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Sample records for trigger decision unit

  1. Trigger and decision processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, G.

    1980-11-01

    In recent years there have been many attempts in high energy physics to make trigger and decision processes faster and more sophisticated. This became necessary due to a permanent increase of the number of sensitive detector elements in wire chambers and calorimeters, and in fact it was possible because of the fast developments in integrated circuits technique. In this paper the present situation will be reviewed. The discussion will be mainly focussed upon event filtering by pure software methods and - rather hardware related - microprogrammable processors as well as random access memory triggers. (orig.)

  2. Design and implementation of the decision unit of the first level trigger system of the LHCb detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); Conception et realisation de l'unite de decision du systeme de declenchement de premier niveau du detecteur LHCb au LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubser, J

    2007-11-15

    The LHCb experiment is one of the four particle physic detector installed at the new Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva. In order to reduce the amount of data storage for offline analysis, an online trigger system of interesting event according to the studied physic is implemented in parallel of the Data Acquisition system. The trigger system is composed by a first level (Level-0) made by a complex electronic system and a second level made by a computing system called the High Level Trigger. The Level-0 Decision Unit is the central part of the first trigger level that takes the decision to accept or to reject the event by using a fraction of information coming from the fastest sub-triggers (432 bits at 80 MHz). It is a full custom 16 layers board using advanced FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) in BGA (Bill Grid Array) package. Each sub-trigger transmit their data via high speed optical links running at 1.6 Gbit/s. The processing is implemented using a 40 MHz synchronous pipelined architecture. It performs a simple physical algorithm to compute the Level-0 trigger decision in order to reduce the data flow from 40 MHz down to 1 MHz for the next trigger level. The internal design of the processing FPGA is mainly composed by a Partial Data Processing (PDP) and a Trigger Definition Unit (TDU). The aim of the PDP is to adjust the clock phase, perform the time alignment, prepare the data for the TDU and monitor the data processing. The TDU is flexible and allows to fully re-configure all the trigger conditions through the Experiment Control System without any FPGA re-programming. (author)

  3. The CLEO-III Trigger: Decision and gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergfeld, T.J.; Gollin, G.D.; Haney, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The CLEO-III Trigger provides a trigger decision every 42ns, with a latency of approximately 2.5μs. This paper describes the free-running, pipelined trigger decision logic, the throttling mechanism whereby the data acquisition system can modulate the trigger rate to maximize throughput without buffer overrun, and the subsequent signal distribution mechanism for delivering the trigger decision to the front-end electronics. This paper also describes the multilevel simulation methods employed to allow detailed low-level models of trigger components to be co-simulated with more abstract system models, thus allowing full system modeling without incurring prohibitive computational overheads

  4. Decision unit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madjar, N.; Pastor, C.; Chambon, B.; Drain, D.; Giorni, A.; Dauchy, A.

    1981-01-01

    A decision unit has been built to simplify the electronic logic set-up in multi-detectors experiments. This unit, designed with fast memories used as decision making tables, replaces conventional logic modules. Nine inputs are provided for receiving the fast detector signals (charged particles, gammas, neutrons, ...). Fifteen independent outputs allow the identification of the choosen events among the 2 9 possible events. A CAMAC interface between the unit and the computer, or a manual control auxiliary module, is used to load, in the memory, the pattern of the choosen events [fr

  5. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.

    2016-01-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  6. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammendola, R. [INFN Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Bauce, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Biagioni, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Fantechi, R. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); Fiorini, M. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Giagu, S. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Gianoli, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Lamanna, G., E-mail: gianluca.lamanna@cern.ch [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Lonardo, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Messina, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); and others

    2016-07-11

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  7. Trigger region unit for the ALICE PHOS calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Hans; Li Qing Xia; Pimenta, Rui; Röhrich, Dieter; Skaali, Bernhard; Oltean, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    The Photon Spectrometer (PHOS) of ALICE measures electromagnetic showers of up to 100 GeV via a large matrix of PWO crystals, each read out by an APD. Trigger regions consist of 28*16 crystals, inter-connected via analogue signals generated on front-end cards and transmitted to Trigger Region Units (TRU) which digitize and process the analogue hit information. Eight TRU cards are embedded inside each PHOS module in water-cooled cassettes, each inserted between a block 14 FEE readout cards. Analogue sums are generated by fast summing shapers, with their outputs connected to the TRU via equal-length differential cables. The TRU receives analogue sums on 112 inputs and digitizes these via 12 bit ADCs which are inter-connected with a central FPGA via serial LVDS links. The level-0 and level-1 trigger algorithms are based on pipelined charge summing over 4 consecutive samples and over 4*4 crystal windows. Low latency level-0 decisions and more refined level-1 decisions are generated as a 40 MHz Yes/No sequence whi...

  8. Triggers for the critical engagement with decision support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Timo; Javernick-Will, A.; Chinowsky, P.

    2012-01-01

    In previous work, we showed that the critical engagement with a decision sup- port system during its implementation by a project team is an important an- tecedent for the successful later use of the technology. However, the mechanisms that trigger such critical engagement are so far not well

  9. The ATLAS Trigger Algorithms for General Purpose Graphics Processor Units

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares Delgado, Ademar; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger Algorithms for General Purpose Graphics Processor Units Type: Talk Abstract: We present the ATLAS Trigger algorithms developed to exploit General­ Purpose Graphics Processor Units. ATLAS is a particle physics experiment located on the LHC collider at CERN. The ATLAS Trigger system has two levels, hardware-­based Level 1 and the High Level Trigger implemented in software running on a farm of commodity CPU. Performing the trigger event selection within the available farm resources presents a significant challenge that will increase future LHC upgrades. are being evaluated as a potential solution for trigger algorithms acceleration. Key factors determining the potential benefit of this new technology are the relative execution speedup, the number of GPUs required and the relative financial cost of the selected GPU. We have developed a trigger demonstrator which includes algorithms for reconstructing tracks in the Inner Detector and Muon Spectrometer and clusters of energy deposited in the Cal...

  10. Decision Utility, Incentive Salience, and Cue-Triggered "Wanting"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Kent C; Aldridge, J Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines brain mechanisms of reward utility operating at particular decision moments in life-moments such as when one encounters an image, sound, scent, or other cue associated in the past with a particular reward or perhaps just when one vividly imagines that cue. Such a cue can often trigger a sudden motivational urge to pursue its reward and sometimes a decision to do so. Drawing on a utility taxonomy that distinguishes among subtypes of reward utility-predicted utility, decision utility, experienced utility, and remembered utility-it is shown how cue-triggered cravings, such as an addict's surrender to relapse, can hang on special transformations by brain mesolimbic systems of one utility subtype, namely, decision utility. The chapter focuses on a particular form of decision utility called incentive salience, a type of "wanting" for rewards that is amplified by brain mesolimbic systems. Sudden peaks of intensity of incentive salience, caused by neurobiological mechanisms, can elevate the decision utility of a particular reward at the moment its cue occurs. An understanding of what happens at such moments leads to a better understanding of the mechanisms at work in decision making in general.

  11. Pricing decision-making units

    OpenAIRE

    R F&aauml;re; S Grosskopf; D Margaritis

    2013-01-01

    In this note we extend the standard DEA paradigm to address the question of how one can price DMUs (decision-making units). To do this we use an adjoint transformation to the technology generated by these DMUs which links to traditional linear programming theory of the firm and is similar to pricing portfolios in financial markets. We also provide a numerical example illustrating the practicality of the proposed method.

  12. Event-triggered Decision Propagation in Proximity Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumik eSarkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel event-triggered formulation as an extension of the recently develo-ped generalized gossip algorithm for decision/awareness propagation in mobile sensor networksmodeled as proximity networks. The key idea is to expend energy for communication (messagetransmission and reception only when there is any event of interest in the region of surveillance.The idea is implemented by using an agent’s belief about presence of a hotspot as feedback tochange its probability of (communication activity. In the original formulation, the evolution ofnetwork topology and the dynamics of decision propagation were completely decoupled whichis no longer the case as a consequence of this feedback policy. Analytical results and numeri-cal experiments are presented to show a significant gain in energy savings with no change inthe first moment characteristics of decision propagation. However, numerical experiments showthat the second moment characteristics may change and theoretical results are provided forupper and lower bounds for second moment characteristics. Effects of false alarms on networkformation and communication activity are also investigated.

  13. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The hardware of the trigger components has been mostly finished. The ECAL Endcap Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC) are in production while Barrel TCC firmware has been upgraded, and the Trigger Primitives can now be stored by the Data Concentrator Card for readout by the DAQ. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) system is complete, and the timing is being finalized. All 502 HCAL trigger links to RCT run without error. The HCAL muon trigger timing has been equalized with DT, RPC, CSC and ECAL. The hardware and firmware for the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) jet triggers are being commissioned and data from these triggers is available for readout. The GCT energy sums from rings of trigger towers around the beam pipe beam have been changed to include two rings from both sides. The firmware for Drift Tube Track Finder, Barrel Sorter and Wedge Sorter has been upgraded, and the synchronization of the DT trigger is satisfactory. The CSC local trigger has operated flawlessly u...

  14. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberta Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Studies Group (TSG) The Trigger Studies Group has just concluded its third 2013 workshop, where all POGs presented the improvements to the physics object reconstruction, and all PAGs have shown their plans for Trigger development aimed at the 2015 High Level Trigger (HLT) menu. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger menu development, path timing, Trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – this last task in collaboration with PdmV (Physics Data and Monte Carlo Validation group). In the last months the group has delivered several HLT rate estimates and comparisons, using the available data and Monte Carlo samples. The studies were presented at the Trigger workshops in September and December, and STEAM has contacted POGs and PAGs to understand the origin of the discrepancies observed between 8 TeV data and Monte Carlo simulations. The most recent results show what the...

  15. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger synchronization procedures for running with cosmic muons and operating with the LHC were reviewed during the May electronics week. Firmware maintenance issues were also reviewed. Link tests between the new ECAL endcap trigger concentrator cards (TCC48) and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger have been performed. Firmware for the energy sum triggers and an upgraded tau trigger of the Global Calorimeter Triggers has been developed and is under test. The optical fiber receiver boards for the Track-Finder trigger theta links of the DT chambers are now all installed. The RPC trigger is being made more robust by additional chamber and cable shielding and also by firmware upgrades. For the CSC’s the front-end and trigger motherboard firmware have been updated. New RPC patterns and DT/CSC lookup tables taking into account phi asymmetries in the magnetic field configuration are under study. The motherboard for the new pipeline synchronizer of the Global Trigg...

  16. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2012-01-01

      Level-1 Trigger The Level-1 Trigger group is ready to deploy improvements to the L1 Trigger algorithms for 2012. These include new high-PT patterns for the RPC endcap, an improved CSC PT assignment, a new PT-matching algorithm for the Global Muon Trigger, and new calibrations for ECAL, HCAL, and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger. These should improve the efficiency, rate, and stability of the L1 Trigger. The L1 Trigger group also is migrating the online systems to SLC5. To make the data transfer from the Global Calorimeter Trigger to the Global Trigger more reliable and also to allow checking the data integrity online, a new optical link system has been developed by the GCT and GT groups and successfully tested at the CMS electronics integration facility in building 904. This new system is now undergoing further tests at Point 5 before being deployed for data-taking this year. New L1 trigger menus have recently been studied and proposed by Emmanuelle Perez and the L1 Detector Performance Group...

  17. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the March meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, the program of trigger pattern tests and vertical slice tests and planning for the Global Runs starting this summer. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and integration testing is in full swing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. After full checkout, trigger subsystems will be then operated in the CMS Global Runs. Continuous...

  18. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The production of the trigger hardware is now basically finished, and in time for the turn-on of the LHC. The last boards produced are the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcaps (TCC-EE). After the recent installation of the four EE Dees, the TCC-EE prototypes were used for their commissioning. Production boards are arriving and are being tested continuously, with the last ones expected in November. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger hardware is fully integrated after installation of the last EE cables. Pattern tests from the HCAL up to the GCT have been performed successfully. The HCAL triggers are fully operational, including the connection of the HCAL-outer and forward-HCAL (HO/HF) technical triggers to the Global Trigger. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) board firmware has been updated to permit recording of the tower “feature bit” in the data. The Global Calorimeter Trigger hardware is installed, but some firmware developments are still n...

  19. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The overall status of the L1 trigger has been excellent and the running efficiency has been high during physics fills. The timing is good to about 1%. The fine-tuning of the time synchronization of muon triggers is ongoing and will be completed after more than 10 nb-1 of data have been recorded. The CSC trigger primitive and RPC trigger timing have been refined. A new configuration for the CSC Track Finder featured modified beam halo cuts and improved ghost cancellation logic. More direct control was provided for the DT opto-receivers. New RPC Cosmic Trigger (RBC/TTU) trigger algorithms were enabled for collision runs. There is further work planned during the next technical stop to investigate a few of the links from the ECAL to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT). New firmware and a new configuration to handle trigger rate spikes in the ECAL barrel are also being tested. A board newly developed by the tracker group (ReTRI) has been installed and activated to block re...

  20. A Cross-Layer User Centric Vertical Handover Decision Approach Based on MIH Local Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, Maaz; Yousaf, Muhammad; Qayyum, Amir; Malik, Shahzad

    Vertical handover decision algorithm that is based on user preferences and coupled with Media Independent Handover (MIH) local triggers have not been explored much in the literature. We have developed a comprehensive cross-layer solution, called Vertical Handover Decision (VHOD) approach, which consists of three parts viz. mechanism for collecting and storing user preferences, Vertical Handover Decision (VHOD) algorithm and the MIH Function (MIHF). MIHF triggers the VHOD algorithm which operates on user preferences to issue handover commands to mobility management protocol. VHOD algorithm is an MIH User and therefore needs to subscribe events and configure thresholds for receiving triggers from MIHF. In this regard, we have performed experiments in WLAN to suggest thresholds for Link Going Down trigger. We have also critically evaluated the handover decision process, proposed Just-in-time interface activation technique, compared our proposed approach with prominent user centric approaches and analyzed our approach from different aspects.

  1. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The Level-1 Trigger hardware has performed well during both the recent proton-proton and heavy ion running. Efforts were made to improve the visibility and handling of alarms and warnings. The tracker ReTRI boards that prevent fixed frequencies of Level-1 Triggers are now configured through the Trigger Supervisor. The Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) team has introduced a buffer cleanup procedure at stops and a reset of the QPLL during configuring to ensure recalibration in case of a switch from the LHC clock to the local clock. A device to test the cables between the Regional Calorimeter Trigger and the GCT has been manufactured. A wrong charge bit was fixed in the CSC Trigger. The ECAL group is improving crystal masking and spike suppression in the trigger primitives. New firmware for the Drift Tube Track Finder (DTTF) sorters was developed to improve fake track tagging and sorting. Zero suppression was implemented in the DT Sector Collector readout. The track finder b...

  2. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Trigger Hardware The status of the trigger components was presented during the September CMS Week and Annual Review and at the monthly trigger meetings in October and November. Procedures for cold and warm starts (e.g. refreshing of trigger parameters stored in registers) of the trigger subsystems have been studied. Reviews of parts of the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) and the Global Trigger (GT) have taken place in October and November. The CERN group summarized the status of the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) system. All TTC crates and boards are installed in the underground counting room, USC55. The central clock system will be upgraded in December (after the Global Run at the end of November GREN) to the new RF2TTC LHC machine interface timing module. Migration of subsystem's TTC PCs to SLC4/ XDAQ 3.12 is being prepared. Work is on going to unify the access to Local Timing Control (LTC) and TTC CMS interface module (TTCci) via SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol, a lightweight XML-based messaging ...

  3. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Since nearly all of the Level-1 (L1) Trigger hardware at Point 5 has been commissioned, activities during the past months focused on the fine-tuning of synchronization, particularly for the ECAL and the CSC systems, on firmware upgrades and on improving trigger operation and monitoring. Periodic resynchronizations or hard resets and a shortened luminosity section interval of 23 seconds were implemented. For the DT sector collectors, an automatic power-off was installed in case of high temperatures, and the monitoring capabilities of the opto-receivers and the mini-crates were enhanced. The DTTF and the CSCTF now have improved memory lookup tables. The HCAL trigger primitive logic implemented a new algorithm providing better stability of the energy measurement in the presence of any phase misalignment. For the Global Calorimeter Trigger, additional Source Cards have been manufactured and tested. Testing of the new tau, missing ET and missing HT algorithms is underw...

  4. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The final parts of the Level-1 trigger hardware are now being put in place. For the ECAL endcaps, more than half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are now available at CERN, such that one complete endcap can be covered. The Global Trigger now correctly handles ECAL calibration sequences, without being influenced by backpressure. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) hardware is complete and working in USC55. Intra-crate tests of all 18 RCT crates and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) are regularly taking place. Pattern tests have successfully captured data from HCAL through RCT to the GCT Source Cards. HB/HE trigger data are being compared with emulator results to track down the very few remaining hardware problems. The treatment of hot and dead cells, including their recording in the database, has been defined. For the GCT, excellent agreement between the emulator and data has been achieved for jets and HF ET sums. There is still som...

  5. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger system has been constantly in use in cosmic and commissioning data taking periods. During CRAFT running it delivered 300 million muon and calorimeter triggers to CMS. It has performed stably and reliably. During the abort gaps it has also provided laser and other calibration triggers. Timing issues, namely synchronization and latency issues, have been solved. About half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are installed, and the firmware is being worked on. The production of the other half has started. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) card firmware has been updated, and new features such as fast parallel zero-suppression have been included. Repairs of drift tube (DT) trigger mini-crates, optical links and receivers of sector collectors are under way and have been completed on YB0. New firmware for the optical receivers of the theta links to the drift tube track finder is being installed. In parallel, tests with new eta track finde...

  6. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Carlin with contributions from D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Data-taking continues at cruising speed, with high availability of all components of the Level-1 trigger. We have operated the trigger up to a luminosity of 7.6E33, where we approached 100 kHz using the 7E33 prescale column.  Recently, the pause without triggers in case of an automatic "RESYNC" signal (the "settle" and "recover" time) was reduced in order to minimise the overall dead-time. This may become very important when the LHC comes back with higher energy and luminosity after LS1. We are also preparing for data-taking in the proton-lead run in early 2013. The CASTOR detector will make its comeback into CMS and triggering capabilities are being prepared for this. Steps to be taken include improved cooperation with the TOTEM trigger system and using the LHC clock during the injection and ramp phases of LHC. Studies are being finalised that will have a bearing on the Trigger Technical Design Report (TDR), which is to be rea...

  7. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the December meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, and results from the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) phase II. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and moving towards integration testing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. This is combined with operations and testing without beam that will continue until startup. The plans for start-up, pilot and early running tri...

  8. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software New Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) for rapidity gap measurements have been installed and integrated into the Trigger recently. For the Global Muon Trigger, tuning of quality criteria has led to improvements in muon trigger efficiencies. Several subsystems have started campaigns to increase spares by recovering boards or producing new ones. The barrel muon sector collector test system has been reactivated, new η track finder boards are in production, and φ track finder boards are under revision. In the CSC track finder, an η asymmetry problem has been corrected. New pT look-up tables have also improved efficiency. RPC patterns were changed from four out of six coincident layers to three out of six in the barrel, which led to a significant increase in efficiency. A new PAC firmware to trigger on heavy stable charged particles allows looking for chamber hit coincidences in two consecutive bunch-crossings. The redesign of the L1 Trigger Emulator...

  9. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith, from contributions of D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

      The L1 Trigger group deployed several major improvements this year. Compared to 2011, the single-muon trigger rate has been reduced by a factor of 2 and the η coverage has been restored to 2.4, with high efficiency. During the current technical stop, a higher jet seed threshold will be applied in the Global Calorimeter Trigger in order to significantly reduce the strong pile-up dependence of the HT and multi-jet triggers. The currently deployed L1 menu, with the “6E33” prescales, has a total rate of less than 100 kHz and operates with detector readout dead time of less than 3% for luminosities up to 6.5 × 1033 cm–2s–1. Further prescale sets have been created for 7 and 8 × 1033 cm–2s–1 luminosities. The L1 DPG is evaluating the performance of the Trigger for upcoming conferences and publication. Progress on the Trigger upgrade was reviewed during the May Upgrade Week. We are investigating scenarios for stagin...

  10. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos, I. Mikulec, J. Varela and C. Wulz.

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Over the past few months, the Level-1 trigger has successfully recorded data with cosmic rays over long continuous stretches as well as LHC splash events, beam halo, and collision events. The L1 trigger hardware, firmware, synchronization, performance and readiness for beam operation were reviewed in October. All L1 trigger hardware is now installed at Point 5, and most of it is completely commissioned. While the barrel ECAL Trigger Concentrator Cards are fully operational, the recently delivered endcap ECAL TCC system is still being commissioned. For most systems there is a sufficient number of spares available, but for a few systems additional reserve modules are needed. It was decided to increase the overall L1 latency by three bunch crossings to increase the safety margin for trigger timing adjustments. In order for CMS to continue data taking during LHC frequency ramps, the clock distribution tree needs to be reset. The procedures for this have been tested. A repl...

  11. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

      In 2013 the Trigger Studies Group (TSG) has been restructured in three sub-groups: STEAM, for the development of new HLT menus and monitoring their performance; STORM, for the development of HLT tools, code and actual configurations; and FOG, responsible for the online operations of the High Level Trigger. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger Menu development, path timing, trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Since the end of proton-proton data taking, the group has started preparing for 2015 data taking, with collisions at 13 TeV and 25 ns bunch spacing. The reliability of the extrapolation to higher energy is being evaluated comparing the trigger rates on 7 and 8 TeV Monte Carlo samples with the data taken in the past two years. The effect of 25 ns bunch spacing is being studied on the d...

  12. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The road map for the final commissioning of the level-1 trigger system has been set. The software for the trigger subsystems is being upgraded to run under CERN Scientific Linux 4 (SLC4). There is also a new release for the Trigger Supervisor (TS 1.4), which implies upgrade work by the subsystems. As reported by the CERN group, a campaign to tidy the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) racks has begun. The machine interface was upgraded by installing the new RF2TTC module, which receives RF signals from LHC Point 4. Two Beam Synchronous Timing (BST) signals, one for each beam, can now be received in CMS. The machine group will define the exact format of the information content shortly. The margin on the locking range of the CMS QPLL is planned for study for different subsystems in the next Global Runs, using a function generator. The TTC software has been successfully tested on SLC4. Some TTC subsystems have already been upgraded to SLC4. The TTCci Trigger Supervisor ...

  13. Drones: Making faster and smarter decisions with software triggers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Data collection rates in high energy physics (HEP), particularly those at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are a continuing challenge and require large amounts of computing power to handle. For example, at LHCb an event rate of 1 MHz is processed in a software-based trigger. The purpose of this trigger is to reduce the output data rate to manageable levels, which amounts to a reduction from 60 GB per second to an output data rate of 0.6 GB per second. Machine learning (ML) is becoming an evermore important tool in the data reduction, be it with the identification of interesting event topologies, or the distinction between individual particle species. For the case of LHCb data-taking, over 600 unique signatures are searched for in parallel in real time, each with its own set of requirements. However, only a handful at present make use of machine learning, despite the large ecosystem. Often the reason for this is the relative difficulty in the application of a preferred ML classifier to the C++/Python combinatio...

  14. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software After the winter shutdown minor hardware problems in several subsystems appeared and were corrected. A reassessment of the overall latency has been made. In the TTC system shorter cables between TTCci and TTCex have been installed, which saved one bunch crossing, but which may have required an adjustment of the RPC timing. In order to tackle Pixel out-of-syncs without influencing other subsystems, a special hardware/firmware re-sync protocol has been introduced in the Global Trigger. The link between the Global Calorimeter Trigger and the Global Trigger with the new optical Global Trigger Interface and optical receiver daughterboards has been successfully tested in the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. New firmware in the GCT now allows a setting to remove the HF towers from energy sums. The HF sleeves have been replaced, which should lead to reduced rates of anomalous signals, which may allow their inclusion after this is validated. For ECAL, improvements i...

  15. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Overall the L1 trigger hardware has been running very smoothly during the last months of proton running. Modifications for the heavy-ion run have been made where necessary. The maximal design rate of 100 kHz can be sustained without problems. All L1 latencies have been rechecked. The recently installed Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) are being used in the heavy ion run. The ZDC scintillators have been dismantled, but the calorimeter itself remains. We now send the L1 accept signal and other control signals to TOTEM. Trigger cables from TOTEM to CMS will be installed during the Christmas shutdown, so that the TOTEM data can be fully integrated within the CMS readout. New beam gas triggers have been developed, since the BSC-based trigger is no longer usable at high luminosities. In particular, a special BPTX signal is used after a quiet period with no collisions. There is an ongoing campaign to provide enough spare modules for the different subsystems. For example...

  16. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Alimena

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Strategy Group The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for the development of future High-Level Trigger menus, as well as of its DQM and validation, in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Taking into account the beam energy and luminosity expected in 2015, a rough estimate of the trigger rates indicates a factor four increase with respect to 2012 conditions. Assuming that a factor two can be tolerated thanks to the increase in offline storage and processing capabilities, a toy menu has been developed using the new OpenHLT workflow to estimate the transverse energy/momentum thresholds that would halve the current trigger rates. The CPU time needed to run the HLT has been compared between data taken with 25 ns and 50 ns bunch spacing, for equivalent pile-up: no significant difference was observed on the global time per event distribution at the only available data point, corresponding to a pile-up of about 10 interactions. Using th...

  17. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware The CERN group is working on the TTC system. Seven out of nine sub-detector TTC VME crates with all fibers cabled are installed in USC55. 17 Local Trigger Controller (LTC) boards have been received from production and are in the process of being tested. The RF2TTC module replacing the TTCmi machine interface has been delivered and will replace the TTCci module used to mimic the LHC clock. 11 out of 12 crates housing the barrel ECAL off-detector electronics have been installed in USC55 after commissioning at the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. The cabling to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) is terminated. The Lisbon group has completed the Synchronization and Link mezzanine board (SLB) production. The Palaiseau group has fully tested and installed 33 out of 40 Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC). The seven remaining boards are being remade. The barrel TCC boards have been tested at the H4 test beam, and good agreement with emulator predictions were found. The cons...

  18. The trigger matters: The decision-making process for heating systems in the residential building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecher, Maria; Hatzl, Stefanie; Knoeri, Christof; Posch, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    As heat demand of buildings accounts for a significant amount of final energy use and related carbon emissions, it’s important to gain insights into the homeowners’ decision-making processes and to identify factors determining the choice of heating systems. In this study, data was collected in an online survey carried out in 2015, from private homeowners of existing and newly built single and double-family houses in Austria who had invested in a new heating system within the last ten years (N=484). In contrast to previous studies, this study specifically investigates the triggers behind homeowner decisions to invest in a new heating system (e.g. problem, opportunity, or new building situation). Results of binary logistic regression analysis show that subsidies for heating system tabinvestments and infrastructural adjustments reveal to be most effective for homeowners in problem situations to foster alternative heating systems. For homeowners in opportunity situations (e.g. building refurbishment), in addition operational convenience appears to be important. For new buildings, the main barriers for alternative heating system adoption were found in the positive perception of fuel supply security and feasibility of fossil systems. Thus, the use of trigger-specific policy measures is proposed to foster alternative heating systems in the residential building sector. - Highlights: • Homeowners’ triggers determine heating system adoption decisions. • It is crucial to reach homeowners early enough to avoid problem situations. • For problem-triggered homeowners, subsidies are most effective. • Opportunity-triggered homeowners prefer alternative heating systems. • Opportunity-triggered homeowners need solid decision basis for technology comparison.

  19. Efficient, reliable and fast high-level triggering using a bonsai boosted decision tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gligorov, V V; Williams, M

    2013-01-01

    High-level triggering is a vital component of many modern particle physics experiments. This paper describes a modification to the standard boosted decision tree (BDT) classifier, the so-called bonsai BDT, that has the following important properties: it is more efficient than traditional cut-based approaches; it is robust against detector instabilities, and it is very fast. Thus, it is fit-for-purpose for the online running conditions faced by any large-scale data acquisition system.

  20. Boosted decision trees in the CMS Level-1 endcap muon trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Low, Jia Fu; Busch, Elena Laura; Carnes, Andrew Mathew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei; Kotov, Khristian; Madorsky, Alexander; Rorie, Jamal Tildon; Scurlock, Bobby; Shi, Wei; Acosta, Darin Edward

    2017-01-01

    The first implementation of Boosted Decision Trees (BDTs) inside a Level-1 trigger system at the LHC is presented. The Endcap Muon Track Finder (EMTF) at CMS uses BDTs to infer the momentum of muons in the forward region of the detector, based on 25 different variables. Combinations of these variables are evaluated offline using regression BDTs, whose output is stored in 1.2 GB look-up tables (LUTs) in the EMTF hardware. These BDTs take advantage of complex correlations between variables, the inhomogeneous magnetic field, and non-linear effects such as inelastic scattering to distinguish high-momentum signal muons from the overwhelming low-momentum background. The LUTs are used to turn the complex BDT evaluation into a simple look-up operation in fixed low latency. The new momentum assignment algorithm has reduced the trigger rate by a factor of 3 at the 25 GeV trigger threshold with respect to the legacy system, with further improvements foreseen in the coming year.

  1. Real-time track-less Cherenkov ring fitting trigger system based on Graphics Processing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cretaro, P.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Piccini, M.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2017-12-01

    The parallel computing power of commercial Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) is exploited to perform real-time ring fitting at the lowest trigger level using information coming from the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector of the NA62 experiment at CERN. To this purpose, direct GPU communication with a custom FPGA-based board has been used to reduce the data transmission latency. The GPU-based trigger system is currently integrated in the experimental setup of the RICH detector of the NA62 experiment, in order to reconstruct ring-shaped hit patterns. The ring-fitting algorithm running on GPU is fed with raw RICH data only, with no information coming from other detectors, and is able to provide more complex trigger primitives with respect to the simple photodetector hit multiplicity, resulting in a higher selection efficiency. The performance of the system for multi-ring Cherenkov online reconstruction obtained during the NA62 physics run is presented.

  2. End-of-life decisions in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Irene

    2012-01-01

    be interdisciplinary, but the literature shows that this is not always the case. Research on end-of-life issues in Danish ICUs is limited. Aim The aims of this thesis were to • Examine Danish practices regarding end-of-life decisions in the ICU. • Examine the opinions of nurses and physicians who work in Danish ICUs...... and decision-making. Hypotheses • Nurses, intensivists, and primary physicians have different experiences of interdisciplinary collaboration regarding end-of-life decision-making in the ICU. • Specific interventions targeting end-of-life decision-making in the ICU, such as interdisciplinary audits......Background When making end-of-life decisions in intensive care units, the different staff groups have different roles in the decision-making process and may not always assess the situation identically. Practice recommendations for withholding or withdrawing therapy state that decisions should...

  3. Risk-based decision analysis for groundwater operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonte, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This document proposes a streamlined approach and methodology for performing risk assessment in support of interim remedial measure (IRM) decisions involving the remediation of contaminated groundwater on the Hanford Site. This methodology, referred to as ''risk-based decision analysis,'' also supports the specification of target cleanup volumes and provides a basis for design and operation of the groundwater remedies. The risk-based decision analysis can be completed within a short time frame and concisely documented. The risk-based decision analysis is more versatile than the qualitative risk assessment (QRA), because it not only supports the need for IRMs, but also provides criteria for defining the success of the IRMs and provides the risk-basis for decisions on final remedies. For these reasons, it is proposed that, for groundwater operable units, the risk-based decision analysis should replace the more elaborate, costly, and time-consuming QRA

  4. First Operational Experience with the LHC Beam Dump Trigger Synchronisation Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, A; Magnin, N; Juteau, P; Voumard, N

    2011-01-01

    Two LHC Beam Dumping Systems (LBDS) remove the counter-rotating beams safely from the collider during setting up of the accelerator, at the end of a physics run and in case of emergencies. Dump requests can come from 3 different sources: the machine protection system in emergency cases, the machine timing system for scheduled dumps or the LBDS itself in case of internal failures. These dump requests are synchronized with the 3 μs beam abort gap in a fail-safe redundant Trigger Synchronization Unit (TSU) based on a Digital Phase Locked Loop (DPLL), locked onto the LHC beam revolution frequency with a maximum phase error of 40 ns. The synchronized trigger pulses coming out of the TSU are then distributed to the high voltage generators of the beam dump kickers through a redundant fault-tolerant trigger distribution system. This paper describes the operational experience gained with the TSU since its commissioning with beam in 2009, and highlights the improvements, which have been implemented f...

  5. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  6. Decision conflict and regret among surrogate decision makers in the medical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jesse J; Morris, Peter; Files, D Clark; Gower, Emily; Young, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Family members of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit face significant morbidity. It may be the decision-making process that plays a significant role in the psychological morbidity associated with being a surrogate in the ICU. We hypothesize that family members facing end-of-life decisions will have more decisional conflict and decisional regret than those facing non-end-of-life decisions. We enrolled a sample of adult patients and their surrogates in a tertiary care, academic medical intensive care unit. We queried the surrogates regarding decisions they had made on behalf of the patient and assessed decision conflict. We then contacted the family member again to assess decision regret. Forty (95%) of 42 surrogates were able to identify at least 1 decision they had made on behalf of the patient. End-of-life decisions (defined as do not resuscitate [DNR]/do not intubate [DNI] or continuation of life support) accounted for 19 of 40 decisions (47.5%). Overall, the average Decision Conflict Scale (DCS) score was 21.9 of 100 (range 0-100, with 0 being little decisional conflict and 100 being great decisional conflict). The average DCS score for families facing end-of-life decisions was 25.5 compared with 18.7 for all other decisions. Those facing end-of-life decisions scored higher on the uncertainty subscale (subset of DCS questions that indicates level of certainty regarding decision) with a mean score of 43.4 compared with all other decisions with a mean score of 27.0. Overall, very few surrogates experienced decisional regret with an average DRS score of 13.4 of 100. Nearly all surrogates enrolled were faced with decision-making responsibilities on behalf of his or her critically ill family member. In our small pilot study, we found more decisional conflict in those surrogates facing end-of-life decisions, specifically on the subset of questions dealing with uncertainty. Surrogates report low levels of decisional regret. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  7. Record of Decision for the Ford Building Waste Unit (643-11G) Operable Unit; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, S.

    2002-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial for the Ford Building Waste Unit (FBWU), in Aiken, South Carolina, which was chosen in accordance with CERCLA, as amended by SARA, and, to the extent practical, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA site

  8. Readout Unit-FPGA version for link multipexers, DAQ and VELO trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, H; Guirao, A; Bal, F

    2003-01-01

    The FPGA-based Readout Unit (RU) was designed as entry stage to the readout networks of the LHCb data acquisition and L1-VELO topology trigger systems. The RU performs subevent building from up to 16 custom S-link inputs towards a commercial readout network via a PCI interface card. For output to custom links, as required in datalink multiplexer applications, an output S-link transmitter interface is alternatively available. Baseline readout networks for the RU are intelligent Gbit-ethernet NIC cards for the DAQ system and SCI shared memory network for the L1-VELO system. Any new protocols, like 10Gbit ethernet or Infiniband may be adopted as far as proper PCI interfaces and Linux device drivers will become available. The two baseline RU modes of operation are: 1.) link-multiplexer with N*Slink to single-Slink 2.) eventbuilder interface with quad Slink-to-PCI network interface.

  9. Improving family satisfaction and participation in decision making in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffines, Meredith; Johnson, Karen L; Smitz Naranjo, Linda L; Lissauer, Matthew E; Fishel, Marmie Ann-Michelle; D'Angelo Howes, Susan M; Pannullo, Diane; Ralls, Mindy; Smith, Ruth

    2013-10-01

    Background Survey data revealed that families of patients in a surgical intensive care unit were not satisfied with their participation in decision making or with how well the multidisciplinary team worked together. Objectives To develop and implement an evidence-based communication algorithm and evaluate its effect in improving satisfaction among patients' families. Methods A multidisciplinary team developed an algorithm that included bundles of communication interventions at 24, 72, and 96 hours after admission to the unit. The algorithm included clinical triggers, which if present escalated the algorithm. A pre-post design using process improvement methods was used to compare families' satisfaction scores before and after implementation of the algorithm. Results Satisfaction scores for participation in decision making (45% vs 68%; z = -2.62, P = .009) and how well the health care team worked together (64% vs 83%; z = -2.10, P = .04) improved significantly after implementation. Conclusions Use of an evidence-based structured communication algorithm may be a way to improve satisfaction of families of intensive care patients with their participation in decision making and their perception of how well the unit's team works together.

  10. Confirmation of the extraterrestrial forces decisive effect on earthquake triggering and lithospheric plates movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrihansky, L.; Kalenda, P.

    2012-04-01

    In contrast to unsuccessful searching for biweekly tides earthquakes triggering the Earth's rotation variations give the unambiguous answer that the extreme positions of the Earth's acceleration and deceleration trigger earthquakes. In addition to it, an important repetition of earthquakes with 19 years period of the Meton's cycle and nutation has been found. Further, it has been found that the continental heating by the Sun and formation of the thermoelastic wave is an important factor of affecting of the Earth's surface and the plate movement. For this the special static vertical pendulum serves with the optimum length of several tens of meters, which after its refinement will be an important instrument for confirmation of stated claims. This problem is so far important that the scientific community advocates an opinion that earthquakes are caused by fluently acting forces in the Earth's interior, i.e. by forces causing absolutely unpredictable disturbances of the Earth' crust. This work is in outstanding interest of the European Union because the volcanic eruptions in Iceland, till now unpredictable, disturb the air-traffic in Europe in spite that just earthquakes in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge show unequivocal earthquake triggering in rhythm of the Earth's rotation variations.

  11. Multi­-Threaded Algorithms for General purpose Graphics Processor Units in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Conde Mui\\~no, Patricia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    General purpose Graphics Processor Units (GPGPU) are being evaluated for possible future inclusion in an upgraded ATLAS High Level Trigger farm. We have developed a demonstrator including GPGPU implementations of Inner Detector and Muon tracking and Calorimeter clustering within the ATLAS software framework. ATLAS is a general purpose particle physics experiment located on the LHC collider at CERN. The ATLAS Trigger system consists of two levels, with level 1 implemented in hardware and the High Level Trigger implemented in software running on a farm of commodity CPU. The High Level Trigger reduces the trigger rate from the 100 kHz level 1 acceptance rate to 1 kHz for recording, requiring an average per­-event processing time of ~250 ms for this task. The selection in the high level trigger is based on reconstructing tracks in the Inner Detector and Muon Spectrometer and clusters of energy deposited in the Calorimeter. Performing this reconstruction within the available farm resources presents a significant ...

  12. Continuous quality improvement for the clinical decision unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Sharon E

    2004-01-01

    Clinical decision units (CDUs) are a relatively new and growing area of medicine in which patients undergo rapid evaluation and treatment. Continuous quality improvement (CQI) is important for the establishment and functioning of CDUs. CQI in CDUs has many advantages: better CDU functioning, fulfillment of Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations mandates, greater efficiency/productivity, increased job satisfaction, better performance improvement, data availability, and benchmarking. Key elements include a database with volume indicators, operational policies, clinical practice protocols (diagnosis specific/condition specific), monitors, benchmarks, and clinical pathways. Examples of these important parameters are given. The CQI process should be individualized for each CDU and hospital.

  13. Managing emotions in situations of suffering – how do we manage negative emotions when they are triggered by our personal decision?

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga-Branco, Augusta; Correia, Ana Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Managing Emotions as an Emotional Intelligence capacity (Mayer-Salovey, 1997) has presented a significant correlation with Emotional Competence (r=.679; α=.68) and (r=.69.5; α=.80) (Veiga-Branco, 2004; 2007) in previous quantitative studies. This study contribute to explain how Managing of Negative Emotions occurs, but, only caused by personal decisions. Aim: To acknowledge the causes and consequences of Negative Emotions Management when triggered by personal decisions. M...

  14. A Decision Support System for the Location of Naval Surface Reserve Units

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Venable, Laura

    1998-01-01

    .... The research suggests the feasibility of a PC based Decision Support System to assist Commander, Naval Surface Reserve Force improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the unit location decision...

  15. Recruitment of motor units in the medial gastrocnemius muscle during human quiet standing: is recruitment intermittent? What triggers recruitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Taian M M; Loram, Ian D; Muceli, Silvia; Merletti, Roberto; Farina, Dario

    2012-01-01

    The recruitment and the rate of discharge of motor units are determinants of muscle force. Within a motoneuron pool, recruitment and rate coding of individual motor units might be controlled independently, depending on the circumstances. In this study, we tested whether, during human quiet standing, the force of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle is predominantly controlled by recruitment or rate coding. If MG control during standing was mainly due to recruitment, then we further asked what the trigger mechanism is. Is it determined internally, or is it related to body kinematics? While seven healthy subjects stood quietly, intramuscular electromyograms were recorded from the MG muscle with three pairs of wire electrodes. The number of active motor units and their mean discharge rate were compared for different sway velocities and positions. Motor unit discharges occurred more frequently when the body swayed faster and forward (Pearson R = 0.63; P motor unit potentials was explained chiefly by the recruitment of additional units. During forward body shifts, the median number of units detected increased from 3 to 11 (P motor units did not discharge continuously throughout standing. They were recruited within individual, forward sways and intermittently, with a modal rate of two recruitments per second. This modal rate is consistent with previous circumstantial evidence relating the control of standing to an intrinsic, higher level planning process.

  16. A full ranking for decision making units using ideal and anti-ideal points in DEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegarinegad, A; Jahanshahloo, G; Rostamy-Malkhalifeh, M

    2014-01-01

    We propose a procedure for ranking decision making units in data envelopment analysis, based on ideal and anti-ideal points in the production possibility set. Moreover, a model has been introduced to compute the performance of a decision making unit for these two points through using common set of weights. One of the best privileges of this method is that we can make ranking for all decision making units by solving only three programs, and also solving these programs is not related to numbers of decision making units. One of the other advantages of this procedure is to rank all the extreme and nonextreme efficient decision making units. In other words, the suggested ranking method tends to seek a set of common weights for all units to make them fully ranked. Finally, it was applied for different sets holding real data, and then it can be compared with other procedures.

  17. The third level trigger and output event unit of the UA1 data-acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cittolin, S.; Demoulin, M.; Fucci, A.; Haynes, W.; Martin, B.; Porte, J.P.; Sphicas, P.

    1989-01-01

    The upgraded UA1 experiment utilizes twelve 3081/E emulators for its third-level trigger system. The system is interfaced to VME, and is controlled by 68000 microprocessor VME boards on the input and output. The output controller communicates with an IBM 9375 mainframe via the CERN-IBM developed VICI interface. The events selected by the emulators are output on IBM-3480 cassettes. The usder interface to this system is based on a series of Macintosh personal computers connected to the VME bus. These Macs are also used for developing software for the emulators and for monitoring the entire system. The same configuration has also been used for offline event reconstruction. A description of the system, together with details of both the online and offline modes of operation and an evaluation of its performance are presented. (orig.)

  18. The third level trigger and output event unit of the UA1 data-acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cittolin, S.; Demoulin, M.; Fucci, A.; Haynes, W.; Martin, B.; Porte, J. P.; Sphicas, P.

    1989-12-01

    The upgraded UA1 experiment utilizes twelve 3081/E emulators for its third-level trigger system. The system is interfaced to VME, and is controlled by 68000 microprocessor VME boards on the input and output. The output controller communicates with an IBM 9375 mainframe via the CERN-IBM developed VICI interface. The events selected by the emulators are output on IBM-3480 cassettes. The user interface to this system is based on a series of Macintosh personal computer connected to the VME bus. These Macs are also used for developing software for the emulators and for monitoring the entire system. The same configuration has also been used for offline event reconstruction. A description of the system, together with details of both the online and offline modes of operation and an eveluation of its performance are presented.

  19. Coordinating Information and Decisions of Hierarchical Distributed Decision Units in Crises

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rose, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    A program of research is described. The research addressed decision making by distributed decision makers using either consensus or leader structures and confronted by both routine tasks and different kinds of information system crisis...

  20. A Legal and Ethical Analysis of the Effects of Triggering Conditions on Surrogate Decision-Making in End-of-Life Care in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clint Parker, J; Goldberg, Daniel S

    2016-03-01

    The central claim of this paper is that American states' use of so-called "triggering conditions" to regulate surrogate decision-making authority in end-of-life care leaves unresolved a number of important ethical and legal considerations regarding the scope of that authority. The paper frames the issue with a case set in a jurisdiction in which surrogate authority to withdraw life-sustaining treatment is triggered by two specific clinical conditions. The case presents a quandary insofar as the clinical facts do not satisfy the triggering conditions, and yet both the appropriate surrogates and the care team agree that withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment is in the best interest of the patient. The paper surveys applicable law across the 50 states and weighs the arguments for and against the inclusion of such triggering conditions in relevant legal regimes. The paper concludes by assessing the various legal and policy options states have for regulating surrogate decision-making authority in light of the moral considerations (including epistemic difficulties), and notes the possibility for conflict within ethics teams arising from the potential tension between prudence, risk-aversion, and moral obligation.

  1. Consumer behavior toward online purchasing behavior : “What factors trigger the online purchasing decision of young Swedish consumer?”

    OpenAIRE

    Thienmongkol, Kaorat; Thaisuntad, Pongsatorn

    2009-01-01

    Program: MIMA student – International Marketing Course name: Master Thesis (EFO705) Title: Consumer behavior toward online purchasing behavior Authors: Kaorat ThienmongkolPongsatorn Thaisuntad Supervisor: Daniel Tolstoy Problem: “What factors trigger the online purchasing decision of young SwedishConsumer?” Purpose: The purpose of this report is to study the insights about the factors that triggerpurchasing behavior of young Swedish consumer to shopping on the internet.The result will enable ...

  2. Diagnosing barriers to make strategic decisions in manufacturing business units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadali Shah Housseini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the transition from the old economic model to the global village constituting patterns, different functional requirements are needed. In other words, for success in the modern production management, strategic decisions must create the conditions for taking new systems for enterprises and create conditions for the competitiveness of manufacturing firms. This paper presents a survey on diagnosing barriers to make strategic decisions in a manufacturing firm named Pakshoo company in city of Tehran, Iran. The study tries to find the obstacles for the implementation of strategic decisions in this firm. The study determines 14 different factors influencing on the development of strategic planning and using analytical hierarchy process, prioritize them, accordingly. In our survey, behavioral factors are considered as the most important factors followed by structural and context issues.

  3. Energy security and climate change concerns: Triggers for energy policy change in the United States?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Guri, E-mail: guri.bang@cicero.uio.n [CICERO - Center for International Climate and Environmental Research Oslo, P.O. Box 1129, 0318 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-04-15

    Why is it so difficult to change the energy policy status quo away from dependence on fossil fuels when the need to become less dependent on imported oil seems to be generally accepted by US politicians? In recent energy debates in the House and Senate, references to climate change and energy security were frequently used as a rationale for the need for energy policy change. But policymakers were not in agreement about what policy programs would be the best alternative or what goals the programs were to achieve in terms of addressing energy security or climate change, or both at the same time. The paper explores whether putting energy security and climate change on the decision making agenda simultaneously helped craft a political compromise in the 110th Congress-the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and points out how the political institutions of the US structured interaction and affected policy outcome, and ultimately the chance of changing the energy policy status quo.

  4. Energy security and climate change concerns. Triggers for energy policy change in the United States?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Guri [CICERO - Center for International Climate and Environmental Research Oslo, P.O. Box 1129, 0318 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-04-15

    Why is it so difficult to change the energy policy status quo away from dependence on fossil fuels when the need to become less dependent on imported oil seems to be generally accepted by US politicians? In recent energy debates in the House and Senate, references to climate change and energy security were frequently used as a rationale for the need for energy policy change. But policymakers were not in agreement about what policy programs would be the best alternative or what goals the programs were to achieve in terms of addressing energy security or climate change, or both at the same time. The paper explores whether putting energy security and climate change on the decision making agenda simultaneously helped craft a political compromise in the 110th Congress - the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and points out how the political institutions of the US structured interaction and affected policy outcome, and ultimately the chance of changing the energy policy status quo. (author)

  5. Energy security and climate change concerns: Triggers for energy policy change in the United States?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Guri

    2010-01-01

    Why is it so difficult to change the energy policy status quo away from dependence on fossil fuels when the need to become less dependent on imported oil seems to be generally accepted by US politicians? In recent energy debates in the House and Senate, references to climate change and energy security were frequently used as a rationale for the need for energy policy change. But policymakers were not in agreement about what policy programs would be the best alternative or what goals the programs were to achieve in terms of addressing energy security or climate change, or both at the same time. The paper explores whether putting energy security and climate change on the decision making agenda simultaneously helped craft a political compromise in the 110th Congress-the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and points out how the political institutions of the US structured interaction and affected policy outcome, and ultimately the chance of changing the energy policy status quo.

  6. Culture and medical decision making: Healthcare consumer perspectives in Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Dana L; Friend, John M; Lee, Angela Y; de Vries, Marieke; Osawa, Ryosuke; Chen, Qimei

    2015-12-01

    Two studies identified core value influences on medical decision-making processes across and within cultures. In Study 1, Japanese and American adults reported desired levels of medical decision-making influence across conditions that varied in seriousness. Cultural antecedents (interdependence, independence, and power distance) were also measured. In Study 2, American adults reviewed a colorectal cancer screening decision aid. Decision preparedness was measured along with interdependence, independence, and desire for medical information. In Study 1, higher interdependence predicted stronger desire for decision-making information in both countries, but was significantly stronger in Japan. The path from information desire to decision-making influence desire was significant only in Japan. The independence path to desire for decision-making influence was significant only in the United States. Power distance effects negatively predicted desire for decision-making influence only in the United States. For Study 2, high (low) interdependents and women (men) in the United States felt that a colorectal cancer screening decision aid helped prepare them more (less) for a medical consultation. Low interdependent men were at significantly higher risk for low decision preparedness. Study 1 suggests that Japanese participants may tend to view medical decision-making influence as an interdependent, information sharing exchange, whereas American respondents may be more interested in power sharing that emphasizes greater independence. Study 2 demonstrates the need to assess value influences on medical decision-making processes within and across cultures and suggests that individually tailored versions of decision aids may optimize decision preparedness. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Reconsidering information management roles and capabilities in disaster response decision-making units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharosa, N.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    When disaster strikes, the emerging task environment requires relief agencies to transform from autonomous mono-disciplinary organizations into interdependent multidisciplinary decision-making units. Evaluation studies reveal that adaptation of information management to the changing task environment

  8. Complexity perspectives on clinical decision making in an intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bock, Ben A.; Willems, Dick L.; Weinstein, Henry C.

    2017-01-01

    How to clarify the implications of complexity thinking for decision making in the intensive care unit (ICU)? Retrospective qualitative empirical research. Practitioners in an ICU were interviewed on how their decisions were made regarding a particular patient in a difficult, clinical situation.

  9. Multi-unit price promotions and their impact on purchase decisions and sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drechsler, Salome; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Natter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to compare the impact of different multi-unit promotions (MUPs) and a single-unit promotion (SUP) on store-level sales and consumer-level purchase probability and quantity decision. Design/methodology/approach - The paper combines two empirical studies. Study 1

  10. Family members' informal roles in end-of-life decision making in adult intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jill R; Schmitt, Madeline; Baggs, Judith Gedney; Norton, Sally A; Dombeck, Mary T; Sellers, Craig R

    2012-01-01

    To support the process of effective family decision making, it is important to recognize and understand informal roles that various family members may play in the end-of-life decision-making process. To describe some informal roles consistently enacted by family members involved in the process of end-of-life decision making in intensive care units. Ethnographic study. Data were collected via participant observation with field notes and semistructured interviews on 4 intensive care units in an academic health center in the mid-Atlantic United States from 2001 to 2004. The units studied were a medical, a surgical, a burn and trauma, and a cardiovascular intensive care unit. Health care clinicians, patients, and family members. Informal roles for family members consistently observed were primary caregiver, primary decision maker, family spokesperson, out-of-towner, patient's wishes expert, protector, vulnerable member, and health care expert. The identified informal roles were part of families' decision-making processes, and each role was part of a potentially complicated family dynamic for end-of-life decision making within the family system and between the family and health care domains. These informal roles reflect the diverse responses to demands for family decision making in what is usually a novel and stressful situation. Identification and description of these informal roles of family members can help clinicians recognize and understand the functions of these roles in families' decision making at the end of life and guide development of strategies to support and facilitate increased effectiveness of family discussions and decision-making processes.

  11. Decision on the fifth nuclear unit in Finland - 17 years of decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santaholma, Juhani [Perusvoima Oy (Finland)

    1993-07-01

    This paper shows the process of decision making on the fifth nuclear power plants in Finland that took 17 years. The opinion polls show that about 50% of the Finns are opposing the construction of the fifth NPP, 30% are in favour and 20% don't know or have no firm opinion. This situation has lasted for more than two years. The opinion of the Finnish industry and power utilities is, however, that if the decision makers have courage to make positive decision it will not lead to a revolution in Finland. The industry and the utilities have for many years done systematic work with the media, both the press and the electronic. The media debate has been rather low key reporting, but any incidents get a lot of space, especially events at the Russian and Baltic plants near the Finnish borders. There is a constant flow of reporting from Chernobyl and Chelyabinsk and other questionable Russian facilities in the Finnish media. The five Swedish reactors shut-down for repair have been widely reported. It also seems that false reports and articles in the leading international media, press and TV, find their way to Finnish media, as well. In other respects, the media climate in Finland is rather businesslike. It is evident that the sensational TV programmes have an effect on the Finnish nuclear opinion, both within the public and the political decision makers. The antinuclear lobbying in Finland is rather low key. There has been no big demonstrations as the ordinary people do not participate in them. The nuclear opponents have, however, a well working and sympathy arousing organization within the political parties and to a limited extend within the media. They also work in a very professional way in the environmental voluntary organizations. The politically, the industry is waiting for positive signals from the Government. The nuclear decision is considered as one of the most important in this respect. the situation is rather complex, but the industry and the utilities are

  12. Decision on the fifth nuclear unit in Finland - 17 years of decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaholma, Juhani

    1993-01-01

    This paper shows the process of decision making on the fifth nuclear power plants in Finland that took 17 years. The opinion polls show that about 50% of the Finns are opposing the construction of the fifth NPP, 30% are in favour and 20% don't know or have no firm opinion. This situation has lasted for more than two years. The opinion of the Finnish industry and power utilities is, however, that if the decision makers have courage to make positive decision it will not lead to a revolution in Finland. The industry and the utilities have for many years done systematic work with the media, both the press and the electronic. The media debate has been rather low key reporting, but any incidents get a lot of space, especially events at the Russian and Baltic plants near the Finnish borders. There is a constant flow of reporting from Chernobyl and Chelyabinsk and other questionable Russian facilities in the Finnish media. The five Swedish reactors shut-down for repair have been widely reported. It also seems that false reports and articles in the leading international media, press and TV, find their way to Finnish media, as well. In other respects, the media climate in Finland is rather businesslike. It is evident that the sensational TV programmes have an effect on the Finnish nuclear opinion, both within the public and the political decision makers. The antinuclear lobbying in Finland is rather low key. There has been no big demonstrations as the ordinary people do not participate in them. The nuclear opponents have, however, a well working and sympathy arousing organization within the political parties and to a limited extend within the media. They also work in a very professional way in the environmental voluntary organizations. The politically, the industry is waiting for positive signals from the Government. The nuclear decision is considered as one of the most important in this respect. the situation is rather complex, but the industry and the utilities are

  13. Clinical decision making on the use of physical restraint in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqian Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical restraint is a common nursing intervention in intensive care units and nurses often use it to ensure patients' safety and to prevent unexpected accidents. However, existing literature indicated that the use of physical restraint is a complex one because of inadequate rationales, the negative physical and emotional effects on patients, but the lack of perceived alternatives. This paper is aimed to interpret the clinical decision-making theories related to the use of physical restraint in intensive care units in order to facilitate our understanding on the use of physical restraint and to evaluate the quality of decisions made by nurses. By reviewing the literature, intuition and heuristics are the main decision-making strategies related to the use of physical restraint in intensive care units because the rapid and reflexive nature of intuition and heuristics allow nurses to have a rapid response to urgent and emergent cases. However, it is problematic if nurses simply count their decision-making on experience rather than incorporate research evidence into clinical practice because of inadequate evidence to support the use of physical restraint. Besides that, such a rapid response may lead nurses to make decisions without adequate assessment and thinking and therefore biases and errors may be generated. Therefore, despite the importance of intuition and heuristics in decision-making in acute settings on the use of physical restraint, it is recommended that nurses should incorporate research evidence with their experience to make decisions and adequate assessment before implementing physical restraint is also necessary.

  14. Hierarchical trigger of the ALICE calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Hans; Novitzky, Norbert; Kral, Jiri; Rak, Jan; Schambach, Joachim; Wang, Ya-Ping; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Daicui

    2010-01-01

    The trigger of the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeters is implemented in 2 hierarchically connected layers of electronics. In the lower layer, level-0 algorithms search shower energy above threshold in locally confined Trigger Region Units (TRU). The top layer is implemented as a single, global trigger unit that receives the trigger data from all TRUs as input to the level-1 algorithm. This architecture was first developed for the PHOS high pT photon trigger before it was adopted by EMCal also for the jet trigger. TRU units digitize up to 112 analogue input signals from the Front End Electronics (FEE) and concentrate their digital stream in a single FPGA. A charge and time summing algorithm is combined with a peakfinder that suppresses spurious noise and is precise to single LHC bunches. With a peak-to-peak noise level of 150 MeV the linear dynamic range above threshold spans from MIP energies at 215 up to 50 GeV. Local level-0 decisions take less than 600 ns after LHC collisions, upon which all TRUs transfer ...

  15. Patient Preferences and Surrogate Decision Making in Neuroscience Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xuemei; Robinson, Jennifer; Muehlschlegel, Susanne; White, Douglas B.; Holloway, Robert G.; Sheth, Kevin N.; Fraenkel, Liana; Hwang, David Y.

    2016-01-01

    In the neuroscience intensive care unit (NICU), most patients lack the capacity to make their own preferences known. This fact leads to situations where surrogate decision makers must fill the role of the patient in terms of making preference-based treatment decisions, oftentimes in challenging situations where prognosis is uncertain. The neurointensivist has a large responsibility and role to play in this shared decision making process. This review covers how NICU patient preferences are determined through existing advance care documentation or surrogate decision makers and how the optimum roles of the physician and surrogate decision maker are addressed. We outline the process of reaching a shared decision between family and care team and describe a practice for conducting optimum family meetings based on studies of ICU families in crisis. We review challenges in the decision making process between surrogate decision makers and medical teams in neurocritical care settings, as well as methods to ameliorate conflicts. Ultimately, the goal of shared decision making is to increase knowledge amongst surrogates and care providers, decrease decisional conflict, promote realistic expectations and preference-centered treatment strategies, and lift the emotional burden on families of neurocritical care patients. PMID:25990137

  16. Recent Patterns in Shared Decision Making for Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Stacey A; Gansler, Ted; Smith, Robert; Sauer, Ann Goding; Wender, Richard; Brawley, Otis W; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies report infrequent use of shared decision making for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. It is unknown whether this pattern has changed recently considering increased emphasis on shared decision making in prostate cancer screening recommendations. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine recent changes in shared decision making. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study among men aged 50 years and older in the United States using 2010 and 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data (n = 9,598). Changes in receipt of shared decision making were expressed as adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Analyses were stratified on PSA testing (recent [in the past year] or no testing). Elements of shared decision making assessed included the patient being informed about the advantages only, advantages and disadvantages, and full shared decision making (advantages, disadvantages, and uncertainties). Among men with recent PSA testing, 58.5% and 62.6% reported having received ≥1 element of shared decision making in 2010 and 2015, respectively ( P = .054, aPR = 1.04; 95% CI, 0.98-1.11). Between 2010 and 2015, being told only about the advantages of PSA testing significantly declined (aPR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71-0.96) and full shared decision making prevalence significantly increased (aPR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.28-1.79) in recently tested men. Among men without prior PSA testing, 10% reported ≥1 element of shared decision making, which did not change with time. Between 2010 and 2015, there was no increase in shared decision making among men with recent PSA testing though there was a shift away from only being told about the advantages of PSA testing towards full shared decision making. Many men receiving PSA testing did not receive shared decision making. © 2018 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  17. Communication of bed allocation decisions in a critical care unit and accountability for reasonableness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swota Alissa H

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communication may affect perceptions of fair process for intensive care unit bed allocation decisions through its impact on the publicity condition of accountability for reasonableness. Methods We performed a qualitative case study to describe participant perceptions of the communication of bed allocation decisions in an 18-bed university affiliated, medical-surgical critical care unit at Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre. Interviewed participants were 3 critical care physicians, 4 clinical fellows in critical care, 4 resource nurses, 4 "end-users" (physicians who commonly referred patients to the unit, and 3 members of the administrative staff. Median bed occupancy during the study period (Jan-April 2003 was 18/18; daily admissions and discharges (median were 3. We evaluated our description using the ethical framework "accountability for reasonableness" (A4R to identify opportunities for improvement. Results The critical care physician, resource nurse, critical care fellow and end-users (trauma team leader, surgeons, neurosurgeons, anesthesiologists functioned independently in unofficial "parallel tracks" of bed allocation decision-making; this conflicted with the official designation of the critical care physician as the sole authority. Communication between key decision-makers was indirect and could exclude those affected by the decisions; notably, family members. Participants perceived a lack of publicity for bed allocation rationales. Conclusion The publicity condition should be improved for critical care bed allocation decisions. Decision-making in the "parallel tracks" we describe might be unavoidable within usual constraints of time, urgency and demand. Formal guidelines for direct communication between key participants in such circumstances would help to improve the fairness of these decisions.

  18. Communication and Decision-Making About End-of-Life Care in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Laura Anne; Manias, Elizabeth; Nicholson, Patricia

    2017-07-01

    Clinicians in the intensive care unit commonly face decisions involving withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining therapy, which present many clinical and ethical challenges. Communication and shared decision-making are key aspects relating to the transition from active treatment to end-of-life care. To explore the experiences and perspectives of nurses and physicians when initiating end-of-life care in the intensive care unit. The study was conducted in a 24-bed intensive care unit in Melbourne, Australia. An interpretative, qualitative inquiry was used, with focus groups as the data collection method. Intensive care nurses and physicians were recruited to participate in a discipline-specific focus group. Focus group discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and subjected to thematic data analysis. Five focus groups were conducted; 17 nurses and 11 physicians participated. The key aspects discussed included communication and shared decision-making. Themes related to communication included the timing of end-of-life care discussions and conducting difficult conversations. Implementation and multidisciplinary acceptance of end-of-life care plans and collaborative decisions involving patients and families were themes related to shared decision-making. Effective communication and decision-making practices regarding initiating end-of-life care in the intensive care unit are important. Multidisciplinary implementation and acceptance of end-of-life care plans in the intensive care unit need improvement. Clear organizational processes that support the introduction of nurse and physician end-of-life care leaders are essential to optimize outcomes for patients, family members, and clinicians. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  19. Ranking Decision Making Units with Stochastic Data by Using Coefficient of Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Lotfi, F.; Nematollahi, N.; Behzadi, M.H.; Mirbolouki, M.

    2010-01-01

    Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is a non-parametric technique which is based on mathematical programming for evaluating the efficiency of a set of Decision Making Units (DMUs). Throughout applications, managers encounter with stochastic data and the necessity of having a method that is able to evaluate efficiency and rank efficient units has been under consideration. In this paper considering the concept of coefficient of variation among efficient DMUs, two ranking methods has been proposed. ...

  20. Interim action record of decision remedial alternative selection: TNX area groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.R.

    1994-10-01

    This document presents the selected interim remedial action for the TNX Area Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), which was developed in accordance with CERCLA of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific CERCLA unit

  1. Improving efficiency of decision making units through BSC-DEA technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Khaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation is one of the most important techniques to prioritize different decision making units. Data envelopment analysis (DEA, as a non-parametric method, plays an important role for measuring relative efficiency. Balanced score card, on the other hand, is another method to evaluate a business plan based on non-financial perspectives. The integrated BSC-DEA takes advantage of the advantages of both methods' features. In this paper, we propose a BSC-DEA method to rank different decision making units. We consider different financial criteria such as profit-margin, return on assets along with non-financial criteria such as customer satisfaction, advanced services, employee skills to compare the performance of different banks. The results are analyzed and discussed, which could be used for making better decisions.

  2. A decision modeling for phasor measurement unit location selection in smart grid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yup

    As a key technology for enhancing the smart grid system, Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) provides synchronized phasor measurements of voltages and currents of wide-area electric power grid. With various benefits from its application, one of the critical issues in utilizing PMUs is the optimal site selection of units. The main aim of this research is to develop a decision support system, which can be used in resource allocation task for smart grid system analysis. As an effort to suggest a robust decision model and standardize the decision modeling process, a harmonized modeling framework, which considers operational circumstances of component, is proposed in connection with a deterministic approach utilizing integer programming. With the results obtained from the optimal PMU placement problem, the advantages and potential that the harmonized modeling process possesses are assessed and discussed.

  3. Eielson Air Force Base operable unit 2 and other areas record of decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.E.; Smith, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial actions and no action decisions for Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, chosen in accordance with state and federal regulations. This document also presents the decision that no further action is required for 21 other source areas at Eielson AFB. This decision is based on the administrative record file for this site. OU2 addresses sites contaminated by leaks and spills of fuels. Soils contaminated with petroleum products occur at or near the source of contamination. Contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater occur in plumes on the top of a shallow groundwater table that fluctuates seasonally. These sites pose a risk to human health and the environment because of ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. The purpose of this response is to prevent current or future exposure to the contaminated groundwater, to reduce further contaminant migration into the groundwater, and to remediate groundwater

  4. A Descriptive Study of Decision-Making Conversations during Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Family Conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael A; Clayman, Marla L; Frader, Joel; Arenson, Melanie; Haber-Barker, Natalie; Ryan, Claire; Emanuel, Linda; Michelson, Kelly

    2018-06-19

    Little is known about how decision-making conversations occur during pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) family conferences (FCs). Describe the decision-making process and implementation of shared decision making (SDM) during PICU FCs. Observational study. University-based tertiary care PICU, including 31 parents and 94 PICU healthcare professionals involved in FCs. We recorded, transcribed, and analyzed 14 PICU FCs involving decision-making discussions. We used a modified grounded theory and content analysis approach to explore the use of traditionally described stages of decision making (DM) (information exchange, deliberation, and determining a plan). We also identified the presence or absence of predefined SDM elements. DM involved the following modified stages: information exchange; information-oriented deliberation; plan-oriented deliberation; and determining a plan. Conversations progressed through stages in a nonlinear manner. For the main decision discussed, all conferences included a presentation of the clinical issues, treatment alternatives, and uncertainty. A minority of FCs included assessing the family's understanding (21%), assessing the family's need for input from others (28%), exploring the family's desired decision-making role (35%), and eliciting the family's opinion (42%). In the FCs studied, we found that DM is a nonlinear process. We also found that several SDM elements that could provide information about parents' perspectives and needs did not always occur, identifying areas for process improvement.

  5. Effects of reflection on clinical decision-making of intensive care unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razieh, Shahrokhi; Somayeh, Ghafari; Fariba, Haghani

    2018-07-01

    Nurses are one of the most influential factors in overcoming the main challenges faced by health systems throughout the world. Every health system should, hence, empower nurses in clinical judgment and decision-making skills. This study evaluated the effects of implementing Tanner's reflection method on clinical decision-making of nurses working in an intensive care unit (ICU). This study used an experimental, pretest, posttest design. The setting was the intensive care unit of Amin Hospital Isfahan, Iran. The convenience sample included 60 nurses working in the ICU of Amin Hospital (Isfahan, Iran). This clinical trial was performed on 60 nurses working in the ICU of Amin Hospital (Isfahan, Iran). The nurses were selected by census sampling and randomly allocated to either the case or the control group. Data were collected using a questionnaire containing demographic characteristics and the clinical decision-making scale developed by Laurie and Salantera (NDMI-14). The questionnaire was completed before and one week after the intervention. The data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0. The two groups were not significantly different in terms of the level and mean scores of clinical decision-making before the intervention (P = 0.786). Based on the results of independent t-test, the mean score of clinical decision-making one week after the intervention was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.009; t = -2.69). The results of Mann Whitney test showed that one week after the intervention, the nurses' level of clinical decision-making in the case group rose to the next level (P = 0.001). Reflection could improve the clinical decision-making of ICU nurses. It is, thus, recommended to incorporate this method into the nursing curriculum and care practices. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Trigger finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digit; Trigger finger release; Locked finger; Digital flexor tenosynovitis ... cut or hand Yellow or green drainage from the cut Hand pain or discomfort Fever If your trigger finger returns, call your surgeon. You may need another surgery.

  7. A qualitative systematic review of factors influencing parents’ vaccination decision-making in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice S. Forster

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: High uptake of vaccinations is crucial for disease prevention. Although overall uptake of childhood immunisations is high in the United Kingdom (UK, pockets of lower uptake remain. Novel systematic methods have not been employed when reviewing the qualitative literature examining parents’ vaccination decisions. Aims: We aimed to conduct a qualitative systematic review of studies in the UK to understand factors influencing parental decisions to vaccinate a child. Methods: On 12/2/14 we searched PsycINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL plus, Embase, Social Policy and Practice and Web of Science for studies using qualitative methods and reporting reasons why parents in the UK had or had not immunised their child. Participant quotes and authors’ interpretations of qualitative data were extracted from the results of articles. Thematic synthesis was used to develop higher-order themes (conducted in 2015. Results: 34 papers were included. Two types of decision-making had been adopted: non-deliberative and deliberative. With non-deliberative decisions parents felt they had no choice, were happy to comply and/or relied on social norms. Deliberative decisions involved weighing up the risks and benefits, considering others’ advice/experiences and social judgement. Emotions affected deliberative decision-making. Trust in information and vaccine stakeholders was integral to all decision-making. Practical issues affected those who intended to vaccinate. Conclusions: Parents adopted two different approaches to decision-making about childhood vaccinations. By understanding more about the mechanisms underpinning parents’ vaccination behaviour, in collaboration with vaccine stakeholders, we can better design interventions to enhance informed uptake. Keywords: Thematic synthesis, Vaccination, Parents, Patient Acceptance of Health Care

  8. Exploring the decision-making process in the delivery of physiotherapy in a stroke unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlinchey, Mark P; Davenport, Sally

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the decision-making process in the delivery of physiotherapy in a stroke unit. A focused ethnographical approach involving semi-structured interviews and observations of clinical practice was used. A purposive sample of seven neurophysiotherapists and four patients participated in semi-structured interviews. From this group, three neurophysiotherapists and four patients were involved in observation of practice. Data from interviews and observations were analysed to generate themes. Three themes were identified: planning the ideal physiotherapy delivery, the reality of physiotherapy delivery and involvement in the decision-making process. Physiotherapists used a variety of clinical reasoning strategies and considered many factors to influence their decision-making in the planning and delivery of physiotherapy post-stroke. These factors included the therapist's clinical experience, patient's presentation and response to therapy, prioritisation, organisational constraints and compliance with organisational practice. All physiotherapists highlighted the importance to involve patients in planning and delivering their physiotherapy. However, there were varying levels of patient involvement observed in this process. The study has generated insight into the reality of decision-making in the planning and delivery of physiotherapy post-stroke. Further research involving other stroke units is required to gain a greater understanding of this aspect of physiotherapy. Implications for Rehabilitation Physiotherapists need to consider multiple patient, therapist and organisational factors when planning and delivering physiotherapy in a stroke unit. Physiotherapists should continually reflect upon how they provide physiotherapy, with respect to the duration, frequency and time of day sessions are delivered, in order to guide current and future physiotherapy delivery. As patients may demonstrate varying levels of participation in deciding and

  9. MoDOT pavement preservation research program volume VI, pavement treatment trigger tables/decision trees and treatment candidate selection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The objective of Task 5 was the development of pavement treatment trigger tables and the treatment candidate selection process. : The input to the trigger tables entails such factors as an overall condition indicator, smoothness, individual distress ...

  10. Nurse managers' decision-making in daily unit operation in peri-operative settings: a cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siirala, Eriikka; Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Lundgrén-Laine, Heljä; Salanterä, Sanna; Junttila, Kristiina

    2016-09-01

    To describe the tactical and the operational decisions made by nurse managers when managing the daily unit operation in peri-operative settings. Management is challenging as situations change rapidly and decisions are constantly made. Understanding decision-making in this complex environment helps to develop decision support systems to support nurse managers' operative and tactical decision-making. Descriptive cross-sectional design. Data were collected from 20 nurse managers with the think-aloud method during the busiest working hours and analysed using thematic content analysis. Nurse managers made over 700 decisions; either ad hoc (n = 289), near future (n = 268) or long-term (n = 187) by nature. Decisions were often made simultaneously with many interruptions. Ad hoc decisions covered staff allocation, ensuring adequate staff, rescheduling surgical procedures, confirmation tangible resources and following-up the daily unit operation. Decisions in the near future were: planning of surgical procedures and tangible resources, and planning staff allocation. Long-term decisions were: human recourses, nursing development, supplies and equipment, and finances in the unit. Decision-making was vulnerable to interruptions, which sometimes complicated the managing tasks. The results can be used when planning decision support systems and when defining the nurse managers' tasks in peri-operative settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Final record of decision for remedial actions at Operable Unit 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 4 of the Fernald Site in Fernald, Ohio. This remedial action was selected in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and to the extent practicable 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 300, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). For Operable Unit 4 at the FEMP, DOE has chosen to complete an integrated CERCLA/NEPA process. This decision was based on the longstanding interest on the part of local stakeholders to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the restoration activities at the FEMP and on the recognition that the draft document was issued and public comments received. Therefore, this single document is intended to serve as DOE's Record of Decision (ROD) for Operable Unit 4 under both CERCLA and NEPA; however, it is not the intent of the DOE to make a statement on the legal applicability of NEPA to CERCLA actions

  12. Decision strategies to reduce teenage and young adult deaths in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, Ralph L; Palley, Asa B

    2013-09-01

    This article uses decision analysis concepts and techniques to address an extremely important problem to any family with children, namely, how to avoid the tragic death of a child during the high-risk ages of 15-24. Descriptively, our analysis indicates that of the 35,000 annual deaths among this age group in the United States, approximately 20,000 could be avoided if individuals chose readily available alternatives for decisions relating to these deaths. Prescriptively, we develop a decision framework for parents and a child to both identify and proactively pursue decisions that can lower that child's exposure to life-threatening risks and positively alter decisions when facing such risks. Applying this framework for parents and the youth themselves, we illustrate the logic and process of generating proactive alternatives with numerous examples that each could pursue to lower these life-threatening risks and possibly avoid a tragic premature death, and discuss some public policy implications of our findings. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. An Upgraded ATLAS Central Trigger for 2015 Luminosities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poettgen, Ruth; Gutenberg, Johannes

    2013-06-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) is a core unit of the first of three levels that constitute the ATLAS trigger system. Based on information from calorimeter and muon trigger processors as well as from some additional systems it produces the level-1 trigger decision and prompts the read-out of the sub-detectors. The increase in luminosity at the LHC has pushed the CTP operation to its design limits. In order to still satisfy the physics goals of the experiment after the shutdown of the LHC of 2013/2014 the CTP will be upgraded during this period. This article discusses the current Central Trigger Processor, the motivation for the upgrade, and the changes foreseen to meet the requirements of the post-2014 physics runs at the LHC. (authors)

  14. Factors influencing a nurse's decision to question medication administration in a neonatal clinical care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydon, Laurene; Hauck, Yvonne; Zimmer, Margo; Murdoch, Jamee

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence nurse's decisions to question concerning aspects of medication administration within the context of a neonatal clinical care unit. Medication error in the neonatal setting can be high with this particularly vulnerable population. As the care giver responsible for medication administration, nurses are deemed accountable for most errors. However, they are recognised as the forefront of prevention. Minimal evidence is available around reasoning, decision making and questioning around medication administration. Therefore, this study focuses upon addressing the gap in knowledge around what nurses believe influences their decision to question. A critical incident design was employed where nurses were asked to describe clinical incidents around their decision to question a medication issue. Nurses were recruited from a neonatal clinical care unit and participated in an individual digitally recorded interview. One hundred and three nurses participated between December 2013-August 2014. Use of the constant comparative method revealed commonalities within transcripts. Thirty-six categories were grouped into three major themes: 'Working environment', 'Doing the right thing' and 'Knowledge about medications'. Findings highlight factors that influence nurses' decision to question issues around medication administration. Nurses feel it is their responsibility to do the right thing and speak up for their vulnerable patients to enhance patient safety. Negative dimensions within the themes will inform planning of educational strategies to improve patient safety, whereas positive dimensions must be reinforced within the multidisciplinary team. The working environment must support nurses to question and ultimately provide safe patient care. Clear and up to date policies, formal and informal education, role modelling by senior nurses, effective use of communication skills and a team approach can facilitate nurses to

  15. Being safe: making the decision to have a planned home birth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothian, Judith A

    2013-01-01

    Although there is evidence that supports the safety of planned home birth for healthy women, less than 1 percent of women in the United States choose to have their baby at home. An ethnographic study of the experience of planned home birth provided rich descriptions of women's experiences planning, preparing for, and having a home birth.This article describes findings related to how women make the decision to have a planned home birth. For these women, being safe emerged as central in making the decision. For them, being safe included four factors: avoiding technological birth interventions, knowing the midwife and the midwife knowing them, feeling comfortable and protected at home, and knowing that backup hospital medical care was accessible if needed.

  16. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Ilten, Philip; Williams, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so- called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all ’interesting” decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. Methods studied include cascading, ensembling and blending techniques. Furthermore, novel boosting techniques have been implemented that will help reduce systematic uncertainties in Run 2 measurements. We demonstrate that the reoptimized topological trigger is expected to significantly improve on the Run 1 performance for a wide range of b-hadron decays. (paper)

  17. Increased trends in the use of treatment-limiting decisions in a regional neurosurgical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William T; McMillan, Tristan; Young, Adam M H; White, Mark A J

    2017-04-01

    Treatment-limiting decisions (TLDs) are employed to actively withhold treatment from patients whom clinicians feel would derive no benefit or suffer detrimental effects from further intervention. The use of such decisions has been heavily discussed in the media and clinicians in the past have been reluctant to institute them, even though it is in the best interests of the patients. Their use is influenced by several ethical, religious and social factors all of which have changed significantly over time. This study reports the trends in use of TLDs in a regional neurosurgical unit over 23 years. Patient archives were reviewed to identify the number of admissions and procedures performed at the Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow, in the years 1988, 1997 and 2011. Death certificate records were used to identify mortality in the unit in the year 2011. Patient records were used to obtain details of diagnosis, time from admission to death, and the presence and timing of a TLD. The results show an increase in the use of TLDs, with decisions made for 89% of those who died in 2011, compared to 68% in 1997 and 51% in 1988. The number of admissions has increased substantially since 1988 as has the percentage of patients undergoing surgery (46, 67 and 72% in 1988, 1997 and 2011, respectively). There is a trending increase in the number of patients who have a TLD in our regional neurosurgical unit. This demonstrates an increased willingness of clinicians to recognise poor prognosis and to withdraw or withhold treatment in these cases. Continued appropriate use of the TLD is recommended but it is to only ever reflect the best interests of the patient.

  18. Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the Gunsite 113 Access Road (631-24G) Operable Unit: Final Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.

    1997-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit located at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, SC. The selected action was developed in accordance with CERCLA, as amended, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The selected remedy satisfies both CERCLA and RCRA 3004(U) requirements. This decision is based ont he Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA Unit

  19. A meta-ethnography and theory of parental ethical decision making in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Sara A; Nolan, Marie T

    2013-07-01

    To synthesize the existing qualitative literature about parent ethical decision making in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to investigate the potential impact of culture on parents' decision making experiences. PubMed, CINAHL plus, and PsychInfo using the search terms parental decision making, culture, race, decision making, and parental decisions. Qualitative research studies investigating decision making for infants in the NICU from the parents' perspective were included. Studies involving older pediatric populations were excluded. Ten primary qualitative research articles were included. The primary author read all manuscripts and tabulated themes related to parents' ethical decision making. Study findings were synthesized using meta-ethnography involving translating concepts of separate studies into one another, exploring contradictions, and organizing these concepts into new theories. Key themes included parent involvement in decision making, parental role, necessity of good information, need for communication, desire for hope and compassion conveyed by providers, decision making satisfaction, and trust in caregiving team. A preliminary theoretical framework of ethical parent decision making was modeled based on the proposed relationships between the themes. Parent preferences for their involvement in decision making, their perceptions of communication with providers, and their relationships with providers are all important factors in the experience of making decisions for their infants. Needs of parents were the same regardless the ethnic or racial diversity of study participants. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  20. Enhanced Decision Support Systems in Intensive Care Unit Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanen Jemal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In areas of medical diagnosis and decision-making, several uncertainty and ambiguity shrouded situations are most often imposed. In this regard, one may well assume that intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFS should stand as a potent technique useful for demystifying associated with the real healthcare decision-making situations. To this end, we are developing a prototype model helpful for detecting the patients risk degree in Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Based on the intuitionistic fuzzy sets, dubbed Medical Intuitionistic Fuzzy Expert Decision Support System (MIFEDSS, the shown work has its origins in the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS standard. It is worth noting that the proposed prototype effectiveness validation is associated through a real case study test at the Polyclinic ESSALEMA cited in Sfax, Tunisia. This paper does actually provide some practical initial results concerning the system as carried out in real life situations. Indeed, the proposed system turns out to prove that the MIFEDSS does actually display an imposing capability for an established handily ICU related uncertainty issues. The performance of the prototypes is compared with the MEWS standard which exposed that the IFS application appears to perform highly better in deferring accuracy than the expert MEWS score with higher degrees of sensitivity and specificity being recorded.

  1. Decision Rightness and Emotional Responses to Abortion in the United States: A Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne H Rocca

    Full Text Available Arguments that abortion causes women emotional harm are used to regulate abortion, particularly later procedures, in the United States. However, existing research is inconclusive. We examined women's emotions and reports of whether the abortion decision was the right one for them over the three years after having an induced abortion.We recruited a cohort of women seeking abortions between 2008-2010 at 30 facilities across the United States, selected based on having the latest gestational age limit within 150 miles. Two groups of women (n=667 were followed prospectively for three years: women having first-trimester procedures and women terminating pregnancies within two weeks under facilities' gestational age limits at the same facilities. Participants completed semiannual phone surveys to assess whether they felt that having the abortion was the right decision for them; negative emotions (regret, anger, guilt, sadness about the abortion; and positive emotions (relief, happiness. Multivariable mixed-effects models were used to examine changes in each outcome over time, to compare the two groups, and to identify associated factors.The predicted probability of reporting that abortion was the right decision was over 99% at all time points over three years. Women with more planned pregnancies and who had more difficulty deciding to terminate the pregnancy had lower odds of reporting the abortion was the right decision (aOR=0.71 [0.60, 0.85] and 0.46 [0.36, 0.64], respectively. Both negative and positive emotions declined over time, with no differences between women having procedures near gestational age limits versus first-trimester abortions. Higher perceived community abortion stigma and lower social support were associated with more negative emotions (b=0.45 [0.31, 0.58] and b=-0.61 [-0.93, -0.29], respectively.Women experienced decreasing emotional intensity over time, and the overwhelming majority of women felt that termination was the right

  2. The D0 calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, J.

    1992-12-01

    The D0 calorimeter trigger system consists of many levels to make physics motivated trigger decisions. The Level-1 trigger uses hardware techniques to reduce the trigger rate from ∼ 100kHz to 200Hz. It forms sums of electromagnetic and hadronic energy, globally and in towers, along with finding the missing transverse energy. A minimum energy is set on these energy sums to pass the event. The Level-2 trigger is a set of software filters, operating in a parallel-processing microvax farm which further reduces the trigger rate to a few Hertz. These filters will reject events which lack electron candidates, jet candidates, or missing transverse energy in the event. The performance of these triggers during the early running of the D0 detector will also be discussed

  3. Trigger Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a bent position. People whose work or hobbies require repetitive gripping actions are at higher risk ... developing trigger finger include: Repeated gripping. Occupations and hobbies that involve repetitive hand use and prolonged gripping ...

  4. A brief educational intervention to teach residents shared decision making in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Jacqueline K; Mehta, Sonal S; Roberts, Jordan E; Cooke, Joseph T; Reid, M Carrington

    2013-05-01

    Effective communication is essential for shared decision making with families of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), yet there is limited evidence on effective strategies to teach these skills. The study's objective was to pilot test an educational intervention to teach internal medicine interns skills in discussing goals of care and treatment decisions with families of critically ill patients using the shared decision making framework. The intervention consisted of a PowerPoint online module followed by a four-hour workshop implemented at a retreat for medicine interns training at an urban, academic medical center. Participants (N=33) completed post-intervention questionnaires that included self-assessed skills learned, an open-ended question on the most important learning points from the workshop, and retrospective pre- and post-workshop comfort level with ICU communication skills. Participants rated their satisfaction with the workshop. Twenty-nine interns (88%) completed the questionnaires. Important self-assessed communication skills learned reflect key components of shared decision making, which include assessing the family's understanding of the patient's condition (endorsed by 100%) and obtaining an understanding of the patient/family's perspectives, values, and goals (100%). Interns reported significant improvement in their comfort level with ICU communication skills (pre 3.26, post 3.73 on a five-point scale, p=0.004). Overall satisfaction with the intervention was high (mean 4.45 on a five-point scale). The findings suggest that a brief intervention designed to teach residents communication skills in conducting goals of care and treatment discussions in the ICU is feasible and can improve their comfort level with these conversations.

  5. 75 FR 71415 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Wall Rocket Leaves From the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0027] Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Wall Rocket Leaves From the United Kingdom Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...

  6. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  7. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00400931; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-23

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. ...

  8. Topological Trigger Developments

    CERN Multimedia

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected an almost 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%, and its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and uBoost. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. These inclu...

  9. Individual and work-unit measures of psychological demands and decision latitude and the use of antihypertensive medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, S; Andersen, J H; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard

    2015-01-01

    were associated with the purchase of prescribed antihypertensive medication among women. This effect was present on both the work-unit and the individual level. Among men there were no associations. The lack of interaction between psychological demands and decision latitude did not support the job......PURPOSE: To analyse whether psychological demands and decision latitude measured on individual and work-unit level were related to prescription of antihypertensive medication. METHODS: A total of 3,421 women and 897 men within 388 small work units completed a questionnaire concerning psychological...... working conditions according to the job strain model. Mean levels of psychological demands and decision latitude were computed for each work unit to obtain exposure measures that were less influenced by reporting bias. Dispensed antihypertensive medication prescriptions were identified in The Danish...

  10. Uncovering the decision-making work of transferring dying patients home from critical care units: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanxia; Myall, Michelle; Jarrett, Nikki

    2017-12-01

    To understand how decisions are made to transfer dying patients home from critical care units. Many people prefer a home death, but a high proportion die in critical care units. Transferring dying patients home is recognized to be complex but transfer decision-making itself remains unclear. Integrative review. Seven bibliographic databases (origin-2015), grey literature and reference lists were searched. An integrative review method was used to synthesize data from diverse sources. Papers were selected through title and abstract screening and full-text reviewing, using inclusion and exclusion criteria derived from review questions. Following quality appraisal, data were extracted and synthesized using normalization process theory as a framework. The number of patients transferred home ranged from 1-346, with most papers reporting on the transfer of one or two patients. Four themes regarding transfer decision-making work were generated: divergent views and practice, multiple stakeholders' involvement in decision-making, collective work and limited understanding of individuals' experiences. The practice of transferring patients home to die and its decision-making varies internationally and is usually influenced by the care system, culture or religion. It is less common to transfer patients home to die from critical care units in western societies. A better understanding of the decision-making work was obtained but mainly from the perspective of hospital-based healthcare professionals. Further research is needed to develop decision-making practice guidance to facilitate patients' wishes to die at home. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Decision Making on the Labor and Delivery Unit: An Investigation of Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Megan E; Sonesh, Shirley C; Feitosa, Jennifer; Benishek, Lauren E; Hughes, Ashley M; Salas, Eduardo

    2017-09-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between negative affect (NA), decision-making style, time stress, and decision quality in health care. Background Health care providers must often make swift, high-stakes decisions. Influencing factors of the decision-making process in this context have been understudied. Method Within a sample of labor and delivery nurses, physicians, and allied personnel, we used self-report measures to examine the impact of trait factors, including NA, decision-making style, and perceived time stress, on decision quality in a situational judgment test (Study 1). In Study 2, we observed the influence of state NA, state decision-making style, state time stress, and their relationship with decision quality on real clinical decisions. Results In Study 1, we found that trait NA significantly predicted avoidant decision-making style. Furthermore, those who were higher on trait time stress and trait avoidant decision-making style exhibited poorer decisions. In Study 2, we observed associations between state NA with state avoidant and analytical decision-making styles. We also observed that these decision-making styles, when considered in tandem with time stress, were influential in predicting clinical decision quality. Conclusion NA predicts some decision-making styles, and decision-making style can affect decision quality under time stress. This is particularly true for state factors. Application Individual differences, such as affect and decision-making style, should be considered during selection. Training to reduce time stress perceptions should be provided.

  12. Ceiling of care decisions at an older person's mental health unit in Gloucestershire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Philip; Rose, Anneka

    2015-01-01

    This quality improvement project was inspired as an answer to a problem that many fellow psychiatric trainees had been struggling with while on-call covering the old age mental health hospital which includes a specialist dementia ward. The issue was that decisions around ceilings of care for patients were often not discussed or at least recorded in the electronic notes and as a result when reviewing deteriorating patients out of hours trainees would find themselves without any guidance on the treating medics opinion on what was in the best interests of the patient. This led to situations where unnecessary transfers to the acute hospital would occur overnight which could have been avoided with more consistent planning. Prior to initiating the changes it was recorded that nine out of 47 inpatients had documented decisions on ceiling of care of treatment in the consultant's ward round entries. Next policies from acute hospitals were reviewed, opinions were discussed in departmental meetings, and eventually there was agreed a change in procedure with the consultant on the dementia ward around resuscitation and ceiling of care status and consistent recording of this. Following the intervention there was seen an improvement in the recording of decisions around treatment and transfer of patients on the dementia ward of 80% (4/5) fully compliant with new criteria and then 71% (5/7) in successive cycles. Further communication both with relevant professionals on the old age ward and with the trainees on the on-call rota will be necessary to sustain any change but the centralised recording of resuscitation status and ceiling of care in the ward round entries have provided much more guidance than was previously available. In the future it may be possible to spread this policy throughout the entire old age mental health unit.

  13. An Effective Transform Unit Size Decision Method for High Efficiency Video Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou-Chen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency video coding (HEVC is the latest video coding standard. HEVC can achieve higher compression performance than previous standards, such as MPEG-4, H.263, and H.264/AVC. However, HEVC requires enormous computational complexity in encoding process due to quadtree structure. In order to reduce the computational burden of HEVC encoder, an early transform unit (TU decision algorithm (ETDA is adopted to pruning the residual quadtree (RQT at early stage based on the number of nonzero DCT coefficients (called NNZ-EDTA to accelerate the encoding process. However, the NNZ-ETDA cannot effectively reduce the computational load for sequences with active motion or rich texture. Therefore, in order to further improve the performance of NNZ-ETDA, we propose an adaptive RQT-depth decision for NNZ-ETDA (called ARD-NNZ-ETDA by exploiting the characteristics of high temporal-spatial correlation that exist in nature video sequences. Simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve time improving ratio (TIR about 61.26%~81.48% when compared to the HEVC test model 8.1 (HM 8.1 with insignificant loss of image quality. Compared with the NNZ-ETDA, the proposed method can further achieve an average TIR about 8.29%~17.92%.

  14. Life-sustaining treatment decisions in Portuguese intensive care units: a national survey of intensive care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Teresa; Fonseca, Teresa; Pereira, Sofia; Lencastre, Luís

    2003-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the opinion of Portuguese intensive care physicians regarding 'do-not-resuscitate' (DNR) orders and decisions to withhold/withdraw treatment. A questionnaire was sent to all physicians working on a full-time basis in all intensive care units (ICUs) registered with the Portuguese Intensive Care Society. A total of 266 questionnaires were sent and 175 (66%) were returned. Physicians from 79% of the ICUs participated. All participants stated that DNR orders are applied in their units, and 98.3% stated that decisions to withhold treatment and 95.4% stated that decisions to withdraw treatment are also applied. About three quarters indicated that only the medical group makes these decisions. Fewer than 15% of the responders stated that they involve nurses, 9% involve patients and fewer than 11% involve patients' relatives in end-of-life decisions. Physicians with more than 10 years of clinical experience more frequently indicated that they involve nurses in these decisions (P atheist doctors more frequently involve patients' relatives in decisions to withhold/withdraw treatment (P religious beliefs of the respondents influences the way in which these decisions are made.

  15. Symptom-triggered benzodiazepine therapy for alcohol withdrawal syndrome in the emergency department: a comparison with the standard fixed dose benzodiazepine regimen.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Eugene M

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare symptom-triggered and standard benzodiazepine regimens for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome in an emergency department clinical decision unit. The authors found that the symptom-triggered approach reduced cumulative benzodiazepine dose and length of stay.

  16. Triggering Artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben Holst; Robinson, Mike

    1995-01-01

    and adapting them to specific situations need not be ad hoc.Triggering artefacts are a way of systematically challenging both designers' preunderstandings and the conservatism of work practice. Experiences from the Great Belt tunnel and bridge project are used to illustrate howtriggering artefacts change...

  17. Reasons, considerations, difficulties and documentation of end-of-life decisions in European intensive care units: the ETHICUS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprung, C.L.; Woodcock, T.; Sjokvist, P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate physicians' reasoning, considerations and possible difficulties in end-of-life decision-making for patients in European intensive care units (ICUs). Design: A prospective observational study. Setting: Thirty-seven ICUs in 17 European countries. Patients and participants...... for, considerations in, and difficulties with end-of-life decision-making was germane in each case as it arose. Overall, 2,134 (69%) of the decisions were documented in the medical record, with inter-regional differences in documentation practice. Primary reasons given by physicians for the decision......: A total of 3,086 patients for whom an end-of-life decision was taken between January 1999 and June 2000. The dataset excludes patients who died after attempts at cardiopulmonary resuscitation and brain-dead patients. Measurements and results: Physicians indicated which of a pre-determined set of reasons...

  18. Record of Decision for Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater, Operable Unit 3-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. S. Cahn

    2007-05-16

    This decision document presents the selected remedy for Operable Unit (OU) 3-14 tank farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The tank farm was initially evaluated in the OU 3-13 Record of Decision (ROD), and it was determined that additional information was needed to make a final decision. Additional information has been obtained on the nature and extent of contamination in the tank farm and on the impact to groundwater. The selected remedy was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability and Compensation Act of 1980 (CERCLA) (42 USC 9601 et seq.), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (40 CFR 300). The selected remedy is intended to be the final action for tank farm soil and groundwater at INTEC. The response action selected in this ROD is necessary to protect the public health, welfare, or the environment from actual or threatened releases of hazardous substances into the environment. Such a release or threat of release may present an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health, welfare, or the environment. The remedial actions selected in this ROD are designed to reduce the potential threats to human health and the environment to acceptable levels. In addition, DOE-ID, EPA, and DEQ (the Agencies) have determined that no action is necessary under CERCLA to protect public health, welfare, or the environment at 16 sites located outside the tank farm boundary. The purposes of the selected remedy are to (1) contain contaminated soil as the radionuclides decay in place, (2) isolate current and future workers and biological receptors from contact with contaminated soil, and (3) restore the portion of Snake River Plain Aquifer contaminated by INTEC releases to Idaho Ground Water Quality

  19. Patient-related factors and circumstances surrounding decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment, including intensive care unit admission refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reignier, Jean; Dumont, Romain; Katsahian, Sandrine; Martin-Lefevre, Laurent; Renard, Benoit; Fiancette, Maud; Lebert, Christine; Clementi, Eva; Bontemps, Frederic

    2008-07-01

    To assess decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment (LST) in patients too sick for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, comparatively to patients admitted to the ICU. Prospective observational cohort study. A medical-surgical ICU. Consecutive patients referred to the ICU during a one-yr period. None. Of 898 triaged patients, 147 were deemed too well to benefit from ICU admission. Decisions to forego LST were made in 148 of 666 (22.2%) admitted patients and in all 85 patients deemed too sick for ICU admission. Independent predictors of decisions to forego LST at ICU refusal rather than after ICU admission were: age; underlying disease; living in an institution; preexisting cognitive impairment; admission for medical reasons; and acute cardiac failure, acute central neurologic illness, or sepsis. Hospital mortality after decisions to forego LST was not significantly different in refused and admitted patients (77.5% vs. 86.5%; p = .1). Decisions to forego LST were made via telephone in 58.8% of refused patients and none of the admitted patients. Nurses caring for the patient had no direct contact with the ICU physicians for 62.3% of the decisions in refused patients, whereas meetings between nurses and physicians occurred in 70.3% of decisions to forego LST in the ICU. Patients or relatives were involved in 28.2% of decisions to forego LST at ICU refusal compared with 78.4% of decisions to forego LST in ICU patients (p refused patients (vs. none of admitted patients) and were associated with less involvement of nurses and relatives compared with decisions in admitted patients. Further work is needed to improve decisions to forego LST made under the distinctive circumstances of triage.

  20. A PERFORMANCE MODELING AND DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR A FEED WATER UNIT OF A THERMAL POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The present paper discusses the performance modeling and decision support system for a feed water unit of a thermal power plant using the concept of performance analysis and modeling. A feed water unit ensures a proper supply of water for the sound functioning of a thermal power plant. The decision support system for a feed water unit has been developed with the help of performance modeling using a probabilistic approach. After drawing a transition diagram, differential equations are generated. After that, steady state probabilities are determined. Some decision matrices are also developed, which provide various performance levels for different combinations of failure and repair rates of all subsystems. Based upon various availability values obtained in decision matrices and plots of failure rates / repair rates of various subsystems, the performance of each subsystem is analyzed, and maintenance decisions are made for all subsystems.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Vertoningsanalise en –modellering word gedoen vir die toevoerwatersisteem van ‘n termiese kragstasie. Toevoerwater is ‘n belangrike factor vir die doeltreffende bedryf van ‘n kragstasie. Die vertoningsanalise en –model is probalisties van aard. ‘n Toestandoorgangsdiagram en bypassende differensiaalvergelykings word gebruik, gevolg deur bepaling van die bestandige sisteemtoestand. Bykomende aandag word gegee aan relevante subsisteme. Die vertoning van subsisteme word gebasseer op verskeie beskikbaarheidswaardes om sodoende instandhouding to optimiseer.

  1. The Importance of Ethical Training for the Improvement of Ethical Decision-Making: Evidence from Germany and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottig, Daniel; Heischmidt, Kenneth A.

    2007-01-01

    Based on three independent samples from Germany and the United States, this exploratory, cross-cultural study examines empirically the importance of ethical training for the improvement of ethical decision-making. The results of the study reveal a significant difference in the use of corporate codes of conduct and ethical training, as well as…

  2. Decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    A decision is a commitment of resources under conditions of risk in expectation of the best future outcome. The smart decision is always the strategy with the best overall expected value-the best combination of facts and values. Some of the special circumstances involved in decision making are discussed, including decisions where there are multiple goals, those where more than one person is involved in making the decision, using trigger points, framing decisions correctly, commitments to lost causes, and expert decision makers. A complex example of deciding about removal of asymptomatic third molars, with and without an EBD search, is discussed.

  3. The economic burden of dry eye disease in the United States: a decision tree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junhua; Asche, Carl V; Fairchild, Carol J

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate both the direct and indirect annual cost of managing dry eye disease (DED) in the United States from a societal and a payer's perspective. A decision analytic model was developed to estimate the annual cost for managing a cohort of patients with dry eye with differing severity of symptoms and treatment. The direct costs included ocular lubricants, cyclosporine, punctal plugs, physician visits, and nutritional supplements. The indirect costs were measured as the productivity loss because of absenteeism and presenteeism. The model was populated with data that were obtained from surveys that were completed by dry eye sufferers who were recruited from online databases. Sensitivity analyses were employed to evaluate the impact of changes in parameters on the estimation of costs. All costs were converted to 2008 US dollars. Survey data were collected from 2171 respondents with DED. Our analysis indicated that the average annual cost of managing a patient with dry eye at $783 (variation, $757-$809) from the payers' perspective. When adjusted to the prevalence of DED nationwide, the overall burden of DED for the US healthcare system would be $3.84 billion. From a societal perspective, the average cost of managing DED was estimated to be $11,302 per patient and $55.4 billion to the US society overall. DED poses a substantial economic burden on the payer and on the society. These findings may provide valuable information for health plans or employers regarding budget estimation.

  4. Value of standard personality assessments in informing clinical decision - making in a medium secure unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Conor; Mason, Lauren; Banerjee, Penny; Milton, John

    2007-05-01

    Assessing those with personality disorder for treatment in secure settings is known to be unsatisfactory. To examine the utility of a standardised assessment of offenders with personality disorder referred for treatment in secure care in a naturalistic study. A consecutive series of 89 men were assessed with a battery of four recommended instruments measuring personality and risk. Decisions on whether or not to admit were based on a multidisciplinary discussion informed by these assessments. Of the 89 comprehensively assessed referrals, 60 (67%) were offered admission. High scores on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (especially on Factor 1) was the only measure that was associated with rejection. Of 44 patients discharged, 29 (66%) failed to complete treatment; none of the pre-admission assessments distinguished ;completers' from ;non-completers'. Although skills were acquired on the unit, follow-up of 24 men in the community showed that this had only a marginal effect on re-offending rate (58%). Current recommended assessment methods appear unsatisfactory in identifying those who either (a) complete treatment or (b) benefit from treatment. Our results throw doubt on their value.

  5. Neonatologists can impede or support parents' participation in decision-making during medical rounds in neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelin, Anna; Outinen, Jyri; Lainema, Kirsi; Lehtonen, Liisa; Franck, Linda S

    2018-05-03

    We explored the dynamics of neonatologist-parent communication and decision-making during medical rounds in a level three neonatal intensive care unit. This was a qualitative study, with an ethnographic approach, that was conducted at Turku University Hospital, Finland, from 2013-2014. We recruited eight mothers and seven couples, their 11 singletons and four sets of twins and two neonatologists and observed and video recorded 15 medical rounds. The infants were born at 23+5 to 40+1 weeks and the parents were aged 24-47. The neonatologists and parents were interviewed separately after the rounds. Four patterns of interaction emerged. The collaborative pattern was most consistent, with the ideal of shared decision-making, as the parents' preferences were genuinely and visibly integrated into the treatment decisions. In the neonatologist-led interactional pattern, the decision-making process was only somewhat inclusive of the parents' observations and preferences. The remaining two patterns, emergency and disconnected, were characterised by a paternalistic decision-making model where the parents' observations and preferences had minimal to no influence on the communication or decision-making. The neonatologists played a central role in facilitating parental participation and their interaction during medical rounds were characterised by the level of parent participation in decision-making. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Conceptualizing Surrogate Decision-Making at End of Life in the Intensive Care Unit using Cognitive Task Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne-Odom, J. Nicholas; Willis, Danny G.; Bakitas, Marie; Crandall, Beth; Grace, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Surrogate decision-makers (SDMs) face difficult decisions at end of life (EOL) for decisionally incapacitated intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Purpose Identify and describe the underlying psychological processes of surrogate decision-making for adults at EOL in the ICU. Method Qualitative case study design using a cognitive task analysis (CTA) interviewing approach. Participants were recruited from October 2012 to June 2013 from an academic tertiary medical center’s ICU located in the rural Northeastern United States. Nineteen SDMs for patients who had died in the ICU completed in-depth semi-structured CTA interviews. Discussion The conceptual framework formulated from data analysis reveals that three underlying, iterative, psychological dimensions: gist impressions, distressing emotions, and moral intuitions impact a SDM’s judgment about the acceptability of either the patient’s medical treatments or his or her condition. Conclusion The framework offers initial insights about the underlying psychological processes of surrogate decision-making and may facilitate enhanced decision support for SDMs. PMID:25982772

  7. Corrective action decision document, Second Gas Station, Tonopah test range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 403) has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, open-quotes Corrective Action Strategyclose quotes (FFACO, 1996). The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-0360 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service. The Second Gas Station CAS was formerly known as the Underground Diesel Tank Site, Sandia Environmental Restoration Site Number 118. The gas station was in use from approximately 1965 to 1980. The USTs were originally thought to be located 11 meters (m) (36 feet [ft]) east of the Old Light Duty Shop, Building 0360, and consisted of one gasoline UST (southern tank) and one diesel UST (northern tank) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The two associated fuel dispensary stations were located northeast (diesel) and southeast (gasoline) of Building 0360 (CAU 423). Presently the site is used as a parking lot, Building 0360 is used for mechanical repairs of vehicles

  8. Evaluating the effect of clinical decision units on patient flow in seven Canadian emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schull, Michael J; Vermeulen, Marian J; Stukel, Therese A; Guttmann, Astrid; Leaver, Chad A; Rowe, Brian H; Sales, Anne

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of emergency department (ED) clinical decision units (CDUs) on overall ED patient flow in a pilot project funded in 2008 by the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC). A retrospective analysis of unscheduled ED visits at seven CDU pilot and nine control sites was conducted using administrative data. The authors examined trends in CDU utilization and compared outcomes between pilot-CDU and control sites 1 year prior to implementation, with the first 18 months of CDU operation. Sites that were unsuccessful in their applications for CDU program funding served as controls. Outcomes included ED length of stay (LOS), admission rates, and ED revisit rates. At CDU sites, roughly 4% of ED patients were admitted to CDUs. The presence of a pilot-CDU was independently associated with a small reduction in ED LOS for all low-acuity patients (-0.14 hour, 95% confidence interval [CI]=-0.22 to -0.07) and nonadmitted patients (-0.11 hour, 95% CI=-0.16 to -0.07). A small independent effect on absolute hospital admission rate for all high-acuity patients (-0.8%, 95% CI=-1.5% to -0.03%) and moderate-acuity patients (-0.6%, 95% CI=-1.1% to -0.2%) was also observed. Pilot-CDUs were not associated with changes in ED revisit rates. With only 4% of ED patients admitted to CDUs, the potential for efficiency gains in these EDs was limited. Nonetheless, these findings suggest small improvements in the operation of the ED through CDU implementation. Although marginal, the observed effects of CDU operation were in the desired direction of reduced ED LOS, reduced admission rate, and no increase in ED revisit rate. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  9. Documentation of resuscitation decision-making: a survey of practice in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Meredith; Fuld, Jonathan; Fritz, Zoë

    2014-05-01

    Do Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) orders have been in use since the 1990s. The Resuscitation Council UK (RCUK) provides guidance on the content and use of such forms in the UK but there is no national policy. To determine the content of DNACPR forms in the UK, and the geographical distribution of the use of different forms. All acute trusts within the United Kingdom were contacted via a combination of email and telephone, with a request for the current DNACPR form along with information about its development and use. Characteristics of the model RCUK DNACPR form were compared with the non-RCUK DNACPR forms which we received. Free text responses were searched for commonly occurring phrases. 118/161 English NHS Acute Trusts (accounting for 377 hospitals), 3/6 Northern Irish NHS Acute Trusts (accounting for 25 hospitals) and 3/7 Welsh Health Boards (accounting for 73 hospitals) responded. All Scottish hospitals have the same form. All responding trusts had active policies and have a DNACPR form in use. 38.9% of respondent hospitals have adopted the RCUK form with minor amendments. The remainder of the responding hospitals reported independent forms. 66.8% of non-RCUK forms include a transfer plan to ambulance staff and 48.4% of non-RCUK forms are valid in the community. Several independent trusts submitted DNACPR forms with escalation plans. There is wide variation in the forms used for indicating DNACPR decisions. Documentation is rapidly evolving to meet the needs of patients and to respond to new evidence. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Augmenting communication and decision making in the intensive care unit with a cardiopulmonary resuscitation video decision support tool: a temporal intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCannon, Jessica B; O'Donnell, Walter J; Thompson, B Taylor; El-Jawahri, Areej; Chang, Yuchiao; Ananian, Lillian; Bajwa, Ednan K; Currier, Paul F; Parikh, Mihir; Temel, Jennifer S; Cooper, Zara; Wiener, Renda Soylemez; Volandes, Angelo E

    2012-12-01

    Effective communication between intensive care unit (ICU) providers and families is crucial given the complexity of decisions made regarding goals of therapy. Using video images to supplement medical discussions is an innovative process to standardize and improve communication. In this six-month, quasi-experimental, pre-post intervention study we investigated the impact of a cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) video decision support tool upon knowledge about CPR among surrogate decision makers for critically ill adults. We interviewed surrogate decision makers for patients aged 50 and over, using a structured questionnaire that included a four-question CPR knowledge assessment similar to those used in previous studies. Surrogates in the post-intervention arm viewed a three-minute video decision support tool about CPR before completing the knowledge assessment and completed questions about perceived value of the video. We recruited 23 surrogates during the first three months (pre-intervention arm) and 27 surrogates during the latter three months of the study (post-intervention arm). Surrogates viewing the video had more knowledge about CPR (p=0.008); average scores were 2.0 (SD 1.1) and 2.9 (SD 1.2) (out of a total of 4) in pre-intervention and post-intervention arms. Surrogates who viewed the video were comfortable with its content (81% very) and 81% would recommend the video. CPR preferences for patients at the time of ICU discharge/death were distributed as follows: pre-intervention: full code 78%, DNR 22%; post-intervention: full code 59%, DNR 41% (p=0.23).

  11. Admitting offenders with antisocial personality disorder to a medium secure unit: a qualitative examination of multidisciplinary team decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Leon

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports on the results of a qualitative study funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) looking at multidisciplinary team decisions to admit sentenced offenders with antisocial personality disorder to a medium secure unit. The aim of the study was to examine admission decision-making from a multidisciplinary perspective, and to explore the interprofessional dynamics and contextual pressures informing those decisions. The primary method of data collection was 12 semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of various multidisciplinary staff involved in pre-admission assessment and post-assessment decision-making. Data was then coded according to the dialectic of competitive and cooperative goal seeking within groups. The findings suggest that, whilst both forms of goal seeking inform admission decisions, the presence of significant resource pressures will lead to decisional solidarity among the multidisciplinary team. When minor professional disagreements arise, they are resolved by the group leader, the Responsible Clinician, in order to maximise group productivity. It is argued that the discursive-limiting effect of resource pressures on group decision-making may weaken the morale of certain front line staff, if not undermine institutional purpose.

  12. The Eldicus prospective, observational study of triage decision making in European intensive care units. Part II: Intensive care benefit for the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprung, Charles L; Artigas, Antonio; Kesecioglu, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    on mortality and intensive care unit benefit, specifically for elderly patients. DESIGN:: Prospective, observational study of triage decisions from September 2003 until March 2005. SETTING:: Eleven intensive care units in seven European countries. PATIENTS:: All patients >18 yrs with an explicit request......RATIONALE:: Life and death triage decisions are made daily by intensive care unit physicians. Admission to an intensive care unit is denied when intensive care unit resources are constrained, especially for the elderly. OBJECTIVE:: To determine the effect of intensive care unit triage decisions...... care unit rejections than younger patients and have a higher mortality when admitted, the mortality benefit appears greater for the elderly. Physicians should consider changing their intensive care unit triage practices for the elderly....

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, and consisting of three separate land withdrawal areas (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4), CAU 417 is comprised of 34 corrective action sites (CASs) including 2 underground storage tanks, 5 septic systems, 8 shaker pad/cuttings disposal areas, 1 decontamination facility pit, 1 burn area, 1 scrap/trash dump, 1 outlier area, 8 housekeeping sites, and 16 mud pits. Four field events were conducted between September 1996 and June 1998 to complete a corrective action investigation indicating that the only contaminant of concern was total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) which was found in 18 of the CASs. A total of 1,028 samples were analyzed. During this investigation, a statistical approach was used to determine which depth intervals or layers inside individual mud pits and shaker pad areas were above the State action levels for the TPH. Other related field sampling activities (i.e., expedited site characterization methods, surface geophysical surveys, direct-push geophysical surveys, direct-push soil sampling, and rotosonic drilling located septic leachfields) were conducted in this four-phase investigation; however, no further contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified. During and after the investigation activities, several of the sites which had surface debris but no COCs were cleaned up as housekeeping sites, two septic tanks were closed in place, and two underground storage tanks were removed. The focus of this CADD was to identify CAAs which would promote the prevention or mitigation of human exposure to surface and subsurface soils with contaminant

  14. Trigger circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verity, P.R.; Chaplain, M.D.; Turner, G.D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A monostable trigger circuit comprises transistors TR2 and TR3 arranged with their collectors and bases interconnected. The collector of the transistor TR2 is connected to the base of transistor TR3 via a capacitor C2 the main current path of a grounded base transistor TR1 and resistive means R2,R3. The collector of transistor TR3 is connected to the base of transistor TR2 via resistive means R6, R7. In the stable state all the transistors are OFF, the capacitor C2 is charged, and the output is LOW. A positive pulse input to the base of TR2 switches it ON, which in turn lowers the voltage at points A and B and so switches TR1 ON so that C2 can discharge via R2, R3, which in turn switches TR3 ON making the output high. Thus all three transistors are latched ON. When C2 has discharged sufficiently TR1 switches OFF, followed by TR3 (making the output low again) and TR2. The components C1, C3 and R4 serve to reduce noise, and the diode D1 is optional. (author)

  15. Unit Roots in Economic and Financial Time Series: A Re-Evaluation at the Decision-Based Significance Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae H. Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper re-evaluates key past results of unit root tests, emphasizing that the use of a conventional level of significance is not in general optimal due to the test having low power. The decision-based significance levels for popular unit root tests, chosen using the line of enlightened judgement under a symmetric loss function, are found to be much higher than conventional ones. We also propose simple calibration rules for the decision-based significance levels for a range of unit root tests. At the decision-based significance levels, many time series in Nelson and Plosser’s (1982 (extended data set are judged to be trend-stationary, including real income variables, employment variables and money stock. We also find that nearly all real exchange rates covered in Elliott and Pesavento’s (2006 study are stationary; and that most of the real interest rates covered in Rapach and Weber’s (2004 study are stationary. In addition, using a specific loss function, the U.S. nominal interest rate is found to be stationary under economically sensible values of relative loss and prior belief for the null hypothesis.

  16. DUMAND data acquisition with triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, A.E.; Theriot, D.; March, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    A data acquisition scheme for the standard DUMAND array that includes a simple triggering scheme as a fundamental part of the system is presented. Although there are a number of not yet fully understood parameters, it is assumed that thresholds can be set in such a manner as to give rise to a triggered signal that is not so dominated by randoms that it gives a substantial decrease in the data acquisition rate over that which would be required by a nontriggered system. It is also assumed that the triggering logic is relatively simple and does not need major computational capabilities for a trigger logic decision. With these assumptions, it is possible to generate the trigger at the array and restrict the data transfer to shore. However, with a not unreasonable delay of 200 microseconds, it is even possible to transmit the information for the trigger to shore and perform all that logic on the shore. The critical point is to send the minimum amount of information necessary to construct the trigger such that one need not send all the possible information in all detectors of the array continuously to shore. 1 figure

  17. Women׳s birthplace decision-making, the role of confidence: Part of the Evaluating Maternity Units study, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Celia P; Tracy, Sally K; Schmied, Virginia; Daellenbach, Rea; Kensington, Mary

    2015-06-01

    to explore women׳s birthplace decision-making and identify the factors which enable women to plan to give birth in a freestanding midwifery-led primary level maternity unit rather than in an obstetric-led tertiary level maternity hospital in New Zealand. a mixed methods prospective cohort design. data from eight focus groups (37 women) and a six week postpartum survey (571 women, 82%) were analysed using thematic analysis and descriptive statistics. The qualitative data from the focus groups and survey were the primary data sources and were integrated at the analysis stage; and the secondary qualitative and quantitative data were integrated at the interpretation stage. Christchurch, New Zealand, with one tertiary maternity hospital and four primary level maternity units (2010-2012). well (at 'low risk' of developing complications), pregnant women booked to give birth in one of the primary units or the tertiary hospital. All women received midwifery continuity of care, regardless of their intended or actual birthplace. five core themes were identified: the birth process, women׳s self-belief in their ability to give birth, midwives, the health system and birth place. 'Confidence' was identified as the overarching concept influencing the themes. Women who chose to give birth in a primary maternity unit appeared to differ markedly in their beliefs regarding their optimal birthplace compared to women who chose to give birth in a tertiary maternity hospital. The women who planned a primary maternity unit birth expressed confidence in the birth process, their ability to give birth, their midwife, the maternity system and/or the primary unit itself. The women planning to give birth in a tertiary hospital did not express confidence in the birth process, their ability to give birth, the system for transfers and/or the primary unit as a birthplace, although they did express confidence in their midwife. birthplace is a profoundly important aspect of women׳s experience of

  18. The STAR Level-3 trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, C.; Berger, J.; Demello, M.; Dietel, T.; Flierl, D.; Landgraf, J.; Lange, J.S.; LeVine, M.J.; Ljubicic, A.; Nelson, J.; Roehrich, D.; Stock, R.; Struck, C.; Yepes, P.

    2003-01-01

    The STAR Level-3 trigger issues a trigger decision upon a complete online reconstruction of Au+Au collisions at relativistic heavy ion collider energies. Central interactions are processed up to a rate of 50 s -1 including a simple analysis of physics observables. The setup of the processor farm and the event reconstruction as well as experiences and the proposed trigger algorithms are described

  19. CD4 count-based failure criteria combined with viral load monitoring may trigger worse switch decisions than viral load monitoring alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christopher J; Maritz, Jean; van Zyl, Gert U

    2016-02-01

    CD4 count decline often triggers antiretroviral regimen switches in resource-limited settings, even when viral load testing is available. We therefore compared CD4 failure and CD4 trends in patients with viraemia with or without antiretroviral resistance. Retrospective cohort study investigating the association of HIV drug resistance with CD4 failure or CD4 trends in patients on first-line antiretroviral regimens during viraemia. Patients with viraemia (HIV RNA >1000 copies/ml) from two HIV treatment programmes in South Africa (n = 350) were included. We investigated the association of M184V and NNRTI resistance with WHO immunological failure criteria and CD4 count trends, using chi-square tests and linear mixed models. Fewer patients with the M184V mutation reached immunologic failure criteria than those without: 51 of 151(34%) vs. 90 of 199 (45%) (P = 0.03). Similarly, 79 of 220 (36%) patients, who had major NNRTI resistance, had immunological failure, whereas 62 of 130 (48%) without (chi-square P = 0.03) did. The CD4 count decline among patients with the M184V mutation was 2.5 cells/mm(3) /year, whereas in those without M184V it was 14 cells/mm(3) /year (P = 0.1), but the difference in CD4 count decline with and without NNRTI resistance was marginal. Our data suggest that CD4 count monitoring may lead to inappropriate delayed therapy switches for patients with HIV drug resistance. Conversely, patients with viraemia but no drug resistance are more likely to have a CD4 count decline and thus may be more likely to be switched to a second-line regimen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Trigger processing using reconfigurable logic in the CMS calorimeter trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooke, J J; Cussans, D G; Heath, G P; Maddox, A J; Newbold, D M; Rabbetts, P D

    2001-04-01

    We present the design of the Global Calorimeter Trigger processor for the CMS detector at LHC. This is a fully pipelined processor system which collects data from all the CMS calorimeters and produces summary information used in forming the Level-1 trigger decision for each event. The design in based on the use of state-of-the-art reconfigurable logic devices (FPGAs) and fast data links. We present the results of device testing using a low-latency pipelined sort algorithm, which demonstrate that an FPGA can be used to perform processing previously foreseen to require custom ASICs. Our design approach results in a powerful, flexible and compact processor system.

  1. Lack of utility of a decision support system to mitigate delays in admission from the operating room to the postanesthesia care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Dexter, Franklin; Rothman, Brian S; Minton, Betty Sue; Johnson, Diane; Sandberg, Warren S; Epstein, Richard H

    2013-12-01

    When the phase I postanesthesia care unit (PACU) is at capacity, completed cases need to be held in the operating room (OR), causing a "PACU delay." Statistical methods based on historical data can optimize PACU staffing to achieve the least possible labor cost at a given service level. A decision support process to alert PACU charge nurses that the PACU is at or near maximum census might be effective in lessening the incidence of delays and reducing over-utilized OR time, but only if alerts are timely (i.e., neither too late nor too early to act upon) and the PACU slot can be cleared quickly. We evaluated the maximum potential benefit of such a system, using assumptions deliberately biased toward showing utility. We extracted 3 years of electronic PACU data from a tertiary care medical center. At this hospital, PACU admissions were limited by neither inadequate PACU staffing nor insufficient PACU beds. We developed a model decision support system that simulated alerts to the PACU charge nurse. PACU census levels were reconstructed from the data at a 1-minute level of resolution and used to evaluate if subsequent delays would have been prevented by such alerts. The model assumed there was always a patient ready for discharge and an available hospital bed. The time from each alert until the maximum census was exceeded ("alert lead time") was determined. Alerts were judged to have utility if the alert lead time fell between various intervals from 15 or 30 minutes to 60, 75, or 90 minutes after triggering. In addition, utility for reducing over-utilized OR time was assessed using the model by determining if 2 patients arrived from 5 to 15 minutes of each other when the PACU census was at 1 patient less than the maximum census. At most, 23% of alerts arrived 30 to 60 minutes prior to the admission that resulted in the PACU exceeding the specified maximum capacity. When the notification window was extended to 15 to 90 minutes, the maximum utility was system to mitigate

  2. East London Modified-Broset as Decision-Making Tool to Predict Seclusion in Psychiatric Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Loi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Seclusion is a last resort intervention for management of aggressive behavior in psychiatric settings. There is no current objective and practical decision-making instrument for seclusion use on psychiatric wards. Our aim was to test the predictive and discriminatory characteristics of the East London Modified-Broset (ELMB, to delineate its decision-making profile for seclusion of adult psychiatric patients, and second to benchmark it against the psychometric properties of the Broset Violence Checklist (BVC. ELMB, an 8-item modified version of the 6-item BVC, was retrospectively employed to evaluate the seclusion decision-making process on two Psychiatric Intensive Care Units (patients n = 201; incidents n = 2,187. Data analyses were carried out using multivariate regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves. Predictors of seclusion were: physical violence toward staff/patients OR = 24.2; non-compliance with PRN (pro re nata medications OR = 9.8; and damage to hospital property OR = 2.9. ROC analyses indicated that ELMB was significantly more accurate that BVC, with higher sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio. Results were similar across gender. The ELMB is a sensitive and specific instrument that can be used to guide the decision-making process when implementing seclusion.

  3. East London Modified-Broset as Decision-Making Tool to Predict Seclusion in Psychiatric Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Felice; Marlowe, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Seclusion is a last resort intervention for management of aggressive behavior in psychiatric settings. There is no current objective and practical decision-making instrument for seclusion use on psychiatric wards. Our aim was to test the predictive and discriminatory characteristics of the East London Modified-Broset (ELMB), to delineate its decision-making profile for seclusion of adult psychiatric patients, and second to benchmark it against the psychometric properties of the Broset Violence Checklist (BVC). ELMB, an 8-item modified version of the 6-item BVC, was retrospectively employed to evaluate the seclusion decision-making process on two Psychiatric Intensive Care Units (patients n  = 201; incidents n  = 2,187). Data analyses were carried out using multivariate regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. Predictors of seclusion were: physical violence toward staff/patients OR = 24.2; non-compliance with PRN (pro re nata) medications OR = 9.8; and damage to hospital property OR = 2.9. ROC analyses indicated that ELMB was significantly more accurate that BVC, with higher sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio. Results were similar across gender. The ELMB is a sensitive and specific instrument that can be used to guide the decision-making process when implementing seclusion.

  4. Finding the Most Preferred Decision-Making Unit in Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA evaluates the efficiency of the transformation of a decision-making unit’s (DMU’s inputs into its outputs. Finding the benchmarks of a DMU is one of the important purposes of DEA. The benchmarks of a DMU in DEA are obtained by solving some linear programming models. Currently, the obtained benchmarks are just found by using the information of the data of inputs and outputs without considering the decision-maker’s preferences. If the preferences of the decision-maker are available, it is very important to obtain the most preferred DMU as a benchmark of the under-assessment DMU. In this regard, we present an algorithm to find the most preferred DMU based on the utility function of decision-maker’s preferences by exploring some properties on that. The proposed method is constructed based on the projection of the gradient of the utility function on the production possibility set’s frontier.

  5. The Process and Impact of Stakeholder Engagement in Developing a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Communication and Decision-Making Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Kelly N; Frader, Joel; Sorce, Lauren; Clayman, Marla L; Persell, Stephen D; Fragen, Patricia; Ciolino, Jody D; Campbell, Laura C; Arenson, Melanie; Aniciete, Danica Y; Brown, Melanie L; Ali, Farah N; White, Douglas

    2016-12-01

    Stakeholder-developed interventions are needed to support pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) communication and decision-making. Few publications delineate methods and outcomes of stakeholder engagement in research. We describe the process and impact of stakeholder engagement on developing a PICU communication and decision-making support intervention. We also describe the resultant intervention. Stakeholders included parents of PICU patients, healthcare team members (HTMs), and research experts. Through a year-long iterative process, we involved 96 stakeholders in 25 meetings and 26 focus groups or interviews. Stakeholders adapted an adult navigator model by identifying core intervention elements and then determining how to operationalize those core elements in pediatrics. The stakeholder input led to PICU-specific refinements, such as supporting transitions after PICU discharge and including ancillary tools. The resultant intervention includes navigator involvement with parents and HTMs and navigator-guided use of ancillary tools. Subsequent research will test the feasibility and efficacy of our intervention.

  6. The Process and Impact of Stakeholder Engagement in Developing a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Communication and Decision-Making Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frader, Joel; Sorce, Lauren; Clayman, Marla L; Persell, Stephen D; Fragen, Patricia; Ciolino, Jody D; Campbell, Laura C; Arenson, Melanie; Aniciete, Danica Y; Brown, Melanie L; Ali, Farah N; White, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Stakeholder-developed interventions are needed to support pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) communication and decision-making. Few publications delineate methods and outcomes of stakeholder engagement in research. We describe the process and impact of stakeholder engagement on developing a PICU communication and decision-making support intervention. We also describe the resultant intervention. Stakeholders included parents of PICU patients, healthcare team members (HTMs), and research experts. Through a year-long iterative process, we involved 96 stakeholders in 25 meetings and 26 focus groups or interviews. Stakeholders adapted an adult navigator model by identifying core intervention elements and then determining how to operationalize those core elements in pediatrics. The stakeholder input led to PICU-specific refinements, such as supporting transitions after PICU discharge and including ancillary tools. The resultant intervention includes navigator involvement with parents and HTMs and navigator-guided use of ancillary tools. Subsequent research will test the feasibility and efficacy of our intervention. PMID:28725847

  7. Design of electronic modules for the low-level RF systems at CERN. With particular regard to a new trigger unit for the Super Proton Synchrotron.

    CERN Document Server

    Levens, Thomas Edward; Knox, Andrew

    This report presents the work completed while the author was working for the BE-RF-FB group at the European Organization for Nuclear Research during the period of June to December 2010. The placement was completed as part of the University of Glasgow course ‘Industrial Project EE5’ which is requirement during the final year of the Degree of Master of Engineering. The report will pay particular attention to the hardware and firmware design of the ‘Dual Trigger Unit’, a new electronic module for the low-level RF system of the Super Proton Synchrotron accelerator which generates delayed timing pulses in order to trigger other hardware. In addition to this, the report will cover other projects completed during the period, including work on a prototype of the ‘VME Peak Detector’ card for the Large Hadron Collider beam observation system.

  8. [End-of-life decisions and practices in critically ill patients in the cardiac intensive care unit. A nationwide survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, C; Hamouda, K; Oezkur, M; Sommer, S-P; Leistner, M; Leyh, R

    2016-03-01

    Ethical and medical criteria in the decision-making process of withholding or withdrawal of life support therapy in critically ill patients present a great challenge in intensive care medicine. The purpose of this work was to assess medical and ethical criteria that influence the decision-making process for changing the aim of therapy in critically ill cardiac surgery patients. A questionnaire was distributed to all German cardiac surgery centers (n = 79). All clinical directors, intensive care unit (ICU) consultants and ICU head nurses were asked to complete questionnaires (n = 237). In all, 86 of 237 (36.3 %) questionnaires were returned. Medical reasons which influence the decision-making process for changing the aim of therapy were cranial computed tomography (cCT) with poor prognosis (91.9 %), multi-organ failure (70.9 %), and failure of assist device therapy (69.8 %). Concerning ethical reasons, poor expected quality of life (48.8 %) and the presumed patient's wishes (40.7 %) were reported. There was a significant difference regarding the perception of the three different professional groups concerning medical and ethical criteria as well as the involvement in the decision-making process. In critically ill cardiac surgery patients, medical reasons which influence the decision-making process for changing the aim of therapy included cCT with poor prognosis, multi-organ failure, and failure of assist device therapy. Further studies are mandatory in order to be able to provide adequate answers to this difficult topic.

  9. Waste-to-energy in the United States: Socioeconomic factors and the decision-making process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Schexnayder, S.M.; Vogt, D.P.; Wolfe, A.K.; Kelsay, M.P.; Feldman, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion with energy recovery, commonly called waste-to-energy (WTE), was adopted by many US communities during the 1980s to manage their growing quantities of MSW. Although less than one percent of all US MSW was burned to retrieve its heat energy in 1970, WTE grew to account for 16 percent of MSW in 1990, and many experts forecasted that WTE would be used to manage as much as half of all garbage by the turn of the century. However, the growth of WTE has been reduced in recent years by project cancellations. This study takes an in-depth look at the socioeconomic factors that have played a role in the decisions of communities that have considered WTE as a component of their solid waste management strategies. More specifically, a three-pronged approach is adopted to investigate (1) the relationships between a municipality`s decision to consider and accept/reject WTE and key socioeconomic parameters, (2) the potential impacts of recent changes in financial markets on the viability of WTE, and (3) the WTE decision-making process and the socioeconomic parameters that are most important in the municipality`s decision. The first two objectives are met by the collection and analysis of aggregate data on all US WTE initiatives during the 1982 to 1990 time frame. The latter objective is met by way of four in-depth case studies -- two directed at communities that have accepted WTE and two that have cancelled WTE projects.

  10. Are Gains in Decision-Making Autonomy during Early Adolescence Beneficial for Emotional Functioning? The Case of the United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lili; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Wang, Qian

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the role of children's decision-making autonomy in their emotional functioning during early adolescence in the United States and China. Four times over the 7th and 8th grades, 825 American and Chinese children (M = 12.73 years) reported on the extent to which they versus their parents make decisions about issues children…

  11. Decision-support tools for Extreme Weather and Climate Events in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Lowery, M.; Whelchel, A.

    2013-12-01

    Decision-support tools were assessed for the 2013 National Climate Assessment technical input document, "Climate Change in the Northeast, A Sourcebook". The assessment included tools designed to generate and deliver actionable information to assist states and highly populated urban and other communities in assessment of climate change vulnerability and risk, quantification of effects, and identification of adaptive strategies in the context of adaptation planning across inter-annual, seasonal and multi-decadal time scales. State-level adaptation planning in the Northeast has generally relied on qualitative vulnerability assessments by expert panels and stakeholders, although some states have undertaken initiatives to develop statewide databases to support vulnerability assessments by urban and local governments, and state agencies. The devastation caused by Superstorm Sandy in October 2012 has raised awareness of the potential for extreme weather events to unprecedented levels and created urgency for action, especially in coastal urban and suburban communities that experienced pronounced impacts - especially in New Jersey, New York and Connecticut. Planning approaches vary, but any adaptation and resiliency planning process must include the following: - Knowledge of the probable change in a climate variable (e.g., precipitation, temperature, sea-level rise) over time or that the climate variable will attain a certain threshold deemed to be significant; - Knowledge of intensity and frequency of climate hazards (past, current or future events or conditions with potential to cause harm) and their relationship with climate variables; - Assessment of climate vulnerabilities (sensitive resources, infrastructure or populations exposed to climate-related hazards); - Assessment of relative risks to vulnerable resources; - Identification and prioritization of adaptive strategies to address risks. Many organizations are developing decision-support tools to assist in the urban

  12. Decision making on the Breeder reactor in Britain and the United States: problems and solutions in the plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydell, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    One objective of this study is to develop a framework of analysis that is useful for investigating the conditions shaping the respective roles of science and politics in decision making on technology policy. The analytical framework used focuses upon the interactive R and D process and specifies the factors affecting change in and of that process. The distinguishing feature of this new analytical framework is its utility for investigating how participants in and R and D process go about defining and solving a growing variety of problems that they encounter as the costs, impacts, and stakes of technological change become more readily apparent. The framework is then applied to a particularly complex and politically controversial technology, the nuclear breeder reactor. Britain and the United States, the original pioneers of technology utilizing plutonium to produce electricity, were singled out in order to test the utility of the analytical framework for the comparative study of the R and D decision-making process. Although the study does not purport to have exhausted all possible interpretations of this complex subject, the results of the study suggest that the interactive R and D process represents an improvement over conventional modes of conceptualizing how R and D policies are formulated and changed. Efforts to resolve major national and international problems relating to science and technology will ultimately succeed only to the extent that these efforts are grounded in a deeper understanding of the conditions affecting how these problems are defined and approached in actual decision-making environments

  13. Factors Influencing Chinese Students' Decisions to Study in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Larry; Shen, Libi

    2016-01-01

    The central research question was: Why do Chinese students want to study in the United States? The participants were 20 Chinese students who studied in the U.S. Ten interview questions were used and data were processed in NVivo 10. Five major themes emerged from this study: (a) American culture benefits foreign perceptions of education in the…

  14. 75 FR 60093 - Record of Decision for the United States Marine Corps Basewide Utilities Infrastructure Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Basewide Utilities Infrastructure Project at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, CA AGENCY: Department of the... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 United States Code (U.S.C.) Section 4332(2)(c), the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 Code...

  15. The changing nature of ICU charge nurses' decision making: from supervision of care delivery to unit resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Anne; Buerhaus, Peter I

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings that variations in nursing workload may affect inpatient outcomes now highlight nurse workload management and the need for an updated analysis of the role of the charge nurse (CN). Observational data for eight CNs, each at one of eight ICUs in a not-for-profit Level 1 Trauma Center, coded to capture interprofessional interactions, decision making, team coordination phases, and support tools. A researcher shadowed each participant for 12 hours. Each shift began and ended with a face-to-face handoff that included summaries of each patient's condition; the current bed census; anticipated admissions, discharges, and transfers; and the number of nurses available to work the current and coming two shifts. The researcher, using a notebook, recorded the substantive content of all work conversations initiated by or directed to the CN from physicians, staff nurses, allied health workers, other employees, and patients/families. The tools used to support conversations were collected as blank forms or computer screen prints and annotated to describe how they were used, when, and for what purpose. Statistically significant three-way interactions suggest that CNs' conversations with colleagues depend on the team coordination phase and the decision-making level, and that the support tools that CNs use when talking to colleagues depend on the decision-making level and the team coordination phase. The role of ICU CNs appears to be continuing to evolve, now encompassing unit resource management in addition to supervising care delivery. Effective support tools, together with education that would enhance communication and resource management skills, will be essential to CNs' ability to support unit resilience and adaptability in an increasingly complex environment.

  16. Woody biomass policies and location decisions of the woody bioenergy industry in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zhimei; Hodges, Donald G.; Young, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Woody biomass for bioenergy production has been included in relatively few renewable energy policies since the 1970s. Recently, however, several states have implemented a variety of new woody biomass policies to spur the establishment of new bioenergy industry. Establishing new woody biomass-based facilities in a specific state is affected by a number of factors such as the strength of these new policy incentives, resource availability, business tax climate, and the available labor force. This study employs a conditional logit model (CLM) to explore the effects of woody biomass policies on the siting decisions of new bioenergy projects relative to some of these other state attributes. The CLM results suggest that state government incentives are significantly related to state success in attracting new plants. The results have substantial implications regarding woody biomass policies and the creation of a new bioenergy industry. -- Highlights: •This study explores the effects of state attributes on the siting decisions of new woody bioenergy projects. •Results suggest that state woody biomass policies are significantly related to state success in attracting new plants. •Other factors related to the siting of woody bioenergy facilities include resource availability, taxes, and wage rate

  17. The LHCb trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolko, I.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes progress in the development of the LHCb trigger system since the letter of intent. The trigger philosophy has significantly changed, resulting in an increase of trigger efficiency for signal B events. It is proposed to implement a level-1 vertex topology trigger in specialised hardware. (orig.)

  18. Negotiated reorienting: a grounded theory of nurses' end-of-life decision-making in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Ann; Bousso, Regina Szylit; McCarthy, Joan; Kohlen, Helen; Andrews, Tom; Paganini, Maria Cristina; Abu-El-Noor, Nasser Ibrahim; Cox, Anna; Haas, Margit; Arber, Anne; Abu-El-Noor, Mysoon Khalil; Baliza, Michelle Freire; Padilha, Katia Grillo

    2015-04-01

    Intensive care units (ICUs) focus on treatment for those who are critically ill and interventions to prolong life. Ethical issues arise when decisions have to be made regarding the withdrawal and withholding of life-sustaining treatment and the shift to comfort and palliative care. These issues are particularly challenging for nurses when there are varying degrees of uncertainty regarding prognosis. Little is known about nurses' end-of-life (EoL) decision-making practice across cultures. To understand nurses' EoL decision-making practices in ICUs in different cultural contexts. We collected and analysed qualitative data using Grounded Theory. Interviews were conducted with experienced ICU nurses in university or hospital premises in five countries: Brazil, England, Germany, Ireland and Palestine. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 51 nurses (10 in Brazil, 9 in England, 10 in Germany, 10 in Ireland and 12 nurses in Palestine). They were purposefully and theoretically selected to include nurses having a variety of characteristics and experiences concerning end-of-life (EoL) decision-making. The study used grounded theory to inform data collection and analysis. Interviews were facilitated by using key questions. The comparative analysis of the data within and across data generated by the different research teams enabled researchers to develop a deeper understanding of EoL decision-making practices in the ICU. Ethical approval was granted in each of the participating countries and voluntary informed consent obtained from each participant. The core category that emerged was 'negotiated reorienting'. Whilst nurses do not make the 'ultimate' EoL decisions, they engage in two core practices: consensus seeking (involving coaxing, information cuing and voice enabling); and emotional holding (creating time-space and comfort giving). There was consensus regarding the core concept and core practices employed by nurses in the ICUs in the five countries. However

  19. Are gains in decision-making autonomy during early adolescence beneficial for emotional functioning? The case of the United States and china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lili; Pomerantz, Eva M; Wang, Qian

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the role of children's decision-making autonomy in their emotional functioning during early adolescence in the United States and China. Four times over the 7th and 8th grades, 825 American and Chinese children (M = 12.73 years) reported on the extent to which they versus their parents make decisions about issues children often deem as under their authority. Children also reported on their emotional functioning. American children made greater gains over time in decision-making autonomy than did Chinese children. Initial decision-making autonomy predicted enhanced emotional functioning similarly among American and Chinese children. However, gains over time in decision-making autonomy predicted enhanced emotional functioning more in the United States (vs. China) where such gains were normative.

  20. Family Annualized Cost of Leaving: The Household as the Decision Unit in Military Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    labor economics has been given to the family as an economic decisionmaking unit. However, this emphasis has been largely upon the labor supply...A Switching Regressions Model", Journal of Labor Economics , v.5, no.1 January, 1987, for an elaboration of this point. 42 effect on the supply of...An Analysis of the Perspicacious Peregrinator", in Ehrenberg, ed., Research in Labor Economics , v.1 1977.) From this, the average time between moves

  1. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3), Westinghouse Elevator Company Plant, Operable Unit 2, Cumberland Township, Adams County, Gettysburg, PA, March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 2 (Soils) at the Westinghouse Elevator Company Plant Site in Adams County, Pennsylvania. The selected remedy for the soils at the Westinghouse Elevator Plant is No Additional Action for this Operable Unit. The other alternatives evaluated would produce little or no environmental benefit at substantial cost.

  2. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Marzone Inc. /Chevron Chemical Company Superfund Site, Operable Unit 1, Tifton, GA, September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-30

    This decision document (Record of Decision) presents the selected remedial action for the Marzone, Inc./Chevron Chemical Company Site in Tift County, Georgia. EPA has organized the work at this Site into two phases or operable units (OUs). Operable Unit No. 1 involves contamination on the 1.68-acre former Marzone pesticide blending area, part of the Slack Property, and railroad drainage ditch past the southwest corner of the horse pasture, and contaminated groundwater related to the Site. This first operable unit is broken down into two separate remedies; one for groundwater and the other for soil.

  3. A trigger simulation framework for the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antinori, F; Carminati, F; Gheata, A; Gheata, M

    2011-01-01

    A realistic simulation of the trigger system in a complex HEP experiment is essential for performing detailed trigger efficiency studies. The ALICE trigger simulation is evolving towards a framework capable of replaying the full trigger chain starting from the input to the individual trigger processors and ending with the decision mechanisms of the ALICE central trigger processor. This paper describes the new ALICE trigger simulation framework that is being tested and deployed. The framework handles details like trigger levels, signal delays and busy signals, implementing the trigger logic via customizable trigger device objects managed by a robust scheduling mechanism. A big advantage is the high flexibility of the framework, which is able to mix together components described with very different levels of detail. The framework is being gradually integrated within the ALICE simulation and reconstruction frameworks.

  4. Upgrade of the ATLAS Level-1 Trigger with event topology information

    CERN Document Server

    Simioni, Eduard; The ATLAS collaboration; Bauss, B; Büscher, V; Jakobi, K; Kaluza, A; Kahra, C; Reiss, A; Schäffer, J; Schulte, A; Simon, M; Tapprogge, S; Vogel, A; Zinser, M; Palka, M

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2015 will collide proton beams with increased luminosity from \\unit{10^{34}} up to \\unit{3 \\times 10^{34}cm^{-2}s^{-1}}. ATLAS is an LHC experiment designed to measure decay properties of high energetic particles produced in the protons collisions. The higher luminosity places stringent operational and physical requirements on the ATLAS Trigger in order to reduce the 40MHz collision rate to a manageable event storage rate of 1kHz while at the same time, selecting those events with valuable physics meaning. The Level-1 Trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS Trigger, with an output rate of 100kHz and decision latency of less than 2.5$\\mu s$. It is composed of the Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo), the Muon Trigger (L1Muon) and the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). In 2014, there will be a new electronics element in the chain: the Topological Processor System (L1Topo system).\\\\ The L1Topo system consist of a single AdvancedTCA shelf equipped with three L1Topo processor ...

  5. Risk-based decision analysis for the 200-BP-5 groundwater operable unit. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonte, G.R.

    1996-02-01

    This document presents data from a risk analysis that was performed on three groundwater contaminant plumes within the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. Hypothetical exposure scenarios were assessed based on current and future plume conditions. For current conditions, a hypothetical industrial groundwater scenarios were assumed. The industrial ingestion scenario, which is derived from HSRAM, was not used for drinking water and should not be implied by this risk analysis that the DOE is advocating use of this groundwater for direct human ingestion. Risk was calculated at each monitoring well using the observed radionuclide concentrations in groundwater from that well. The calculated values represent total radiological incremental lifetime cancer risk. Computer models were used to show the analytical flow and transport of contaminants of concern

  6. Use of web services for computerized medical decision support, including infection control and antibiotic management, in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurbaut, Kristof; Van Hoecke, Sofie; Colpaert, Kirsten; Lamont, Kristof; Taveirne, Kristof; Depuydt, Pieter; Benoit, Dominique; Decruyenaere, Johan; De Turck, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The increasing complexity of procedures in the intensive care unit (ICU) requires complex software services, to reduce improper use of antibiotics and inappropriate therapies, and to offer earlier and more accurate detection of infections and antibiotic resistance. We investigated whether web-based software can facilitate the computerization of complex medical processes in the ICU. The COSARA application contains the following modules: Infection overview, Thorax, Microbiology, Antibiotic therapy overview, Admission cause with comorbidity and admission diagnosis, Infection linking and registration, and Feedback. After the implementation and test phase, the COSARA software was installed on a physician's office PC and then on the bedside PCs of the patients. Initial evaluation indicated that the services had been integrated easily into the daily clinical workflow of the medical staff. The use of a service oriented architecture with web service technology for the development of advanced decision support in the ICU offers several advantages over classical software design approaches.

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 567: Miscellaneous Soil Sites - Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 567: Miscellaneous Soil Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 567 based on the implementation of the corrective actions. The corrective actions implemented at CAU 567 were developed based on an evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, the assumed presence of COCs at specific locations, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the CAAs. The CAAs were selected on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. The implemented corrective actions meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. The CAAs meet all applicable federal and state regulations for closure of the site. Based on the implementation of these corrective actions, the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office provides the following recommendations: • No further corrective actions are necessary for CAU 567. • The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection issue a Notice of Completion to the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office for closure of CAU 567. • CAU 567 be moved from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the FFACO.

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlecke, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The 'Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204

  9. Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peerenboom, J.P.; Hanson, M.E.; Huddleston, J.R.

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively

  10. Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peerenboom, J.P.; Wolsko, T.D.; Hanson, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively

  11. Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peerenboom, J.P.; Hanson, M.E.; Huddleston, J.R. [and others

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively.

  12. A retrospective study of end-of-life care decisions in the critically Ill in a surgical intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lin Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Progress in medical care and technology has led to patients with more advanced illnesses being admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. The practice of approaching end-of-life (EOL care decisions and limiting care is well documented in Western literature but unknown in Singapore. We performed a retrospective cohort study to describe the practice of EOL care in patients dying in a Singapore surgical ICU (SICU. The surgical critical care population was chosen as it is unique because surgeons are frequently involved in the EOL process. Methods: All consecutive patients aged 21 and above admitted to the SICU from July 2011 to March 2012, and who passed away in the ICU or within 7 days of discharge from the ICU (to account for transferred patients out of the ICU after end-of life care decisions were made and subsequently passed away were included in the study. Results: There were 473 SICU admissions during this period, out of which 53 were included with a mean age of 67.2 ± 11.1 years. EOL discussions were held in 81.1% of patients with a median time from admission to first discussion at 1 day (IQR 0–2.75 and a median number of ICU discussion of 1 (IQR 1–2. As most patients lacked decision-making capacity (inability to retain and process information secondary to the underlying disease pathology or sedative use, a surrogate was involved: group decision in 27.9%, child in 25.6% and an unclear family nominated member in 20.9%. 28.3% of patients were managed as for full active with resuscitation, 39.6% nonescalation of care, and 32.1% for withdrawal. The main reasons for conservative management (nonescalation and withdrawal of care were certain death in 52.3%, medical futility with minimal response to maximal care (27.3%, and the presence of underlying malignancy (18.2%. There was no significant difference between race or religion among patients for active or conservative management. Conclusion: 71.7% of patients who passed away in the ICU or

  13. Taiwanese parents' experience of making a "do not resuscitate" decision for their child in pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Mei; Lin, Hung-Ru; Lu, Frank L; Lee, Tzu-Ying

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this project was to explore the parental experience of making a "do not resuscitate" (DNR) decision for their child who is or was cared for in a pediatric intensive care unit in Taiwan. A descriptive qualitative study was conducted following parental signing of a standard hospital DNR form on behalf of their critically ill child. Sixteen Taiwanese parents of 11 children aged 1 month to 18 years were interviewed. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, analyzed and sorted into themes by the sole interviewer plus other researchers. Three major themes were identified: (a) "convincing points to sign", (b) "feelings immediately after signing", and (c) "post-signing relief or regret". Feelings following signing the DNR form were mixed and included "frustration", "guilt", and "conflicting hope". Parents adjusted their attitudes to thoughts such as "I have done my best," and "the child's life is beyond my control." Some parents whose child had died before the time of the interview expressed among other things "regret not having enough time to be with and talk to my child". Open family visiting hours plus staff sensitivity and communication skills training are needed. To help parents with this difficult signing process, nurses and other professionals in the pediatric intensive care unit need education on initiating the conversation, guiding the parents in expressing their fears, and providing continuing support to parents and children throughout the child's end of life process. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 383: Area E-Tunnel Sites, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 383, Area 12 E-Tunnel Sites, which is the joint responsibility of DTRA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the DOE, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 383 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and two adjacent areas: • CAS 12-06-06, Muckpile • CAS 12-25-02, Oil Spill • CAS 12-28-02, Radioactive Material • Drainage below the Muckpile • Ponds 1, 2, and 3 The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation to support the recommendation for closure with no further corrective action, by placing use restrictions at the three CASs and two adjacent areas of CAU 383.

  15. The Communication and Bioethical Training (CoBiT) Program for assisting dialysis decision-making in Spanish ACKD units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Llana, Helena; Bajo, Maria-Auxiliadora; Barbero, Javier; Selgas, Rafael; Del Peso, Gloria

    2017-04-01

    Healthcare professionals currently working in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease (ACKD) units must cope with difficult situations regarding assisting patients with the dialysis decision-making process, and they are often untrained for these conversations. Although we have evidence from the literature that these skills can be learned, few professionals feel confident in this area. A Communication and Bioethical Training (CoBiT) Program for ACKD staff (physicians, nurses and allied health professionals) was developed to improve their ability and self-confidence in conducting these conversations. A four-stage study was conducted: (1) development of the CoBiT program, beginning with the creation of an interdisciplinary focus group (N = 10); (2) design of a questionnaire to assess self-confidence based on the areas identified by the focus group. The face validity of the instrument was tested using an inter-judge methodology (N = 6); (3) design of the format and contents of the program; (4) piloting the program. Thirty-six health professionals took an 8-h workshop based on role-playing methodology. Participants assessed their self-confidence in their communication skills before and after the program using self-report measures. The results show that after the program, participants reported significantly higher levels of self-confidence measured with a five-point Likert scale (p CoBiT program improves ACKD Unit healthcare professionals' self-confidence in their ability to perform a specific communication task.

  16. The Factors that Affect Indian Migrants' Decision to Stay in or Counter Migrate from the United States: A Study with Special Reference to the Role of Tourism Related Imagery as a Determinant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu P. GEORGE

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the changing socio-economic realities of the presenttimes, this paper explores the complex dynamics underlying Indian immigrants' decision to continue to stay in the United States or to counter migrate back to India. In a reversal of fortunes, the specific set of conditions that once triggered a massive inflow of economic migrants from India to the US has been causing a counter migration to India. Based on a review of literature and an exploratory study involving focus groups the paper identifiessome of the major migration / counter migration related factors. Then, employing a survey, the relative importance of each of these factors is gauged for individuals associated with different professions. In addition, the study explores as a special case the role of tourism related images about the US being held by immigrants as determinants of their migration related decisions. Tourism images held by the migrants and the tourism opportunities provided by the US act more as hygiene factors than as motivators. In course of theexploration, a number of hypotheses are emerged that are of interest to future researchers. The study has got significant implications for migration / counter migration policy makers, industry practitioners, and the migrants themselves.

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 372: Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick and Sloop, Christy

    2011-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 372, Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters, located within Areas 18 and 20 at the Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 372 comprises four corrective action sites (CASs): • 18-45-02, Little Feller I Surface Crater • 18-45-03, Little Feller II Surface Crater • 20-23-01, U-20k Contamination Area • 20-45-01, U-20L Crater (Cabriolet) The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 372 based on the implementation of the corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls at all CASs. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from November 9, 2009, through December 10, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 372: Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 372 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL was established of 25 millirem per year based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were found to be present at all four CASs. It is assumed that radionuclide levels present within the Little Feller I and Cabriolet high

  18. The ATLAS Level-1 Trigger Timing Setup

    CERN Document Server

    Spiwoks, R; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Gällnö, P; Haller, J; Krasznahorkay, A; Maeno, T; Pauly, T; Pessoa-Lima, H; Resurreccion-Arcas, I; Schuler, G; De Seixas, J M; Torga-Teixeira, R; Wengler, T

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's LHC will be exposed to proton-proton collisions at a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. In order to reduce the data rate, a three-level trigger system selects potentially interesting physics. The first trigger level is implemented in electronics and firmware. It aims at reducing the output rate to less than 100 kHz. The Central Trigger Processor combines information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors and makes the final Level-1-Accept decision. It is a central element in the timing setup of the experiment. Three aspects are considered in this article: the timing setup with respect to the Level-1 trigger, with respect to the expriment, and with respect to the world.

  19. The Trigger for Early Running

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition system is based on three levels of event selection designed to capture the physics of interest with high efficiency from an initial bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz. The selections in the three trigger levels must provide sufficient rejection to reduce the rate to 200 Hz, compatible with offline computing power and storage capacity. The LHC is expected to begin its operation with a peak luminosity of 10^31 with a relatively small number of bunches, but quickly ramp up to higher luminosities by increasing the number of bunches, and thus the overall interaction rate. Decisions must be taken every 25 ns during normal LHC operations at the design luminosity of 10^34, where the average bunch crossing will contain more than 20 interactions. Hence, trigger selections must be deployed that can adapt to the changing beam conditions while preserving the interesting physics and satisfying varying detector requirements. In this paper, we provide a menu of trigger selections that can be...

  20. Sensitivity of super-efficient data envelopment analysis results to individual decision-making units: an example of surgical workload by specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; O'Neill, Liam; Xin, Lei; Ledolter, Johannes

    2008-12-01

    We use resampling of data to explore the basic statistical properties of super-efficient data envelopment analysis (DEA) when used as a benchmarking tool by the manager of a single decision-making unit. Our focus is the gaps in the outputs (i.e., slacks adjusted for upward bias), as they reveal which outputs can be increased. The numerical experiments show that the estimates of the gaps fail to exhibit asymptotic consistency, a property expected for standard statistical inference. Specifically, increased sample sizes were not always associated with more accurate forecasts of the output gaps. The baseline DEA's gaps equaled the mode of the jackknife and the mode of resampling with/without replacement from any subset of the population; usually, the baseline DEA's gaps also equaled the median. The quartile deviations of gaps were close to zero when few decision-making units were excluded from the sample and the study unit happened to have few other units contributing to its benchmark. The results for the quartile deviations can be explained in terms of the effective combinations of decision-making units that contribute to the DEA solution. The jackknife can provide all the combinations contributing to the quartile deviation and only needs to be performed for those units that are part of the benchmark set. These results show that there is a strong rationale for examining DEA results with a sensitivity analysis that excludes one benchmark hospital at a time. This analysis enhances the quality of decision support using DEA estimates for the potential ofa decision-making unit to grow one or more of its outputs.

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, CAU 232 is comprised of Corrective Action Site 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 232. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report because sample data collected during the July 1999 corrective action investigation (CAI) activities disclosed no evidence of contamination at the site. Contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) addressed during the CAI included total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total pesticides, total herbicides, total petroleum hydrocarbons (gasoline and diesel/oil range), polychlorinated biphenyls, isotopic uranium, isotopic plutonium, strontium-90, and gamma-emitting radionuclides. The data confirmed that none of the COPCs identified exceeded preliminary action levels outlined in the CAIP; therefore, no corrective actions were necessary for CAU 232. After the CAI, best management practice activities were completed and included installation of a fence and signs to limit access to the lagoons, cementing Manhole No. 2 and the diverter box, and closing off influent and effluent ends of the sewage lagoon piping. As a result of the CAI, the DOE/NV recommended that: (1) no further actions were required; (2) no Corrective Action Plan would be required; and (3) no use restrictions were required to be placed on the CAU

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2008-02-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 563, Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended January 2007). The corrective action sites (CASs) for CAU 563 are located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and are comprised of the following four sites: •03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank •03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool •12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks •12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative (CAA) for the four CASs within CAU 563. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 17 through November 19, 2007, as set forth in the CAU 563 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2007). Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the contaminants of concern (COCs) for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified COCs at one of the four CASs in CAU 563 and required the evaluation of CAAs. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 563 revealed the following: •CASs 03-04-02, 03-59-05, and 12-60-01 do not contain contamination at concentrations exceeding the FALs. •CAS 12-59-01 contains arsenic and chromium contamination above FALs in surface and near-surface soils surrounding a stained location within the site. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations at CAS 12-59-01, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following corrective actions are recommended for CAU 563.

  3. Acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy in the intensive care unit: impact on prognostic assessment for shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert F; Gustin, Jillian

    2011-07-01

    A 69-year-old female was receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) for acute renal failure (ARF) in an intensive care unit (ICU). Consultation was requested from the palliative medicine service to facilitate a shared decision-making process regarding goals of care. Clinician responsibility in shared decision making includes the formulation and expression of a prognostic assessment providing the necessary perspective for a spokesperson to match patient values with treatment options. For this patient, ARF requiring RRT in the ICU was used as a focal point for preparing a prognostic assessment. A prognostic assessment should include the outcomes of most importance to a discussion of goals of care: mortality risk and survivor functional status, in this case including renal recovery. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to document published data regarding these outcomes for adult patients receiving RRT for ARF in the ICU. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. The combined mean values for short-term mortality, long-term mortality, renal-function recovery of short-term survivors, and renal-function recovery of long-term survivors were 51.7%, 68.6%, 82.0%, and 88.4%, respectively. This case example illustrates a process for formulating and expressing a prognostic assessment for an ICU patient requiring RRT for ARF. Data from the literature review provide baseline information that requires adjustment to reflect specific patient circumstances. The nature of the acute primary process, comorbidities, and severity of illness are key modifiers. Finally, the prognostic assessment is expressed during a family meeting using recommended principles of communication.

  4. Consideration on a decision for the implementation of a regasification unit; Reflexoes sobre a tomada de decisao para implementacao de uma unidade regaseificadora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Amilton [Green Coast Engenharia e Consultoria Ltda., Itaguai, RJ (Brazil); Drocchi, Ignacio [Cromo Digital Consultoria Ltda. (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The object of this essay is a decision making strategy based on the comparative analysis, advantages and disadvantages to the construction of a plant for a fixed LNG regasification unit or the act of contracting FRSU (Floating, Storage and Regasification Unit) ships type taking in consideration flexibility, the cost and the strategically aspect, the short and long stated period, according to the requirements to diversification of suppliers and the security of the energy matrix and the Natural Gas supply. (author)

  5. The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Document Server

    Spiwoks, Ralf; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Gällnö, P; Haller, J; Krasznahorkay, A; Maeno, T; Pauly, T; Pessoa-Lima, H; Resurreccion-Arcas, I; Schuler, G; De Seixas, J M; Torga-Teixeira, R; Wengler, T

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger Processor (CTP) combines information from calorimeter and muon trigger processors and makes the final Level-1 Accept (L1A) decision on the basis of lists of selection criteria (trigger menus). In addition to the event-selection decision, the CTP also provides trigger summary information to the Level-2 trigger and the data acquisition system. It further provides accumulated and bunch-by-bunch scaler data for monitoring of the trigger, detector and beam conditions. The CTP is presented and results are shown from tests with the calorimeter adn muon trigger processors connected to detectors in a particle beam, as well as from stand-alone full-system tests in the laboratory which were used to validate the CTP.

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 367: Area 10 Sedan, Ess and Uncle Unit Craters Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 367 comprises four corrective action sites (CASs): • 10-09-03, Mud Pit • 10-45-01, U-10h Crater (Sedan) • 10-45-02, Ess Crater Site • 10-45-03, Uncle Crater Site The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation of the corrective actions and site closure activities implemented at CAU 367. A corrective action of closure in place with use restrictions was completed at each of the three crater CASs (10-45-01, 10-45-02, and 10-45-03); corrective actions were not required at CAS 10-09-03. In addition, a limited soil removal corrective action was conducted at the location of a potential source material release. Based on completion of these correction actions, no additional corrective action is required at CAU 367, and site closure is considered complete. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from February 2010 through March 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 367: Area 10 Sedan, Ess and Uncle Unit Craters, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of non-test or other releases (e.g., migration in washes and potential source material). Based on the proximity of the Uncle, Ess, and Sedan craters, the impact of the Sedan test on the fallout deposited from the two earlier tests, and aerial radiological surveys, the CAU 367 investigation was designed to study the releases from the three crater CASs as one combined release (primary release). Corrective Action Site 10-09-03, Mud Pit, consists of two mud pits identified at CAU 367. The mud pits are considered non-test releases or other releases and were investigated independent of the three crater CASs. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 367 dataset of

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 504: 16a-Tunnel Muckpile, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 504, 16a-Tunnel Muckpile. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 504 is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): • 16-06-01, Muckpile • 16-23-01, Contaminated Burial Pit • 16-23-02, Contaminated Area • 16-99-01, Concrete Construction Waste Corrective Action Site 16-23-01 is not a burial pit; it is part of CAS 16-06-01. Therefore, there is not a separate data analysis and assessment for CAS 16-23-01; it is included as part of the assessment for CAS 16-06-01. In addition to these CASs, the channel between CAS 16-23-02 (Contaminated Area) and Mid Valley Road was investigated with walk-over radiological surveys and soil sampling using hand tools. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure in place with use restrictions for CAU 504. A CADD was originally submitted for CAU 504 and approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). However, following an agreement between NDEP, DTRA, and the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office to change to a risk-based approach for assessing the corrective action investigation (CAI) data, NDEP agreed that the CAU could be re-evaluated using the risk-based approach and a CADD/CR prepared to close the site.

  8. Tools for Trigger Aware Analyses in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Krasznahorkay, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Stelzer, J

    2010-01-01

    In order to search for rare processes, all four LHC experiments have to use advanced triggering methods for selecting and recording the events of interest. At the expected nominal LHC operating conditions only about 0.0005% of the collision events can be kept for physics analysis in ATLAS. Therefore the understanding and evaluation of the trigger performance is one of the most crucial parts of any physics analysis. ATLAS’s first level trigger is composed of custom-built hardware, while the second and third levels are implemented using regular PCs running reconstruction and selection algorithms. Because of this split, accessing the results of the trigger execution for the two stages is different. The complexity of the software trigger presents further difficulties in accessing the trigger data. To make the job of the physicists easier when evaluating the trigger performance, multiple general-use tools are provided by the ATLAS Trigger Analysis Tools group. The TrigDecisionTool, a general tool, is provided to...

  9. The ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00371751; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LHC will collide protons in the ATLAS detector with increasing luminosity through 2016, placing stringent operational and physical requirements to the ATLAS trigger system in order to reduce the 40 MHz collision rate to a manageable event storage rate of 1 kHz, while not rejecting interesting physics events. The Level-1 trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS trigger system with an output rate of 100 kHz and decision latency smaller than 2.5 μs. It consists of a calorimeter trigger, muon trigger and a central trigger processor. During the LHC shutdown after the Run 1 finished in 2013, the Level-1 trigger system was upgraded including hardware, firmware and software updates. In particular, new electronics modules were introduced in the real-time data processing path: the Topological Processor System (L1Topo). It consists of a single AdvancedCTA shelf equipped with two Level-1 topological processor blades. They receive real-time information from the Level-1 calorimeter and muon triggers, which...

  10. BAT Triggering Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kassandra M.; Fenimore, E. E.; Palmer, D. M.; BAT Team

    2006-09-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) onboard Swift has detected and located about 160 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in its first twenty months of operation. BAT employs two triggering systems to find GRBs: image triggering, which looks for a new point source in the field of view, and rate triggering, which looks for a significant increase in the observed counts. The image triggering system looks at 1 minute, 5 minute, and full pointing accumulations of counts in the detector plane in the energy range of 15-50 keV, with about 50 evaluations per pointing (about 40 minutes). The rate triggering system looks through 13 different time scales (from 4ms to 32s), 4 overlapping energy bins (covering 15-350 keV), 9 regions of the detector plane (from the full plane to individual quarters), and two background sampling models to search for GRBs. It evaluates 27000 trigger criteria in a second, for close to 1000 criteria. The image triggering system looks at 1, 5, and 40 minute accumulations of counts in the detector plane in the energy range of 15-50 keV. Both triggering systems are working very well with the settings from before launch and after we turned on BAT. However, we now have more than a year and a half of data to evaluate these triggering systems and tweak them for optimal performance, as well as lessons learned from these triggering systems.

  11. The Impact of a Hybrid Sport Education-Invasion Games Competence Model Soccer Unit on Students' Decision Making, Skill Execution and Overall Game Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Isabel; Farias, Claudio; Hastie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a hybrid Sport Education-Invasion Games Competence Model (SE-IGCM) unit application on students' improvements in decision making, skill execution and overall game performance, during a soccer season. Twenty-six fifth-grade students from a Portuguese public elementary school participated in a…

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's corrective action alternative recommendation for each of the corrective action sites (CASs) within Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. An evaluation of analytical data from the corrective action investigation, review of current and future operations at each CAS, and a detailed comparative analysis of potential corrective action alternatives were used to determine the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. There are six CASs in CAU 204, which are all located between Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 on the NTS. The No Further Action alternative was recommended for CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, and 05-99-02; and a Closure in Place with Administrative Controls recommendation was the preferred corrective action for CASs 05-18-02 and 05-33-01. These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated as well as applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the sites and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 204.

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document, Area 15 Environmental Protection Agency Farm Laboratory Building, Corrective Action Unit No. 95, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-18

    This report is the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm, Laboratory Building (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 95), at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The scope of this CADD is to identify and evaluate potential corrective action alternatives for the decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) of the Laboratory Building, which were selected based on the results of investigative activities. Based on this evaluation, a preferred corrective action alternative is recommended. Studies were conducted at the EPA Farm from 1963 to 1981 to determine the animal intake and retention of radionuclides. The main building, the Laboratory Building, has approximately 370 square meters (4,000 square feet) of operational space. Other CAUS at the EPA Farm facility that will be investigated and/or remediated through other environmental restoration subprojects are not included in this CADD, with the exception of housekeeping sites. Associated structures that do not require classification as CAUS are considered in the evaluation of corrective action alternatives for CAU 95.

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document, Area 15 Environmental Protection Agency Farm Laboratory Building, Corrective Action Unit No. 95, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm, Laboratory Building (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 95), at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The scope of this CADD is to identify and evaluate potential corrective action alternatives for the decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) of the Laboratory Building, which were selected based on the results of investigative activities. Based on this evaluation, a preferred corrective action alternative is recommended. Studies were conducted at the EPA Farm from 1963 to 1981 to determine the animal intake and retention of radionuclides. The main building, the Laboratory Building, has approximately 370 square meters (4,000 square feet) of operational space. Other CAUS at the EPA Farm facility that will be investigated and/or remediated through other environmental restoration subprojects are not included in this CADD, with the exception of housekeeping sites. Associated structures that do not require classification as CAUS are considered in the evaluation of corrective action alternatives for CAU 95

  15. Stay away from asthma triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma triggers - stay away from; Asthma triggers - avoiding; Reactive airway disease - triggers; Bronchial asthma - triggers ... clothes. They should leave the coat outside or away from your child. Ask people who work at ...

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 370: T-4 Atmospheric Test Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2009-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 370, T-4 Atmospheric Test Site, located in Area 4 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 370 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 04-23-01, Atmospheric Test Site T-4. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 370 due to the implementation of the corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from June 25, 2008, through April 2, 2009, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 370: T-4 Atmospheric Test Site and Record of Technical Change No. 1.

  17. Simulation of the ATLAS New Small Wheel Trigger Sysmtem

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Tomoyuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be increased up to a factor of five with respect to the original design value to explore higher energy scale. In order to benefit from the expected high luminosity performance, the first station of the ATLAS muon end-cap Small Wheel system will be replaced by a New Small Wheel (NSW) detector. The NSW provide precise track segment information to the muon Level-1 trigger to reduce fake triggers. This contribution will summarize a detail of the NSW trigger decision system, track reconstruction algorithm implemented into the trigger processor and results of performance studies on the trigger system.

  18. Using a neural network approach for muon reconstruction and triggering

    CERN Document Server

    Etzion, E; Abramowicz, H; Benhammou, Ya; Horn, D; Levinson, L; Livneh, R

    2004-01-01

    The extremely high rate of events that will be produced in the future Large Hadron Collider requires the triggering mechanism to take precise decisions in a few nano-seconds. We present a study which used an artificial neural network triggering algorithm and compared it to the performance of a dedicated electronic muon triggering system. Relatively simple architecture was used to solve a complicated inverse problem. A comparison with a realistic example of the ATLAS first level trigger simulation was in favour of the neural network. A similar architecture trained after the simulation of the electronics first trigger stage showed a further background rejection.

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 254 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. A corrective action investigation for this CAS as conducted in January 2000 as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Samples were collected from various media throughout the CAS and sent to an off-site laboratory for analysis. The laboratory results indicated the following: radiation dose rates inside the Decontamination Facility, Building 3126, and in the storage yard exceeded the average general dose rate; scanning and static total surface contamination surveys indicated that portions of the locker and shower room floor, decontamination bay floor, loft floor, east and west decon pads, north and south decontamination bay interior walls, exterior west and south walls, and loft walls were above preliminary action levels (PALs). The investigation-derived contaminants of concern (COCs) included: polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides (strontium-90, niobium-94, cesium-137, uranium-234 and -235), total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Metals). During the investigation, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate human exposure to COCs. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the Nevada Test Site, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey; and Alternative 3 - Unrestricted

  20. Lessons from (triggered) tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan

    2010-01-01

    I test a “clock-advance” model that implies triggered tremor is ambient tremor that occurs at a sped-up rate as a result of loading from passing seismic waves. This proposed model predicts that triggering probability is proportional to the product of the ambient tremor rate and a function describing the efficacy of the triggering wave to initiate a tremor event. Using data mostly from Cascadia, I have compared qualitatively a suite of teleseismic waves that did and did not trigger tremor with ambient tremor rates. Many of the observations are consistent with the model if the efficacy of the triggering wave depends on wave amplitude. One triggered tremor observation clearly violates the clock-advance model. The model prediction that larger triggering waves result in larger triggered tremor signals also appears inconsistent with the measurements. I conclude that the tremor source process is a more complex system than that described by the clock-advance model predictions tested. Results of this and previous studies also demonstrate that (1) conditions suitable for tremor generation exist in many tectonic environments, but, within each, only occur at particular spots whose locations change with time; (2) any fluid flow must be restricted to less than a meter; (3) the degree to which delayed failure and secondary triggering occurs is likely insignificant; and 4) both shear and dilatational deformations may trigger tremor. Triggered and ambient tremor rates correlate more strongly with stress than stressing rate, suggesting tremor sources result from time-dependent weakening processes rather than simple Coulomb failure.

  1. Shared Decision Making in Intensive Care Units: An American College of Critical Care Medicine and American Thoracic Society Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Alexander A.; Davidson, Judy E.; Morrison, Wynne; Danis, Marion; White, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Shared decision-making (SDM) is endorsed by critical care organizations, however there remains confusion about what SDM is, when it should be used, and approaches to promote partnerships in treatment decisions. The purpose of this statement is to define SDM, recommend when SDM should be used, identify the range of ethically acceptable decision-making models, and present important communication skills. Methods The American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCM) and American Thoracic Society (ATS) Ethics Committees reviewed empirical research and normative analyses published in peer-reviewed journals to generate recommendations. Recommendations approved by consensus of the full Ethics Committees of ACCM and ATS were included in the statement. Main Results Six recommendations were endorsed: 1) Definition: Shared decision-making is a collaborative process that allows patients, or their surrogates, and clinicians to make health care decisions together, taking into account the best scientific evidence available, as well as the patient’s values, goals, and preferences. 2) Clinicians should engage in a SDM process to define overall goals of care (including decisions regarding limiting or withdrawing life-prolonging interventions) and when making major treatment decisions that may be affected by personal values, goals, and preferences. 3) Clinicians should use as their “default” approach a SDM process that includes three main elements: information exchange, deliberation, and making a treatment decision. 4) A wide range of decision-making approaches are ethically supportable including patient- or surrogate-directed and clinician-directed models. Clinicians should tailor the decision-making process based on the preferences of the patient or surrogate. 5) Clinicians should be trained in communication skills. 6) Research is needed to evaluate decision-making strategies. Conclusions Patient and surrogate preferences for decision-making roles regarding value

  2. The UA1 trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayer, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    Experiment UA1 is a large multi-purpose spectrometer at the CERN proton-antiproton collider, scheduled for late 1981. The principal trigger is formed on the basis of the energy deposition in calorimeters. A trigger decision taken in under 2.4 microseconds can avoid dead time losses due to the bunched nature of the beam. To achieve this we have built fast 8-bit charge to digital converters followed by two identical digital processors tailored to the experiment. The outputs of groups of the 2440 photomultipliers in the calorimeters are summed to form a total of 288 input channels to the ADCs. A look-up table in RAM is used to convert the digitised photomultiplier signals to energy in one processor, combinations of input channels, and also counts the number of clusters with electromagnetic or hadronic energy above pre-determined levels. Up to twelve combinations of these conditions, together with external information, may be combined in coincidence or in veto to form the final trigger. Provision has been made for testing using simulated data in an off-line mode, and sampling real data when on-line. (orig.)

  3. Managers' perception regarding information systems that provide decision making support: a case study in an organizational unit of a petroleum derivatives company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Raldi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In a globalization scenario, uncertainty and high competitive edge between the companies, every manager needs to make decisions that bring competitive advantage to his/her organization. These decisions are increasingly complex, which demands more rapid and precise information to allow efficient decision-making. It is in this scenario that Information Systems (IS have gained importance in the decision-making process. Yet, many of these IS may not be adequate to the manager’s needs. This study aims to identify the perception of the managers of an Organizational Unit at an oil and derivatives company about the support given by ISs regarding their decision making. To obtain the expected results, a questionnaire based on the critical factors involved in IS quality and directed to the managers of the Organizational Unit. Results of this study will enable professionals responsible for developing ISs, as well as managers and those working with these systems to identify strengths and weaknesses of existing systems.

  4. D0 triggering and data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbard, B.

    1992-10-01

    The trigger for D0 is a multi-tier system. Within the 3.5 μsec bunch crossing interval, custom electronics select interesting event candidates based on electromagnetic and hadronic energy deposits in the calorimeter and on indications of tracks in the muon system. Subsequent hardware decisions use refined calculations of electron and muon characteristics. The highest level trigger occurs in one element of a farm of microprocessors, where fully developed algorithms for electrons, muons, jets, or missing E t are executed. This highest level trigger also provides the assembly of the event into its final data structure. Performance of this trigger and data acquisition system in collider operation is described

  5. Triggering trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Stefano, Giulia; Maarbjerg, Stine; Nurmikko, Turo

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Although it is widely accepted that facial pain paroxysms triggered by innocuous stimuli constitute a hallmark sign of trigeminal neuralgia, very few studies to date have systematically investigated the role of the triggers involved. In the recently published diagnostic classification...

  6. Triggering the GRANDE array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, J.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the Gamma Ray And Neutrino Detector Experiment (GRANDE) is presented. The detector elements and electronics are described. The trigger logic for the array is then examined. The triggers for the Gamma Ray and the Neutrino portions of the array are treated separately. (orig.)

  7. Trigger Menu in 2017

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This document summarises the trigger menu deployed by the ATLAS experiment during 2017 data taking at proton-proton collision centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV and $\\sqrt{s}=5$ TeV at the LHC and describes the improvements with respect to the trigger system and menu used in 2016 data taking.

  8. Causality and headache triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  9. The LHCb trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Hernando Morata, Jose Angel

    2006-01-01

    The LHCb experiment relies on an efficient trigger to select a rate up to 2 kHz of events useful for physics analysis from an initial rate of 10 MHz of visible collisions. In this contribution, we describe the different LHCb trigger algorithms and present their expected performance.

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Offices's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This corrective action investigation was conducted in accordance with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 240 as developed under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 240 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02, Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03, Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). In March 1999, the corrective action investigation was performed to detect and evaluate analyte concentrations against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified at CAS 25-07-01 or CAS 25-07-03; therefore, there was no need for corrective action at these two CASs. At CAS 25-07-02, diesel-range organics and radionuclide concentrations in soil samples from F and J Roads Pad exceeded PALs. Based on this result, potential CAAs were identified and evaluated to ensure worker, public, and environmental protection against potential exposure to COCs in accordance with Nevada Administrative Code 445A. Following a review of potential exposure pathways, existing data, and future and current operations in Area 25, two CAAs were identified for CAU 240 (CAS 25-07-02): Alternative 1 - No Further Action and Alternative 2 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. Alternative 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, compliance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, as well as minimizing potential future exposure

  11. Corrrective action decision document for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit No. 426). Revision No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 426) has been prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project. This CADD has been developed to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996, stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. RG-08-001-RG-CS is included in CAU No. 426 (also referred to as the {open_quotes}trenches{close_quotes}); it has been identified as one of three potential locations for buried, radioactively contaminated materials from the Double Tracks Test. The trenches are located on the east flank of the Cactus Range in the eastern portion of the Cactus Spring Ranch at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nye County, Nevada, on the northern portion of Nellis Air Force Range. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The trenches were dug for the purpose of receiving waste generated during Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test. This test, conducted in 1963, involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol). The CAS consists of four trenches that received solid waste and had an overall impacted area of approximately 36 meters (m) (120 feet [ft]) long x 24 m (80 ft) wide x 3 to 4.5 m (10 to 15 ft) deep. The average depressions at the trenches are approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) below land surface.

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-28

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 on the NTS, CAU 516 includes six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) consisting of two septic systems, a sump and piping, a clean-out box and piping, dry wells, and a vehicle decontamination area. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from July 22 through August 14, 2003, with supplemental sampling conducted in late 2003 and early 2004. The potential exposure pathways for any contaminants of concern (COCs) identified during the development of the DQOs at CAU 516 gave rise to the following objectives: (1) prevent or mitigate exposure to media containing COCs at concentrations exceeding PALs as defined in the corrective action investigation plan; and (2) prevent the spread of COCs beyond each CAS. The following alternatives have been developed for consideration at CAU 516: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 1, No Further Action, is the preferred corrective action for two CASs (06-51-02 and 22-19-04). Alternative 2, Clean Closure, is the preferred corrective action for four CASs (03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03). The selected alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, as well as meeting all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will further eliminate the contaminated media at CAU 516.

  13. The ZEUS calorimeter first level trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.; Ali, I.; Behrens, B.; Fordham, C.; Foudas, C.; Goussiou, A.; Jaworski, M.; Kinnel, T.; Lackey, J.; Robl, P.; Silverstein, S.; Dawson, J.W.; Krakauer, D.A.; Talaga, R.L.; Schlereth, J.L.

    1994-10-01

    The design of the ZEUS Calorimeter First Level Trigger (CFLT) is presented. The CFLT utilizes a pipelined architecture to provide trigger data for a global first leel trigger decision 5 μsec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The charges from 13K phototubes are summed into 1792 trigger tower pulseheights which are digitized by flash ADC's. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests. Summary data is forwarded to the Global First Level Trigger for each crossing 2 μsec after the crossing occurred. The CFLT determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the electromagnetic and hadronic energy deposited in various regions of the calorimeter. The CFLT has kept the experimental trigger rate below ∼200 Hz at the highest luminosity experienced at HERA. Performance studies suggest that the CFLT will keep the trigger rate below 1 kHZ against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions on the order of the 100 kHz expected at design luminosity. (orig.)

  14. The NA27 trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzarri, R.; Di Capua, E.; Falciano, S.; Iori, M.; Marel, G.; Piredda, G.; Zanello, L.; Haupt, L.; Hellman, S.; Holmgren, S.O.; Johansson, K.E.

    1985-05-01

    We have designed and implemented a minimum bias trigger together with a fiducial volume trigger for the experiment NA27, performed at the CERN SPS. A total of more than 3 million bubble chamber pictures have been taken with a triggered cross section smaller than 75% of the total inelastic cross section. Events containing charm particles were triggered with an efficiency of 98 +2 sub(-3)%. With the fiducial volume trigger, the probability for a picture to contain an interaction in the visible hydrogen increased from 47.3% to 59.5%, reducing film cost and processing effort with about 20%. The improvement in data taking rate is shown to be negligible. (author)

  15. Time-of-flight trigger based on the use of the time-to-amplitude converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladygin, V.P.; Man'yakov, P.K.; Reznikov, S.G.

    2000-01-01

    The method of the time-of-flight trigger realization based on the use of the time-to-amplitude converter is described. Such a trigger has a short decision time and high efficiency of the useful event selection. (author)

  16. Ethical decision making in intensive care units: a burnout risk factor? Results from a multicentre study conducted with physicians and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Carla; Ribeiro, Orquídea; Fonseca, António M; Carvalho, Ana Sofia

    2014-02-01

    Ethical decision making in intensive care is a demanding task. The need to proceed to ethical decision is considered to be a stress factor that may lead to burnout. The aim of this study is to explore the ethical problems that may increase burnout levels among physicians and nurses working in Portuguese intensive care units (ICUs). A quantitative, multicentre, correlational study was conducted among 300 professionals. The most crucial ethical decisions made by professionals working in ICU were related to communication, withholding or withdrawing treatments and terminal sedation. A positive relation was found between ethical decision making and burnout in nurses, namely, between burnout and the need to withdraw treatments (p=0.032), to withhold treatments (p=0.002) and to proceed to terminal sedation (p=0.005). This did not apply to physicians. Emotional exhaustion was the burnout subdimension most affected by the ethical decision. The nurses' lack of involvement in ethical decision making was identified as a risk factor. Nevertheless, in comparison with nurses (6%), it was the physicians (34%) who more keenly felt the need to proceed to ethical decisions in ICU. Ethical problems were reported at different levels by physicians and nurses. The type of ethical decisions made by nurses working in Portuguese ICUs had an impact on burnout levels. This did not apply to physicians. This study highlights the need for education in the field of ethics in ICUs and the need to foster inter-disciplinary discussion so as to encourage ethical team deliberation in order to prevent burnout.

  17. NOMAD Trigger Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varvell, K.

    1995-01-01

    The author reports on the status of an offline study of the NOMAD triggers, which has several motivations. Of primary importance is to demonstrate, using offline information recorded by the individual subdetectors comprising NOMAD, that the online trigger system is functioning as expected. Such an investigation serves to complement the extensive monitoring which is already carried out online. More specific to the needs of the offline software and analysis, the reconstruction of tracks and vertices in the detector requires some knowledge of the time at which the trigger has occurred, in order to locate relevant hits in the drift chambers and muon chambers in particular. The fact that the different triggers allowed by the MIOTRINO board take varying times to form complicates this task. An offline trigger algorithm may serve as a tool to shed light on situations where the online trigger status bits have not been recorded correctly, as happens in a small number of cases, or as an aid to studies with the aim of further refinement of the online triggers themselves

  18. submitter Muon trigger efficiency of the ATLAS Detector at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gallus, Petr

    The diploma thesis is devoted to the study of the muon trigger efficiency performance in the ATLAS experiment at the LHC collider. It contains measurements of efficiency of muon triggers of Level 1 and Level 2. Level 1 (LVL1) trigger efficiency of L1 MU20 and L1 2MU20 triggers is measured using Monte-Carlo simulated events. For Level 2 the efficiency of MuFast trigger is analysed in relation to the LVL1 decision. In both examples it is shown that the trigger efficiency depends on the detector geometry and transversal momentum pT of muons. Key words: ATLAS, LHC, trigger

  19. Commissioning the ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Sherman, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 central trigger is a critical part of ATLAS operation. It receives the 40 MHz bunch clock from the LHC and distributes it to all sub-detectors. It initiates their read-out by forming the Level-1 Accept decision, which is based on information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors and a variety of additional trigger inputs from detectors in the forward region. It also provides trigger summary information to the data acquisition system and the Level-2 trigger system. In this paper, we present the completion of the installed central trigger system, its performance during cosmic-ray data taking and the experience gained with triggering on the first LHC beams.

  20. Monitoring and Assessment Science to Support Decision-Making by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, M.; Akhtar-Schuster, M.; Cherlet, M.; Martius, C.; Sommer, S.; Thomas, R.; Vogt, J.

    2009-12-01

    The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) is a global treaty that emerged from the Rio Earth Summit and formally took force in 1996. It has now been ratified by 193 countries (known as Parties to the Convention). Yet the UNCCD has gained only modest support from donors, largely due to questions about the science base underlying its target issue (desertification) resulting in ambiguous definitions and quantification of the problem. The UNCCD recognizes the need to reform itself and commissioned a scientific conference in Buenos Aires, Argentina in September 2009 to discuss ways to improve the scientific underpinning of monitoring and assessment (M&A) of desertification, land degradation and drought (DLDD). Previous attempts by the UNCCD on M&A focused largely on a search for a common, simple, universal set of indicators that could be reported by country Parties to the Convention Secretariat, which would collate them into a global report. However experience found that no single set of indicators is satisfactory to all countries, because DLDD depends strongly on the local environmental and human/social context. Three preparatory Working Groups analyzed the issue of DLDD M&A and recommended the following. Parties should recognize that M&A methods must integrate human-environment parameters to capture the complexity of DLDD phenomena as defined in the Convention’s text. Traditional tendencies had been to isolate biophysical from social and economic parameters, leading to unrealistic conclusions. Parties should take advantage of a much wider range of analytical techniques than just the coarse-scale indicators that had been their main focus to date. Powerful but underutilized techniques include integrated assessment models, remote sensing, geographic information systems and mapping, participatory stakeholder assessment, hierarchical aggregation of related data, knowledge management and many others. Multiple methods could provide validation checks

  1. The D-Zero Run II Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazey, G. C.

    1997-01-01

    The general purpose D0 collider detector, located at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, requires significantly enhanced data acquisition and triggering to operate in the high luminosity (L = 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 ), high rate environment (7 MHz or 132 ns beam crossings) of the upgraded TeVatron proton anti-proton accelerator. This article describes the three major levels and frameworks of the new trigger. Information from the first trigger stage (L1) which includes scintillating, tracking and calorimeter detectors will provide a deadtimeless, 4.2 (micro)s trigger decision with an accept rate of 10 kHz. The second stage (L2), comprised of hardware engines associated with specific detectors and a single global processor will test for correlations between L1 triggers. L2 will have an accept rate of 1 kHz at a maximum deadtime of 5% and require a 100 (micro)s decision time. The third and final stage (L3) will reconstruct events in a farm of processors for a final instantaneous accept rate of 50 Hz

  2. Performance of the ATLAS Muon Trigger and Phase-1 Upgrade of Level-1 Endcap Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Mizukami, Atsushi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment utilises a trigger system to efficiently record interesting events. It consists of first-level and high-level triggers. The first-level trigger is implemented with custom-built hardware to reduce the event rate from 40 MHz to100 kHz. Then the software-based high-level triggers refine the trigger decisions reducing the output rate down to 1 kHz. Events with muons in the final state are an important signature for many physics topics at the LHC. An efficient trigger on muons and a detailed understanding of its performance are required. Trigger efficiencies are, for example, obtained from the muon decay of Z boson, with a Tag&Probe method, using proton-proton collision data collected in 2016 at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The LHC is expected to increase its instantaneous luminosity to $3\\times10^{34} \\rm{cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$ after the phase-1 upgrade between 2018-2020. The upgrade of the ATLAS trigger system is mandatory to cope with this high-luminosity. In the phase-1 upgrade, new det...

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krause

    2010-08-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) presents information supporting the selection of corrective action alternatives (CAAs) leading to the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 562, Waste Systems, in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 562 comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 02-26-11, Lead Shot • 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain • 02-59-01, Septic System • 02-60-01, Concrete Drain • 02-60-02, French Drain • 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain • 02-60-04, French Drain • 02-60-05, French Drain • 02-60-06, French Drain • 02-60-07, French Drain • 23-60-01, Mud Trap Drain and Outfall • 23-99-06, Grease Trap • 25-60-04, Building 3123 Outfalls The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of CAAs for the 13 CASs within CAU 562. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 27, 2009, through May 12, 2010, as set forth in the CAU 562 Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: • Determine whether COCs are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. A data quality assessment (DQA) performed on the CAU 562 data demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the data for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the COCs for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified COCs at 10 of the 13 CASs in CAU 562, and thus corrective

  4. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  5. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Igonkina, O; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Alexandre, G; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Backlund, S; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Bee, C; Behera, P; Bell, P; Bendel, M; Benslama, K; Berry, T; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Bold, T; Booth, J R A; Bosman, M; Boyd, J; Bracinik, J; Brawn, I, P; Brelier, B; Brooks, W; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Casadei, D; Casado, P; Cerri, A; Charlton, D G; Childers, J T; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Davis, A O; De Santo, A; Degenhardt, J; Delsart, P A; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Mattia, A; Diaz, M; Djilkibaev, R; Dobson, E; Dova, M, T; Dufour, M A; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Faulkner, P J W; Ferland, J; Flacher, H; Fleckner, J E; Flowerdew, M; Fonseca-Martin, T; Fratina, S; Fhlisch, F; Gadomski, S; Gallacher, M P; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gee, C N P; George, S; Gillman, A R; Goncalo, R; Grabowska-Bold, I; Groll, M; Gringer, C; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hauser, R; Hellman, S; Hidvgi, A; Hillier, S J; Hryn'ova, T; Idarraga, J; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Kalinowski, A; Khoriauli, G; Kirk, J; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Koeneke, K; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Kwee, R; Landon, M; LeCompte, T; Ledroit, F; Lei, X; Lendermann, V; Lilley, J N; Losada, M; Maettig, S; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Maltrana, D; Marino, C; Masik, J; Meier, K; Middleton, R P; Mincer, A; Moa, T; Monticelli, F; Moreno, D; Morris, J D; Mller, F; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nemethy, P; Neusiedl, A; Oltmann, B; Olvito, D; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Parodi, F; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Perez Reale, V; Petersen, B; Pinzon, G; Potter, C; Prieur, D P F; Prokishin, F; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Reinsch, A; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S; Rodriguez, D; Rogriquez, Y; Rhr, F; Saavedra, A; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santamarina Rios, C; Scannicchio, D; Schiavi, C; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schfer, U; Segura, E; Silverstein, D; Silverstein, S; Sivoklokov, S; Sjlin, J; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strom, D; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Torrence, E; Tripiana, M; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Vachon, B; Vercesi, V; Vorwerk, V; Wang, M; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Weidberg, T; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Whiteson, D; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wildt, M; Winklmeier, F; Wu, X; Xella, S; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; de Seixas, J M; dos Anjos, A; Asman, B; Özcan, E

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 105 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  6. BTeV Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, Erik E.

    2006-01-01

    BTeV was designed to conduct precision studies of CP violation in BB-bar events using a forward-geometry detector in a hadron collider. The detector was optimized for high-rate detection of beauty and charm particles produced in collisions between protons and antiprotons. The trigger was designed to take advantage of the main difference between events with beauty and charm particles and more typical hadronic events-the presence of detached beauty and charm decay vertices. The first stage of the BTeV trigger was to receive data from a pixel vertex detector, reconstruct tracks and vertices for every beam crossing, reject at least 98% of beam crossings in which neither beauty nor charm particles were produced, and trigger on beauty events with high efficiency. An overview of the trigger design and its evolution to include commodity networking and computing components is presented

  7. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igonkina, O; Achenbach, R; Andrei, V; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Alexandre, G; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Backlund, S; Bogaerts, A; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Bee, C; P, Behera; Bell, P; Benslama, K; Berry, T; Bohm, C

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 | 10 5 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  8. Calorimetry Triggering in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igonkina, O.; Achenbach, R.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Alexandre, G.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Backlund, S.; Baines, J.; Barnett, B.M.; Bauss, B.; Bee, C.; Behera, P.; Bell, P.; Bendel, M.; Benslama, K.; Berry, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Bohm, C.; Bold, T.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bosman, M.; Boyd, J.; Bracinik, J.; Brawn, I.P.; Brelier, B.; Brooks, W.; Brunet, S.; Bucci, F.; Casadei, D.; Casado, P.; Cerri, A.; Charlton, D.G.; Childers, J.T.; Collins, N.J.; Conde Muino, P.; Coura Torres, R.; Cranmer, K.; Curtis, C.J.; Czyczula, Z.; Dam, M.; Damazio, D.; Davis, A.O.; De Santo, A.; Degenhardt, J.

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2/10 5 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  9. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igonkina, O [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Achenbach, R; Andrei, V [Kirchhoff Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Adragna, P [Physics Department, Queen Mary, University of London, London (United Kingdom); Aharrouche, M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M [Institut fr Physik, Universitt Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Alexandre, G [Section de Physique, Universite de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Anduaga, X [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina); Aracena, I [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Stanford (United States); Backlund, S; Bogaerts, A [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Baines, J; Barnett, B M [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Bee, C [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, IN2P3-CNRS, Marseille (France); P, Behera [Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (United States); Bell, P [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Benslama, K [University of Regina, Regina (Canada); Berry, T [Department of Physics, Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham (United Kingdom); Bohm, C [Fysikum, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 | 10{sup 5} to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  10. Using simulation to isolate physician variation in intensive care unit admission decision making for critically ill elders with end-stage cancer: a pilot feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnato, Amber E; Hsu, Heather E; Bryce, Cindy L; Lave, Judith R; Emlet, Lillian L; Angus, Derek C; Arnold, Robert M

    2008-12-01

    To determine the feasibility of high-fidelity simulation for studying variation in intensive care unit admission decision making for critically ill elders with end-stage cancer. Mixed qualitative and quantitative analysis of physician subjects participating in a simulation scenario using hospital set, actors, medical chart, and vital signs tracings. The simulation depicted a 78-yr-old man with metastatic gastric cancer, life-threatening hypoxia most likely attributable to cancer progression, and stable preferences to avoid intensive care unit admission and intubation. Two independent raters assessed the simulations and subjects completed a postsimulation web-based survey and debriefing interview. Peter M. Winter Institute for Simulation Education and Research at the University of Pittsburgh. Twenty-seven hospital-based attending physicians, including 6 emergency physicians, 13 hospitalists, and 8 intensivists. Outcomes included qualitative report of clinical verisimilitude during the debriefing interview, survey-reported diagnosis and prognosis, and observed treatment decisions. Independent variables included physician demographics, risk attitude, and reactions to uncertainty. All (100%) reported that the case and simulation were highly realistic, and their diagnostic and prognostic assessments were consistent with our intent. Eight physicians (29.6%) admitted the patient to the intensive care unit. Among the eight physicians who admitted the patient to the intensive care unit, three (37%) initiated palliation, two (25%) documented the patient's code status (do not intubate/do not resuscitate), and one intubated the patient. Among the 19 physicians who did not admit the patient to the intensive care unit, 13 (68%) initiated palliation and 5 (42%) documented code status. Intensivists and emergency physicians (p = 0.048) were more likely to admit the patient to the intensive care unit. Years since medical school graduation were inversely associated with the

  11. Assessment of Two Desk-Top Computer Simulations Used to Train Tactical Decision Making (TDM) of Small Unit Infantry Leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beal, Scott A

    2007-01-01

    Fifty-two leaders in the Basic Non-Commissioned Officer Course (BNCOC) at Fort Benning, Georgia, participated in an assessment of two desk-top computer simulations used to train tactical decision making...

  12. East London Modified-Broset as Decision-Making Tool to Predict Seclusion in Psychiatric Intensive Care Units

    OpenAIRE

    Loi, Felice; Marlowe, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Seclusion is a last resort intervention for management of aggressive behavior in psychiatric settings. There is no current objective and practical decision-making instrument for seclusion use on psychiatric wards. Our aim was to test the predictive and discriminatory characteristics of the East London Modified-Broset (ELMB), to delineate its decision-making profile for seclusion of adult psychiatric patients, and second to benchmark it against the psychometric properties of the Broset Violenc...

  13. A Study in Sea-Air Intermodal Port Selection: Strategic Decision Making for United States Southern Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    commerce ( B2B EC) and electronic data interchange (EDI) enabled by internet connectivity are leading the way in industry innovation. Business can profit...points. Companies like Bon-Ton Stores Inc. are rethinking their supply chains and are using intermodal for the first time ever. In this case, they...W. (1997). Strategic Decision Making: Multiobjective Decision Analysis with Spreadsheets. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company

  14. Adaptation by Stealth: Understanding climate information use across scales and decision spaces in water management in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, C.; Vang Rasmussen, L.; Lemos, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    While there has been considerable focus on understanding how factors related to the creation of climate knowledge affect its uptake and use, less attention has been paid to the actors, decisions, and processes through which climate information supports, or fails to support, action. This is particularly the case concerning how different scales of decision-making influence information uptake. In this study, we seek to understand how water and resource managers' decision space influences climate information use in two Great Lakes watersheds. We find that despite the availability of tailored climate information, actual use of information in decision making remains low. Reasons include: a) lack of willingness to place climate on agendas because local managers perceive climate change as politically risky and a difficult and intangible problem; b) lack of formal mandate or authority at the city and county scale to translate climate information into on-the-ground action, c) problems with the information itself, and d) perceived lack of demand for climate information by those managers who have the mandate and authority (e.g. at the state level) to use (or help others use) climate information. Our findings suggest that 1) climate scientists and information brokers should produce information that meets a range of decision needs and reserve intensive tailoring efforts for decision makers who have authority and willingness to employ climate information, 2) without support from higher levels of decision-making (e.g. state) it is unlikely that climate information use for adaptation decisions will accelerate significantly in the next few years, and 3) the trend towards adopting more sustainability and resilience practices over climate-specific actions should be supported as an important component of the climate adaptation repertoire.

  15. Science informed water resources decision-making: Examples using remote sensing observations in East Africa, the Lower Mekong Basin and the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, S. L.; Andreadis, K.; Das, N.; Farr, T. G.; Ines, A. V. M.; Jayasinghe, S.; Jones, C. E.; Melton, F. S.; Ndungu, L. W.; Lai-Norling, J.; Painter, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    Across the globe, planners and decision makers are often hampered by organizational and data silos and/or a lack of historic data or scant in situ observations on which to base policy and action plans. The end result is a complex interaction of responsibilities, legal frameworks, and stakeholder needs guided by uncertain information that is essentially bounded by how climate extremes are defined and characterized. Because of the importance of water, considerable resources in the developing and developed world are invested in data and tools for managing water. However, the existing paradigm of water management around the world faces significant challenges including inadequate funding to install, maintain or upgrade monitoring networks, lack of resources to integrate new science and data sources into existing tools, and demands for improved spatial coverage of observations. Add to this, a changing hydrology that is so complex it requires measurements and analyses that have never been done before. Interest in applying remote sensing science and observations into the decision making process is growing the world over, but in order to succeed, it is essential to form partnerships with stakeholder organizations and decision makers at the outset. In this talk, we describe examples of succesful decision-maker and science partnering based on projects that apply remote sensing science and observations in East Africa and the Lower Mekong Basin supported by the SERVIR Initiative, a joint United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program, and projects in the western United States supported by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Western Water Applications Office (WWAO). All of these examples have benefitted from strong, committed partnerships with end user agencies. Best practices and lessons learned in connecting science to decision making amongst these examples are explored.

  16. CMS Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Donato, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    During its second run of operation (Run 2) which started in 2015, the LHC will deliver a peak instantaneous luminosity that may reach $2 \\cdot 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ with an average pile-up of about 55, far larger than the design value. Under these conditions, the online event selection is a very challenging task. In CMS, it is realized by a two-level trigger system the Level-1 (L1) Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. In order to face this challenge, the L1 trigger has been through a major upgrade compared to Run 1, whereby all electronic boards of the system have been replaced, allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be run online. Its last stage, the global trigger, is now able to perform complex selections and to compute high-level quantities, like invariant masses. Likewise, the algorithms that run in the HLT go through big improvements; in particular, new appr...

  17. Pattern recognition trigger electronics for an imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, S.M.; Rose, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    For imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, which aim to detect electromagnetic air showers with cameras consisting of several hundred photomultiplier pixels, the single pixel trigger rate is dominated by fluctuations in night sky brightness and by ion feedback in the photomultipliers. Pattern recognition trigger electronics may be used to reject night sky background images, thus reducing the data rate to a manageable level. The trigger system described here detects patterns of 2, 3 or 4 adjacent pixel signals within a 331 pixel camera and gives a positive trigger decision in 65 ns. The candidate pixel pattern is compared with the contents of a pre-programmed memory. With the trigger decision timing controlled by a fixed delay the time-jitter inherent in the use of programmable gate arrays is avoided. This system is now in routine operation at the Whipple 10 m Telescope

  18. A real-time high level trigger system for CALIFA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gernhaeuser, Roman; Heiss, Benjamin; Klenze, Philipp; Remmels, Patrick; Winkel, Max [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The CALIFA calorimeter with its about 2600 scintillator crystals is a key component of the R{sup 3}B setup. For many experiments CALIFA will have to perform complex trigger decisions depending on the total energy deposition, γ multiplicities or geometrical patterns with a minimal latency. This selection is an essential tool for the accurate preselection of relevant events and provides a significant data reduction. The challenge is to aggregate local trigger information from up to 200 readout modules. The trigger tree transport protocol (T{sup 3}P) will use dedicated FPGA boards and bus systems to collect trigger information and perform hierarchical summations to ensure a trigger decision within 1 μs. The basic concept and implementation of T{sup 3}P are presented together with first tests on a prototype system.

  19. The BTeV trigger and data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Joel N.; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The BTeV trigger inspects every beam crossing of the Fermilab Tevatron, running at a luminosity of 2 x 10{sup 32}/cm{sup 2}-s, and selects events that have ''detached vertices'' from B decays occurring downstream of the main interaction. The system uses a massively parallel system of FPGAs and microprocessors to produce a trigger decision on average every 396 ns. The trigger calculations are facilitated by the 23 Million channel pixel detector that provides the input to the trigger. Front end electronics sparsifies the remainder of event data and sends it to large, Tbyte, memory buffers that store it until the trigger decision can be made. This complex system presents special challenges in fault monitoring and power and cooling.

  20. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Dam, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN’s LHC has implemented a dedicated tau trigger system to select hadronically decaying tau leptons from the enormous background of QCD jets. This promises a significant increase in the discovery potential to the Higgs boson and in searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. The three level trigger system has been optimised for effciency and good background rejection. The first level uses information from the calorimeters only, while the two higher levels include also information from the tracking detectors. Shower shape variables and the track multiplicity are important variables to distinguish taus from QCD jets. At the initial lumonosity of 10^31 cm^−2 s^−1, single tau triggers with a transverse energy threshold of 50 GeV or higher can be run standalone. Below this level, the tau signatures will be combined with other event signature

  1. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rados, PK; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Physics processes involving tau leptons play a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the high energy frontier. The ability to efficiently trigger on events containing hadronic tau decays is therefore of particular importance to the ATLAS experiment. During the 2012 run, the Large Hadronic Collder (LHC) reached instantaneous luminosities of nearly $10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ with bunch crossings occurring every $50 ns$. This resulted in a huge event rate and a high probability of overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up). With this in mind it was necessary to design an ATLAS tau trigger system that could reduce the event rate to a manageable level, while efficiently extracting the most interesting physics events in a pile-up robust manner. In this poster the ATLAS tau trigger is described, its performance during 2012 is presented, and the outlook for the LHC Run II is briefly summarized.

  2. A consideration of the functional fixation hypothesis, and the effects of accounting data on managerial decision-making in the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J.

    1980-01-01

    The study involves the application of the functional fixation hypothesis, developed by psychology researchers, to accounting. In this context one is concerned with the effect of previous experience with accounting reports, which may condition an individual to assign meanings to accounting outputs according to the label used, regardless of the accounting methods employed. The study then proceeds to look at its effects on the aggregate of investors comprising the capital market. The study then concentrates on the effects of fixation on managers in the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. Managers from two establishments, divided into four experimental groups made decisions on two case studies, which differed only in the accounting method used, and which provided sufficient footnote information to allow conversion to the other method. Differences in decisions were measured, the results showing that, to varying degrees, managers were fixated with 'total costs' and that those who had greater experience of using reports for a variety of decisions, over a period of time, tended to be less fixated and more likely to adjust the numbers presented, where appropriate. Resource allocation appeared to be influenced by changes in overhead allocation procedures. Finally the specific implications of the results to management accounting and to accounting in the Authority are considered, and the importance of producing accounting reports which accurately model reality and which are decision-orientated is stressed, as is the need to break down restricting functional barriers. (author)

  3. Challenges and opportunities for judicial protection of human rights against decisions of the United Nations Security Council

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollenberg, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    The thesis deals with the responses of domestic and regional courts when they are confronted with cases concerning individuals whose human rights are interfered with due to the implementation of UNSC decisions. The UNSC may impose, for example, economic sanction measures, or place specifically

  4. 76 FR 35401 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Japan and the United Kingdom: Notice of Court Decision Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ...On June 1, 2005, the Department of Commerce (the Department) initiated and the International Trade Commission (ITC) instituted the second sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from Japan and the United Kingdom. On April 20, 2011, the Court of International Trade (CIT) entered its final judgment sustaining the ITC's remand redetermination that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from Japan and the United Kingdom would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time.

  5. A Time-Multiplexed Track-Trigger architecture for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Geoffrey; Pesaresi, Mark Franco; Rose, A

    2014-01-01

    The CMS Tracker under development for the High Luminosity LHC includes an outer tracker based on ``PT-modules'' which will provide track stubs based on coincident clusters in two closely spaced sensor layers, aiming to reject low transverse momentum track hits before data transmission to the Level-1 trigger. The tracker data will be used to reconstruct track segments in dedicated processors before onward transmission to other trigger processors which will combine tracker information with data originating from the calorimeter and muon detectors, to make the final L1 trigger decision. The architecture for processing the tracker data is still an open question. One attractive option is to explore a Time Multiplexed design similar to one which is currently being implemented in the CMS calorimeter trigger as part of the Phase I trigger upgrade. The Time Multiplexed Trigger concept is explained, the potential benefits of applying it for processing future tracker data are described and a possible design based on cur...

  6. Simulation of the ATLAS New Small Wheel trigger

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00399900; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The instantaneous luminosity of the LHC will increase up to a factor of seven with respect to the original design value to explore physics at higher energy scale. The inner station of the ATLAS muon end-cap system (Small Wheel) will be replaced by the New Small Wheel (NSW) to benefit from the high luminosity. The NSW will provide precise track-segment information to the Level-1 trigger system in order to suppress the trigger rate from fake muon tracks. This article summarizes the NSW trigger decision system and track-segment finding algorithm implemented in the trigger processor, and discusses results of performance studies on the trigger system. The results demonstrate that the NSW trigger system is capable of working with good performance satisfying the requirements.

  7. The STAR trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieser, F.S.; Crawford, H.J.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Greiner, L.C.; Judd, E.G.; Klein, S.R.; Meissner, F.; Minor, R.; Milosevich, Z.; Mutchler, G.; Nelson, J.M.; Schambach, J.; VanderMolen, A.S.; Ward, H.; Yepes, P.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the trigger system that we designed and implemented for the STAR detector at RHIC. This is a 10 MHz pipelined system based on fast detector output that controls the event selection for the much slower tracking detectors. Results from the first run are presented and new detectors for the 2001 run are discussed

  8. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harm people too. Try to use pest management methods that pose less of a risk. Keep counters, sinks, tables and floors clean and ... with pest challenges in your home and other environments. [EPA ... pests while reducing pesticide risks; roaches are often asthma triggers and shouldn’t ...

  9. Physics issues on triggering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The detectors at the ILC are planned to run without hardware trigger. The ... as not coming from the interaction point and not matching to the silicon detectors ... electrons so that additional dE/dx cuts can help, making also here a factor 10 or.

  10. AIDS radio triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, A M

    1991-07-01

    In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.

  11. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one trigger that you shouldn't avoid because exercise is important for your health. Your doctor will want you to be active, so talk with him or her about what to do before playing ... or 15 minutes before you exercise or play sports. And, of course, you'll ...

  12. Trigger Finger (Stenosing Tenosynovitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Trigger Finger Email to a friend * required fields ...

  13. DZERO Level 3 DAQ/Trigger Closeout

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The Tevatron Collider, located at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, delivered its last 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions on September 30th, 2011. The DZERO experiment continues to take cosmic data for final alignment for several more months . Since Run 2 started, in March 2001, all DZERO data has been collected by the DZERO Level 3 Trigger/DAQ System. The system is a modern, networked, commodity hardware trigger and data acquisition system based around a large central switch with about 60 front ends and 200 trigger computers. DZERO front end crates are VME based. Single Board Computer interfaces between detector data on VME and the network transport for the DAQ system. Event flow is controlled by the Routing Master which can steer events to clusters of farm nodes based on the low level trigger bits that fired. The farm nodes are multi-core commodity computer boxes, without special hardware, that run isolated software to make the final Level 3 trigger decision. Passed events are transferred to th...

  14. Validation of ATLAS L1 Topological Triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Praderio, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The Topological trigger (L1Topo) is a new component of the ATLAS L1 (Level-1) trigger. Its purpose is that of reducing the otherwise too high rate of data collection from the LHC by rejecting those events considered “uninteresting” (meaning that they have already been studied). This event rate reduction is achieved by applying topological requirements to the physical objects present in each event. It is very important to make sure that this trigger does not reject any “interesting” event. Therefore we need to verify its correct functioning. The goal of this summer student project is to study the response of two L1Topo algorithms (concerning ∆R and invariant mass). To do so I will compare the trigger decisions produced by the L1Topo hardware with the ones produced by the “official” L1Topo simulation. This way I will be able to identify events that could be incorrectly rejected. Simultaneously I will produce an emulation of these triggers that will help me understand the cause of disagreements bet...

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 570: Area 9 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 570: Area 9 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. This complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The purpose of the CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed.

  16. An extra dimension to decision-making in animals: the three-way trade-off between speed, effort per-unit-time and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Froment, Adrian J; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Levin, Simon A

    2014-12-01

    The standard view in biology is that all animals, from bumblebees to human beings, face a trade-off between speed and accuracy as they search for resources and mates, and attempt to avoid predators. For example, the more time a forager spends out of cover gathering information about potential food sources the more likely it is to make accurate decisions about which sources are most rewarding. However, when the cost of time spent out of cover rises (e.g. in the presence of a predator) the optimal strategy is for the forager to spend less time gathering information and to accept a corresponding decline in the accuracy of its decisions. We suggest that this familiar picture is missing a crucial dimension: the amount of effort an animal expends on gathering information in each unit of time. This is important because an animal that can respond to changing time costs by modulating its level of effort per-unit-time does not have to accept the same decrease in accuracy that an animal limited to a simple speed-accuracy trade-off must bear in the same situation. Instead, it can direct additional effort towards (i) reducing the frequency of perceptual errors in the samples it gathers or (ii) increasing the number of samples it gathers per-unit-time. Both of these have the effect of allowing it to gather more accurate information within a given period of time. We use a modified version of a canonical model of decision-making (the sequential probability ratio test) to show that this ability to substitute effort for time confers a fitness advantage in the face of changing time costs. We predict that the ability to modulate effort levels will therefore be widespread in nature, and we lay out testable predictions that could be used to detect adaptive modulation of effort levels in laboratory and field studies. Our understanding of decision-making in all species, including our own, will be improved by this more ecologically-complete picture of the three-way tradeoff between time

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 105 based on the implementation of the corrective actions. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 22, 2012, through May 23, 2013, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices.

  18. Levels of uncertainty, decision making and risk communication: the siting of nuclear waste in France and the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poumadere, M.

    1999-01-01

    The social demand for increased risk control is considered here as it applies to nuclear waste management. Britain's Sellafield Repository Project and France's Mediation Mission to site underground research laboratories are compared. While both management approaches show evolution away from an authoritarian model of decision making and towards implementation of a more socially responsive model, distinct methods of dealing with scientific and social uncertainty appear as well. (author)

  19. Levels of uncertainty, decision making and risk communication: the siting of nuclear waste in France and the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poumadere, M

    1999-11-01

    The social demand for increased risk control is considered here as it applies to nuclear waste management. Britain`s Sellafield Repository Project and France`s Mediation Mission to site underground research laboratories are compared. While both management approaches show evolution away from an authoritarian model of decision making and towards implementation of a more socially responsive model, distinct methods of dealing with scientific and social uncertainty appear as well. (author)

  20. On-line trigger processor in PETRA/DORIS experiments at DESY

    CERN Document Server

    ölschläger, R

    1981-01-01

    Data, presented at a poster session, on on-line trigger processing are given. Brief details of trigger processors at the detectors CELLO, TASSO and ARAUS are shown, including: general working method; IC technology; power consumption; logic elements for trigger decision; number of chambers; number of input wires; execution time; parameter variation; links to host computer; cost; test features. (0 refs).

  1. Operation of the upgraded ATLAS Central Trigger Processor during the LHC Run 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, H.; Montoya, G. Carrillo; Deviveiros, P. O.

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Central Trigger Processor (CTP) is responsible for forming the Level-1 trigger decision based on the information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors. In order to cope with the increase of luminosity and physics cross-sections in Run 2, several components of this system have...

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 478: Area 12 T-Tunnel Ponds, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 478, Area 12 T-Tunnel Ponds. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 478 is comprised of one corrective action site (CAS): • 12-23-01, Ponds (5) RAD Area The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure in place with use restrictions for CAU 478.

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 559: T Tunnel Compressor/Blower Pad, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 559, T-Tunnel Compressor/Blower Pad. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 559 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): • 12-25-13, Oil Stained Soil and Concrete The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure in place with use restrictions for CAU 559.

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 477: Area 12 N-Tunnel Muckpile, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 477, N-Tunnel Muckpile. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 477 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): • 12-06-03, Muckpile The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure with no further action, by placing use restrictions on CAU 477.

  5. A binary-decision-diagram-based two-bit arithmetic logic unit on a GaAs-based regular nanowire network with hexagonal topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongquan; Kasai, Seiya; Shiratori, Yuta; Hashizume, Tamotsu

    2009-01-01

    A two-bit arithmetic logic unit (ALU) was successfully fabricated on a GaAs-based regular nanowire network with hexagonal topology. This fundamental building block of central processing units can be implemented on a regular nanowire network structure with simple circuit architecture based on graphical representation of logic functions using a binary decision diagram and topology control of the graph. The four-instruction ALU was designed by integrating subgraphs representing each instruction, and the circuitry was implemented by transferring the logical graph structure to a GaAs-based nanowire network formed by electron beam lithography and wet chemical etching. A path switching function was implemented in nodes by Schottky wrap gate control of nanowires. The fabricated circuit integrating 32 node devices exhibits the correct output waveforms at room temperature allowing for threshold voltage variation.

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 476: Area 12 T-Tunnel Muckpile, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 476, Area 12 T-Tunnel Muckpile. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 476 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): • 12-06-02, Muckpile The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure in place with use restrictions for CAU 476.

  7. High-voltage high-current triggering vacuum switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alferov, D.F.; Bunin, R.A.; Evsin, D.V.; Sidorov, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental investigations of switching and breaking capacities of the new high current triggered vacuum switch (TVS) are carried out at various parameters of discharge current. It has been shown that the high current triggered vacuum switch TVS can switch repeatedly a current from units up to ten kiloampers with duration up to ten millisecond [ru

  8. Parent Trigger Policies, Representation, and the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ann; Saultz, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Using theories of representation and democratic education, this article examines the impetus of parent trigger policies in the United States and their potential effects on public good goals for public education. The article also uses theories of representation and responsible democratic governance to assess the parent trigger policies, or what are…

  9. Communication tools for end-of-life decision-making in the intensive care unit: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oczkowski, Simon J W; Chung, Han-Oh; Hanvey, Louise; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; You, John J

    2016-04-09

    For many patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), preferences for end-of-life care are unknown, and clinicians and substitute decision-makers are required to make decisions about the goals of care on their behalf. We conducted a systematic review to determine the effect of structured communication tools for end-of-life decision-making, compared to usual care, upon the number of documented goals of care discussions, documented code status, and decisions to withdraw life-sustaining treatments, in adult patients admitted to the ICU. We searched multiple databases including MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, ERIC, and Cochrane from database inception until July 2014. Two reviewers independently screened articles, assessed eligibility, verified data extraction, and assessed risk of bias using the tool described by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. Pooled estimates of effect (relative risk, standardized mean difference, or mean difference), were calculated where sufficient data existed. GRADE was used to evaluate the overall quality of evidence for each outcome. We screened 5785 abstracts and reviewed the full text of 424 articles, finding 168 eligible articles, including 19 studies in the ICU setting. The use of communication tools increased documentation of goals-of-care discussions (RR 3.47, 95% CI 1.55, 7.75, p = 0.020, very low-quality evidence), but did not have an effect on code status documentation (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96, 1.10, p = 0.540, low-quality evidence) or decisions to withdraw or withhold life-sustaining treatments (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.89, 1.08, p = 0.70, low-quality evidence). The use of such tools was associated with a decrease in multiple measures of health care resource utilization, including duration of mechanical ventilation (MD -1.9 days, 95% CI -3.26, -0.54, p = 0.006, very low-quality evidence), length of ICU stay (MD -1.11 days, 95% CI -2.18, -0.03, p = 0.04, very low-quality evidence), and health care costs (SMD -0.32, 95

  10. Satisfaction with care and decision making among parents/caregivers in the pediatric intensive care unit: a comparison between English-speaking whites and Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, David; Unger, Jennifer B; Ornelas, Beatriz; Chang, Jennifer C; Markovitz, Barry P; Dodek, Peter M; Heyland, Daren K; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2015-04-01

    Because of previously documented health care disparities, we hypothesized that English-speaking Latino parents/caregivers would be less satisfied with care and decision making than English-speaking non-Latino white (NLW) parents/caregivers. An intensive care unit (ICU) family satisfaction survey, Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit Survey (pediatric, 24 question version), was completed by English-speaking parents/caregivers of children in a cardiothoracic ICU at a university-affiliated children's hospital in 2011. English-speaking NLW and Latino parents/caregivers of patients, younger than 18 years, admitted to the ICU were approached to participate on hospital day 3 or 4 if they were at the bedside for greater than or equal to 2 days. Analysis of variance, χ(2), and Student t tests were used. Cronbach αs were calculated. Fifty parents/caregivers completed the survey in each group. Latino parents/caregivers were younger, more often mothers born outside the United States, more likely to have government insurance or no insurance, and had less education and income. There were no differences between the groups' mean overall satisfaction scores (92.6 ± 8.3 and 93.0 ± 7.1, respectively; P = .80). The Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit Survey (pediatric, 24 question version) showed high internal consistency reliability (α = .95 and .91 for NLW and Latino groups, respectively). No disparities in ICU satisfaction with care and decision making between English-speaking NLW and Latino parents/caregivers were found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger performance in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00120419; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Level-1 trigger is the first event rate reducing step in the ATLAS detector trigger system, with an output rate of up to 100 kHz and decision latency smaller than 2.5 μs. During the LHC shutdown after Run 1, the Level-1 trigger system was upgraded at hardware, firmware and software levels. In particular, a new electronics sub-system was introduced in the real-time data processing path: the Level-1 Topological trigger system. It consists of a single electronics shelf equipped with two Level-1 Topological processor blades. They receive real-time information from the Level-1 calorimeter and muon triggers, which is processed to measure angles between trigger objects, invariant masses or other kinematic variables. Complementary to other requirements, these measurements are taken into account in the final Level-1 trigger decision. The system was installed and commissioning started in 2015 and continued during 2016. As part of the commissioning, the decisions from individual algorithms were simulated and compar...

  12. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): United Nuclear Corporation, Mckinley County, New Mexico, ground-water operable unit (first remedial action) September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) site is located approximately 17 miles northeast of Gallup, New Mexico in McKinley County. The site operated as a State-licensed uranium mill facility from June 1977 to May 1982. It includes an ore-processing mill (about 25 acres) and an unlined tailings pond area (about 100 acres). In July 1979, approximately 23 million gallons of tailings and pond water were released to a nearby river as a result of a dam breach in the tailings pond area. The site damage was repaired; however, attention was focused on ground-water contamination resulting from tailings seepage. Nevertheless, the offsite migration of radionuclides and chemical constituents from uranium milling byproduct materials into the ground water, as well as to surface water and air, are still principal threats at the site. The remedial action will address onsite ground water contamination. Source control and onsite surface reclamation will be implemented under the direction of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and integrated with this ground water operable unit. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are metals including arsenic, and radioactive substances including radium-226/228 and gross alpha. The selected remedial action for the site is included

  13. A programmable systolic trigger processor for FERA bus data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, G.; Hovander, B.; Sellden, B.; Bohm, C.

    1992-09-01

    A generic CAMAC based trigger processor module for fast processing of large amounts of ADC data, has been designed. This module has been realised using complex programmable gate arrays (LCAs from XILINX). The gate arrays have been connected to memories and multipliers in such a way that different gate array configurations can cover a wide range of module applications. Using this module, it is possible to construct complex trigger processors. The module uses both the fast ECL FERA bus and the CAMAC bus for inputs and outputs. The latter, however, is primarily used for set-up and control but may also be used for data output. Large numbers of ADCs can be served by a hierarchical arrangement of trigger processor modules, processing ADC data with pipe-line arithmetics producing the final result at the apex of the pyramid. The trigger decision will be transmitted to the data acquisition system via a logic signal while numeric results may be extracted by the CAMAC controller. The trigger processor was originally developed for the proposed neutral particle search experiment at CERN, NUMASS. There it was designed to serve as a second level trigger processor. It was required to correct all ADC raw data for efficiency and pedestal, calculate the total calorimeter energy, obtain the optimal time of flight data and calculate the particle mass. A suitable mass cut would then deliver the trigger decision. More complex triggers were also considered. (au)

  14. Forest resources, government policy, and investment location decisions of the forest products industry in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changyou Sun; Daowei Zhang

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the results of an initial attempt to estimate the effects of state attributes on plant location and investment expenditure were presented for the forest products industry in the southern United States. A conditional logit model was used to analyze new plant births, and a time-series cross-section model to assess the total capital expenditure....

  15. Taiwanese Parents' Experience of Making a “Do Not Resuscitate” Decision for Their Child in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Mei Liu, RN, MN

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Open family visiting hours plus staff sensitivity and communication skills training are needed. To help parents with this difficult signing process, nurses and other professionals in the pediatric intensive care unit need education on initiating the conversation, guiding the parents in expressing their fears, and providing continuing support to parents and children throughout the child's end of life process.

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. CAU 105 comprises the following five corrective action sites (CASs): -02-23-04 Atmospheric Test Site - Whitney Closure In Place -02-23-05 Atmospheric Test Site T-2A Closure In Place -02-23-06 Atmospheric Test Site T-2B Clean Closure -02-23-08 Atmospheric Test Site T-2 Closure In Place -02-23-09 Atmospheric Test Site - Turk Closure In Place The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 105 based on the implementation of the corrective actions. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 22, 2012, through May 23, 2013, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices.

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 550: Smoky Contamination Area Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick K. [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550: Smoky Contamination Area, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. CAU 550 includes 19 corrective action sites (CASs), which consist of one weapons-related atmospheric test (Smoky), three safety experiments (Ceres, Oberon, Titania), and 15 debris sites (Table ES-1). The CASs were sorted into the following study groups based on release potential and technical similarities: • Study Group 1, Atmospheric Test • Study Group 2, Safety Experiments • Study Group 3, Washes • Study Group 4, Debris The purpose of this document is to provide justification and documentation supporting the conclusion that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 550 based on implementation of the corrective actions listed in Table ES-1. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed between August 2012 and October 2013 as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 550: Smoky Contamination Area; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan. The approach for the CAI was to investigate and make data quality objective (DQO) decisions based on the types of releases present. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the DQO process. The CAU 550 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs.

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Strand

    2005-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224, Decon Pad and Septic Systems, in Areas 2, 3, 5, 6, 11, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 224 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 02-04-01, Septic Tank (Buried); (2) 03-05-01, Leachfield; (3) 05-04-01, Septic Tanks (4)/Discharge Area; (4) 06-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (3); (5) 06-05-01, Leachfield; (6) 06-17-04, Decon Pad and Wastewater Catch; (7) 06-23-01, Decon Pad Discharge Piping; (8) 11-04-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (9) 23-05-02, Leachfield. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for the nine CASs within CAU 224. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from August 10, 2004, through January 18, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 224 Corrective Action Investigation Plan.

  19. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rados, Petar Kevin

    2013-06-01

    The tau lepton plays a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the Tera scale. One of the most promising probes of the Higgs boson coupling to fermions is with detector signatures involving taus. In addition, many theories beyond the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles (W' and Z'), predict new physics with large couplings to taus. The ability to trigger on hadronic tau decays is therefore critical to achieving the physics goals of the ATLAS experiment. The higher instantaneous luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2012 resulted in a larger probability of overlap (pile-up) between bunch crossings, and so it was critical for ATLAS to have an effective tau trigger strategy. The details of this strategy are summarized in this paper, and the results of the latest performance measurements are presented. (authors)

  20. The LPS trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benotto, F.; Costa, M.; Staiano, A.; Zampieri, A.; Bollito, M.; Isoardi, P.; Pernigotti, E.; Sacchi, R.; Trapani, P.P.; Larsen, H.; Massam, T.; Nemoz, C.

    1996-03-01

    The Leading Proton Spectrometer (LPS) has been equipped with microstrip silicon detectors specially designed to trigger events with high values of x L vertical stroke anti p' p vertical stroke / vertical stroke anti p p vertical stroke ≥0.95 where vertical stroke anti p' p vertical stroke and vertical stroke anti p p vertical stroke are respectively the momenta of outgoing and incoming protons. The LPS First Level Trigger can provide a clear tag for very high momentum protons in a kinematical region never explored before. In the following we discuss the physics motivation in tagging very forward protons and present a detailed description of the detector design, the front end electronics, the readout electronics, the Monte Carlo simulation and some preliminary results from 1995 data taking. (orig.)

  1. Minimum risk trigger indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, F.H.

    1979-01-01

    A viable safeguards system includes among other things the development and use of indices which trigger various courses of action. The usual limit of error calculation provides such an index. The classical approach is one of constructing tests which, under certain assumptions, make the likelihood of a false alarm small. Of concern also is the test's failure to indicate a loss (diversion) when in fact one has occurred. Since false alarms are usually costly and losses both costly and of extreme strategic sinificance, there remains the task of balancing the probability of false alarm and its consequences against the probability of undetected loss and its consequences. The application of other than classical hypothesis testing procedures are considered in this paper. Using various consequence models, trigger indices are derived which have certain optimum properties. Application of the techniques would enhance the material control function

  2. Neural networks for triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, B.; Campbell, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Chriss, N.; Bowers, C.; Nesti, F.

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  3. The ARGUS vertex trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, N.; Kolander, M.; Kolanoski, H.; Siegmund, T.; Bergter, J.; Eckstein, P.; Schubert, K.R.; Waldi, R.; Imhof, M.; Ressing, D.; Weiss, U.; Weseler, S.

    1995-09-01

    A fast second level trigger has been developed for the ARGUS experiment which recognizes tracks originating from the interaction region. The processor compares the hits in the ARGUS Micro Vertex Drift Chamber to 245760 masks stored in random access memories. The masks which are fully defined in three dimensions are able to reject tracks originating in the wall of the narrow beampipe of 10.5 mm radius. (orig.)

  4. A Qualitative Study of Breast Reconstruction Decision-Making among Asian Immigrant Women Living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rose; Chang, Michelle Milee; Chen, Margaret; Rohde, Christine Hsu

    2017-02-01

    Despite research supporting improved psychosocial well-being, quality of life, and survival for patients undergoing postmastectomy breast reconstruction, Asian patients remain one-fifth as likely as Caucasians to choose reconstruction. This study investigates cultural factors, values, and perceptions held by Asian women that might impact breast reconstruction rates. The authors conducted semistructured interviews of immigrant East Asian women treated for breast cancer in the New York metropolitan area, investigating social structure, culture, attitudes toward surgery, and body image. Three investigators independently coded transcribed interviews, and then collectively evaluated them through axial coding of recurring themes. Thirty-five immigrant East Asian women who underwent surgical treatment for breast cancer were interviewed. Emerging themes include functionality, age, perceptions of plastic surgery, inconvenience, community/family, fear of implants, language, and information. Patients spoke about breasts as a function of their roles as a wife or mother, eliminating the need for breasts when these roles were fulfilled. Many addressed the fear of multiple operations. Quality and quantity of information, and communication with practitioners, impacted perceptions about treatment. Reconstructive surgery was often viewed as cosmetic. Community and family played a significant role in decision-making. Asian women are statistically less likely than Caucasians to pursue breast reconstruction. This is the first study to investigate culture-specific perceptions of breast reconstruction. Results from this study can be used to improve cultural competency in addressing patient concerns. Improving access to information regarding treatment options and surgical outcomes may improve informed decision-making among immigrant Asian women.

  5. Factors associated with decisions to attend cervical cancer screening among women aged 30-60 years in Chatapadung Contracting Medical Unit, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budkaew, Jiratha; Chumworathayi, Bandit

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with women's decisions to attend cervical cancer screening and to explore those linked with intention to attend in the coming year and to continue regular screening. A community based case-control study was conducted among woman 30-60 years of age in catchment area of Chatapadung Contracting Medical Unit (CCMU), networking of Khon Kaen Center Hospital, Thailand. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data, and in-depth interviews were then performed to explore in greater detail. There were 195 participants. Only one third (32.3 %) had been screened for cervical cancer within the past 5 years. Some 67.7% reported that they had not been screened because they had no abnormal symptoms, single marital status, and no children. Only 10.6% of those never had screening intent to be screened within the next 12 months. High family income (adjusted OR=2.16, 95%CI=1.13-4.14), good attitude towards a Pap test (OR=1.87, 95%CI=1.09-4.23), and having received a recommendation from health care providers were important factors associated with decisions to attend cervical cancer screening (OR=1.73, 95%CI=1.01-4.63). From in-depth interviews, there were five reasons of their decisions to attend cervical cancer screening including yearly check-up, postpartum check-up, having abnormal symptom, encouragement by health care providers, and request from workplace. High family income, good attitude towards a Pap test, and receiving proper recommendation by health care providers, were important factors associated with decision to have cervical cancer screening among women 30-60 years old. Trying to enhance these factors and reduce barriers regarding screening, may increase the coverage rate for cervical cancer screening in Thailand.

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit 375 comprises three corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 25-23-22, Contaminated Soils Site; (2) 25-34-06, Test Cell A Bunker; and (3) 30-45-01, U-30a, b, c, d, e Craters. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 375 based on the implementation of corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls at CAS 25-23-22, no further action at CAS 25-34-06, and closure in place with administrative controls and removal of potential source material (PSM) at CAS 30-45-01. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 28, 2010, through April 4, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 375 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were assumed to be present within the default contamination boundaries at CASs 25-23-22 and 30-45-01. No contaminants were identified at CAS 25-34-06, and no corrective action is necessary. Potential source material in the form of lead plate, lead-acid batteries, and oil within an abandoned transformer were identified at CAS 30-45-01, and corrective actions were undertaken that

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 190: Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 190, Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (1996, as amended January 2007). Corrective Action Unit 190 is comprised of the following four corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 11-02-01, Underground Centrifuge; (2) 11-02-02, Drain Lines and Outfall; (3) 11-59-01, Tweezer Facility Septic System; (4) 14-23-01, LTU-6 Test Area The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 190 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from March 21 through June 26, 2007. All CAI activities were conducted as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 190: Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 190 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the data quality objective data needs

  8. GPUs for real-time processing in HEP trigger systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ammendola, R; Deri, L; Fiorini, M; Frezza, O; Lamanna, G; Lo Cicero, F; Lonardo, A; Messina, A; Sozzi, M; Pantaleo, F; Paolucci, Ps; Rossetti, D; Simula, F; Tosoratto, L; Vicini, P

    2014-01-01

    We describe a pilot project (GAP - GPU Application Project) for the use of GPUs (Graphics processing units) for online triggering applications in High Energy Physics experiments. Two major trends can be identied in the development of trigger and DAQ systems for particle physics experiments: the massive use of general-purpose commodity systems such as commercial multicore PC farms for data acquisition, and the reduction of trigger levels implemented in hardware, towards a fully software data selection system (\\trigger-less"). The innovative approach presented here aims at exploiting the parallel computing power of commercial GPUs to perform fast computations in software not only in high level trigger levels but also in early trigger stages. General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several elds of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specic strengths of such devices as accelerators in oine computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the incre...

  9. The ZEUS second level calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, S.J. de.

    1990-01-01

    ZEUS is a detector for the HERA ep collider, consisting of several large components. The most important being the inner tracking detectors, which are positioned nearest to the interaction point, the calorimeter surrounding the inner tracking detectors and the muon detectors on the outside of the experimental setup. Each component will deliver a vast amount of information. In order to keep this information manageable, data is preprocessed and condensed per component and then combined to obtain the final global trigger result. The main subject of this thesis is the second level calorimeter trigger processor of the ZEUS detector. In order to be able to reject the unwanted events passing the first level, the topological event signature will have to be used at the second level. The most demanding task of the second level is the recognition of local energy depositions corresponding to isolated electrons and hadron jets. Also part of the work performed by the first level will be repeated with a higher level of accuracy. Additional information not available to the first level trigger will be processed and will be made available to the global second level trigger decision module. For the second level calorimeter trigger processor a special VME module, containing two transputers, has been developed. The second level calorimeter trigger algorithm described in this thesis was tested with simulated events, that were tracked through a computer simulation of the ZEUS detector. A part of this thesis is therefore devoted to the description of the various Monte Carlo models and the justification of the way in which they were used. (author). 132 refs.; 76 figs.; 18 tabs

  10. The effect of labour on ownership decisions in two cultures: developmental evidence from Japan and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Itakura, Shoji; Hood, Bruce M

    2014-09-01

    Creative labour has an effect on children's and adults' ownership decisions in Western cultures. We investigated whether preschoolers and adults from an Eastern culture (Japan) would show a similar bias. In a first-party task (Experiment 1), in which participants created their own objects, Japanese preschoolers but not adults assigned ownership to creators. When participants watched videos of third-party conflicts between owners of materials and creators (Experiment 2), Japanese adults, but not preschoolers, transferred ownership to creators. In a British comparison group, both preschoolers and adults showed an effect of creative labour in the third-party task. A bias to attribute ownership on the basis of creative labour is thus not specific to Western culture. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  11. The evolution of social networks through the implementation of evidence-informed decision-making interventions: a longitudinal analysis of three public health units in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi-Nooraie, Reza; Dobbins, Maureen; Marin, Alexandra; Hanneman, Robert; Lohfeld, Lynne

    2015-12-03

    We studied the evolution of information-seeking networks over a 2-year period during which an organization-wide intervention was implemented to promote evidence-informed decision-making (EIDM) in three public health units in Ontario, Canada. We tested whether engagement of staff in the intervention and their EIDM behavior were associated with being chosen as information source and how the trend of inter-divisional communications and the dominance of experts evolved over time. Local managers at each health unit selected a group of staff to get engage in Knowledge Broker-led workshops and development of evidence summaries to address local public health problems. The staff were invited to answer three online surveys (at baseline and two annual follow-ups) including name generator questions eliciting the list of the staff they would turn to for help integrating research evidence into practice. We used stochastic actor-oriented modeling to study the evolution of networks. We tested the effect of engagement in the intervention, EIDM behavior scores, organizational divisions, and structural dynamics of social networks on the tendency of staff to select information sources, and the change in its trend between year 1 and year 2 of follow-up. In all the three health units, and especially in the two units with higher levels of engagement in the intervention, the network evolved towards a more centralized structure, with an increasing significance of already central staff. The staff showed greater tendencies to seek information from peers with higher EIDM behavior scores. In the public health unit that had highest engagement and stronger leadership support, the engaged staff became more central. In all public health units, the engaged staff showed an increasing tendency towards forming clusters. The staff in the three public health units showed a tendency towards limiting their connections within their divisions. The longitudinal analysis provided us with a means to study the

  12. Accounting for the social triggers of sexual compulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jeffrey T; Kelly, Brian C; Bimbi, David S; Muench, Frederick; Morgenstern, Jon

    2007-01-01

    To examine the social triggers of sexual compulsivity amongst a diverse sample of gay and bisexual men. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 180 gay and bisexual men in the United States who self-identified that their sex lives were spinning out of control. The data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach to explore the range of social triggers that were driving sexual compulsions. An open-ended interview and a structured clinical interview were conducted with each participant. The interviews examined their experiences with sexual compulsivity over time and the impact of their problematic sexual behaviors on their lives. Two types of social triggers emerged from the data: event-centered triggers and contextual triggers. Event-centered triggers arise from sudden, unforeseen events. Two major event-centered triggers were identified: relationship turmoil and catastrophes. Contextual triggers, on the other hand, have a certain element of predictability, and included such things as location, people, the use of drugs, and pornography. This framework of triggers has clinical implications for the prevention and treatment of sexual compulsivity. Clinicians can utilize the framework of social triggers in the therapeutic process to provide insight into ways to effectively work through symptoms of sexual compulsivity. Awareness of the contextual aspects of sexual compulsivity may be critical to understanding the behaviors of sexually compulsive clients. Thus, therapeutic assessments should focus upon the social context in addition to the psychological components of the disorder.

  13. Criticality triggers the emergence of collective intelligence in groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vincenzo, Ilario; Giannoccaro, Ilaria; Carbone, Giuseppe; Grigolini, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    A spinlike model mimicking human behavior in groups is employed to investigate the dynamics of the decision-making process. Within the model, the temporal evolution of the state of systems is governed by a time-continuous Markov chain. The transition rates of the resulting master equation are defined in terms of the change of interaction energy between the neighboring agents (change of the level of conflict) and the change of a locally defined agent fitness. Three control parameters can be identified: (i) the social interaction strength β J measured in units of social temperature, (ii) the level of confidence β' that each individual has on his own expertise, and (iii) the level of knowledge p that identifies the expertise of each member. Based on these three parameters, the phase diagrams of the system show that a critical transition front exists where a sharp and concurrent change in fitness and consensus takes place. We show that at the critical front, the information leakage from the fitness landscape to the agents is maximized. This event triggers the emergence of the collective intelligence of the group, and in the end it leads to a dramatic improvement in the decision-making performance of the group. The effect of size M of the system is also investigated, showing that, depending on the value of the control parameters, increasing M may be either beneficial or detrimental.

  14. Trigger Timing Module for SVD2 upgrade at Belle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, M.C.; Gao, Z.W.; Guo, Y.N.; Kawasaki, T.; Ueno, K.; Velikzhanin, Y.S.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a Trigger Timing Module (TTM2) for the control and readout electronics (CORE) of the upgraded Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD2) for use in the BELLE experiment. Eleven Trigger Timing Modules located at one VME-crate provide timing and strobe signals for the SVD2 CORE electronics and make communication between SVD2 and Global Decision Logic of the BELLE data acquisition system. The main motivation to make a new TTM design is to avoid glitches

  15. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/ Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, Operable Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The subject Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses residual free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination suspected in the subsurface within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU2). This IM/IRAP/EA also addresses radionuclide contamination beneath the 903 Pad at OU2. Although subsurface VOC and radionuclide contamination on represent a source of OU2 ground-water contamination, they pose no immediate threat to public health or the environment. This volume contains five appendices

  16. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  17. Common decisions made and actions taken during small-animal consultations at eight first-opinion practices in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, N J; Brennan, M L; Cobb, M; Dean, R S

    2017-04-01

    In order for veterinary surgeons to undertake an evidence-based approach to making decisions about their patients, it is important that new evidence is generated to support the clinical decision-making process. Many of the decisions are likely to be around the actions taken to treat or manage health problems discussed during the consultation, and little is currently known about the factors which affect the type of action taken. The aim of this study was to determine the decisions made and actions taken for health problems discussed during first-opinion small-animal consultations, as well as identifying factors which may affect the decision-making process. Data were gathered during direct observation of small-animal consultations conducted by 62 veterinary surgeons in eight first-opinion practices in the United Kingdom. For each patient presented, data were gathered on all health problems discussed during the consultation. The decision made (whether an action was taken or not) and the action taken where applicable (e.g. therapeutic treatment with antibiotics) was also recorded. A three-level multivariable logistic-regression model was developed, with problem (Level 1) nested within patient (Level 2) nested within consulting veterinary surgeon (Level 3), and a binary outcome variable of action versus no action. At least one action was taken for 69% (n=2203/3192) of all problems discussed. Therapeutic treatment was the most common action taken (n=1286/3192 problems; 40.3%), followed by management advice (n=1040/3192; 32.6%) and diagnostic work-up (n=323/3192; 10.1%). The most common therapeutic treatment was antibiotics (n=386/1286; 30%), while the most common management advice given was dietary advice (n=509/1040; 48.9%). The three explanatory variables remaining in the final model were whether the problem was a presenting or non-presenting problem, the type of diagnosis made, and the body system affected. Explanatory variables which did not remain in the final model

  18. A Neural Network Approach to Muon Triggering in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Livneh, Ran; CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The extremely high rate of events that will be produced in the future Large Hadron Collider requires the triggering mechanism to make precise decisions in a few nano-seconds. This poses a complicated inverse problem, arising from the inhomogeneous nature of the magnetic fields in ATLAS. This thesis presents a study of an application of Artificial Neural Networks to the muon triggering problem in the ATLAS end-cap. A comparison with realistic results from the ATLAS first level trigger simulation was in favour of the neural network, but this is mainly due to superior resolution available off-line. Other options for applying a neural network to this problem are discussed.

  19. Multiple time digitizers and a trigger system for drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggert, K.; Engster, C.; Koningsveld, L. van; Por, G.; Verweij, H.

    1980-01-01

    The architecture of a readout system is described which will be used in conjunction with the muon detector in the UA-1 experiment at the anti pp collider at CERN. In addition to measuring drift time for spatial information, the system provides a fast trigger (< 1 μs after drift time) and a second level trigger decision based on a fast microprocessor. The fast trigger part allows the use of the muon detector as an active trigger element, while a second level trigger decision using detailed digitizer data is included for adequate reduction of the trigger rate. The multipole time digitizer (MTD) is based on the use of fast RAMs (256 x 4) as 125 MHz shift registers, giving time bins of 8 ns and a time range of 2 μs (256 x 8 ns). The high input rate has imposed a fast readout and transfer to a buffer in the controller. The data in this buffer is reordered according to wire number and corresponding times. Together with look-up tables this allows fast processing of the data for a second level trigger. (orig.)

  20. ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Belanger-Champagne, C; Bosman, M; Brenner, R; Casado, MP; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Demers, S; Farrington, S; Igonkina, O; Kalinowski, A; Kanaya, N; Osuna, C; Pérez, E; Ptacek, E; Reinsch, A; Saavedra, A; Sopczak, A; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Tsuno, S; Vorwerk, V; Watson, A; Xella, S

    2008-01-01

    Moving to the high energy scale of the LHC, the identification of tau leptons will become a necessary and very powerful tool, allowing a discovery of physics beyond Standard Model. Many models, among them light SM Higgs and various SUSY models, predict an abundant production of taus with respect to other leptons. The reconstruction of hadronic tau decays, although a very challenging task in hadronic enviroments, allows to increase a signal efficiency by at least of factor 2, and provides an independent control sample to disantangle lepton tau decays from prompt electrons and muons. Thanks to the advanced calorimetry and tracking, the ATLAS experiment has developed tools to efficiently identify hadronic taus at the trigger level. In this presentation we will review the characteristics of taus and the methods to suppress low-multiplicity, low-energy jets contributions as well as we will address the tau trigger chain which provide a rejection rate of 10^5. We will further present plans for commissioning the ATLA...

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision 0) with ROTC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Mark J

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 137 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from February 28 through August 17, 2006, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective process: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. ROTC-1: Downgrade FFACO UR at CAU 137, CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site to an Administrative UR. ROTC-2: Downgrade FFACO UR at CAU 137, CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site to an Administrative UR.

  2. Computer says 2.5 litres--how best to incorporate intelligent software into clinical decision making in the intensive care unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Katie; Boyd, Owen

    2009-01-01

    What will be the role of the intensivist when computer-assisted decision support reaches maturity? Celi's group reports that Bayesian theory can predict a patient's fluid requirement on day 2 in 78% of cases, based on data collected on day 1 and the known associations between those data, based on observations in previous patients in their unit. There are both advantages and limitations to the Bayesian approach, and this test study identifies areas for improvement in future models. Although such models have the potential to improve diagnostic and therapeutic accuracy, they must be introduced judiciously and locally to maximize their effect on patient outcome. Efficacy is thus far undetermined, and these novel approaches to patient management raise new challenges, not least medicolegal ones.

  3. An Integrated Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model and AHP Weighting Uncertainty Analysis for Sustainability Assessment of Coal-Fired Power Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianfa Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the power generation industry from coal-based to more sustainable energy sources is an irreversible trend. In China, the coal-fired power plant, as the main electric power supply facility at present, needs to know its own sustainability level to face the future competition. A hybrid multi-criteria decision making (MCDM model is proposed in this paper to assess the sustainability levels of the existing Chinese coal-fired power units. The areal grey relational analysis (AGRA method is involved in the hybrid model, and a combined weighting method is used to determine the priorities of the criteria. The combining weight fuses the fuzzy rough set (FRS and entropy objective weighting method together with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP subjective weighting method by game theory. Moreover, an AHP weighting uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo (MC simulation is introduced to measure the uncertainty of the results, and a 95 percent confidence interval (CI is defined as the uncertainty measurement of the alternatives. A case study about eight coal-fired power units is carried out with a criteria system, which contains five aspects in an operational perspective, such as the flexibility, economic, environmental, reliability and technical criterion. The sustainability assessment is performed at the unit level, and the results give a priority rank of the eight alternatives; additionally, the uncertainty analysis supplies the extra information from a statistical perspective. This work expands a novel hybrid MCDM method to the sustainability assessment of the power generation systems, and it may be a benefit to the energy enterprises in assessing the sustainability at the unit level and enhance its ability in future sustainable development.

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 551: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 551, Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The corrective actions proposed in this document are in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 551 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) that are shown on Figure 1-2 and listed below: CAS 12-01-09, Aboveground Storage Tank and Stain; CAS 12-06-05, U-12b Muckpile; CAS 12-06-07, Muckpile; and CAS 12-06-08, Muckpile. A detailed discussion of the history of this CAU is presented in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 551: Area 12 Muckpiles'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004). This CADD/CR provides justification for the closure of CAU 551 in place with administrative controls. This justification is based upon process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NSO, 2004). The CAIP provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, this information will not be repeated in the CADD/CR. Corrective Action Unit 551, Area 12 Muckpiles, consists of four inactive sites located in the southwestern portion of Area 12. The four CAU 551 sites consist of three muckpiles, and an aboveground storage tank (AST) and stain. The CAU 551 sites were all used during underground nuclear testing at the B-, C-, D- and F-Tunnels in the late 1950s and early 1960s and have mostly remained inactive since that period.

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 551: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 551, Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The corrective actions proposed in this document are in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 551 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) that are shown on Figure 1-2 and listed below: CAS 12-01-09, Aboveground Storage Tank and Stain; CAS 12-06-05, U-12b Muckpile; CAS 12-06-07, Muckpile; and CAS 12-06-08, Muckpile. A detailed discussion of the history of this CAU is presented in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 551: Area 12 Muckpiles'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004). This CADD/CR provides justification for the closure of CAU 551 in place with administrative controls. This justification is based upon process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NSO, 2004). The CAIP provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, this information will not be repeated in the CADD/CR. Corrective Action Unit 551, Area 12 Muckpiles, consists of four inactive sites located in the southwestern portion of Area 12. The four CAU 551 sites consist of three muckpiles, and an aboveground storage tank (AST) and stain. The CAU 551 sites were all used during underground nuclear testing at the B-, C-, D- and F-Tunnels in the late 1950s and early 1960s and have mostly remained inactive since that period

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 371: Johnnie Boy Crater and Pin Stripe Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2010-07-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 371, Johnnie Boy Crater and Pin Stripe, located within Areas 11 and 18 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 371 comprises two corrective action sites (CASs): • 11-23-05, Pin Stripe Contamination Area • 18-45-01, U-18j-2 Crater (Johnnie Boy) The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 371 based on the implementation of corrective actions. The corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls was implemented at both CASs. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 8, 2009, through February 16, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 371: Johnnie Boy Crater and Pin Stripe. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 371 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. Radiological doses exceeding the FAL of 25 millirem per year were not found to be present in the surface soil. However, it was assumed that radionuclides are present in subsurface media within the Johnnie Boy crater and the fissure at Pin Stripe. Due to the assumption of radiological dose exceeding the FAL, corrective actions were undertaken

  7. Surgery for trigger finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Haroldo Junior; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun; Lenza, Mário; Gomes Dos Santos, Joao Baptista; Faloppa, Flávio; Belloti, Joao Carlos

    2018-02-20

    Trigger finger is a common clinical disorder, characterised by pain and catching as the patient flexes and extends digits because of disproportion between the diameter of flexor tendons and the A1 pulley. The treatment approach may include non-surgical or surgical treatments. Currently there is no consensus about the best surgical treatment approach (open, percutaneous or endoscopic approaches). To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different methods of surgical treatment for trigger finger (open, percutaneous or endoscopic approaches) in adults at any stage of the disease. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS up to August 2017. We included randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that assessed adults with trigger finger and compared any type of surgical treatment with each other or with any other non-surgical intervention. The major outcomes were the resolution of trigger finger, pain, hand function, participant-reported treatment success or satisfaction, recurrence of triggering, adverse events and neurovascular injury. Two review authors independently selected the trial reports, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Measures of treatment effect for dichotomous outcomes calculated risk ratios (RRs), and mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMD) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). When possible, the data were pooled into meta-analysis using the random-effects model. GRADE was used to assess the quality of evidence for each outcome. Fourteen trials were included, totalling 1260 participants, with 1361 trigger fingers. The age of participants included in the studies ranged from 16 to 88 years; and the majority of participants were women (approximately 70%). The average duration of symptoms ranged from three to 15 months, and the follow-up after the procedure ranged from eight weeks to 23 months.The studies reported nine types of comparisons: open surgery versus steroid injections (two

  8. A decade of marketing approval of gene and cell-based therapies in the United States, European Union and Japan: An evaluation of regulatory decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, D G M; de Wilde, S; Guchelaar, H J; De Bruin, M L; Leufkens, H G M; Meij, P; Hoekman, J

    2018-05-02

    There is a widely held expectation of clinical advance with the development of gene and cell-based therapies (GCTs). Yet, establishing benefits and risks is highly uncertain. We examine differences in decision-making for GCT approval between jurisdictions by comparing regulatory assessment procedures in the United States (US), European Union (EU) and Japan. A cohort of 18 assessment procedures was analyzed by comparing product characteristics, evidentiary and non-evidentiary factors considered for approval and post-marketing risk management. Product characteristics are very heterogeneous and only three products are marketed in multiple jurisdictions. Almost half of all approved GCTs received an orphan designation. Overall, confirmatory evidence or indications of clinical benefit were evident in US and EU applications, whereas in Japan approval was solely granted based on non-confirmatory evidence. Due to scientific uncertainties and safety risks, substantial post-marketing risk management activities were requested in the EU and Japan. EU and Japanese authorities often took unmet medical needs into consideration in decision-making for approval. These observations underline the effects of implemented legislation in these two jurisdictions that facilitate an adaptive approach to licensing. In the US, the recent assessments of two chimeric antigen receptor-T cell (CAR-T) products are suggestive of a trend toward a more permissive approach for GCT approval under recent reforms, in contrast to a more binary decision-making approach for previous approvals. It indicates that all three regulatory agencies are currently willing to take risks by approving GCTs with scientific uncertainties and safety risks, urging them to pay accurate attention to post-marketing risk management. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site Corrective Action Unit 339

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonn, J.F.

    1996-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) incorporates the methodology used for evaluating the remedial alternatives completed for a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12, east of the Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The discharge area has been impacted by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) F Listed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and petroleum hydrocarbons waste. Based upon these findings, resulting from Phase 1 and Phase 2 site investigations, corrective action is required at the site. To determine the appropriate corrective action to be proposed, an evaluation of remedial alternatives was completed. The evaluation was completed using a Corrective Measures Study (CMS). Based on the results of the CMS, the favored closure alternative for the site is plugging the effluent discharge line, removing the sandbagged barrier, completing excavation of VOC impacted soils, and fencing the soil area impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), east of the discharge line and west of the soil berm. Management of the F Listed VOCs are dictated by RCRA. Due to the small volume of impacted soil, excavation and transportation to a Treatment Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF) is the most practical method of management. It is anticipated that the TPH (as oil) impacted soils will remain in place based upon; the A through K Analysis, concentrations detected (maximum 8,600 milligrams per kilogram), expected natural degradation of the hydrocarbons over time, and the findings of the Phase 2 Investigation that vertical migration has been minimal.

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site Corrective Action Unit 339

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, J.F.

    1996-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) incorporates the methodology used for evaluating the remedial alternatives completed for a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12, east of the Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The discharge area has been impacted by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) F Listed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and petroleum hydrocarbons waste. Based upon these findings, resulting from Phase 1 and Phase 2 site investigations, corrective action is required at the site. To determine the appropriate corrective action to be proposed, an evaluation of remedial alternatives was completed. The evaluation was completed using a Corrective Measures Study (CMS). Based on the results of the CMS, the favored closure alternative for the site is plugging the effluent discharge line, removing the sandbagged barrier, completing excavation of VOC impacted soils, and fencing the soil area impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), east of the discharge line and west of the soil berm. Management of the F Listed VOCs are dictated by RCRA. Due to the small volume of impacted soil, excavation and transportation to a Treatment Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF) is the most practical method of management. It is anticipated that the TPH (as oil) impacted soils will remain in place based upon; the A through K Analysis, concentrations detected (maximum 8,600 milligrams per kilogram), expected natural degradation of the hydrocarbons over time, and the findings of the Phase 2 Investigation that vertical migration has been minimal

  11. A Spatial Decision Support System Framework for the Evaluation of Biomass Energy Production Locations: Case Study in the Regional Unit of Drama, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Ioannou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable Energy Sources are expected to play a very important role in energy production in the following years. They constitute an energy production methodology which, if properly enabled, can ensure energy sufficiency as well as the protection of the environment. Energy production from biomass in particular is a very common method, which exploits a variety of resources (wood and wood waste, agricultural crops and their by-products after cultivation, animal wastes, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW and food processing wastes for the production of energy. This paper presents a Spatial Decision Support System, which enables managers to locate the most suitable areas for biomass power plant installation. For doing this, fuzzy logic and fuzzy membership functions are used for the creation of criteria layers and suitability maps. In this paper, we use a Multicriteria Decision Analysis methodology (Analytical Hierarchy Process combined with fuzzy system elements for the determination of the weight coefficients of the participating criteria. Then, based on the combination of fuzzy logic and theAnalytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, a final proposal is created thatdivides the area into four categories regarding their suitability forsupporting a biomass energy production power plant. For the two optimal locations, the biomass is also calculated.The framework is applied to theRegional Unit of Drama, which is situated in Northern Greece and is very well known for the area’s forest and agricultural production.

  12. Access to the decision-making process: opportunities for public involvement in the facility decommissioning process of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, F.X.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses recent initiatives taken by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission NRC) to effectively involve the public in decommissioning decisions. Initiatives discussed include the Commission's rulemaking to establish the radiological criteria for decommissioning, as well as public involvement methods that have been used on a site-by-site basis. As un example of public involvement, the NRC is currently in the process of developing generic rules on the radiological criteria for the decontamination and decommissioning of NRC-licensed sites. Not only was this proposed rule developed through an extensive and novel approach for public involvement, but it also establishes the basic provisions that will govern public involvement in future NRC decisions on the decommissioning of individual sites. The aim is to provide the public with timely information about all phases of the NRC staff to express concerns and make recommendations. Th NRC recognizes the value and the necessity of effective public involvement in its regulatory activities and has initiated a number of changes to its regulatory program to accomplish this. From the NRC's perspective, it is much easier and less costly to incorporate these mechanisms for public involvement into the regulatory program early in the process, rather than try to add them after considerable public controversy on an action has already been generated. The historical antecedents for initiatives mentioned, as well as 'lessons learned' from prior experience are also discussed. (author)

  13. The CLEO-III Trigger: Calorimetry and tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergfeld, T.J.; Gollin, G.D.; Haney, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The CLEO-III Trigger provides a trigger decision every 42ns, with a latency of approximately 2.5μs. This paper describes the pipelined signal processing and pattern recognition schemes used by the calorimeter, and the axial and stereo portions of the drift chamber, to provide the information necessary to make these decisions. Field programmable gate arrays are used extensively to provide cluster filtering and location sorting for calorimetry, and path finding for tracking. Analog processing is also employed in the calorimetry to provide additional leverage on the problem. Timing information is extracted from both calorimetry and tracking

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-04-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204.

  15. Evidence of underage targeting of alcohol advertising on television in the United States: Lessons from the Lockyer v. Reynolds decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Joshua; Jernigan, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Underage alcohol use is a global public health problem and alcohol advertising has been associated with underage drinking. The alcohol industry regulates itself and is the primary control on alcohol advertising in many countries around the world, advising trade association members to advertise only in adult-oriented media. Despite high levels of compliance with these self-regulatory guidelines, in several countries youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television has grown faster than adult exposure. In the United States, we found that exposure for underage viewers ages 18–20 grew from 2005 through 2011 faster than any adult age group. Applying a method adopted from a court in the US to identify underage targeting of advertising, we found evidence of targeting of alcohol advertising to underage viewers ages 18–20. The court's rule appeared in Lockyer v. Reynolds (The People ex rel. Bill Lockyer v. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, GIC764118, 2002). We demonstrated that alcohol companies were able to modify their advertising practices to maintain current levels of adult advertising exposure while reducing youth exposure. PMID:24424494

  16. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, Operable Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The subject Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses residual free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination suspected in the subsurface within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU2). This IM/IRAP/EA also addresses radionuclide contamination beneath the 903 Pad at OU2. Although subsurface VOC and radionuclide contamination on represent a source of OU2 ground-water contamination, they pose no immediate threat to public health or the environment. This IM/IRAP/EA identifies and evaluates interim remedial actions for removal of residual free-phase VOC contamination from three different subsurface environments at OU2. The term ''residual'' refers to the non-aqueous phase contamination remaining in the soil matrix (by capillary force) subsequent to the passage of non-aqueous or free-phase liquid through the subsurface. In addition to the proposed actions, this IM/IRAP/EA presents an assessment of the No Action Alternative. This document also considers an interim remedial action for the removal of radionuclides from beneath the 903 Pad

  17. Planned Home VBAC in the United States, 2004-2009: Outcomes, Maternity Care Practices, and Implications for Shared Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kim J; Bovbjerg, Marit L; Cheyney, Melissa; Leeman, Lawrence M

    2015-12-01

    In the United States, the number of planned home vaginal births after cesarean (VBACs) has increased. This study describes the maternal and neonatal outcomes for women who planned a VBAC at home with midwives who were contributing data to the Midwives Alliance of North America Statistics Project 2.0 cohort during the years 2004-2009. Two subsamples were created from the parent cohort: 12,092 multiparous women without a prior cesarean and 1,052 women with a prior cesarean. Descriptive statistics were calculated for maternal and neonatal outcomes for both groups. Sensitivity analyses comparing women with a prior vaginal birth and those who were at the lowest risk with various subgroups in the parent cohort were also conducted. Women with a prior cesarean had a VBAC rate of 87 percent, although transfer rates were higher compared with women without a prior cesarean (18% vs 7%, p history of cesarean (p = 0.015). Although there is a high likelihood of a vaginal birth at home, women planning a home VBAC should be counseled regarding maternal transfer rates and potential for increased risk to the newborn, particularly if uterine rupture occurs in the home setting. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A RWMAC commentary on the Science Policy Research Unit Report: UK Nuclear Decommissioning Policy: time for decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-04-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee (RWMAC) is an independent body which advises the Secretaries of State for the Environment, Scotland and Wales, on civil radioactive waste management issues. Chapter 4 of the RWMAC's Twelfth Annual Report discussed nuclear power plant decommissioning strategy. One of the RWMAC's conclusions was that the concept of financial provisioning for power station decommissioning liabilities, which might be passed on to society several generations into the future, deserved further study. A specification for such a study was duly written (Annex 2) and, following consideration of tendered responses, the Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU) at Sussex University, was contracted to carry out the work. The SPRU report stands as a SPRU analysis of the subject. This separate short RWMAC report, which is being released at the same time as the SPRU report, presents the RWMAC's own commentary on the SPRU study. The RWMAC has identified five main issues which should be addressed when deciding on a nuclear plant decommissioning strategy. These are: the technical approach to decommissioning, the basis of financial provisions, treatment of risk, segregation of management of funds, and the need for a wider environmental view. (author)

  19. A RWMAC commentary on the Science Policy Research Unit report: UK nuclear decommissioning policy: time for decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Chapter 4 of the RWMAC's Twelfth Annual Report discussed nuclear power plant decommissioning strategy. One of the RWMAC's conclusions was that the concept of financial provisioning for power station decommissioning liabilities, which might be passed on to society several generations into the future, deserved further study. A specification for such a study was duly written (Annex 2) and, following consideration of tendered responses, the Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU) at Sussex University, was contracted to carry out the work. The SPRU report stands as a SPRU analysis of the subject. This separate short RWMAC report, which is being released at the same time as the SPRU report, presents the RWMAC's own commentary on the SPRU study. The RWMAC has identified five main issues which should be addressed when deciding on a nuclear plant decommissioning strategy. These are: the technical approach to decommissioning, the basis of financial provisions, treatment of risk, segregation of management of funds, and the need for a wider environmental view. These issues are addressed in this RWMAC report. (author)

  20. Evidence of underage targeting of alcohol advertising on television in the United States: lessons from the Lockyer v. Reynolds decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S; Ostroff, Joshua; Jernigan, David H

    2014-02-01

    Underage alcohol use is a global public health problem and alcohol advertising has been associated with underage drinking. The alcohol industry regulates itself and is the primary control on alcohol advertising in many countries around the world, advising trade association members to advertise only in adult-oriented media. Despite high levels of compliance with these self-regulatory guidelines, in several countries youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television has grown faster than adult exposure. In the United States, we found that exposure for underage viewers ages 18-20 grew from 2005 through 2011 faster than any adult age group. Applying a method adopted from a court in the US to identify underage targeting of advertising, we found evidence of targeting of alcohol advertising to underage viewers ages 18-20. The court's rule appeared in Lockyer v. Reynolds (The People ex rel. Bill Lockyer v. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, GIC764118, 2002). We demonstrated that alcohol companies were able to modify their advertising practices to maintain current levels of adult advertising exposure while reducing youth exposure.

  1. Triggering at high luminosity: fake triggers from pile-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.

    1983-01-01

    Triggers based on a cut in transverse momentum (p/sub t/) have proved to be useful in high energy physics both because they indicte that a hard constituent scattering has occurred and because they can be made quickly enough to gate electronics. These triggers will continue to be useful at high luminosities if overlapping events do not cause an excessive number of fake triggers. In this paper, I determine if this is indeed a problem at high luminosity machines

  2. Nostalgia: content, triggers, functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Arndt, Jamie; Routledge, Clay

    2006-11-01

    Seven methodologically diverse studies addressed 3 fundamental questions about nostalgia. Studies 1 and 2 examined the content of nostalgic experiences. Descriptions of nostalgic experiences typically featured the self as a protagonist in interactions with close others (e.g., friends) or in momentous events (e.g., weddings). Also, the descriptions contained more expressions of positive than negative affect and often depicted the redemption of negative life scenes by subsequent triumphs. Studies 3 and 4 examined triggers of nostalgia and revealed that nostalgia occurs in response to negative mood and the discrete affective state of loneliness. Studies 5, 6, and 7 investigated the functional utility of nostalgia and established that nostalgia bolsters social bonds, increases positive self-regard, and generates positive affect. These findings demarcate key landmarks in the hitherto uncharted research domain of nostalgia.

  3. Consumerism triggers AC explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafferty, Richard

    1997-05-01

    The growth in air conditioning in the United Kingdom in recent years is examined in this article, and split systems, the phasing out of CFC and HCFC refrigerants, global warming, and comfort levels are considered. (UK)

  4. The effect of completing a surrogacy information and decision-making tool upon admission to an intensive care unit on length of stay and charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatler, Carol W; Grove, Charlene; Strickland, Stephanie; Barron, Starr; White, Bruce D

    2012-01-01

    Many critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are unable to communicate their wishes about goals of care, particularly about the use of life-sustaining treatments. Surrogates and clinicians struggle with medical decisions because of a lack of clarity regarding patients' preferences, leading to prolonged hospitalizations and increased costs. This project focused on the development and implementation of a tool to facilitate a better communication process by (1) assuring the early identification of a surrogate if indicated on admission and (2) clarifying the decision-making standards that the surrogate was to use when participating in decision making. Before introducing the tool into the admissions routine, the staff were educated about its use and value to the decision-making process. PROJECT AND METHODS: The study was to determine if early use of a simple method of identifying a patient's surrogate and treatment preferences might impact length of stay (LOS) and total hospital charges. A pre- and post-intervention study design was used. Nurses completed the surrogacy information tool for all patients upon admission to the neuroscience ICU. Subjects (total N = 203) were critically ill patients who had been on a mechanical ventilator for 96 hours or longer, or in the ICU for seven days or longer.The project included staff education on biomedical ethics, critical communication skills, early identification of families and staff in crisis, and use of a simple tool to document patients' surrogates and previously expressed care wishes. Data on hospital LOS and hospital charges were collected through a retrospective review of medical records for similar four-month time frames pre- and post-implementation of the assessment tool. Significant differences were found between pre- and post-groups in terms of hospital LOS (F = 6.39, p = .01) and total hospital charges (F = 7.03, p = .009). Project findings indicate that the use of a simple admission assessment tool

  5. Physician Approaches to Conflict with Families Surrounding End-of-Life Decision-making in the Intensive Care Unit. A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehter, Hashim M; McCannon, Jessica B; Clark, Jack A; Wiener, Renda Soylemez

    2018-02-01

    Families of critically ill patients are often asked to make difficult decisions to pursue, withhold, or withdraw aggressive care or resuscitative measures, exercising "substituted judgment" from the imagined standpoint of the patient. Conflict may arise between intensive care unit (ICU) physicians and family members regarding the optimal course of care. To characterize how ICU physicians approach and manage conflict with surrogates regarding end-of-life decision-making. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 18 critical care physicians from four academically affiliated hospitals. Interview transcripts were analyzed using methods of grounded theory. Physicians described strategies for engaging families to resolve conflict about end-of-life decision-making and tending to families' emotional health. Physicians commonly began by gauging family receptiveness to recommendations from the healthcare team. When faced with resistance to recommendations for less aggressive care, approaches ranged from deference to family wishes to various persuasive strategies designed to change families' minds, and some of those strategies may be counterproductive or harmful. The likelihood of deferring to family in the event of conflict was associated with the perceived sincerity of the family's "substituted judgment" and the ability to control patient pain and suffering. Physicians reported concern for the family's emotional needs and made efforts to alleviate the burden on families by assuming decision-making responsibility and expressing nonabandonment and commitment to the patient. Physicians were attentive to repairing damage to their relationship with the family in the aftermath of conflict. Finally, physicians described their own emotional responses to conflict, ranging from frustration and anxiety to satisfaction with successful resolution of conflict. Critical care physicians described a complex and multilayered approach to physician-family conflict. The reported strategies

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2007-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996). The corrective action sites (CASs) are located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 166 is comprised of the following CASs: • 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North • 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South • 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area • 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard • 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum • 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank • 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative (CAA) for the seven CASs within CAU 166. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 31, 2006, through February 28, 2007, as set forth in the CAU 166 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2006).

  7. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Rregion 4): Oak Ridge Reservation (USDOE), (Operable Unit 3), Anderson County, Oak Ridge, TN. (Second remedial action), September 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (USDOE) (Operable Unit 3) site is an active nuclear weapons component manufacturing facility located in Oak Ridge, Anderson County, Tennessee. The Y-12 plant, which is addressed as Operable Unit 3, is one of several hundred waste disposal sites or areas of contamination at the ORR site requiring Superfund remedial action. The site occupies the upper reaches of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Bear Creek Valley. From 1940 to the present, the Y-12 plant has been used to produce nuclear weapons components. From 1955 to 1963, mercury was used in a column-exchange process to separate lithium isotopes. Testing of the three concrete tanks showed that the tank sediment contained mercury, and that contaminated waste is still being discharged into two of the three tanks. The Record of Decision (ROD) focuses on the contaminated sediment in the sedimentation tanks as an interim action. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the sediment are mercury, a metal and radioactive materials. The selected interim remedial action for the site is included

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1 with ROTC 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred N. Wickline

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516, Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 516 is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) 03-59-01 - Bldg 3C-36 Septic System; (2) 03-59-02 - Bldg 3C-45 Septic System; (3) 06-51-01 - Sump and Piping; (4) 06-51-02 - Clay Pipe and Debris; (5) 06-51-03 - Clean Out Box and Piping; and (7) 22-19-04 - Vehicle Decontamination Area. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of an acceptable corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 516. Corrective action investigation activities were performed between July 22 and August 14, 2003, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Supplemental sampling was conducted in late 2003 and early 2004.

  9. Performance of the ALICE PHOS trigger and improvements for RUN 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, C; Røed, K; Skaali, T B; Liu, L; Rohrich, D; Kharlov, Y; Bratrud, L; Alme, J

    2013-01-01

    This paper will discuss the performance of the PHOS level-0 trigger and planned improvements for RUN 2. Due to hardware constraints the Trigger Region Unit boards are limited to an operating frequency of 20 MHz. This has led to some ambiguity and biases of the trigger inputs. The trigger input generation scheme was therefore optimized to improve the performance. The PHOS level-0 trigger system has been working with an acceptable efficiency and purity. Proposed actions to further improve the performance and possibly eliminate the impact of the biased trigger inputs will also be presented

  10. The ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger Design and Operation in Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Igonkina, Olga; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Trigger system performs initial event selection using data from calorimeters and the muon spectrometer to reduce the LHC collision event rate down to about 100 kHz. Trigger decisions from the different sub-systems are combined in the Central Trigger Processor for the final Level-1 decision. A new FPGAs-based AdvancedTCA sub-system was introduced to calculate in real time complex kinematic observables: the Topological Processor System. It was installed during the shutdown and commissioning started in 2015 and continued during 2016. The design and operation of the Level-1 Topological Trigger in Run-2 will be illustrated.

  11. Trigger design for a gamma ray detector of HIRFL-ETF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhong-Wei; Su, Hong; Qian, Yi; Kong, Jie

    2013-10-01

    The Gamma Ray Array Detector (GRAD) is one subsystem of HIRFL-ETF (the External Target Facility (ETF) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL)). It is capable of measuring the energy of gamma-rays with 1024 CsI scintillators in in-beam nuclear experiments. The GRAD trigger should select the valid events and reject the data from the scintillators which are not hit by the gamma-ray. The GRAD trigger has been developed based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs) and PXI interface. It makes prompt trigger decisions to select valid events by processing the hit signals from the 1024 CsI scintillators. According to the physical requirements, the GRAD trigger module supplies 12-bit trigger information for the global trigger system of ETF and supplies a trigger signal for data acquisition (DAQ) system of GRAD. In addition, the GRAD trigger generates trigger data that are packed and transmitted to the host computer via PXI bus to be saved for off-line analysis. The trigger processing is implemented in the front-end electronics of GRAD and one FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. The logic of PXI transmission and reconfiguration is implemented in another FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. During the gamma-ray experiments, the GRAD trigger performs reliably and efficiently. The function of GRAD trigger is capable of satisfying the physical requirements.

  12. Trigger design for a gamma ray detector of HIRFL-ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zhongwei; Su Hong; Qian Yi; Kong Jie

    2013-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Array Detector (GRAD) is one subsystem of HIRFL-ETF (the External Target Facility (ETF) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL)). It is capable of measuring the energy of gamma-rays with 1024 CsI scintillators in in-beam nuclear experiments. The GRAD trigger should select the valid events and reject the data from the scintillators which are not hit by the gamma-ray. The GRAD trigger has been developed based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGAs) and PXI interface. It makes prompt trigger decisions to select valid events by processing the hit signals from the 1024 CsI scintillators. According to the physical requirements, the GRAD trigger module supplies 12-bit trigger information for the global trigger system of ETF and supplies a trigger signal for data acquisition (DAQ) system of GRAD. In addition, the GRAD trigger generates trigger data that are packed and transmitted to the host computer via PXI bus to be saved for off-line analysis. The trigger processing is implemented in the front-end electronics of GRAD and one FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. The logic of PXI transmission and reconfiguration is implemented in another FPGA of the GRAD trigger module. During the gamma-ray experiments, the GRAD trigger performs reliably and efficiently. The function of GRAD trigger is capable of satisfying the physical requirements. (authors)

  13. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheat, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  14. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Black, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the high luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved at the LHC, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analysis. The naive inclusive single tau lepton triggers now suffer from severe rate limitations. To allow for a large program of physics analyses with taus, the development of topological triggers that combine tau signatures with other measured quantities in the event is required. These combined triggers open many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model and to search for the Standard Model Higgs. We present the status and performance of the hadronic tau trigger in ATLAS. We demonstrate that the ATLAS tau trigger ran remarkably well over 2011, and how the lessons learned from 2011 led to numerous improvements in the preparation of the 2012 run. These improvements include the introduction of tau selection criteria that are robust against varying pileup scenarios, and the implementation of multivariate selection techniques in the tau trig...

  15. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Black, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the high luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved at the LHC, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analysis. The naïve inclusive single tau lepton triggers now suffer from severe rate limitations. To allow for a large program of physics analyses with taus, the development of topological triggers that combine tau signatures with other measured quantities in the event is required. These combined triggers open many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model and to search for the Standard Model Higgs. We present the status and performance of the hadronic tau trigger in ATLAS. We demonstrate that the ATLAS tau trigger ran remarkably well over 2011, and how the lessons learned from 2011 led to numerous improvements in the preparation of the 2012 run. These improvements include the introduction of tau selection criteria that are robust against varying pileup scenarios, and the implementation of multivariate selection techniques in the tau tri...

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2010-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit 560 comprises seven corrective action sites (CASs): •03-51-01, Leach Pit •06-04-02, Septic Tank •06-05-03, Leach Pit •06-05-04, Leach Bed •06-59-03, Building CP-400 Septic System •06-59-04, Office Trailer Complex Sewage Pond •06-59-05, Control Point Septic System The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 560 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 7, 2008, through February 24, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and Record of Technical Change No. 1. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: •Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. •If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. •Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 560 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. The following contaminants were determined to be present at concentrations exceeding their corresponding FALs: •No contamination exceeding the FALs was identified at CASs 03-51-01, 06-04-02, and 06-59-04. •The soil at the base of the leach pit chamber at CAS 06-05-03 contains arsenic above the FAL of 23 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) above the FAL of 0.74 mg/kg, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 5 to 20 feet (ft) below ground surface. The contamination is confined laterally to the walls of the

  17. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, Mansoora

    2012-01-01

    The extensive tau physics programs of the ATLAS experiment relies heavily on trigger to select hadronic decays of tau lepton. Such a trigger is implemented in ATLAS to efficiently collect signal events, while keeping the rate of multi-jet background within the allowed bandwidth. This contribution summarizes the performance of the ATLAS hadronic tau trigger system during 2011 data taking period and improvements implemented for the 2012 data collection.

  18. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUSHITA, Takashi; CMS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41 fb-1 with a peak luminosity of 1.5 × 1034 cm-2s-1 and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implementation of more algorithms at a time than previously possible, allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the available trigger bandwidth. Algorithms for a trigger menu, including topological requirements on multi-objects, can be realised in the Global Trigger using the newly developed trigger menu specification grammar. Analysis-like trigger algorithms can be represented in an intuitive manner and the algorithms are translated to corresponding VHDL code blocks to build a firmware. The grammar can be extended in future as the needs arise. The experience of implementing trigger menus on the upgraded Global Trigger system will be presented.

  19. Safety assessment of Olkiluoto NPP units 1 and 2. Decision of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority regarding the periodic safety review of the Olkiluoto NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    In this safety assessment the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) has evaluated the safety of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant units 1 and 2 in connection with the periodic safety review. This safety assessment provides a summary of the reviews, inspections and continuous oversight carried out by STUK. The issues addressed in the assessment and the related evaluation criteria are set forth in the nuclear energy and radiation safety legislation and the regulations issued thereunder. The provisions of the Nuclear Energy Act concerning the safe use of nuclear energy, security and emergency preparedness arrangements, and waste management are specified in more detail in the Government Decrees and Regulatory Guides issued by STUK. Based on the assessment, STUK consideres that the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant units 1 and 2 meet the set safety requirements for operational nuclear power plants, the emergency preparedness arrangements are sufficient and the necessary control to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons has been appropriately arranged. The physical protection of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant is not yet completely in compliance with the requirements of Government Decree 734/2008, which came into force in December 2008. Further requirements concerning this issue based also on the principle of continuous improvement were included in the decision relating to the periodic safety review. The safety of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant was assessed in compliance with the Government Decree on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants (733/2008), which came into force in 2008. The decree notes that existing nuclear power plants need not meet all the requirements set out for new plants. Most of the design bases pertaining to the Olkiluoto 1 and 2 nuclear power plant units were set in the 1970s. Substantial modernisations have been carried out at the Olkiluoto 1 and 2 nuclear power plant units since their commissioning to improve safety. This is in line with

  20. Unit Manning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGinniss, Mike

    2003-01-01

    .... This decision combines two crucial initiatives: first, transforming the Army from an individual soldier replacement system to a unit manning system that enhances cohesion and keeps trained soldiers, leaders, and commanders together longer, thereby...

  1. LHCb base-line level-0 trigger 3D-flow implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Crosetto, D

    1999-01-01

    The LHCb Level-0 trigger implementation with the 3D-Flow system offers full programmability, allowing it to adapt to unexpected operating conditions and enabling new, unpredicted physics. The implementation is described in detail and refers to components and technology available today. The 3D-Flow Processor system is a new, technology-independent concept in very fast, real-time system architectures. Based on the replication of a single type of circuit of 100 k gates, which communicates in six directions: bi-directional with North, East, West, and South neighbors, unidirectional from Top to Bottom, the system offers full programmability, modularity, ease of expansion and adaptation to the latest technology. A complete study of its applicability to the LHCb calorimeter triggers is presented. Full description of the input data handling, either in digital or mixed digital-analog form, of the data processing, and the transmission of results to the global level-0 trigger decision unit are provided. Any level-0 trig...

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 266: Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2000-02-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 266, Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 266 includes Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-05-09. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report were combined into one report because sample data collected during the corrective action investigation (CAI) indicated that contaminants of concern (COCs) were either not present in the soil, or present at concentrations not requiring corrective action. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's recommendation that no corrective action was necessary for CAU 266. From February through May 1999, CAI activities were performed as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Analytes detected during the three-stage CAI of CAU 266 were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine COCs, and the analysis of the data generated from soil collection activities indicated the PALs were not exceeded for total volatile/semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium/plutonium, and strontium-90 for any of the samples. However, COCs were identified in samples from within the septic tank and distribution box; and the isotopic americium concentrations in the two soil samples did exceed PALs. Closure activities were performed at the site to address the COCs identified in the septic tank and distribution box. Further, no use restrictions were required to be placed on CAU 266 because the CAI revealed soil contamination to be less than the 100 millirems per year limit established by DOE Order 5400.5.

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 266: Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 266, Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 266 includes Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-05-09. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report were combined into one report because sample data collected during the corrective action investigation (CAI) indicated that contaminants of concern (COCs) were either not present in the soil, or present at concentrations not requiring corrective action. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's recommendation that no corrective action was necessary for CAU 266. From February through May 1999, CAI activities were performed as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Analytes detected during the three-stage CAI of CAU 266 were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine COCs, and the analysis of the data generated from soil collection activities indicated the PALs were not exceeded for total volatile/semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium/plutonium, and strontium-90 for any of the samples. However, COCs were identified in samples from within the septic tank and distribution box; and the isotopic americium concentrations in the two soil samples did exceed PALs. Closure activities were performed at the site to address the COCs identified in the septic tank and distribution box. Further, no use restrictions were required to be placed on CAU 266 because the CAI revealed soil contamination to be less than the 100 millirems per year limit established by DOE Order 5400.5

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 500: Test Cell A Septic System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 500: Test Cell A Septic System, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 500 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site, CAS 25-04-05. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 500. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report based on sample data collected during the field investigation performed between February and May 1999, which showed no evidence of soil contamination at this site. The clean closure justification for CAU 500 is based on these results. Analytes detected were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CAU 500, and it was determined that the PALs were not exceeded for total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90 for any of the soil samples collected. COCs were identified only within the septic tank and distribution box at the CAU. No COCs were identified outside these two areas; therefore, no corrective action was necessary for the soil. Closure activities were performed to address the COCs identified within the septic tank and distribution box. The DOE/NV recommended that neither corrective action nor a corrective action plan was required at CAU 500. Further, no use restrictions were required to be placed on CAU 500, and the septic tank and distribution box have been closed in accordance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site

  5. Using CollaboRATE, a brief patient-reported measure of shared decision making: Results from three clinical settings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcino, Rachel C; Barr, Paul J; O'Malley, A James; Arend, Roger; Castaldo, Molly G; Ozanne, Elissa M; Percac-Lima, Sanja; Stults, Cheryl D; Tai-Seale, Ming; Thompson, Rachel; Elwyn, Glyn

    2018-02-01

    CollaboRATE is a brief patient survey focused on shared decision making. This paper aims to (i) provide insight on facilitators and challenges to implementing a real-time patient survey and (ii) evaluate CollaboRATE scores and response rates across multiple clinical settings with varied patient populations. All adult patients at three United States primary care practices were eligible to complete CollaboRATE post-visit. To inform key learnings, we aggregated all mentions of unanticipated decisions, problems and administration errors from field notes and email communications. Mixed-effects logistic regression evaluated the impact of site, clinician, patient age and patient gender on the CollaboRATE score. While CollaboRATE score increased only slightly with increasing patient age (OR 1.018, 95% CI 1.014-1.021), female patient gender was associated with significantly higher CollaboRATE scores (OR 1.224, 95% CI 1.073-1.397). Clinician also predicts CollaboRATE score (random effect variance 0.146). Site-specific factors such as clinical workflow and checkout procedures play a key role in successful in-clinic implementation and are significantly related to CollaboRATE scores, with Site 3 scoring significantly higher than Site 1 (OR 1.759, 95% CI 1.216 to 2.545) or Site 2 (z=-2.71, 95% CI -1.114 to -0.178). This study demonstrates that CollaboRATE can be used in diverse primary care settings. A clinic's workflow plays a crucial role in implementation. Patient experience measurement risks becoming a burden to both patients and administrators. Episodic use of short measurement tools could reduce this burden. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-02-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428, Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada, CAU 428 is comprised of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 03-05-002-SW01, Septic Waste System 1 and (2) CAS 03-05-002- SW05, Septic Waste System 5. A corrective action investigation performed in 1999 detected analyte concentrations that exceeded preliminary action levels; specifically, contaminants of concern (COCs) included benzo(a) pyrene in a septic tank integrity sample associated with Septic Tank 33-1A of Septic Waste System 1, and arsenic in a soil sample associated with Septic Waste System 5. During this investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to contents of the septic tanks and distribution box, to subsurface soil containing COCs, and the spread of COCs beyond the CAU. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 3 of the TTR, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls; and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on the results of the evaluation, the preferred CAA was Alternative 3. This alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at the Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5.

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This corrective action decision document (CADD)/corrective action plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 97, Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), Nevada. The Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU is located in the northeastern portion of the NNSS and comprises 720 corrective action sites. A total of 747 underground nuclear detonations took place within this CAU between 1957 and 1992 and resulted in the release of radionuclides (RNs) in the subsurface in the vicinity of the test cavities. The CADD portion describes the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU data-collection and modeling activities completed during the corrective action investigation (CAI) stage, presents the corrective action objectives, and describes the actions recommended to meet the objectives. The CAP portion describes the corrective action implementation plan. The CAP presents CAU regulatory boundary objectives and initial use-restriction boundaries identified and negotiated by DOE and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). The CAP also presents the model evaluation process designed to build confidence that the groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling results can be used for the regulatory decisions required for CAU closure. The UGTA strategy assumes that active remediation of subsurface RN contamination is not feasible with current technology. As a result, the corrective action is based on a combination of characterization and modeling studies, monitoring, and institutional controls. The strategy is implemented through a four-stage approach that comprises the following: (1) corrective action investigation plan (CAIP), (2) CAI, (3) CADD/CAP, and (4) closure report (CR) stages.

  8. Trigger and data acquisition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Gaspar, C

    2001-01-01

    Past LEP experiments generate data at 0.5 MByte/s from particle detectors with over a quarter of a million readout channels. The process of reading out the electronic channels, treating them, and storing the date produced by each collision for further analysis by the physicists is called "Data Acquisition". Not all beam crossings produce interesting physics "events", picking the interesting ones is the task of the "Trigger" system. In order to make sure that the data is collected in good conditions the experiment's operation has to be constantly verified. In all, at LEP experiments over 100 000 parameters were monitored, controlled, and synchronized by the "Monotoring and control" system. In the future, LHC experiments will produce as much data in a single day as a LEP detector did in a full year's running with a raw data rate of 10 - 100 MBytes/s and will have to cope with some 800 million proton-proton collisions a second of these collisions only one in 100 million million is interesting for new particle se...

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 145: Wells and Storage Holes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0, with ROTC No. 1 and Addendum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Strand

    2006-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 145, Wells and Storage Holes in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 145 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 03-20-01, Core Storage Holes; (2) 03-20-02, Decon Pad and Sump; (3) 03-20-04, Injection Wells; (4) 03-20-08, Injection Well; (5) 03-25-01, Oil Spills; and (6) 03-99-13, Drain and Injection Well. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for the six CASs within CAU 145. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from August 1, 2005, through November 8, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 145 Corrective Action Investigation Plan and Record of Technical Change No. 1. Analytes detected during the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) were evaluated against appropriate final action levels to identify the contaminants of concern for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified contaminants of concern at one of the six CASs in CAU 145 and required the evaluation of corrective action alternatives. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 145 revealed the following: CASs 03-20-01, 03-20-02, 03-20-04, 03-20-08, and 03-99-13 do not contain contamination; and CAS 03-25-01 has pentachlorophenol and arsenic contamination in the subsurface soils. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations at the six CASs, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential corrective action alternatives, the following corrective actions are recommended for CAU 145. No further action is the preferred corrective action for CASs 03-20-01, 03-20-02, 03-20-04, 03-20-08, and 03-99-13. Close in place is the preferred corrective action

  10. Development of a decision aid for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit employing user-centered design and a wiki platform for rapid prototyping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Plaisance

    Full Text Available Upon admission to an intensive care unit (ICU, all patients should discuss their goals of care and express their wishes concerning life-sustaining interventions (e.g., cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Without such discussions, interventions that prolong life at the cost of decreasing its quality may be used without appropriate guidance from patients.To adapt an existing decision aid about CPR to create a wiki-based decision aid individually adapted to each patient's risk factors; and to document the use of a wiki platform for this purpose.We conducted three weeks of ethnographic observation in our ICU to observe intensivists and patients discussing goals of care and to identify their needs regarding decision making. We interviewed intensivists individually. Then we conducted three rounds of rapid prototyping involving 15 patients and 11 health professionals. We recorded and analyzed all discussions, interviews and comments, and collected sociodemographic data. Using a wiki, a website that allows multiple users to contribute or edit content, we adapted the decision aid accordingly and added the Good Outcome Following Attempted Resuscitation (GO-FAR prediction rule calculator.We added discussion of invasive mechanical ventilation. The final decision aid comprises values clarification, risks and benefits of CPR and invasive mechanical ventilation, statistics about CPR, and a synthesis section. We added the GO-FAR prediction calculator as an online adjunct to the decision aid. Although three rounds of rapid prototyping simplified the information in the decision aid, 60% (n = 3/5 of the patients involved in the last cycle still did not understand its purpose.Wikis and user-centered design can be used to adapt decision aids to users' needs and local contexts. Our wiki platform allows other centers to adapt our tools, reducing duplication and accelerating scale-up. Physicians need training in shared decision making skills about goals of care and in

  11. Development of a decision aid for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit employing user-centered design and a wiki platform for rapid prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisance, Ariane; Witteman, Holly O; LeBlanc, Annie; Kryworuchko, Jennifer; Heyland, Daren Keith; Ebell, Mark H; Blair, Louisa; Tapp, Diane; Dupuis, Audrey; Lavoie-Bérard, Carole-Anne; McGinn, Carrie Anna; Légaré, France; Archambault, Patrick Michel

    2018-01-01

    Upon admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), all patients should discuss their goals of care and express their wishes concerning life-sustaining interventions (e.g., cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)). Without such discussions, interventions that prolong life at the cost of decreasing its quality may be used without appropriate guidance from patients. To adapt an existing decision aid about CPR to create a wiki-based decision aid individually adapted to each patient's risk factors; and to document the use of a wiki platform for this purpose. We conducted three weeks of ethnographic observation in our ICU to observe intensivists and patients discussing goals of care and to identify their needs regarding decision making. We interviewed intensivists individually. Then we conducted three rounds of rapid prototyping involving 15 patients and 11 health professionals. We recorded and analyzed all discussions, interviews and comments, and collected sociodemographic data. Using a wiki, a website that allows multiple users to contribute or edit content, we adapted the decision aid accordingly and added the Good Outcome Following Attempted Resuscitation (GO-FAR) prediction rule calculator. We added discussion of invasive mechanical ventilation. The final decision aid comprises values clarification, risks and benefits of CPR and invasive mechanical ventilation, statistics about CPR, and a synthesis section. We added the GO-FAR prediction calculator as an online adjunct to the decision aid. Although three rounds of rapid prototyping simplified the information in the decision aid, 60% (n = 3/5) of the patients involved in the last cycle still did not understand its purpose. Wikis and user-centered design can be used to adapt decision aids to users' needs and local contexts. Our wiki platform allows other centers to adapt our tools, reducing duplication and accelerating scale-up. Physicians need training in shared decision making skills about goals of care and in using the

  12. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagliesi, M.G., E-mail: mg.bagliesi@pi.infn.i [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy); Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N. [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5{mu}s. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  13. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagliesi, M.G.; Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N.

    2010-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5μs. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  14. Upgrade trigger: Biannual performance update

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Couturier, Ben; Esen, Sevda; De Cian, Michel; De Vries, Jacco Andreas; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Jones, Christopher Rob; Le Gac, Renaud; Matev, Rosen; Neufeld, Niko; Nikodem, Thomas; Polci, Francesco; Del Buono, Luigi; Quagliani, Renato; Schwemmer, Rainer; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha; Szumlak, Tomasz; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Wanczyk, Joanna; Williams, Mark Richard James; Yin, Hang; Zacharjasz, Emilia Anna

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the performance of the LHCb Upgrade trigger reconstruction sequence, incorporating changes to the underlying reconstruction algorithms and detector description since the Trigger and Online Upgrade TDR. An updated extrapolation is presented using the most recent example of an Event Filter Farm node.

  15. Minimum Bias Trigger in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwee, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic pp collisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.2 < |η| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presented. We also highlight the advantage of these triggers for particle correlation analyses. (author)

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles and Debris) Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, Laura

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 511, Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris). The CAU is comprised of nine corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, 7, 18, and 19 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 511 is comprised of nine CASs: (1) 03-08-02, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (2) 03-99-11, Waste Dump (Piles); (3) 03-99-12, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (4) 04-99-04, Contaminated Trench/Berm; (5) 06-16-01, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (6) 06-17-02, Scattered Ordnance/Automatic Weapons Range; (7) 07-08-01, Contaminated Mound; (8) 18-99-10, Ammunition Dump; and (9) 19-19-03, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris). The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 511 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) and closure activities were performed from January 2005 through August 2005, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris)'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Record of Technical Change No. 1. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 511 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the data quality objective data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate preliminary

  17. The Hardware Topological Trigger of ATLAS: Commissioning and Operations

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00226165; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Level-1 trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS trigger system with an output rate of 100 kHz and decision latency smaller than 2.5 μs. It consists of a calorimeter trigger, muon trigger and a central trigger processor. To improve the physics potential reach in ATLAS, during the LHC shutdown after Run 1, the Level-1 trigger system was upgraded at hardware, firmware and software level. In particular, a new electronics sub-system was introduced in the real-time data processing path: the Topological Processor System (L1Topo). It consists of a single AdvancedCTA shelf equipped with two Level-1 topological processor blades. For individual blades, real-time information from calorimeter and muon Level-1 trigger systems, is processed by four individual state-of-the-art FPGAs. It needs to deal with a large input bandwidth of up to 6 Tb/s, optical connectivity and low processing latency on the real-time data path. The L1Topo firmware apply measurements of angles between jets and/or leptons and several...

  18. Beam Test of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Garvey, J; Mahout, G; Moye, T H; Staley, R J; Thomas, J P; Typaldos, D; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Achenbach, R; Föhlisch, F; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Kluge, E E; Mahboubi, K; Meier, K; Meshkov, P; Rühr, F; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Ay, C; Bauss, B; Belkin, A; Rieke, S; Schäfer, U; Tapprogge, T; Trefzger, T; Weber, GA; Eisenhandler, E F; Landon, M; Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Mirea, A; Perera, V J O; Qian, W; Sankey, D P C; Bohm, C; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Silverstein, S

    2005-01-01

    The Level-1 Calorimter Trigger consists of a Preprocessor (PP), a Cluster Processor (CP), and a Jet/Energy-sum Processor (JEP). The CP and JEP receive digitised trigger-tower data from the Preprocessor and produce Region-of-Interest (RoIs) and trigger multiplicities. The latter are sent in real time to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP) where the Level-1 decision is made. On receipt of a Level-1 Accept, Readout Driver Modules (RODs), provide intermediate results to the data acquisition (DAQ) system for monitoring and diagnostic purpose. RoI information is sent to the RoI builder (RoIB) to help reduce the amount of data required for the Level-2 Trigger The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger System at the test beam consisted of 1 Preprocessor module, 1 Cluster Processor Module, 1 Jet/Energy Module and 2 Common Merger Modules. Calorimeter energies were sucessfully handled thourghout the chain and trigger object sent to the CTP. Level-1 Accepts were sucessfully produced and used to drive the readout path. Online diagno...

  19. The ATLAS Level-1 Muon to Central Trigger Processor Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Berge, D; Farthouat, P; Haas, S; Klofver, P; Krasznahorkay, A; Messina, A; Pauly, T; Schuler, G; Spiwoks, R; Wengler, T; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The Muon to Central Trigger Processor Interface (MUCTPI) is part of the ATLAS Level-1 trigger system and connects the output of muon trigger system to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). At every bunch crossing (BC), the MUCTPI receives information on muon candidates from each of the 208 muon trigger sectors and calculates the total multiplicity for each of six transverse momentum (pT) thresholds. This multiplicity value is then sent to the CTP, where it is used together with the input from the Calorimeter trigger to make the final Level-1 Accept (L1A) decision. In addition the MUCTPI provides summary information to the Level-2 trigger and to the data acquisition (DAQ) system for events selected at Level-1. This information is used to define the regions of interest (RoIs) that drive the Level-2 muontrigger processing. The MUCTPI system consists of a 9U VME chassis with a dedicated active backplane and 18 custom designed modules. The design of the modules is based on state-of-the-art FPGA devices and special ...

  20. Operation of the Upgraded ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Glatzer, Julian Maximilian Volker; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger (L1CT) system is a central part of ATLAS data-taking and has undergone a major upgrade for Run 2 of the LHC, in order to cope with the expected increase of instantaneous luminosity of a factor of 2 with respect to Run 1. The upgraded hardware offers more flexibility in the trigger decisions due to the double amount of trigger inputs and usable trigger channels. It also provides an interface to the new topological trigger system. Operationally - particularly useful for commissioning, calibration and test runs - it allows concurrent running of up to 3 different sub-detector combinations. In this contribution, we give an overview of the operational software framework of the L1CT system with particular emphasis of the configuration, controls and monitoring aspects. The software framework allows a consistent configuration with respect to the ATLAS experiment and the LHC machine, upstream and downstream trigger processors, and the data acquisition. Trigger and dead-time rates are m...

  1. Surface Water Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document for South Walnut Creek Basin (Operable Unit No. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an Interim Measure/Interim Remedial Action (IM/IRA) at the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This IM/IRA is to be conducted to minimize the release from these areas of hazardous substances that pose a potential threat to the public health and environment. The Plan involved the collection of contaminated surface water at specific locations, treatment by chemical precipitation, cross-flow membrane filtration and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption, and surface discharge of treated water. Information for the initial configuration of the Plan is presented in the document entitled ''Proposed Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan and Decision Document, 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas, Operable Unit No. 2'' (IM/IRAP) dated 26 September 1990. Information concerning the proposed Surface Water IM/IRA was presented during a public meeting held from 7 to 10 p.m., Tuesday, 23 October 1990, at the Westminster City Park Recreation Center in Westminster, Colorado. This Responsiveness Summary presents DOE's response to all comments received at the public meeting, as well as those mailed to DOE during the public comment period which ended 24 November 1990. There were a number of technical comments on the plan that DOE has addressed herein. It is noted that several major issues were raised by the comments. Regardless of the estimated low risk to the public from construction and water transport activities, the popular sentiment of the public, based on comments received, is strong concern over worker and public health risks from these activities. In the light of public and municipal concerns, DOE proposes to eliminate from this IM/IRA the interbasin transfer of Woman Creek seepage to the South Walnut Creek drainage and to address collection and treatment of contaminated South Walnut Creek and Woman Creek surface water under two separate IM/IRAs

  2. Using ecological indicators and a decision support system for integrated ecological assessment at two national park units in the Mid-Atlantic region, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Carolyn G.; Young, John A.; Miller, Bruce; Saunders, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    We implemented an integrated ecological assessment using a GIS-based decision support system model for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River (UPDE) and Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (DEWA)—national park units with the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Our assessment examined a variety of aquatic and terrestrial indicators of ecosystem components that reflect the parks’ conservation purpose and reference condition. Our assessment compared these indicators to ecological thresholds to determine the condition of park watersheds. Selected indicators included chemical and physical measures of water quality, biologic indicators of water quality, and landscape condition measures. For the chemical and physical measures of water quality, we used a water quality index and each of its nine components to assess the condition of water quality in each watershed. For biologic measures of water quality, we used the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera aquatic macroinvertebrate index and, secondarily, the Hilsenhoff aquatic macroinvertebrate index. Finally, for the landscape condition measures of our model, we used percent forest and percent impervious surface. Based on our overall assessment, UPDE and DEWA watersheds had an ecological assessment score of 0.433 on a −1 to 1 fuzzy logic scale. This score indicates that, in general, the natural resource condition within watersheds at these parks is healthy or ecologically unimpaired; however, we had only partial data for many of our indicators. Our model is iterative and new data may be incorporated as they become available. These natural parks are located within a rapidly urbanizing landscape—we recommend that natural resource managers remain vigilant to surrounding land uses that may adversely affect natural resources within the parks.

  3. Using Ecological Indicators and a Decision Support System for Integrated Ecological Assessment at Two National Park Units in the Mid-Atlantic Region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Carolyn G.; Young, John A.; Miller, Bruce J.; Saunders, Michael C.

    2015-02-01

    We implemented an integrated ecological assessment using a GIS-based decision support system model for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River (UPDE) and Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (DEWA)—national park units with the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Our assessment examined a variety of aquatic and terrestrial indicators of ecosystem components that reflect the parks' conservation purpose and reference condition. Our assessment compared these indicators to ecological thresholds to determine the condition of park watersheds. Selected indicators included chemical and physical measures of water quality, biologic indicators of water quality, and landscape condition measures. For the chemical and physical measures of water quality, we used a water quality index and each of its nine components to assess the condition of water quality in each watershed. For biologic measures of water quality, we used the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera aquatic macroinvertebrate index and, secondarily, the Hilsenhoff aquatic macroinvertebrate index. Finally, for the landscape condition measures of our model, we used percent forest and percent impervious surface. Based on our overall assessment, UPDE and DEWA watersheds had an ecological assessment score of 0.433 on a -1 to 1 fuzzy logic scale. This score indicates that, in general, the natural resource condition within watersheds at these parks is healthy or ecologically unimpaired; however, we had only partial data for many of our indicators. Our model is iterative and new data may be incorporated as they become available. These natural parks are located within a rapidly urbanizing landscape—we recommend that natural resource managers remain vigilant to surrounding land uses that may adversely affect natural resources within the parks.

  4. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan and Decision Document for the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an Interim Measure/Interim Remedial Action (IM/IRA) at the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This MIRA is to be conducted to provide information that will aid in the selection and design of final remedial actions at OU2 that will address removal of suspected free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination. The Plan involves investigating the removal of residual free-phase VOCs by in situ vacuum-enhanced vapor extraction technology at 3 suspected VOC source areas within OU2. VOC-contaminated vapors extracted from the subsurface would be treated by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption and discharged. The Plan also includes water table depression, when applicable at the test sites, to investigate the performance of vapor extraction technology in the saturated zone. The Plan provides for treatment of any contaminated ground water recovered during the IM/IRA at existing RFP treatment facilities. The proposed MVIRA Plan is presented in the document entitled ''Proposed Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas, Operable Unit No. 2, '' dated 20 March 1992. Information concerning the proposed Subsurface IM/IRA was presented during a DOE Quarterly Review meeting held on 07 April 1992 and a public meeting held on 07 May 1992, at the Marriott Hotel in Golden, Colorado. The Responsiveness Summary presents DOE's response to all comments received at the public meeting, as well as those mailed to date to DOE during the public comment period

  5. Implementing Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in Child Protection Decision-Making: A Critical Analysis of the Challenges and Opportunities for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, Paul

    2017-01-01

    One of the most frequently cited principles in the 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is Article 12. This article provides a critical analysis of the challenges that child protection social work faces when implementing Article 12 in social work decision-making whilst simultaneously keeping children safe. The article begins…

  6. Area 2 Photo Skid Wastewater Pit corrective action decision document Corrective Action Unit Number 332: Part 1, and Closure report: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Area 2 Photo Skid Wastewater Pit, Corrective Action Site (CAS) Number 02-42-03, the only CAS in Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 332, has been identified as a source of unquantified, uncontrolled, and unpermitted wastewater discharge. The Photo Skid was used for photographic processing of film for projects related to weapons testing, using Kodak RA4 and GPX film processing facilities for black and white and color photographs. The CAU is located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The CAS consists of one unlined pit which received discharged photographic process wastewater from 1984 to 1991. The Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) and the Closure Report (CR) have been developed to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CADD and the CR for this CAS have been combined because sample data collected during the site investigation do not exceed regulatory limits established during the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process. The purpose of the CADD and the CR is to justify why no corrective action is necessary at the CAU based on process knowledge and the results of the corrective action investigation and to request closure of the CAU. This document contains Part 1 of the CADD and Part 2 of the CR

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1, 2, and Errata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) north of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 204 are located in Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Unit 204 is comprised of the six CASs identified in Table 1-1. As shown in Table 1-1, the FFACO describes four of these CASs as bunkers one as chemical exchange storage and one as a blockhouse. Subsequent investigations have identified four of these structures as instrumentation bunkers (CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, 05-33-01), one as an explosives storage bunker (CAS 05-99-02), and one as both (CAS 05-18-02). The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 365: Baneberry Contamination Area, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit 365 comprises one corrective action site (CAS), CAS 08-23-02, U-8d Contamination Area. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 365 based on the implementation of the corrective action of closure in place with a use restriction (UR). Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 18, 2011, through August 2, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 365: Baneberry Contamination Area. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 365 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in supporting the DQO decisions. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were found to be present to the southwest of the Baneberry crater. It was also assumed that radionuclide levels present within the crater and fissure exceed the FAL. Corrective actions were undertaken that consisted of establishing a UR and posting warning signs for the crater, fissure, and the area located to the southwest of the crater where soil concentrations exceeded the FAL. These URs were recorded in the FFACO database; the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Facility Information Management System; and the NNSA/NSO CAU/CAS files. Therefore, NNSA/NSO provides the following recommendations: (1) No further corrective actions beyond what are described in this document are necessary for CAU 365. (2) A Notice of Completion to

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with Errata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehlecke, Robert

    2004-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 536 is comprised of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS), 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge, and is located in Area 3 of the NTS (Figure 1-2). The CAU was investigated in accordance with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) and Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 (NNSA/NV, 2003). The CADD provides or references the specific information necessary to support the recommended corrective action alternative selected to complete closure of the site. The CAU 536, Area 3 Release Site, includes the Steam Jenny Discharge (CAS 03-44-02) that was historically used for steam cleaning equipment in the Area 3 Camp. Concerns at this CAS include contaminants commonly associated with steam cleaning operations and Area 3 Camp activities that include total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), unspecified solvents, radionuclides, metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The CAIP for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NV, 2003), provides additional information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the CAS within CAU 536. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2003) that was approved prior to the start of the

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 322 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 01-25-01 - AST Release Site; (2) 03-25-03 - Mud Plant and AST Diesel Release; and (3) 03-20-05 - Injection Wells and BOP Shop. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 322. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from April 2004 through September 2004, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: (1) Determine if contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to recommend appropriate corrective actions for the CASs. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern for each corrective action site. Radiological field measurements were compared to unrestricted release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 01-25-01 contains an AST berm contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) diesel-range organics (DRO). (2) CAS 03-25-03 includes two distinct areas: Area A where no contamination remains from a potential spill associated with an AST, and Area B where TPH-DRO contamination associated with various activities at the mud plant was identified. The Area B contamination was found at various locations and depths. (3) CAS 03-25-03 Area B contains TPH-DRO contamination at various

  11. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  12. Simple multifunction discriminator for multichannel triggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, M.R.

    1982-10-01

    A simple version of a multifunction timing discriminator using only two integrated circuits is presented. It can be configured as a leading edge, a constant fraction, a zero cross or a dual threshold timing discriminator. Since so few parts are used, it is well suited for building multichannel timing discriminators. Two versions of this circuit are described: a quadruple multifunction discriminator and an octal constant fraction trigger. The different compromises made in these units are discussed. Results for walk and jitter obtained with these are presented and possible improvements are disussed

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 413: Clean Slate II Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan provides the rationale and supporting information for the selection and implementation of corrective actions at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 413, Clean Slate II Plutonium Dispersion (TTR). CAU 413 is located on the Tonopah Test Range and includes one corrective action site, TA-23-02CS. CAU 413 consists of the release of radionuclides to the surface and shallow subsurface from the Clean Slate II (CSII) storage–transportation test conducted on May 31, 1963. The CSII test was a non-nuclear detonation of a nuclear device located inside a concrete bunker covered with 2 feet of soil. To facilitate site investigation and the evaluation of data quality objectives decisions, the releases at CAU 413 were divided into seven study groups: 1 Undisturbed Areas 2 Disturbed Areas 3 Sedimentation Areas 4 Former Staging Area 5 Buried Debris 6 Potential Source Material 7 Soil Mounds Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities, as set forth in the CAU 413 Corrective Action Investigation Plan, were performed from June 2015 through May 2016. Radionuclides detected in samples collected during the CAI were used to estimate total effective dose using the Construction Worker exposure scenario. Corrective action was required for areas where total effective dose exceeded, or was assumed to exceed, the radiological final action level (FAL) of 25 millirem per year. The results of the CAI and the assumptions made in the data quality objectives resulted in the following conclusions: The FAL is exceeded in surface soil in SG1, Undisturbed Areas; The FAL is assumed to be exceeded in SG5, Buried Debris, where contaminated debris and soil were buried after the CSII test; The FAL is not exceeded at SG2, SG3, SG4, SG6, or SG7. Because the FAL is exceeded at CAU 413, corrective action is required and corrective action alternatives (CAAs) must be evaluated. For CAU 413, three CAAs were evaluated: no further action, clean closure, and

  14. The CDF level-3 trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) has been operating at the Tevatron and collecting data on proton-antiproton interactions with collision rates above 250,000 Hz. Three levels of filtering select events for data logging at a rate of about 4 Hz. The Level 3 trigger provides most of the capabilities of the offline production programs for event reconstruction and physics analysis. The type of physics triggers, application of cuts, and combinations of logical requirements for event selection are controlled at run time by a trigger table using a syntax fully integrated with the Level 1 and Level 2 hardware triggers. The level 3 software operates in 48 RISC/UNIX processors (over 1000 mips) served by four 20-MByte/sec data buses for input, output and control. The system architecture, debugging, code validation, error reporting, analysis capabilities and performance will be described

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 568. Area 3 Plutonium Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Nevada Field Ofice, Las Vegas, NV (United States). National Nuclear Security Administration

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of corrective action alternatives (CAAs) for the 14 CASs within CAU 568. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from April 2014 through May 2015, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 568: Area 3 Plutonium Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the DQO process. The CAU 568 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated that the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations at the 14 CASs, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following corrective actions are recommended for CAU 568: • No further action is the preferred corrective action for CASs 03-23-17, 03-23-22, 03-23-26. • Closure in place is the preferred corrective action for CAS 03-23-19; 03-45-01; the SE DCBs at CASs 03-23-20, 03-23-23, 03-23-31, 03-23-32, 03-23-33, and 03-23-34; and the Pascal-BHCA at CAS 03-23-31. • Clean closure is the preferred corrective action for CASs 03-08-04, 03-23-30, and 03-26-04; and the four well head covers at CASs 03-23-20, 03-23-23, 03-23-31, and 03-23-33.

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Boehlecke

    2004-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 529, Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash, is the only CAS in CAU 529 and is located in Area 25 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Site 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash, was divided into nine parcels because of the large area impacted by past operations and the complexity of the source areas. The CAS was subdivided into separate parcels based on separate and distinct releases as determined and approved in the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process and Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). Table 1-1 summarizes the suspected sources for the nine parcels. Corrective Action Site 25-23-17 is comprised of the following nine parcels: (1) Parcel A, Kiwi Transient Nuclear Test (TNT) 16,000-foot (ft) Arc Area (Kiwi TNT); (2) Parcel B, Phoebus 1A Test 8,000-ft Arc Area (Phoebus); (3) Parcel C, Topopah Wash at Test Cell C (TCC); (4) Parcel D, Buried Contaminated Soil Area (BCSA) l; (5) Parcel E, BCSA 2; (6) Parcel F, Borrow Pit Burial Site (BPBS); (7) Parcel G, Drain/Outfall Discharges; (8) Parcel H, Contaminated Soil Storage Area (CSSA); and (9) Parcel J, Main Stream/Drainage Channels.

  17. Development of a post-intensive care unit storytelling intervention for surrogates involved in decisions to limit life-sustaining treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Yael; Dew, Mary Amanda; Reynolds, Charles F; Arnold, Robert M; Tiver, Greer A; Barnato, Amber E

    2015-06-01

    Surrogates involved in decisions to limit life-sustaining treatment for a loved one in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at increased risk for adverse psychological outcomes that can last for months to years after the ICU experience. Post-ICU interventions to reduce surrogate distress have not yet been developed. We sought to (1) describe a conceptual framework underlying the beneficial mental health effects of storytelling, and (2) present formative work developing a storytelling intervention to reduce distress for recently bereaved surrogates. An interdisciplinary team conceived the idea for a storytelling intervention based on evidence from narrative theory that storytelling reduces distress from traumatic events through emotional disclosure, cognitive processing, and social connection. We developed an initial storytelling guide based on this theory and the clinical perspectives of team members. We then conducted a case series with recently bereaved surrogates to iteratively test and modify the guide. The storytelling guide covered three key domains of the surrogate's experience of the patient's illness and death: antecedents, ICU experience, and aftermath. The facilitator focused on the parts of a story that appeared to generate strong emotions and used nonjudgmental statements to attend to these emotions. Between September 2012 and May 2013, we identified 28 eligible surrogates from a medical ICU and consented 20 for medical record review and recontact; 10 became eligible, of whom 6 consented and completed the storytelling intervention. The single-session storytelling intervention lasted from 40 to 92 minutes. All storytelling participants endorsed the intervention as acceptable, and five of six reported it as helpful. Surrogate storytelling is an innovative and acceptable post-ICU intervention for recently bereaved surrogates and should be evaluated further.

  18. Comparison of Overridden Medication-related Clinical Decision Support in the Intensive Care Unit between a Commercial System and a Legacy System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Adrian; Wright, Adam; Seger, Diane L; Amato, Mary G; Fiskio, Julie M; Bates, David

    2017-08-23

    Electronic health records (EHRs) with clinical decision support (CDS) have shown to be effective at improving patient safety. Despite this, alerts delivered as part of CDS are overridden frequently, which is of concern in the critical care population as this group may have an increased risk of harm. Our organization recently transitioned from an internally-developed EHR to a commercial system. Data comparing various EHR systems, especially after transitions between EHRs, are needed to identify areas for improvement. To compare the two systems and identify areas for potential improvement with the new commercial system at a single institution. Overridden medication-related CDS alerts were included from October to December of the systems' respective years (legacy, 2011; commercial, 2015), restricted to three intensive care units. The two systems were compared with regards to CDS presentation and override rates for four types of CDS: drug-allergy, drug-drug interaction (DDI), geriatric and renal alerts. A post hoc analysis to evaluate for adverse drug events (ADEs) potentially resulting from overridden alerts was performed for 'contraindicated' DDIs via chart review. There was a significant increase in provider exposure to alerts and alert overrides in the commercial system (commercial: n=5,535; legacy: n=1,030). Rates of overrides were higher for the allergy and DDI alerts (pcommercial system. Geriatric and renal alerts were significantly different in incidence and presentation between the two systems. No ADEs were identified in an analysis of 43 overridden contraindicated DDI alerts. The vendor system had much higher rates of both alerts and overrides, although we did not find evidence of harm in a review of DDIs which were overridden. We propose recommendations for improving our current system which may be helpful to other similar institutions; improving both alert presentation and the underlying knowledge base appear important.

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-10-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 140 consists of nine corrective action sites (CASs). Investigation activities were performed from November 13 through December 11, 2002, with additional sampling to delineate the extent of contaminants of concern (COCs) conducted on February 4 and March 18 and 19, 2003. Results obtained from the investigation activities and sampling indicated that only 3 of the 9 CASs at CAU 140 had COCs identified. Following a review of existing data, future land use, and current operations at the NTS, the following preferred alternatives were developed for consideration: (1) No Further Action - six CASs (05-08-02, 05-17-01, 05-19-01, 05-35-01, 05-99-04, and 22-99-04); (2) Clean Closure - one CAS (05-08-01), and (3) Closure-in-Place - two CASs (05-23-01 and 23-17-01). These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternatives meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 140.

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Subsurface, Nevada, Rev. No.: 3 with Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Echelard

    2006-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447, Project Shoal Area (PSA)-Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Corrective Action Unit 447 is located in the Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County, Nevada, approximately 48 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The CADD/CAP combines the decision document (CADD) with the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) and provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend corrective actions for CAU 447, as provided in the FFACO. Corrective Action Unit 447 consists of two corrective action sites (CASs): CAS 57-49-01, Emplacement Shaft, and CAS 57-57-001, Cavity. The emplacement shaft (CAS-57-49-01) was backfilled and plugged in 1996 and will not be evaluated further. The purpose of the CADD portion of the document (Section 1.0 to Section 4.0) is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the subsurface at PSA. To achieve this, the following tasks were required: (1) Develop corrective action objectives. (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. (3) Develop corrective action alternatives. (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. (5) Recommend a preferred corrective action alternative for the subsurface at PSA. The original Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for the PSA was approved in September 1996 and described a plan to drill and test four characterization wells, followed by flow and transport modeling (DOE/NV, 1996). The resultant drilling is described in a data report (DOE/NV, 1998e) and the data analysis and modeling in an interim modeling report (Pohll et al., 1998). After considering the results of the modeling effort

  1. Trigger and electronics issues for scintillating fiber tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbaugh, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    Scintillating Fiber technology has made great advances and has demonstrated great promise for high speed charged particle tracking and triggering. The small detector sizes and fast scintillation floors available, make them very promising for use at high luminosity experiments at today's and tomorrow's colliding and fixed target experiments where high rate capability is essential. This paper will discuss some of the system aspects which should be considered by anyone attempting to design a scintillating fiber tracking system and high speed tracking trigger. As the reader will see, seemingly simple decisions can have far reaching effects on overall system performance

  2. Review of trigger and on-line processors at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, A.J.

    1984-07-01

    The role of trigger and on-line processors in reducing data rates to manageable proportions in e + e - physics experiments is defined not by high physics or background rates, but by the large event sizes of the general-purpose detectors employed. The rate of e + e - annihilation is low, and backgrounds are not high; yet the number of physics processes which can be studied is vast and varied. This paper begins by briefly describing the role of trigger processors in the e + e - context. The usual flow of the trigger decision process is illustrated with selected examples of SLAC trigger processing. The features are mentioned of triggering at the SLC and the trigger processing plans of the two SLC detectors: The Mark II and the SLD. The most common on-line processors at SLAC, the BADC, the SLAC Scanner Processor, the SLAC FASTBUS Controller, and the VAX CAMAC Channel, are discussed. Uses of the 168/E, 3081/E, and FASTBUS VAX processors are mentioned. The manner in which these processors are interfaced and the function they serve on line is described. Finally, the accelerator control system for the SLC is outlined. This paper is a survey in nature, and hence, relies heavily upon references to previous publications for detailed description of work mentioned here. 27 references, 9 figures, 1 table

  3. The Topological Processor for the future ATLAS Level-1 Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Kahra, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS is an experiment on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), located at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. By 2015 the LHC instantaneous luminosity will be increased from $10^{34}$ up to $3\\cdot 10^{34} \\mathrm{cm}^{-2} \\mathrm{s}^{-1}$. This places stringent operational and physical requirements on the ATLAS Trigger in order to reduce the 40MHz collision rate to a manageable event storage rate of 1kHz while at the same time, selecting those events that contain interesting physics events. The Level-1 Trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS Trigger, with an output rate of 100kHz and decision latency of less than $2.5 \\mu \\mathrm{s}$. It is composed of the Calorimeter Trigger, the Muon Trigger and the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). In 2014, there will be a new electronics module: the Topological Processor (L1Topo). The L1Topo will make it possible, for the first time, to use detailed information from subdetectors in a single Level-1 module. This allows the determi...

  4. Automatic food decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    Consumers' food decisions are to a large extent shaped by automatic processes, which are either internally directed through learned habits and routines or externally influenced by context factors and visual information triggers. Innovative research methods such as eye tracking, choice experiments...... and food diaries allow us to better understand the impact of unconscious processes on consumers' food choices. Simone Mueller Loose will provide an overview of recent research insights into the effects of habit and context on consumers' food choices....

  5. Cognitive Biases and Structural Failures in United States Foreign Policy: Explaining Decision-Making Dissonance in Phase IV Policy and Plans for Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hafner, Ferinand

    2007-01-01

    .... This thesis applies four decision-making perspectives the rational actor, organizational process, bureaucratic politics, and individual level approaches to the Phase IV planning process to analyze...

  6. Logics of pre-merger decision-making processes: the case of Karolinska University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soki; Brommels, Mats

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how and why a decision to merge two university hospitals in a public context might occur by using an in-depth case study of the pre-merger process of Karolinska University Hospital. Based on extensive document analysis and 35 key informant interviews the paper reconstructed the pre-merger process, searched for empirical patterns, and interpreted those by applying neo-institutional theory. Spanning nearly a decade, the pre-merger process goes from idea generation through transition to decision, and took place on two arenas, political, and scientific. Both research excellence and economic efficiency are stated merger motives. By applying a neo-institutional perspective, the paper finds that the two initial phases are driven by decision rationality, which is typical for political organizations and that the final phase demonstrated action rationality, which is typical for private firms. Critical factors behind this radical change of decision logic are means convergence, uniting key stakeholder groups, and an economic and political crisis, triggering critical incidents, which ultimately legitimized the formal decision. It is evident from the paper that merger decisions in the public sector might not necessarily result from stated and/or economic drivers only. This paper suggests that a change of decision logic from decision to action rationality might promote effective decision making on large and complex issues in a public context. This is the first systematic in-depth study of a university hospital merger employing a decision-making perspective.

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 374: Area 20 Schooner Unit Crater, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada with ROTC 1 and 2, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit 374 comprises five corrective action sites (CASs): • 18-22-05, Drum • 18-22-06, Drums (20) • 18-22-08, Drum • 18-23-01, Danny Boy Contamination Area • 20-45-03, U-20u Crater (Schooner) The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 374 based on the implementation of corrective actions. The corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls was implemented at CASs 18-23-01 and 20-45-03, and a corrective action of removing potential source material (PSM) was conducted at CAS 20-45-03. The other CASs require no further action; however, best management practices of removing PSM and drums at CAS 18-22-06, and removing drums at CAS 18-22-08 were performed. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from May 4 through October 6, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 374: Area 20 Schooner Unit Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigating the primary release of radionuclides and investigating other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 374 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. Radiological doses exceeding the FAL of 25 millirem per year were found to be present in the surface soil that was sampled. It is assumed that radionuclide levels present in subsurface media within the craters and ejecta fields (default contamination boundaries) at the Danny Boy and

  8. Reprocessing decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    The United States must decide whether to permit, delay, or prohibit the reprocessing and recycling of nuclear spent fuel. To permit reprocessing would allow recycle as early as 1985; to delay the decision for a later administration to deal with means spent fuel would mount up at nuclear reactor sites; to prohibit would eliminate recycling and mandate permanent storage. Bayesian decision analysis was used to examine reprocessing costs associated with risks and economic benefits. Three distinct categories of risk that are important in the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. These are: health, environment, and safety risks; nuclear theft and sabotage; and nuclear weapons proliferation risks. Results are discussed from comparing nine routes to weapons-usuable mterial available to nonweapons states that desire a nuclear capability. These are: production reactor and military reporcessor; research reacotr and military reprocessor; power plant plus military reprocessor or commercial reprocessor; enrichment (centrifuge, gaseous diffusion, electromagnetic separation, or aerodynamic jet cascade); and accelerator. It was found that the commercial power reactor-commercial reprocessor route is comparatively unattractive to a nonweapons state. In summary, allowing nuclear fuel reprocessing to go forward in the United States can be expected to increase the costs to society by a maximum $360 million a year. This is approximately one-seventh of the expected benefit (reduced electricity bills) to be dderived by society from closing the fuel cycle. It appears that the permitting reprocessing now is logically preferable to delaying or prohibiting the technology, the author concludes

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlecke, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 322 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 01-25-01 - AST Release Site; (2) 03-25-03 - Mud Plant and AST Diesel Release; and (3) 03-20-05 - Injection Wells and BOP Shop. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 322. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from April 2004 through September 2004, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: (1) Determine if contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to recommend appropriate corrective actions for the CASs. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern for each corrective action site. Radiological field measurements were compared to unrestricted release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 01-25-01 contains an AST berm contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) diesel-range organics (DRO). (2) CAS 03-25-03 includes two distinct areas: Area A where no contamination remains from a potential spill associated with an AST, and Area B where TPH-DRO contamination associated with various activities at the mud plant was identified. The Area B contamination was found at various locations and depths. (3) CAS 03-25-03 Area B contains TPH-DRO contamination at various locations and

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 322: Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehlecke, Robert

    2004-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 322, Areas 1 and 3 Release Sites and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 322 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 01-25-01 - AST Release Site; (2) 03-25-03 - Mud Plant and AST Diesel Release; and (3) 03-20-05 - Injection Wells and BOP Shop. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 322. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from April 2004 through September 2004, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: (1) Determine if contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to recommend appropriate corrective actions for the CASs. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify contaminants of concern for each corrective action site. Radiological field measurements were compared to unrestricted release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 01-25-01 contains an AST berm contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) diesel-range organics (DRO). (2) CAS 03-25-03 includes two distinct areas: Area A where no contamination remains from a potential spill associated with an AST, and Area B where TPH-DRO contamination associated with various activities at the mud plant was identified. The Area B contamination was found at various locations and depths. (3) CAS 03-25-03 Area B contains TPH-DRO contamination at various

  11. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41~fb$^{-1}$ with a peak luminosity of 1.5 $\\times$ 10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS \\mbox{Level-1} trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implemen...

  12. Financial Indicators in Strategic Decision Making: Recommended Practices for Financial Officers at Small Private Colleges and Universities in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissenweber, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether financial leaders and institutional governing boards use financial indicators as a tool to inform decision making, solely as a compliance measurement tool, or not at all. The purpose of this qualitative study was two-fold to: (a) identify the use of financial indicators in strategic decision making, and (b) investigate…

  13. The DOe Silicon Track Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbrueck, Georg

    2003-01-01

    We describe a trigger preprocessor to be used by the DOe experiment for selecting events with tracks from the decay of long-lived particles. This Level 2 impact parameter trigger utilizes information from the Silicon Microstrip Tracker to reconstruct tracks with improved spatial and momentum resolutions compared to those obtained by the Level 1 tracking trigger. It is constructed of VME boards with much of the logic existing in programmable processors. A common motherboard provides the I/O infrastructure and three different daughter boards perform the tasks of identifying the roads from the tracking trigger data, finding the clusters in the roads in the silicon detector, and fitting tracks to the clusters. This approach provides flexibility for the design, testing and maintenance phases of the project. The track parameters are provided to the trigger framework in 25 μs. The effective impact parameter resolution for high-momentum tracks is 35 μm, dominated by the size of the Tevatron beam

  14. Review Document: Full Software Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Raven, G

    2014-01-01

    This document presents a trigger system for the upgraded LHCb detector, scheduled to begin operation in 2020. This document serves as input for the internal review towards the "DAQ, online and trigger TDR". The proposed trigger system is implemented entirely in software. In this document we show that track reconstruction of a similar quality to that available in the offline algorithms can be performed on the full inelastic $pp$-collision rate, without prior event selections implemented in custom hardware and without relying upon a partial event reconstruction. A track nding eciency of 98.8 % relative to oine can be achieved for tracks with $p_T >$ 500 MeV/$c$. The CPU time required for this reconstruction is about 40 % of the available budget. Proof-of-principle selections are presented which demonstrate that excellent performance is achievable using an inclusive beauty trigger, in addition to exclusive beauty and charm triggers. Finally, it is shown that exclusive beauty and charm selections that do not intr...

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 2 with Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each corrective action site (CAS) within CAU 168. The corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted in accordance with the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', as developed under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 168 is located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada and is comprised of the following 12 CASs: CAS 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; CAS 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; CAS 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; CAS 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; CAS 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-99-16, USW G3; CAS 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; CAS 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; and CAS 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CASs within CAU 168. Radiological measurements of railroad cars and test equipment were compared to unrestricted (free) release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from the CAI activities revealed the following: (1) Corrective Action Site 25-16-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (2) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-16-03. Buried construction waste is present in at least two

  16. THE CURRENCY CRISIS TRIGGER OF THE ROMANIAN FINANCIAL CRISIS OF 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SOVIANI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the ways the financial crisis started to manifest into the Romanian Financial System, through the exchange rate channel. The focus of this Paper is on how the Romanian decision makers contributed in triggering the financial crisis (that would have been triggered anyway. The paper will determine the trigger (the first obvious event for the Romanian Financial Crisis (the debut and it will prove that the consequences of this trigger could have been anticipated - it is in line with similar triggers for the debut in other currency crises. Therefore, one of the main conclusions of this paper is that while a global crisis starts to manifest the local economy should limit the exuberance of the decision makers in order to smooth the effects of the crisis.

  17. The Executive Process, Grade Eight. Resource Unit (Unit III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This resource unit, developed by the University of Minnesota's Project Social Studies, introduces eighth graders to the executive process. The unit uses case studies of presidential decision making such as the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, the Cuba Bay of Pigs and quarantine decisions, and the Little Rock decision. A case study of…

  18. Timing, Trigger and Control Systems for LHC Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    \\\\ \\\\At the LHC, precise bunch-crossing clock and machine orbit signals must be broadcast over distances of several km from the Prevessin Control Room to the four experiment areas and other destinations. At the LHC experiments themselves, quite extensive distribution systems are also required for the transmission of timing, trigger and control (TTC) signals to large numbers of front-end electronics controllers from a single location in the vicinity of the central trigger processor. The systems must control the detector synchronization and deliver the necessary fast signals and messages that are phased with the LHC clock, orbit or bunch structure. These include the bunch-crossing clock, level-1 trigger decisions, bunch and event numbers, as well as test signals and broadcast commands. A common solution to this TTC system requirement is expected to result in important economies of scale and permit a rationalization of the development, operational and support efforts required. LHC Common Project RD12 is developi...

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 271: Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This corrective action decision document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 271, Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Located on the NTS approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, CAU 271 consists of fifteen Corrective Action Sites (CASs). The CASs consist of 13 septic systems, a radioactive leachfield, and a contaminated reservoir. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended CAA for each CAS within CAU 271. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 29, 2001, through February 22, 2002, and April 29, 2002, through June 25, 2002. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels and regulatory disposal limits to determine contaminants of concern (COC) for each CAS. It was determined that contaminants of concern included hydrocarbon-contaminated media, polychlorinated biphenyls, and radiologically-contaminated media. Three corrective action objectives were identified for these CASs, and subsequently three CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Areas 25, 26, and 27 of the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Clean Closure, and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 2, Clean Closure, was chosen as the preferred CAA for all but two of the CASs (25-04-04 and 27-05-02) because Nevada Administrative Control 444.818 requires clean closure of the septic tanks involved with these CASs. Alternative 3, Closure in Place, was chosen for the final two CASs because the short-term risks of

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada Appendix D - Corrective Action Investigation Report, Central Nevada Test Area, CAU 417

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, and consisting of three separate land withdrawal areas (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4), CAU 417 is comprised of 34 corrective action sites (CASs) including 2 underground storage tanks, 5 septic systems, 8 shaker pad/cuttings disposal areas, 1 decontamination facility pit, 1 burn area, 1 scrap/trash dump, 1 outlier area, 8 housekeeping sites, and 16 mud pits. Four field events were conducted between September 1996 and June 1998 to complete a corrective action investigation indicating that the only contaminant of concern was total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) which was found in 18 of the CASs. A total of 1,028 samples were analyzed. During this investigation, a statistical approach was used to determine which depth intervals or layers inside individual mud pits and shaker pad areas were above the State action levels for the TPH. Other related field sampling activities (i.e., expedited site characterization methods, surface geophysical surveys, direct-push geophysical surveys, direct-push soil sampling, and rotosonic drilling located septic leachfields) were conducted in this four-phase investigation; however, no further contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified. During and after the investigation activities, several of the sites which had surface debris but no COCs were cleaned up as housekeeping sites, two septic tanks were closed in place, and two underground storage tanks were removed. The focus of this CADD was to identify CAAs which would promote the prevention or mitigation of human exposure to surface and subsurface soils with contaminant

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 271: Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-09-16

    This corrective action decision document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 271, Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Located on the NTS approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, CAU 271 consists of fifteen Corrective Action Sites (CASs). The CASs consist of 13 septic systems, a radioactive leachfield, and a contaminated reservoir. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended CAA for each CAS within CAU 271. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 29, 2001, through February 22, 2002, and April 29, 2002, through June 25, 2002. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels and regulatory disposal limits to determine contaminants of concern (COC) for each CAS. It was determined that contaminants of concern included hydrocarbon-contaminated media, polychlorinated biphenyls, and radiologically-contaminated media. Three corrective action objectives were identified for these CASs, and subsequently three CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Areas 25, 26, and 27 of the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Clean Closure, and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 2, Clean Closure, was chosen as the preferred CAA for all but two of the CASs (25-04-04 and 27-05-02) because Nevada Administrative Control 444.818 requires clean closure of the septic tanks involved with these CASs. Alternative 3, Closure in Place, was chosen for the final two CASs because the short-term risks of

  2. How to Choose? Using the Delphi Method to Develop Consensus Triggers and Indicators for Disaster Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Rebecca; Sakata, Vicki; Lien, Onora

    2017-08-01

    To identify key decisions along the continuum of care (conventional, contingency, and crisis) and the critical triggers and data elements used to inform those decisions concerning public health and health care response during an emergency. A classic Delphi method, a consensus-building survey technique, was used with clinicians around Washington State to identify regional triggers and indicators. Additionally, using a modified Delphi method, we combined a workshop and single-round survey with panelists from public health (state and local) and health care coalitions to identify consensus state-level triggers and indicators. In the clinical survey, 122 of 223 proposed triggers or indicators (43.7%) reached consensus and were deemed important in regional decision-making during a disaster. In the state-level survey, 110 of 140 proposed triggers or indicators (78.6%) reached consensus and were deemed important in state-level decision-making during a disaster. The identification of consensus triggers and indicators for health care emergency response is crucial in supporting a comprehensive health care situational awareness process. This can inform the creation of standardized questions to ask health care, public health, and other partners to support decision-making during a response. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:467-472).

  3. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff practice and procedure digest: Commission, Appeal Board, and Licensing Board decisions issued from July 1, 1972 through March 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    A digest is given of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period from July 1, 1972 to March 31, 1986, interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice. Parts of earlier editions and supplements are replaced, and amendments to the Rules of Practice effective through March 31, 1986 are reflected. The material included deals with applications, prehearing matters, hearings, post-hearing matters, appeals, and decisions related to general matters. Decisions are indexed by facility, citation, CFR, statutes, case law, and other legal citations

  4. ATLAS FTK Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Iizawa, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Fast TracKer (FTK) will perform global track reconstruction after each Level-1 trigger accept signal to enable the software-based higher level trigger to have early access to tracking information. FTK is a dedicated processor based on a mixture of advanced technologies. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the large level of computing power required for pattern recognition is provided by incorporating standard-cell ASICs named Associative Memory (AM). Motivation and the architecture of the FTK system will be presented, and the status of hardware and simulation will be following.

  5. RPC Trigger Robustness: Status Report

    CERN Document Server

    Di Mattia, A; Nisati, A; Pastore, F; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; Aielli, G; Camarri, P; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Simone, A; Liberti, B; Santonico, R

    2002-01-01

    The present paper describes the Level-1 Barrel Muon Trigger performance as expected with the current configuration of the RPC detectors designed for the Barrel Muon Spectrometer of ATLAS. Results of a beam test performed at the X5-GIF facility at CERN are presented in order to show the trigger efficiency with different conditions of RPC detection efficiency and several background rates. Small (50$\\times$50 cm$^2$) RPC chambers with final Front-end electronics and splitter boards are used in the test, while the coincidence logic is applied off-line using a detailed simulation of the coincidence matrix.

  6. Fast processor for dilepton triggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsanevas, S.; Kostarakis, P.; Baltrusaitis, R.

    1983-01-01

    We describe a fast trigger processor, developed for and used in Fermilab experiment E-537, for selecting high-mass dimuon events produced by negative pions and anti-protons. The processor finds candidate tracks by matching hit information received from drift chambers and scintillation counters, and determines their momenta. Invariant masses are calculated for all possible pairs of tracks and an event is accepted if any invariant mass is greater than some preselectable minimum mass. The whole process, accomplished within 5 to 10 microseconds, achieves up to a ten-fold reduction in trigger rate

  7. Fatores determinantes da carga de trabalho em uma unidade básica de saúde Decisive factors relating to workload in a primary healthcare unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Rogério da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As doenças decorrentes do exercício pro-fissional, sejam de ordem física ou emocional, têm apresentado aumento crescente na sociedade atual, nos diferentes segmentos laborativos, com projeção significativa junto aos profissionais da saúde como médicos, dentistas, enfermeiros, auxiliares de enfermagem e auxiliares administrativos envolvidos com a prestação de serviços nas unidades de saúde. Este estudo teve por objetivo conhecer a carga de trabalho e seus fatores determinantes, buscando identificar possíveis relações entre as condições de trabalho e o possível impacto para a saúde dos trabalhadores. Participaram da amostra 31 indivíduos: 12 médicos, 3 dentistas, 1 enfermeira, 9 auxiliares de enfermagem, 3 auxiliares odontológicos e 3 auxiliares administrativos de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde (UBS no interior de São Paulo. Para a coleta dos dados foi elaborado um roteiro de entrevista estruturado e realizadas reuniões com os grupos específicos para uma descrição detalhada das atividades realizadas em cada setor e o levantamento de problemas e de características desejáveis. Os resultados indicam a presença de carga física, carga cognitiva e carga psíquica; processo de comunicação inadequado; equipamentos obsoletos; número excessivo de usuários e estrutura frágil para lidar com absenteísmo.Work-related diseases o either physical or emotional origin have been on the increase in contemporary society in the different work sectors. They have had a profound impact on health professionals, such as physicians, dentists, nurses, nursing assistants and administrative assistants in the primary healthcare units. This study aimed to establish the decisive factors relating to workload, seeking to identify possible relations between the working conditions and their potential impact on worker health. Thirty-one individuals comprised the sample, namely 12 physicians, 3 dentists, 1 nurse, 9 nursing assistants, 3 dental

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1 with ROTC 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlecke, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 140 is located within Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the NTS and is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, Burn Pit; 05-99-04, Burn Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; and 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage Area. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 140. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from November 13 through December 11, 2002. Additional sampling to delineate the extent of contaminants of concern (COCs) was conducted on February 4 and March 18 and 19, 2003. Corrective action investigation activities were performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 140. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify COCs for each CAS. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 05-08-01 contains the COCs lead and the radioisotope thorium-234 in the surface soil at sample location A05. (2) CAS 05-23-01 did not have any COCs identified during the field investigation; however, based on historical knowledge of activities at this site, the interior of the Gravel Gertie is considered contaminated with uranium. (3) CAS 23-17-01 contains the COC total petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel-range organics) at location J20 at a depth of 9 to 10 feet below ground surface. (4) No COCs were identified at CASs 05-08-02, 05-17-01, 05-19-01, 05

  9. DT Local Trigger performance in 2015

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Local Trigger system of the CMS Drift Tube chambers (DT) was checked applying similar methods as in the LHC Run 1 (2012). The main variables shown in this note are the trigger efficiency, the trigger quality and the fraction of trigger ghosts. The performance was found to be comparable or better than in Run 1.

  10. The CHAOS second level trigger. A fast, programmable ECL trigger for a magnetic spectrometer using multiwire proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raywood, K.J.; McFarland, S.J.; Sevior, M.E.

    1994-11-01

    A versatile second level trigger has been developed for the CHAOS facility at TRIUMF using fast ECLine trigger modules augmented by some specially constructed modules. It consists of a primary stage and two optional secondary stages. The primary track finding stage is capable of making a decision based on track vertex, polarity and momentum. The next stage is able to reject events based on the correlation between track momentum scattering angle. The third stage can make a cut on the sum of tile momenta of two tracks. In addition there is an extra parallel stage that is responsible for ensuring that the beam particle has the correct incoming trajectory. All stages are programmable and, depending on experimental conditions and trigger configuration, usual rejection times are between 2 and 4 μs. (author). 6 refs., 13 figs

  11. The CHAOS second level trigger. A fast, programmable ECL trigger for a magnetic spectrometer using multiwire proportional chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raywood, K J; McFarland, S J [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Amaudruz, P A; Smith, G R [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sevior, M E [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1994-11-01

    A versatile second level trigger has been developed for the CHAOS facility at TRIUMF using fast ECLine trigger modules augmented by some specially constructed modules. It consists of a primary stage and two optional secondary stages. The primary track finding stage is capable of making a decision based on track vertex, polarity and momentum. The next stage is able to reject events based on the correlation between track momentum scattering angle. The third stage can make a cut on the sum of tile momenta of two tracks. In addition there is an extra parallel stage that is responsible for ensuring that the beam particle has the correct incoming trajectory. All stages are programmable and, depending on experimental conditions and trigger configuration, usual rejection times are between 2 and 4 {mu}s. (author). 6 refs., 13 figs.

  12. The CMS Trigger Supervisor: Control and Hardware Monitoring System of the CMS Level-1 Trigger at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Ildefons Magrans de Abril

    2008-01-01

    The experiments CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) and ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) at the LargeHadron Collider (LHC) are the greatest exponents of the rising complexity in High Energy Physics (HEP) datahandling instrumentation. Tens of millions of readout channels, tens of thousands of hardware boards and thesame order of connections are figures of merit. However, the hardware volume is not the only complexitydimension, the unprecedented large number of research institutes and scientists that form the internationalcollaborations, and the long design, development, commissioning and operational phases are additional factorsthat must be taken into account.The Level-1 (L1) trigger decision loop is an excellent example of these difficulties. This system is based on apipelined logic destined to analyze without deadtime the data from each LHC bunch crossing occurring every25_ns, using special coarsely segmented trigger data from the detectors. The L1 trigger is responsible forreducing the rate of accepted crossings to...

  13. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff practice and procedure digest: Commission, Appeal Board and Licensing Board decisions, July 1972--December 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This Revision 10 of the fourth edition of the NRC Staff Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and licensing Board decisions issued during the period from July 1, 1972 to December 31, 1987 interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice in 10 CFR Part 2. This Revision 10 replaces in part earlier editions and supplements and includes appropriate changes reflecting the amendments to the Rules of Practice effective through December 31, 1987. The Digest is roughly structured in accordance with the chronological sequence of the nuclear facility licensing process as set forth in Appendix A to 10 CFR Part 2. Those decisions which did not fit into that structure are dealt with in a section on ''general matters.'' Where appropriate, particular decisions are indexed under more than one heading. Some topical headings contain no decision citations or discussion

  14. United States Military Assistance Programs C-130B's to Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study in Policy, Decision Making & Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schroer, D. J

    1997-01-01

    This case study will examine decision making in U.S. Military Assistance Programs in the form of C-l3OB transfers to the Sub-Saharan countries of Zimbabwe, Botswana and South Africa from 1994 to present...

  15. The first-level muon trigger system advances

    CERN Multimedia

    Ellis, N.

    2006-01-01

    Important advances have been made in the last few months in the first-level muon trigger, both for the barrel system and for the endcap system, in a close collaboration between the detector and trigger-electronics groups for the RPCs (Resistive-Plate Chambers) and TGCs (Thin-Gap Chambers). These trigger systems are crucial for the success of the muon-related physics programme of the experiment; events that are not triggered will be lost forever, and the trigger chambers also provide the second coordinate for the reconstruction of muons that are only measured in the bending plane by the MDT detectors. Integration and installation of the barrel muon trigger electronics on the RPC detectors is in full swing. The on-detector electronics consists of more than 800 units each of "Splitter" and "Pad" boxes which have been tested and integrated by a team of physicists, engineers and technicians from Italy and Romania. This work will continue for a further few months until the complete system has been installed and so...

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/ Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 556: Dry Wells and Surface Release Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2008-09-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 556, Dry Wells and Surface Release Points, located at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 556 is comprised of four corrective action sites (CASs): • 06-20-04, National Cementers Dry Well • 06-99-09, Birdwell Test Hole • 25-60-03, E-MAD Stormwater Discharge and Piping • 25-64-01, Vehicle Washdown and Drainage Pit The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 556 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities began on February 7 and were completed on June 19, 2008, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 556: Dry Wells and Surface Release Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 556 data were evaluated based on the data quality assessment process, which demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the data for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the COCs for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified COCs at one of the four CASs in CAU 556 that required the completion of a corrective action. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 556 revealed the following: • Corrective Action Sites 06-20-04, 06-99-09, and 25-64-01 do not contain contamination at

  17. Versatile secondary trigger for a multi-detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouimette, D.; Porat, D.; Tilghman, A.; Young, C.

    1982-10-01

    The electronics of a secondary trigger for particle physics is described. The system has several desirable features that solve track recognition problems in situations where several subsystems of various cell configurations participate in the decision making. Track curvature and multiplicity are the criteria used. Versatility is attained through the use of programmable Array Logic (PAL) and a 48-bit wide ROM-based sequencer that determines, with the resolution of a cell, the participation of each element in the decision process. Data from layers with arbitrary numbers of cells are shifted in a progammable manner through a PROM mask containing eight different track definitions. The results of any one of the eight triggering criteria are available 5.6 μs after the end of drift interval

  18. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Orso, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    Motivations, design, performance and ongoing upgrade of the CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger are presented. The system provides CDF with a powerful tool for online tracking with offline quality in order to enhance the reach on B-physics and large P t -physics coupled to b quarks

  19. Overview and performance of the ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Damp, Johannes Frederic; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In 2017 the LHC provided proton-proton collisions to the ATLAS experiment with high luminosity (up to 2.06x10^34), placing stringent operational and physical requirements on the ATLAS trigger system in order to reduce the 40 MHz collision rate to a manageable event storage rate of 1 kHz, while not rejecting interesting physics events. The Level-1 trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS trigger system with an output rate of 100 kHz and decision latency of less than 2.5 μs. An important role is played by its newly commissioned component: the L1 topological trigger (L1Topo). This innovative system consists of two blades designed in AdvancedTCA form factor, mounting four individual state-of-the-art processors, and providing high input bandwidth and low latency data processing. Up to 128 topological trigger algorithms can be implemented to select interesting events by applying kinematic and angular requirements on electromagnetic clusters, jets, muons and total energy. This results in a significantly...

  20. Development of the calorimeter trigger for the ZEUS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to begin development of the trigger for the calorimeter of the ZEUS detector at HERA, a new storage ring that will provide collisions between 820 GeV protons and 30 GeV electrons by 1990. The calorimeter will be made of depleted uranium plates and plastic scintillator read out by wavelength shifter bars into 12,000 photomultiplier tubes. These signals will be combined into 1000 towers with separate electromagnetic and hadronic sums. The calorimeter first level trigger will be pipelined with a decision provided 5 μsec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The trigger will need to determine the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of jets and isolated electrons. The trigger rate needs to be held to 1 kHz against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions of 200 kHz. The summed pulseheights will be digitized by 8-bit flash ADC's. They will be linearized, stored and manipulated digitally. The various pipelined sums will be made using ECL and CMOS technology.This grant was used to investigate these technologies, model the trigger performance, and begin the design. This research will be continued by this principal investigator under another DOE grant at the University of Wisconsin

  1. Triggering at Isabelle; the first 200 nanoseconds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abshire, G.; Kondo, K.; Sculli, J.; Johnson, R.A.; Morris, G.R.

    1978-07-01

    At full luminosity of ISABELLE and with an anticipated pp total cross section of 60 mb, there will be, on the average, one interaction every 70 ns. At the other end of the spectrum, it will probably take about 10 ms to store a complete event onto magnetic tape. In between these two extremes comes a triggering scheme which must select the one event out of 14,285,714 that is of interest to the experimenter. In a typical experiment, a certain small number of signals will come into an electronics trailer on cables that are as short as possible and have propagation velocities as high as possible. With these signals a fast decision will be made as to whether the rest of the information coming in on the slower, longer cables should be further processed or not. The typical length of time for this decision is 200 ns. Some of the problems arising during that first 200 ns are considered, and some examples of attempts to solve those problems are given

  2. Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Luigi Baldi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article points out some conditions which significantly exert an influence upon decision and compares decision making and problem solving as interconnected processes. Some strategies of decision making are also examined.

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, in Areas 2, 3, 9, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (1996, as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 545 is comprised of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): • 02-09-01, Mud Disposal Area • 03-08-03, Mud Disposal Site • 03-17-01, Waste Consolidation Site 3B • 03-23-02, Waste Disposal Site • 03-23-05, Europium Disposal Site • 03-99-14, Radioactive Material Disposal Area • 09-23-02, U-9y Drilling Mud Disposal Crater • 20-19-01, Waste Disposal Site While all eight CASs are addressed in this CADD/CR, sufficient information was available for the following three CASs; therefore, a field investigation was not conducted at these sites: • For CAS 03-08-03, though the potential for subsidence of the craters was judged to be extremely unlikely, the data quality objective (DQO) meeting participants agreed that sufficient information existed about disposal and releases at the site and that a corrective action of close in place with a use restriction is recommended. Sampling in the craters was not considered necessary. • For CAS 03-23-02, there were no potential releases of hazardous or radioactive contaminants identified. Therefore, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 545 concluded that: “Sufficient information exists to conclude that this CAS does not exist as originally identified. Therefore, there is no environmental concern associated with CAS 03-23-02.” This CAS is closed with no further action. • For CAS 03-23-05, existing information about the two buried sources and lead pig was considered to be

  4. Performance of the ATLAS first-level Trigger with first LHC Data

    CERN Document Server

    Lundberg, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the two general-purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Its trigger system must reduce the anticipated proton collision rate of up to 40 MHz to a recordable event rate of 100-200 Hz. This is realized through a multi-level trigger system. The first-level trigger is implemented with custom-built electronics and makes an initial selection which reduces the rate to less than 100 kHz. The subsequent trigger selection is done in software run on PC farms. The first-level trigger decision is made by the central-trigger processor using information from coarse grained calorimeter information, dedicated muon-trigger detectors, and a variety of additional trigger inputs from detectors in the forward regions. We present the performance of the first-level trigger during the commissioning of the ATLAS detector during early LHC running. We cover the trigger strategies used during the different machine commissioning phases from first circulating beams and splash events to collisions. It is descri...

  5. Studies of scintillator-based muon triggers in CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuch, Florian

    2017-03-16

    The CMS experiment at the LHC will face challenges due to upgrades and improvements of the LHC in future. Especially, the upgrade towards the high luminosity LHC in 2025 with a foreseen center of mass energy of 14 TeV, an instantaneous luminosity of O(10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and the concurrent aging of and radiation damage to the detectors will have an impact on the fast CMS trigger system and the CMS sub-detectors. Especially, the impact on the CMS muon system - and more particular on the drift tube (DT) system - is of vital interest. In order to respond to these challenges the performance of the DT system as part of the L1 muon trigger and the use of a scintillator-based muon trigger as supportive detector are analyzed in this thesis. First, the concept of such a scintillator-based muon trigger, the Muon Track fast Tag (MTT), as support for the DT trigger system, is presented. The conducted related R and D is described. Exploiting the similarity of the MTT concept and the existing hadron outer calorimeter (HO), studies are presented that evaluate the impact of the challenges on the L1 Trigger as well as the potential of the HO detector as a possible response to these challenges. It is shown that the HO detector can be of help in case of DT detector failures and it is able to improve the muon recognition of the DT detector in the L1 Trigger. The reduction of L1 muon ambiguities with the HO detector is found to be not feasible. The results, that were obtained using HO, are extrapolated towards the MTT concept. The MTT concept is rated as valuable backup solution that, however, will not increase the benefit above the HO detector in the presented application scenarios. After a summary of the performed analyses, the conclusion is drawn, that the HO detector should be included into the L1 Trigger decision. The initiated upgrade process of the HO integration into the L1 muon trigger, that was motivated by these studies, is presented. The preceding upgrade of HO

  6. NOvA Event Building, Buffering and Data-Driven Triggering From Within the DAQ System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischler, M. [Fermilab; Green, C. [Fermilab; Kowalkowski, J. [Fermilab; Norman, A. [Fermilab; Paterno, M. [Fermilab; Rechenmacher, R. [Fermilab

    2012-06-22

    To make its core measurements, the NOvA experiment needs to make real-time data-driven decisions involving beam-spill time correlation and other triggering issues. NOvA-DDT is a prototype Data-Driven Triggering system, built using the Fermilab artdaq generic DAQ/Event-building tools set. This provides the advantages of sharing online software infrastructure with other Intensity Frontier experiments, and of being able to use any offline analysis module--unchanged--as a component of the online triggering decisions. The NOvA-artdaq architecture chosen has significant advantages, including graceful degradation if the triggering decision software fails or cannot be done quickly enough for some fraction of the time-slice ``events.'' We have tested and measured the performance and overhead of NOvA-DDT using an actual Hough transform based trigger decision module taken from the NOvA offline software. The results of these tests--98 ms mean time per event on only 1/16 of th e available processing power of a node, and overheads of about 2 ms per event--provide a proof of concept: NOvA-DDT is a viable strategy for data acquisition, event building, and trigger processing at the NOvA far detector.

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 482: Area 15 U15a/e Muckpiles and Ponds Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-09-30

    This Corrective Action Decision Document /Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 482 U15a/e Muckpiles and Ponds. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 482 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and one adjacent area: CAS 15-06-01, U15e Muckpile; CAS 15-06-02, U15a Muckpile; CAS 15-38-01, Area 15 U15a/e Ponds; and Drainage below the U15a Muckpile. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure with no further corrective action, by placing use restrictions on the three CASs and the adjacent area of CAU 482. To support this recommendation, a corrective action investigation (CAI) was performed in September 2002. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to determine appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 482 dataset from the CAI was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. Tier 2 FALS were determined for the hazardous constituents of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)-diesel-range organics (DRO) and the radionuclides americium (Am)-241, cesium (Cs)-137, plutonium (Pu)-238, and Pu-239. The Tier 2 FALs were calculated for the radionuclides using site-specific information. The hazardous constituents of TPH-DRO were compared to the PALs

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 482: Area 15 U15a/e Muckpiles and Ponds Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document /Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 482 U15a/e Muckpiles and Ponds. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 482 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and one adjacent area: CAS 15-06-01, U15e Muckpile; CAS 15-06-02, U15a Muckpile; CAS 15-38-01, Area 15 U15a/e Ponds; and Drainage below the U15a Muckpile. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure with no further corrective action, by placing use restrictions on the three CASs and the adjacent area of CAU 482. To support this recommendation, a corrective action investigation (CAI) was performed in September 2002. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to determine appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 482 dataset from the CAI was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. Tier 2 FALS were determined for the hazardous constituents of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)-diesel-range organics (DRO) and the radionuclides americium (Am)-241, cesium (Cs)-137, plutonium (Pu)-238, and Pu-239. The Tier 2 FALs were calculated for the radionuclides using site-specific information. The hazardous constituents of TPH-DRO were compared to the PALs

  9. Triggers in UA2 and UA1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorenbosch, J.

    1985-01-01

    The UA2 and UA1 trigger systems are described as they will be used after the upgrade of the CERN SPPS. The luminosity of the collider will increase to 3x10 30 . The bunch spacing is 4 microseconds, comparable to the time available for a second level trigger at the SSC. The first level triggers are very powerful and deliver trigger rates of about 100 Hz. The UA1 second level trigger operates on the final digitizings with a combination of special and general purpose processors. At the highest trigger levels a small farm of processors performs the final reduction. (orig.)

  10. Interconnection test framework for the CMS level-1 trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, J.; Magrans de Abril, M.; Wulz, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring System is a software package designed to configure, monitor and test the Level-1 Trigger System of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. It is a large and distributed system that runs over 50 PCs and controls about 200 hardware units. The objective of this paper is to describe and evaluate the architecture of a distributed testing framework - the Interconnection Test Framework (ITF). This generic and highly flexible framework for creating and executing hardware tests within the Level-1 Trigger environment is meant to automate testing of the 13 major subsystems interconnected with more than 1000 links. Features include a web interface to create and execute tests, modeling using finite state machines, dependency management, automatic configuration, and loops. Furthermore, the ITF will replace the existing heterogeneous testing procedures and help reducing both maintenance and complexity of operation tasks. (authors)

  11. How Does National Culture Impact on Consumers’ Decision-making Styles? A Cross Cultural Study in Brazil, the United States and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yie Leng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This empirical article investigates the relationship between national culture and consumer decision-making styles in the purchase of cell phones, a product category that appears to be required by consumers independent of their nationalities. To make the research measurable, we used Hofstede’s four cultural dimensions (power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, and masculinity and Sproles and Kendall’s Consumer Style Inventory framework (quality conscious, brand conscious, innovative, recreation, price conscious, impulsive, confused and brand loyal, and tested nine hypotheses through MANOVA in a sample of 108 buyers of the product in Brazil, 104 in the USA, and 107 in Japan, countries ranked in the top ten of the world’s largest cell phone market. Factor Analysis via Principal Component Analysis was conducted to examine the suitability of the eight-factor model in observations from each country. The three nationalities and the eight decision making styles were treated as independent and dependent variables, respectively. Findings showed mixed evidence for the application of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions to decision-making styles. Managerial implications and suggestions for future research are presented to help understand the relationship between national culture and consumer decision-making styles.

  12. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff practice and procedure digest: Commission, Appeal Board and Licensing Board decisions, July 1972--September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This Revision 9 of the fourth edition of the NRC Staff Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period from July 1, 1972 to September 30, 1987 interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice in 10 CFR Part 2. This Revision 9 replaces in part earlier editions and supplements and includes appropriate changes reflecting the amendments to the Rules of Practice effective through September 30, 1987. The Digest is roughly structured in accordance with the chronological sequence of the nuclear facility licensing process as set forth in Appendix A to 10 CFR Part 2. Those decisions which did not fit into that structure are dealt with in a section on ''general matters.'' Where appropriate, particular decisions are indexed under more than one heading. Some topical headings contain no decisions citations or discussion. It is anticipated that future updates to the Digest will utilize these headings

  13. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff Practice and Procedure Digest: Commission, Appeal Board and Licensing Board decisions, July 1972--March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This 5th revision of the sixth edition of the NRC Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period of July 1, 1972 to March 31, 1992, interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice in 10 CFR Part 2

  14. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff practice and procedure digest: Commission, Appeal Board and Licensing Board decisions, July 1972--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This 4th revision of the sixth edition of the NRC Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period of July 1, 1972 to December 31, 1991, interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice in 10 CFR Part 2

  15. Mind Your Steps : Medical ethical decision-making in the neonatal intensive care unit and impact of emotional burden on nurses and physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Boer (Coby)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract This thesis assesses the effectiveness of structured multi-professional medical ethical decision-making in diminishing problems experienced around medical ethical decisionmaking in the Erasmus MC NICU. Besides, it gives an overview of the patients discussed from 2009 to

  16. The influence of multiple ownership interests and decision-making networks on the management of family forest lands: evidence from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie A. Snyder; Michael A. Kilgore

    2018-01-01

    A national assessment of how the number of parcel owners influence family forest land management and use decisions in the US was conducted using a subset of the US Forest Service's National Woodland Owner Survey Dataset. Seventy-two percent of single parcel family forest land ownership respondents of at least 4.05 ha had multiple owners. The extent to which past...

  17. Muon Trigger for Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyak, M.; Usvyatsov, M.; Mulhearn, M.; Shimmin, C.; Ustyuzhanin, A.

    2017-10-01

    The CRAYFIS experiment proposes to use privately owned mobile phones as a ground detector array for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays. Upon interacting with Earth’s atmosphere, these events produce extensive particle showers which can be detected by cameras on mobile phones. A typical shower contains minimally-ionizing particles such as muons. As these particles interact with CMOS image sensors, they may leave tracks of faintly-activated pixels that are sometimes hard to distinguish from random detector noise. Triggers that rely on the presence of very bright pixels within an image frame are not efficient in this case. We present a trigger algorithm based on Convolutional Neural Networks which selects images containing such tracks and are evaluated in a lazy manner: the response of each successive layer is computed only if activation of the current layer satisfies a continuation criterion. Usage of neural networks increases the sensitivity considerably comparable with image thresholding, while the lazy evaluation allows for execution of the trigger under the limited computational power of mobile phones.

  18. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  19. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has introduced and recently commissioned a completely new hardware sub-system of its first-level trigger: the topological processor (L1Topo). L1Topo consist of two AdvancedTCA blades mounting state-of-the-art FPGA processors, providing high input bandwidth (up to 4 Gb/s) and low latency data processing (200 ns). L1Topo is able to select collision events by applying kinematic and topological requirements on candidate objects (energy clusters, jets, and muons) measured by calorimeters and muon sub-detectors. Results from data recorded using the L1Topo trigger will be presented. These results demonstrate a significantly improved background event rejection, thus allowing for a rate reduction without efficiency loss. This improvement has been shown for several physics processes leading to low-pT leptons, including H->tau tau and J/Psi->mu mu. In addition to describing the L1Topo trigger system, we will discuss the use of an accurate L1Topo simulation as a powerful tool to validate and optimize...

  1. ATLAS FTK: Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    An overview of the ATLAS Fast Tracker processor is presented, reporting the design of the system, its expected performance, and the integration status. The next LHC runs, with a significant increase in instantaneous luminosity, will provide a big challenge to the trigger and data acquisition systems of all the experiments. An intensive use of the tracking information at the trigger level will be important to keep high efficiency in interesting events, despite the increase in multiple p-p collisions per bunch crossing (pile-up). In order to increase the use of tracks within the High Level Trigger (HLT), the ATLAS experiment planned the installation of an hardware processor dedicated to tracking: the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor. The FTK is designed to perform full scan track reconstruction at every Level-1 accept. To achieve this goal, the FTK uses a fully parallel architecture, with algorithms designed to exploit the computing power of custom VLSI chips, the Associative Memory, as well as modern FPGAs. The FT...

  2. Family members' satisfaction with care and decision-making in intensive care units and post-stay follow-up needs-a cross-sectional survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frivold, Gro; Slettebø, Åshild; Heyland, Daren K; Dale, Bjørg

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore family members' satisfaction with care and decision-making during the intensive care units stay and their follow-up needs after the patient's discharge or death. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted. Family members of patients recently treated in an ICU were participating. The questionnaire contented of background variables, the instrument Family Satisfaction in ICU (FS-ICU 24) and questions about follow-up needs. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics and a multiple linear regression were used in the analysis. A total of 123 (47%) relatives returned the questionnaire. Satisfaction with care was higher scored than satisfaction with decision-making. Follow- up needs after the ICU stay was reported by 19 (17%) of the participants. Gender and length of the ICU stay were shown as factors identified to predict follow-up needs.

  3. Headache triggers in the US military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeler, Brett J; Kenney, Kimbra; Prokhorenko, Olga A; Fideli, Ulgen S; Campbell, William; Erickson, Jay C

    2010-05-01

    Headaches can be triggered by a variety of factors. Military service members have a high prevalence of headache but the factors triggering headaches in military troops have not been identified. The objective of this study is to determine headache triggers in soldiers and military beneficiaries seeking specialty care for headaches. A total of 172 consecutive US Army soldiers and military dependents (civilians) evaluated at the headache clinics of 2 US Army Medical Centers completed a standardized questionnaire about their headache triggers. A total of 150 (87%) patients were active-duty military members and 22 (13%) patients were civilians. In total, 77% of subjects had migraine; 89% of patients reported at least one headache trigger with a mean of 8.3 triggers per patient. A wide variety of headache triggers was seen with the most common categories being environmental factors (74%), stress (67%), consumption-related factors (60%), and fatigue-related factors (57%). The types of headache triggers identified in active-duty service members were similar to those seen in civilians. Stress-related triggers were significantly more common in soldiers. There were no significant differences in trigger types between soldiers with and without a history of head trauma. Headaches in military service members are triggered mostly by the same factors as in civilians with stress being the most common trigger. Knowledge of headache triggers may be useful for developing strategies that reduce headache occurrence in the military.

  4. Rapanos v. United States & Carabell v. United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents associated with guidance for implementing the definition of waters of the United States under the Clean Water Act following the Rapanos v. United States, and Carabell v. United States Supreme Court decision.

  5. Observing earthquakes triggered in the near field by dynamic deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, J.; Bodin, P.; Reasenberg, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    We examine the hypothesis that dynamic deformations associated with seismic waves trigger earthquakes in many tectonic environments. Our analysis focuses on seismicity at close range (within the aftershock zone), complementing published studies of long-range triggering. Our results suggest that dynamic triggering is not confined to remote distances or to geothermal and volcanic regions. Long unilaterally propagating ruptures may focus radiated dynamic deformations in the propagation direction. Therefore, we expect seismicity triggered dynamically by a directive rupture to occur asymmetrically, with a majority of triggered earthquakes in the direction of rupture propagation. Bilaterally propagating ruptures also may be directive, and we propose simple criteria for assessing their directivity. We compare the inferred rupture direction and observed seismicity rate change following 15 earthquakes (M 5.7 to M 8.1) that occured in California and Idaho in the United States, the Gulf of Aqaba, Syria, Guatemala, China, New Guinea, Turkey, Japan, Mexico, and Antarctica. Nine of these mainshocks had clearly directive, unilateral ruptures. Of these nine, seven apparently induced an asymmetric increase in seismicity rate that correlates with the rupture direction. The two exceptions include an earthquake preceded by a comparable-magnitude event on a conjugate fault and another for which data limitations prohibited conclusive results. Similar (but weaker) correlations were found for the bilaterally rupturing earthquakes we studied. Although the static stress change also may trigger seismicity, it and the seismicity it triggers are expected to be similarly asymmetric only if the final slip is skewed toward the rupture terminus. For several of the directive earthquakes, we suggest that the seismicity rate change correlates better with the dynamic stress field than the static stress change.

  6. Graphics Processors in HEP Low-Level Trigger Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, Roberto; Biagioni, Andrea; Chiozzi, Stefano; Ramusino, Angelo Cotta; Cretaro, Paolo; Lorenzo, Stefano Di; Fantechi, Riccardo; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Cicero, Francesca Lo; Lonardo, Alessandro; Martinelli, Michele; Neri, Ilaria; Paolucci, Pier Stanislao; Pastorelli, Elena; Piandani, Roberto; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Vicini, Piero

    2016-01-01

    Usage of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) in the so called general-purpose computing is emerging as an effective approach in several fields of science, although so far applications have been employing GPUs typically for offline computations. Taking into account the steady performance increase of GPU architectures in terms of computing power and I/O capacity, the real-time applications of these devices can thrive in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems. We will examine the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for the synchronous low-level trigger, focusing on tests performed on the trigger system of the CERN NA62 experiment. To successfully integrate GPUs in such an online environment, latencies of all components need analysing, networking being the most critical. To keep it under control, we envisioned NaNet, an FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) enabling GPUDirect connection. Furthermore, it is assessed how specific trigger algorithms can be parallelized and thus benefit from a GPU implementation, in terms of increased execution speed. Such improvements are particularly relevant for the foreseen Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade where highly selective algorithms will be essential to maintain sustainable trigger rates with very high pileup

  7. The Jefferson Lab Trigger Supervisor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ed Jastrzembsi; David Abbott; Graham Heyes; R.W. MacLeod; Carl Timmer; Elliott Wolin

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the design and performance of a Trigger Supervisor System for use in nuclear physics experiments at Jefferson Lab. We also discuss the enhanced features of a new Trigger Supervisor Module now under construction

  8. The Jefferson Lab Trigger Supervisor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrzembski, E.; Abbott, D.J.; Heyes, W.G.; MacLeod, R.W.; Timmer, C.; Wolin, E.

    1999-01-01

    The authors discuss the design and performance of a Trigger Supervisor System for use in nuclear physics experiments at Jefferson Lab. They also discuss the enhanced features of a new Trigger Supervisor Module now under construction

  9. Physics performances with the new ATLAS Level-1 Topological trigger in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00414333; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger system aims at reducing the 40 MHz proton-proton collision event rate to a manageable event storage rate of 1 kHz, preserving events valuable for physics analysis. The Level-1 trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS trigger system, with an output rate of 100 kHz and decision latency of less than 2.5 micro seconds. It is composed of the calorimeter trigger, muon trigger and central trigger processor. During the last upgrade, a new electronics element was introduced to Level-1: The Topological Processor System. It will make it possible to use detailed realtime information from the Level-1 calorimeter and muon triggers, processed in individual state of the art FPGA processors to determine angles between jets and/or leptons and calculate kinematic variables based on lists of selected/sorted objects. More than one hundred VHDL algorithms are producing trigger outputs to be incorporated into the central trigger processor. This information will be essential to improve background reject...

  10. The Trigger System of the CMS Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Felcini, Marta

    2008-01-01

    We give an overview of the main features of the CMS trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) system. Then, we illustrate the strategies and trigger configurations (trigger tables) developed for the detector calibration and physics program of the CMS experiment, at start-up of LHC operations, as well as their possible evolution with increasing luminosity. Finally, we discuss the expected CPU time performance of the trigger algorithms and the CPU requirements for the event filter farm at start-up.

  11. Triggers for a high sensitivity charm experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, D.C.

    1994-07-01

    Any future charm experiment clearly should implement an E T trigger and a μ trigger. In order to reach the 10 8 reconstructed charm level for hadronic final states, a high quality vertex trigger will almost certainly also be necessary. The best hope for the development of an offline quality vertex trigger lies in further development of the ideas of data-driven processing pioneered by the Nevis/U. Mass. group

  12. United State Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff practice and procedure digest: Commission, Appeal Board, and Licensing Board decisions, July 1972--June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This fifth edition of the NRC Staff Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period from July 1, 1972 to June 30, 1988 interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice in 10 CFR Part 2. This edition replaces in their entirety earlier editions and supplements and includes appropriate changes reflecting the amendments to the Rules of Practice effective through June 30, 1988

  13. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff practice and procedure digest. Commission, Appearl Board and Licensing Board decisions, July 1972-June 1985. Digest No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This edition of the NRC Staff Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period July 1, 1972 to June 30, 1985 interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice in 10 CFR Part 2. This edition replaces earlier editions and supplements and includes appropriate changes reflecting the amendment to the Rules of Practice effective June 30, 1985

  14. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: a new approach to decision-making in mental health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Fiona

    2012-12-01

    The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) requires us to engage in new approaches to decision-making in mental health law. The reclassification of mental health rights to the realm of disability rights is an important step towards equal treatment for persons with psychosocial disabilities. Law reformers worldwide are beginning to consider the implications of the provisions. Legislators will be required to understand the underlying philosophy of the CRPD to realise the rights set out in it. The CRPD possesses a number of innovative provisions which can transform decision-making in the mental health context. Article 12 provides a new conceptualisation of persons with disabilities and their capacity to participate by requiring support to exercise legal capacity. While good practice exists, the provision has yet to be fully implemented by many State Parties. This article discusses the impact of the CRPD on mental health law, legal capacity law and describes examples of supported decision-making models for mental health care.

  15. First level trigger of the DIRAC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, L.G.; Karpukhin, V.V.; Kulikov, A.V.; Gallas, M.

    2001-01-01

    The logic of the first level trigger of the DIRAC experiment at CERN is described. A parallel running of different trigger modes with tagging of events and optional independent prescaling is realized. A CAMAC-based trigger system is completely computer controlled

  16. A Time-Multiplexed Track-Trigger for the CMS HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    A new CMS Tracker is under development for operation at the High Luminosity LHC from 2025. It includes an outer tracker based on special modules of two different types which will construct track stubs using spatially coincident clusters in two closely spaced sensor layers, to reject low transverse momentum track hits and reduce the data volume before data transmission to the Level-1 trigger. The tracker data will be used to reconstruct track segments in dedicated processors before onward transmission to other trigger processors which will combine tracker information with data originating from the calorimeter and muon detectors, to make the final L1 trigger decision. The architecture for processing the tracker data outside the detector is under study, using several alternative approaches. One attractive possibility is to exploit a Time Multiplexed design similar to the one which is currently being implemented in the CMS calorimeter trigger as part of the Phase I trigger upgrade. The novel Time Multiplexed Trig...

  17. The design of a flexible Global Calorimeter Trigger system for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooke, J J [H.H. Wills Physics Lab, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Cussans, D G [H.H. Wills Physics Lab, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Frazier, R J E [H.H. Wills Physics Lab, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Galagedera, S B [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Heath, G P [H.H. Wills Physics Lab, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Huckvale, B J [H.H. Wills Physics Lab, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Nash, S J [H.H. Wills Physics Lab, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Newbold, D M [H.H. Wills Physics Lab, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Shah, A A [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    We have developed a novel design of triggering system as part of the pipelined hardware Level-1 trigger logic for the CMS experiment at LHC. The Global Calorimeter Trigger is the last element in the processing of calorimeter data, and provides most of the input to the final Level-1 decision. We present the detailed functional requirements for this system. Our design meets the requirements using generic, configurable Trigger Processing Modules built from commercial programmable logic and high-speed serial data links. We describe the hardware, firmware and software components of this solution. CMS has chosen an alternative solution to build the final trigger system; we discuss the implications of our experiences for future development projects along similar lines.

  18. Performance of the ATLAS Level-1 muon barrel trigger during the Run 2 data taking

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00404546; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Level-1 Muon Barrel Trigger is one of the main elements of the event selection of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. It exploits the Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) detectors to generate the trigger signal. The RPCs are placed in the barrel region of the ATLAS experiment: they are arranged in three concentric double layers and operate in a strong magnetic toroidal field. RPC detectors cover the pseudo-rapidity range |η| < 1.05 for a total surface of more than 4000 m 2 and about 3600 gas volumes. The Level-1 Muon Trigger in the barrel region allows to select muon candidates according to their transverse momentum and associates them with the correct bunch-crossing. The trigger system is able to take a decision within a latency of about 2 μs. The measurement of the RPC detector efficiencies and the trigger performance during the ATLAS Run-II data taking are here presented.

  19. A configurable tracking algorithm to detect cosmic muon tracks for the CMS-RPC based technical trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rajan, R T; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Ranieri, A; Abbrescia, M; Guida, R; Iaselli, G; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Roselli, G; Trentadue, R; Tupputi, b, S; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Fabbri, F; Cavallo, N; Cimmino, e, A; Lomidze, D; Noli, P; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Polese, G; Sciacca, C; Baesso, g, P; Belli, G; Necchi, M; Ratti, S P; Pagano, D; Vitulo, P; Viviani, C; Dimitrov, A; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Bunkowski, K; Kierzkowski, K; Konecki, M; Kudla, I; Pietrusinski, M; Pozniak, K

    2009-01-01

    In the CERN CMS experiment at LHC Collider special trigger signals called Technical Triggers will be used for the purpose of test and calibration. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) based Technical Trigger system is a part of the CMS muon trigger system and is designed to detect cosmic muon tracks. It is based on two boards, namely RBC (RPC Balcony Collector) and TTU (Technical Trigger Unit). The proposed tracking algorithm (TA) written in VHDL and implemented in the TTU board detects single or multiple cosmic muon tracks at every bunch crossing along with their track lengths and corresponding chamber coordinates. The TA implementation in VHDL and its preliminary simulation results are presented.

  20. Digital Filtering Performance in the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Hadley, D R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger is a hardware-based system designed to identify high-pT jets, elec- tron/photon and tau candidates, and to measure total and missing ET in the ATLAS Liquid Argon and Tile calorimeters. It is a pipelined processor system, with a new set of inputs being evaluated every 25ns. The overall trigger decision has a latency budget of 2µs, including all transmission delays. The calorimeter trigger uses about 7200 reduced granularity analogue signals, which are first digitized at the 40 MHz LHC bunch-crossing frequency, before being passed to a digital Finite Impulse Re- sponse (FIR) filter. Due to latency and chip real-estate constraints, only a simple 5-element filter with limited precision can be used. Nevertheless, this filter achieves a significant reduction in noise, along with improving the bunch-crossing assignment and energy resolution for small signals. The context in which digital filters are used for the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger is presented, before descr...

  1. Digital Filter Performance for the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Hadley, D R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger is a hardware-based system designed to identify high-pT jets, electron/photon and tau candidates, and to measure total and missing ET in the ATLAS Liquid Argon and Tile calorimeters. It is a pipelined processor system, with a new set of inputs being evaluated every 25ns. The overall trigger decision has a latency budget of 2µs, including all transmission delays. The calorimeter trigger uses about 7200 reduced granularity analogue signals, which are first digitized at the 40 MHz LHC bunch-crossing frequency, before being passed to a digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter. Due to latency and chip real-estate constraints, only a simple 5-element filter with limited precision can be used. Nevertheless this filter achieves a significant reduction in noise, along with improving the bunch-crossing assignment and energy resolution for small signals. The context in which digital filters are used for the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger will be presented, before describing ...

  2. The Alice dimuon trigger: overview and electronics prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaldi, R.; Baldit, A.; Barret, V.; Bastid, N.

    2000-01-01

    ALICE is the LHC experiment (2005) dedicated to the study of heavy ion collisions. Amongst the ALICE sub-detectors, the muon spectrometer will investigate the dimuon production from heavy resonance (J/ψ,γ) decays, which is believed to be a promising signature of the QGP (quark Gluon Plasma) formation. For maximum efficiency of the spectrometer, a dedicated dimuon trigger is presently built. The detector part itself is based on RPCs operated in streamer mode and is the topic of another contribution to this conference. This paper gives the principle and the simulated performances of the trigger and is also focussed on the description of the electronics prototypes and future developments. The RPCs are read-out by X and Y orthogonal strips: the front-end chips are presently developed. The signals are sent to the trigger electronics which basically performs a pt cut on the tracks to reduce the background. A prototype of fast (decision time 200 ns) programmable electronics working in a pipelined mode at 40 MHz has been built and tested. This prototype handles simultaneously 160 digital information from the strips. The tests of the trigger card have required the construction of a pattern generator (160 bits at 40 MHz). (author)

  3. Topological and Central Trigger Processor for 2014 LHC luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Simioni, E; The ATLAS collaboration; Bauss, B; Berge, D; Buscher, V; Childers, T; Degele, R; Dobson, E; Ebling, A; Ellis, N; Farthouat, P; Gabaldon, C; Gorini, B; Haas, S; Ji, W; Kaneda, M; Mattig, S; Messina, A; Meyer, C; Moritz, S; Pauly, T; Pottgen, R; Schafer, U; Spiwoks, R; Tapprogge, S; Wengler, T; Wenzel, V

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is located at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. It is designed to observe phenomena that involve highly massive particles produced in the collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC): the world’s largest and highest-energy particle accelerator. Event triggering and Data Acquisition is one of the extraordinary challenges faced by the detectors at the high luminosity LHC collider. During 2011, the LHC reached instantaneous luminosities of 4 10^33 cm−1 s−1 and produced events with up to 24 interactions per colliding proton bunch. This places stringent operational and physical requirements on the ATLAS Trigger in order to reduce the 40MHz collision rate to a manageable event storage rate of 400Hz and, at the same time, selecting those events considered interesting. The Level-1 Trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS Trigger, with an output rate of 75kHz and decision latency of less than 2.5 micro seconds. It is primarily composed of the Calori...

  4. Topological and Central Trigger Processor for 2014 LHC luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Simioni, E; The ATLAS collaboration; Bauss, B; Berge, D; B\\"{u}scher, V; Childers, T; Degele, R; Dobson, E; Ebling, A; Ellis, N; Farthouat, P; Gabaldon, C; Gorini, B; Haas, S; Ji, W; Kaneda, M; M\\"{a}ttig, S; Messina, A; Meyer, C; Moritz, S; Pauly, T; Pottgen, R; Sch\\"{a}fer, U; Spiwoks, R; Tapprogge, S; Wengler, T; Wenzel, V

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is located at the European Center for Nu- clear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. It is designed to observe phe- nomena that involve highly massive particles produced in the collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC): the world’s largest and highest-energy particle accelerator. Event triggering and Data Acquisition is one of the extraordinary challenges faced by the detectors at the high luminosity LHC collider. During 2011, the LHC reached instantaneous luminosities of 4×10^33 cm−1 s−1 and produced events with up to 24 interactions per colliding proton bunch. This places stringent operational and physical requirements on the AT- LAS Trigger in order to reduce the 40MHz collision rate to a manageable event storage rate of 400Hz and, at the same time, selecting those events considered interesting. The Level-1 Trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS Trigger, with an output rate of 75kHz and decision latency of less than 2.5μs. It is primarily composed of the Calorimete...

  5. The D OE software trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, J.T.; Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI

    1992-10-01

    In the D OE experiment, the software filter operates in a processor farm with each node processing a single event. Processing is data-driven: the filter does local processing to verify the candidates from the hardware trigger. The filter code consists of independent pieces called ''tools''; processing for a given hardware bit is a ''script'' invoking one or more ''tools'' sequentially. An offline simulator drives the same code with the same configuration files, running on real or simulated data. Online tests use farm nodes parasiting on the data stream. We discuss the performance of the system and how we attempt to verify its correctness

  6. Calorimeter triggers for hard collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P.V.; Polkinghorne, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    We discuss the use of a forward calorimeter to trigger on hard hadron-hadron collisions. We give a derivation in the covariant parton model of the Ochs-Stodolsky scaling law for single-hard-scattering processes, and investigate the conditions when instead a multiple- scattering mechanism might dominate. With a proton beam, this mechanism results in six transverse jets, with a total average multiplicity about twice that seen in ordinary events. We estimate that its cross section is likely to be experimentally accessible at avalues of the beam energy in the region of 100 GeV/c

  7. Triggering for charm, beauty, and truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    As the search for more and more rare processes accelerates, the need for more and more effective event triggers also accelerates. In the earliest experiments, a simple coincidence often sufficed not only as the event trigger, but as the complete record of an event of interest. In today's experiments, not only has the fast trigger become more sophisticated, but one or more additional level of trigger processing precedes writing event data to magnetic tape for later analysis. Further search experiments will certainly require further expansion in the number of trigger levels required to filter those rare events of particular interest

  8. Competition for trophies triggers male generosity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Sophia Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cooperation is indispensable in human societies, and much progress has been made towards understanding human pro-social decisions. Formal incentives, such as punishment, are suggested as potential effective approaches despite the fact that punishment can crowd out intrinsic motives for cooperation and detrimentally impact efficiency. At the same time, evolutionary biologists have long recognized that cooperation, especially food sharing, is typically efficiently organized in groups living on wild foods, even absent formal economic incentives. Despite its evident importance, the source of this voluntary compliance remains largely uninformed. Drawing on costly signaling theory, and in light of the widely established competitive nature of males, we hypothesize that unique and displayable rewards (trophies out of competition may trigger male generosity in competitive social environments. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we use a controlled laboratory experiment to show that cooperation is sustained in a generosity competition with trophy rewards, but breaks down in the same environment with equally valuable but non-unique and non-displayable rewards. Further, we find that males' competition for trophies is the driving force behind treatment differences. In contrast, it appears that female competitiveness is not modulated by trophy rewards. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest new approaches to promoting cooperation in human groups that, unlike punishment mechanisms, do not sacrifice efficiency. This could have important implications in any domain where voluntary compliance matters--including relations between spouses, employers and employees, market transactions, and conformity to legal standards.

  9. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff Practice and Procedure Digest. Commission, Appeal Board and Licensing Board decisions, July 1972-December 1985. Digest No. 4, Revision No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This Revision 2 of the fourth edition of the NRC Staff Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period July 1, 1972 to December 31, 1985, interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice in 10 CFR Part 2. This Revision 2 replaces in part earlier editions and supplements and includes appropriate changes reflecting the amendment to the Rules of Practice effective December 31, 1985. Topics covered include prehearing and posthearing matters, herings, appeals, and general matters

  10. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff Practice and Procedure Digest: Commission, Appeal Board and Licensing Board decisions, July 1972-December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This Revision 6 of the fourth edition of the NRC Staff Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period from July 1, 1972 to December 31, 1986, interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice in 10 CFR Part 2. This Revision 6 replaces in part earlier editions and supplements and includes appropriate changes reflecting the amendments to the Rules of Practice effective through December 31, 1986

  11. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff practice and procedure digest: Commission, Appeal Board and Licensing Board decisions, July 1972--December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This Revision 6 of the fifth edition of the NRC Staff Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period from July 1, 1972 to December 31, 1989 interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice in 10 CFR Part 2. This Revision 6 replaces in part earlier editions and revisions and includes appropriate changes reflecting the amendments to the Rules of Practice effective through December 31, 1989

  12. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff practice and procedure digest: Commission, Appeal Board and Licensing Board Decisions, July 1972-March 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This Revision 7 of the fourth edition of the NRC Staff Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period from July 1, 1972 to March 31, 1987 interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice in 10 CFR Part 2. This Revision 7 replaces in part earlier editions and supplements and includes appropriate changes reflecting the amendments to the Rules of Practice effective through March 31, 1987

  13. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff practice and procedure digest: Commission, Appeal Board and Licensing Board decisions, July 1972--September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This Revision 1 of the fifth edition of the NRC Staff Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period from July 1, 1972 to September 30, 1988 interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice in 10 CFR Part 2. This Revision 1 replaces in part earlier editions and supplements and includes appropriate changes reflecting the amendments to the Rules of Practice effective through September 30, 1988

  14. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff practice and procedure digest. Commission, Appeal Board and Licensing Board decisions, July 1972-September 1985. Digest No. 4, Revision No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    This Revision 1 of the fourth edition of the NRC Staff Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period from July 1, 1972 to September 30, 1985 interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice in 10 CFR Part 2. This Revision 1 replaces earlier editions and supplements and includes appropriate changes reflecting the admendments to the Rules of Practice effective through September 20, 1985

  15. The Database Driven ATLAS Trigger Configuration System

    CERN Document Server

    Martyniuk, Alex; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This contribution describes the trigger selection configuration system of the ATLAS low- and high-level trigger (HLT) and the upgrades it received in preparation for LHC Run 2. The ATLAS trigger configuration system is responsible for applying the physics selection parameters for the online data taking at both trigger levels and the proper connection of the trigger lines across those levels. Here the low-level trigger consists of the already existing central trigger (CT) and the new Level-1 Topological trigger (L1Topo), which has been added for Run 2. In detail the tasks of the configuration system during the online data taking are Application of the selection criteria, e.g. energy cuts, minimum multiplicities, trigger object correlation, at the three trigger components L1Topo, CT, and HLT On-the-fly, e.g. rate-dependent, generation and application of prescale factors to the CT and HLT to adjust the trigger rates to the data taking conditions, such as falling luminosity or rate spikes in the detector readout ...

  16. LHCb base-line level-0 trigger 3D-Flow implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosetto, Dario B.

    1999-01-01

    The LHCb Level-0 trigger implementation with the 3D-Flow system offers full programmability, allowing it to adapt to unexpected operating conditions and enabling new, unpredicted physics. The implementation is described in detail and refers to components and technology available today. The 3D-Flow Processor system is a new, technology-independent concept in very fast, real-time system architectures. Based on the replication of a single type of circuit of 100k gates, which communicates in six directions: bi-directional with North, East, West, and South neighbors, unidirectional from Top to Bottom, the system offers full programmability, modularity, ease of expansion and adaptation to the latest technology. A complete study of its applicability to the LHCb calorimeter triggers is presented. Full description of the input data handling, either in digital or mixed digital-analog form, of the data processing, and the transmission of results to the global level-0 trigger decision unit are provided. Any level-0 trigger algorithm (2x2, 3x3, 4x4, etc.) with up to 20 steps, can be implemented with zero dead-time, while sustaining input data rate (up to 32-bit per input channel, per bunch crossing) at 40 MHz. For each step, each 3D-Flow processor can execute up to 26 operations, inclusive of compare, ranging, finding local maxima, and efficient data exchange with neighboring channels. (One-to-one correspondence between input channel and trigger tower.) Populated with only two main types of components, front-end FPGAs and 3D-Flow processors, a single type of board, it is shown how the whole Level-0 calorimeter trigger can be accommodated into six crates (9U), each containing 16 identical boards. All 3D-Flow inter-chip Bottom to Top ports connection are all contained on the board (data are multiplexed 2 : 1, PCB traces are shorter than 6 cm); all 3D-flow inter-chip North, East, West, and South ports connections, between boards and crates, are multiplexed (8+2) : 1 and are

  17. Hadronic Triggers and trigger-object level analysis at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Zaripovas, Donatas Ramilas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic signatures are critical to the high energy physics analysis program, and are broadly used for both Standard Model measurements and searches for new physics. These signatures include generic quark and gluon jets, as well as jets originating from b-quarks or the decay of massive particles (such as electroweak bosons or top quarks). Additionally missing transverse momentum from non-interacting particles provides an interesting probe in the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Developing trigger selections that target these events is a huge challenge at the LHC due to the enormous rates associated with these signatures. This challenge is exacerbated by the amount of pile-up activity, which continues to grow. In order to address these challenges, several new techniques have been developed during the past year in order to significantly improve the potential of the 2017 dataset and overcome the limiting factors to more deeply probing for new physics, such as storage and computing requirements f...

  18. Hadronic triggers and trigger object-level analysis at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Zaripovas, Donatas Ramilas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic signatures are critical to the high energy physics analysis program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and are broadly used for both Standard Model measurements and searches for new physics. These signatures include generic quark and gluon jets, as well as jets originating from b-quarks or the decay of massive particles (such as electroweak bosons or top quarks). Additionally missing transverse momentum from non-interacting particles provides an interesting probe in the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Developing trigger selections that target these events is a huge challenge at the LHC due to the enormous event rates associated with these signatures. This challenge is exacerbated by the amount of pile-up activity, which continues to grow. In order to address these challenges, several new techniques have been developed during the past year in order to significantly improve the potential of the 2017 dataset and overcome the limiting factors, such as storage and computing requirements...

  19. Migrants' decision-process shaping work destination choice: the case of long-term care work in the United Kingdom and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Karen; Hussein, Shereen; Ismail, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    Escalating demands for formal long-term care (LTC) result in the reliance on migrant workers in many developed countries. Within Europe, this is currently framed by progressive European immigration policies favouring inter-European mobility. Using the UK and Norway as case studies, this article has two main aims: (1) to document changes in the contribution of European Union (EU) migrants to the LTC sectors in Western Europe, and (2) to gain further understanding of migrants' decision-processes relating to destination and work choices. The UK and Norway provide examples of two European countries with different immigration histories, welfare regimes, labour market characteristics and cultural values, offering a rich comparison platform. The analysis utilizes national workforce datasets and data obtained from migrants working in the LTC sector in the UK and Norway ( n  = 248) and other stakeholders ( n  = 136). The analysis establishes a significant increase in the contribution of EU migrants (particularly from Eastern Europe) to the LTC sector in both the UK and Norway despite their different welfare regimes. The findings also highlight how migrant care workers develop rational decision-processes influenced by subjective perspectives of investments and returns within a context of wider structural migration barriers. The latter includes welfare and social care policies framing the conditions for migrants' individual actions.

  20. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff practice and procedure digest: Commission, Appeal Board and Licensing Board Decisions, July 1972--December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    This Revision 2 of the fifth edition of the NRC Staff Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period from July 1, 1972 to December 31, 1988, interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice in 10 CFR Part 2. This Revision 2 replaces in part earlier editions and revisions and includes appropriate changes reflecting the amendments to the Rules of Practice Effective through December 31, 1988. The Practice and Procedure Digest was originally prepared by attorneys in the NRC's Office of the Executive Legal Director (now, Office of the General Counsel) as an internal research tool. Because of its proven usefulness to those attorneys, it was decided that it might also prove useful to members of the public. Accordingly, the decision was made to publish the Digest and subsequent editions thereof. This edition of the Digest was prepared by attorneys from Aspen Systems Corporation pursuant to Contract number 18-89-346

  1. Is there a role for physician involvement in introducing research to surrogate decision makers in the intensive care unit? (The Approach trial: a pilot mixed methods study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K E A; Rizvi, L; Smith, O M; Lee, Y; Lee, J; Wang, M; Brown, M; Parker, M; Premji, A; Leung, D; Hammond Mobilio, M; Gotlib-Conn, L; Nisenbaum, R; Santos, M; Li, Y; Mehta, S

    2015-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of conducting a randomized trial comparing two strategies [physician (MD) vs. non-physician (non-MD)] for approaching substitute decision makers (SDMs) for research and to evaluate SDMs' experiences in being approached for consent. A pilot mixed methods study of first encounters with SDMs. Of 137 SDMs (162 eligibility events), 67 and 70 were randomized to MD and non-MD introductions, respectively. Eighty SDMs (98 events) provided consent and 21 SDMs (24 events) declined consent for studies, including 2 SDMs who provided and declined consent. We identified few missed introductions [4/52 (7.7 %)] and protocol violations [6/117 (5.1 %)], high comfort, satisfaction and acceptance scores and similar consent rates in both arms. SDMs provided consent significantly more often when a patient update was provided in the MD arm. Most SDMs (85.7 %) felt that physician involvement was inconsequential and preferred physician time to be dedicated to patient care; however, SDM experiences were closely related to their recall of being approached and recall was poor. SDMs highlighted 7 themes of importance to them in research surrogate decision-making. SDMs prioritized the personal attributes of the person approaching them over professional designation and preferred physician time to be dedicated to patient care. A mixed methods design evaluated intervention fidelity and provided the rationale for not proceeding to a larger trial, despite achieving all feasibility metrics in the pilot trial. NCT01232621.

  2. Process heat. Triggering the processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augsten, Eva

    2012-07-01

    If solar process heat is to find a market, then the decision makers in industrial companies need to be aware that it actually exists. This was one of the main goals of the So-Pro project, which officially drew to a close in April 2012. (orig.)

  3. Decision making and imperfection

    CERN Document Server

    Karny, Miroslav; Wolpert, David

    2013-01-01

    Decision making (DM) is ubiquitous in both natural and artificial systems. The decisions made often differ from those recommended by the axiomatically well-grounded normative Bayesian decision theory, in a large part due to limited cognitive and computational resources of decision makers (either artificial units or humans). This state of a airs is often described by saying that decision makers are imperfect and exhibit bounded rationality. The neglected influence of emotional state and personality traits is an additional reason why normative theory fails to model human DM process.   The book is a joint effort of the top researchers from different disciplines to identify sources of imperfection and ways how to decrease discrepancies between the prescriptive theory and real-life DM. The contributions consider:   ·          how a crowd of imperfect decision makers outperforms experts' decisions;   ·          how to decrease decision makers' imperfection by reducing knowledge available;   ...

  4. Instrumentation of the upgraded ATLAS tracker with a double buffer front-end architecture for track triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardrope, D

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider will be upgraded to provide instantaneous luminosity L = 5 × 10 34 cm −2 s −1 , leading to excessive rates from the ATLAS Level-1 trigger. A double buffer front-end architecture for the ATLAS tracker replacement is proposed, that will enable the use of track information in trigger decisions within 20 μs in order to reduce the high trigger rates. Analysis of ATLAS simulations have found that using track information will enable the use of single lepton triggers with transverse momentum thresholds of p T ∼ 25 GeV, which will be of great benefit to the future physics programme of ATLAS.

  5. Rational decisions

    CERN Document Server

    Binmore, Ken

    2008-01-01

    It is widely held that Bayesian decision theory is the final word on how a rational person should make decisions. However, Leonard Savage--the inventor of Bayesian decision theory--argued that it would be ridiculous to use his theory outside the kind of small world in which it is always possible to ""look before you leap."" If taken seriously, this view makes Bayesian decision theory inappropriate for the large worlds of scientific discovery and macroeconomic enterprise. When is it correct to use Bayesian decision theory--and when does it need to be modified? Using a minimum of mathematics,

  6. A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruytenberg, T; Webb, A G; Beenakker, J W M

    2014-10-01

    Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8 ms variation between the exact trigger points. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A multi-purpose open-source triggering platform for magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruytenberg, T.; Webb, A. G.; Beenakker, J. W. M.

    2014-10-01

    Many MR scans need to be synchronised with external events such as the cardiac or respiratory cycles. For common physiological functions commercial trigger equipment exists, but for more experimental inputs these are not available. This paper describes the design of a multi-purpose open-source trigger platform for MR systems. The heart of the system is an open-source Arduino Due microcontroller. This microcontroller samples an analogue input and digitally processes these data to determine the trigger. The output of the microcontroller is programmed to mimic a physiological signal which is fed into the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse oximeter port of MR scanner. The microcontroller is connected to a Bluetooth dongle that allows wireless monitoring and control outside the scanner room. This device can be programmed to generate a trigger based on various types of input. As one example, this paper describes how it can be used as an acoustic cardiac triggering unit. For this, a plastic stethoscope is connected to a microphone which is used as an input for the system. This test setup was used to acquire retrospectively-triggered cardiac scans in ten volunteers. Analysis showed that this platform produces a reliable trigger (>99% triggers are correct) with a small average 8 ms variation between the exact trigger points.

  8. Upgrade of the ATLAS Level‐1 trigger with an FPGA based Topological Processor

    CERN Document Server

    Caputo, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Buescher, V; Degele, R; Kiese, P; Maldaner, S; Reiss, A; Schaefer, U; Simioni, E; Tapprogge, S; Urejola, P

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is located at the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. It is designed to measure decay properties of high energetic particles produced in the protons collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). LHC proton collision at a frequency of 40 MHz, requires a trigger system to efficiently select events down to a manageable event storage rate of about 400 Hz. Event triggering is therefore one of the extraordinary challenges faced by the ATLAS detector. The Level-1 Trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS Trigger, with an output rate of 75kHz and decision latency of less than 2.5$\\mu$s. It is primarily composed of the Calorimeter Trigger, Muon Trigger, the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). Due to the increase in the LHC instantaneous luminosity up to 3$\\times$10$^{34}$cm$^{−2}$s$^{−1}$ in 2015, a new element will be included in the Level-1 Trigger scheme: the Topological Processor (L1Topo). The L1Topo receive data in a dedicated format from the calorimeters ...

  9. The Topological Processor for the future ATLAS Level-1 Trigger: from design to commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Simioni, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is located at the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. It is designed to measure decay properties of highly energetic particles produced in the protons collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC has a beam collision frequency of 40 MHz, and thus requires a trigger system to efficiently select events, thereby reducing the storage rate to a manageable level of about 400 Hz. Event triggering is therefore one of the extraordinary challenges faced by the ATLAS detector. The Level-1 Trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS Trigger, with an output rate of 75kHz and decision latency of less than 2.5 s. It is primarily composed of the Calorimeter Trigger, Muon Trigger, the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). Due to the increase in the LHC instantaneous luminosity up 3 x 10^34/cm2 s from 2015 onwards, a new element will be included in the Level-1 Trigger scheme: the Topological Processor (L1Topo). The L1Topo receives data in a specialized format from the ...

  10. Upgrade of the ATLAS Level-1 trigger with an FPGA based Topological Processor

    CERN Document Server

    Caputo, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Buescher, V; Degele, R; Kiese, P; Maldaner, S; Reiss, A; Schaefer, U; Simioni, E; Tapprogge, S; Urrejola, P

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is located at the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. It is designed to measure decay properties of high energetic particles produced in the protons collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC has a proton collision at a frequency of 40 MHz, and thus requires a trigger system to efficiently select events down to a manageable event storage rate of about 400Hz. Event triggering is therefore one of the extraordinary challenges faced by the ATLAS detector. The Level-1 Trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS Trigger, with an output rate of 75kHz and decision latency of less than 2.5$\\mu$s. It is primarily composed of the Calorimeter Trigger, Muon Trigger, the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). Due to the increase in the LHC instantaneous luminosity up to 3$\\times$10$^{34}$ cm$^{−2}$ s$^{−1}$ from 2015 onwards, a new element will be included in the Level-1 Trigger scheme: the Topological Processor (L1Topo). The L1Topo receives data in a dedicate...

  11. Wired and Wireless Camera Triggering with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhanen, H.; Rönnholm, P.

    2017-10-01

    Synchronous triggering is an important task that allows simultaneous data capture from multiple cameras. Accurate synchronization enables 3D measurements of moving objects or from a moving platform. In this paper, we describe one wired and four wireless variations of Arduino-based low-cost remote trigger systems designed to provide a synchronous trigger signal for industrial cameras. Our wireless systems utilize 315 MHz or 434 MHz frequencies with noise filtering capacitors. In order to validate the synchronization accuracy, we developed a prototype of a rotating trigger detection system (named RoTriDeS). This system is suitable to detect the triggering accuracy of global shutter cameras. As a result, the wired system indicated an 8.91 μs mean triggering time difference between two cameras. Corresponding mean values for the four wireless triggering systems varied between 7.92 and 9.42 μs. Presented values include both camera-based and trigger-based desynchronization. Arduino-based triggering systems appeared to be feasible, and they have the potential to be extended to more complicated triggering systems.

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irene Farnham and Sam Marutzky

    2011-07-01

    This CADD/CAP follows the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) stage, which results in development of a set of contaminant boundary forecasts produced from groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling of the Frenchman Flat CAU. The Frenchman Flat CAU is located in the southeastern portion of the NNSS and comprises 10 underground nuclear tests. The tests were conducted between 1965 and 1971 and resulted in the release of radionuclides in the subsurface in the vicinity of the test cavities. Two important aspects of the corrective action process are presented within this CADD/CAP. The CADD portion describes the results of the Frenchman Flat CAU data-collection and modeling activities completed during the CAI stage. The corrective action objectives and the actions recommended to meet the objectives are also described. The CAP portion describes the corrective action implementation plan. The CAP begins with the presentation of CAU regulatory boundary objectives and initial use restriction boundaries that are identified and negotiated by NNSA/NSO and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). The CAP also presents the model evaluation process designed to build confidence that the flow and contaminant transport modeling results can be used for the regulatory decisions required for CAU closure. The first two stages of the strategy have been completed for the Frenchman Flat CAU. A value of information analysis and a CAIP were developed during the CAIP stage. During the CAI stage, a CAIP addendum was developed, and the activities proposed in the CAIP and addendum were completed. These activities included hydrogeologic investigation of the underground testing areas, aquifer testing, isotopic and geochemistry-based investigations, and integrated geophysical investigations. After these investigations, a groundwater flow and contaminant transport model was developed to forecast contaminant boundaries that enclose areas potentially exceeding the Safe Drinking

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 573: Alpha Contaminated Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    CAU 573 comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 05-23-02, GMX Alpha Contaminated Area • 05-45-01, Atmospheric Test Site - Hamilton These two CASs include the release at the Hamilton weapons-related tower test and a series of 29 atmospheric experiments conducted at GMX. The two CASs are located in two distinctly separate areas within Area 5. To facilitate site investigation and data quality objective (DQO) decisions, all identified releases (i.e., CAS components) were organized into study groups. The reporting of investigation results and the evaluation of DQO decisions are at the release level. The corrective action alternatives (CAAs) were evaluated at the FFACO CAS level. The purpose of this CADD/CAP is to evaluate potential CAAs, provide the rationale for the selection of recommended CAAs, and provide the plan for implementation of the recommended CAA for CAU 573. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 2015 through November 2015, as set forth in the CAU 573 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the contaminants of concern. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 573 revealed the following: • Radiological contamination within CAU 573 does not exceed the FALs (based on the Occasional Use Area exposure scenario). • Chemical contamination within CAU 573 does not exceed the FALs. • Potential source material - including lead plates, lead bricks, and lead-shielded cables was removed during the investigation and requires no additional corrective action.

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 573: Alpha Contaminated Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Nevada Site Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-02-01

    CAU 573 comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 05-23-02, GMX Alpha Contaminated Area • 05-45-01, Atmospheric Test Site - Hamilton These two CASs include the release at the Hamilton weapons-related tower test and a series of 29 atmospheric experiments conducted at GMX. The two CASs are located in two distinctly separate areas within Area 5. To facilitate site investigation and data quality objective (DQO) decisions, all identified releases (i.e., CAS components) were organized into study groups. The reporting of investigation results and the evaluation of DQO decisions are at the release level. The corrective action alternatives (CAAs) were evaluated at the FFACO CAS level. The purpose of this CADD/CAP is to evaluate potential CAAs, provide the rationale for the selection of recommended CAAs, and provide the plan for implementation of the recommended CAA for CAU 573. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 2015 through November 2015, as set forth in the CAU 573 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the contaminants of concern. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 573 revealed the following: • Radiological contamination within CAU 573 does not exceed the FALs (based on the Occasional Use Area exposure scenario). • Chemical contamination within CAU 573 does not exceed the FALs. • Potential source material—including lead plates, lead bricks, and lead-shielded cables—was removed during the investigation and requires no additional corrective action.

  15. Triggers of oral lichen planus flares and the potential role of trigger avoidance in disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hannah X; Blasiak, Rachel; Kim, Edwin; Padilla, Ricardo; Culton, Donna A

    2017-09-01

    Many patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) report triggers of flares, some of which overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, including oral allergy syndrome and oral contact dermatitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of commonly reported triggers of OLP flares, their overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, and the potential role of trigger avoidance as a management strategy. Questionnaire-based survey of 51 patients with biopsy-proven lichen planus with oral involvement seen in an academic dermatology specialty clinic and/or oral pathology clinic between June 2014 and June 2015. Of the participants, 94% identified at least one trigger of their OLP flares. Approximately half of the participants (51%) reported at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral allergy syndrome, and 63% identified at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral contact dermatitis. Emotional stress was the most commonly reported trigger (77%). Regarding avoidance, 79% of the study participants reported avoiding their known triggers in daily life. Of those who actively avoided triggers, 89% reported an improvement in symptoms and 70% reported a decrease in the frequency of flares. Trigger identification and avoidance can play a potentially effective role in the management of OLP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The charged particle trigger of the CELLO-detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, V.

    1981-01-01

    The fast charged particle trigger of the CELLO-detector at the PETRA e + e - storage ring (DESY) is a fast software programmable hardware processor. It is using multiwire chamber signals as inputs and takes a decision on charged tracks coming from the interaction region in less than 1 μsec. The input signals are addressing Random Access Memory devices in which the mask schemes of all meaningful physical tracks are stored. The RAM output signals give information about the numbers and shapes of the valid masks found. This information is used for fast event acquisition and online data analysis done by a PDP 11 computer. (orig.)

  17. Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...... in this paper should be regarded as a further documentation of the technique. The key point in Random Decrement estimation is the formulation of a triggering condition. If the triggering condition is fulfilled a time segment from each measurement is picked out and averaged with previous time segments. The final...

  18. Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    1997-01-01

    result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...... in this paper should be regarded as a further documentation of the technique. The key point in Random Decrement estimation is the formulation of a triggering condition. If the triggering condition is fulfilled a time segment from each measurement is picked out and averaged with previous time segments. The final...

  19. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  20. Upgrade trigger & reconstruction strategy: 2017 milestone

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, Johannes; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Cattaneo, Marco; Marco, Clemencic; Couturier, Ben; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Hill, Donal; Jones, Christopher Rob; Lemaitre, Florian; Lupton, Olli; Matev, Rosen; Pearce, Alex; Polci, Francesco; Promberger, Laura; Ponce, Sebastien; Quagliani, Renato; Raven, Gerhard; Sciascia, Barbara; Schiller, Manuel Tobias; Stahl, Sascha; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Chefdeville, Maximilien

    2018-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration is currently preparing an update of the experiment to take data in Run 3 of the LHC. The dominant feature of this upgrade is a trigger-less readout of the full detector followed by a full software trigger. To make optimal use of the collected data, the events are reconstructed at the inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz. This document presents the baseline trigger and reconstruction strategy as of the end of 2017.