlation coefficiency between doses at points A and B and the mghr prescription are 0.82 (p<0.001) and 0.90 (p<0.001) respectively. The slope of the point A line is 0.70 and the slope of the point B is 0.21. Therefore, the dose at point A is approximately 3/4 the mghr prescription and the dose at point B is approximately 1/4 the mghr prescription. (author)

  19. Lessons from (triggered) tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan

    2010-01-01

    I test a “clock-advance” model that implies triggered tremor is ambient tremor that occurs at a sped-up rate as a result of loading from passing seismic waves. This proposed model predicts that triggering probability is proportional to the product of the ambient tremor rate and a function describing the efficacy of the triggering wave to initiate a tremor event. Using data mostly from Cascadia, I have compared qualitatively a suite of teleseismic waves that did and did not trigger tremor with ambient tremor rates. Many of the observations are consistent with the model if the efficacy of the triggering wave depends on wave amplitude. One triggered tremor observation clearly violates the clock-advance model. The model prediction that larger triggering waves result in larger triggered tremor signals also appears inconsistent with the measurements. I conclude that the tremor source process is a more complex system than that described by the clock-advance model predictions tested. Results of this and previous studies also demonstrate that (1) conditions suitable for tremor generation exist in many tectonic environments, but, within each, only occur at particular spots whose locations change with time; (2) any fluid flow must be restricted to less than a meter; (3) the degree to which delayed failure and secondary triggering occurs is likely insignificant; and 4) both shear and dilatational deformations may trigger tremor. Triggered and ambient tremor rates correlate more strongly with stress than stressing rate, suggesting tremor sources result from time-dependent weakening processes rather than simple Coulomb failure.

  20. Pulling the trigger on LHC electronics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The conditions at CERN's Large Hadron Collider pose severe challenges for the designers and builders of front-end, trigger and data acquisition electronics. A recent workshop reviewed the encouraging progress so far and discussed what remains to be done. The LHC experiments have addressed level one trigger systems with a variety of high-speed hardware. The CMS Calorimeter Level One Regional Trigger uses 160 MHz logic boards plugged into the front and back of a custom backplane, which provides point-to-point links between the cards. Much of the processing in this system is performed by five types of 160 MHz digital applications-specific integrated circuits designed using Vitesse submicron high-integration gallium arsenide gate array technology. The LHC experiments make extensive use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These offer programmable reconfigurable logic, which has the flexibility that trigger designers need to be able to alter algorithms so that they can follow the physics and detector perform...

  1. Simulation studies for optimizing the trigger generation criteria for the TACTIC telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, M.K.; Tickoo, A.K.; Dhar, V.K.; Venugopal, K.; Chanchalani, K.; Rannot, R.C.; Yadav, K.K.; Chandra, P.; Kothari, M.; Koul, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of Monte Carlo simulations of γ-ray and cosmic-ray proton induced extensive air showers as detected by the TACTIC atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope for optimizing its trigger field of view and topological trigger generation scheme. The simulation study has been carried out at several zenith angles. The topological trigger generation uses a coincidence of two or three nearest neighbor pixels for producing an event trigger. The results of this study suggest that a trigger field of 11x11 pixels (∼3.4 0 x3.4 0 ) is quite optimum for achieving maximum effective collection area for γ-rays from a point source. With regard to optimization of topological trigger generation, it is found that both two and three nearest neighbor pixels yield nearly similar results up to a zenith angle of 25 0 with a threshold energy of ∼1.5TeV for γ-rays. Beyond zenith angle of 25 0 , the results suggest that a two-pixel nearest neighbor trigger should be preferred. Comparison of the simulated integral rates has also been made with corresponding measured values for validating the predictions of the Monte Carlo simulations, especially the effective collection area, so that energy spectra of sources (or flux upper limits in case of no detection) can be determined reliably. Reasonably good matching of the measured trigger rates (on the basis of ∼207h of data collected with the telescope in NN-2 and NN-3 trigger configurations) with that obtained from simulations reassures that the procedure followed by us in estimating the threshold energy and detection rates is quite reliable. - Highlights: → Optimization of the trigger field of view and topological trigger generation for the TACTIC telescope. → Monte Carlo simulations of extensive air showers carried out using CORSIKA code. → Trigger generation with two or three nearest neighbor pixels yield similar results up to a zenith angle of 25 deg. → Reasonably good matching of measured trigger

  2. Electronic trigger for the ASP experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.J.

    1985-11-01

    The Anomalous Single Photon (ASP) electronic trigger is described. The experiments is based on an electromagnetic calorimeter composed of arrays of lead glass blocks, read out with photo-multiplier tubes, surrounding the interaction point at the PEP storage ring. The primary requirement of the trigger system is to be sensitive to low energy (approx. =0.5 GeV and above) photons whilst discriminating against high backgrounds at PEP. Analogue summing of the PMT signals and a sequence of programmable digital look-up tables produces a ''dead-timeless'' trigger for the beam collision rate of 408 kHz. 6 refs., 6 figs

  3. Triggering trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Stefano, Giulia; Maarbjerg, Stine; Nurmikko, Turo

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Although it is widely accepted that facial pain paroxysms triggered by innocuous stimuli constitute a hallmark sign of trigeminal neuralgia, very few studies to date have systematically investigated the role of the triggers involved. In the recently published diagnostic classification...

  4. Triggering the GRANDE array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, J.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the Gamma Ray And Neutrino Detector Experiment (GRANDE) is presented. The detector elements and electronics are described. The trigger logic for the array is then examined. The triggers for the Gamma Ray and the Neutrino portions of the array are treated separately. (orig.)

  5. Trigger Menu in 2017

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This document summarises the trigger menu deployed by the ATLAS experiment during 2017 data taking at proton-proton collision centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV and $\\sqrt{s}=5$ TeV at the LHC and describes the improvements with respect to the trigger system and menu used in 2016 data taking.

  6. Causality and headache triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  7. The LHCb trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Hernando Morata, Jose Angel

    2006-01-01

    The LHCb experiment relies on an efficient trigger to select a rate up to 2 kHz of events useful for physics analysis from an initial rate of 10 MHz of visible collisions. In this contribution, we describe the different LHCb trigger algorithms and present their expected performance.

  8. The Trigger Processor and Trigger Processor Algorithms for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lazovich, Tomo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS New Small Wheel (NSW) is an upgrade to the ATLAS muon endcap detectors that will be installed during the next long shutdown of the LHC. Comprising both MicroMegas (MMs) and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGCs), this system will drastically improve the performance of the muon system in a high cavern background environment. The NSW trigger, in particular, will significantly reduce the rate of fake triggers coming from track segments in the endcap not originating from the interaction point. We will present an overview of the trigger, the proposed sTGC and MM trigger algorithms, and the hardware implementation of the trigger. In particular, we will discuss both the heart of the trigger, an ATCA system with FPGA-based trigger processors (using the same hardware platform for both MM and sTGC triggers), as well as the full trigger electronics chain, including dedicated cards for transmission of data via GBT optical links. Finally, we will detail the challenges of ensuring that the trigger electronics can ...

  9. The NA27 trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzarri, R.; Di Capua, E.; Falciano, S.; Iori, M.; Marel, G.; Piredda, G.; Zanello, L.; Haupt, L.; Hellman, S.; Holmgren, S.O.; Johansson, K.E.

    1985-05-01

    We have designed and implemented a minimum bias trigger together with a fiducial volume trigger for the experiment NA27, performed at the CERN SPS. A total of more than 3 million bubble chamber pictures have been taken with a triggered cross section smaller than 75% of the total inelastic cross section. Events containing charm particles were triggered with an efficiency of 98 +2 sub(-3)%. With the fiducial volume trigger, the probability for a picture to contain an interaction in the visible hydrogen increased from 47.3% to 59.5%, reducing film cost and processing effort with about 20%. The improvement in data taking rate is shown to be negligible. (author)

  10. KEY COMPARISON: Final report of APMP.T-K6 (original name APMP-IC-1-97): Comparison of humidity measurements using a dew point meter as a transfer standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wang; Takahashi, C.; Hussain, F.; Hong, Yi; Nham, H. S.; Chan, K. H.; Lee, L. T.; Chahine, K.

    2007-01-01

    This APMP key comparison of humidity measurements using a dew point meter as a transfer standard was carried out among eight national metrology institutes from February 1999 to January 2001. The NMC/SPRING, Singapore was the pilot laboratory and a chilled mirror dew point meter offered by NMIJ was used as a transfer standard. The transfer standard was calibrated by each participating institute against local humidity standards in terms of frost and dew point temperature. Each institute selected its frost/dew point temperature calibration points within the range from -70 °C to 20 °C frost/dew point with 5 °C step. The majority of participating institutes measured from -60 °C to 20 °C frost/dew point and a simple mean evaluation was performed in this range. The differences between the institute values and the simple means for all participating institutes are within two standard deviations from the mean values. Bilateral equivalence was analysed in terms of pair difference and single parameter Quantified Demonstrated Equivalence. The results are presented in the report. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  11. Comparison of Biochemical Recurrence-Free Survival after Radical Prostatectomy Triggered by Grade Reclassification during Active Surveillance and in Men Newly Diagnosed with Similar Grade Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Clarissa P; Landis, Patricia; Carter, H Ballentine; Epstein, Jonathan I; Mamawala, Mufaddal

    2017-09-01

    We compared biochemical recurrence between men on active surveillance who underwent radical prostatectomy triggered by grade reclassification and men diagnosed with similar grade disease treated with immediate radical prostatectomy. We retrospectively analyzed the records of men who underwent surgery from 1995 to 2015 at our institution. We identified 4 groups, including 94 and 56 men on active surveillance who underwent radical prostatectomy following reclassification to Gleason 7 (3 + 4) or greater (grade groups 2 or greater) and Gleason 7 (3 + 4) (grade group 2), and 3,504 and 1,979 in the immediate prostatectomy group diagnosed with grade group 2 or greater and 2, respectively. Biochemical recurrence was assessed by Kaplan-Meir analysis and a multivariable Cox model. Men on active surveillance had a lower incidence of biochemical recurrence than men in the immediate radical prostatectomy groups for biopsy grade groups 2 or greater and 2 (each p <0.05). One, 5 and 10-year biochemical recurrence-free survival for men in the active surveillance group vs the immediate radical prostatectomy group was 97.9% vs 85.5%, 76.6% vs 65.1% and 69.0% vs 54.2% in biopsy grade groups 2 or greater (p = 0.009) and 96.4% vs 91.2%, 89.6% vs 74.0% and 89.6% vs 63.9%, respectively, in biopsy grade group 2 (p = 0.071). For biopsy grade groups 2 or greater there was no significant difference in the risk of biochemical recurrence between the groups after adjusting for age, biopsy extent of cancer and prostate specific antigen density. Patients on active surveillance reclassified to grade groups 2 or greater are at no greater risk for treatment failure than men newly diagnosed with similar grades. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of Birds Detected from Roadside and Off-Road Point Counts in the Shenandoah National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry M.E. Keller; Mark R. Fuller

    1995-01-01

    Roadside point counts are generally used for large surveys to increase the number of samples. We examined differences in species detected from roadside versus off-road (200-m and 400-m) point counts in the Shenandoah National Park. We also compared the list of species detected in the first 3 minutes to those detected in 10 minutes for potential species biases. Results...

  13. Using a neural network approach for muon reconstruction and triggering

    CERN Document Server

    Etzion, E; Abramowicz, H; Benhammou, Ya; Horn, D; Levinson, L; Livneh, R

    2004-01-01

    The extremely high rate of events that will be produced in the future Large Hadron Collider requires the triggering mechanism to take precise decisions in a few nano-seconds. We present a study which used an artificial neural network triggering algorithm and compared it to the performance of a dedicated electronic muon triggering system. Relatively simple architecture was used to solve a complicated inverse problem. A comparison with a realistic example of the ATLAS first level trigger simulation was in favour of the neural network. A similar architecture trained after the simulation of the electronics first trigger stage showed a further background rejection.

  14. Comparison of Point Placement by Veterinary Professionals with Different Levels of Acupuncture Training in a Canine Cadaver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Toni; Shmalberg, Justin; Hochman, Lindsay; Miscioscia, Erin; Brumby, Meghan; McKenna, Kelsey; Roth, Amber

    2017-10-01

    Veterinary acupuncture is becoming increasingly implemented for various disease processes, with growing numbers of veterinarians pursuing advanced training to meet the rising demand for this relatively new intervention. Accurate acupoint placement remains challenging, with individual practitioners relying on varying methods of point identification, often compounded by the transpositional nature of points for companion animals. The aim of this study was to assess for differences in acupuncture needle placement of select points between veterinary professionals with three different levels of acupuncture training in an academic teaching environment. Seven participants placed a total of six acupoints on a canine cadaver. Digital radiography was used to document each participant's point placement. Each participant's point location was then compared to a control "correct" point, and the distance between the two points was measured. A significant difference in placement accuracy was identified between the participants when grouped by training level (p = 0.03). These results indicate that veterinary patients receiving acupuncture treatment from veterinarians with different levels of training may subsequently experience varying effects, although further studies are warranted on more specific acupoint description as well as the clinical implications of needle placement accuracy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. COMPARISON OF 2D AND 3D APPROACHES FOR THE ALIGNMENT OF UAV AND LIDAR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Persad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The automatic alignment of 3D point clouds acquired or generated from different sensors is a challenging problem. The objective of the alignment is to estimate the 3D similarity transformation parameters, including a global scale factor, 3 rotations and 3 translations. To do so, corresponding anchor features are required in both data sets. There are two main types of alignment: i Coarse alignment and ii Refined Alignment. Coarse alignment issues include lack of any prior knowledge of the respective coordinate systems for a source and target point cloud pair and the difficulty to extract and match corresponding control features (e.g., points, lines or planes co-located on both point cloud pairs to be aligned. With the increasing use of UAVs, there is a need to automatically co-register their generated point cloud-based digital surface models with those from other data acquisition systems such as terrestrial or airborne lidar point clouds. This works presents a comparative study of two independent feature matching techniques for addressing 3D conformal point cloud alignment of UAV and lidar data in different 3D coordinate systems without any prior knowledge of the seven transformation parameters.

  16. NOMAD Trigger Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varvell, K.

    1995-01-01

    The author reports on the status of an offline study of the NOMAD triggers, which has several motivations. Of primary importance is to demonstrate, using offline information recorded by the individual subdetectors comprising NOMAD, that the online trigger system is functioning as expected. Such an investigation serves to complement the extensive monitoring which is already carried out online. More specific to the needs of the offline software and analysis, the reconstruction of tracks and vertices in the detector requires some knowledge of the time at which the trigger has occurred, in order to locate relevant hits in the drift chambers and muon chambers in particular. The fact that the different triggers allowed by the MIOTRINO board take varying times to form complicates this task. An offline trigger algorithm may serve as a tool to shed light on situations where the online trigger status bits have not been recorded correctly, as happens in a small number of cases, or as an aid to studies with the aim of further refinement of the online triggers themselves

  17. Comparison of 3D point clouds produced by LIDAR and UAV photoscan in the Rochefort cave (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watlet, Arnaud; Triantafyllou, Antoine; Kaufmann, Olivier; Le Mouelic, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    Amongst today's techniques that are able to produce 3D point clouds, LIDAR and UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry are probably the most commonly used. Both methods have their own advantages and limitations. LIDAR scans create high resolution and high precision 3D point clouds, but such methods are generally costly, especially for sporadic surveys. Compared to LIDAR, UAV (e.g. drones) are cheap and flexible to use in different kind of environments. Moreover, the photogrammetric processing workflow of digital images taken with UAV becomes easier with the rise of many affordable software packages (e.g. Agisoft, PhotoModeler3D, VisualSFM). We present here a challenging study made at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (South Belgium) comprising surface and underground surveys. The site is located in the Belgian Variscan fold-and-thrust belt, a region that shows many karstic networks within Devonian limestone units. A LIDAR scan has been acquired in the main chamber of the cave (~ 15000 m³) to spatialize 3D point cloud of its inner walls and infer geological beds and structures. Even if the use of LIDAR instrument was not really comfortable in such caving environment, the collected data showed a remarkable precision according to few control points geometry. We also decided to perform another challenging survey of the same cave chamber by modelling a 3D point cloud using photogrammetry of a set of DSLR camera pictures taken from the ground and UAV pictures. The aim was to compare both techniques in terms of (i) implementation of data acquisition and processing, (ii) quality of resulting 3D points clouds (points density, field vs cloud recovery and points precision), (iii) their application for geological purposes. Through Rochefort case study, main conclusions are that LIDAR technique provides higher density point clouds with slightly higher precision than photogrammetry method. However, 3D data modeled by photogrammetry provide visible light spectral information

  18. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  19. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Igonkina, O; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Alexandre, G; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Backlund, S; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Bee, C; Behera, P; Bell, P; Bendel, M; Benslama, K; Berry, T; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Bold, T; Booth, J R A; Bosman, M; Boyd, J; Bracinik, J; Brawn, I, P; Brelier, B; Brooks, W; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Casadei, D; Casado, P; Cerri, A; Charlton, D G; Childers, J T; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Davis, A O; De Santo, A; Degenhardt, J; Delsart, P A; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Mattia, A; Diaz, M; Djilkibaev, R; Dobson, E; Dova, M, T; Dufour, M A; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Faulkner, P J W; Ferland, J; Flacher, H; Fleckner, J E; Flowerdew, M; Fonseca-Martin, T; Fratina, S; Fhlisch, F; Gadomski, S; Gallacher, M P; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gee, C N P; George, S; Gillman, A R; Goncalo, R; Grabowska-Bold, I; Groll, M; Gringer, C; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hauser, R; Hellman, S; Hidvgi, A; Hillier, S J; Hryn'ova, T; Idarraga, J; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Kalinowski, A; Khoriauli, G; Kirk, J; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Koeneke, K; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Kwee, R; Landon, M; LeCompte, T; Ledroit, F; Lei, X; Lendermann, V; Lilley, J N; Losada, M; Maettig, S; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Maltrana, D; Marino, C; Masik, J; Meier, K; Middleton, R P; Mincer, A; Moa, T; Monticelli, F; Moreno, D; Morris, J D; Mller, F; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nemethy, P; Neusiedl, A; Oltmann, B; Olvito, D; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Parodi, F; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Perez Reale, V; Petersen, B; Pinzon, G; Potter, C; Prieur, D P F; Prokishin, F; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Reinsch, A; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S; Rodriguez, D; Rogriquez, Y; Rhr, F; Saavedra, A; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santamarina Rios, C; Scannicchio, D; Schiavi, C; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schfer, U; Segura, E; Silverstein, D; Silverstein, S; Sivoklokov, S; Sjlin, J; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strom, D; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Torrence, E; Tripiana, M; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Vachon, B; Vercesi, V; Vorwerk, V; Wang, M; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Weidberg, T; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Whiteson, D; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wildt, M; Winklmeier, F; Wu, X; Xella, S; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; de Seixas, J M; dos Anjos, A; Asman, B; Özcan, E

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 105 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  20. BTeV Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, Erik E.

    2006-01-01

    BTeV was designed to conduct precision studies of CP violation in BB-bar events using a forward-geometry detector in a hadron collider. The detector was optimized for high-rate detection of beauty and charm particles produced in collisions between protons and antiprotons. The trigger was designed to take advantage of the main difference between events with beauty and charm particles and more typical hadronic events-the presence of detached beauty and charm decay vertices. The first stage of the BTeV trigger was to receive data from a pixel vertex detector, reconstruct tracks and vertices for every beam crossing, reject at least 98% of beam crossings in which neither beauty nor charm particles were produced, and trigger on beauty events with high efficiency. An overview of the trigger design and its evolution to include commodity networking and computing components is presented

  1. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igonkina, O; Achenbach, R; Andrei, V; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Alexandre, G; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Backlund, S; Bogaerts, A; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Bee, C; P, Behera; Bell, P; Benslama, K; Berry, T; Bohm, C

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 | 10 5 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  2. Calorimetry Triggering in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igonkina, O.; Achenbach, R.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Alexandre, G.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Backlund, S.; Baines, J.; Barnett, B.M.; Bauss, B.; Bee, C.; Behera, P.; Bell, P.; Bendel, M.; Benslama, K.; Berry, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Bohm, C.; Bold, T.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bosman, M.; Boyd, J.; Bracinik, J.; Brawn, I.P.; Brelier, B.; Brooks, W.; Brunet, S.; Bucci, F.; Casadei, D.; Casado, P.; Cerri, A.; Charlton, D.G.; Childers, J.T.; Collins, N.J.; Conde Muino, P.; Coura Torres, R.; Cranmer, K.; Curtis, C.J.; Czyczula, Z.; Dam, M.; Damazio, D.; Davis, A.O.; De Santo, A.; Degenhardt, J.

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2/10 5 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  3. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igonkina, O [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Achenbach, R; Andrei, V [Kirchhoff Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Adragna, P [Physics Department, Queen Mary, University of London, London (United Kingdom); Aharrouche, M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M [Institut fr Physik, Universitt Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Alexandre, G [Section de Physique, Universite de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Anduaga, X [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina); Aracena, I [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Stanford (United States); Backlund, S; Bogaerts, A [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Baines, J; Barnett, B M [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Bee, C [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, IN2P3-CNRS, Marseille (France); P, Behera [Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (United States); Bell, P [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Benslama, K [University of Regina, Regina (Canada); Berry, T [Department of Physics, Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham (United Kingdom); Bohm, C [Fysikum, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 | 10{sup 5} to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  4. The Need for Control/Comparison Studies in Establishing Diagnostic Indicators: Prader-Willi Syndrome as a Case in Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald L.; Caldwell, Mary Lou

    1990-01-01

    The psychometric characteristics of 12 adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and a group without PWS but with other similar traits were compared. Results found cognitive, behavioral and educational traits often associated with PWS to be present in both groups, illustrating the importance of control/comparison groups in research establishing…

  5. Comparison of 3D point clouds obtained by photogrammetric UAVs and TLS to determine the attitude of dolerite outcrops discontinuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João; Gonçalves, Gil; Duarte, Diogo; Figueiredo, Fernando; Mira, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Photogrammetric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS) are two emerging technologies that allows the production of dense 3D point clouds of the sensed topographic surfaces. Although image-based stereo-photogrammetric point clouds could not, in general, compete on geometric quality over TLS point clouds, fully automated mapping solutions based on ultra-light UAVs (or drones) have recently become commercially available at very reasonable accuracy and cost for engineering and geological applications. The purpose of this paper is to compare the two point clouds generated by these two technologies, in order to automatize the manual process tasks commonly used to detect and represent the attitude of discontinuities (Stereographic projection: Schmidt net - Equal area). To avoid the difficulties of access and guarantee the data survey security conditions, this fundamental step in all geological/geotechnical studies, applied to the extractive industry and engineering works, has to be replaced by a more expeditious and reliable methodology. This methodology will allow, in a more actuated clear way, give answers to the needs of evaluation of rock masses, by mapping the structures present, which will reduce considerably the associated risks (investment, structures dimensioning, security, etc.). A case study of a dolerite outcrop locate in the center of Portugal (the dolerite outcrop is situated in the volcanic complex of Serra de Todo-o-Mundo, Casais Gaiola, intruded in Jurassic sandstones) will be used to assess this methodology. The results obtained show that the 3D point cloud produced by the Photogrammetric UAV platform has the appropriate geometric quality for extracting the parameters that define the discontinuities of the dolerite outcrops. Although, they are comparable to the manual extracted parameters, their quality is inferior to parameters extracted from the TLS point cloud.

  6. Functional Outcome After Antegrade Femoral Nailing : A Comparison of Trochanteric Fossa Versus Tip of Greater Trochanter Entry Point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moein, Chloe Ansari; ten Duis, Henk-Jan; Oey, Liam; de Kort, Gerard; van der Meulen, Wout; Vermeulen, Karin; van der Werken, Christiaan

    Objectives: This study was performed to explore the relationship between entry point-related soft tissue damage in antegrade femoral nailing and the functional outcome in patients with a proximal third femoral shaft fracture. Design: Retrospective clinical trial. Setting: Level I university trauma

  7. A Comparison of gel point for a Glass/Epoxy Composite and a Neat Epoxy Material during Isothermal Curing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny; Andreasen, Jens H.; Thomsen, Ole Thybo

    2014-01-01

    Determination of gel point is important for a modelling assessment of residual stresses developed during curing of composite materials. Residual stresses in a composite structure may have a detrimental effect on its mechanical performance and compromise its integrity. In this article, the evoluti...

  8. Calculation of point-contact spectra for a simple heavy-fermion Hamiltonian by two approaches. Comparison of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupka, M.; Farkasovsky, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    Point-contact spectra have been calculated for normal metal -heavy-fermion metal system (described by means of a simplified model Hamiltonian). Two approaches are used: one of them states that the differential conductance reflects an energy-dependent quasi-particle density of states, and 2. one drives the differential conductance are compared

  9. Comparison of CT-based volumetric dosimetry with traditional prescription points in the treatment of cervical cancer with PDR brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrey, Nicola; Nilsson, Sanna; Moutrie, Zoe; Chan, Philip; Cheuk, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    The traditional use of two-dimensional geometric prescription points in intracavitary brachytherapy planning for locally advanced cervical cancer is increasingly being replaced by three-dimensional (3D) planning. This study aimed to directly compare the two planning methods to validate that CT planning provides superior dosimetry for both tumour and organs at risk (OARs) in our department. The CT planning data of 10 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer was audited. For each CT dataset, two new brachytherapy plans were created, comparing the dosimetry of conventional American Brachytherapy Society points and 3D-optimised volumes created for the high-risk clinical target volume (HR CTV) and OARs. Total biologically equivalent doses for these structures were calculated using the modified EQD2 formula and comparative dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis performed. DVH analysis revealed that for the 3D-optimised plans, the prescription aim of D90 ≥ 100% was achieved for the HR CTV in all 10 patients. However, when prescribing to point A, only 50% of the plans achieved the minimum required dose to the HR CTV. Rectal and bladder dose constraints were met for all 3D-optimised plans but exceeded in two and one of the conventional plans, respectively. This study confirms that the regionally relevant practice of CT-based 3D-optimised planning results in improved tumour dose coverage compared with traditional points-based planning methods and also improves dose to the rectum and bladder.

  10. Design and Comparison of Cascaded H-Bridge, Modular Multilevel Converter, and 5-L Active Neutral Point Clamped Topologies for Motor Drive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzoughi, Alinaghi [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Center for Power Electronics Systems; Burgos, Rolando [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Bradley Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Boroyevich, Dushan [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Bradley Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Xue, Yaosuo [Siemens Corporate Research, Princeton, NJ (United States). Power Electronics Dept.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the design procedure and comparison of converters currently used in medium-voltage high-power motor drive applications. For this purpose, the cascaded H-bridge (CHB), modular multilevel converter (MMC), and five-level active neutral point clamped (5-L ANPC) topologies are targeted. The design is performed using 1.7-kV insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) for CHB and MMC converters, and utilizing 3.3- and 4.5-kV IGBTs for 5-L ANPC topology as normally done in industry. The comparison is done between the designed converter topologies at three different voltage levels (4.16, 6.9, and 13.8 kV, with only the first two voltage levels in case of the 5-L ANPC) and two different power levels (3 and 5 MVA), in order to elucidate the dependence of different parameters on voltage and power rating. Finally, the comparison is done from several points of view such as efficiency, capacitive energy storage, semiconductor utilization, parts count (for measure of reliability), and power density.

  11. Report to the CCT on COOMET comparison COOMET.T-K3.1 (previously COOMET.T-S1): Key regional comparison of the national standards of temperature in the range from the triple point of water to the freezing point of zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhodun, A. I.

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the CIPM MRA, a first COOMET comparison "Comparison of the ITS-90 realizations in the range from 0.01 °C to 429.7485 °C (from the triple point of water to the freezing point of zinc)", registered in the KCDB under the identifier "COOMET.T-K3", was carried out in 2005-2007. Four national metrology institutes took part in this comparison: VNIIM (Russian Federation), SMU (Slovakia), BelGIM (Republic of Belarus) and NSC IM (Ukraine), and two of them (VNIIM and SMU) ensured the linkage with key comparisons CCT-K3 and CCT-K4, in order to disseminate the metrological equivalence to the measurement standards of NSC IM and BelGIM. NSC IM, however, had to withdraw its results, and at the meeting of Technical Committee T-10 of COOMET it was decided to carry out a supplementary bilateral comparison between VNIIM and the NSC IM for realization of the ITS-90 in the same range of temperature. This was registered in the KCDB under the identifier COOMET.T-S1 and measurements were performed in 2008-2009. From the results presented in this report, it is possible to draw the conclusion that the COOMET supplementary comparison COOMET.T-S1 demonstrates the CMC uncertainties claimed by the NSC IM for the melting point of gallium 0.236 mK (k = 2), and the freezing points of indium 1.040 mK (k = 2), tin 0.858 mK (k = 2) and zinc 0.944 mK (k = 2). In September 2012 the Working Group on key Comparisons (WG 7) of the CCT upgraded this comparison to a COOMET key comparison of the 'CCT-K3' type. It is now identified as COOMET.T-K3.1. In April 2013 this report was superseded by item 03006 in the Technical Supplement of 2013. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  12. Alternative methods for CYP2D6 phenotyping: comparison of dextromethorphan metabolic ratios from AUC, single point plasma, and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Wang, Haotian; Shi, Jun; Hu, Pei

    2016-05-01

    CYP2D6 is a high polymorphic enzyme. Determining its phenotype before CYP2D6 substrate treatment can avoid dose-dependent adverse events or therapeutic failures. Alternative phenotyping methods of CYP2D6 were compared to aluate the appropriate and precise time points for phenotyping after single-dose and ultiple-dose of 30-mg controlled-release (CR) dextromethorphan (DM) and to explore the antimodes for potential sampling methods. This was an open-label, single and multiple-dose study. 21 subjects were assigned to receive a single dose of CR DM 30 mg orally, followed by a 3-day washout period prior to oral administration of CR DM 30 mg every 12 hours for 6 days. Metabolic ratios (MRs) from AUC∞ after single dosing and from AUC0-12h at steady state were taken as the gold standard. The correlations of metabolic ratios of DM to dextrorphan (MRDM/DX) values based on different phenotyping methods were assessed. Linear regression formulas were derived to calculate the antimodes for potential sample methods. In the single-dose part of the study statistically significant correlations were found between MRDM/DX from AUC∞ and from serial plasma points from 1 to 30 hours or from urine (all p-values < 0.001). In the multiple-dose part, statistically significant correlations were found between MRDM/DX from AUC0-12h on day 6 and MRDM/DX from serial plasma points from 0 to 36 hours after the last dosing (all p-values < 0.001). Based on reported urinary antimode and linear regression analysis, the antimodes of AUC and plasma points were derived to profile the trend of antimodes as the drug concentrations changed. MRDM/DX from plasma points had good correlations with MRDM/DX from AUC. Plasma points from 1 to 30 hours after single dose of 30-mg CR DM and any plasma point at steady state after multiple doses of CR DM could potentially be used for phenotyping of CYP2D6.

  13. Prospective ECG triggering versus low-dose retrospective ECG-gated 128-channel CT coronary angiography: comparison of image quality and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Q.; Yin, Y.; Hua, X.; Zhu, R.; Hua, J.; Xu, J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate image quality and radiation dose for 128-detector prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) compared with a low-dose retrospective ECG-gated imaging protocol. Materials and methods: Thirty-one and 47 patients suspected of having coronary artery disease were enrolled into groups examined using prospective and low-dose retrospective ECG-gated CT protocols respectively. All examinations were performed on a 128-detector CT system (Definition AS, Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany). Prospective CTCA was performed using following parameters: tube voltage 100 kV; tube current 205 mAs; centre of acquisition window 70% of the RR interval. The tube current for low-dose retrospective ECG-gated CTCA was full dose during 40-70% of the RR interval and partial dose for the rest of RR interval. The pitch varied between 0.2 and 0.5 depending on heart rate and patient size. Image quality of coronary arteries was evaluated using a four-point grading scale. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of enhanced arteries and myocardium were also measured, corresponding contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated, and the radiation doses received were recorded. Results: There was a significant difference in the image quality scores between the retrospective and prospective gating protocols (Chi-square = 15.331, p = 0.009). There was no significant difference between the SNRs of the contrasted artery and myocardium in these two groups, but the CNRs were increased in the prospective group. The mean radiation dose of prospective gating group was 2.71 ± 0.67 mSv (range, 1.67-3.59 mSv), which was significantly lower than that of the retrospective group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Prospective CT angiography can achieve lower radiation dose than that of low-dose retrospective CT angiography, with preserved image quality.

  14. Prospective ECG triggering versus low-dose retrospective ECG-gated 128-channel CT coronary angiography: comparison of image quality and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Q.; Yin, Y.; Hua, X.; Zhu, R.; Hua, J. [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Xu, J., E-mail: xujianr@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2010-10-15

    Aim: To evaluate image quality and radiation dose for 128-detector prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) compared with a low-dose retrospective ECG-gated imaging protocol. Materials and methods: Thirty-one and 47 patients suspected of having coronary artery disease were enrolled into groups examined using prospective and low-dose retrospective ECG-gated CT protocols respectively. All examinations were performed on a 128-detector CT system (Definition AS, Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany). Prospective CTCA was performed using following parameters: tube voltage 100 kV; tube current 205 mAs; centre of acquisition window 70% of the RR interval. The tube current for low-dose retrospective ECG-gated CTCA was full dose during 40-70% of the RR interval and partial dose for the rest of RR interval. The pitch varied between 0.2 and 0.5 depending on heart rate and patient size. Image quality of coronary arteries was evaluated using a four-point grading scale. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of enhanced arteries and myocardium were also measured, corresponding contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated, and the radiation doses received were recorded. Results: There was a significant difference in the image quality scores between the retrospective and prospective gating protocols (Chi-square = 15.331, p = 0.009). There was no significant difference between the SNRs of the contrasted artery and myocardium in these two groups, but the CNRs were increased in the prospective group. The mean radiation dose of prospective gating group was 2.71 {+-} 0.67 mSv (range, 1.67-3.59 mSv), which was significantly lower than that of the retrospective group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Prospective CT angiography can achieve lower radiation dose than that of low-dose retrospective CT angiography, with preserved image quality.

  15. A fast filter processor as a part of the trigger logic in an elastic scattering experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon Gjerpe, I.

    1981-01-01

    A fast special purpose processor as a part of the trigger logic in an elastic scattering experiment is described. The decision to incorporate such a processor was taken because the trigger rate was estimated to be an order of magnitude higher than the date taking capability of the on-line minicomputer, a NORD 10. The processor is capable of checking the coplanarity and the opening angle of the two outgoing tracks within about 100 μs. This is done with a spatial resolution of 1 mm by using two points each track given by 3 MWPCs. For comparison this is two orders of magnitude faster than the same algorithm coded in assembly language on a PDP 11/40. The main contribution to this increased speed is due to extensive use of pipelining and parallelism. When running with the processor in the trigger, 75% more elastic events per incoming beam particle were collected, and 3 times as many elastic events per trigger were recorded on to tape for further in-depth analysis, than previously. Due to major improvements in the primary trigger logic this was less than the gain initially anticipated. A first version of the processor was designed and constructed in the CERN DD division by J. Joosten, M. Letheren and B. Martin under the supervision of C. Verkerk. The author was involved in the final design, construction and testing, and subsequently was responsible for the intergration, programming and running of the processor in the experiment. (orig.)

  16. CMS Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Donato, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    During its second run of operation (Run 2) which started in 2015, the LHC will deliver a peak instantaneous luminosity that may reach $2 \\cdot 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ with an average pile-up of about 55, far larger than the design value. Under these conditions, the online event selection is a very challenging task. In CMS, it is realized by a two-level trigger system the Level-1 (L1) Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. In order to face this challenge, the L1 trigger has been through a major upgrade compared to Run 1, whereby all electronic boards of the system have been replaced, allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be run online. Its last stage, the global trigger, is now able to perform complex selections and to compute high-level quantities, like invariant masses. Likewise, the algorithms that run in the HLT go through big improvements; in particular, new appr...

  17. Below and above boiling point comparison of microwave irradiation and conductive heating for municipal sludge digestion under identical heating/cooling profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Koupaie, E; Eskicioglu, C

    2015-01-01

    This research provides a comprehensive comparison between microwave (MW) and conductive heating (CH) sludge pretreatments under identical heating/cooling profiles at below and above boiling point temperatures. Previous comparison studies were constrained to an uncontrolled or a single heating rate due to lack of a CH equipment simulating MW under identical thermal profiles. In this research, a novel custom-built pressure-sealed vessel which could simulate MW pretreatment under identical heating/cooling profiles was used for CH pretreatment. No statistically significant difference was proven between MW and CH pretreatments in terms of sludge solubilization, anaerobic biogas yield and organics biodegradation rate (p-value>0.05), while statistically significant effects of temperature and heating rate were observed (p-value<0.05). These results explain the contradictory results of previous studies in which only the final temperature (not heating/cooling rates) was controlled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ELISA Cut-off Point for the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis; a Comparison with Serum Agglutination Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a world-wide disease, which has a diverse clinical manifestation, and its diagnosis has to be proven by laboratory data. Serum agglutination test (SAT is the most-widely used test for diagnosing brucellosis. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA can also determine specific antibody classes against brucella. It is a sensitive, simple and rapid test, which could be an acceptable alternative to SAT with fewer limitations, however, like any other new test it should be further evaluated and standardized for various populations. This study was planned to determine an optimal cut-off point, for ELISA which would offer maximum sensitivity and specificity for the test when compared to SAT.Methods: Four hundred and seven patients with fever and other compatible symptoms of brucellosis were enrolled in the study. Serum agglutination test, 2-Mercaptoethanol test, and ELISA were performed on their sera. Results: The cut-off point of 53 IU/ml of ELISA-IgG yielded the maximal sensitivity and specificity comparing to the other levels of ELISA-IgG, and was considered the best cut off-point of ELISA-IgG to diagnose acute brucellosis. At this cut-off, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 84.09%, 85.38%, 62.20, 94.90, 5.75, 0.18, respectively.Conclusion: The best cut-off point of ELISA-IgG is 53 IU/ml, which yields the maximal sensitivity and specificity to diagnose acute brucellosis.

  19. Comparison of carbon monoxide levels during heating of ice and water to boiling point with a camping stove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh-Smith, Simon; Watt, Ian; McFadyen, Angus; Grant, Stan

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether using a camping stove to bring a pan of ice to boiling point produces higher carbon monoxide (CO) concentration than would bringing a pan of water to boiling point. The hypothesis was that ice would cause greater CO concentration because of its greater flame-cooling effect and, consequently, more incomplete combustion. This was a randomized, prospective observational study. After an initial pilot study, CO concentration was monitored during 10 trials for each of ice and water. A partially ventilated 200-L cardboard box model was developed and then used inside a chamber at -6 degrees C. Ice temperature and volume, water temperature and volume, pan size, and flame characteristics were all standardized. Temperature of the heated medium was monitored to determine time to boiling point. Carbon monoxide concentration was monitored every 30 seconds for the first 3 minutes, then every minute until the end of each 10-minute trial. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in CO production levels between ice and water. Each achieved a similar mean plateau level of approximately 400 ppm CO concentration with a similar rate of rise. However, significantly higher (P = .014) CO concentration occurred at 4 and 5 minutes when the flame underwent a yellow flare; this occurred only on 3 occasions when ice was the medium. There were no significant differences for CO production between bringing a pan of ice or water to boiling point. In a small number of ice trials, the presence of a yellow flame resulted in high CO concentration. Yellow flares might occur more often with ice or snow melting, but this has not been proven.

  20. THE COMPARISON OF AL GORITHM S FOR KEY POINTS EXTRACTION IN S I MPLIFICATION OF HYBR ID DIGITAL TERRAIN MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakuła Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented research concerns methods related to reduction of elevation data contained in digital terrain model (DTM from airborne laser scanning (ALS in hydraulic modelling. The reduction is necessary in the preparation of large datasets of geospatia l data describing terrain relief. Its course should not be associated with regular data filtering, which o ften occurs in practice. Such a method leads to a number of important forms important for hydraulic modeling being missed. One of the proposed solutions for the reduction of elevation data contained in DTM is to change the regular grid into the hybrid structure with regularly distributed points and irregularly located critical points. The purpose of this paper is to compare algorithms for extract ing these key points from DTM. They are used in hybrid model generation as a part of elevation data reduction process that retains DTM accuracy and reduces the size of output files. In experiments, the following algorithms were tested: Topographic Position Index (TPI, Very Important Points (VIP and Z - tolerance. Their effectiveness in reduction (maintaining the accuracy and reducing datasets was evaluated in respect to input DTM from ALS. The best results were obtained for the Z - tolerance algorithm, but t hey do not diminish the capabilities of the other two algorithms: VIP and TPI which can generalize DTM quite well. The results confirm the possibility of obtaining a high degr ee of reduction reaching only a few percent of the input data with a relatively l ow decrease of vertical DTM accuracy to a few centimetres. The presented paper was financed by the Foundation for Polish Science - research grant no. VENTURES/2012 - 9/1 from Innovative Economy program of the European Structural Funds.

  1. Comparison of a point-of-care analyser for the determination of HbA1c with HPLC method

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, D.A.; Dunseath, G.J.; Churm, R.; Luzio, S.D.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: As the use of Point of Care Testing (POCT) devices for measurement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) increases, it is imperative to determine how their performance compares to laboratory methods. This study compared the performance of the automated Quo-Test POCT device (EKF Diagnostics), which uses boronate fluorescence quenching technology, with a laboratory based High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method (Biorad D10) for measurement of HbA1c. Methods: Whole blood EDTA samples...

  2. Data-driven performance evaluation method for CMS RPC trigger ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... hardware-implemented algorithm, which performs the task of combining and merging information from muon ... Figure 1 shows the comparison of efficiencies obtained with the two methods containing .... [3] The CMS Collaboration, The trigger and data acquisition project, Volume 1, The Level 1. Trigger ...

  3. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Dam, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN’s LHC has implemented a dedicated tau trigger system to select hadronically decaying tau leptons from the enormous background of QCD jets. This promises a significant increase in the discovery potential to the Higgs boson and in searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. The three level trigger system has been optimised for effciency and good background rejection. The first level uses information from the calorimeters only, while the two higher levels include also information from the tracking detectors. Shower shape variables and the track multiplicity are important variables to distinguish taus from QCD jets. At the initial lumonosity of 10^31 cm^−2 s^−1, single tau triggers with a transverse energy threshold of 50 GeV or higher can be run standalone. Below this level, the tau signatures will be combined with other event signature

  4. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rados, PK; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Physics processes involving tau leptons play a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the high energy frontier. The ability to efficiently trigger on events containing hadronic tau decays is therefore of particular importance to the ATLAS experiment. During the 2012 run, the Large Hadronic Collder (LHC) reached instantaneous luminosities of nearly $10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ with bunch crossings occurring every $50 ns$. This resulted in a huge event rate and a high probability of overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up). With this in mind it was necessary to design an ATLAS tau trigger system that could reduce the event rate to a manageable level, while efficiently extracting the most interesting physics events in a pile-up robust manner. In this poster the ATLAS tau trigger is described, its performance during 2012 is presented, and the outlook for the LHC Run II is briefly summarized.

  5. Asymptotic Comparison of the Solutions of Linear Time-Delay Systems with Point and Distributed Lags with Those of Their Limiting Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De la Sen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relations between the particular eigensolutions of a limiting functional differential equation of any order, which is the nominal (unperturbed linear autonomous differential equations, and the associate ones of the corresponding perturbed functional differential equation. Both differential equations involve point and distributed delayed dynamics including Volterra class dynamics. The proofs are based on a Perron-type theorem for functional equations so that the comparison is governed by the real part of a dominant zero of the characteristic equation of the nominal differential equation. The obtained results are also applied to investigate the global stability of the perturbed equation based on that of its corresponding limiting equation.

  6. Linearity analysis and comparison study on the epoc® point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The epoc® blood analysis system (Epocal Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada is a newly developed in vitro diagnostic hand-held analyzer for testing whole blood samples at point-of-care, which provides blood gas, electrolytes, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, and hematocrit/calculated hemoglobin rapidly. The analytical performance of the epoc® system was evaluated in a tertiary hospital, see related research article “Analytical evaluation of the epoc® point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients” [1]. Data presented are the linearity analysis for 9 parameters and the comparison study in 40 cardiopulmonary bypass patients on 3 epoc® meters, Instrumentation Laboratory GEM4000, Abbott iSTAT, Nova CCX, and Roche Accu-Chek Inform II and Performa glucose meters.

  7. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  8. Trigger and decision processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, G.

    1980-11-01

    In recent years there have been many attempts in high energy physics to make trigger and decision processes faster and more sophisticated. This became necessary due to a permanent increase of the number of sensitive detector elements in wire chambers and calorimeters, and in fact it was possible because of the fast developments in integrated circuits technique. In this paper the present situation will be reviewed. The discussion will be mainly focussed upon event filtering by pure software methods and - rather hardware related - microprogrammable processors as well as random access memory triggers. (orig.)

  9. Molecular dynamics of polarizable point dipole models for molten NaI. Comparison with first principles simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trullàs J.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations of molten NaI at 995 K have been carried out using polarizable ion models based on rigid ion pair potentials to which the anion induced dipole polarization is added. The polarization is added in such a way that point dipoles are induced on the anions by both local electric field and deformation short-range damping interactions that oppose the electrically induced dipole moments. The structure and self-diffusion results are compared with those obtained by Galamba and Costa Cabral using first principles Hellmann-Feynman molecular dynamics simulations and using classical molecular dynamics of a shell model which allows only the iodide polarization

  10. A comparison of cationic polymerization and esterification for end-point detection in the catalytic thermometric titration of organic bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Greenhow, E; Viñas, P

    1984-08-01

    A systematic comparison has been made of two indicator systems for the non-aqueous catalytic thermometric titration of strong and weak organic bases. The indicator reagents, alpha-methylstyrene and mixtures of acetic anhydride and hydroxy compounds, are shown to give results (for 14 representative bases) which do not diner significantly in coefficient of variation or titration error. Calibration graphs for all the samples, in the range 0.01-0.1 meq, are linear, with correlation coefficients of 0.995 or better. Aniline, benzylamine, n-butylamine, morpholine, pyrrole, l-dopa, alpha-methyl-l-dopa, dl-alpha-alanine, dl-leucine and l-cysteine cannot be determined when acetic anhydride is present in the sample solution, but some primary and second amines can. This is explained in terms of rates of acetylation of the amino groups.

  11. EMIC triggered chorus emissions in Cluster data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, B.; SantolíK, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Masson, A.; Engebretson, M. J.; Pickett, J. S.; Omura, Y.; Robert, P.; Nomura, R.

    2013-03-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) triggered chorus emissions have recently been a subject of several experimental, theoretical and simulation case studies, noting their similarities with whistler-mode chorus. We perform a survey of 8 years of Cluster data in order to increase the database of EMIC triggered emissions. The results of this is that EMIC triggered emissions have been unambiguously observed for only three different days. These three events are studied in detail. All cases have been observed at the plasmapause between 22 and 24 magnetic local time (MLT) and between - 15° and 15° magnetic latitude (λm). Triggered emissions are also observed for the first time below the local He+ gyrofrequency (fHe+). The number of events is too low to produce statistical results, nevertheless we point out a variety of common properties of those waves. The rising tones have a high level of coherence and the waves propagate away from the equatorial region. The propagation angle and degree of polarization are related to the distance from the equator, whereas the slope and the frequency extent vary from one event to the other. From the various spacecraft separations, we determine that the triggering process is a localized phenomenon in space and time. However, we are unable to determine the occurrence rates of these waves. Small frequency extent rising tones are more common than large ones. The newly reported EMIC triggered events are generally observed during periods of large AE index values and in time periods close to solar maximum.

  12. Comparison of Single and Multi-Scale Method for Leaf and Wood Points Classification from Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongqiang; Zhou, Guiyun; Zhou, Junjie

    2018-04-01

    The classification of leaf and wood points is an essential preprocessing step for extracting inventory measurements and canopy characterization of trees from the terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data. The geometry-based approach is one of the widely used classification method. In the geometry-based method, it is common practice to extract salient features at one single scale before the features are used for classification. It remains unclear how different scale(s) used affect the classification accuracy and efficiency. To assess the scale effect on the classification accuracy and efficiency, we extracted the single-scale and multi-scale salient features from the point clouds of two oak trees of different sizes and conducted the classification on leaf and wood. Our experimental results show that the balanced accuracy of the multi-scale method is higher than the average balanced accuracy of the single-scale method by about 10 % for both trees. The average speed-up ratio of single scale classifiers over multi-scale classifier for each tree is higher than 30.

  13. [Comparison of ability to humidification of inspired air through the nose and oral cavity using dew point hygrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczesny, Daniel; Rapiejko, Piotr; Weremczuk, Jerzy; Jachowicz, Ryszard; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    Aim of this study was to check at the hospital the dew point hygrometer for fast measurement of air humidity in upper airways. The nose ability to humidification of inspired air and partially recover moisture from expired air was evaluated. Measurements from respiration through the nose and oral cavity were compared. The study was carried out in a group of 30 people (8 female and 22 male), age group 18 to 70 (mean age: 37 years old). In 22 of the participants there were no deviation from normal state in laryngologic examination, while in 4 participants nasal septum deviation without imaired nasal; oatency was found, in other 3--nasal vonchae hyperthrophy and in 1--nasal polips (grade I). The measurements of air humidity in upper air ways was done using specially designed and constructed measurement system. The air inspired through the nose and oral cavity is humidified. For typical external conditions (T = 22 degrees C i RH = 50%) the nose humidifies inspired air two times better then oral cavity (short time range of measurement approximately 1 min). Moisture from expired air through the nose is partially recovered (for patients with regular patency is 25% of the value of humidifying of inspired air). The oral cavity does not have ability to partially recovery moisture form expired air. The paper presented fast dew point hygrometer based on semiconductor microsystems for measurement humidity in inspired and expired air through the nose and oral cavity. Presented system can be a proper instrument for evaluation of nasal functions.

  14. Point and interval forecasts of mortality rates and life expectancy: A comparison of ten principal component methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Lin Shang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the age- and sex-specific data of 14 developed countries, we compare the point and interval forecast accuracy and bias of ten principal component methods for forecasting mortality rates and life expectancy. The ten methods are variants and extensions of the Lee-Carter method. Based on one-step forecast errors, the weighted Hyndman-Ullah method provides the most accurate point forecasts of mortality rates and the Lee-Miller method is the least biased. For the accuracy and bias of life expectancy, the weighted Hyndman-Ullah method performs the best for female mortality and the Lee-Miller method for male mortality. While all methods underestimate variability in mortality rates, the more complex Hyndman-Ullah methods are more accurate than the simpler methods. The weighted Hyndman-Ullah method provides the most accurate interval forecasts for mortality rates, while the robust Hyndman-Ullah method provides the best interval forecast accuracy for life expectancy.

  15. The STAR trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieser, F.S.; Crawford, H.J.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Greiner, L.C.; Judd, E.G.; Klein, S.R.; Meissner, F.; Minor, R.; Milosevich, Z.; Mutchler, G.; Nelson, J.M.; Schambach, J.; VanderMolen, A.S.; Ward, H.; Yepes, P.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the trigger system that we designed and implemented for the STAR detector at RHIC. This is a 10 MHz pipelined system based on fast detector output that controls the event selection for the much slower tracking detectors. Results from the first run are presented and new detectors for the 2001 run are discussed

  16. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harm people too. Try to use pest management methods that pose less of a risk. Keep counters, sinks, tables and floors clean and ... with pest challenges in your home and other environments. [EPA ... pests while reducing pesticide risks; roaches are often asthma triggers and shouldn’t ...

  17. AIDS radio triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, A M

    1991-07-01

    In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.

  18. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one trigger that you shouldn't avoid because exercise is important for your health. Your doctor will want you to be active, so talk with him or her about what to do before playing ... or 15 minutes before you exercise or play sports. And, of course, you'll ...

  19. Trigger Finger (Stenosing Tenosynovitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Trigger Finger Email to a friend * required fields ...

  20. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the carotid artery using 3D time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics. Comparison with real-time fluoroscopic triggered 3D-elliptical centric view ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Koshikawa, Tokiko; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yasuo; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Ishigaki, Takeo; Ichinose, Nobuyasu

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate contrast-enhanced MR angiography using the 3D time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics technique (3D-TRICKS) by direct comparison with the fluoroscopic triggered 3D-elliptical centric view ordering (3D-ELLIP) technique. 3D-TRICKS and 3D-ELLIP were directly compared on a 1.5-Tesla MR unit using the same spatial resolution and matrix. In 3D-TRICKS, the central part of the k-space is updated more frequently than the peripheral part of the k-space, which is divided in the slice-encoding direction. The carotid arteries were imaged using 3D-TRICKS and 3D-ELLIP sequentially in 14 patients. Temporal resolution was 12 sec for 3D-ELLIP and 6 sec for 3D-TRICKS. The signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the common carotid artery was measured, and the quality of MIP images was then scored in terms of venous overlap and blurring of vessel contours. No significant difference in mean S/N was seen between the two methods. Significant venous overlap was not seen in any of the patients examined. Moderate blurring of vessel contours was noted on 3D-TRICKS in five patients and on 3D-ELLIP in four patients. Blurring in the slice-encoding direction was slightly more pronounced in 3D-TRICKS. However, qualitative analysis scores showed no significant differences. When the spatial resolution of the two methods was identical, the performance of 3D-TRICKS was found to be comparable in static visualization of the carotid arteries with 3D-ELLIP, although blurring in the slice-encoding direction was slightly more pronounced in 3D-TRICKS. 3D-TRICKS is a more robust technique than 3D-ELLIP, because 3D-ELLIP requires operator-dependent fluoroscopic triggering. Furthermore, 3D-TRICKS can achieve higher temporal resolution. For the spatial resolution employed in this study, 3D-TRICKS may be the method of choice. (author)

  1. Comparison of IBM-2 calculations with X(5) critical point symmetry for low lying states in 128-140Nd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uluer, I.; Olgun, D.; Inan, S.; Tuerkan, N.

    2006-01-01

    The X(5) would take place when moving continuously from the pure U(5) symmetry to the SU(3) symmetry and it implies a definite relations among the level energies and among the E2 transition strengths. It was recently shown that a signature of phase transition is observed in the chain of Sm, Mo and Nd isotopes, where 1 52Sm, 1 04Mo and 1 50Nd display the predicted features of the X(5) symmetry and mark therefore the critical point. However, more detailed studies and experiments are needed to get ideas about this signature. Without entering into detail we have firstly compared the results obtained in our previous study of 1 28- 1 40Nd with that of the limits in X(5) symmetry and then given a clear description about the validity of the Hamiltonian parameters used in the study. At the end, we have concluded that some of Nd isotopes display X(5) symmetry features

  2. Hepatic fat quantification using automated six-point Dixon: Comparison with conventional chemical shift based sequences and computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kie; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Masataka; Morita, Kosuke; Oda, Seitaro; Nakaura, Takeshi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    To compare automated six-point Dixon (6-p-Dixon) MRI comparing with dual-echo chemical-shift-imaging (CSI) and CT for hepatic fat fraction in phantoms and clinical study. Phantoms and fifty-nine patients were examined both MRI and CT for quantitative fat measurements. In phantom study, linear regression between fat concentration and 6-p-Dixon showed good agreement. In clinical study, linear regression between 6-p-Dixon and dual-echo CSI showed good agreement. CT attenuation value was strongly correlated with 6-p-Dixon (R 2 =0.852; PDixon and dual-echo CSI were accurate correlation with CT attenuation value of liver parenchyma. 6-p-Dixon has the potential for automated hepatic fat quantification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison Between Numerical Modeling and Experimental Testing of a Point Absorber WEC Using Linear Power Take-Off System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Kramer, Morten; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri

    2012-01-01

    systems into a central wave to wire model. The power production then depends on the control strategy which is applied to the device. The objective of this paper is to develop numerical methods for motion analysis of marine structures with a special emphasis on wave energy converters. Two different time...... domain models are applied to a point absorber system working in pitch mode only. The device is similar to the well-known Wavestar prototype located in the Danish North Sea. A laboratory model has been set up in order to validate the numerical simulations of the dynamics. Wave Excitation force...... interaction assumption and linearized equation of motion. The region over which the numerical model is valid will be presented in terms of non-dimensional parameters describing the different wave states....

  4. Comparison between dose values specified at the ICRU reference point and the mean dose to the planning target volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukoowicz, Pawel F.; Mijnheer, Bernard J.

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: To compare dose values specified at the reference point, as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU, and the mean dose to the planning target volume, PTV. Material and methods: CT-based dose calculations were performed with a 3-D treatment planning system for 6 series of patients treated for bladder, brain, breast, lung, oropharynx and parotid gland tumour. All patients were arbitrarily chosen from a set of previously treated patients irradiated with a two- or three-field technique using customised blocks. Appropriate wedge angles and beam weights were chosen to make the dose distribution as homogeneous as possible. Results: The dose at the ICRU reference point was generally higher than the mean dose to the PTV. The difference between the ICRU reference dose and the mean dose to the PTV for an individual patient was less than 3% in 88% of cases and less than 2% in 72% of the cases. The differences were larger in those patients where the dose distribution is significantly influenced by the presence of lungs or air gaps. For each series of patients the mean difference between the ICRU reference dose and the mean dose to the PTV was calculated. The difference between these two values never exceeded 2%. Because not all planning systems are able to calculate the mean dose to the PTV, the concept of the mean central dose, the mean of the dose values at the centre of the PTV in each CT slice, has been introduced. The mean central dose was also calculated for the same patients and was closer to the mean dose to the PTV than the ICRU reference dose. Conclusion: The mean dose to the PTV is well estimated by either the ICRU reference dose or the mean central dose for a variety of treatment techniques for common types of cancer

  5. Lactate point-of-care testing for acidosis: Cross-comparison of two devices with routine laboratory results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco van Horssen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Lactate is a major parameter in medical decision making. During labor, it is an indicator for fetal acidosis and immediate intervention. In the Emergency Department (ED, rapid analysis of lactate/blood gas is crucial for optimal patient care. Our objectives were to cross-compare-for the first time-two point-of-care testing (POCT lactate devices with routine laboratory results using novel tight precision targets and evaluate different lactate cut-off concentrations to predict metabolic acidosis. Design and methods: Blood samples from the delivery room (n=66 and from the ED (n=85 were analyzed on two POCT devices, the StatStrip-Lactate (Nova Biomedical and the iSTAT-1 (CG4+ cassettes, Abbott, and compared to the routine laboratory analyzer (ABL-735, Radiometer. Lactate concentrations were cross-compared between these analyzers. Results: The StatStrip correlated well with the ABL-735 (R=0.9737 and with the iSTAT-1 (R=0.9774 for lactate in umbilical cord blood. Lactate concentrations in ED samples measured on the iSTAT-1 and ABL-735 showed a correlation coefficient of R=0.9953. Analytical imprecision was excellent for lactate and pH, while for pO2 and pCO2 the coefficient of variation was relatively high using the iSTAT-1. Conclusion: Both POCT devices showed adequate analytical performance to measure lactate. The StatStrip can indicate metabolic acidosis in 1 μl blood and will be implemented at the delivery room. Keywords: Lactate, Point-of-care testing, Blood gas, Fetal acidosis

  6. Comparison of a point-of-care analyser for the determination of HbA1c with HPLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Grant

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: As the use of Point of Care Testing (POCT devices for measurement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c increases, it is imperative to determine how their performance compares to laboratory methods. This study compared the performance of the automated Quo-Test POCT device (EKF Diagnostics, which uses boronate fluorescence quenching technology, with a laboratory based High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method (Biorad D10 for measurement of HbA1c. Methods: Whole blood EDTA samples from subjects (n=100 with and without diabetes were assayed using a BioRad D10 and a Quo-Test analyser. Intra-assay variation was determined by measuring six HbA1c samples in triplicate and inter-assay variation was determined by assaying four samples on 4 days. Stability was determined by assaying three samples stored at −20 °C for 14 and 28 days post collection. Results: Median (IQR HbA1c was 60 (44.0–71.2 mmol/mol (7.6 (6.17–8.66 % and 62 (45.0–69.0 mmol/mol (7.8 (6.27–8.46 % for D10 and Quo-Test, respectively, with very good agreement (R2=0.969, P<0.0001. Mean (range intra- and inter-assay variation was 1.2% (0.0–2.7% and 1.6% (0.0–2.7% for the D10 and 3.5% (0.0–6.7% and 2.7% (0.7–5.1% for the Quo-Test. Mean change in HbA1c after 28 days storage at −20 °C was −0.7% and +0.3% for D10 and Quo-Test respectively. Compared to the D10, Quo-Test showed 98% agreement for diagnosis of glucose intolerance (IGT and T2DM and 100% for diagnosis of T2DM. Conclusion: Good agreement between the D10 and Quo-Test was seen across a wide HbA1c range. The Quo-Test POCT device provided similar performance to a laboratory based HPLC method. Keywords: Point of care testing, HbA1c measurement

  7. Point shear wave elastography of the pancreas in patients with cystic fibrosis: a comparison with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfahler, Matthias Hermann Christian; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Leichsenring, Michael; Graeter, Tilmann; Schmidt, Stefan Andreas; Wendlik, Inka; Lormes, Elisabeth; Schmidberger, Julian; Fabricius, Dorit

    2018-02-19

    Manifestations of cystic fibrosis in the pancreas are gaining in clinical importance as patients live longer. Conventional ultrasonography and point shear wave elastography (pSWE) imaging are non-invasive and readily available diagnostic methods that are easy to perform. The aim of this study was to perform conventional ultrasonography and obtain pSWE values in the pancreases of patients with cystic fibrosis and to compare the findings with those of healthy controls. 27 patients with cystic fibrosis (13 women/14 men; mean age 27.7 ± 13.7 years; range 9-58 years) and 60 healthy control subjects (30 women/30 men; mean age 30.3 ± 10.0 years; range 22-55 years) underwent examinations of the pancreas with conventional ultrasound and pSWE imaging. Patients with cystic fibrosis have an echogenic pancreatic parenchyma. We found cystic lesions of the pancreas in six patients. pSWE imaging of the pancreatic parenchyma gave significantly lower shear wave velocities in patients with cystic fibrosis than in the control group (1.01 m/s vs 1.30 m/s; p cystic fibrosis than in a healthy control population.

  8. Comparison of a Material Point Method and a Galerkin Meshfree Method for the Simulation of Cohesive-Frictional Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Iaconeta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of large deformation problems, involving complex history-dependent constitutive laws, is of paramount importance in several engineering fields. Particular attention has to be paid to the choice of a suitable numerical technique such that reliable results can be obtained. In this paper, a Material Point Method (MPM and a Galerkin Meshfree Method (GMM are presented and verified against classical benchmarks in solid mechanics. The aim is to demonstrate the good behavior of the methods in the simulation of cohesive-frictional materials, both in static and dynamic regimes and in problems dealing with large deformations. The vast majority of MPM techniques in the literatrue are based on some sort of explicit time integration. The techniques proposed in the current work, on the contrary, are based on implicit approaches, which can also be easily adapted to the simulation of static cases. The two methods are presented so as to highlight the similarities to rather than the differences from “standard” Updated Lagrangian (UL approaches commonly employed by the Finite Elements (FE community. Although both methods are able to give a good prediction, it is observed that, under very large deformation of the medium, GMM lacks robustness due to its meshfree natrue, which makes the definition of the meshless shape functions more difficult and expensive than in MPM. On the other hand, the mesh-based MPM is demonstrated to be more robust and reliable for extremely large deformation cases.

  9. Comparison of plastic strains on AA5052 by single point incremental forming process using digital image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugendiran, V.; Gnanavelbabu, A. [Anna University, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, a surface based strain measurement was used to determine the formability of the sheet metal. A strain measurement may employ manual calculation of plastic strains based on the reference circle and the deformed circle. The manual calculation method has a greater margin of error in the practical applications. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare the formability by implementing three different theoretical approaches: Namely conventional method, least square method and digital based strain measurements. As the sheet metal was formed by a single point incremental process the etched circles get deformed into elliptical shapes approximately, image acquisition has been done before and after forming. The plastic strains of the deformed circle grids are calculated based on the non- deformed reference. The coordinates of the deformed circles are measured by various image processing steps. Finally the strains obtained from the deformed circle are used to plot the forming limit diagram. To evaluate the accuracy of the system, the conventional, least square and digital based method of prediction of the forming limit diagram was compared. Conventional method and least square method have marginal error when compared with digital based processing method. Measurement of strain based on image processing agrees well and can be used to improve the accuracy and to reduce the measurement error in prediction of forming limit diagram.

  10. Comparison of plastic strains on AA5052 by single point incremental forming process using digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugendiran, V.; Gnanavelbabu, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a surface based strain measurement was used to determine the formability of the sheet metal. A strain measurement may employ manual calculation of plastic strains based on the reference circle and the deformed circle. The manual calculation method has a greater margin of error in the practical applications. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare the formability by implementing three different theoretical approaches: Namely conventional method, least square method and digital based strain measurements. As the sheet metal was formed by a single point incremental process the etched circles get deformed into elliptical shapes approximately, image acquisition has been done before and after forming. The plastic strains of the deformed circle grids are calculated based on the non- deformed reference. The coordinates of the deformed circles are measured by various image processing steps. Finally the strains obtained from the deformed circle are used to plot the forming limit diagram. To evaluate the accuracy of the system, the conventional, least square and digital based method of prediction of the forming limit diagram was compared. Conventional method and least square method have marginal error when compared with digital based processing method. Measurement of strain based on image processing agrees well and can be used to improve the accuracy and to reduce the measurement error in prediction of forming limit diagram.

  11. A Comparison of Vibroacoustic Response of Isotropic Plate with Attached Discrete Patches and Point Masses Having Different Thickness Variation with Different Taper Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of sound radiation behavior of plate in air medium with attached discrete patches/point masses having different thickness variations with different taper ratio of 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 is analysed. Finite element method is used to find the vibration characteristics while Rayleigh integral is used to predict the sound radiation characteristics. Minimum peak sound power level obtained is at a taper ratio of 0.6 with parabolic increasing-decreasing thickness variation for plate with four discrete patches. At higher taper ratio, linearly increasing-decreasing thickness variation is another alternative for minimum peak sound power level suppression with discrete patches. It is found that, in low frequency range, average radiation efficiency remains almost the same, but near first peak, four patches or four point masses cause increase in average radiation efficiency; that is, redistribution of point masses/patches does have effect on average radiation efficiency at a given taper ratio.

  12. A Comparison of Deterministic and Stochastic Modeling Approaches for Biochemical Reaction Systems: On Fixed Points, Means, and Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahl, Sayuri K; Kremling, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In the mathematical modeling of biochemical reactions, a convenient standard approach is to use ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that follow the law of mass action. However, this deterministic ansatz is based on simplifications; in particular, it neglects noise, which is inherent to biological processes. In contrast, the stochasticity of reactions is captured in detail by the discrete chemical master equation (CME). Therefore, the CME is frequently applied to mesoscopic systems, where copy numbers of involved components are small and random fluctuations are thus significant. Here, we compare those two common modeling approaches, aiming at identifying parallels and discrepancies between deterministic variables and possible stochastic counterparts like the mean or modes of the state space probability distribution. To that end, a mathematically flexible reaction scheme of autoregulatory gene expression is translated into the corresponding ODE and CME formulations. We show that in the thermodynamic limit, deterministic stable fixed points usually correspond well to the modes in the stationary probability distribution. However, this connection might be disrupted in small systems. The discrepancies are characterized and systematically traced back to the magnitude of the stoichiometric coefficients and to the presence of nonlinear reactions. These factors are found to synergistically promote large and highly asymmetric fluctuations. As a consequence, bistable but unimodal, and monostable but bimodal systems can emerge. This clearly challenges the role of ODE modeling in the description of cellular signaling and regulation, where some of the involved components usually occur in low copy numbers. Nevertheless, systems whose bimodality originates from deterministic bistability are found to sustain a more robust separation of the two states compared to bimodal, but monostable systems. In regulatory circuits that require precise coordination, ODE modeling is thus still

  13. Comparison of a point-of-care analyser for the determination of HbA1c with HPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, D A; Dunseath, G J; Churm, R; Luzio, S D

    2017-08-01

    As the use of Point of Care Testing (POCT) devices for measurement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) increases, it is imperative to determine how their performance compares to laboratory methods. This study compared the performance of the automated Quo-Test POCT device (EKF Diagnostics), which uses boronate fluorescence quenching technology, with a laboratory based High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method (Biorad D10) for measurement of HbA1c. Whole blood EDTA samples from subjects (n=100) with and without diabetes were assayed using a BioRad D10 and a Quo-Test analyser. Intra-assay variation was determined by measuring six HbA1c samples in triplicate and inter-assay variation was determined by assaying four samples on 4 days. Stability was determined by assaying three samples stored at -20 °C for 14 and 28 days post collection. Median (IQR) HbA1c was 60 (44.0-71.2) mmol/mol (7.6 (6.17-8.66) %) and 62 (45.0-69.0) mmol/mol (7.8 (6.27-8.46) %) for D10 and Quo-Test, respectively, with very good agreement (R 2 =0.969, Pglucose intolerance (IGT and T2DM) and 100% for diagnosis of T2DM. Good agreement between the D10 and Quo-Test was seen across a wide HbA1c range. The Quo-Test POCT device provided similar performance to a laboratory based HPLC method.

  14. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rados, Petar Kevin

    2013-06-01

    The tau lepton plays a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the Tera scale. One of the most promising probes of the Higgs boson coupling to fermions is with detector signatures involving taus. In addition, many theories beyond the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles (W' and Z'), predict new physics with large couplings to taus. The ability to trigger on hadronic tau decays is therefore critical to achieving the physics goals of the ATLAS experiment. The higher instantaneous luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2012 resulted in a larger probability of overlap (pile-up) between bunch crossings, and so it was critical for ATLAS to have an effective tau trigger strategy. The details of this strategy are summarized in this paper, and the results of the latest performance measurements are presented. (authors)

  15. The LPS trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benotto, F.; Costa, M.; Staiano, A.; Zampieri, A.; Bollito, M.; Isoardi, P.; Pernigotti, E.; Sacchi, R.; Trapani, P.P.; Larsen, H.; Massam, T.; Nemoz, C.

    1996-03-01

    The Leading Proton Spectrometer (LPS) has been equipped with microstrip silicon detectors specially designed to trigger events with high values of x L vertical stroke anti p' p vertical stroke / vertical stroke anti p p vertical stroke ≥0.95 where vertical stroke anti p' p vertical stroke and vertical stroke anti p p vertical stroke are respectively the momenta of outgoing and incoming protons. The LPS First Level Trigger can provide a clear tag for very high momentum protons in a kinematical region never explored before. In the following we discuss the physics motivation in tagging very forward protons and present a detailed description of the detector design, the front end electronics, the readout electronics, the Monte Carlo simulation and some preliminary results from 1995 data taking. (orig.)

  16. Minimum risk trigger indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, F.H.

    1979-01-01

    A viable safeguards system includes among other things the development and use of indices which trigger various courses of action. The usual limit of error calculation provides such an index. The classical approach is one of constructing tests which, under certain assumptions, make the likelihood of a false alarm small. Of concern also is the test's failure to indicate a loss (diversion) when in fact one has occurred. Since false alarms are usually costly and losses both costly and of extreme strategic sinificance, there remains the task of balancing the probability of false alarm and its consequences against the probability of undetected loss and its consequences. The application of other than classical hypothesis testing procedures are considered in this paper. Using various consequence models, trigger indices are derived which have certain optimum properties. Application of the techniques would enhance the material control function

  17. Neural networks for triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, B.; Campbell, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Chriss, N.; Bowers, C.; Nesti, F.

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. The ARGUS vertex trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, N.; Kolander, M.; Kolanoski, H.; Siegmund, T.; Bergter, J.; Eckstein, P.; Schubert, K.R.; Waldi, R.; Imhof, M.; Ressing, D.; Weiss, U.; Weseler, S.

    1995-09-01

    A fast second level trigger has been developed for the ARGUS experiment which recognizes tracks originating from the interaction region. The processor compares the hits in the ARGUS Micro Vertex Drift Chamber to 245760 masks stored in random access memories. The masks which are fully defined in three dimensions are able to reject tracks originating in the wall of the narrow beampipe of 10.5 mm radius. (orig.)

  19. Design studies for the Double Chooz trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The main characteristic of the neutrino mixing effect is assumed to be the coupling between the flavor and the mass eigenstates. Three mixing angles (θ 12 , θ 23 , θ 13 ) are describing the magnitude of this effect. Still unknown, θ 13 is considered very small, based on the measurement done by the CHOOZ experiment. A leading experiment will be Double Chooz, placed in the Ardennes region, on the same site as used by CHOOZ. The Double Chooz goal is the exploration of ∝80% from the currently allowed θ 13 region, by searching the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Double Chooz will use two similar detectors, located at different distances from the reactor cores: a near one at ∝150 m where no oscillations are expected and a far one at 1.05 km distance, close to the first minimum of the survival probability function. The measurement foresees a precise comparison of neutrino rates and spectra between both detectors. The detection mechanism is based on the inverse β-decay. The Double Chooz detectors have been designed to minimize the rate of random background. In a simplified view, two optically separated regions are considered. The target, filled with Gd-doped liquid scintillator, is the main antineutrino interaction volume. Surrounding the target, the inner veto region aims to tag the cosmogenic muon background which hits the detector. Both regions are viewed by photomultipliers. The Double Chooz trigger system has to be highly efficient for antineutrino events as well as for several types of background. The trigger analyzes discriminated signals from the central region and the inner veto photomultipliers. The trigger logic is fully programmable and can combine the input signals. The trigger conditions are based on the total energy released in event and on the PMT groups multiplicity. For redundancy, two independent trigger boards will be used for the central region, each of them receiving signals from half of the photomultipliers. A third trigger board

  20. Design studies for the Double Chooz trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian

    2009-07-24

    The main characteristic of the neutrino mixing effect is assumed to be the coupling between the flavor and the mass eigenstates. Three mixing angles ({theta}{sub 12}, {theta}{sub 23}, {theta}{sub 13}) are describing the magnitude of this effect. Still unknown, {theta}{sub 13} is considered very small, based on the measurement done by the CHOOZ experiment. A leading experiment will be Double Chooz, placed in the Ardennes region, on the same site as used by CHOOZ. The Double Chooz goal is the exploration of {proportional_to}80% from the currently allowed {theta}{sub 13} region, by searching the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Double Chooz will use two similar detectors, located at different distances from the reactor cores: a near one at {proportional_to}150 m where no oscillations are expected and a far one at 1.05 km distance, close to the first minimum of the survival probability function. The measurement foresees a precise comparison of neutrino rates and spectra between both detectors. The detection mechanism is based on the inverse {beta}-decay. The Double Chooz detectors have been designed to minimize the rate of random background. In a simplified view, two optically separated regions are considered. The target, filled with Gd-doped liquid scintillator, is the main antineutrino interaction volume. Surrounding the target, the inner veto region aims to tag the cosmogenic muon background which hits the detector. Both regions are viewed by photomultipliers. The Double Chooz trigger system has to be highly efficient for antineutrino events as well as for several types of background. The trigger analyzes discriminated signals from the central region and the inner veto photomultipliers. The trigger logic is fully programmable and can combine the input signals. The trigger conditions are based on the total energy released in event and on the PMT groups multiplicity. For redundancy, two independent trigger boards will be used for the central region, each of

  1. FEASIBILITY COMPARISON OF AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATA AND 3D-POINT CLOUDS FORMED FROM UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV-BASED IMAGERY USED FOR 3D PROJECTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Rilskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New, innovative methods of aerial surveys have changed the approaches to information provision of projecting dramatically for the last 15 years. Nowadays there are at least two methods that claim to be the most efficient way for collecting geospatial data intended for projecting – the airborne laser scanning (LIDAR data and photogrammetrically processed unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-based aerial imagery, forming 3D point clouds. But these materials are not identical to each other neither in precision, nor in completeness.Airborne laser scanning (LIDAR is normally being performed using manned aircrafts. LIDAR data are very precise, they allow us to achieve data about relief even overgrown with vegetation, or to collect laser reflections from wires, metal constructions and poles. UAV surveys are normally being performed using frame digital cameras (lightweight, full-frame, or mid-size. These cameras form images that are being processed using 3D photogrammetric software in automatic mode that allows one to generate 3D point cloud, which is used for building digital elevation models, surfaces, orthomosaics, etc.All these materials are traditionally being used for making maps and GIS data. LIDAR data have been popular in design work. Also there have been some attempts to use for the same purpose 3D-point clouds, formed by photogrammetric software from images acquired from UAVs.After comparison of the datasets from these two different types of surveying (surveys were made simultaneously on the same territory, it became possible to define some specific, typical for LIDAR or imagery-based 3D data. It can be mentioned that imagery-based 3D data (3D point clouds, formed in automatic mode using photogrammetry, are much worse than LIDAR data – both in terms of precision and completeness.The article highlights these differences and makes attempts at explaining the origin of these differences. 

  2. BILATERAL KEY COMPARISON SIM.T-K6.1 ON HUMIDITY STANDARDS IN THE DEW/FROST-POINT TEMPERATURE RANGE FROM −25 °C TO +20 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.W.; Hill, K.D.

    2015-01-01

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the National Research Council (NRC, Canada) between December 2014 and April, 2015. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and NRC and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and NRC. PMID:26663952

  3. The Fast Interaction Trigger Upgrade for ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Solis, Edmundo

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major detector upgrade for the second LHC long shutdown (2019–20). The LHC heavy-ion luminosity and collision rate from 2021 onwards will considerably exceed the design parameters of the present ALICE forward trigger detectors. Furthermore, the introduction of a new Muon Forward Tracker (MFT) will significantly reduce the space available for the upgraded trigger detectors. To comply with these conditions a Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT) has been designed. FIT will be the primary forward trigger, luminosity, and collision time measurement detector. The FIT will be capable of triggering at an interaction rate of 50 kHz, with a time resolution better than 30 ps, with 99% efficiency. It will also determine multiplicity, centrality, and reaction plane. FIT will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov radiators with MCP-PMT sensors and of a single, large-size scintillator ring. The arrays will be placed on both sides of the interaction point (IP). Because of the presence of the h...

  4. Simulation and Validation of the ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Bakker, Pepijn Johannes; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has recently commissioned a new component of its first-level trigger: the L1 topological trigger. This system, using state-of-the-art FPGA processors, makes it possible to reject events by applying topological requirements, such as kinematic criteria involving clusters, jets, muons, and total transverse energy. The data recorded using the L1Topological trigger demonstrates that this innovative trigger strategy allows for an improved rejection rate without efficiency loss. This improvement has been shown for several relevant physics processes leading to low-$p_T$ leptons, including $H\\to{}\\tau{}\\tau{}$ and $J/\\Psi\\to{}\\mu{}\\mu{}$. In addition, an accurate simulation of the L1Topological trigger is used to validate and optimize the performance of this trigger. To reach such an accuracy, this simulation must take into account the fact that the firmware algorithms are executed on a FPGA architecture, while the simulation is executed on a floating point architecture.

  5. KEY COMPARISON Report to the CCT on key comparison EUROMET.T-K6 (EUROMET Project no. 621): Comparison of the realizations of local dew/frost-point temperature scales in the range -50 °C to +20 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Martti

    2010-01-01

    The first humidity CIPM key comparison, CCT-K6, will be completed in 2010. The corresponding European regional key comparison, EUROMET.T-K6, was carried out in 2004 to 2008. National metrology institutes from 24 countries participated in the comparison. The comparison covered the dew-point temperature range from -50 °C to +20 °C. It was organized as three parallel loops with two specially manufactured precision chilled mirror hygrometers as transfer standards in each loop. The comparison scheme was designed to ensure high quality results with evenly spread workload for the participants. MIKES was coordinating the project. This report presents the results of the comparison and provides detailed information on the measurements performed by all participating laboratories and the analysis of the results. Conclusions on the equivalence of the dew-point temperature standards are drawn on the basis of calculated bilateral degrees of equivalence and deviations from EURAMET comparison reference values (ERV). Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  6. Source attribution of human campylobacteriosis at the point of exposure by combining comparative exposure assessment and subtype comparison based on comparative genomic fingerprinting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ravel

    Full Text Available Human campylobacteriosis is a common zoonosis with a significant burden in many countries. Its prevention is difficult because humans can be exposed to Campylobacter through various exposures: foodborne, waterborne or by contact with animals. This study aimed at attributing campylobacteriosis to sources at the point of exposure. It combined comparative exposure assessment and microbial subtype comparison with subtypes defined by comparative genomic fingerprinting (CGF. It used isolates from clinical cases and from eight potential exposure sources (chicken, cattle and pig manure, retail chicken, beef, pork and turkey meat, and surface water collected within a single sentinel site of an integrated surveillance system for enteric pathogens in Canada. Overall, 1518 non-human isolates and 250 isolates from domestically-acquired human cases were subtyped and their subtype profiles analyzed for source attribution using two attribution models modified to include exposure. Exposure values were obtained from a concurrent comparative exposure assessment study undertaken in the same area. Based on CGF profiles, attribution was possible for 198 (79% human cases. Both models provide comparable figures: chicken meat was the most important source (65-69% of attributable cases whereas exposure to cattle (manure ranked second (14-19% of attributable cases, the other sources being minor (including beef meat. In comparison with other attributions conducted at the point of production, the study highlights the fact that Campylobacter transmission from cattle to humans is rarely meat borne, calling for a closer look at local transmission from cattle to prevent campylobacteriosis, in addition to increasing safety along the chicken supply chain.

  7. Source attribution of human campylobacteriosis at the point of exposure by combining comparative exposure assessment and subtype comparison based on comparative genomic fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, André; Hurst, Matt; Petrica, Nicoleta; David, Julie; Mutschall, Steven K; Pintar, Katarina; Taboada, Eduardo N; Pollari, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is a common zoonosis with a significant burden in many countries. Its prevention is difficult because humans can be exposed to Campylobacter through various exposures: foodborne, waterborne or by contact with animals. This study aimed at attributing campylobacteriosis to sources at the point of exposure. It combined comparative exposure assessment and microbial subtype comparison with subtypes defined by comparative genomic fingerprinting (CGF). It used isolates from clinical cases and from eight potential exposure sources (chicken, cattle and pig manure, retail chicken, beef, pork and turkey meat, and surface water) collected within a single sentinel site of an integrated surveillance system for enteric pathogens in Canada. Overall, 1518 non-human isolates and 250 isolates from domestically-acquired human cases were subtyped and their subtype profiles analyzed for source attribution using two attribution models modified to include exposure. Exposure values were obtained from a concurrent comparative exposure assessment study undertaken in the same area. Based on CGF profiles, attribution was possible for 198 (79%) human cases. Both models provide comparable figures: chicken meat was the most important source (65-69% of attributable cases) whereas exposure to cattle (manure) ranked second (14-19% of attributable cases), the other sources being minor (including beef meat). In comparison with other attributions conducted at the point of production, the study highlights the fact that Campylobacter transmission from cattle to humans is rarely meat borne, calling for a closer look at local transmission from cattle to prevent campylobacteriosis, in addition to increasing safety along the chicken supply chain.

  8. Performance of operational radiosonde humidity sensors in direct comparison with a chilled mirror dew-point hygrometer and its climate implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junhong; Carlson, David J.; Parsons, David B.; Hock, Terrence F.; Lauritsen, Dean; Cole, Harold L.; Beierle, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Edward

    2003-08-01

    This study evaluates performance of humidity sensors in two widely used operational radiosondes, Vaisala and Sippican (formally VIZ), in comparison with a research quality, and potentially more accurate, chilled mirror dew-point hygrometer named ``Snow White''. A research radiosonde system carrying the Snow White (SW) hygrometer was deployed in the Oklahoma panhandle and at Dodge City, KS during the International H2O Project (IHOP_2002). A total of sixteen sondes were launched with either Vaisala RS80 or Sippican VIZ-B2 radiosondes on the same balloons. Comparisons of humidity data from the SW with Vaisala and Sippican data show that (a) Vaisala RS80-H agrees with the SW very well in the middle and lower troposphere, but has dry biases in the upper troposphere (UT), (b) Sippican carbon hygristor (CH) has time-lag errors throughout the troposphere and fails to respond to humidity changes in the UT, sometimes even in the middle troposphere, and (c) the SW can detect cirrus clouds near the tropopause and possibly estimate their ice water content (IWC). The failure of CH in the UT results in significant and artificial humidity shifts in radiosonde climate records at stations where a transition from VIZ to Vaisala radiosondes has occurred.

  9. Self-triggering of radio signals from cosmic ray air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asch, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    LOPES STAR is a prototype detector for future experiments on the observation of radio emission of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Absolutely calibrated measurements of the electric field strength with the LOPES STAR detector were performed in coincidence with the well-established air shower detector KASCADE-Grande. The experinmental configuration allowed a simultaneous observation of east-west and north-south polarised components of the electric field per antenna used. This thesis discusses in detail the influence of background sources on the detector configuration as well as the resulting self-trigger system. The implemented trigger suppresses strong background signals from the industrial environment on the site of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (rejection >99.9 %) and is the basis for a hardware self-trigger. Therefore, the system is adequate for any other detector site. Two different calibration methods are performed and cross-checked to convert the measured raw data into an electric field strength. Both methods result in the same frequency dependent calibration values within their uncertainties. Furthermore, the probable scale parameter of d 0 =(137±18) m. The comparison of selected events with Monte Carlo simulations on an event-by-event basis points out a good correspondence within the given uncertainties and confirms the geosynchrotron model. The overall angular resolution of the arrival direction results in only a few degrees. The presented methods and algorithms are developed for the trigger system and the analysis and are now standard tools for the data analysis in the LOPES collaboration. (orig.)

  10. Levels of the epidermal growth factor-like peptide amphiregulin in follicular fluid reflect the mode of triggering ovulation: a comparison between gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist and urinary human chorionic gonadotrophin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær; Westergaard, Lars Grabow; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis

    2011-01-01

    . INTERVENTION(S): Ovulation triggered with either urinary hCG or GnRH agonist (GnRH-a). Controls: 15 FF samples from small antral follicles (3-9 mm) and 12 FF samples from natural cycle. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Follicular fluid concentration of AR, P(4), E(2), vascular endothelial growth factor, and inhibin B...... antral follicles only 5 out of 15 follicles contained measurable amounts of AR. When urinary hCG and GnRH-a triggering were compared, FF P(4) was significantly higher after urinary hCG triggering, whereas no difference was seen regarding E(2), vascular endothelial growth factor, and inhibin B. A total...... of 14% more metaphase II oocytes and 11% more transferable embryos were obtained after GnRH-a triggering. CONCLUSION(S): This study suggests that oocyte competence is linked to granulosa cell AR secretion....

  11. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  12. Comparison of second-generation processes for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse to liquid biofuels in terms of energy efficiency, pinch point analysis and Life Cycle Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, A.M.; Melamu, Rethabi; Knoetze, J.H.; Görgens, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Process evaluation of thermochemical and biological routes for bagasse to fuels. • Pinch point analysis increases overall efficiencies by reducing utility consumption. • Advanced biological route increased efficiency and local environmental impacts. • Thermochemical routes have the highest efficiencies and low life cycle impacts. - Abstract: Three alternative processes for the production of liquid transportation biofuels from sugar cane bagasse were compared, on the perspective of energy efficiencies using process modelling, Process Environmental Assessments and Life Cycle Assessment. Bio-ethanol via two biological processes was considered, i.e. Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation (Process 1) and Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (Process 2), in comparison to Gasification and Fischer Tropsch synthesis for the production of synthetic fuels (Process 3). The energy efficiency of each process scenario was maximised by pinch point analysis for heat integration. The more advanced bio-ethanol process was Process 2 and it had a higher energy efficiency at 42.3%. Heat integration was critical for the Process 3, whereby the energy efficiency was increased from 51.6% to 55.7%. For both the Process Environmental and Life Cycle Assessment, Process 3 had the least potential for detrimental environmental impacts, due to its relatively high energy efficiency. Process 2 had the greatest Process Environmental Impact due to the intensive use of processing chemicals. Regarding the Life Cycle Assessments, Process 1 was the most severe due to its low energy efficiency

  13. ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Belanger-Champagne, C; Bosman, M; Brenner, R; Casado, MP; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Demers, S; Farrington, S; Igonkina, O; Kalinowski, A; Kanaya, N; Osuna, C; Pérez, E; Ptacek, E; Reinsch, A; Saavedra, A; Sopczak, A; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Tsuno, S; Vorwerk, V; Watson, A; Xella, S

    2008-01-01

    Moving to the high energy scale of the LHC, the identification of tau leptons will become a necessary and very powerful tool, allowing a discovery of physics beyond Standard Model. Many models, among them light SM Higgs and various SUSY models, predict an abundant production of taus with respect to other leptons. The reconstruction of hadronic tau decays, although a very challenging task in hadronic enviroments, allows to increase a signal efficiency by at least of factor 2, and provides an independent control sample to disantangle lepton tau decays from prompt electrons and muons. Thanks to the advanced calorimetry and tracking, the ATLAS experiment has developed tools to efficiently identify hadronic taus at the trigger level. In this presentation we will review the characteristics of taus and the methods to suppress low-multiplicity, low-energy jets contributions as well as we will address the tau trigger chain which provide a rejection rate of 10^5. We will further present plans for commissioning the ATLA...

  14. Level-0 trigger algorithms for the ALICE PHOS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, D; Wang, Y P; Huang, G M; Kral, J; Yin, Z B; Zhou, D C; Zhang, F; Ullaland, K; Muller, H; Liu, L J

    2011-01-01

    The PHOS level-0 trigger provides a minimum bias trigger for p-p collisions and information for a level-1 trigger at both p-p and Pb-Pb collisions. There are two level-0 trigger generating algorithms under consideration: the Direct Comparison algorithm and the Weighted Sum algorithm. In order to study trigger algorithms via simulation, a simplified equivalent model is extracted from the trigger electronics to derive the waveform function of the Analog-or signal as input to the trigger algorithms. Simulations shown that the Weighted Sum algorithm can achieve higher trigger efficiency and provide more precise single channel energy information than the direct compare algorithm. An energy resolution of 9.75 MeV can be achieved with the Weighted Sum algorithm at a sampling rate of 40 Msps (mega samples per second) at 1 GeV. The timing performance at a sampling rate of 40 Msps with the Weighted Sum algorithm is better than that at a sampling rate of 20 Msps with both algorithms. The level-0 trigger can be delivered...

  15. The D0 calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, J.

    1992-12-01

    The D0 calorimeter trigger system consists of many levels to make physics motivated trigger decisions. The Level-1 trigger uses hardware techniques to reduce the trigger rate from ∼ 100kHz to 200Hz. It forms sums of electromagnetic and hadronic energy, globally and in towers, along with finding the missing transverse energy. A minimum energy is set on these energy sums to pass the event. The Level-2 trigger is a set of software filters, operating in a parallel-processing microvax farm which further reduces the trigger rate to a few Hertz. These filters will reject events which lack electron candidates, jet candidates, or missing transverse energy in the event. The performance of these triggers during the early running of the D0 detector will also be discussed

  16. Comparison of Laser and Stereo Optical, SAR and InSAR Point Clouds from Air- and Space-Borne Sources in the Retrieval of Forest Inventory Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Yu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is anticipated that many of the future forest mapping applications will be based on three-dimensional (3D point clouds. A comparison study was conducted to verify the explanatory power and information contents of several 3D remote sensing data sources on the retrieval of above ground biomass (AGB, stem volume (VOL, basal area (G, basal-area weighted mean diameter (Dg and Lorey’s mean height (Hg at the plot level, utilizing the following data: synthetic aperture radar (SAR Interferometry, SAR radargrammetry, satellite-imagery having stereo viewing capability, airborne laser scanning (ALS with various densities (0.8–6 pulses/m2 and aerial stereo imagery. Laser scanning is generally known as the primary source providing a 3D point cloud. However, photogrammetric, radargrammetric and interferometric techniques can be used to produce 3D point clouds from space- and air-borne stereo images. Such an image-based point cloud could be utilized in a similar manner as ALS providing that accurate digital terrain model is available. In this study, the performance of these data sources for providing point cloud data was evaluated with 91 sample plots that were established in Evo, southern Finland within a boreal forest zone and surveyed in 2014 for this comparison. The prediction models were built using random forests technique with features derived from each data sources as independent variables and field measurements of forest attributes as response variable. The relative root mean square errors (RMSEs varied in the ranges of 4.6% (0.97 m–13.4% (2.83 m for Hg, 11.7% (3.0 cm–20.6% (5.3 cm for Dg, 14.8% (4.0 m2/ha–25.8% (6.9 m2/ha for G, 15.9% (43.0 m3/ha–31.2% (84.2 m3/ha for VOL and 14.3% (19.2 Mg/ha–27.5% (37.0 Mg/ha for AGB, respectively, depending on the data used. Results indicate that ALS data achieved the most accurate estimates for all forest inventory attributes. For image-based 3D data, high-altitude aerial images and WorldView-2

  17. The ZEUS second level calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, S.J. de.

    1990-01-01

    ZEUS is a detector for the HERA ep collider, consisting of several large components. The most important being the inner tracking detectors, which are positioned nearest to the interaction point, the calorimeter surrounding the inner tracking detectors and the muon detectors on the outside of the experimental setup. Each component will deliver a vast amount of information. In order to keep this information manageable, data is preprocessed and condensed per component and then combined to obtain the final global trigger result. The main subject of this thesis is the second level calorimeter trigger processor of the ZEUS detector. In order to be able to reject the unwanted events passing the first level, the topological event signature will have to be used at the second level. The most demanding task of the second level is the recognition of local energy depositions corresponding to isolated electrons and hadron jets. Also part of the work performed by the first level will be repeated with a higher level of accuracy. Additional information not available to the first level trigger will be processed and will be made available to the global second level trigger decision module. For the second level calorimeter trigger processor a special VME module, containing two transputers, has been developed. The second level calorimeter trigger algorithm described in this thesis was tested with simulated events, that were tracked through a computer simulation of the ZEUS detector. A part of this thesis is therefore devoted to the description of the various Monte Carlo models and the justification of the way in which they were used. (author). 132 refs.; 76 figs.; 18 tabs

  18. Triggering at high luminosity: fake triggers from pile-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.

    1983-01-01

    Triggers based on a cut in transverse momentum (p/sub t/) have proved to be useful in high energy physics both because they indicte that a hard constituent scattering has occurred and because they can be made quickly enough to gate electronics. These triggers will continue to be useful at high luminosities if overlapping events do not cause an excessive number of fake triggers. In this paper, I determine if this is indeed a problem at high luminosity machines

  19. Nostalgia: content, triggers, functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Arndt, Jamie; Routledge, Clay

    2006-11-01

    Seven methodologically diverse studies addressed 3 fundamental questions about nostalgia. Studies 1 and 2 examined the content of nostalgic experiences. Descriptions of nostalgic experiences typically featured the self as a protagonist in interactions with close others (e.g., friends) or in momentous events (e.g., weddings). Also, the descriptions contained more expressions of positive than negative affect and often depicted the redemption of negative life scenes by subsequent triumphs. Studies 3 and 4 examined triggers of nostalgia and revealed that nostalgia occurs in response to negative mood and the discrete affective state of loneliness. Studies 5, 6, and 7 investigated the functional utility of nostalgia and established that nostalgia bolsters social bonds, increases positive self-regard, and generates positive affect. These findings demarcate key landmarks in the hitherto uncharted research domain of nostalgia.

  20. Comparisons between a new point kernel-based scheme and the infinite plane source assumption method for radiation calculation of deposited airborne radionuclides from nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaole; Efthimiou, George; Wang, Yan; Huang, Meng

    2018-04-01

    Radiation from the deposited radionuclides is indispensable information for environmental impact assessment of nuclear power plants and emergency management during nuclear accidents. Ground shine estimation is related to multiple physical processes, including atmospheric dispersion, deposition, soil and air radiation shielding. It still remains unclear that whether the normally adopted "infinite plane" source assumption for the ground shine calculation is accurate enough, especially for the area with highly heterogeneous deposition distribution near the release point. In this study, a new ground shine calculation scheme, which accounts for both the spatial deposition distribution and the properties of air and soil layers, is developed based on point kernel method. Two sets of "detector-centered" grids are proposed and optimized for both the deposition and radiation calculations to better simulate the results measured by the detectors, which will be beneficial for the applications such as source term estimation. The evaluation against the available data of Monte Carlo methods in the literature indicates that the errors of the new scheme are within 5% for the key radionuclides in nuclear accidents. The comparisons between the new scheme and "infinite plane" assumption indicate that the assumption is tenable (relative errors within 20%) for the area located 1 km away from the release source. Within 1 km range, the assumption mainly causes errors for wet deposition and the errors are independent of rain intensities. The results suggest that the new scheme should be adopted if the detectors are within 1 km from the source under the stable atmosphere (classes E and F), or the detectors are within 500 m under slightly unstable (class C) or neutral (class D) atmosphere. Otherwise, the infinite plane assumption is reasonable since the relative errors induced by this assumption are within 20%. The results here are only based on theoretical investigations. They should

  1. A Neural Network Approach to Muon Triggering in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Livneh, Ran; CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The extremely high rate of events that will be produced in the future Large Hadron Collider requires the triggering mechanism to make precise decisions in a few nano-seconds. This poses a complicated inverse problem, arising from the inhomogeneous nature of the magnetic fields in ATLAS. This thesis presents a study of an application of Artificial Neural Networks to the muon triggering problem in the ATLAS end-cap. A comparison with realistic results from the ATLAS first level trigger simulation was in favour of the neural network, but this is mainly due to superior resolution available off-line. Other options for applying a neural network to this problem are discussed.

  2. Implementation and Performance of the ATLAS Jet Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Klemetti, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS jet trigger is prepared to cover a variety of physics topics, ranging from QCD studies to searches for SUSY particles. In this paper we will present the challenges of the jet trigger, describing the implementation and the expected performance. In particular, we will review the current physics signatures, the expected rates, efficiencies and timing measurements as obtained from MC studies. Comparisons of the performance obtained with the two different granularities at LVL2 and different EF algorithms will be shown. An overview of teh implications of the trigger performance in the physics studies that include jet signatures will be shown.

  3. Bilateral key comparison SIM.T-K6.2 on humidity standards in the dew/frost-point temperature range from -20 °c to 20 °c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, P. H.; Meyer, C. W.; Martines-López, E.; Dávila Pacheco, J. A.; Méndez-Lango, E.

    2014-01-01

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the Centro Nacional de Metrologia (CENAM, Mexico) between July 2008 and December 2008. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and CENAM and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and CENAM. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  4. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Black, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the high luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved at the LHC, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analysis. The naive inclusive single tau lepton triggers now suffer from severe rate limitations. To allow for a large program of physics analyses with taus, the development of topological triggers that combine tau signatures with other measured quantities in the event is required. These combined triggers open many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model and to search for the Standard Model Higgs. We present the status and performance of the hadronic tau trigger in ATLAS. We demonstrate that the ATLAS tau trigger ran remarkably well over 2011, and how the lessons learned from 2011 led to numerous improvements in the preparation of the 2012 run. These improvements include the introduction of tau selection criteria that are robust against varying pileup scenarios, and the implementation of multivariate selection techniques in the tau trig...

  5. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Black, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the high luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved at the LHC, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analysis. The naïve inclusive single tau lepton triggers now suffer from severe rate limitations. To allow for a large program of physics analyses with taus, the development of topological triggers that combine tau signatures with other measured quantities in the event is required. These combined triggers open many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model and to search for the Standard Model Higgs. We present the status and performance of the hadronic tau trigger in ATLAS. We demonstrate that the ATLAS tau trigger ran remarkably well over 2011, and how the lessons learned from 2011 led to numerous improvements in the preparation of the 2012 run. These improvements include the introduction of tau selection criteria that are robust against varying pileup scenarios, and the implementation of multivariate selection techniques in the tau tri...

  6. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, Mansoora

    2012-01-01

    The extensive tau physics programs of the ATLAS experiment relies heavily on trigger to select hadronic decays of tau lepton. Such a trigger is implemented in ATLAS to efficiently collect signal events, while keeping the rate of multi-jet background within the allowed bandwidth. This contribution summarizes the performance of the ATLAS hadronic tau trigger system during 2011 data taking period and improvements implemented for the 2012 data collection.

  7. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUSHITA, Takashi; CMS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41 fb-1 with a peak luminosity of 1.5 × 1034 cm-2s-1 and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implementation of more algorithms at a time than previously possible, allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the available trigger bandwidth. Algorithms for a trigger menu, including topological requirements on multi-objects, can be realised in the Global Trigger using the newly developed trigger menu specification grammar. Analysis-like trigger algorithms can be represented in an intuitive manner and the algorithms are translated to corresponding VHDL code blocks to build a firmware. The grammar can be extended in future as the needs arise. The experience of implementing trigger menus on the upgraded Global Trigger system will be presented.

  8. Comparison of four microfinance markets from the point of view of the effectuation theory, complemented by proposed musketeer principle illustrating forces within village banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hes Tomáš

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microfinance services are essential tools of formalization of shadow economics, leveraging immature entrepreneurship with external capital. Given the importance of shadow economics for the social balance of developing countries, the importance of an answer to a question of how microfinance entities come into existence, is rather essential. While decision-taking process leading to entrepreneurship were explained by the effectuation theory developed in the 90’, these explanations were not concerned with the logics of creation of microenterprises in neither developing countries nor microfinance village banks. While the abovementioned theories explain the nascence of companies in environment of developed markets, importance of a focus on emerging markets related to large share of human society of microfinance clientele is obvious. The study provides a development streak to the effectuation Theory, adding the musketeer principle to the five effectuation principles proposed by Sarasvathy. Furthermore, the hitherto not considered relationship between social capital and effectuation related concepts is another proposal of the paper focusing on description of the nature of microfinance clientele from the point of view of effectuation theory and social capital drawing a comparison of microfinance markets in four countries, Turkey, Sierra Leone, Indonesia and Afghanistan.

  9. Final report on EURAMET.T-K6.1: Bilateral comparison of the realisations of local dew/frost-point temperature scales in the range -70 °C to +20 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Martti; Zvizdic, Davor; Sestan, Danijel

    2013-01-01

    As the European extension of the first CCT humidity key comparison, EUROMET.T-K6 was successfully completed in year 2008. After this comparison, a new low dew-point generator was introduced at LPM in Croatia as a result of progress in the EUROMET P912 project. With this new facility, the LPM uncertainties decreased significantly and the operating range became significantly wider. Therefore, it was decided to arrange a bilateral comparison between LPM and MIKES in Finland providing a link to EUROMET.T-K6 and CCT-K6. This comparison was carried out in a manner similar to other K6 comparisons but only one transfer standard was used instead of two units and the measurement point -70 °C was added to the measurement scheme. At all measurement points, the bilateral equivalence was well within the estimated expanded uncertainty at the approximately 95% confidence level. Also, the deviations of the LPM results from the EUROMET.T-K6 reference values were smaller than their expanded uncertainties. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. Slope instabilities triggered by the 2011 Lorca earthquake (M{sub w} 5.1): a comparison and revision of hazard assessments of earthquake-triggered landslides in Murcia; Inestabilidades de ladera provocadas por el terremoto de Lorca de 2011 (Mw 5,1): comparacion y revision de estudios de peligrosidad de movimientos de ladera por efecto sismico en Murcia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Peces, M. J.; Garcia-Mayordomo, J.; Martinez-Diaz, J. J.; Tsige, M.

    2012-11-01

    The Lorca basin has been the object of recent research aimed at studying the phenomenon of earthquake induced landslides and their assessment within the context of different seismic scenarios, bearing in mind the influence of soil and topographical amplification effects. Nevertheless, it was not until the Lorca earthquakes of 11 May 2011 that it became possible to adopt a systematic approach to the problem. We provide here an inventory of slope instabilities triggered by the Lorca earthquakes comprising 100 cases, mainly small rock and soil falls (1 to 100 m{sup 3}). The distribution of these instabilities is compared to two different earthquake-triggered landslide hazard maps: one considering the occurrence of the most probable earthquake for a 475-yr return period in the Lorca basin (M{sub w} = 5.0), which was previously published on the basis of a low-resolution digital elevation model (DEM), and a second one matching the occurrence of the M{sub w} = 5.1 2011 Lorca earthquake, which was undertaken using a higher resolution DEM. The most frequent Newmark displacement values related to the slope failures triggered by the 2011 Lorca earthquakes are smaller than 2 cm in both hazard scenarios and coincide with areas where significant soil and topographical seismic amplification effects have occurred.

  11. Trigger and data acquisition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Gaspar, C

    2001-01-01

    Past LEP experiments generate data at 0.5 MByte/s from particle detectors with over a quarter of a million readout channels. The process of reading out the electronic channels, treating them, and storing the date produced by each collision for further analysis by the physicists is called "Data Acquisition". Not all beam crossings produce interesting physics "events", picking the interesting ones is the task of the "Trigger" system. In order to make sure that the data is collected in good conditions the experiment's operation has to be constantly verified. In all, at LEP experiments over 100 000 parameters were monitored, controlled, and synchronized by the "Monotoring and control" system. In the future, LHC experiments will produce as much data in a single day as a LEP detector did in a full year's running with a raw data rate of 10 - 100 MBytes/s and will have to cope with some 800 million proton-proton collisions a second of these collisions only one in 100 million million is interesting for new particle se...

  12. Triggering on beauty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, B.G.

    1984-01-01

    Three CERN experiments (NA19, WA75 and WA78) are discussed. The aim is to study the hadroproduction of naked ''beauty'' and, in the first two cases, to directly measure the lifetime of the beauty states. A comparison of the relative sensitivity is given and the various on-line and off-line selections which are made to attempt the extraction of a signal

  13. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagliesi, M.G., E-mail: mg.bagliesi@pi.infn.i [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy); Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N. [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5{mu}s. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  14. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagliesi, M.G.; Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N.

    2010-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5μs. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  15. Upgrade trigger: Biannual performance update

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Couturier, Ben; Esen, Sevda; De Cian, Michel; De Vries, Jacco Andreas; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Jones, Christopher Rob; Le Gac, Renaud; Matev, Rosen; Neufeld, Niko; Nikodem, Thomas; Polci, Francesco; Del Buono, Luigi; Quagliani, Renato; Schwemmer, Rainer; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha; Szumlak, Tomasz; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Wanczyk, Joanna; Williams, Mark Richard James; Yin, Hang; Zacharjasz, Emilia Anna

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the performance of the LHCb Upgrade trigger reconstruction sequence, incorporating changes to the underlying reconstruction algorithms and detector description since the Trigger and Online Upgrade TDR. An updated extrapolation is presented using the most recent example of an Event Filter Farm node.

  16. Minimum Bias Trigger in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwee, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic pp collisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.2 < |η| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presented. We also highlight the advantage of these triggers for particle correlation analyses. (author)

  17. A new algorithm combining geostatistics with the surrogate data approach to increase the accuracy of comparisons of point radiation measurements with cloud measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, V. K. C.; Lindau, R.; Varnai, T.; Simmer, C.

    2009-04-01

    algorithm is similar to the standard iterative amplitude adjusted Fourier transform (IAAFT) algorithm, but has an additional iterative step in which the surrogate field is nudged towards the kriged field. The nudging strength is gradually reduced to zero. We work with four types of pseudo-measurements: one zenith pointing measurement (which together with the wind produces a line measurement), five zenith pointing measurements, a slow and a fast azimuth scan (which together with the wind produce spirals). Because we work with LES clouds and the truth is known, we can validate the algorithm by performing 3D radiative transfer calculations on the original LES clouds and on the new surrogate clouds. For comparison also the radiative properties of the kriged fields and standard surrogate fields are computed. Preliminary results already show that these new surrogate clouds reproduce the structure of the original clouds very well and the minima and maxima are located where the pseudo-measurements sees them. The main limitation seems to be the amount of data, which is especially very limited in case of just one zenith pointing measurement.

  18. Reliable and accurate point-based prediction of cumulative infiltration using soil readily available characteristics: A comparison between GMDH, ANN, and MLR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Mehdi

    2017-08-01

    Developing accurate and reliable pedo-transfer functions (PTFs) to predict soil non-readily available characteristics is one of the most concerned topic in soil science and selecting more appropriate predictors is a crucial factor in PTFs' development. Group method of data handling (GMDH), which finds an approximate relationship between a set of input and output variables, not only provide an explicit procedure to select the most essential PTF input variables, but also results in more accurate and reliable estimates than other mostly applied methodologies. Therefore, the current research was aimed to apply GMDH in comparison with multivariate linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) to develop several PTFs to predict soil cumulative infiltration point-basely at specific time intervals (0.5-45 min) using soil readily available characteristics (RACs). In this regard, soil infiltration curves as well as several soil RACs including soil primary particles (clay (CC), silt (Si), and sand (Sa)), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), bulk (Db) and particle (Dp) densities, organic carbon (OC), wet-aggregate stability (WAS), electrical conductivity (EC), and soil antecedent (θi) and field saturated (θfs) water contents were measured at 134 different points in Lighvan watershed, northwest of Iran. Then, applying GMDH, MLR, and ANN methodologies, several PTFs have been developed to predict cumulative infiltrations using two sets of selected soil RACs including and excluding Ks. According to the test data, results showed that developed PTFs by GMDH and MLR procedures using all soil RACs including Ks resulted in more accurate (with E values of 0.673-0.963) and reliable (with CV values lower than 11 percent) predictions of cumulative infiltrations at different specific time steps. In contrast, ANN procedure had lower accuracy (with E values of 0.356-0.890) and reliability (with CV values up to 50 percent) compared to GMDH and MLR. The results also revealed

  19. Final report on CCT-K6: Comparison of local realisations of dew-point temperature scales in the range -50 °C to +20 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, S.; Stevens, M.; Abe, H.; Benyon, R.; Bosma, R.; Fernicola, V.; Heinonen, M.; Huang, P.; Kitano, H.; Li, Z.; Nielsen, J.; Ochi, N.; Podmurnaya, O. A.; Scace, G.; Smorgon, D.; Vicente, T.; Vinge, A. F.; Wang, L.; Yi, H.

    2015-01-01

    A key comparison in dew-point temperature was carried out among the national standards held by NPL (pilot), NMIJ, INTA, VSL, INRIM, MIKES, NIST, NIM, VNIIFTRI-ESB and NMC. A pair of condensation-principle dew-point hygrometers was circulated and used to compare the local realisations of dew point for participant humidity generators in the range -50 °C to +20 °C. The duration of the comparison was prolonged by numerous problems with the hygrometers, requiring some repairs, and several additional check measurements by the pilot. Despite the problems and the extended timescale, the comparison was effective in providing evidence of equivalence. Agreement with the key comparison reference value was achieved in the majority of cases, and bilateral degrees of equivalence are also reported. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  20. Comparison of Protein Value of Commercial Baby Food with Homemade Baby Food and Casein Standard in Rats as the Refference point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Asemi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesEvaluation of protein quality in food is of great importance due to the biological and economical impacts of food proteins. This study has been conducted with the aim of comparing the protein quality of homemade food (mixture of macaroni and soy bean with commercial baby food (Cerelac Wheat using Casein as the refference point.MethodsThis study was conducted on 64 twenty one day old male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups, and each group was put on a different diet regiments. The diet regiments were as follow: 2 homemade food+Cerelac test diet, 1 Ccasein+Methionine standard diet, 1 protien-free basal diet, 2 test diet, 1 standard diet and 1 basal diet. The purpose of protien-free diet was to evaluate True Protien Digestability (TPD. Net Protein Ratio (NPR and Protien Efficiency Ratios (PER were investigated by the basal diet. Protein intake and increasing of weight were determined for NPR and PER calculating. Nitrogen intake and fecal Nitrogen were determined to calculate TPD. Comparison of TPD, NPR and PER among the groups were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey methods.ResultsTPD values of Standard, Cerelac and homemade food diets were 92.8±4, 87±8 and 85.4±3.2; NPR values were 4.3±0.4, 4.3±0.9, 3.8±0.6; and PER values were 3±0.2, 2.5±0.4, 1.7±0.1 respectively. The statistical difference between TPD and PER values were significant (p 0.05. ConclusionThese results shows that TPD and PER of homemade foods are lower than Cerelac while their NPR are acceptable.Keywords: Protein; Cerelac; Macaroni; Soybeens.

  1. Comparison between point-of-care dermatophyte test medium and mycology laboratory culture for diagnosis of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Ronnie; Blum, Shlomo E; Elad, Daniel; Zur, Gila

    2016-08-01

    Point-of-care Dermatophyte Test Medium (PoC-DTM) is a diagnostic procedure to rule in/rule out dermatophytosis in veterinary clinics. To evaluate the performance of PoC-DTM in the clinic compared to DTM plate culture in a mycology laboratory and to compare results obtained by general practitioners and referral clinicians. Hair samples were collected from 47 cats and 54 dogs with suspected dermatophytosis and from nine healthy controls (seven cats and two dogs). This was a multicentre blinded study. In one group (65 suspected cases, 9 healthy controls), PoC-DTM results were evaluated by clinicians in a referral clinic (SP group) who examined the colony morphology macroscopically and microscopically. In the other group (36 suspected cases) PoC-DTM results were evaluated by clinicians from general practice for colour change only, with no macroscopic or microscopic examination (GP group). All hair samples were also cultured on DTM plates in a mycology laboratory. Laboratory culture was considered the gold standard for comparison. Agreements between tests were 97% (two false positive; κ = 0.839) and 80.6% (five false positives and two false negatives; κ = 0.466) in the SP and GP groups, respectively. This difference between groups was significant (P = 0.024). When applying macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of the colony, PoC-DTM is accurate for diagnosing dermatophytes with only a 3% chance of error. However, when macroscopic and microscopic examination is not included there is significant (19.4%) chance for an incorrect diagnosis. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  2. X-point effect on edge stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarelma, S; Kirk, A; Kwon, O J

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of the X-point configuration on edge localized mode (ELM) triggering peeling and ballooning modes using fixed boundary equilibria and modifying the plasma shape to approach the limit of a true X-point. The current driven pure peeling modes are asymptotically stabilized by the X-point while the stabilizing effect on ballooning modes depends on the poloidal location of the X-point. The coupled peeling-ballooning modes experience the elimination of the peeling component as the X-point is introduced. This can significantly affect the edge stability diagrams used to analyse the ELM triggering mechanisms.

  3. BILATERAL KEY COMPARISON SIM.T-K6.5 ON HUMIDITY STANDARDS IN THE DEW/FROST-POINT TEMPERATURE RANGE FROM -30 °C TO +20 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C W; Solano, A

    2016-01-01

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures over the range -30 °C TO +20 °C was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the Laboratorio Costarricense de Metrología (LACOMET, Costa Rica), between February 2015 and August 2015. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and LACOMET and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining the degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and LACOMET.

  4. BILATERAL KEY COMPARISON SIM.T-K6.5 ON HUMIDITY STANDARDS IN THE DEW/FROST-POINT TEMPERATURE RANGE FROM −30 °C TO +20 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.W.; Solano, A.

    2016-01-01

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures over the range −30 °C TO +20 °C was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the Laboratorio Costarricense de Metrología (LACOMET, Costa Rica), between February 2015 and August 2015. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and LACOMET and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining the degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and LACOMET. PMID:28066029

  5. Diffraction in ALICE and trigger efficiencies

    CERN Document Server

    Navin, Sparsh; Lietava, Roman

    ALICE is built to measure the properties of strongly interacting matter created in heavy-ion collisions. In addition, taking advantage of the low pT acceptance in the central barrel, ALICE is playing an important role in understanding pp collisions with minimum bias triggers at LHC energies. The work presented in this thesis is based on pp data simulated by the ALICE collaboration and early data collected at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. A procedure to calculate trigger efficiencies and an estimate of the systematic uncertainty due to the limited acceptance of the detector are shown. A kinematic comparison between Monte Carlo event generators, PYTHIA 6, PYTHIA 8 and PHOJET is also presented. To improve the description of diffraction in PYTHIA, a hard diffractive component was added to PYTHIA 8 in 2009, which is described. Finally a trigger with a high efficiency for picking diffractive events is used to select a sample with an enhanced diffractive component from pp data. These data are compared to Monte ...

  6. The CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Track Finder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ero, J.; Wulz, C.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Guiducci, L.; Sotiropoulos, S.; Sphicas, P.; Triossi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of the upgraded CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) is presented. Monte Carlo simulation data as well as cosmic ray data from a CMS muon detector slice test have been used to study in detail the performance of the new track finder. The design architecture is based on twelve MP7 cards each of which uses a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA and can receive and transmit data at 10 Gbps from 72 input and 72 output fibers. According to the CMS Trigger Upgrade TDR the BMTF receives trigger primitive data which are computed using both RPC and DT data and transmits data from a number of muon candidates to the upgraded Global Muon Trigger. Results from detailed studies of comparisons between the BMTF algorithm results and the results of a C++ emulator are also presented. The new BMTF will be commissioned for data taking in 2016

  7. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  8. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  9. Global search of triggered non-volcanic tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tzu-Kai Kevin

    chapter focuses on a systematic comparison of triggered tremor around the Calaveras Fault (CF) in northern California (NC), the Parkfield-Cholame section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) in central California (CC), and the San Jacinto Fault (SJF) in southern California (SC). Out of 42 large (Mw ≥7.5) earthquakes between 2001 and 2010, only the 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake triggered clear tremor in NC and SC. In comparison, abundant triggered and ambient tremor has been observed in CC. Further analysis reveal that the lack of triggered tremor observations in SC and NC is not simply a consequence of their different background noise levels as compared to CC, but rather reflects different background tremor rates in these regions. In the final chapter, I systematically search for triggered tremor following the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in the regions where ambient or triggered tremor has been found before. The main purpose is to check whether triggered tremor is observed in regions when certain conditions (e.g., surface wave amplitudes) are met. Triggered tremor is observed in southwest Japan, Taiwan, the Aleutian Arc, south-central Alaska, northern Vancouver Island, the Parkfield-Cholame section of the SAF in CC and the SJF in SC, and the North Island of New Zealand. Such a widespread triggering of tremor is not too surprising because of the large amplitude surface waves (minimum peak value of ˜0.1 cm/s) and the associated dynamic stresses (at least ˜7-8 kPa), which is one of the most important factors in controlling the triggering threshold. The triggered tremor in different region is located close to or nearby the ambient tremor active area. In addition, the amplitudes of triggered tremor have positive correlations with the amplitudes of teleseismic surface waves among many regions. Moreover, both Love and Rayleigh waves participate in triggering tremor in different regions, and their triggering potential is somewhat controlled by the incident angles. In

  10. The CDF level-3 trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) has been operating at the Tevatron and collecting data on proton-antiproton interactions with collision rates above 250,000 Hz. Three levels of filtering select events for data logging at a rate of about 4 Hz. The Level 3 trigger provides most of the capabilities of the offline production programs for event reconstruction and physics analysis. The type of physics triggers, application of cuts, and combinations of logical requirements for event selection are controlled at run time by a trigger table using a syntax fully integrated with the Level 1 and Level 2 hardware triggers. The level 3 software operates in 48 RISC/UNIX processors (over 1000 mips) served by four 20-MByte/sec data buses for input, output and control. The system architecture, debugging, code validation, error reporting, analysis capabilities and performance will be described

  11. Comparison of Protein Value of Commercial Baby Food with Homemade Baby Food and Casein Standard in Rats as the Refference point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Asemi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    Evaluation of protein quality in food is of great importance due to the  biological and economical impacts of food proteins. This study has been conducted with the aim of comparing the protein quality of  homemade food (mixture of macaroni and soy bean with commercial baby food (Cerelac Wheat using Casein as the refference point.

     

    Methods

    This study was conducted on 64 twenty one day old male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups, and each group was put on a different diet regiments. The diet regiments were as follow: 2 homemade food+Cerelac test diet, 1 Ccasein+Methionine standard diet, 1 protien-free basal diet, 2 test diet, 1 standard diet and 1 basal diet. The purpose of protien-free diet was  to evaluate True Protien Digestability (TPD. Net Protein Ratio (NPR and Protien Efficiency Ratios (PER were investigated by the basal diet. Protein intake and increasing of weight were determined for NPR and PER calculating. Nitrogen intake and fecal Nitrogen were determined to calculate TPD. Comparison of TPD, NPR and PER among the groups were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey methods.

     

    Results

    TPD values of Standard, Cerelac and homemade food diets were 92.8±4, 87±8 and 85.4±3.2; NPR values were 4.3±0.4, 4.3±0.9, 3.8±0.6; and PER values were 3±0.2, 2.5±0.4, 1.7±0.1 respectively. The statistical difference between TPD and PER values were significant (p < 0.05, whereas NPR differences were insignificant ( p > 0.05.

     

    Conclusion

    These results shows that TPD and PER of homemade foods are lower than Cerelac while their NPR are acceptable

  12. LHCb detector and trigger performance in Run II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesca, Dordei

    2017-12-01

    The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the LHC, designed to perform high precision studies of b- and c- hadrons. In Run II of the LHC, a new scheme for the software trigger at LHCb allows splitting the triggering of events into two stages, giving room to perform the alignment and calibration in real time. In the novel detector alignment and calibration strategy for Run II, data collected at the start of the fill are processed in a few minutes and used to update the alignment, while the calibration constants are evaluated for each run. This allows identical constants to be used in the online and offline reconstruction, thus improving the correlation between triggered and offline selected events. The required computing time constraints are met thanks to a new dedicated framework using the multi-core farm infrastructure for the trigger. The larger timing budget, available in the trigger, allows to perform the same track reconstruction online and offline. This enables LHCb to achieve the best reconstruction performance already in the trigger, and allows physics analyses to be performed directly on the data produced by the trigger reconstruction. The novel real-time processing strategy at LHCb is discussed from both the technical and operational point of view. The overall performance of the LHCb detector on the data of Run II is presented as well.

  13. Bilateral key comparison SIM.T-K6.1 on humidity standards in the dew/frost-point temperature range from -25 °C to +20 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C. W.; Hill, K. D.

    2015-01-01

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the National Research Council (NRC, Canada) between December 2014 and April 2015. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and NRC and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and NRC. This paper is the final report of the comparison including analysis of the uncertainty of measurement results. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT WG-KC, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. Image quality, radiation dose, and diagnostic accuracy of prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch coronary CT angiography at 70 kVp in a clinical setting: comparison with invasive coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Qi, Li; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Zhao, Yan E.; Li, Xie; Lu, Guang Ming [Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Yining; Cao, Jian; Jin, Zhengyu [Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Schoepf, U.J. [Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Charleston, SC (United States); Meinel, Felix G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Charleston, SC (United States); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Bayer, Richard R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Charleston, SC (United States); Gong, Jian Bin [Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Cardiology, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-03-15

    To investigate image quality, radiation dose, and diagnostic performance of prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch coronary CT angiography (CCTA) at 70 kVp compared to invasive coronary angiography (ICA) as reference standard. Forty-three patients underwent prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch CCTA at 70 kVp using 30 cc (11 g iodine) contrast medium and ICA. Subjective and objective image quality was evaluated for each CCTA study. CCTA performance for diagnosing ≥50 % stenosis was assessed. Results were stratified according to heart rate (HR), body mass index (BMI), Agatston score, and image quality. At CCTA, 94.3 % (500/530) of coronary segments were of diagnostic quality. Using ICA as reference standard, sensitivity and accuracy were 100 % and 93.0 % on a per-patient basis. Per-vessel and per-segment performances were 92.2 % and 89.5 %; 79.5 % and 88.3 %, respectively. No differences were found in diagnostic accuracy between different HR, BMI, and calcification subgroups (all P > 0.05) on a per-patient basis. However, low image quality reduced diagnostic accuracy on a per-patient, per-vessel and per-segment basis (all P < 0.05). The mean effective radiation dose was 0.2 ± 0.0 mSv. Our presented protocol results in an effective radiation dose of 0.2 mSv and high diagnostic accuracy for stenosis detection in a selected, non-obese population. (orig.)

  15. Long-term follow-up of patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and severe left atrial scarring: comparison between pulmonary vein antrum isolation only or pulmonary vein isolation combined with either scar homogenization or trigger ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanghamitra; Mohanty, Prasant; Di Biase, Luigi; Trivedi, Chintan; Morris, Eli Hamilton; Gianni, Carola; Santangeli, Pasquale; Bai, Rong; Sanchez, Javier E; Hranitzky, Patrick; Gallinghouse, G Joseph; Al-Ahmad, Amin; Horton, Rodney P; Hongo, Richard; Beheiry, Salwa; Elayi, Claude S; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya; Madhu Reddy, Yaruva; Viles Gonzalez, Juan F; Burkhardt, J David; Natale, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    Left atrial (LA) scarring, a consequence of cardiac fibrosis is a powerful predictor of procedure-outcome in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients undergoing catheter ablation. We sought to compare the long-term outcome in patients with paroxysmal AF (PAF) and severe LA scarring identified by 3D mapping, undergoing pulmonary vein isolation (PVAI) only or PVAI and the entire scar areas (scar homogenization) or PVAI+ ablation of the non-PV triggers. Totally, 177 consecutive patients with PAF and severe LA scarring were included. Patients underwent PVAI only (n = 45, Group 1), PVAI+ scar homogenization (n = 66, Group 2) or PVAI+ ablation of non-PV triggers (n = 66, Group 3) based on operator's choice. Baseline characteristics were similar across the groups. After first procedure, all patients were followed-up for a minimum of 2 years. The success rate at the end of the follow-up was 18% (8 pts), 21% (14 pts), and 61% (40 pts) in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Cumulative probability of AF-free survival was significantly higher in Group 3 (overall log-rank P homogenization. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41~fb$^{-1}$ with a peak luminosity of 1.5 $\\times$ 10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS \\mbox{Level-1} trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implemen...

  17. The design and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector trigger for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Penc, Ondrej; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) trigger algorithms running online on the high level trigger (HLT) processor farm with the early LHC Run 2 data are discussed. The redesign of the ID trigger, which took place during the 2013-15 long shutdown, in order to satisfy the demands of the higher energy LHC Run 2 operation is described. The ID trigger HLT algorithms are essential for nearly all trigger signatures within the ATLAS trigger. The detailed performance of the tracking algorithms with the early Run 2 data for the different trigger signatures is presented, including the detailed timing performance for the algorithms running on the redesigned single stage ATLAS HLT Farm. Comparison with the Run 1 strategy are made and demonstrate the superior performance of the strategy adopted for Run 2.

  18. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  20. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  1. Trigger processing using reconfigurable logic in the CMS calorimeter trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooke, J J; Cussans, D G; Heath, G P; Maddox, A J; Newbold, D M; Rabbetts, P D

    2001-04-01

    We present the design of the Global Calorimeter Trigger processor for the CMS detector at LHC. This is a fully pipelined processor system which collects data from all the CMS calorimeters and produces summary information used in forming the Level-1 trigger decision for each event. The design in based on the use of state-of-the-art reconfigurable logic devices (FPGAs) and fast data links. We present the results of device testing using a low-latency pipelined sort algorithm, which demonstrate that an FPGA can be used to perform processing previously foreseen to require custom ASICs. Our design approach results in a powerful, flexible and compact processor system.

  2. The DOe Silicon Track Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbrueck, Georg

    2003-01-01

    We describe a trigger preprocessor to be used by the DOe experiment for selecting events with tracks from the decay of long-lived particles. This Level 2 impact parameter trigger utilizes information from the Silicon Microstrip Tracker to reconstruct tracks with improved spatial and momentum resolutions compared to those obtained by the Level 1 tracking trigger. It is constructed of VME boards with much of the logic existing in programmable processors. A common motherboard provides the I/O infrastructure and three different daughter boards perform the tasks of identifying the roads from the tracking trigger data, finding the clusters in the roads in the silicon detector, and fitting tracks to the clusters. This approach provides flexibility for the design, testing and maintenance phases of the project. The track parameters are provided to the trigger framework in 25 μs. The effective impact parameter resolution for high-momentum tracks is 35 μm, dominated by the size of the Tevatron beam

  3. Review Document: Full Software Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Raven, G

    2014-01-01

    This document presents a trigger system for the upgraded LHCb detector, scheduled to begin operation in 2020. This document serves as input for the internal review towards the "DAQ, online and trigger TDR". The proposed trigger system is implemented entirely in software. In this document we show that track reconstruction of a similar quality to that available in the offline algorithms can be performed on the full inelastic $pp$-collision rate, without prior event selections implemented in custom hardware and without relying upon a partial event reconstruction. A track nding eciency of 98.8 % relative to oine can be achieved for tracks with $p_T >$ 500 MeV/$c$. The CPU time required for this reconstruction is about 40 % of the available budget. Proof-of-principle selections are presented which demonstrate that excellent performance is achievable using an inclusive beauty trigger, in addition to exclusive beauty and charm triggers. Finally, it is shown that exclusive beauty and charm selections that do not intr...

  4. TileGap3 Correction in ATLAS Jet Triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Carmiggelt, Joris Jip

    2017-01-01

    Study done to correct for the excess of jets in the TileGap3 (TG3) region of the ATLAS detector. Online leading jet pt is scaled down proportional to its energy fraction in TG3. This study shows that such a correction is undesirable for high pt triggers, since it leads to a slow turn-on and thus high losses in triggerrates. For low pt triggers there seems to be some advantageous effects as counts are slightly reduced below the 95% efficiency point of the trigger. There is, however, a pay-off: An increase of missed counts above the 95% efficiency point due to an shifting of the turn-on curve. Suggestion for further research are made to compensate for this and optimise the correction.

  5. Validity of the Water Hammer Formula for Determining Regional Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity: Comparison of One-Point and Two-Point (Foot-to-Foot) Measurements Using a Multisensor Catheter in Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanya, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    Lack of high-fidelity simultaneous measurements of pressure and flow velocity in the aorta has impeded the direct validation of the water-hammer formula for estimating regional aortic pulse wave velocity (AO-PWV1) and has restricted the study of the change of beat-to-beat AO-PWV1 under varying physiological conditions in man. Aortic pulse wave velocity was derived using two methods in 15 normotensive subjects: 1) the conventional two-point (foot-to-foot) method (AO-PWV2) and 2) a one-point method (AO-PWV1) in which the pressure velocity-loop (PV-loop) was analyzed based on the water hammer formula using simultaneous measurements of flow velocity (Vm) and pressure (Pm) at the same site in the proximal aorta using a multisensor catheter. AO-PWV1 was calculated from the slope of the linear regression line between Pm and Vm where wave reflection (Pb) was at a minimum in early systole in the PV-loop using the water hammer formula, PWV1 = (Pm/Vm)/ρ, where ρ is the blood density. AO-PWV2 was calculated using the conventional two-point measurement method as the distance/traveling time of the wave between 2 sites for measuring P in the proximal aorta. Beat-to-beat alterations of AO-PWV1 in relationship to aortic pressure and linearity of the initial part of the PV-loop during a Valsalva maneuver were also assessed in one subject. The initial part of the loop became steeper in association with the beat-to-beat increase in diastolic pressure in phase 4 during the Valsalva maneuver. The linearity of the initial part of the PV-loop was maintained consistently during the maneuver. Flow velocity vs. pressure in the proximal aorta was highly linear during early systole, with Pearson's coefficients ranging from 0.9954 to 0.9998. The average values of AO-PWV1 and AO-PWV2 were 6.3 ± 1.2 and 6.7 ± 1.3 m/s, respectively. The regression line of AO-PWV1 on AO-PWV2 was y = 0.95x + 0.68 (r = 0.93, p <0.001). This study concluded that the water-hammer formula (one-point method) provides

  6. Multispectral Image Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Aguilera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature point descriptor for the multispectral image case: Far-Infrared and Visible Spectrum images. It allows matching interest points on images of the same scene but acquired in different spectral bands. Initially, points of interest are detected on both images through a SIFT-like based scale space representation. Then, these points are characterized using an Edge Oriented Histogram (EOH descriptor. Finally, points of interest from multispectral images are matched by finding nearest couples using the information from the descriptor. The provided experimental results and comparisons with similar methods show both the validity of the proposed approach as well as the improvements it offers with respect to the current state-of-the-art.

  7. Final report: Bilateral key comparison SIM.T-K6.3 on humidity standards in the dew/frost-point temperature range from -30°C to 20°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peter; Meyer, Christopher; Brionizio, Julio D.

    2015-01-01

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO, Brazil) between October 2009 and March 2010. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and INMETRO and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and INMETRO. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  8. Bilateral key comparison SIM.T-K6.5 on humidity standards in the dew/frost-point temperature range from -30 °C to +20 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.; Solano, A.

    2016-01-01

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the Laboratorio Costarricense de Metrología (LACOMET, Costa Rica) between February 2015 and August 2015. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and LACOMET and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and LACOMET. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  9. Natural experimentation is a challenging method for identifying headache triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Timothy T; Turner, Dana P

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we set out to determine whether individual headache sufferers can learn about the potency of their headache triggers (causes) using only natural experimentation. Headache patients naturally use the covariation of the presence-absence of triggers with headache attacks to assess the potency of triggers. The validity of this natural experimentation has never been investigated. A companion study has proposed 3 assumptions that are important for assigning causal status to triggers. This manuscript examines one of these assumptions, constancy in trigger presentation, using real-world conditions. The similarity of day-to-day weather conditions over 4 years, as well as the similarity of ovarian hormones and perceived stress over a median of 89 days in 9 regularly cycling headache sufferers, was examined using several available time series. An arbitrary threshold of 90% similarity using Gower's index identified similar days for comparison. The day-to-day variability in just these 3 headache triggers is substantial enough that finding 2 naturally similar days for which to contrast the effect of a fourth trigger (eg, drinking wine vs not drinking wine) will only infrequently occur. Fluctuations in weather patterns resulted in a median of 2.3 days each year that were similar (range 0-27.4). Considering fluctuations in stress patterns and ovarian hormones, only 1.5 days/month (95% confidence interval 1.2-2.9) and 2.0 days/month (95% confidence interval 1.9-2.2), respectively, met our threshold for similarity. Although assessing the personal causes of headache is an age-old endeavor, the great many candidate triggers exhibit variability that may prevent sound conclusions without assistance from formal experimentation or statistical balancing. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  10. Dew Point

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Shelly

    1999-01-01

    Dew Point was a solo exhibition originating at PriceWaterhouseCoopers Headquarters Gallery, London, UK and toured to the Centre de Documentacio i Museu Textil, Terrassa, Spain and Gallery Aoyama, Tokyo, Japan.

  11. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  12. Tipping Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  13. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  14. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  15. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture ... about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The force of a ...

  16. ATLAS FTK Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Iizawa, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Fast TracKer (FTK) will perform global track reconstruction after each Level-1 trigger accept signal to enable the software-based higher level trigger to have early access to tracking information. FTK is a dedicated processor based on a mixture of advanced technologies. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the large level of computing power required for pattern recognition is provided by incorporating standard-cell ASICs named Associative Memory (AM). Motivation and the architecture of the FTK system will be presented, and the status of hardware and simulation will be following.

  17. RPC Trigger Robustness: Status Report

    CERN Document Server

    Di Mattia, A; Nisati, A; Pastore, F; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; Aielli, G; Camarri, P; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Simone, A; Liberti, B; Santonico, R

    2002-01-01

    The present paper describes the Level-1 Barrel Muon Trigger performance as expected with the current configuration of the RPC detectors designed for the Barrel Muon Spectrometer of ATLAS. Results of a beam test performed at the X5-GIF facility at CERN are presented in order to show the trigger efficiency with different conditions of RPC detection efficiency and several background rates. Small (50$\\times$50 cm$^2$) RPC chambers with final Front-end electronics and splitter boards are used in the test, while the coincidence logic is applied off-line using a detailed simulation of the coincidence matrix.

  18. Fast processor for dilepton triggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsanevas, S.; Kostarakis, P.; Baltrusaitis, R.

    1983-01-01

    We describe a fast trigger processor, developed for and used in Fermilab experiment E-537, for selecting high-mass dimuon events produced by negative pions and anti-protons. The processor finds candidate tracks by matching hit information received from drift chambers and scintillation counters, and determines their momenta. Invariant masses are calculated for all possible pairs of tracks and an event is accepted if any invariant mass is greater than some preselectable minimum mass. The whole process, accomplished within 5 to 10 microseconds, achieves up to a ten-fold reduction in trigger rate

  19. DT Local Trigger performance in 2015

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Local Trigger system of the CMS Drift Tube chambers (DT) was checked applying similar methods as in the LHC Run 1 (2012). The main variables shown in this note are the trigger efficiency, the trigger quality and the fraction of trigger ghosts. The performance was found to be comparable or better than in Run 1.

  20. ATLAS calorimetry: Trigger, simulation and jet calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    The Pre-Processor system of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger performs complex processing of analog trigger tower signals from electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The main processing block of the Pre-Processor System is the Multi-Chip Module (MCM). The first part of this thesis describes MCM quality assurance tests that have been developed, their use in the MCM large scale production and the results that have been obtained. In the second part of the thesis a validation of a shower parametrisation model for the ATLAS fast simulation package ATLFAST based on QCD dijet events is performed. A detailed comparison of jet response and jet energy resolution between the fast and the full simulation is presented. The uniformity of the calorimeter response has a significant impact on the accuracy of the jet energy measurement. A study of the calorimeter intercalibration using QCD dijet events is presented in the last part of the thesis. The intercalibration study is performed in azimuth angle phi and in pseud...

  1. ATLAS calorimetry. Trigger, simulation and jet calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P

    2007-02-06

    The Pre-Processor system of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger performs complex processing of analog trigger tower signals from electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters. The main processing block of the Pre-Processor System is the Multi-Chip Module (MCM). The first part of this thesis describes MCM quality assurance tests that have been developed, their use in the MCM large scale production and the results that have been obtained. In the second part of the thesis a validation of a shower parametrisation model for the ATLAS fast simulation package ATLFAST based on QCD dijet events is performed. A detailed comparison of jet response and jet energy resolution between the fast and the full simulation is presented. The uniformity of the calorimeter response has a significant impact on the accuracy of the jet energy measurement. A study of the calorimeter intercalibration using QCD dijet events is presented in the last part of the thesis. The intercalibration study is performed in azimuth angle {phi} and in pseudorapidity {eta}. The performance of the calibration methods including possible systematic and statistical effects is described. (orig.)

  2. Whistler Triggered Upper Band Chorus Observed in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, P.; Golkowski, M.

    2017-12-01

    VLF radiation from lightning discharges is one of several sources of energy injection into the inner magnetosphere from the Earth. Lightning discharges initially produce a broadband impulse or `sferic' but after propagation in the dispersive magnetosphere this waveform soon becomes quasi narrow band with the characteristic spectrographic form of the whistler. Most of the lightning induced VLF wave energy injected into the magnetosphere will be unducted with a k-vector which becomes increasingly oblique. Although unducted radiation is ubiquitous throughout the inner magnetosphere, it is generally of a low amplitude due to Landau damping and is not expected to produce strong nonlinear phenomena such as triggered emissions and chorus waves. However, VLF wave energy ducted or trapped in field-aligned plasma density enhancements can have relatively large amplitudes due to focusing and also linear cyclotron resonance growth. Therefore high amplitude ducted whistler waves can trigger a number of complex nonlinear phenomena. These include the triggering of VLF emissions and triggering of VLF hiss or chorus. Such phenomena are generally considered to result from nonlinear electron cyclotron phase trapping. Observation of such VLF emissions triggered by natural whistlers have been reported since the 1970s in Antarctica. We present observations of whistlers triggered upper band chorus emission from Alaska. Dispersion analyze of whistlers determine the L-shell range to be 4.5 clear frequency band gap between upper and lower band of the observed chorus emissions. The observations point to ducted chorus generation in the vicinity of the plasmapause boundary.

  3. Comparison of electron dose-point kernels in water generated by the Monte Carlo codes, PENELOPE, GEANT4, MCNPX, and ETRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusijärvi, Helena; Chouin, Nicolas; Bernhardt, Peter; Ferrer, Ludovic; Bardiès, Manuel; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2009-08-01

    Point kernels describe the energy deposited at a certain distance from an isotropic point source and are useful for nuclear medicine dosimetry. They can be used for absorbed-dose calculations for sources of various shapes and are also a useful tool when comparing different Monte Carlo (MC) codes. The aim of this study was to compare point kernels calculated by using the mixed MC code, PENELOPE (v. 2006), with point kernels calculated by using the condensed-history MC codes, ETRAN, GEANT4 (v. 8.2), and MCNPX (v. 2.5.0). Point kernels for electrons with initial energies of 10, 100, 500, and 1 MeV were simulated with PENELOPE. Spherical shells were placed around an isotropic point source at distances from 0 to 1.2 times the continuous-slowing-down-approximation range (R(CSDA)). Detailed (event-by-event) simulations were performed for electrons with initial energies of less than 1 MeV. For 1-MeV electrons, multiple scattering was included for energy losses less than 10 keV. Energy losses greater than 10 keV were simulated in a detailed way. The point kernels generated were used to calculate cellular S-values for monoenergetic electron sources. The point kernels obtained by using PENELOPE and ETRAN were also used to calculate cellular S-values for the high-energy beta-emitter, 90Y, the medium-energy beta-emitter, 177Lu, and the low-energy electron emitter, 103mRh. These S-values were also compared with the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) cellular S-values. The greatest differences between the point kernels (mean difference calculated for distances, electrons was 1.4%, 2.5%, and 6.9% for ETRAN, GEANT4, and MCNPX, respectively, compared to PENELOPE, if omitting the S-values when the activity was distributed on the cell surface for 10-keV electrons. The largest difference between the cellular S-values for the radionuclides, between PENELOPE and ETRAN, was seen for 177Lu (1.2%). There were large differences between the MIRD cellular S-values and those obtained from

  4. Fat suppression strategies in MR imaging of breast cancer at 3.0 T. Comparison of the two-point dixon technique and the frequency selective inversion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko Mikami, Wakako; Kazama, Toshiki; Sato, Hirotaka

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two fat suppression methods in contrast-enhanced MR imaging of breast cancer at 3.0 T: the two-point Dixon method and the frequency selective inversion method. Forty female patients with breast cancer underwent contrast-enhanced three-dimensional T1-weighted MR imaging at 3.0 T. Both the two-point Dixon method and the frequency selective inversion method were applied. Quantitative analyses of the residual fat signal-to-noise ratio and the contrast noise ratio (CNR) of lesion-to-breast parenchyma, lesion-to-fat, and parenchyma-to-fat were performed. Qualitative analyses of the uniformity of fat suppression, image contrast, and the visibility of breast lesions and axillary metastatic adenopathy were performed. The signal-to-noise ratio was significantly lower in the two-point Dixon method (P<0.001). All CNR values were significantly higher in the two-point Dixon method (P<0.001 and P=0.001, respectively). According to qualitative analysis, both the uniformity of fat suppression and image contrast with the two-point Dixon method were significantly higher (P<0.001 and P=0.002, respectively). Visibility of breast lesions and metastatic adenopathy was significantly better in the two-point Dixon method (P<0.001 and P=0.03, respectively). The two-point Dixon method suppressed the fat signal more potently and improved contrast and visibility of the breast lesions and axillary adenopathy. (author)

  5. The Trigger for Early Running

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition system is based on three levels of event selection designed to capture the physics of interest with high efficiency from an initial bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz. The selections in the three trigger levels must provide sufficient rejection to reduce the rate to 200 Hz, compatible with offline computing power and storage capacity. The LHC is expected to begin its operation with a peak luminosity of 10^31 with a relatively small number of bunches, but quickly ramp up to higher luminosities by increasing the number of bunches, and thus the overall interaction rate. Decisions must be taken every 25 ns during normal LHC operations at the design luminosity of 10^34, where the average bunch crossing will contain more than 20 interactions. Hence, trigger selections must be deployed that can adapt to the changing beam conditions while preserving the interesting physics and satisfying varying detector requirements. In this paper, we provide a menu of trigger selections that can be...

  6. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Orso, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    Motivations, design, performance and ongoing upgrade of the CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger are presented. The system provides CDF with a powerful tool for online tracking with offline quality in order to enhance the reach on B-physics and large P t -physics coupled to b quarks

  7. SU-E-T-525: Dose Volume Histograms (DVH) Analysis and Comparison with ICRU Point Doses in MRI Guided HDR Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badkul, R; McClinton, C; Kumar, P; Mitchell, M [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Brachytherapy plays a crucial role in management of cervix cancer. MRI compatible applicators have made it possible to accurately delineate gross-target-volume(GTV) and organs-at-risk(OAR) volumes, as well as directly plan, optimize and adapt dose-distribution for each insertion. We sought to compare DVH of tumor-coverage and OARs to traditional Point-A, ICRU-38 bladder and rectum point-doses for four different planning-techniques. Methods: MRI based 3D-planning was performed on Nucletron-Oncentra-TPS for 3 selected patients with varying tumor-sizes and anatomy. GTV,high-risk-clinical-target-volume(HR-CTV), intermediate-risk-clinical-target-volume(IR-CTV) and OARs: rectum, bladder, sigmoid-colon, vaginal-mucosa were delineated. Three conventionally used techniques: mg-Radium-equivalent(RaEq),equal-dwell-weights(EDW), Medical-College-of-Wisconsin proposed points-optimization (MCWO) and a manual-graphical-optimization(MGO) volume-coverage based technique were applied for each patient. Prescription was 6Gy delivered to point-A in Conventional techniques (RaEq, EDW, MCWO). For MGO, goal was to achieve 90%-coverage (D90) to HR-CTV with prescription-dose. ICRU point doses for rectum and bladder, point-A doses, DVH-doses for HR-CTV-D90,0.1cc-volume(D0.1),1ccvolume( D1),2cc-volume(D2) were collected for all plans and analyzed . Results: Mean D90 for HR-CTV normalized to MGO were 0.89,0.84,0.9,1.0 for EDW, RaEq, MCWO, MGO respectively. Mean point-A doses were 21.7% higher for MGO. Conventional techniques with Point-A prescriptions under covered HR-CTV-D90 by average of 12% as compared to MGO. Rectum, bladder and sigmoid doses were highest in MGO-plans for ICRU points as well as D0.1,D1 and D2 doses. Among conventional-techniques, rectum and bladder ICRU and DVH doses(0.1,1,2cc) were not significantly different (within 7%).Rectum D0.1 provided good estimation of ICRU-rectum-point doses (within 3.9%),rectum D0.1 were higher from 0.8 to 3.9% while bladder D0

  8. Communication between Trigger/DAQ and DCS in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burckhart, H.; Jones, R.; Hart, R.; Khomoutnikov, V.; Ryabov, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Within the ATLAS experiment Trigger/DAQ and DCS are both logically and physically separated. Nevertheless there is a need to communicate. The initial problem definition and analysis suggested three subsystems the Trigger/DAQ DCS Communication (DDC) project should support the ability to: 1. exchange data between Trigger/DAQ and DCS; 2. send alarm messages from DCS to Trigger/DAQ; 3. issue commands to DCS from Trigger/DAQ. Each subsystem is developed and implemented independently using a common software infrastructure. Among the various subsystems of the ATLAS Trigger/DAQ the Online is responsible for the control and configuration. It is the glue connecting the different systems such as data flow, level 1 and high-level triggers. The DDC uses the various Online components as an interface point on the Trigger/DAQ side with the PVSS II SCADA system on the DCS side and addresses issues such as partitioning, time stamps, event numbers, hierarchy, authorization and security. PVSS II is a commercial product chosen by CERN to be the SCADA system for all LHC experiments. Its API provides full access to its database, which is sufficient to implement the 3 subsystems of the DDC software. The DDC project adopted the Online Software Process, which recommends a basic software life-cycle: problem statement, analysis, design, implementation and testing. Each phase results in a corresponding document or in the case of the implementation and testing, a piece of code. Inspection and review take a major role in the Online software process. The DDC documents have been inspected to detect flaws and resulted in a improved quality. A first prototype of the DDC is ready and foreseen to be used at the test-beam during summer 2001

  9. Preparation of earthquake-triggered landslide inventory maps using remote sensing and GIS technologies: Principles and case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Inventory maps of earthquake-triggered landslides can be constructed using several methods, which are often subject to obvious differences due to lack of commonly accepted criteria or principles. To solve this problem, the author describes the principles for preparing inventory maps of earthquake-triggered landslides, focusing on varied methods and their criteria. The principles include the following key points: all landslides should be mapped as long as they can be recognized from images; both the boundary and source area position of landslides should be mapped; spatial distribution pattern of earthquake-triggered landslides should be continuous; complex landslides should be divided into distinct groups; three types of errors such as precision of the location and boundary of landslides, false positive errors, and false negative errors of earthquake-triggered landslide inventories should be controlled and reduced; and inventories of co-seismic landslides should be constructed by the visual interpretation method rather than automatic extraction of satellite images or/and aerial photographs. In addition, selection of remote sensing images and creation of landslides attribute database are also discussed in this paper. Then the author applies these principles to produce inventory maps of four events: the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan, China Mw 7.9, 14 April 2010 Yushu, China Mw 6.9, 12 January 2010 Haiti Mw 7.0, and 2007 Aysén Fjord, Chile Mw 6.2. The results show obvious differences in comparison with previous studies by other researchers, which again attest to the necessity of establishment of unified principles for preparation of inventory maps of earthquake-triggered landslides.

  10. Comparison of a novel spray congealing procedure with emulsion-based methods for the micro-encapsulation of water-soluble drugs in low melting point triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Paul A; Donnelly, Ryan F; Al-Kassas, Rasil

    2008-09-01

    The particle size characteristics and encapsulation efficiency of microparticles prepared using triglyceride materials and loaded with two model water-soluble drugs were evaluated. Two emulsification procedures based on o/w and w/o/w methodologies were compared to a novel spray congealing procedure. After extensive modification of both emulsification methods, encapsulation efficiencies of 13.04% tetracycline HCl and 11.27% lidocaine HCl were achievable in a Witepsol-based microparticle. This compares to much improved encapsulation efficiencies close to 100% for the spray congealing method, which was shown to produce spherical particles of approximately 58 microm. Drug release studies from a Witepsol formulation loaded with lidocaine HCl showed a temperature-dependent release mechanism, which displayed diffusion-controlled kinetics at temperatures approximately 25 degrees C, but exhibited almost immediate release when triggered using temperatures close to that of skin. Therefore, such a system may find application in topical semi-solid formulations, where a temperature-induced burst release is preferred.

  11. Stress triggering and the Canterbury earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steacy, Sandy; Jiménez, Abigail; Holden, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    The Canterbury earthquake sequence, which includes the devastating Christchurch event of 2011 February, has to date led to losses of around 40 billion NZ dollars. The location and severity of the earthquakes was a surprise to most inhabitants as the seismic hazard model was dominated by an expected Mw > 8 earthquake on the Alpine fault and an Mw 7.5 earthquake on the Porters Pass fault, 150 and 80 km to the west of Christchurch. The sequence to date has included an Mw = 7.1 earthquake and 3 Mw ≥ 5.9 events which migrated from west to east. Here we investigate whether the later events are consistent with stress triggering and whether a simple stress map produced shortly after the first earthquake would have accurately indicated the regions where the subsequent activity occurred. We find that 100 per cent of M > 5.5 earthquakes occurred in positive stress areas computed using a slip model for the first event that was available within 10 d of its occurrence. We further find that the stress changes at the starting points of major slip patches of post-Darfield main events are consistent with triggering although this is not always true at the hypocentral locations. Our results suggest that Coulomb stress changes contributed to the evolution of the Canterbury sequence and we note additional areas of increased stress in the Christchurch region and on the Porters Pass fault.

  12. Conflict-Triggered Top-Down Control: Default Mode, Last Resort, or No Such Thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugg, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    The conflict monitoring account posits that globally high levels of conflict trigger engagement of top-down control; however, recent findings point to the mercurial nature of top-down control in high conflict contexts. The current study examined the potential moderating effect of associative learning on conflict-triggered top-down control…

  13. Triggering on Long-Lived Neutral Particles in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G; Abdallah, J; Abdelalim, A A; Abdesselam, A; Abdinov, O; Abi, B; Abolins, M; Abramowicz, H; Acerbi, E; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Adorisio, C; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar Saavedra, J A; Aharrouche, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahmed, H; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akdogan, T; Akesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alam, M S; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Aliyev, M; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amorim, A; Amorós, G; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Anders, C F; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X S; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anjos, N; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonelli, S; Antunovic, B; Anulli, F; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Archambault, J P; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, T; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnault, C; Artamonov, A; Arutinov, D; Asai, M; Asai, S; Asfandiyarov, R; Ask, S; Asman, B; Asner, D; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astbury, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Atoian, G; Auerbach, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Austin, N; Avolio, G; Avramidou, R; Axen, D; Ay, C; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Bacci, C; Bach, A; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Badescu, E; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, M D; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Baranov, S P; Baranov, S; Barashkou, A; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baroncelli, A; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J; Barrillon, P; Barros, N; Bartoldus, R; Bartsch, D; Bastos, J; Bates, R L; Bathe, S; Batley, J R; Battaglia, A; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bazalova, M; Beare, B; Beauchemin, P H; 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    2009-01-01

    Neutral particles with long decay paths that decay to many-particle final states represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS apparatus. The Hidden Valley scenario serves as an excellent setting for the purpose of exploring the challenges to the trigger posed by long-lived particles.

  14. Convergent and Divergent Signaling in PAMP-Triggered Immunity and Effector-Triggered Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yujun; van Wersch, Rowan; Zhang, Yuelin

    2018-04-01

    Plants use diverse immune receptors to sense pathogen attacks. Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors localized on the plasma membrane leads to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Detection of pathogen effectors by intracellular or plasma membrane-localized immune receptors results in effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Despite the large variations in the magnitude and duration of immune responses triggered by different PAMPs or pathogen effectors during PTI and ETI, plasma membrane-localized immune receptors activate similar downstream molecular events such as mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, oxidative burst, ion influx, and increased biosynthesis of plant defense hormones, indicating that defense signals initiated at the plasma membrane converge at later points. On the other hand, activation of ETI by immune receptors localized to the nucleus appears to be more directly associated with transcriptional regulation of defense gene expression. Here, we review recent progress in signal transductions downstream of different groups of plant immune receptors, highlighting the converging and diverging molecular events.

  15. Comprehensive comparison of two image-based point clouds from aerial photos with airborne lidar for large-scale mapping : Door detection to envelope reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyaningrum, E.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2017-01-01

    The integration of computer vision and photogrammetry to generate three-dimensional (3D) information from images has contributed to a wider use of point clouds, for mapping purposes. Large-scale topographic map production requires 3D data with high precision and

  16. A comparison of point counts with a new acoustic sampling method: a case study of a bird community from the montane forests of Mount Cameroon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláček, O.; Vokurková, J.; Ferenc, M.; Djomo Nana, E.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Hořák, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 3 (2015), s. 213-220 ISSN 0030-6525 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1617 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : abundance * automatic recording units * montane forest * point count * species richness * species turnover Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2015

  17. Diagnostic value of ST-segment deviations during cardiac exercise stress testing: Systematic comparison of different ECG leads and time-points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelacher, Christian; Wagener, Max; Abächerli, Roger; Honegger, Ursina; Lhasam, Nundsin; Schaerli, Nicolas; Prêtre, Gil; Strebel, Ivo; Twerenbold, Raphael; Boeddinghaus, Jasper; Nestelberger, Thomas; Rubini Giménez, Maria; Hillinger, Petra; Wildi, Karin; Sabti, Zaid; Badertscher, Patrick; Cupa, Janosch; Kozhuharov, Nikola; du Fay de Lavallaz, Jeanne; Freese, Michael; Roux, Isabelle; Lohrmann, Jens; Leber, Remo; Osswald, Stefan; Wild, Damian; Zellweger, Michael J; Mueller, Christian; Reichlin, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    Exercise ECG stress testing is the most widely available method for evaluation of patients with suspected myocardial ischemia. Its major limitation is the relatively poor accuracy of ST-segment changes regarding ischemia detection. Little is known about the optimal method to assess ST-deviations. A total of 1558 consecutive patients undergoing bicycle exercise stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) were enrolled. Presence of inducible myocardial ischemia was adjudicated using MPI results. The diagnostic value of ST-deviations for detection of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia was systematically analyzed 1) for each individual lead, 2) at three different intervals after the J-point (J+40ms, J+60ms, J+80ms), and 3) at different time points during the test (baseline, maximal workload, 2min into recovery). Exercise-induced ischemia was detected in 481 (31%) patients. The diagnostic accuracy of ST-deviations was highest at +80ms after the J-point, and at 2min into recovery. At this point, ST-amplitude showed an AUC of 0.63 (95% CI 0.59-0.66) for the best-performing lead I. The combination of ST-amplitude and ST-slope in lead I did not increase the AUC. Lead I reached a sensitivity of 37% and a specificity of 83%, with similar sensitivity to manual ECG analysis (34%, p=0.31) but lower specificity (90%, pST-deviations is highest when evaluated at +80ms after the J-point, and at 2min into recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-triggering detectors for recoil nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksanyan, A.S.; Asatiani, T.I.; Gasparyan, A.O.

    1975-01-01

    Hybrid α-detectors consisting of wide gap spark chambers and signal α detectors are described. The investigations have been carried out with γ-beams of Yerevan Electron Synchrotron. The possibility of using such detectors in the experiments on particle photoproduction on gas helium with the determination of the interaction point, emission angle of the recoil nucleus and its energy by means of range measurement has been shown. It has been shown that self - triggering wide gap spark chamber allows to detect and measure the range of the recoil nuclei α-particles with energies Esub(α) > or approximately (1 - 2) Mev which correspond to momentum transfers apprxomation (10 -2 - 10 -3 ) (GeV/c) 2

  19. Sum-Trigger-II status and prospective physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dazzi, Francesco; Mirzoyan, Razmik; Schweizer, Thomas; Teshima, Masahiro [Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Herranz, Diego; Lopez, Marcos [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Mariotti, Mose [Universita degli Studi di Padova (Italy); Nakajima, Daisuke [The University of Tokio (Japan); Rodriguez Garcia, Jezabel [Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    MAGIC is a stereoscopic system of 2 Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) for very high energy gamma-ray astronomy, located at La Palma (Spain). Lowering the energy threshold of IACTs is crucial for the observation of Pulsars, high redshift AGNs and GRBs. A novel trigger strategy, based on the analogue sum of a patch of pixels, can lead to a lower threshold compared to conventional digital triggers. In the last years, a major upgrade of the MAGIC telescopes took place in order to optimize the performances, mainly in the low energy domain. The PMTs camera and the reflective surface of MAGIC-I, as well as both readout systems, have been deeply renovated. The last important milestone is the implementation of a new stereoscopic analogue trigger, dubbed Sum-Trigger-II. The installation successfully ended in 2014 and the first data set has been already taken. Currently the fine-tuning of the main parameters as well as the comparison with Monte Carlo studies is ongoing. In this talk the status of Sum-Trigger-II and the future prospective physics cases at very low energy are presented.

  20. SU-F-T-36: Dosimetric Comparison of Point Based Vs. Target Based Prescription for Intracavitary Brachytherapy in Cancer of the Cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashenafi, M; McDonald, D; Peng, J; Mart, C; Koch, N; Cooper, L; Vanek, K [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Improved patient imaging used for planning the treatment of cervical cancer with Tandem and Ovoid (T&O) Intracavitary high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR) now allows for 3D delineation of target volumes and organs-at-risk. However, historical data relies on the conventional point A-based planning technique. A comparative dosimetric study was performed by generating both target-based (TBP) and point-based (PBP) plans for ten clinical patients. Methods: Treatment plans created using Elekta Oncentra v. 4.3 for ten consecutive cervical cancer patients were analyzed. All patients were treated with HDR using the Utrecht T&O applicator. Both CT and MRI imaging modalities were utilized to delineate clinical target volume (CTV) and organs-at-risk (rectum, sigmoid, bladder, and small bowel). Point A (left and right), vaginal mucosa, and ICRU rectum and bladder points were defined on CT. Two plans were generated for each patient using two prescription methods (PBP and TBP). 7Gy was prescribed to each point A for each PBP plan and to the target D90% for each TBP plan. Target V90%, V100%, and V200% were evaluated. In addition, D0.1cc and D2cc were analyzed for each organ-at-risk. Differences were assessed for statistical significance (p<0.05) by use of Student’s t-test. Results: Target coverage was comparable for both planning methods, with each method providing adequate target coverage. TBP showed lower absolute dose to the target volume than PBP (D90% = 7.0Gy vs. 7.4Gy, p=0.028), (V200% = 10.9cc vs. 12.8cc, p=0.014), (ALeft = 6.4Gy vs. 7Gy, p=0.009), and (ARight = 6.4Gy vs. 7Gy, p=0.013). TBP also showed a statistically significant reduction in bladder, rectum, small bowel, and sigmoid doses compared to PBP. There was no statistically significant difference in vaginal mucosa or ICRU-defined rectum and bladder dose. Conclusion: Target based prescription resulted in substantially lower dose to delineated organs-at-risk compared to point based prescription, while

  1. Triggers in UA2 and UA1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorenbosch, J.

    1985-01-01

    The UA2 and UA1 trigger systems are described as they will be used after the upgrade of the CERN SPPS. The luminosity of the collider will increase to 3x10 30 . The bunch spacing is 4 microseconds, comparable to the time available for a second level trigger at the SSC. The first level triggers are very powerful and deliver trigger rates of about 100 Hz. The UA1 second level trigger operates on the final digitizings with a combination of special and general purpose processors. At the highest trigger levels a small farm of processors performs the final reduction. (orig.)

  2. [Clinical study of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy treated with massage therapy combined with Magnetic sticking therapy at the auricular points and the cost comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Saina; Sheng, Feng; Pan, Yunhua; Xu, Feng; Wang, Zhichao; Cheng, Lei

    2015-08-01

    To compare the clinical efficacy on cervical spondylotic radiculopathy between the combined therapy of massage and magnetic-sticking at the auricular points and the simple massage therapy, and conduct the health economics evaluation. Seventy-two patients of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy were randomized into a combined therapy group, and a simple massage group, 36 cases in each one. Finally, 35 cases and 34 cases were met the inclusive criteria in the corresponding groups separately. In the combined therapy group, the massage therapy and the magnetic sticking therapy at auricular points were combined in the treatment. Massage therapy was mainly applied to Fengchi (GB 20), Jianjing (GB 21), Jianwaishu (SI 14), Jianyu (LI 15) and Quchi (LI 11). The main auricular points for magnetic sticking pressure were Jingzhui (AH13), Gan (On12) Shen (CO10), Shenmen (TF4), Pizhixia (AT4). In the simple massage group, the simple massage therapy was given, the massage parts and methods were the same as those in the combined therapy group. The treatment was given once every two days, three times a week, for 4 weeks totally. The cervical spondylosis effect scale and the simplified McGill pain questionnaire were adopted to observe the improvements in the clinical symptoms, clinical examination, daily life movement, superficial muscular pain in the neck and the health economics cost in the patients of the two groups. The effect was evaluated in the two groups. The effective rate and the clinical curative rate in the combined therapy group were better than those in the control group [100. 0% (35/35) vs 85. 3% (29/34), 42. 9% (15/35) vs 17. 6% (6/34), both Pmassage therapy, the massage therapy combined with magnetic sticking therapy at auricular points achieves the better effect and lower cost in health economics.

  3. A Comparison of the Hot Spot and the Average Cancer Cell Counting Methods and the Optimal Cutoff Point of the Ki-67 Index for Luminal Type Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Reiki; Osako, Tomofumi; Nishiyama, Yasuyuki; Fujisue, Mamiko; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Masahiro; Tashima, Rumiko; Toyozumi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    In this case-control study, we investigated the most suitable cell counting area and the optimal cutoff point of the Ki-67 index. Thirty recurrent cases were selected among hormone receptor (HR)-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer patients. As controls, 90 nonrecurrent cases were randomly selected by allotting 3 controls to each recurrent case based on the following criteria: age, nodal status, tumor size, and adjuvant endocrine therapy alone. Both the hot spot and the average area of the tumor were evaluated on a Ki-67 immunostaining slide. The median Ki-67 index value at the hot spot and average area were 25.0 and 14.5%, respectively. Irrespective of the area counted, the Ki-67 index value was significantly higher in all of the recurrent cases (p hot spot was the most suitable cutoff point for predicting recurrence. Moreover, higher x0394;Ki-67 index value (the difference between the hot spot and the average area, ≥10%) and lower progesterone receptor expression (hot spot strongly correlated with recurrence, and the optimal cutoff point was found to be 20%. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Muon Trigger for Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyak, M.; Usvyatsov, M.; Mulhearn, M.; Shimmin, C.; Ustyuzhanin, A.

    2017-10-01

    The CRAYFIS experiment proposes to use privately owned mobile phones as a ground detector array for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays. Upon interacting with Earth’s atmosphere, these events produce extensive particle showers which can be detected by cameras on mobile phones. A typical shower contains minimally-ionizing particles such as muons. As these particles interact with CMOS image sensors, they may leave tracks of faintly-activated pixels that are sometimes hard to distinguish from random detector noise. Triggers that rely on the presence of very bright pixels within an image frame are not efficient in this case. We present a trigger algorithm based on Convolutional Neural Networks which selects images containing such tracks and are evaluated in a lazy manner: the response of each successive layer is computed only if activation of the current layer satisfies a continuation criterion. Usage of neural networks increases the sensitivity considerably comparable with image thresholding, while the lazy evaluation allows for execution of the trigger under the limited computational power of mobile phones.

  5. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  6. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The UA1 trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayer, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    Experiment UA1 is a large multi-purpose spectrometer at the CERN proton-antiproton collider, scheduled for late 1981. The principal trigger is formed on the basis of the energy deposition in calorimeters. A trigger decision taken in under 2.4 microseconds can avoid dead time losses due to the bunched nature of the beam. To achieve this we have built fast 8-bit charge to digital converters followed by two identical digital processors tailored to the experiment. The outputs of groups of the 2440 photomultipliers in the calorimeters are summed to form a total of 288 input channels to the ADCs. A look-up table in RAM is used to convert the digitised photomultiplier signals to energy in one processor, combinations of input channels, and also counts the number of clusters with electromagnetic or hadronic energy above pre-determined levels. Up to twelve combinations of these conditions, together with external information, may be combined in coincidence or in veto to form the final trigger. Provision has been made for testing using simulated data in an off-line mode, and sampling real data when on-line. (orig.)

  8. ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has introduced and recently commissioned a completely new hardware sub-system of its first-level trigger: the topological processor (L1Topo). L1Topo consist of two AdvancedTCA blades mounting state-of-the-art FPGA processors, providing high input bandwidth (up to 4 Gb/s) and low latency data processing (200 ns). L1Topo is able to select collision events by applying kinematic and topological requirements on candidate objects (energy clusters, jets, and muons) measured by calorimeters and muon sub-detectors. Results from data recorded using the L1Topo trigger will be presented. These results demonstrate a significantly improved background event rejection, thus allowing for a rate reduction without efficiency loss. This improvement has been shown for several physics processes leading to low-pT leptons, including H->tau tau and J/Psi->mu mu. In addition to describing the L1Topo trigger system, we will discuss the use of an accurate L1Topo simulation as a powerful tool to validate and optimize...

  9. ATLAS FTK: Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    An overview of the ATLAS Fast Tracker processor is presented, reporting the design of the system, its expected performance, and the integration status. The next LHC runs, with a significant increase in instantaneous luminosity, will provide a big challenge to the trigger and data acquisition systems of all the experiments. An intensive use of the tracking information at the trigger level will be important to keep high efficiency in interesting events, despite the increase in multiple p-p collisions per bunch crossing (pile-up). In order to increase the use of tracks within the High Level Trigger (HLT), the ATLAS experiment planned the installation of an hardware processor dedicated to tracking: the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor. The FTK is designed to perform full scan track reconstruction at every Level-1 accept. To achieve this goal, the FTK uses a fully parallel architecture, with algorithms designed to exploit the computing power of custom VLSI chips, the Associative Memory, as well as modern FPGAs. The FT...

  10. Headache triggers in the US military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeler, Brett J; Kenney, Kimbra; Prokhorenko, Olga A; Fideli, Ulgen S; Campbell, William; Erickson, Jay C

    2010-05-01

    Headaches can be triggered by a variety of factors. Military service members have a high prevalence of headache but the factors triggering headaches in military troops have not been identified. The objective of this study is to determine headache triggers in soldiers and military beneficiaries seeking specialty care for headaches. A total of 172 consecutive US Army soldiers and military dependents (civilians) evaluated at the headache clinics of 2 US Army Medical Centers completed a standardized questionnaire about their headache triggers. A total of 150 (87%) patients were active-duty military members and 22 (13%) patients were civilians. In total, 77% of subjects had migraine; 89% of patients reported at least one headache trigger with a mean of 8.3 triggers per patient. A wide variety of headache triggers was seen with the most common categories being environmental factors (74%), stress (67%), consumption-related factors (60%), and fatigue-related factors (57%). The types of headache triggers identified in active-duty service members were similar to those seen in civilians. Stress-related triggers were significantly more common in soldiers. There were no significant differences in trigger types between soldiers with and without a history of head trauma. Headaches in military service members are triggered mostly by the same factors as in civilians with stress being the most common trigger. Knowledge of headache triggers may be useful for developing strategies that reduce headache occurrence in the military.

  11. [Anesthesia unrelated triggering of a fatal malignant hyperthermia crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthoff, D; Vonderlind, C

    1997-12-01

    For incidents of malignant hyperthermia (MH) outside the hospital, a high number of unrecorded cases must be reckoned with because of an insufficient knowledge of emergency services and poor identification and documentation that make it impossible to classify acute situations under the diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia crisis. As a result, there are no statistical data in this field, and only case reports with a broad spectrum of suspected trigger mechanisms have been published. The case described in this report is a proved example of a non-anesthesia-related triggering of MH in a 21-year-old man who had had an anesthetic-induced MH manifestation in childhood, which was confirmed with an in vitro contracture test. After visiting a restaurant, he became unconscious and convulsive after consuming a high level of alcohol (2.9/1000). The first cardiocirculatory arrest occurred directly before hospitalization. After admission, the patient showed a full-blown MH episode whose subsequent fatality was unavoidable in spite of adapted and optimal therapy. Suspected trigger mechanisms seem to be multifactoral (excessive alcohol consumption, over-heating, mental stress) as a forensic investigation did not point to any particular signs of typical trigger substances. The case demonstrates again that an MH attack might be triggered under certain non-anaesthesia-related situations. For patients with an MH disposition, additional information on their behavior outside the hospital is required.

  12. The Jefferson Lab Trigger Supervisor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ed Jastrzembsi; David Abbott; Graham Heyes; R.W. MacLeod; Carl Timmer; Elliott Wolin

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the design and performance of a Trigger Supervisor System for use in nuclear physics experiments at Jefferson Lab. We also discuss the enhanced features of a new Trigger Supervisor Module now under construction

  13. The Jefferson Lab Trigger Supervisor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrzembski, E.; Abbott, D.J.; Heyes, W.G.; MacLeod, R.W.; Timmer, C.; Wolin, E.

    1999-01-01

    The authors discuss the design and performance of a Trigger Supervisor System for use in nuclear physics experiments at Jefferson Lab. They also discuss the enhanced features of a new Trigger Supervisor Module now under construction

  14. A comparison of the real-time and the imaginary-time formalisms of finite temperature field theory for 2,3, and 4-point Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurenche, P.; Becherrawy, T.

    1991-07-01

    The predictions of the real-time and the imaginary-time formalisms of Finite Temperature Field Theory is compared. Retarded and advanced amplitudes are constructed in the real-time formalism which are linear combinations of the usual time-ordered thermo-field dynamics amplitudes. These amplitudes can be easily compared to the various analytically continued amplitudes of the imaginary-time formalism. Explicit calculation of the 2,3 and 4-point Green's functions in φ 3 field theory is done in the one and two-loop approximations, and the compatibility of the two formalisms is shown. (author) 17 refs., 12 figs

  15. [Comparison of the effects of the intervention with electric thermal bian stone and air suction cup on blood perfusion at meridian points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pengna; Wang, Yanping; Gu, Feifei; Li, Chaozheng; Wei, Yulong; Wang, Guangjun; Zhang, Weibo

    2018-02-12

    To observe the impacts of the intervention with electric thermal bian stone and air suction cup on blood perfusion (BP) at meridian points and explore the approach of accurate measurement and regulation of meridian qi and blood balance in "precise acupuncture". The laser Doppler line scanner (LDLS) was used to measure BP at bilateral yua n-primary points at the pericardium meridian, the triple energizer meridian, the gallbladder meridian and the liver meridian (small cycle of jueyin to shaoyang meridians) at 31 healthy receptors. The bias ratio of blood perfusion (BPBR) deviated to the reference value was calculated. The electric thermal bian stone and air suction cup were used in the intervention at the he -sea points of the affected meridians in which BPBR was relatively higher at the yuan -primary points. The electric thermal bian stone therapy was used when BPBR was less than -30% and the air suction cupping therapy was used when BPBR was higher than 30%. BP was measured twice before intervention and it was measured separately at the moment after intervention and in 20 min after intervention. The means of BP before and after intervention and the change ratio of blood perfusion (BPCR) before intervention, at the moment after intervention and 20 min after intervention were calculated. 1. After the intervention of electric thermal bian stone, BP mean was increased from (103.51±41.21) PU to (121.97±56.22) PU ( P 0.05), but the change ratio was highly remained. 2. After intervention with air suction cup, BP mean was reduced from (194.83±81.14) PU to (173.88±88.26) PU. Before intervention, at the moment after intervention and 20 min after intervention, separately, BPCR were (7.62±30.49)%, (-12.12±18.20)% and (-14.35±21.25)%. BPCR at the moment after intervention and in 20 min after intervention were significantly different from that before intervention (both P cup is opposite.

  16. ACS Zero Point Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    The uncertainties in the photometric zero points create a fundamental limit to the accuracy of photometry. The current state of the ACS calibration is surprisingly poor, with zero point uncertainties of 0.03 magnitudes. The reason for this is that the ACS calibrations are based primarily on semi-emprical synthetic zero points and observations of fields too crowded for accurate ground-based photometry. I propose to remedy this problem by obtaining ACS images of the omega Cen standard field with all nine broadband ACS/WFC filters. This will permit the direct determination of the ACS zero points by comparison with excellent ground-based photometry, and should reduce their uncertainties to less than 0.01 magnitudes. A second benefit is that it will facilitate the comparison of the WFPC2 and ACS photometric systems, which will be important as WFPC2 is phased out and ACS becomes HST's primary imager. Finally, three of the filters will be repeated from my Cycle 12 observations, allowing for a measurement of any change in sensitivity.

  17. The Trigger System of the CMS Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Felcini, Marta

    2008-01-01

    We give an overview of the main features of the CMS trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) system. Then, we illustrate the strategies and trigger configurations (trigger tables) developed for the detector calibration and physics program of the CMS experiment, at start-up of LHC operations, as well as their possible evolution with increasing luminosity. Finally, we discuss the expected CPU time performance of the trigger algorithms and the CPU requirements for the event filter farm at start-up.

  18. Triggers for a high sensitivity charm experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, D.C.

    1994-07-01

    Any future charm experiment clearly should implement an E T trigger and a μ trigger. In order to reach the 10 8 reconstructed charm level for hadronic final states, a high quality vertex trigger will almost certainly also be necessary. The best hope for the development of an offline quality vertex trigger lies in further development of the ideas of data-driven processing pioneered by the Nevis/U. Mass. group

  19. Comparison of a gel column blood typing method and a point-of-care cartridge for dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Shauna L; Richardson, Danielle M; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G

    2013-01-01

    Blood typing for the presence of Dog Erythrocyte Antigen (DEA) 1.1 is recommended in all donor and recipient dogs prior to transfusion of blood products. The objective of this study was to determine if a point-of-care DEA 1.1 blood typing cartridge could be used in place of the gel column typing method. Detection of DEA 1.1 was performed using a laboratory-based gel column method and a point-of-care cartridge. A convenience sample of 30 healthy blood donors, 13 dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) (3 of which had concurrent immune-mediated thrombocytopenia [IMT]), and 44 dogs with other diseases was included in the study. Agreement was observed between the tests for normal dogs and dogs with nonimmune-mediated disease in 74/74 cases. Two dogs in the IMHA group had indeterminate gel column blood typing results; 1 dog in this group had a negative gel column test result but a positive cartridge test result. There was good agreement between the 2 methods for normal dogs and dogs with nonimmune-mediated disease. Blood typing methods in dogs with IMHA should be further investigated. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  20. Automated two-point dixon screening for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis and siderosis: comparison with R2*-relaxometry and chemical shift-based sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henninger, B.; Rauch, S.; Schocke, M.; Jaschke, W.; Kremser, C. [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Zoller, H. [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Internal Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Kannengiesser, S. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, MR Applications Development, Erlangen (Germany); Zhong, X. [Siemens Healthcare, MR R and D Collaborations, Atlanta, GA (United States); Reiter, G. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, MR R and D Collaborations, Graz (Austria)

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the automated two-point Dixon screening sequence for the detection and estimated quantification of hepatic iron and fat compared with standard sequences as a reference. One hundred and two patients with suspected diffuse liver disease were included in this prospective study. The following MRI protocol was used: 3D-T1-weighted opposed- and in-phase gradient echo with two-point Dixon reconstruction and dual-ratio signal discrimination algorithm (''screening'' sequence); fat-saturated, multi-gradient-echo sequence with 12 echoes; gradient-echo T1 FLASH opposed- and in-phase. Bland-Altman plots were generated and correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the sequences. The screening sequence diagnosed fat in 33, iron in 35 and a combination of both in 4 patients. Correlation between R2* values of the screening sequence and the standard relaxometry was excellent (r = 0.988). A slightly lower correlation (r = 0.978) was found between the fat fraction of the screening sequence and the standard sequence. Bland-Altman revealed systematically lower R2* values obtained from the screening sequence and higher fat fraction values obtained with the standard sequence with a rather high variability in agreement. The screening sequence is a promising method with fast diagnosis of the predominant liver disease. It is capable of estimating the amount of hepatic fat and iron comparable to standard methods. (orig.)

  1. Automated two-point dixon screening for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis and siderosis: comparison with R2*-relaxometry and chemical shift-based sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henninger, B.; Rauch, S.; Schocke, M.; Jaschke, W.; Kremser, C.; Zoller, H.; Kannengiesser, S.; Zhong, X.; Reiter, G.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the automated two-point Dixon screening sequence for the detection and estimated quantification of hepatic iron and fat compared with standard sequences as a reference. One hundred and two patients with suspected diffuse liver disease were included in this prospective study. The following MRI protocol was used: 3D-T1-weighted opposed- and in-phase gradient echo with two-point Dixon reconstruction and dual-ratio signal discrimination algorithm (''screening'' sequence); fat-saturated, multi-gradient-echo sequence with 12 echoes; gradient-echo T1 FLASH opposed- and in-phase. Bland-Altman plots were generated and correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the sequences. The screening sequence diagnosed fat in 33, iron in 35 and a combination of both in 4 patients. Correlation between R2* values of the screening sequence and the standard relaxometry was excellent (r = 0.988). A slightly lower correlation (r = 0.978) was found between the fat fraction of the screening sequence and the standard sequence. Bland-Altman revealed systematically lower R2* values obtained from the screening sequence and higher fat fraction values obtained with the standard sequence with a rather high variability in agreement. The screening sequence is a promising method with fast diagnosis of the predominant liver disease. It is capable of estimating the amount of hepatic fat and iron comparable to standard methods. (orig.)

  2. First level trigger of the DIRAC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, L.G.; Karpukhin, V.V.; Kulikov, A.V.; Gallas, M.

    2001-01-01

    The logic of the first level trigger of the DIRAC experiment at CERN is described. A parallel running of different trigger modes with tagging of events and optional independent prescaling is realized. A CAMAC-based trigger system is completely computer controlled

  3. The D OE software trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, J.T.; Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI

    1992-10-01

    In the D OE experiment, the software filter operates in a processor farm with each node processing a single event. Processing is data-driven: the filter does local processing to verify the candidates from the hardware trigger. The filter code consists of independent pieces called ''tools''; processing for a given hardware bit is a ''script'' invoking one or more ''tools'' sequentially. An offline simulator drives the same code with the same configuration files, running on real or simulated data. Online tests use farm nodes parasiting on the data stream. We discuss the performance of the system and how we attempt to verify its correctness

  4. Calorimeter triggers for hard collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P.V.; Polkinghorne, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    We discuss the use of a forward calorimeter to trigger on hard hadron-hadron collisions. We give a derivation in the covariant parton model of the Ochs-Stodolsky scaling law for single-hard-scattering processes, and investigate the conditions when instead a multiple- scattering mechanism might dominate. With a proton beam, this mechanism results in six transverse jets, with a total average multiplicity about twice that seen in ordinary events. We estimate that its cross section is likely to be experimentally accessible at avalues of the beam energy in the region of 100 GeV/c

  5. Automated two-point dixon screening for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis and siderosis: comparison with R2-relaxometry and chemical shift-based sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, B; Zoller, H; Rauch, S; Schocke, M; Kannengiesser, S; Zhong, X; Reiter, G; Jaschke, W; Kremser, C

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the automated two-point Dixon screening sequence for the detection and estimated quantification of hepatic iron and fat compared with standard sequences as a reference. One hundred and two patients with suspected diffuse liver disease were included in this prospective study. The following MRI protocol was used: 3D-T1-weighted opposed- and in-phase gradient echo with two-point Dixon reconstruction and dual-ratio signal discrimination algorithm ("screening" sequence); fat-saturated, multi-gradient-echo sequence with 12 echoes; gradient-echo T1 FLASH opposed- and in-phase. Bland-Altman plots were generated and correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the sequences. The screening sequence diagnosed fat in 33, iron in 35 and a combination of both in 4 patients. Correlation between R2* values of the screening sequence and the standard relaxometry was excellent (r = 0.988). A slightly lower correlation (r = 0.978) was found between the fat fraction of the screening sequence and the standard sequence. Bland-Altman revealed systematically lower R2* values obtained from the screening sequence and higher fat fraction values obtained with the standard sequence with a rather high variability in agreement. The screening sequence is a promising method with fast diagnosis of the predominant liver disease. It is capable of estimating the amount of hepatic fat and iron comparable to standard methods. • MRI plays a major role in the clarification of diffuse liver disease. • The screening sequence was introduced for the assessment of diffuse liver disease. • It is a fast and automated algorithm for the evaluation of hepatic iron and fat. • It is capable of estimating the amount of hepatic fat and iron.

  6. The Comparison of Detrital Zircon Ages to Point Count Provenance Analysis for the Pottsville Sandstone in the Northern Appalachian Foreland Basin Venango County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, S.; Harris, D. B.; Schiappa, T.; Pecha, M.

    2017-12-01

    The specific sources of sediments deposited in the Appalachian basin prior to and immediately following the Alleghenian orogeny has long been a topic of debate. Recent advances in U-Pb dating of detrital zircons have greatly helped to determine some of the sources of these sediments. For this study, sandstone samples were collected from the Pottsville Formation in the northern Appalachian Foreland Basin, Venango County, Pennsylvania to provide supplementary data for previous work that sought to describe the provenance of the same sediments by point counts of thin sections of the same units. Results of this previous work established that the provenance for these units was transitional recycled orogenic, including multiple recycled sediments, and that a cratonic contribution was not able to be determined clearly. The previous results suggested that the paleoenvironment was a fluvial dominated delta prograding in the northern direction. However, no geochronologic data was found during this study to confirm this interpretation. We sought to verify these results by U-Pb analysis of detrital zircons. Samples were collected from the areas where the previous research took place. U-Pb ages were found from sample at the highest elevation and lowest elevation. In the first sample, sample 17SL01 (younger sample stratigraphically), the zircons yield U-Pb age range peaks at 442-468 ma and 1037-1081 ma. The probability density plot for this specific sample displays a complete age gap from 500 ma to 811 ma. In the second sample, sample 17SL03 (older rock stratigraphically), the zircons yield U-Pb ages range peaks of 424-616 ma and 975-1057 ma. This sample doesn't show any ages younger than 424 ma and it doesn't display the sample age gap as sample 17SL01 does. The ages of zircons are consistent with thin section point counting provenance results from previous research suggesting zircon transport from the northern direction.

  7. Human behaviours associated with dominance in elite amateur boxing bouts: A comparison of winners and losers under the Ten Point Must System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Emily C; Humberstone, Clare E; Iredale, K Fiona; Martin, David T; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Humans commonly ascertain physical dominance through non-lethal fighting by participating in combat sports. However, the behaviours that achieve fight dominance are not fully understood. Amateur boxing competition, which is judged using the subjective "Ten Point Must-System", provides insight into fight dominance behaviours. Notational analysis was performed on 26 elite male competitors in a national boxing championship. Behavioural (guard-drop time; movement style [stepping/bouncing time]; clinch-time; interaction-time) and technical (total punches; punches landed [%Hit]; air punches [%Air]; defence) measures were recorded. Participants reported effort required (0-100%) and perceived effect of fatigue on their own performance (5-point Likert scale) following bouts. Differences between winners and losers, and changes across the duration of the bout were examined. Winners punched more accurately than losers (greater %Hit [33% vs. 23%] and lower %Air [17% vs. 27%]) but total punches, defence and interaction-time were similar. From rounds 1-2, clinch-time and guard drops increased whilst bouncing decreased. Perceived effect of fatigue increased throughout the bout while perceived effort increased only from rounds 2-3. %Hit and movement index together in regression analysis correctly classified 85% of bout outcomes, indicating that judges (subjectively) chose winning (dominant) boxers according to punch accuracy and style, rather than assertiveness (more punches thrown). Boxers appear to use tactical strategies throughout the bout to pace their effort and minimise fatigue (increased guard drops, reduced bouncing), but these did not influence perceived dominance or bout outcome. These results show that judges use several performance indicators not including the total number of successful punches thrown to assess fight dominance and superiority between fighters. These results provide valuable information as to how experienced fight observers subjectively rate superiority

  8. Triggering for charm, beauty, and truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    As the search for more and more rare processes accelerates, the need for more and more effective event triggers also accelerates. In the earliest experiments, a simple coincidence often sufficed not only as the event trigger, but as the complete record of an event of interest. In today's experiments, not only has the fast trigger become more sophisticated, but one or more additional level of trigger processing precedes writing event data to magnetic tape for later analysis. Further search experiments will certainly require further expansion in the number of trigger levels required to filter those rare events of particular interest

  9. Detection of coronary artery calcification with non triggered computed tomography of the chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelandré, Gustavo Lemos; Sanches, Nathália Martins Pereira, E-mail: gustavo.pelandre@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Nacif, Marcelo Souto [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2018-01-15

    Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of visual analysis and of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in non triggered computed tomography (CT), in comparison with that of the CAC score in electrocardiogram-triggered CT, in identifying coronary calcification. Materials and methods: A total of 174 patients for whom CT was indicated for CAC scoring underwent non triggered and triggered CT in a 64-channel multislice scanner, in a single session without a change in position. The images were interpreted by a radiologist with seven years of experience in thoracic and cardiovascular radiology. The measurement of coronary calcium was carried out by three methods: CAC score with dedicated software in non triggered CT, CAC score with dedicated software in triggered CT, and visual analysis without dedicated software in non triggered CT. Results: In non triggered CT, the CAC score presented an accuracy of 95.98% (95% CI: 91.93 - 98.04). The visual analysis showed an accuracy of 97.13% (95% CI: 93.45 - 98.77). Conclusion: Non triggered CT showed excellent accuracy in the identification and exclusion of coronary calcification, either the CAC score was determined with dedicated software or through visual analysis. (author)

  10. Comparison of interferon-γ release assay to two cut-off points of tuberculin skin test to detect latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in primary health care workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Mattos de Souza

    Full Text Available An interferon-γ release assay, QuantiFERON-TB (QFT test, has been introduced an alternative test for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI. Here, we compared the performance of QFT with tuberculin skin test (TST measured at two different cut-off points among primary health care work (HCW in Brazil.A cross-sectional study was carried out among HCWs in four Brazilian cities with a known history of high incidence of TB. Results of the QFT were compared to TST results based on both ≥5 mm and ≥10 mm as cut-off points.We enrolled 632 HCWs. When the cut-off value of ≥10 mm was used, agreement between QFT and TST was 69% (k = 0.31, and when the cut-off of ≥5 mm was chosen, the agreement was 57% (k = 0.22. We investigated possible factors of discordance of TST vs QFT. Compared to the TST-/QFT- group, risk factors for discordance in the TST+/QFT- group with TST cut-off of ≥5 mm included age between 41-45 years [OR = 2.70; CI 95%: 1.32-5.51] and 46-64 years [OR = 2.04; CI 95%: 1.05-3.93], BCG scar [OR = 2.72; CI 95%: 1.40-5.25], and having worked only in primary health care [OR = 2.30; CI 95%: 1.09-4.86]. On the other hand, for the cut-off of ≥10 mm, BCG scar [OR = 2.26; CI 95%: 1.03-4.91], being a household contact of a TB patient [OR = 1.72; CI 95%: 1.01-2.92] and having had a previous TST [OR = 1.66; CI 95%: 1.05-2.62], were significantly associated with the TST+/QFT- group. No statistically significant associations were found among the TST-/QFT+ discordant group with either TST cut-off value.Although we identified BCG vaccination to contribute to the discordance at both TST cut-off measures, the current Brazilian recommendation for the initiation of LTBI treatment, based on information gathered from medical history, TST, chest radiograph and physical examination, should not be changed.

  11. Comparison of interferon-γ release assay to two cut-off points of tuberculin skin test to detect latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in primary health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fernanda Mattos; do Prado, Thiago Nascimento; Pinheiro, Jair dos Santos; Peres, Renata Lyrio; Lacerda, Thamy Carvalho; Loureiro, Rafaela Borge; Carvalho, Jose Américo; Fregona, Geisa; Dias, Elias Santos; Cosme, Lorrayne Beliqui; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Riley, Lee Wood; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2014-01-01

    An interferon-γ release assay, QuantiFERON-TB (QFT) test, has been introduced an alternative test for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Here, we compared the performance of QFT with tuberculin skin test (TST) measured at two different cut-off points among primary health care work (HCW) in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out among HCWs in four Brazilian cities with a known history of high incidence of TB. Results of the QFT were compared to TST results based on both ≥5 mm and ≥10 mm as cut-off points. We enrolled 632 HCWs. When the cut-off value of ≥10 mm was used, agreement between QFT and TST was 69% (k = 0.31), and when the cut-off of ≥5 mm was chosen, the agreement was 57% (k = 0.22). We investigated possible factors of discordance of TST vs QFT. Compared to the TST-/QFT- group, risk factors for discordance in the TST+/QFT- group with TST cut-off of ≥5 mm included age between 41-45 years [OR = 2.70; CI 95%: 1.32-5.51] and 46-64 years [OR = 2.04; CI 95%: 1.05-3.93], BCG scar [OR = 2.72; CI 95%: 1.40-5.25], and having worked only in primary health care [OR = 2.30; CI 95%: 1.09-4.86]. On the other hand, for the cut-off of ≥10 mm, BCG scar [OR = 2.26; CI 95%: 1.03-4.91], being a household contact of a TB patient [OR = 1.72; CI 95%: 1.01-2.92] and having had a previous TST [OR = 1.66; CI 95%: 1.05-2.62], were significantly associated with the TST+/QFT- group. No statistically significant associations were found among the TST-/QFT+ discordant group with either TST cut-off value. Although we identified BCG vaccination to contribute to the discordance at both TST cut-off measures, the current Brazilian recommendation for the initiation of LTBI treatment, based on information gathered from medical history, TST, chest radiograph and physical examination, should not be changed.

  12. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus based on various screening strategies in western Kenya: a prospective comparison of point of care diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastakia, Sonak D; Njuguna, Benson; Onyango, Beryl Ajwang'; Washington, Sierra; Christoffersen-Deb, Astrid; Kosgei, Wycliffe K; Saravanan, Ponnusamy

    2017-07-14

    Early diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is crucial to prevent short term delivery risks and long term effects such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in the mother and infant. Diagnosing GDM in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) however, remains sub-optimal due to associated logistical and cost barriers for resource-constrained populations. A cost-effective strategy to screen for GDM in such settings are therefore urgently required. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and assess utility of various GDM point of care (POC) screening strategies in a resource-constrained setting. Eligible women aged ≥18 years, and between 24 and 32 weeks of a singleton pregnancy, prospectively underwent testing over two days. On day 1, a POC 1-h 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) and a POC glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was assessed. On day 2, fasting blood glucose, 1-h and 2-h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were determined using both venous and POC tests, along with a venous HbA1c. The International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) criteria was used to diagnose GDM. GDM prevalence was reported with 95% confidence interval (CI). Specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the various POC testing strategies were determined using IADPSG testing as the standard reference. Six hundred-sixteen eligible women completed testing procedures. GDM was diagnosed in 18 women, a prevalence of 2.9% (95% CI, 1.57% - 4.23%). Compared to IADPSG testing, POC IADPSG had a sensitivity and specificity of 55.6% and 90.6% respectively while that of POC 1-h 50 g GCT (using a diagnostic cut-off of ≥7.2 mmol/L [129.6 mg/dL]) was 55.6% and 63.9%. All other POC tests assessed showed poor sensitivity. POC screening strategies though feasible, showed poor sensitivity for GDM detection in our resource-constrained population of low GDM prevalence. Studies to identify

  13. Comparison of three and four point bending evaluation of two adhesive bonding systems for glass-ceramic zirconia bi-layered ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, C; Weddell, J N; Swain, M V

    2017-09-01

    To quantify the adhesion of two bonding approaches of zirconia to more aesthetic glass-ceramic materials using the Schwickerath (ISO 9693-2:2016) three point bend (3PB) [1] test to determine the fracture initiation strength and strain energy release rate associated with stable crack extension with this test and the Charalamabides et al. (1989) [2] four point bend (4PB) test. Two glass-ceramic materials (VITABLOCS Triluxe forte, Vita Zahnfabrik, Germany and IPS.emax CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein) were bonded to sintered zirconia (VITA InCeram YZ). The former was resin bonded using a dual-cure composite resin (Panavia F 2.0, Kuraray Medical Inc., Osaka, Japan) following etching and silane conditioning, while the IPS.emax CAD was glass bonded (IPS e.max CAD Crystall/Connect) during crystallization of the IPS.emax CAD. Specimens (30) of the appropriate dimensions were fabricated for the Schwickerath 3PB and 4PB tests. Strength values were determined from crack initiation while strain energy release rate values were determined from the minima in the force-displacement curves with the 3PB test (Schneider and Swain, 2015) [3] and for 4PB test from the plateau region of stable crack extension. Strength values for the resin and glass bonded glass ceramics to zirconia were 22.20±6.72MPa and 27.02±3.49MPa respectively. The strain energy release rates for the two methods used were very similar and for the glass bonding, (4PB) 15.14±5.06N/m (or J/m 2 ) and (3PB) 16.83±3.91N/m and resin bonding (4PB) 8.34±1.93N/m and (3PB) 8.44±2.81N/m respectively. The differences in strength and strain energy release rate for the two bonding approaches were statistically significant (pceramics to zirconia. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Database Driven ATLAS Trigger Configuration System

    CERN Document Server

    Martyniuk, Alex; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This contribution describes the trigger selection configuration system of the ATLAS low- and high-level trigger (HLT) and the upgrades it received in preparation for LHC Run 2. The ATLAS trigger configuration system is responsible for applying the physics selection parameters for the online data taking at both trigger levels and the proper connection of the trigger lines across those levels. Here the low-level trigger consists of the already existing central trigger (CT) and the new Level-1 Topological trigger (L1Topo), which has been added for Run 2. In detail the tasks of the configuration system during the online data taking are Application of the selection criteria, e.g. energy cuts, minimum multiplicities, trigger object correlation, at the three trigger components L1Topo, CT, and HLT On-the-fly, e.g. rate-dependent, generation and application of prescale factors to the CT and HLT to adjust the trigger rates to the data taking conditions, such as falling luminosity or rate spikes in the detector readout ...

  15. Hadronic Triggers and trigger-object level analysis at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Zaripovas, Donatas Ramilas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic signatures are critical to the high energy physics analysis program, and are broadly used for both Standard Model measurements and searches for new physics. These signatures include generic quark and gluon jets, as well as jets originating from b-quarks or the decay of massive particles (such as electroweak bosons or top quarks). Additionally missing transverse momentum from non-interacting particles provides an interesting probe in the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Developing trigger selections that target these events is a huge challenge at the LHC due to the enormous rates associated with these signatures. This challenge is exacerbated by the amount of pile-up activity, which continues to grow. In order to address these challenges, several new techniques have been developed during the past year in order to significantly improve the potential of the 2017 dataset and overcome the limiting factors to more deeply probing for new physics, such as storage and computing requirements f...

  16. Hadronic triggers and trigger object-level analysis at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Zaripovas, Donatas Ramilas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic signatures are critical to the high energy physics analysis program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and are broadly used for both Standard Model measurements and searches for new physics. These signatures include generic quark and gluon jets, as well as jets originating from b-quarks or the decay of massive particles (such as electroweak bosons or top quarks). Additionally missing transverse momentum from non-interacting particles provides an interesting probe in the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Developing trigger selections that target these events is a huge challenge at the LHC due to the enormous event rates associated with these signatures. This challenge is exacerbated by the amount of pile-up activity, which continues to grow. In order to address these challenges, several new techniques have been developed during the past year in order to significantly improve the potential of the 2017 dataset and overcome the limiting factors, such as storage and computing requirements...

  17. The lived experience of anorexia nervosa in adolescence, comparison of the points of view of adolescents, parents, and professionals: A metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeoni, Jordan; Orri, Massimiliano; Colin, Stéphanie; Valentin, Marie; Pradère, Jerome; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa in adolescence has been increasingly documented in numerous quantitative and qualitative studies. Qualitative research, which focuses on subjective experience, is a well-established method to deepen our understanding and provide new insights about specific diseases. We conducted a metasynthesis of qualitative studies to explore how anorexia nervosa is experienced by adolescents, their families, and the health professionals who provide care for them and to compare their perspectives. Five databases (Medline, PsycINFO, CINHAL, EMBASE, SSCI; 1990-2015) were systematically searched for qualitative studies reporting participants' views about anorexia nervosa. Article quality was assessed with the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP). We used thematic synthesis to examine and summarize the topics found in the articles selected and develop their central themes. We included 30 articles from seven different countries. Two domains of experience were inductively developed from the analysis: (1) constructs and beliefs about etiological theories of anorexia nervosa, and (2) the experience of the disease from the points of view of adolescents, parents, and healthcare providers. We found important disparities between the three stakeholders. The adolescents underlined the psychological and emotional aspects of their experience, while the visible state of these patients' bodies impeded the work of the professionals. These difficulties shed new light on the stakes of treatment of anorexia nervosa in adolescence, which must integrate both its psychological and physical components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Blood glucose measurement in patients with suspected diabetic ketoacidosis: a comparison of Abbott MediSense PCx point-of-care meter values to reference laboratory values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Fidela S J; Miller, Moses; Nichols, James; Smithline, Howard; Crabb, Gillian; Pekow, Penelope

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare blood glucose levels measured by a point of care (POC) device to laboratory measurement using the same sample venous blood from patients with suspected diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). A descriptive correlational design was used for this IRB-approved quality assurance project. The study site was the 50-bed BMC emergency department (ED) which has an annual census of over 100,000 patient visits. The convenience sample consisted of 54 blood samples from suspected DKA patients with orders for hourly blood draws for glucose measurement. Spearman correlations of the glucose POC values, reference lab values, and differences between the two, were evaluated. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the association between the acidosis status and FDA acceptability of POC values. Patient age range was 10-86 years; 63% were females; 46% had a final diagnosis of DKA. POC values underestimated glucose levels 93% of the time. There was a high correlation between the lab value and the magnitude of the difference, (lab minus POC value) indicating that the higher the true glucose value, the greater the difference between the lab and the POC value. A chi-square test showed no overall association between acidosis and FDA-acceptability. The POC values underestimated lab reported glucose levels in 50 of 54 cases even with the use of same venous sample sent to the lab, which make it highly unreliable for use in monitoring suspected DKA patients.

  19. Vision of God from Islamic Gnosticism Point of View as Well as it’s Comparison with Some of the Famous Theological and Exegetic Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nabian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   The possibility or impossibility of vision of God is exciting and complicated question which has allocated itself various views along Islamic thought. What become obvious from Islamic Gnostics sayings and shia imam ’s demonstration and statements is that they know the sensible vision and intellectual vision of God impossible.   They just know allowable the heartfelt vision which is the result of purity and safeness of inner faculties and therefore the verses of Quran about the vision of God or prophet ’s requesting about sighting of God have interpreted to heartfelt intuition.   This paper briefly reviews some Islamic theologies ideas with respect to their Quranic demonstrations and commentators views on this issue and comparing their understandings from Quranic verses whit each other specially verse 143 of sura Araf, in addition to speak about the meaning of intuition vision and its truth, its order, how human can be achieved that position with respect to three principles: "unity of being, velayat, love" and whit the centrality of holy Quran, hadiths and imam ’s statements. Therefore in this paper it will become obvious what is the meaning of intuition vision from Gnostics point of view and it’s the result of manifestation of God ’s attributes which man can achieve to intuition position .

  20. Comparison between airborne pollution measurement and calculation at 14 measuring points in the Federal State of Brandenburg; Vergleich Immissionsmessung - Immissionsberechnung fuer 14 verkehrsnahe Messpunkte im Land Brandenburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, U. [Landesumweltamt Brandenburg, Potsdam (Germany). Abt. Immissionsschutz; Schierbaum, I. [Landesumweltamt Brandenburg, Potsdam (Germany). Abt. Immissionsschutz

    1997-02-01

    Airborne pollution measurements for the pollutants benzene and soot were carried out at 14 inner-city measuring points, close to traffic, in the Federal State of Brandenburg, using a distribution model for ideal build-up streets (CPB model) and a model assuming missing fringe buildings (Gauss model). The calculated annual mean values were compared with the measured annual mean values. Benzene: The annual mean values calculated with the help of the CPB model diverged from the measured annual mean values by {+-}25%, apart from one exception. Soot: The calculated annual mean values were always lower than the measured annual mean values. Emission-sources not considered in the calculation (tyre abrasion, secondary dust) are assumed to be the main cause for this difference. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurden an 14 innerstaedtischen verkehrsnahen Messpunkten im Land Brandenburg mit einem Ausbreitungsmodell fuer ideale Strassenschluchten (CPB-Modell) und einem Modell unter der Annahme fehlender Randbebauung (Gauss-Modell) Immissionsberechnungen fuer die Schadstoffe Benzol und Russ durchgefuehrt. Benzol: Die mittels CPB-Modell berechneten Jahresmittelwerte wichen bis auf eine Ausnahme maximal um {+-}25% von den Jahresmitteln der Messergebnisse ab. Russ: Die berechneten Jahremittel wiesen stets geringere Werte als die Jahresmittelwerte der Messung auf. Als Hauptursache fuer diese Differenz werden Emissionsquellen vermutet, die nicht bei der Berechnung beruecksichtigt wurden (Reifenabrieb, Sekundaerstaub). (orig.)

  1. A comparison of neural network-based predictions of foF2 with the IRI-2012 model at conjugate points in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichaipanich, Noraset; Hozumi, Kornyanat; Supnithi, Pornchai; Tsugawa, Takuya

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the development of Neural Network (NN) model for the prediction of the F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) at three ionosonde stations near the magnetic equator of Southeast Asia. Two of these stations including Chiang Mai (18.76°N, 98.93°E, dip angle 12.7°N) and Kototabang (0.2°S, 100.3°E, dip angle 10.1°S) are at the conjugate points while Chumphon (10.72°N, 99.37°E, dip angle 3.0°N) station is near the equator. To produce the model, the feed forward network with backpropagation algorithm is applied. The NN is trained with the daily hourly values of foF2 during 2004-2012, except 2009, and the selected input parameters, which affect the foF2 variability, include day number (DN), hour number (HR), solar zenith angle (C), geographic latitude (θ), magnetic inclination (I), magnetic declination (D) and angle of meridian (M) relative to the sub-solar point, the 7-day mean of F10.7 (F10.7_7), the 81-day mean of SSN (SSN_81) and the 2-day mean of Ap (Ap_2). The foF2 data of 2009 and 2013 are then used for testing the NN model during the foF2 interpolation and extrapolation, respectively. To examine the performance of the proposed NN, the root mean square error (RMSE) of the observed foF2, the proposed NN model and the IRI-2012 (CCIR and URSI options) model are compared. In general, the results show the same trends in foF2 variation between the models (NN and IRI-2012) and the observations in that they are higher during the day and lower at night. Besides, the results demonstrate that the proposed NN model can predict the foF2 values more closely during daytime than during nighttime as supported by the lower RMSE values during daytime (0.5 ≤ RMSE ≤ 1.0 for Chumphon and Kototabang, 0.7 ≤ RMSE ≤ 1.2 at Chiang Mai) and with the highest levels during nighttime (0.8 ≤ RMSE ≤ 1.5 for Chumphon and Kototabang, 1.2 ≤ RMSE ≤ 2.0 at Chiang Mai). Furthermore, the NN model predicts the foF2 values more accurately than the IRI model at the

  2. Impact of a point-of-sale tobacco display ban on smokers' spontaneous purchases: comparisons from postpurchase interviews before and after the ban in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Owen B J; Phan, Tina; Mills, Brennen W

    2015-03-01

    To assess the impact of the Western Australian tobacco point-of-sale display ban on spontaneous purchase behaviours. Daily adult smokers (n=402) observed purchasing cigarettes were recruited via exit interviews either 2 months before or after the implementation of the display ban. Smokers were asked if they had intended to purchase cigarettes before entering the store to assess spontaneous purchase behaviours. Whether smokers had noticed the displays before their purchase and the extent to which this influenced their purchase decision was also assessed via non-prompting questions. When compared with before the ban, fewer smokers after the ban noticed the displays (27.1% vs 1.1%, pmaking spontaneous purchases (28.2% vs 19.8%, ppurchase decisions (free recall 5.0% vs 1.1%, ppurchasers were more likely than planned purchasers to suggest the displays influenced their purchase decisions (free recall 9.7% vs 3.2%, ppurchasers nominating the influence of displays fell substantially (free recall 9.7% vs 5.6%, p=NS; cued recall 40.0% vs 11.1%, ppurchasers (free recall 3.2% vs 0.0%, pmaking spontaneous tobacco purchases after implementation of the Western Australian tobacco display ban and between a fivefold and sixfold reduction in the proportion suggesting displays influenced their decision to purchase cigarettes. These data are consistent with previous research suggesting tobacco displays encourage spontaneous purchases and their removal corresponds to reductions in the same. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Comparison of burrowing and stimuli-evoked pain behaviors as end-points in rat models of inflammatory pain and peripheral neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun eMuralidharan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishment and validation of ethologically-relevant, non-evoked behavioral end-points as surrogate measures of spontaneous pain in rodent pain models has been proposed as a means to improve preclinical to clinical research translation in the pain field. Here, we compared the utility of burrowing behavior with hypersensitivity to applied mechanical stimuli for pain assessment in rat models of chronic inflammatory and peripheral neuropathic pain. Briefly, groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were habituated to the burrowing environment and trained over a 5-day period. Rats that burrowed ≤450g of gravel on any two days of the individual training phase were excluded from the study. The remaining rats received either a unilateral intraplantar injection of Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA or saline, or underwent unilateral chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve- or sham-surgery. Baseline burrowing behavior and evoked pain behaviors were assessed prior to model induction, and twice-weekly until study completion on day 14. For FCA- and CCI-rats, but not the corresponding groups of sham-rats, evoked mechanical hypersensitivity developed in a temporal manner in the ipsilateral hindpaws. Although burrowing behavior also decreased in a temporal manner for both FCA- and CCI-rats, there was considerable inter-animal variability. By contrast, mechanical hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in the ipsilateral hindpaws of FCA- and CCI-rats respectively, exhibited minimal inter-animal variability. Our data collectively show that burrowing behavior is altered in rodent models of chronic inflammatory pain and peripheral neuropathic pain. However, large group sizes are needed to ensure studies are adequately powered due to considerable inter-animal variability.

  4. A comparison of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging for mapping patterns of herbivore species abundance in Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre; Smit, Izak P J; Ingram, Ben R

    Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, provides protected habitats for the unique animals of the African savannah. For the past 40 years, annual aerial surveys of herbivores have been conducted to aid management decisions based on (1) the spatial distribution of species throughout the park and (2) total species populations in a year. The surveys are extremely time consuming and costly. For many years, the whole park was surveyed, but in 1998 a transect survey approach was adopted. This is cheaper and less time consuming but leaves gaps in the data spatially. Also the distance method currently employed by the park only gives estimates of total species populations but not their spatial distribution. We compare the ability of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging to accurately map species distribution in the park. A leave-one-out cross-validation approach indicates that multiple indicator kriging makes poor estimates of the number of animals, particularly the few large counts, as the indicator variograms for such high thresholds are pure nugget. Poisson kriging was applied to the prediction of two types of abundance data: spatial density and proportion of a given species. Both Poisson approaches had standardized mean absolute errors (St. MAEs) of animal counts at least an order of magnitude lower than multiple indicator kriging. The spatial density, Poisson approach (1), gave the lowest St. MAEs for the most abundant species and the proportion, Poisson approach (2), did for the least abundant species. Incorporating environmental data into Poisson approach (2) further reduced St. MAEs.

  5. The reliability of point-of-care prothrombin time testing. A comparison of CoaguChek S and XS INR measurements with hospital laboratory monitoring.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, F

    2010-02-01

    The development of point-of-care (POC) testing devices enables patients to test their own international normalized ratio (INR) at home. However, previous studies have shown that when compared with clinical laboratory values, statistically significant differences may occur between the two methods of INR measurement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the CoaguChek S and XS POC meters relative to clinical laboratory measurements. As part of a randomized, crossover patient self-testing (PST) study at Cork University Hospital, patients were randomized to 6 months PST or 6 months routine care by the anticoagulation management service. During the PST arm of the study, patients measured their INR at home using the CoaguChek S or XS POC meter. External quality control was performed at enrollment, 2 months and 4 months by comparing the POC measured INR with the laboratory determined value. One hundred and fifty-one patients provided 673 paired samples. Good correlation was shown between the two methods of determination (r = 0.91), however, statistically significant differences did occur. A Bland-Altman plot illustrated good agreement of INR values between 2.0 and 3.5 INR units but there was increasing disagreement as the INR rose above 3.5. Eighty-seven per cent of all dual measurements were within the recommended 0.5 INR units of each other. This study adds to the growing evidence that POC testing is a reliable and safe alternative to hospital laboratory monitoring but highlights the importance of external quality control when these devices are used for monitoring oral anticoagulation.

  6. Cellular Phone Towers, FCC registered communications towers. Points were generated from FCC data latlong. Originally created as a basis of comparison for Appraiser's cell tower points, bu comparison was inconclusive. Represented all registered FCC sites as of 6/26/2003. No, Published in 2003, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Cellular Phone Towers dataset current as of 2003. FCC registered communications towers. Points were generated from FCC data latlong. Originally created as a basis of...

  7. Cross-sectional comparison of point-of-care with laboratory HbA1c in detecting diabetes in real-world remote Aboriginal settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Julia V; Oh, May S; Hadgraft, Nyssa; Singleton, Sally; Isaacs, Kim; Atkinson, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine if point-of-care (POC) glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is sufficiently accurate in real-world remote settings to predict or exclude the diagnosis of diabetes based on laboratory HbA1c measurements. Design Cross-sectional study comparing POC capillary HbA1c results with corresponding venous HbA1c levels measured in a reference laboratory. Participants Aboriginal patients ≥15 years old who were due for diabetes screening at the participating clinics were invited to participate. Two hundred and fifty-five Aboriginal participants were enrolled and 241 were included in the analysis. Setting 6 primary healthcare sites in the remote Kimberley region of Western Australia from September 2011 to November 2013. Main outcome measures Concordance and mean differences between POC capillary blood HbA1c measurement and laboratory measurement of venous blood HbA1c level; POC capillary blood HbA1c equivalence value for screening for diabetes or a high risk of developing diabetes; sensitivity, specificity and positive-predictive value for diagnosing and screening for diabetes; barriers to conducting POC testing. Results Concordance between POC and laboratory results was good (ρ=0.88, pHbA1c measurements ≥6.5%, 48 mmol/mol had a specificity of 98.2% and sensitivity of 73.7% for laboratory measurements ≥6.5%. The POC equivalence value for screening for diabetes or a high risk of developing diabetes was ≥5.7%, 39 mmol/mol (sensitivity, 91%; specificity, 76.7% for laboratory measurements ≥6.0%, 42 mmol/mol). Staff trained by other clinic staff ‘on the job’ performed as well as people with formal accredited training. Staff reported difficulty in maintaining formal accreditation. Conclusions POC HbA1c testing is sufficiently accurate to be a useful component in screening for, and diagnosing, diabetes in remote communities. Limited local training is adequate to produce results comparable to laboratory results and accreditation processes need to

  8. Wired and Wireless Camera Triggering with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhanen, H.; Rönnholm, P.

    2017-10-01

    Synchronous triggering is an important task that allows simultaneous data capture from multiple cameras. Accurate synchronization enables 3D measurements of moving objects or from a moving platform. In this paper, we describe one wired and four wireless variations of Arduino-based low-cost remote trigger systems designed to provide a synchronous trigger signal for industrial cameras. Our wireless systems utilize 315 MHz or 434 MHz frequencies with noise filtering capacitors. In order to validate the synchronization accuracy, we developed a prototype of a rotating trigger detection system (named RoTriDeS). This system is suitable to detect the triggering accuracy of global shutter cameras. As a result, the wired system indicated an 8.91 μs mean triggering time difference between two cameras. Corresponding mean values for the four wireless triggering systems varied between 7.92 and 9.42 μs. Presented values include both camera-based and trigger-based desynchronization. Arduino-based triggering systems appeared to be feasible, and they have the potential to be extended to more complicated triggering systems.

  9. A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruytenberg, T; Webb, A G; Beenakker, J W M

    2014-10-01

    Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8 ms variation between the exact trigger points. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruytenberg, T.; Webb, A. G.; Beenakker, J. W. M.

    2014-10-01

    Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8 ms variation between the exact trigger points.

  11. A comparison of fisheries biological reference points estimated from temperature-specific multi-species and single-species climate-enhanced stock assessment models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsman, Kirstin K.; Ianelli, James; Aydin, Kerim; Punt, André E.; Moffitt, Elizabeth A.

    2016-12-01

    Multi-species statistical catch at age models (MSCAA) can quantify interacting effects of climate and fisheries harvest on species populations, and evaluate management trade-offs for fisheries that target several species in a food web. We modified an existing MSCAA model to include temperature-specific growth and predation rates and applied the modified model to three fish species, walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus), Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) and arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias), from the eastern Bering Sea (USA). We fit the model to data from 1979 through 2012, with and without trophic interactions and temperature effects, and use projections to derive single- and multi-species biological reference points (BRP and MBRP, respectively) for fisheries management. The multi-species model achieved a higher over-all goodness of fit to the data (i.e. lower negative log-likelihood) for pollock and Pacific cod. Variability from water temperature typically resulted in 5-15% changes in spawning, survey, and total biomasses, but did not strongly impact recruitment estimates or mortality. Despite this, inclusion of temperature in projections did have a strong effect on BRPs, including recommended yield, which were higher in single-species models for Pacific cod and arrowtooth flounder that included temperature compared to the same models without temperature effects. While the temperature-driven multi-species model resulted in higher yield MBPRs for arrowtooth flounder than the same model without temperature, we did not observe the same patterns in multi-species models for pollock and Pacific cod, where variability between harvest scenarios and predation greatly exceeded temperature-driven variability in yield MBRPs. Annual predation on juvenile pollock (primarily cannibalism) in the multi-species model was 2-5 times the annual harvest of adult fish in the system, thus predation represents a strong control on population dynamics that exceeds temperature

  12. Triggers of oral lichen planus flares and the potential role of trigger avoidance in disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hannah X; Blasiak, Rachel; Kim, Edwin; Padilla, Ricardo; Culton, Donna A

    2017-09-01

    Many patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) report triggers of flares, some of which overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, including oral allergy syndrome and oral contact dermatitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of commonly reported triggers of OLP flares, their overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, and the potential role of trigger avoidance as a management strategy. Questionnaire-based survey of 51 patients with biopsy-proven lichen planus with oral involvement seen in an academic dermatology specialty clinic and/or oral pathology clinic between June 2014 and June 2015. Of the participants, 94% identified at least one trigger of their OLP flares. Approximately half of the participants (51%) reported at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral allergy syndrome, and 63% identified at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral contact dermatitis. Emotional stress was the most commonly reported trigger (77%). Regarding avoidance, 79% of the study participants reported avoiding their known triggers in daily life. Of those who actively avoided triggers, 89% reported an improvement in symptoms and 70% reported a decrease in the frequency of flares. Trigger identification and avoidance can play a potentially effective role in the management of OLP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  14. CT-guided intracavitary radiotherapy for cervical cancer: Comparison of conventional point A plan with clinical target volume-based three-dimensional plan using dose-volume parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Tae Hyun; Cho, Jung Keun; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Sung Yong; Park, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Dae Yong; Chie, Eui Kyu; Pyo, Hong Ryull; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To perform an intracavitary radiotherapy (ICR) plan comparison between the conventional point A plan (conventional plan) and computed tomography (CT)-guided clinical target volume-based plan (CTV plan) by analysis of the quantitative dose-volume parameters and irradiated volumes of organs at risk in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty plans for 192 Ir high-dose-rate ICR after 30-40-Gy external beam radiotherapy were investigated. CT images were acquired at the first ICR session with artifact-free applicators in place. The gross tumor volume, clinical target volume (CTV), point A, and International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 38 rectal and bladder points were defined on reconstructed CT images. A fractional 100% dose was prescribed to point A in the conventional plan and to the outermost point to cover all CTVs in the CTV plan. The reference volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V ref ), and the dose-volume parameters of the coverage index, conformal index, and external volume index were calculated from the dose-volume histogram. The bladder, rectal point doses, and percentage of volumes receiving 50%, 80%, and 100% of the prescribed dose were also analyzed. Results: Conventional plans were performed, and patients were categorized on the basis of whether the 100% isodose line of point A prescription dose fully encompassed the CTV (Group 1, n = 20) or not (Group 2, n = 10). The mean gross tumor volume (11.6 cm 3 ) and CTV (24.9 cm 3 ) of Group 1 were smaller than the corresponding values (23.7 and 44.7 cm 3 , respectively) for Group 2 (p = 0.003). The mean V ref for all patients was 129.6 cm 3 for the conventional plan and 97.0 cm 3 for the CTV plan (p = 0.003). The mean V ref in Group 1 decreased markedly with the CTV plan (p < 0.001). For the conventional and CTV plans in all patients, the mean coverage index, conformal index, and external volume index were 0.98 and 1.0, 0.23 and 0.34, and 3.86 and

  15. Ray tracing study of rising tone EMIC-triggered emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzelka, Miroslav; Santolík, Ondřej; Grison, Benjamin; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    ElectroMagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) triggered emissions have been subject of extensive theoretical and experimental research in last years. These emissions are characterized by high coherence values and a frequency range of 0.5 - 2.0 Hz, close to local helium gyrofrequency. We perform ray tracing case studies of rising tone EMIC-triggered emissions observed by the Cluster spacecraft in both nightside and dayside regions off the equatorial plane. By comparison of simulated and measured wave properties, namely wave vector orientation, group velocity, dispersion and ellipticity of polarization, we determine possible source locations. Diffusive equilibrium density model and other, semi-empirical models are used with ion composition inferred from cross-over frequencies. Ray tracing simulations are done in cold plasma approximation with inclusion of Landau and cyclotron damping. Various widths, locations and profiles of plasmapause are tested.

  16. The muon trigger of the SAPHIR shower detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufeger-Hurek, H.

    1989-12-01

    The muon trigger system of the SAPHIR shower counter consists of 4 scintillation counters. The total trigger rate of cosmic muons is about 55 Hz which is reduced to about 45 Hz by the selecting algorithms. This rate of clean muon events allows a simultaneous monitoring of the whole electronics system and the calibration of the gas sandwich detector by measuring the gas gain. The dependences of the signals on the geometry have been simulated with the help of a Monte Carlo program. The comparison of simulated and measured pulse heights shows that faults in the electronics as well as defects in the detector hardware, e.g., the HV system, or temperature effects, can be recognized at the level of a few percent. In addition the muon signals are used to determine the calibration factor for each cathode channel individually. (orig.) [de

  17. The STAR Level-3 trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, C.; Berger, J.; Demello, M.; Dietel, T.; Flierl, D.; Landgraf, J.; Lange, J.S.; LeVine, M.J.; Ljubicic, A.; Nelson, J.; Roehrich, D.; Stock, R.; Struck, C.; Yepes, P.

    2003-01-01

    The STAR Level-3 trigger issues a trigger decision upon a complete online reconstruction of Au+Au collisions at relativistic heavy ion collider energies. Central interactions are processed up to a rate of 50 s -1 including a simple analysis of physics observables. The setup of the processor farm and the event reconstruction as well as experiences and the proposed trigger algorithms are described

  18. Upgrade trigger & reconstruction strategy: 2017 milestone

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, Johannes; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Cattaneo, Marco; Marco, Clemencic; Couturier, Ben; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Hill, Donal; Jones, Christopher Rob; Lemaitre, Florian; Lupton, Olli; Matev, Rosen; Pearce, Alex; Polci, Francesco; Promberger, Laura; Ponce, Sebastien; Quagliani, Renato; Raven, Gerhard; Sciascia, Barbara; Schiller, Manuel Tobias; Stahl, Sascha; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Chefdeville, Maximilien

    2018-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration is currently preparing an update of the experiment to take data in Run 3 of the LHC. The dominant feature of this upgrade is a trigger-less readout of the full detector followed by a full software trigger. To make optimal use of the collected data, the events are reconstructed at the inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz. This document presents the baseline trigger and reconstruction strategy as of the end of 2017.

  19. A muon trigger for the MACRO apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarito, E.; Bellotti, R.; Calicchio, M.; Castellano, M.; DeCataldo, G.; DeMarzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Giglietto, N.; Liuzzi, R.; Spinelli, P.

    1991-01-01

    A trigger circuit based on EPROM components, able to manage up to 30 lines from independent counters, is described. The circuit has been designed and used in the MACRO apparatus at the Gran Sasso Laboratory for triggering on fast particles. The circuit works with standard TTL positive logic and is assembled in a double standard CAMAC module. It has a high triggering capacity and a high flexibility. (orig.)

  20. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achenbach, R; Andrei, V; Adragna, P; Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J P; Asman, B; Bohm, C; Ay, C; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Dahlhoff, A; Eckweiler, S; Booth, J R A; Thomas, P Bright; Charlton, D G; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger uses reduced-granularity information from all the ATLAS calorimeters to search for high transverse-energy electrons, photons, τ leptons and jets, as well as high missing and total transverse energy. The calorimeter trigger electronics has a fixed latency of about 1 μs, using programmable custom-built digital electronics. This paper describes the Calorimeter Trigger hardware, as installed in the ATLAS electronics cavern

  1. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achenbach, R; Andrei, V [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Adragna, P [Physics Department, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J P [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Asman, B; Bohm, C [Fysikum, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Ay, C; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Dahlhoff, A; Eckweiler, S [Institut fuer Physik, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Booth, J R A; Thomas, P Bright; Charlton, D G; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: e.eisenhandler@qmul.ac.uk (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger uses reduced-granularity information from all the ATLAS calorimeters to search for high transverse-energy electrons, photons, {tau} leptons and jets, as well as high missing and total transverse energy. The calorimeter trigger electronics has a fixed latency of about 1 {mu}s, using programmable custom-built digital electronics. This paper describes the Calorimeter Trigger hardware, as installed in the ATLAS electronics cavern.

  2. The ATLAS Trigger System Commissioning and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, A

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been used very successfully to collect collision data during 2009 and 2010 LHC running at centre of mass energies of 900 GeV, 2.36 TeV, and 7 TeV. This paper presents the ongoing work to commission the ATLAS trigger with proton collisions, including an overview of the performance of the trigger based on extensive online running. We describe how the trigger has evolved with increasing LHC luminosity and give a brief overview of plans for forthcoming LHC running.

  3. A Novel in situ Trigger Combination Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzatu, Adrian; Warburton, Andreas; Krumnack, Nils; Yao, Wei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Searches for rare physics processes using particle detectors in high-luminosity colliding hadronic beam environments require the use of multi-level trigger systems to reject colossal background rates in real time. In analyses like the search for the Higgs boson, there is a need to maximize the signal acceptance by combining multiple different trigger chains when forming the offline data sample. In such statistically limited searches, datasets are often amassed over periods of several years, during which the trigger characteristics evolve and their performance can vary significantly. Reliable production cross-section measurements and upper limits must take into account a detailed understanding of the effective trigger inefficiency for every selected candidate event. We present as an example the complex situation of three trigger chains, based on missing energy and jet energy, to be combined in the context of the search for the Higgs (H) boson produced in association with a W boson at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We briefly review the existing techniques for combining triggers, namely the inclusion, division, and exclusion methods. We introduce and describe a novel fourth in situ method whereby, for each candidate event, only the trigger chain with the highest a priori probability of selecting the event is considered. The in situ combination method has advantages of scalability to large numbers of differing trigger chains and of insensitivity to correlations between triggers. We compare the inclusion and in situ methods for signal event yields in the CDF WH search.

  4. The ATLAS Muon and Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Asta, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    [Muon] The ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) deploys a three-levels processing scheme for the trigger system. The level-1 muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a level-2 (L2) trigger followed by an event filter (EF) for a staged trigger approach. It has access to the data of the precision muon detectors and other detector elements to refine the muon hypothesis. Trigger-specific algorithms were developed and are used for the L2 to increase processing speed for instance by making use of look-up tables and simpler algorithms, while the EF muon triggers mostly benefit from offline reconstruction software to obtain most precise determination of the track parameters. There are two algorithms with different approaches, namely inside-out and outside-in...

  5. Data analysis at Level-1 Trigger level

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, Johannes; Aradi, Gregor; Bergauer, Herbert; Jeitler, Manfred; Wulz, Claudia; Apanasevich, Leonard; Winer, Brian; Puigh, Darren Michael

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing luminosity at the LHC, optimum online data selection is getting more and more important. While in the case of some experiments (LHCb and ALICE) this task is being completely transferred to computer farms, the others - ATLAS and CMS - will not be able to do this in the medium-term future for technological, detector-related reasons. Therefore, these experiments pursue the complementary approach of migrating more and more of the offline and High-Level Trigger intelligence into the trigger electronics. This paper illustrates how the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment and in particular its concluding stage, the Global Trigger, take up this challenge.

  6. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, A Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in up to five times higher rates of processes of interest. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event processing farm. A few examples will be shown, such as the impressive performance improvements in the HLT trigger algorithms used to identify leptons, hadrons and global event quantities like missing transverse energy. Finally, the status of the commissioning of the trigger system and its performance during the 2015 run will be presented. (paper)

  7. Geometrical Acceptance Analysis for RPC PAC Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, Eunsung

    2010-01-01

    The CMS(Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of the four experiments that will analyze the collision results of the protons accelerated by the Large Hardron Collider(LHC) at CERN(Conseil Europen pour la Recherche Nuclaire). In case of the CMS experiment, the trigger system is divided into two stages : The Level-1 Trigger and High Level Trigger. The RPC(Resistive Plate Chamber) PAC(PAttern Comparator) Trigger system, which is a subject of this thesis, is a part of the Level-1 Muon Trigger System. Main task of the PAC Trigger is to identify muons, measures transverse momenta and select the best muon candidates for each proton bunch collision occurring every 25 ns. To calculate the value of PAC Trigger efficiency for triggerable muon, two terms of different efficiencies are needed ; acceptance efficiency and chamber efficiency. Main goal of the works described in this thesis is obtaining the acceptance efficiency of the PAC Trigger in each logical cone. Acceptance efficiency is a convolution of the chambers geometry an...

  8. Ice nucleation triggered by negative pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolli, Claudia

    2017-11-30

    Homogeneous ice nucleation needs supercooling of more than 35 K to become effective. When pressure is applied to water, the melting and the freezing points both decrease. Conversely, melting and freezing temperatures increase under negative pressure, i.e. when water is stretched. This study presents an extrapolation of homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures from positive to negative pressures as a basis for further exploration of ice nucleation under negative pressure. It predicts that increasing negative pressure at temperatures below about 262 K eventually results in homogeneous ice nucleation while at warmer temperature homogeneous cavitation, i. e. bubble nucleation, dominates. Negative pressure occurs locally and briefly when water is stretched due to mechanical shock, sonic waves, or fragmentation. The occurrence of such transient negative pressure should suffice to trigger homogeneous ice nucleation at large supercooling in the absence of ice-nucleating surfaces. In addition, negative pressure can act together with ice-inducing surfaces to enhance their intrinsic ice nucleation efficiency. Dynamic ice nucleation can be used to improve properties and uniformity of frozen products by applying ultrasonic fields and might also be relevant for the freezing of large drops in rainclouds.

  9. Implementation of Trigger Tiles for ALFA Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rehaag, Thomas Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS (ALFA) experiment was designed to accurately measure the luminosity of the intersecting proton beams at the ATLAS interaction point [1]. However, the ALFA experiment has shifted its primary purpose from luminosity measurement to elastic and inelastic proton collisions. This change was the result of difficulty in fitting parameters in the region governed by Coulomb scattering. The operational principle for luminosity measurement with ALFA relied on detecting elastic proton collisions, so the detector is suited to its role in proton collision measurements. The ALFA detector consists of several sensitive components, including the main detector (MD), overlap detectors (ODs) and trigger tiles. A diagram of the ALFA detector is shown in Figure 1. The main detector is composed of layers of 0.5 × 0.5 mm2 cross section scintillating fibres with an active area of 0.48 × 0.48 mm2, which are directed diagonally across the detector with 64 fibres in each layer. The 20 total layers ar...

  10. Triggering of destructive earthquakes in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Díaz, José J.; Álvarez-Gómez, José A.; Benito, Belén; Hernández, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the existence of a mechanism of static stress triggering driven by the interaction of normal faults in the Middle American subduction zone and strike-slip faults in the El Salvador volcanic arc. The local geology points to a large strike-slip fault zone, the El Salvador fault zone, as the source of several destructive earthquakes in El Salvador along the volcanic arc. We modeled the Coulomb failure stress (CFS) change produced by the June 1982 and January 2001 subduction events on planes parallel to the El Salvador fault zone. The results have broad implications for future risk management in the region, as they suggest a causative relationship between the position of the normal-slip events in the subduction zone and the strike-slip events in the volcanic arc. After the February 2001 event, an important area of the El Salvador fault zone was loaded with a positive change in Coulomb failure stress (>0.15 MPa). This scenario must be considered in the seismic hazard assessment studies that will be carried out in this area.

  11. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow

  12. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knuth, Matthew W [WISCONSIN; Kaproth, Bryan M [PENN STATE; Carpenter, Brett [PENN STATE; Guyer, Robert A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daub, Eric G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marone, Chris [PENN STATE

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  13. The fast trigger scintillator for the JETSET experiment (PS202/LEAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefzick, T.

    1988-12-01

    In the present thesis the trigger detector of the JETSET experiment (PS202) at the LEAR/CERN consisting of scintillation counters is presented. After giving a start signal in a second stage of the trigger electronics the determination of the position of the traversed points of the reaction products is performed with the information of the scintillation detector. A third following trigger stage shall study the position informations given by the second stage under kinematical points of view. The present diploma thesis deals especially with the first two trigger stages. As basic conditions the components of a scintillation counter are treated and calibration and testing possibilities presented. For this belongs a fast light pulser with green or blue LED. Results of the studies which scintillator and light-guide materials are most suitable for the JETSET experiment are presented. (orig./HSI) [de

  14. The trigger supervisor: Managing triggering conditions in a high energy physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadsworth, B.; Lanza, R.; LeVine, M.J.; Scheetz, R.A.; Videbaek, F.

    1987-01-01

    A trigger supervisor, implemented in VME-bus hardware, is described, which enables the host computer to dynamically control and monitor the trigger configuration for acquiring data from multiple detector partitions in a complex experiment

  15. The fast tracker processor for hadron collider triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Annovi, A; Bardi, A; Carosi, R; Dell'Orso, Mauro; D'Onofrio, M; Giannetti, P; Iannaccone, G; Morsani, E; Pietri, M; Varotto, G

    2001-01-01

    Perspectives for precise and fast track reconstruction in future hadron collider experiments are addressed. We discuss the feasibility of a pipelined highly parallel processor dedicated to the implementation of a very fast tracking algorithm. The algorithm is based on the use of a large bank of pre-stored combinations of trajectory points, called patterns, for extremely complex tracking systems. The CMS experiment at LHC is used as a benchmark. Tracking data from the events selected by the level-1 trigger are sorted and filtered by the Fast Tracker processor at an input rate of 100 kHz. This data organization allows the level-2 trigger logic to reconstruct full resolution tracks with transverse momentum above a few GeV and search for secondary vertices within typical level-2 times. (15 refs).

  16. The fast tracker processor for hadronic collider triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Annovi, A; Bardi, A; Carosi, R; Dell'Orso, Mauro; D'Onofrio, M; Giannetti, P; Iannaccone, G; Morsani, F; Pietri, M; Varotto, G

    2000-01-01

    Perspective for precise and fast track reconstruction in future hadronic collider experiments are addressed. We discuss the feasibility of a pipelined highly parallelized processor dedicated to the implementation of a very fast algorithm. The algorithm is based on the use of a large bank of pre-stored combinations of trajectory points (patterns) for extremely complex tracking systems. The CMS experiment at LHC is used as a benchmark. Tracking data from the events selected by the level-1 trigger are sorted and filtered by the Fast Tracker processor at a rate of 100 kHz. This data organization allows the level-2 trigger logic to reconstruct full resolution traces with transverse momentum above few GeV and search secondary vertexes within typical level-2 times. 15 Refs.

  17. Doppler Ultrasound Triggering for Cardiovascular MRI at 3T in a Healthy Volunteer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kording, Fabian; Yamamura, Jin; Lund, Gunnar; Ueberle, Friedrich; Jung, Caroline; Adam, Gerhard; Schoennagel, Bjoern Philip

    2017-04-10

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) triggering for cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) may be influenced by electromagnetic interferences with increasing magnetic field strength. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Doppler ultrasound (DUS) as an alternative trigger technique for CMR in comparison to ECG and pulse oximetry (POX) at 3T and using different sequence types. Balanced turbo field echo two-dimensional (2D) short axis cine CMR and 2D phase-contrast angiography of the ascending aorta was performed in 11 healthy volunteers at 3T using ECG, DUS, and POX for cardiac triggering. DUS and POX triggering were compared to the reference standard of ECG in terms of trigger quality (trigger detection and temporal variability), image quality [endocardial blurring (EB)], and functional measurements [left ventricular (LV) volumetry and aortic blood flow velocimetry]. Trigger signal detection and temporal variability did not differ significantly between ECG/DUS (I = 0.6) and ECG/POX (P = 0.4). Averaged EB was similar for ECG, DUS, and POX (p ECG/DUS = 0.4, p ECG/POX = 0.9). Diastolic EB was significantly decreased for DUS in comparison to ECG (P = 0.02) and POX (P = 0.04). The LV function assessment and aortic blood flow were not significantly different. This study demonstrated the feasibility of DUS for gating human CMR at 3T. The magnetohydrodynamic effect did not significantly disturb ECG triggering in this small healthy volunteer study. DUS showed a significant improvement in diastolic EB but could not be identified as a superior trigger method. The potential benefit of DUS has to be evaluated in a larger clinical patient population.

  18. Advances and trends on earthquake-triggered landslide research in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García Mayordomo, Julián; Rodríguez Peces, Martín Jesús; Azañón, J.M.; Insúa Arévalo, Juan Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This work reviews the current situation of earthquake‐triggered landslide studies in Spain both from the point of view of regional assessment and site‐specific cases. Regional assessments have been undertaken in areas of the Betic Cordillera (South and Southeast Spain): Alcoy Basin, Lorca Basin, Granada Basin and Sierra Nevada Range; and Central Pyrenees (North Spain and Andorra). Specific studies are very scarce, outstanding those related to the Güevéjar landslide (Granada) –triggered by 175...

  19. Tools for Trigger Aware Analyses in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Krasznahorkay, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Stelzer, J

    2010-01-01

    In order to search for rare processes, all four LHC experiments have to use advanced triggering methods for selecting and recording the events of interest. At the expected nominal LHC operating conditions only about 0.0005% of the collision events can be kept for physics analysis in ATLAS. Therefore the understanding and evaluation of the trigger performance is one of the most crucial parts of any physics analysis. ATLAS’s first level trigger is composed of custom-built hardware, while the second and third levels are implemented using regular PCs running reconstruction and selection algorithms. Because of this split, accessing the results of the trigger execution for the two stages is different. The complexity of the software trigger presents further difficulties in accessing the trigger data. To make the job of the physicists easier when evaluating the trigger performance, multiple general-use tools are provided by the ATLAS Trigger Analysis Tools group. The TrigDecisionTool, a general tool, is provided to...

  20. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been successfully collecting collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at a centre-of-mass energy between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 (L1) and a software based high-level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. We will briefly review the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented during the shutdown, allowing us to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving our efficiency to select relevant physics processes. This includes changes to the L1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new L1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. At hand of a few examples, we will show the ...